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Sample records for dinoflagellate cyst distribution

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DINOFLAGELLATE CYST ASSEMBLAGES IN SHALLOW LAGOONS IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface sediment samples from 24 sites within eleven back-barrier lagoons of Rhode Island and Massachusetts (USA) contain abundant (200-6000 cysts cm-3) and diverse (up to 40 taxa) dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The lowest cyst concentrations and diversity are observed in lagoo...

  2. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm−3) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. PMID:26637596

  3. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.

    PubMed

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm(-3)) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. PMID:26637596

  4. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.

    PubMed

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-12-04

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm(-3)) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species.

  5. Sexual resting cyst production by the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea: a potential mechanism contributing to the ubiquitous distribution of a harmful alga.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    The dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea is a well known, cosmopolitan harmful microalga that frequently forms harmful algal blooms (HABs) in marine estuaries from temperate to tropical waters, and has posed a severe threat to fish, shellfish, and sea birds. Therefore, it is important to understand the ecology of this species, particularly the mechanisms regulating its ubiquitous geographic distribution and frequent recurrence of. To date, the mechanisms regulating distribution and recurrence of HABs by this species have been poorly understood. While resting cyst production can play a central role in the geographic expansion and initiation of HABs, studies of the life cycle of this alga, including cyst production, have been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that A. sanguinea produces sexual resting cysts homothallically. We present evidence for cell pairs in sexual mating, biflagellated planozygote formation, and cysts of different morphologies, and we describe time series for germination of cysts to germlings with two longitudinal flagella, along with studies of possible factors affecting cyst production. Phylogenetic analysis of large sub-unit rDNA sequences revealed a monophyly of this species and thus possibly a recent common ancestor for all global populations. The discovery of resting cyst production by A. sanguinea suggests its frequent recurrence of blooms and global distribution may have been facilitated by the natural and anthropogenic transport of resting cysts. PMID:26986525

  6. Towards an Ecological Understanding of Dinoflagellate Cyst Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Isabel; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of many dinoflagellates includes at least one nonflagellated benthic stage (cyst). In the literature, the different types of dinoflagellate cysts are mainly defined based on morphological (number and type of layers in the cell wall) and functional (long- or short-term endurance) differences. These characteristics were initially thought to clearly distinguish pellicle (thin-walled) cysts from resting (double-walled) dinoflagellate cysts. The former were considered short-term (temporal) and the latter long-term (resting) cysts. However, during the last two decades further knowledge has highlighted the great intricacy of dinoflagellate life histories, the ecological significance of cyst stages, and the need to clarify the functional and morphological complexities of the different cyst types. Here we review and, when necessary, redefine the concepts of resting and pellicle cysts, examining both their structural and their functional characteristics in the context of the life cycle strategies of several dinoflagellate species.

  7. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic estuaries.

    PubMed

    Price, Andrea M; Pospelova, Vera; Coffin, Michael R S; Latimer, James S; Chmura, Gail L

    2016-08-01

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has an important influence on cyst assemblages. Due to greater seasonal variations in SSTs and SSSs in estuaries compared to the open ocean, cyst assemblages show distinct latitudinal trends. The estuarine context is important for understanding present-day species distribution, the factors controlling them, and to better predict how they may change in the future. PMID:27547344

  8. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic estuaries.

    PubMed

    Price, Andrea M; Pospelova, Vera; Coffin, Michael R S; Latimer, James S; Chmura, Gail L

    2016-08-01

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has an important influence on cyst assemblages. Due to greater seasonal variations in SSTs and SSSs in estuaries compared to the open ocean, cyst assemblages show distinct latitudinal trends. The estuarine context is important for understanding present-day species distribution, the factors controlling them, and to better predict how they may change in the future.

  9. Impact of industrial pollution on recent dinoflagellate cysts in Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean).

    PubMed

    Aydin, Hilal; Yürür, Emine Erdem; Uzar, Serdar; Küçüksezgin, Filiz

    2015-05-15

    The spatial distribution of dinoflagellate cysts was studied to understand the impact of industrial pollution on the surface sediment of Izmir Bay, Turkey. Forty two dinoflagellate cyst morphotypes belonging to 12 genera were identified and qualified at 12 sampling points. The cyst of Gymnodinium nolleri dominated the bay and had the highest abundance in most of the stations, following Spiniferites bulloideus and Lingulodinium machaerophorum. The highest cyst concentration was recorded in the inner part of the bay. Cyst concentration ranged between 384 and 9944 cyst g(-1) dry weight of sediment in the sampling area. Sediment metal concentrations were determined. Heavy metal levels in Izmir Inner Bay were higher than the Middle and Outer Bay. L. machaerophorum, Dubridinium caperatum and Polykrikos kofoidii showed significant positive correlation with some metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) and organic carbon content. However, there was no significant correlation between dinoflagellate cyst abundance and sediment type.

  10. The distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in marine surface samples of the eastern Indian Ocean in relation to environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, I.; Young, M.; Mohtadi, M.; Lückge, A.; Behling, H.

    2012-04-01

    The eastern Indian Ocean is characterised by a complex system of surface currents that move according to the monsoon-dominated wind regime and show a strong seasonality. The Indonesian Throughflow, which originates in the northwestern and tropical Pacific and passes through the Indonesian archipelago into the Indian Ocean, is the only low-latitude oceanic connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and represents a key element in the global thermohaline circulation and hence the global climate system. In recent decades it has become increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanographic processes involved in climate variations. Assemblages of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) from marine surface samples provide insights into the relationship between the spatial distribution of dinocysts and modern local environmental conditions (e.g. sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, productivity). These information are of great value for the interpretation of past variations in surface water conditions. We present an extensive data-set of marine surface samples (n=116) from the Eastern Indian Ocean. The conducted Principal Component Analysis (PCA) illustrates the variation of species association between the sites and reveals a geographical affinity of the samples to the regions of (1) Western Indonesia, (2) Java, (3) the Indonesian Throughflow and (4) Western Australia including the Timor Sea. The results of the PCA further indicate the existence of two environmental gradients in the study area, a nutrient gradient increasing from Western Indonesia towards the Indonesian Throughflow region and a temperature gradient increasing from Western Australia towards Western Indonesia. The Redundancy Analysis indicates the presence of three dominating taxa in the sample set, namely Spiniferites spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp., and reveals significant correlations of the three dominant taxa to specific environmental

  11. Pliocene paleoclimatic reconstruction using dinoflagellate cysts: Comparison of methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.; Mudie, P.J.; de Vernal, A.

    1991-01-01

    The application of quantitative and semiquantitative methods to assemblage data from dinoflagellate cysts shows potential for interpreting past environments, both in terms of paleotemperature estimates and in recognizing water masses and circulation patterns. Estimates of winter sea-surface temperature (WSST) were produced by using the Impagidinium Index (II) method, and by applying a winter-temperature transfer function (TFw). Estimates of summer sea-surface temperature (SSST) were produced by using a summer-temperature transfer function (TFs), two methods based on a temperature-distribution chart (ACT and ACTpo), and a method based on the ratio of gonyaulacoid:protoperidinioid specimens (G:P). WSST estimates from the II and TFw methods are in close agreement except where Impagidinium species are sparse. SSST estimates from TFs are more variable. The value of the G:P ratio for the Pliocene data in this paper is limited by the apparent sparsity of protoperidinioids, which results in monotonous SSST estimates of 14-26??C. The ACT methods show two biases for the Pliocene data set: taxonomic substitution may force 'matches' yielding incorrect temperature estimates, and the method is highly sensitive to the end-points of species distributions. Dinocyst assemblage data were applied to reconstruct Pliocene sea-surface temperatures between 3.5-2.5 Ma from DSDP Hole 552A, and ODP Holes 646B and 642B, which are presently located beneath cold and cool-temperate waters north of 56??N. Our initial results suggest that at 3.0 Ma, WSSTs were a few degrees C warmer than the present and that there was a somewhat reduced north-south temperature gradient. For all three sites, it is likely that SSSTs were also warmer, but by an unknown, perhaps large, amount. Past oceanic circulation in the North Atlantic was probably different from the present. ?? 1991.

  12. Differences in the chemical composition of organic-walled dinoflagellate resting cysts from phototrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Bogus, Kara; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Lauwaert, Johan; Harding, Ian C; Vrielinck, Henk; Zonneveld, Karin A F; Versteegh, Gerard J M

    2014-04-01

    Dinoflagellates constitute a large proportion of the planktonic biomass from marine to freshwater environments. Some species produce a preservable organic-walled resting cyst (dinocyst) during the sexual phase of their life cycle that is an important link between the organisms, the environment in which their parent motile theca grew, and the sedimentary record. Despite their abundance and widespread usage as proxy indicators for environmental conditions, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the dinocyst wall chemical composition. It is likely that numerous factors, including phylogeny and life strategy, determine the cyst wall chemistry. However, the extent to which this composition varies based on inherent (phylogenetic) or variable (ecological) factors has not been studied. To address this, we used micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyze nine cyst species produced by either phototrophic or heterotrophic dinoflagellates from the extant orders Gonyaulacales, Gymnodiniales, and Peridiniales. Based on the presence of characteristic functional groups, two significantly different cyst wall compositions are observed that correspond to the dinoflagellate's nutritional strategy. The dinocyst wall compositions analyzed appeared carbohydrate-based, but the cyst wall produced by phototrophic dinoflagellates suggested a cellulose-like glucan, while heterotrophic forms produced a nitrogen-rich glycan. This constitutes the first empirical evidence nutritional strategy is related to different dinocyst wall chemistries. Our results indicated phylogeny was less important for predicting composition than the nutritional strategy of the dinoflagellate, suggesting potential for cyst wall chemistry to infer past nutritional strategies of extinct taxa preserved in the sedimentary record.

  13. Complex response of dinoflagellate distribution patterns to cooler early Oligocene global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Mark; Vandenbroucke, Thijs; Williams, Mark; Riding, James; De Schepper, Stijn; Sabbe, Koen

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of dinoflagellate cysts using two new global ocean datasets for the Mid Eocene (Bartonian) and Early Oligocene (Rupelian) reveals unexpected changes in their global distribution. The impact of Rupelian cooling appears to be globally asymmetric; the dinoflagellate cyst cooling signal is clearer in the southern hemisphere, but much less evident in the northern hemisphere. Additionally, a significant number of species with low and mid-latitude northern hemisphere occurrences in the Bartonian, unexpectedly extend their northward ranges in the Rupelian, including some 'warm water' forms. This may show that Rupelian dinoflagellate cyst distribution is a response to changes in a range of environmental variables linked to climate-cooling, for example changes in nutrient fluxes triggered by glacially-induced base-level fall, or complex reorganisation of ocean current systems between the Bartonian and Rupelian. Apparent lack of a clear climate-cooling signal in Rupelian dinoflagellate cyst distribution may in part reflect published evidence suggesting that summer SSTs in the early Rupelian northern hemisphere were only slightly reduced compared to the later part of the Eocene, despite much colder winters. The relatively broad temperature tolerance of many extant dinoflagellate species, and dormant cyst formation during short-lived environmental deterioration, may have contributed to allowing Rupelian dinoflagellates to thrive in more highly seasonal but otherwise hospitable, northern hemisphere oceans.

  14. DINOFLAGELLATE CYST RECORD AND HUMAN DISTURBANCE IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MA AND NARRAGANSETT BAY ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the dinoflagellate cyst records in sediments from New Bedford Harbor and Apponagansett Bay over the last 350 yr provides to determine if cysts are sensitive to environmental change caused by human activity in the watershed. Changes in the total number, and absolute and...

  15. A dinoflagellate cyst record of Holocene climate and hydrological changes along the southeastern Swedish Baltic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shi-Yong; Berglund, Björn E.

    2007-03-01

    A high-resolution, well-dated dinoflagellate cyst record from a lagoon of the southeastern Swedish Baltic Sea reveals climate and hydrological changes during the Holocene. Marine dinoflagellate cysts occurred initially at about 8600 cal yr BP, indicating the onset of the Littorina transgression in the southeastern Swedish lowland associated with global sea level rise, and thus the opening of the Danish straits. Both the species diversity and the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts continued to increase by 7000 cal yr BP and then decreased progressively. This pattern reveals the first-order change in local sea level as a function of ice-volume-equivalent sea level rise versus isostatic land uplift. Superimposed upon this local sea level trend, well-defined fluctuations of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts occurred on quasi-1000- and 500-yr frequency bands particularly between 7500 and 4000 cal yr BP, when the connection between the Baltic basin and the North Atlantic was broader. A close correlation of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts with GISP2 ice core sea-salt ions suggests that fluctuations of Baltic surface conditions during the middle Holocene might have been regulated by quasi-periodic variations of the prevailing southwesterly winds, most likely through a system similar to the dipole oscillation of the modern North Atlantic atmosphere.

  16. Correlation and paleoenvironments of middle Paleogene marine beds based on dinoflagellate cysts in southwestern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerstein, G. Raquel; González Estebenet, M. Sol; Alperín, Marta I.; Casadío, Silvio A.; Archangelsky, Sergio

    2014-07-01

    An understanding of paleonvironmental and paleoceanographic evolution of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean during the Palaeogene is prevented by the lack of precise tools to date and correlate the sedimentary units. Palynological samples collected in the upper portion of the Man Aike Formation, which crops out southern Lago Argentino area, in the southwest of the Austral Basin (50°21‧45″S-72°14‧30″W), contain well preserved marine organic dinoflagellate cysts, which are potentially important biostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental indicators. Herein we describe the composition of the Man Aike Formation's dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and compare them to similar assemblages collected in the same basin in the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation using Compositional Statistical Analysis. The dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the upper part of the Man Aike Formation are highly correlated to the assemblages from the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation from outcropping sections (51°31‧13″S-72°15‧11″W) and with the lower part of sediment cores drilled by Yacimientos Carboníferos Fiscales in the Río Turbio Formation area. These dinoflagellate cyst assemblages show a very low correlation with the assemblages from the upper part of the Yacimientos Carboníferos Fiscales's cores. The comparison of our results with the high-resolution Southern Pacific Ocean dinoflagellate cyst zonation for the late Palaeocene to late Eocene allow us to date some of the dinoflagellate events recorded in formations of southwestern Patagonia. The assemblages from the Man Aike Formation and the lower part of the upper member of the Río Turbio Formation relate to the zones SPDZ11 and SPDZ12 and are assigned to the mid-middle Eocene (late Lutetian to early Bartonian). The biostratigraphy proposed herein constrains the age of the Man Aike Formation and equivalent units based on calcareous microfossil data, mollusks affinities and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic values to an

  17. Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record of climate and marine primary productivity change in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelova, Vera; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Hendy, Ingrid, L.; Pedersen, Thomas F.

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts and other marine palynomorphs from the Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A) demonstrate large variability of primary productivity during the Holocene, as the California Current System responded to climate change. Throughout the sequence, dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are characterized by the dominance of cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and particularly by Brigantedinium, accompanied by other upwelling-related taxa such as Echinidinium and cysts of Protoperidinium americanum. During the early Holocene (~12-7 ka), the species richness is relatively low (16 taxa) and genius Brigantedinium reaches the highest relative abundance, thus indicating nutrient-rich and highly productive waters. The middle Holocene (~7-3.5 ka) is characterized by relatively constant cyst concentrations, and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are indicative of a slight decrease in sea-surface temperature. A noticeable increase and greater range of fluctuations in the cyst concentrations during the late Holocene (~3.5-1 ka) indicate enhanced marine primary productivity and increased climatic variability, most likely related to the intensification of El Niño-like conditions. Keywords: dinoflagellate cysts, Holocene, North Pacific, climate, primary productivity.

  18. Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of palaeoenvironmental and sea-level change: the Late Cenomanian - Early Coniacian (Cretaceous) of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olde, Kate; Jarvis, Ian; Pearce, Martin; Tocher, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous represented a period of greenhouse climate of Earth history, and was characterised by high temperatures, high atmospheric CO2 and high eustatic sea level, with large areas of shallow, warm, epicontinental sea. Understanding the dynamics of the Late Cretaceous climate is important for understanding the Earth System and the impact of modern climate change. The productive Late Cretaceous oceans led to the deposition of a large portion of the world's oil and gas resources, so reconstruction of depositional environments and refinement of stratigraphic correlation are important for the petroleum industry. Dinoflagellates were a prolific and diverse group within the phyto- and zooplankton throughout Late Cretaceous oceans, and their cysts display good preservation across different facies, and so are a good group for biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental study. Selected results from a high-resolution quantitative study of the palynology from 5 European Upper Cenomanian to the Lower Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) sections are summarised, along with their carbon stable-isotope chemostratigraphy. The sections are from a range of palaeolatitudes and basins, including the North Sea Basin, the Anglo-Paris Basin, the Bohemian Basin, the Polish Trough and the Vocontian Basin. Palynological assemblages differ between sections in the concentration of palynomorphs, proportions of terrestrial and marine palynomorphs, and in the diversity and varying proportions of species of dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). Dinocyst distribution is considered to have been controlled largely by nutrient levels, but was also impacted by temperature, sea level, and water mass changes. Influxes of certain species are related to changes in salinity, changes in temperature, and water mass change, and increased communication between basins. High dinocyst abundance, and particularly a high proportion of peridinioid cysts (which are thought to be derived from eutrophy

  19. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Harland, Rex; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Morley, Audrey; Morris, Angela; Harris, Anthony; Howe, John A

    2016-05-01

    The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP), Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP), and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP) indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka), given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial.

  20. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Harland, Rex; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Morley, Audrey; Morris, Angela; Harris, Anthony; Howe, John A

    2016-05-01

    The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP), Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP), and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP) indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka), given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial. PMID:27441285

  1. The last glacial-interglacial transition and dinoflagellate cysts in the western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouis-Zargouni, Imene; Turon, Jean-Louis; Londeix, Laurent; Kallel, Néjib; Essallami, Latifa

    2012-02-01

    Using the analysis of dinoflagellate cysts in three deep-sea sediments cores situated in the Sicilian-Tunisian Strait, in the Gulf of Lions and in the Alboran Sea, we reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes that took place during the last glacial-interglacial transition in the western Mediterranean Sea. The development of the warm microflora Impagidinium aculeatum and especially Spiniferites mirabilis appears to be an important proxy for recognizing warm periods as the Bölling/Alleröd and the Early Holocene. Bitectatodinium tepikiense, Spiniferites elongatus and Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus mark the end of the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Dryas. This cold microfloral association confirms the drastic climate changes in the western Mediterranean Sea synchronous to the dry and cold climate which occurred in the South European margin. The dinocyst N. labyrinthus shows high percentages in all studied regions during the Younger Dryas. Its distribution reveals a significant increase from the South to the North of this basin during this cold brief event. Thus, we note that this species can be considered as a new eco-stratigraphical tracer of the Younger Dryas in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Interplay between the parasite Amoebophrya sp. (Alveolata) and the cyst formation of the red tide dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea.

    PubMed

    Chambouvet, Aurélie; Alves-de-Souza, Catharina; Cueff, Valérie; Marie, Dominique; Karpov, Sergey; Guillou, Laure

    2011-10-01

    Syndiniales (Alveolata) are marine parasites of a wide range of hosts, from unicellular organisms to Metazoa. Many Syndiniales obligatorily kill their hosts to accomplish their life cycle. This is the case for Amoebophrya spp. infecting dinoflagellates. However, several dinoflagellate species known to be infected by these parasites produce diploid resting cysts as part of their life history. These resting cysts may survive several seasons in the sediment before germinating. How these parasites survive during the dormancy of their host remained an open question. We successfully established infections by Amoebophrya sp. in the red tide dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea. This host strain was homothallic and able to continuously produce typical calcified cysts covered by calcareous spines. Presence of the parasite significantly speeded up the host cyst production, and cysts produced were the only cells to resist infections. However, some of them were clearly infected, probably earlier in their formation. After 10 months, cysts produced in presence of the parasite were able to germinate and new infective cycles of the parasite were rapidly observed. Thus, a very novel relationship for protists is demonstrated, one in which parasite and host simultaneously enter dormancy, emerging months later to propagate both species.

  3. Influence of surface salinity gradient on dinoflagellate cyst community structure, abundance and morphology in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sildever, Sirje; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Ribeiro, Sofia; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2015-03-01

    Changes in dinoflagellate cyst forming species composition, abundance and morphology along the surface salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak were investigated and compared with detailed surface salinity data. A strong positive correlation was found between species diversity and surface salinity (R2 = 0.94; n = 7) in the Baltic Sea-Kattegat-Skagerrak system. The most pronounced decrease in dinoflagellate cyst diversity occurred between Kattegat and the Arkona basin, where the surface salinity also steeply declined. Overall, the total cyst abundance decreased along the salinity gradient. However, in the Gotland and particularly in the Northern Central basin cyst concentrations were elevated compared to the surrounding basins and the cyst community was dominated by heterotrophic cyst-producing dinoflagellate species. Possible factors behind this observation are discussed, with increased nutrient supply as the most likely primary cause. In addition, surface salinity was also confirmed to influence process length development of Operculodinium centrocarpum (R2 = 0.86; n = 145), which was the most abundant species in this study.

  4. DINOFLAGELLATE CYST RECORDS AND HUMAN DISTURBANCE IN TWO NEIGHBORING ESTUARIES, NEW BEDFORD HARBOR AND APPONAGANSETT BAY, MASSACHUSETTS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dinoflagellate cyst records in sediments from New Bedford Harbor and Apponagansett Bay demonstrate sensitivity to environmental change caused by human activity in the watersheds over the last 500 years. Changes in the species richness, as well as absolute and relative abundan...

  5. Dinoflagellate cyst production in Hudson Bay, the world's largest inland sea, based on monthly sediment trap data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Maija; Pospelova, Vera; Forest, Alexandre; Stern, Gary

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankters, microscopic primary producers of oceans are capable of responding rapidly to environmental fluctuations due to their high cell replication rates. Fast phytoplankton growth maybe balanced out by equally fast consumption by herbivorous grazers. In high-latitude marine systems, seasonal fluctuations in plankton biomass are essentially linked to light regime controlled by the waxing and waning sea-ice cover. In addition, nutrient limitation in surface waters, seasonal temperature fluctuations and changes in freshwater inputs may play important roles. In cold-water seas, many planktonic organisms cope with seasonal harshness by the production of benthic dormant stages. Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of single-celled plankton, constituting major marine primary producers, as well as herbivorous grazers of the microbial loop. Many dinoflagellate species produce highly resistant, organic-walled resting cysts that are archived in sediments and have been increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, e.g., sea-surface temperature and salinity, productivity, sea-ice cover and eutrophication. Marine sediment core sequences are characterized by slow accumulation rates and high mixing rates: the top centimeter of surface sediment from an arctic shelf may correspond to several years or decades of deposition. Consequently, sedimentary archives do not give direct information on long-term changes in seasonal bloom patterns or cues of annually recurring life-cycle events. We used two particle-intercepting sediment traps moored in eastern and western Hudson Bay, respectively, to study monthly fluctuations in dinoflagellate cyst production from October 2005 to September 2006. The traps were deployed close to the seafloor and recovered during the ArcticNet annual expeditions onboard the CCGS Amundsen in 2005 and the CCGS Pierre Radisson in 2006. We document the seasonal succession of dinoflagellate cyst taxa, together with cyst species composition

  6. Assessing strength and dynamics of the Oligocene Antarctic Circumpolar Current using organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, P.; Houben, A. J.; Sangiorgi, F.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Oligocene Epoch (33.9-23 Ma) is the time interval in the Cenozoic that saw the establishment of a continental-scale Antarctic ice-sheet. Numerical modelling studies suggest that alongside continental ice, first sea-ice conditions may have started along the East Antarctic Margin, but this conclusion lacks support from field evidence. Other numerical models predict that hysteresis effects within the ice sheet will make a continental-size Antarctic ice sheet rather insensitive to warming. In contrast, deep-water benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope records across the Oligocene suggest dramatic waxing and waning of Antarctic ice sheets. The role of opening of Southern Ocean Gateways on the process of building and sustaining Antarctic continental ice has been questioned in the past. Particularly uncertain is the timing of the installation of a strong Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), and the dynamics of its strength in the earlier phases of Gateway throughflow. Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 318 drilled the Antarctic Margin in 2010, and recovered sediments from the early phase of Antarctic glaciation. With this record, we can now evaluate the robustness of the results of the numerical models and the oceanographic changes with field data. Sediments recovered from Site U1356 yields a thick and relatively complete (albeit compromised by core gaps) Oligocene succession both of which are chrono-stratigraphically well-calibrated with use of nannoplankton- dinocyst- and magnetostratigraphy. Notably, this record yields well-preserved dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). Dinocysts are the fossilizable remains of dinoflagellates, some of which are today specifically linked to the high (seasonal) productivity of the ecosystems associated with sea-ice and oceanic fronts. In the earliest Oligocene, just after the onset of Antarctic glaciation, we document the installation of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages that bear remarkable similarity with those of the present

  7. Late Quaternary climatic and oceanographic changes in the Northeast Pacific as recorded by dinoflagellate cysts from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Andrea M.; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Pospelova, Vera; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Ganeshram, Raja S.

    2013-01-01

    A high-resolution record of organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst production in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) reveals a complex paleoceanographic history over the last ~40 ka. Guaymas Basin is an excellent location to perform high resolution studies of changes in late Quaternary climate and paleo-productivity because it is characterized by high primary productivity, high sedimentation rates, and low oxygen bottom waters. These factors contribute to the deposition and preservation of laminated sediments throughout large portions of the core MD02-2515. In this study, we document dinoflagellate cyst production at a centennial to millennial scale throughout the late Quaternary. Based on the cyst assemblages, three dinoflagellate cyst zones were established and roughly correspond to Marine Isotope Stages (MISs) 1 to 3. MISs 1 and 3 are dominated by cysts of heterotrophic dinoflagellates, whereas MIS 2 is characterized by enhanced variability and a greater proportion of cysts produced by autotrophic taxa. The most dominant dinoflagellate cyst taxa found throughout the core were Brigantedinium spp. and Operculodinium centrocarpum. Dansgaard-Oeschger event 8 is observed in the dinoflagellate cyst record where it is characterized by an increase in warm taxa, such as Spiniferites pachydermus. Other intervals of interest are the Younger Dryas where warmer conditions are recorded and the Holocene which is characterized by the consistent presence of tropical species Stelladinium reidii, Tuberculodinidum vancampoae, Bitectatodinium spongium, and an increase in Quinquecuspis concreta. Changes in cyst assemblages, concentrations, and species diversity, along with geochemical data reflect major orbital to millennial-scale climatic and oceanographic changes.

  8. Cyst-theca relationship of the arctic dinoflagellate cyst Islandinium minutum (Dinophyceae) and phylogenetic position based on SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Éric; Rochon, André; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-10-01

    Round brown spiny cysts constitute a morphological group common in high latitude dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The dinoflagellate cyst Islandinium minutum (Harland et Reid) Head, Harland et Matthiessen is the main paleoecological indicator of seasonal sea-ice cover in the Arctic. Despite the importance of this cyst in paleoceanographical studies, its biological affinity has so far been unknown. The biological affinity of the species I. minutum and its phylogenetic position based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) and the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) were established from cyst incubation experiments in controlled conditions, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and single-cell PCR. The thecal motile cell obtained was undescribed. Although the motile cell was similar to Archaeperidinium minutum (Kofoid) Jörgensen, the motile cell of I. minutum lacked a transitional plate in the cingular series, which is present in Archaeperidinium spp. Islandinium minutum and Archaeperidinium spp. were paraphyletic in all phylogenetic analyses. Furthermore, Protoperidinium tricingulatum, which also lacks a transitional plate, was closely related to I. minutum and transfered to the genus Islandinium. Based on available data, it is clear that Islandinium is distinct from Archaeperidinium. Therefore, we considered Islandinium Head, Harland et Matthiessen as a non-fossil genus and emend its description, as well as the species I. minutum. This is the first description of a cyst-theca relationship and the first study that reports molecular data based on SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA on a species assigned to the genus Islandinium.

  9. High resolution sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts reflects decadal variability and 20th century warming in the Santa Barbara Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringué, Manuel; Pospelova, Vera; Field, David B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a continuous record of dinoflagellate cysts from a core of laminated sediments collected in the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), off Southern California. The core spans the last ∼260 years and is analysed at biennial (two-year) resolution. Variations in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are compared with 20th century historical changes, and are used to examine changes in primary productivity and species composition, which are bound to the variability in upwelling and sea-surface temperature (SST) in the region. Cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates dominate the assemblages. In particular, Brigantedinium spp. (on average 64.2% of the assemblages) are commonly associated with high levels of primary productivity, typically observed under active upwelling conditions, when nutrient supply is higher. Other heterotrophic taxa such as cysts of Protoperidinium americanum, Protoperidinium fukuyoi, Protoperidinium minutum and Archaeperidinium saanichi, all Echinidinium species, Quinquecuspis concreta and Selenopemphix undulata are more abundant in the early part of the record (∼1750s-1870s). These taxa are generally associated with high primary productivity and are observed predominantly during intervals marked by relatively variable conditions of SST, stratification and nutrient loading. The 20th century is marked by an increase in several species of autotrophic affinity, primarily Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Spiniferites ramosus. In recent surface sediments from the region, these species are more abundant in the Southern California Bight, and they are associated with conditions of relaxed upwelling in the SBB (typically observed during summer and fall), when SST is higher and nutrient supply is moderate. Their increasing concentrations since the early 20th century reflect warmer SST and possibly stronger stratification during the warmest season. Taken together, the changes in cyst assemblages provide further evidence that persistently warmer conditions

  10. Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of millennial scale climatic and oceanographic variability in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) during the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Andrea M.; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Pospelova, *Vera; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Ganeshram, Raja S.

    2015-04-01

    A high-resolution record of organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst production in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) reveals a complex paleoceanographic history over the last ~40 ka. Guaymas Basin is an excellent location to perform high resolution studies of changes in Late Quaternary climate and paleo-productivity because it is characterized by high primary productivity, high sedimentation rates, and low oxygen bottom waters. These factors contribute to the deposition and preservation of laminated sediments throughout large portions of core MD02-2515. This is one of the first studies in the Northeast Pacific to document dinoflagellate cyst production at a centennial to millennial scale throughout the Late Quaternary. Based on the cyst assemblages three major dinoflagellate cyst zones were established, and roughly correspond to Marine Isotope Stages 1 to 3. The most dominant dinoflagellate cyst taxa found throughout the core were Brigantedinium spp. and Operculodinium centrocarpum. Dansgaard-Oeschger event 8 is observed in the dinoflagellate cyst record, and is characterized by an increase in warm water taxa such as Spiniferites pachydermus. Other intervals of interest are the Younger Dryas where cooler sea-surface conditions are not recorded, and the Holocene which is characterized by the consistent presence of warm water species Stelladinium reidii, Tuberculodinidum vancampoae, Bitectatodinium spongium and an increase in Quinquecuspis concreta. Changes in cyst assemblages, concentrations and species diversity, along with geochemical data reflect major orbital to millennial-scale climatic and oceanographic changes. Keywords: Dansgaard-Oeschger events; dinoflagellate cyst; Gulf of California; late Quaternary climate change; upwelling; Younger Dryas.

  11. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates: Evaluating the potential for a CO2 proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoins, Mirja; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Eberlein, Tim; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn; Sluijs, Appy

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made regarding the quantification and mechanistic understanding of stable carbon isotope fractionation (13C fractionation) in photosynthetic unicellular organisms in response to changes in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). However, hardly any data is available for organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates while this is an ecologically important group with a unique fossil record. We performed dilute batch experiments with four harmful dinoflagellate species known for their ability to form organic cysts: Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum. Cells were grown at a range of dissolved CO2 concentrations characterizing past, modern and projected future values (∼5-50 μmol L-1), representing atmospheric pCO2 of 180, 380, 800 and 1200 μatm. In all tested species, 13C fractionation depends on CO2 with a slope of up to 0.17‰ (μmol L)-1. Even more consistent correlations were found between 13C fractionation and the combined effects of particulate organic carbon quota (POC quota; pg C cell-1) and CO2. Carbon isotope fractionation as well as its response to CO2 is species-specific. These results may be interpreted as a first step towards a proxy for past pCO2 based on carbon isotope ratios of fossil organic dinoflagellate cysts. However, additional culture experiments focusing on environmental variables other than pCO2, physiological underpinning of the recorded response, testing for possible offsets in 13C values between cells and cysts, as well as field calibration studies are required to establish a reliable proxy.

  12. Dinoflagellate cysts and benthic foraminifera in surface sediments from the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, L.; Rubino, F.; Frontalini, F.; Belmonte, M.; Di Leo, A.; Giandomenico, S.; Greco, M.; Lirer, F.; Spada, L.; Vallefuoco, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal areas have traditionally been places of human settlement, with the increasing development of cities, industries and other human-related activities possibly having an impact on the aquatic ecosystem. These impacts may take the form of pollution from industrial, domestic, agricultural or mining activities. For this reason, attention to marine environmental problems has recently increased and the search for new methodologies and techniques for the monitoring of coastal-marine areas become more and more active and accurate. In this context biological indicators result a useful tool to provide indication of environmental conditions including the presence or absence of contaminants; in fact biological monitoring is more directly related to the ecological health of an ecosystem than are chemical data. The increasing importance of bioindicators is also encouraged within the European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good ecological status in all European water bodies (i.e., rivers, lakes and coastal waters). Among the wide range of bioindicators, 5 biological elements are listed within the WFD: phytoplankton, macroalgae, angiosperms, benthic invertebrates and fishes. Benthic invertebrates as foraminifera represent a group of protozoa widely distributed in all brackish and marine environments which are used in studies assessing the environmental quality of areas subject to intense human activity. Moreover in coastal marine environments benthic and pelagic domain present several relationships, one of these is represented by the life cycles of phytoplankton species, as Dinoflagellates, which include the production of benthic stages (cysts). These dormant stages, which accumulate in confined marine muddy areas, such as ports, lagoons or estuaries, can reach high densities, similar to the seed banks of terrestrial plants. The cysts have a high preservation potential and can rest in/on the sediments for decades. Due to this peculiar

  13. Early Paleogene dinoflagellate cysts from ODP Hole 959D, Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin, West Africa: New species, biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Walaa K.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, Francisca E.

    2016-11-01

    A nearly continuous sedimentary record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 (Hole 959D) in the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin provides the opportunity to study Lower Paleogene palynology in this equatorial region. This paper presents data for 117 dinoflagellate cyst taxa recorded in 18 samples covering a 91-m interval from 867.60 mbsf to 776.32 mbsf. Preservation of dinoflagellate cysts varied from poor to excellent, and recovery was almost superabundant. Based on last or first occurrence of dinoflagellate cyst events, five zones (zone 1 to zone 5) were identified. The concentration of several dinoflagellate cyst events in the Thanetian interval suggests the presence of hiatuses or condensed horizons as inferred in previous studies of nearby localities. Frequent to common abundance of Apectodinium in the upper Thanetian sediments apparently records the global episodes of intense climatic warming that characterized the latest Paleocene to earliest Eocene time. An assemblage dominated by species of Operculodinium, Spiniferites, and Tectatodinium confirms the outer neritic to oceanic depositional setting of the drill hole as previously inferred from lithologic characteristics. Finally, four new dinoflagellate cyst taxa, Adnatosphaeridium ivoriense, Diphyes digitum, Eocladopyxis furculum and Tectatodinium nigeriaense that were observed only in the Paleocene interval, have been formally identified and described in detail.

  14. Oceanic heterotrophic dinoflagellates: distribution, abundance, and role as microzooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis were to determine the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream system off Cape Hatteras and to assess the potential grazing impact of these microheterotrophs in plankton communities. A list of species encountered in this study and their trophic status based on epifluorescence is presented, as well as observations on the presence of external or internal symbionts. The abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream region off Cape Hatteras was determined from bimonthly net tow samples over a year and from whole water samples in March. Their average abundance was twice that of net ciliates in the net plankton and ten times that of ciliates in the nanoplankton. An isotope technique was developed to measure grazing rates of individual dinoflaggellates and other microzooplankton which cannot be separated in natural populations on the basis of size. /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-bicarbonate were used to label natural heterotrophic (bacteria and bacterivores) and autotrophic (phytoplankton and herbivores) food, respectively. Estimates of the grazing impact of heterotrophic kinoflagellates relative to other groups of heterotrophs on phytoplankton and bacteria were made by combining abundance data and clearance rates. Such calculations suggested that heterotrophic dinoflagellates may be an important group of grazers in oceanic waters.

  15. A magneto- and chemostratigraphically calibrated dinoflagellate cyst zonation of the early Palaeogene South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2013-09-01

    Investigation of the early Palaeogene palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological evolution of the Polar Regions is hindered by the absence of calcite microfossils in sedimentary archives, which are conventionally the main dating tool. To overcome this problem, we have generated large datasets of organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages from Southern Ocean shelf sediments over the past decade, and we here calibrate these to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) using magnetostratigraphy and stable isotope stratigraphy. This now for the first time allows a high-resolution Southern Pacific Ocean dinocyst zonation for the late Palaeocene to late Eocene (58-36 million years ago; Ma). We compile published dinocyst chronologies from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1171D on the South Tasman Rise, Hole 1172A/D on the East Tasman Plateau and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1356A on the Wilkes Land margin. Correlation to dinocyst zonations from New Zealand lead to revisions of the magnetostratigraphic age model at Holes 1171D and 1172A/D. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope records reveal the stratigraphic location of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (~ 56 Ma) and the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (~ 40 Ma), respectively. The resulting zonation consists of thirteen dinocyst zones, calibrated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) of Vandenberghe et al. (2012), which can likely be applied to the entire Southern Ocean. Finally, we apply the revised stratigraphy to all published TEX86 data, a biomarker-based proxy for sea surface temperature (SST), from ODP Site 1172 to assess long-term climate evolution. This shows that Southwest Pacific SST trends mimic the global compilation of benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes even better than previously appreciated.

  16. Lutetian to Priabonian organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the northwestern Tethyan margin (Adelholzen Section, Eastern Alps, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Omar; Egger, Hans

    2015-04-01

    At the Adelholzen section (SE-Germany), a 13 m thick shallow marine Lutetian sequence (Adelholzen beds) comprising shallow benthic foraminifera Zones SBZ13 to SBZ15 (Briguglio in Gebhardt et al., 2013) is overlain by a 1 m thick brownish layer rich in glauconite and ferrigenous phosphate. This layer forms the top of the Adelholzen beds. It marks the onset of strong basin subsidence in the late Lutetian and is separated from the Priabonian by a stratigraphic gap comprising a major part of the Bartonian. The Priabonian marlstone (Stockletten) is 4 m thick at the Adelholzen section. It contains rich and high diverse planktonic foraminifera assemblages ("Globigerina marl") indicating bathyal conditions. Twenty eight samples from the Adelholzen beds and the Stockletten were processed for palynology at the Geological Survey of Austria following standard procedures. Palynological slides were examined for relative abundances of organic walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). One-hundred organic-walled dinocyst species were identified at the Adelholzen section. Stratigraphically important dinoflagellate cyst taxa for the assignment of the Adelholzen beds to the Lutetian are Wilsonidium echinosuturatum, Dracodinium waipawaense, Wetzeliella articulata, Areoligera coronata, Cordosphaeridium cantharellus, Hystrichokolpoma pusillum and Aireiana spp. Stratigraphically important dinoflagellate cyst taxa for the assignment of the Stockletten to the Priabonian are Diphyes ficusoides, Distatodinium ellipticum, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus, Rhombodinium longimanum, Rhombodinium perforatum, and Selenopemphix nephroides. Remarkable bioevents in the section are the abundant occurrences of Areoligera coronata and Cordosphaeridium gracile in the basal greensand. In the overlying marlstone and marly limestone Homotryblium tenuispinosum is the dominating species and the first specimens of Impagidinium dispertitum occur indicating open marine conditions.

  17. Cold-Induced Cysts of the Photosynthetic Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Have an Arrested Circadian Bioluminescence Rhythm and Lower Levels of Protein Phosphorylation1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sougata; Letourneau, Louis; Morse, David

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microscopic, eukaryotic, and primarily marine plankton. Temporary cyst formation is a well-known physiological response of dinoflagellate cells to environmental stresses. However, the molecular underpinnings of cold-induced cyst physiology have never been described. Cultures of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum readily form temporary cysts when placed at low (8°C ± 1°C) temperature and excyst to form normal motile cells following a return to normal temperature (18°C ± 1°C). The normal circadian bioluminescence rhythm and the expected changes in Luciferin Binding Protein abundance were arrested in L. polyedrum cysts. Furthermore, after excystment, the bioluminescence rhythm initiates at a time corresponding to zeitgeber 12, independent of the time when the cells encysted. Phosphoprotein staining after two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as well as column-based phosphoprotein enrichment followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, showed cyst proteins are hypophosphorylated when compared with those from motile cells, with the most marked decreases found for predicted Casein Kinase2 target sites. In contrast to the phosphoproteome, the cyst proteome is not markedly different from motile cells, as assessed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to changes in the phosphoproteome, RNA sequencing revealed that cysts show a significant decrease in the levels of 132 RNAs. Of the 42 RNAs that were identified by sequence analysis, 21 correspond to plastid-encoded gene products and 11 to nuclear-encoded cell wall/plasma membrane components. Our data are consistent with a model in which the highly reduced metabolism in cysts is achieved primarily by alterations in the phosphoproteome. The stalling of the circadian rhythm suggests temporary cysts may provide an interesting model to address the circadian system of dinoflagellates. PMID:24335505

  18. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2010-09-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoceanography that favoured the cooling of the climate and culminated in the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The basis for the development of the modern deepwater circulation pattern, e.g. thermohaline circulation, was hereby established. Tectonic events played a key role in the progressing Miocene oceanography, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990) and the possible linked changes in North Atlantic Deep Water formation (Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. Within this study, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 12 Ma, when NADW production increased (e.g. Wright et al. 1992), we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts. This might be related to enhanced productivity or to better carbonate preservation. At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input occurs. This could be a signal for the initiation of the Amazon River as a transcontinental river with the development of the Amazon fan (11.8 - 11.3 Ma; Figueiredo et al. 2009) in relation to Andean tectonism. References: Duque-Caro, H. (1990): Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and palebiology in Northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology

  19. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Sonja; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Willems, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoclimate leading to global cooling forming the precursor of the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciations (NHG). These climate changes are thought to be strongly controlled by oceanographic modifications although the nature of the relationship between ocean and climate change is far from clear. It has for instance been observed that in this time interval the modern deepwater circulation system; the thermohaline circulation was established. It is thought that tectonic events, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway, played a key role in the progressing of these Miocene oceanographic changes (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990; Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. A key region to study these interactions is the Caribbean region, notably the Ceara Rise since it is an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. Here we intent to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. For this, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 11 Ma, we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts suggesting enhanced productivity and better carbonate preservation that can be related to the intensification of NADW formation (Woodruff & Savin 1989). At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input increases. This could be a signal for the initiation of the

  20. The Benguela upwelling related to the Miocene cooling events and the development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: Evidence from calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Sonja; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Bickert, Torsten; Willems, Helmut

    2011-09-01

    Sediment samples from ODP Site 1085 were investigated in order to obtain more information on the initiation and development of the Benguela upwelling system during the middle and upper Miocene. In particular, our intent was to establish the causes of the upwelling as well as the response of the upwelling regime to the development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Based on changes in the calcareous dinoflagellate cyst association, we found an initial increase of the dinoflagellate cyst productivity, probably related to the initiation of upwelling about 11.8 Ma ago. Two distinct increases in cyst productivity in conjunction with temperature decreases of the upper water masses reflect upwelling pulses off Namibia and occur at the end of the Miocene cooling events Mi5 (about 11.5 Ma) and Mi6 (about 10.5 Ma). Both cooling events are associated with an ice volume increase in Antarctica and are thought to have led to an increase in southeasterly winds, possibly causing these two upwelling pulses. We demonstrate a decrease in dinoflagellate cyst productivity and enhanced terrigenous input via the Orange River after the Mi5 event. At about 11.1 Ma, the dinoflagellate cyst productivity increases again. The polar cyst species Caracomia arctica occurs here for the first time. This implies an influence of subantarctic mode water and therefore a change in the quality of the upwelling water which allowed the Benguela upwelling to develop into modern conditions. From about 10.4 Ma, C. arctica forms a permanent part of the association, pointing to an establishment of the upwelling regime.

  1. The first record of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts from the Upper Cretaceous of the Volga River Region.

    PubMed

    Vishnevskaya, V S

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic position of the microproblematics previously considered to be Foraminifera or Calcisphaerulidae is established. The first record from Russia of calcareous cysts of Dinoflagellata is presented. The microfossils originate from the Maastrichtian siliceous clay of the Volga River Region. PMID:27021362

  2. Boreal organic-rich sediments of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2: dinoflagellate cysts, anoxia and an intensified hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Tom; Jarvis, Ian; Dodsworth, Paul; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Tocher, Bruce; Waller, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    Diverse palynological assemblages have been recovered from Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (CTB) successions in the central North Sea and onshore NE England that contain organic-rich deposits characteristic of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2). The stratigraphic extent of the event is evidenced by a marked positive excursion in δ13Corg profiles. Palynomorphs are absent in the chalks immediately underlying the onset of the positive isotope excursion. Pulses of abundant spores and pollen are associated with the appearance of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) in marlier but organic-lean sediments characterizing the early stages of the event. Dinocyst assemblages are indicative of an outer neritic environment, with high abundances of Spiniferites spp. and the presence species such as Pterodinium cornutum. Black shales are confined to the later stages of the CTB interval and the peak of the δ13Corg excursion. These are characterized by abundant Cyclonephelium, which has been reported to be representative of anoxic conditions, but also reduced salinity and lower nutrient environments. Changes of the assemblage from open water species to that of species associated with lower salinity/shallower water environments is coeval with a trend to more negative δ18O values, indicative of increasing water temperature. It is postulated that intensification the hydrological cycle during latest Cenomanian global warming and eustatic sea-level rise, increased the flow of freshwater into the oceans and modified ocean circulation patterns, transporting shallower water species out into open water.

  3. A Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary geological site, revealed by planktic foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, at Ouled Haddou, eastern external Rif Chain, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimani, Hamid; Toufiq, Abdelkabir

    2013-12-01

    Planktic foraminifera and organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst investigations in the Ouled Haddou outcrop (eastern external Rif Belt) in northern Morocco, revealed a continuous sedimentation and a complete record of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) transition. Both planktic foraminifera and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages observed in the studied Maastrichtian-Danian boundary interval are diverse and well-preserved and contain numerous chronostratigraphically significant bio-events that have allowed a high resolution biostratigraphic analysis, based on the first and last occurrences of index species and also on the massive disappearance and abundance changes of different taxa. Planktic foraminifera allow correlation of the studied interval with the uppermost Maastrichtian Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone and the lower Danian Guembelitria cretacea, Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, Parasubbotina pseudobulloides and Subbotina triloculinoides zones. A mass extinction of planktic foraminifera is observed at the end of the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone. This mass extinction is followed by three renewal steps of planktic foraminifera in the basal Danian. The Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary is placed just above the mass extinction of Globotruncanids and Heterohelicids and below the first appearences of earliest Danian markers genera Globoconusa, and Parvularugoglobigerina. According to dinoflagellate cysts, the recognition of the latest Maastrichtian and earliest Danian is based on global bio-events, including the first occurrence of the latest Maastrichtian species Disphaerogena carposphaeropsis, Glaphyrocysta perforata, and Manumiella seelandica, the latest Maastrichtian acme of Manumiella seelandica, and the first occurrence of the earliest Danian markers Carpatella cornuta, Damassadinium californicum and Senoniasphaera inornata. The dinoflagellate Damassadinium californicum Zone characterizing the Danian in the Northern Hemisphere is recognized in this section. The

  4. Spatial distribution and viability of Alexandrium tamarense resting cysts in surface sediments from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, Stéphanie; Roy, Suzanne; Starr, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense Group 1 (as defined by Lilly et al., 2007) is responsible for recurrent outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Eastern Canada. In August 2008, a major bloom of A. tamarense developed in the SLE and caused major mortality of fish, seabirds and marine mammals notably in the vicinity of a marine park. Eleven months later, surface (0-5 cm) and deeper (5-10 cm) sediments were sampled to determine resting cysts concentrations, locate prospective cyst seedbeds and examine if these had changed following this major bloom. This information is thought to be important to understand inter-annual patterns in algal toxicity, cyst abundance being a good predictor of subsequent bloom magnitude in some regions. Surface cyst distribution was heterogeneous and it confirmed the location of the cyst seedbed previously reported on the north shore near the Manicouagan/aux-Outardes Rivers (>500 cysts cm-3). A zone of cyst accumulation was also observed on the south shore of the SLE (maximum of 1200 cysts cm-3), with higher concentrations relative to previous cyst mapping in the 1980s. A mismatch was observed between the zones with high surface cyst concentrations and those where the highest PSP toxins were detected (used as a proxy for vegetative cells in the water column). Cyst concentrations were negatively correlated with PSP levels from the same sites, suggesting that cysts were formed and deposited away from the major sites of toxicity. Deposition likely took place near the end of the bloom, once it had reached the eastern boundary of the SLE. PSP toxicity was worse near the peak of the bloom, which occurred westward of this region. This highlights the dynamic behaviour of local blooms, influenced by the estuarine and mesoscale circulation. Interestingly, the major bloom of August 2008 was not followed by particularly large cyst deposition or by any major bloom in 2009 in this region. Cyst viability

  5. Late Quaternary Upwelling Variations in the Eastern Equatorial Atlantic Ocean as Inferred from Dinoflagellate Cysts, Planktonic Foraminifera, and Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höll, Christine; Kemle-von Mücke, Sylvia

    2000-07-01

    Analysis of multiple proxies shows that eastern equatorial Atlantic upwelling was subdued during isotope stage 5.5, more intense during stages 4, 5.2, 5.4, and 6, and most intense early in stage 2. These findings are based on proxy measures from a core site about 600 km southwest of Liberia. The proxies include total organic carbon content, the ratio of peridinoid and oceanic organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst species, accumulation rates of calcareous dinoflagellates, estimates of sea surface paleotemperatures, the difference in stable oxygen isotope composition between two species of planktonic foraminifera that live at different water depths, and the abundance of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina dutertrei. Most of these parameters consistently vary directly or inversely with one another. Slight discrepancies between the individual parameters show the usefulness of a multiple proxy approach to reconstruct paleoenvironments. Our data confirm that northern summer insolation strongly influences upwelling in the eastern equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Millennial-Scale Climate Variability for the Last Glacial Cycle along the Iberian Margin based on Dinoflagellate Cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datema, M.; Sangiorgi, F.; Reichart, G. J.; Lourens, L. J.; Sluijs, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Shackleton Site (IODP Expedition 339 Site U1385), located off the West-Portuguese Margin, preserves a continuous high-fidelity record of millennial-scale climate variability for the last several glacial cycles (~1.4 Myr) that can be correlated precisely to patterns observed in polar ice cores. In addition, rapid delivery of terrestrial material to the deep-sea environment allows the correlation of these marine records to European terrestrial climate records. This unique marine-ice-terrestrial linkage makes the Shackleton Site the ideal reference section for studying Quaternary abrupt climate change. The main objective of studying site U1385 is to establish a marine reference section of Pleistocene climate change. We generated millennial-scale dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage records from the Shackleton Site (IODP Expedition 339) to reconstruct upwelling, sea surface temperature (SST) and productivity across the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. We quantify the validity of dinocyst-based paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on multivariate statistics on dinocyst assemblages and multi-proxy data from regional core-tops and the last glacial cycle. This allows us to conclude that the strength of the West Iberian Margin upwelling system changed from relatively intense upwelling during the last glacial to upwelling relaxation during the Holocene as a result of reduced (strength of the) Portuguese trade winds. Secondly, SST, productivity/upwelling, strength of Portuguese trade winds and climate on the Iberian Peninsula co-vary on stadial-interstadial timescales and correspond to Greenland stadial-interstadial variability (δ18O). Finally, we will present a long-term paleoceanographic perspective down to ~120 ka.

  7. Dinoflagellate cysts and pollen from the Tjörnes / Breidavik section: a biostratigraphical and palaeoclimatological study of Plio-Pleistocene sediments from northern Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, Koen; Louwye, Stephen; Eiríksson, Jon

    2010-05-01

    On the Tjörnes peninsula in northern Iceland, a unique sequence of Plio-Pleistocene shallow marine, continental and glacial sediments is exposed in cliffs near the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The lowest part of the sequence consists of the more than 500 m thick Tjörnes beds of Pliocene age. In the overlying Breidavik Group, marine interglacial sediments are present together with lava flows and glacial deposits. In this unit, cycles 3, 4, 5 and 7 of the 14 glacial/interglacial cycles were examined for palynomorphs. Sixty eight samples from the sedimentary succession of the Tjörnes beds and 20 samples from the overlying Breidavik Group were palynologicaly investigated for dinoflagellate cysts, pollen and spores. Despite the fact that half of the samples were barren or yielded a very low dinoflagellate cyst concentration (<25 cysts/g), the recovered assemblage holds valuable palaeoecological and biostratigraphical information. The dinoflagellate cyst assemblage from the Tjörnes section reflects a Pliocene flora. Typical Miocene species disappearing at the Miocene - Pliocene boundary (5.33 Ma) such as Selenopemphix armageddonensis are not observed. The combination of the Pliocene record and the lack of typical Miocene species sets a maximum age for the base of the Tjörnes Beds at 5.33 Ma. The nearly continuous occurrence of Batiacasphaera minuta (highest occurrence at 3.8 Ma) and Operculodinium tegillatum (HO at 3.7 Ma) in the upper part of the Tjörnes beds (the Serripes mollusc zone) gives a minimum age of about 3.7 Ma for the top of this zone. These results indicate that the sediments of the Tjörnes beds are older and were deposited faster than previously thought, based on a K/Ar dating of the overlying basalt flows (Albertsson, 1976). In the Serripes zone, the new species Selenopemphix islandicus was recorded. Observations of fragile heterotrophic cysts such as Barssidinium pliocenicum (HO at 2.66 Ma), Echinidinium euaxum (HO at 2.66 Ma), Selenopemphix

  8. Analysis of the hydrographic conditions and cyst beds in the San Jorge Gulf, Argentina, that favor dinoflagellate population development including toxigenic species and their toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krock, Bernd; Borel, C. Marcela; Barrera, Facundo; Tillmann, Urban; Fabro, Elena; Almandoz, Gastón O.; Ferrario, Martha; Garzón Cardona, John E.; Koch, Boris P.; Alonso, Cecilia; Lara, Rubén

    2015-08-01

    The overlay of cooler nutrient enriched Beagle-Magellan water with warmer nutrient depleted shelf water and a strong stratification of the water column in the San Jorge Gulf region, Argentina, coincided with relatively high dinoflagellate abundances in April 2012, up to 34,000 cells L- 1. This dinoflagellate proliferation was dominated by Ceratium spp., but environmental conditions also favored to a lesser amount the occurrence of toxigenic dinoflagellates, such as Alexandrium tamarense and Protoceratium reticulatum, whose toxins were hardly detected in any other areas along the expedition transect of the R/V Puerto Deseado between 38 and 56°S (Ushuaia-Mar del Plata) in March/April 2012. Generally vegetative cells of A. tamarense and P. reticulatum co-occurred with their respective phycotoxins in the water column and their cysts in the upper sediment layers. Two strains of A. tamarense were isolated from the bloom sample and morphologically characterized. Their PSP toxin profiles consisted of C1/2, gonyautoxins 1/4 and to a lesser amount of neosaxitoxin and confirmed earlier data from this region. The ratios between autotrophic picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were higher in shelf waters in the north than in Beagle-Magellan waters in the south of San Jorge Gulf.

  9. Warm mid-Cretaceous high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the southern Tethys Ocean and cool high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the Arctic Ocean: asymmetric worldwide distribution of dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masure, Edwige; Desmares, Delphine; Vrielynck, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Dealing with 87 articles and using a Geographical Information System, Masure and Vrielynck (2009) have mapped worldwide biogeography of 38 Late Albian dinoflagellate cysts and have demonstrated Cretaceous oceanic bioclimatic belts. For comparison 30 Aptian species derived from 49 studies (Masure et al., 2013) and 49 Cenomanian species recorded from 33 articles have been encountered. Tropical, Subtropical, Boreal, Austral, bipolar and cosmopolitan species have been identified and Cretaceous dinoflagellate biomes are introduced. Asymmetric distribution of Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian subtropical Tethyan species, from 40°N to 70°S, demonstrates asymmetric Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients with warm water masses in high latitudes of Southern Ocean. The SST gradients were stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. We note that Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian dinoflagellates restricted to subtropical and subpolar latitudes met and mixed at 35-40°N, while they mixed from 30°S to 70°S and from 50°S to 70°S respectively in the Southern Hemisphere. Mixing belts extend on 5° in the Northern Hemisphere and along 40° (Aptian) and 20° (Late Albian/Cenomanian) in the Southern one. The board southern mixing belt of Tethyan and Austral dinoflagellates suggest co-occurrence of warm and cold currents. We record climatic changes such as the Early Aptian cooler period and Late Aptian and Albian warming through the poleward migration of species constrained to cool water masses. These species sensitive to temperature migrated from 35°N to 55°N through the shallow Greenland-Norwergian Seaway connecting the Central Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. While Tethyan species did not migrate staying at 40°N. We suggest that the Greenland-Norwergian Seaway might has been a barrier until Late Albian/Cenomanian for oceanic Tethyan dinoflagellates stopped either by the shallow water column or temperature and salinity

  10. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the Southern Ocean during the Oligocene Icehouse: tracers for Antarctic Sea ice, productivity and oceanic frontal systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Sangiorgi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The Oligocene Epoch (33.9-23 Ma) is the time interval in the Cenozoic that saw the establishment of a continental-scale Antarctic ice-sheet. Numerical modelling studies suggest that alongside, first sea-ice conditions may have started along the East Antarctic Margin. Integrated Ocean Drilling Expedition 318 drilled the Antarctic Margin in 2010, and recovered sediments from this early phase of Antarctic glaciation. With this record, we can now evaluate the robustness of the results of these numerical models with field data. Particularly the sediments recovered from Site U1356 yield a thick and relatively complete (albeit compromised by core gaps) Oligocene succession that is chronostratigraphically well-calibrated with use of nannoplankton- dinocyst- and magnetostratigraphy. Notably, this record yields well-preserved dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). Dinocysts are the fossilizable remains of dinoflagellates, some of which are today specifically linked to the high (seasonal) productivity of the ecosystems associated with sea-ice and oceanic fronts. Up to now, well-calibrated and complete records of dinocyst assemblages beyond the Pleistocene become progressively scarcer going further back in time. In the earliest Oligocene, just after the onset of Antarctic glaciation, we document the installation of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages that bear remarkable similarity with those of the present-day Southern Ocean. We interpret this as a regime-shift in plankton communities in response to the installation of the seasonally highly productive sea-ice ecosystem. Following this initial installation, we document variable dinocyst assemblages during the remainder of the Oligocene. These patterns argue that changes in sea-ice extent, and/or the intensity of the vertical mixing of the water column occurred in response to the waxing and waning of the Antarctic ice sheet and feedbacks. I will present a paleo-environmental reconstruction of the Oligocene Southern Ocean surface waters

  11. DISTRIBUTION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF THE LUCIFERASE GENE WITHIN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES(1).

    PubMed

    Valiadi, Martha; Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, M; Amorim, Ana

    2012-06-01

    Dinoflagellates are the most abundant protists that produce bioluminescence. Currently, there is an incomplete knowledge of the identity of bioluminescent species arising from inter- and intraspecific variability in bioluminescence properties. In this study, PCR primers were designed to amplify the dinoflagellate luciferase gene (lcf) from genetically distant bioluminescent species. One of the primer pairs was "universal," whereas others amplified longer gene sequences from subsets of taxa. The primers were used to study the distribution of lcf and assess bioluminescence potential in dinoflagellate strains representing a wide variety of taxa as well as multiple strains of selected species. Strains of normally bioluminescent species always contained lcf even when they were found not to produce light, thus demonstrating the utility of this methodology as a powerful tool for identifying bioluminescent species. Bioluminescence and lcf were confined to the Gonyaulacales, Noctilucales, and Peridiniales. Considerable variation was observed among genera, or even species within some genera, that contained this gene. Partial sequences of lcf were obtained for the genera Ceratocorys, Ceratium, Fragilidium, and Protoperidinium as well as from previously untested species or gene regions of Alexandrium and Gonyaulax. The sequences revealed high variation among gene copies that obscured the boundaries between species or even genera, some of which could be explained by the presence of two genetic variants within the same species of Alexandrium. Highly divergent sequences within Alexandrium and Ceratium show a more diverse composition of lcf than previously known.

  12. Distribution of Soybean Cyst Nematode in Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T. O.; Sandall, L. J.; Wysong, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 552 soybean fields in 20 counties in Nebraska in 1986-88 revealed 35 fields infested with the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Identification was confirmed with a greenhouse bioassay, using 'Lee 74' soybean, and by the application of a DNA hybridization probe derived from SCN mitochondrial DNA. Most of the SCN-infested fields were located on the Missouri River floodplain and in the southeastern corner of the state. PMID:19287657

  13. Prevalence, distribution, and differential diagnosis of nasopalatine duct cysts

    PubMed Central

    CECCHETTI, F.; OTTRIA, L.; BARTULI, F.; BRAMANTI, N. E.; ARCURI, C.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction. Nasopalatine duct cysts (NPDCs) are the most common developmental epithelial non-odontogenic cysts of the maxillae. Their origin, however, is still a source of considerable debate. Aims. The aim of this investigation is to describe and discuss the etiology, differential diagnosis, clinic-pathological characteristics as well as to report the relative frequency and distribution of nasopalatine duct cysts in population (NPDCs) with a literature’s review on the topic. Methods The retrospective study was carried out using 36 clinical cases, with histopatological confirmation for NPDC, radiographs and oral photographs. Data included age and gender of the patient, radiographic findings, etiological factors, treatment, and prognosis of NPDC. Few surgical consideration are discussed. Results The study results report a clear male predilection with a 3:1 ratio. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the size of the lesion and patient’s gender. Lesions were usually asymptomatic. All cysts were located in the anterior maxillary midline region. Panoramic X-rays and computed tomography was used to identify the lesion. Surgical treatment was performed under local anesthesia including the dissection and removal of the cyst, adopting a usually palatine approach, with an enveloping flap from 1.4 to 2.4. Conclusions The etiology of NPDC is unclear and a male predilection was observed. Simple surgical resection is recommended, followed by clinical and radiological control to ensure correct resolution of the case. PMID:23285406

  14. Variability in surface water properties of the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean related to the Miocene Cooling Events, evidence from calcareous dinoflagellate cysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2009-04-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent major climatic shifts to colder global temperatures. These periods of cooling (Mi-Events) were characterized by oxygen isotopic shifts that have been related to size changes of the Antarctic and Arctic ice-sheets (e.g. Miller et al., 1991, St. John, 2008). The start and development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) during this time-interval is of major interest, as it changed the atmospheric and oceanic circulation pattern which led to the initiation of upwelling off the south western African coast (Paulsen et al., 2007). However, the complex interaction between the initiation and development of the upwelling in the western South Atlantic and its interaction with the evolution of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as well as the built-up of the Antarctic ice-sheet is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst associations. Within this study 53 samples were taken from sediment core ODP 175 1085A off the coast of Namibia and investigated by defining the calcareous dinoflagellate cyst assemblage. The general cooling trend during the middle- and upper Miocene is clearly reflected in the dinocyst record by the decrease of species adapted to warm water conditions (Calciodinellum albatrosianum and Thoracosphaera heimii) and the appearance and increase of Caracomia arctica after ~ 11.1 Ma. C. arctica is a cold water species which today is only present south of the polar front. The concentration of C. arctica varies with a cyclicity of about 200-400 kyrs which reflects an eccentricity signal. We assume that observed changes in association such as the appearance of C. arctica can either be related to the initiation of the upwelling activity in the region, which is suggested to occur at ~11.6 Ma (Paulsen & Bickert 2007), or might be the

  15. Effects of macronutrient additions on nickel uptake and distribution in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hua-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Hua; Huang, Xu-Guang; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2009-06-01

    The influences of macronutrient additions on nickel (Ni) uptake and distribution in the subcellular structures and macromolecular components of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu were examined using a radioisotope tracer method. The results showed that nitrate addition enhanced the uptake of Ni by P. donghaiense, whereas phosphate addition inhibited Ni uptake at high-Ni concentration. Nitrate or phosphate addition significantly affected Ni distribution in the subcellular structures and components. The majority of Ni was found in the soluble substances (>70%) and in the proteins (55.0-79.6%) of the algal cells. Urea reduced the Ni content in the amino acid-carbohydrate but elevated its content in proteins, and shown significantly correlated with the protein content of the algal cells. Thus, nutrient enrichment could influence both metal uptake and its distribution in the subcellular structures and components of the phytoplankton, as well as its subsequent transfer in marine food chains. PMID:19217194

  16. Late Holocene sea-level rise in Tampa Bay: Integrated reconstruction using biomarkers, pollen, organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts, and diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soelen, E. E.; Lammertsma, E. I.; Cremer, H.; Donders, T. H.; Sangiorgi, F.; Brooks, G. R.; Larson, R. A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Wagner-Cremer, F.; Reichart, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    A suite of organic geochemical, micropaleontological and palynological proxies was applied to sediments from Southwest Florida, to study the Holocene environmental changes associated with sea-level rise. Sediments were recovered from Hillsborough Bay, part of Tampa Bay, and studied using biomarkers, pollen, organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts and diatoms. Analyses show that the site flooded around 7.5 ka as a consequence of Holocene transgression, progressively turning a fresh/brackish marl-marsh into a shallow, restricted marine environment. Immediately after the marine transgression started, limited water circulation and high amounts of runoff caused stratification of the water column. A shift in dinocysts and diatom assemblages to more marine species, increasing concentrations of marine biomarkers and a shift in the Diol Index indicate increasing salinity between 7.5 ka and the present, which is likely a consequence of progressing sea-level rise. Reconstructed sea surface temperatures for the past 4 kyrs are between 25 and 26 ° C, and indicate stable temperatures during the Late Holocene. A sharp increase in sedimentation rate in the top ˜50 cm of the core is attributed to human impact. The results are in agreement with parallel studies from the area, but this study further refines the environmental reconstructions having the advantage of simultaneously investigating changes in the terrestrial and marine environment.

  17. Glacial-Interglacial, Orbital and Millennial-Scale Climate Variability for the Last Glacial Cycle at Shackleton Site U1385 based on Dinoflagellate Cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datema, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Shackleton Site (IODP Expedition 339 Site U1385), located off the West-Portuguese Margin, preserves a continuous high-fidelity record of millennial-scale climate variability for the last several glacial cycles (~1.4 Myr) that can be correlated precisely to patterns observed in polar ice cores. In addition, rapid delivery of terrestrial material to the deep-sea environment allows the correlation of these marine records to European terrestrial climate records. This unique marine-ice-terrestrial linkage makes the Shackleton Site the ideal reference section for studying Quaternary abrupt climate change. The main objective of studying Site U1385 is to establish a marine reference section of Pleistocene climate change. We generated (sub)millennial-scale (~600 year interval) dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage records from Shackleton Site U1385 (IODP Expedition 339) to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) and productivity/upwelling over the last 152 kyrs. In addition, our approach allows for detailed land-sea correlations, because we also counted assemblages of pollen and spores from higher plants. Dinocyst SST and upwelling proxies, as well as warm/cold pollen proxies from Site U1385 show glacial-interglacial, orbital and stadial-interstadial climate variability and correlate very well to Uk'37, planktic foraminifer δ18O and Ca/Ti proxies of previously drilled Shackleton Sites and Greenland Ice Core δ18O. The palynological proxies capture (almost) all Dansgaard-Oeschger events of the last glacial cycle, also before ~70 ka, where millennial-scale variability is overprinted by precession. We compare the performance and results of the palynology of Site U1385 to proxies of previously drilled Shackleton Sites and conclude that palynology strengthens the potential of this site to form a multi-proxy reference section for millennial scale climate variability across the Pleistocene-Holocene. Finally, we will present a long-term paleoceanographic perspective down

  18. Differential distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates in a cyclonic eddy confined in the Bay of La Paz, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coria-Monter, Erik; Monreal-Gómez, María. Adela; Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Aldeco-Ramírez, Javier; Merino-Ibarra, Martín.

    2014-09-01

    The differential distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates in the Bay of La Paz, Gulf of California, Mexico, was analyzed in summer of 2009, when a cyclonic eddy confined in the bay dominated the circulation. An uplift of the nutricline in the eddy drove high concentrations of nutrients to the euphotic layer. A differential phytoplankton distribution was observed to be associated with the eddy: there was an abundance of dinoflagellates close to the center of the cyclonic eddy, whereas diatoms were more abundant at the periphery. A significant inverse correlation (R = -0.62, p < 0.002) was found between the temperature at 25 m depth and the dinoflagellates abundance. Based on the temporal evolution of chlorophyll measured by MODIS satellite images, and a conceptual model proposed for the lifecycle of eddies, the cyclonic eddy may have been an old decaying structure. The effect of the cyclonic eddy on the phytoplankton distribution in this small semienclosed region was apparently similar to that found in larger eddies in the open ocean, but this is the first time such a differential distribution has been found associated to a confined eddy.

  19. Distribution of diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and dinoflagellates of Dinophysis spp along coast off Goa.

    PubMed

    Alkawri, A A S; Ramaiah, N

    2011-01-01

    As a part of an annual analysis on the phytoplankton distribution and composition, regular monthly sampling carried out during October 2007- September 2008 from salinity gradient zones in the intertidal waters along the coast of Goa. Among the 179 species of phytoplankton observed during this study, as many as 11 of them are recognized, potentially toxic ones. The toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens was quite preponderant, in particular during the pre-monsoon month of May 2008 off Chapora, a perennially low salinity location. Among the 10 toxic dinoflagellate species detected, the known toxic species, Alexandrium minutum followed by Dinophysis acuminata were found to attain maximum cell numbers in the study area. It is apparent from our results that the toxic species do occur in all salinity zones sampled and during many months of the year in coastal waters off Goa. Though directly governed by the variations in nutrient concentrations, some of these toxic phytoplankton species attain high cell numbers. It is reasonable for us to therefore caution that the toxic species do prevail in these waters.

  20. The distribution of intra-genomically variable dinoflagellate symbionts at Lord Howe Island, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Shaun P.; Pontasch, Stefanie; Fisher, Paul L.; Davy, Simon K.

    2016-06-01

    The symbiotic dinoflagellates of corals and other marine invertebrates ( Symbiodinium) are essential to the development of shallow-water coral reefs. This genus contains considerable genetic diversity and a corresponding range of physiological and ecological traits. Most genetic variation arises through the accumulation of somatic mutations that arise during asexual reproduction. Yet growing evidence suggests that occasional sexual reproductive events also occur within, and perhaps between, Symbiodinium lineages, further contributing to the pool of genetic variation available for evolutionary adaptation. Intra-genomic variation can therefore arise from both sexual and asexual reproductive processes, making it difficult to discern its underlying causes and consequences. We used quantitative PCR targeting the ITS2 locus to estimate proportions of genetically homogeneous symbionts and intra-genomically variable Symbiodinium (IGV Symbiodinium) in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis at Lord Howe Island, Australia. We then sampled colonies through time and at a variety of spatial scales to find out whether the distribution of these symbionts followed patterns consistent with niche partitioning. Estimated ratios of homogeneous to IGV Symbiodinium varied between colonies within sites (metres to tens of metres) and between sites separated by hundreds to thousands of metres, but remained stable within colonies through time. Symbiont ratios followed a temperature gradient, with the local thermal maximum emerging as a negative predictor for the estimated proportional abundance of IGV Symbiodinium. While this pattern may result from fine-scale spatial population structure, it is consistent with an increased susceptibility to thermal stress, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that generate IGV (such as inter-lineage recombination and the accumulation of somatic mutations at the ITS2 locus) may have important implications for the fitness of the symbiont and

  1. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very-long-chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids (HUFAs), found in a number of dinoflagellates, are released as methyl esters from phospholipids obtained by fractionation of lipid extracts. By contrast, the highly unsaturated C18 fatty acid octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5n-3), co...

  2. Cyst Distribution and Hatching Pattern of Chirocephalus ruffoi (Crustacea, Anostraca) in an Experimental Undisturbed Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, Graziella

    2005-06-01

    The pattern of cyst distribution in the absence of turbation and their hatching behaviour were studied in an outdoor artificial pool, where just differentiated adults of the anostracan Chirocephalus ruffoi (sex ratio 1:3) lived until it dried up. The horizontal and vertical distributions of cysts in the pool bed were determined. The comparison between cyst bank estimate (Mura, 2004) and the actual number of cysts counted in the pool bed revealed an estimate error of 20.9%. Resting eggs occurred only in the upper 2.5 cm thick soil sections and decreased within this section as depth increased. Peripheral areas of the pool contained significantly larger numbers of cysts than the central area. Multiway analysis on the results recorded in hatching success (nested ANOVA) revealed that the differences were significantly affected by initial soil conditions, treatment and vertical distribution of cysts. Among these factors, vertical distribution (sections nested in cores) was the most influential. Hatching success was significantly inversely related to depth. Differences in the timing of hatching depending on the above considered factors were also noted. A nearly synchronous hatching pattern was observed only for cysts from initially dry sediment of the uppermost layers. In all successively deeper layers, hatching showed multiple peaks and was increasingly delayed and erratic (already mentioned). ANCOVA within each of the experimental conditions revealed significant differences in hatching frequencies (time as covariate) depending on sediment depth. Within any given layer, ANCOVA revealed a significant influence of initial sediment conditions and treatment on the timing of hatching.

  3. Spatial distribution of the phytoplankton in the White Sea during atypical domination of dinoflagellates (July 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyash, L. V.; Zhitina, L. S.; Belevich, T. A.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Pantyulin, A. N.; Tolstikov, A. V.; Chultsova, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    The species composition and biomass of phytoplankton, concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and nutrients, and accompanying hydrophysical conditions have been studied in the White Sea on July 6-11, 2009. The temperature of the surface water layer was lower than the multiyear average in July. Dinoflagellates dominated in the entire studied area; this was not the typical event for July. We suggest that domination of dinoflagellates was caused by low water temperature, when the nutrient regeneration rate was insufficient to support diatom growth. The abundance of microalgae and the structure of the phytoplankton community depended on the water structure. Variations in the phytoplankton community structure were caused not by substitution of specific species but rather by variability of the abundance of a single species, Heterocapsa triquetra. The highest phytoplankton biomass has been recorded in weakly stratified waters, where tidal mixing supplied the income of inorganic nutrients. The income of nutrients to the photic layer was limited in the stratified waters of Dvina Bay during the summer low-water period, so the phytoplankton abundance was low. We suggest that the lens of surface desalinated water presumably originated from the outlet of the Dvina River was registered in the central part of the White Sea.

  4. Suspended Alexandrium spp. hypnozygote cysts in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirn, Sarah L.; Townsend, David W.; Pettigrew, Neal R.

    2005-09-01

    The life cycle of dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium includes sexual reproduction followed by the formation of a dormant hypnozygote cyst, which serves as a resting stage. Negatively buoyant cysts purportedly fall to the benthos where they undergo a mandatory period of quiescence. Previous reports of cysts in the surficial sediments of the Gulf of Maine, where Alexandrium blooms are well documented, show a broad distribution of cysts, with highest concentrations generally in sediments below 100 m depth. We report here an exploration of cysts suspended in the water column, where they would be better positioned to inoculate springtime Alexandrium populations. During cruises in February, April, and June of 2000, water samples were collected at depths just off the bottom (within 5 m), at the top of the bottom nepheloid layer, and near the surface (1 m) and examined for cyst concentrations. Suspended cysts were found throughout the Gulf of Maine and westernmost Bay of Fundy. Planktonic cyst densities were generally greater in near-bottom and top of the bottom nepheloid layer samples than in near-surface water samples; densities were of the order of 10 2 cysts m -3 in surface waters, and 10 2-10 3 cysts m -3 at near-bottom depths. Temporally, they were most abundant in February and least abundant in April. Reports by earlier workers of cysts in the underlying sediments were on the order of 10 3 cysts cm -3. We present calculations that demonstrate the likelihood of cyst resuspension from bottom sediments forced by swell and tidal currents, and propose that such resuspended cysts are important in inoculating the seasonal bloom. We estimate that suspended cysts may contribute significantly to the annual vegetative cell population in the Gulf of Maine.

  5. Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

  6. Dinoflagellates, a new proxy for evidencing (paleo)tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, S.; Do Couto, D.; Suc, J.; Gorini, C.

    2012-12-01

    As a preliminary investigation, dinoflagellates have been searched in the Sri Lanka tsunami deposits (2004, Sumatra earthquake). The goals of this analysis were (1) to establish if dinoflagellate cysts (marine algae) are preserved in such types of deposits, and (2) to delimit the inland flooded surface. This work was performed on only 1-2 grams of sands, which had been sterilized at 121°C to prevent any microbial activity. The analysis points out the presence of several marine dinoflagellate cysts with a poor to moderate preservation, allowing to estimate the extent of the flooded area. In addition, a sample provided two dinoflagellate thecae, an exceptional occurrence because the cellulosic form of a dinoflagellate (i.e. the theca) is generally considered as unable to be preserved within sediments. In laboratory experiments, thecae are known to persist between 2 and 72 hours, depending of the species. If we accept a possible preservation of thecae in "peculiar" conditions, their presence in a tsunami sedimentary sequence may sign a precise instant of a tsunami event. Dinoflagellates have been searched in sedimentary basins affected by intense seismic activity: the Black Sea (Quaternary) and Alboran Sea (Messinian - Zanclean), two areas marked by important environmental changes. Marine dinoflagellate cysts are recorded in the Black Sea before its Holocene connection with Mediterranean through the Bosphorus Strait. Their occurrence constitutes a robust support for tsunamis already described in the region. In Late Messinian and Early Pliocene deposits from the Sorbas and Malaga basins (Alboran Sea region), cysts and thecae of marine dinoflagellates have been evidenced for the first time, maybe in relation with possible tsunamis. This new approach is to be developed on other recent tsunami deposits in order to contribute to identify past tsunami events. One must mention that dinoflagellates may help in reconstruction of past sea-surface physical parameters (salinity

  7. Bloom dynamics and life cycle strategies of two toxic dinoflagellates in a coastal upwelling system (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Isabel; Fraga, Santiago; Isabel Figueroa, Rosa; Pazos, Yolanda; Massanet, Ana; Ramilo, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    A study of Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium minutum blooms on the Galician coast was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in order to increase knowledge of the mechanisms governing recurrent blooms of these species. Considerable differences in their bloom dynamics were observed. G. catenatum blooms occurred in autumn and winter, following the pattern previously reported in the literature: they began off-shore and were advected to the Galician rias when a relaxation of the coastal upwelling occurred. On the other hand, A. minutum blooms developed inside embayments in spring and summer during the upwelling season and were associated with water stability and stratification. Both the vegetative population and the cyst distribution of A. minutum were related to less saline water from freshwater river outputs, which support a saline-gradient relationship postulated herein for this species. Dinoflagellates may produce both long-term double-walled cysts (resting) and short-term pellicle cysts. Resting cyst deposition and distribution in sediments showed that seeding occurred during the blooms of both species. However, the relationship between the cyst distribution in the sediments in Baiona Bay and the intensity and occurrence of G. catenatum blooms, suggests that the latter are not directly related to resting cyst germination. Moreover, the results presented in the present study point to other difference between the two species, such as the detection of pellicle cysts only for A. minutum. Finally, we discuss how the life cycle strategies of these two species may help to explain the different mechanisms of bloom formation reported herein.

  8. Ecology of the red-tide dinoflagellate Ceratium furca: distribution, mixotrophy, and grazing impact on ciliate populations of Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Smalley, Gabriela W; Coats, D Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Ceratium furca is a primarily photosynthetic dinoflagellate also capable of ingesting other protists. During 1995 and 1996, we documented the abundance of C. furca in Chesapeake Bay and determined grazing rates on prey labeled with fluorescent microspheres. Abundance usually remained below 20 cells ml(-1), although the species was capable of localized late-summer blooms (< or = 478 cells ml(-1)) in the more saline lower to mid-Bay region. Feeding rates ranged from 0 to 0.11 prey dinoflagellate(-1) h(-1) or from 0 to 37 pg C dinoflagellate(-1) h(-1) and were highest at lower salinities. Clearance rates averaged 2.5 +/- 0.35 microl dinoflagellate(-1) h(-1). Impact of C. furca feeding on prey populations was higher in the lower Bay, averaging 67% of Strobilidium spp. removed d(-1). Ingestion rates were positively correlated with prey abundance and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, but negatively with salinity, depth, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, and inorganic P:N ratio. Daily consumption of prey biomass by C. furca averaged 4.6% of body carbon, 6.5% of body nitrogen, and 4.0% of body phosphorus. with maximal values of 36, 51, and 32%, respectively. Thus, the ability to exploit an organic nutrient source when inorganic nutrients are limiting may give C. furca a competitive advantage over purely photosynthetic species.

  9. Structural Confirmation of a Unique Carotenoid Lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. Strain nbrc 104787 Isolated from a Sea Anemone and its Distribution in Dinoflagellates and Various Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Laza-Martínez, Aitor; Bin Haji Mohd Taha, Ahmad Iskandar; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Awai, Koichiro; Kawachi, Masanobu; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-12-01

    The molecular structure of the carotenoid lactoside P457, (3S,5R,6R,3'S,5'R,6'S)-13'-cis-5,6-epoxy-3',5'-dihydroxy-3-(β-d-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucosyl)oxy-6',7'-didehydro-5,6,7,8,5',6'-hexahydro-β,β-caroten-20-al, was confirmed by spectroscopic methods using Symbiodinium sp. strain NBRC 104787 cells isolated from a sea anemone. Among various algae, cyanobacteria, land plants, and marine invertebrates, the distribution of this unique diglycosyl carotenoid was restricted to free-living peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and marine invertebrates that harbor peridinin-containing zooxanthellae. Neoxanthin appeared to be a common precursor for biosynthesis of peridinin and P457, although neoxanthin was not found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates did not possess peridinin or P457; green dinoflagellates, which contain chlorophyll a and b, did not contain peridinin, fucoxanthin, or P457; and no unicellular algae containing both peridinin and P457, other than peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, have been observed. Therefore, the biosynthetic pathways for peridinin and P457 may have been coestablished during the evolution of dinoflagellates after the host heterotrophic eukaryotic microorganism formed a symbiotic association with red alga that does not contain peridinin or P457. PMID:27009990

  10. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC.

  11. Sedimentary Records of Harmful Bloom-Producing Dinoflagellates from Alvarado Lagoon (Southwestern Gulf of Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoges, A.; Mertens, K. N.; ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Sánchez Cabeza, J. A.; de Vernal, A.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages were studied from a sediment core collected in Alvarado Lagoon (southwestern Gulf of Mexico) in order to evaluate their use as tracers of toxic algal blooms. The sedimentary record spans the last ~560 years (CE) and shows high abundances of Polysphaeridium zoharyi, the cyst of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense, which is known to cause toxic blooms. Cyst fluxes in the sediment of the Alvarado lagoon suggest frequent blooms of Pyrodinium bahamense in the past hundreds of years. Moreover, the high concentrations of the cysts (~ 4000 cysts g-1) in the "modern" surface sediment reveal that the area is susceptible to be affected by future blooms, especially during seasons of heavy rain and wind, when cysts are resuspended in the water column. The dinoflagellate cyst bank in sediment deserves special attention as it may constitute a source for the export of cells in adjacent regions. The cyst of other harmful dinoflagellates have been recovered in the sediment. They notably include those of the benthic dinoflagellate Bysmatrum subsalsum, which is here reported for the first time.

  12. Dinoflagellates associated with freshwater sponges from the ancient lake baikal.

    PubMed

    Annenkova, Natalia V; Lavrov, Dennis V; Belikov, Sergey I

    2011-04-01

    Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of protists that are common in both marine and freshwater environments. While the biology of marine dinoflagellates has been the focus of several recent studies, their freshwater relatives remain little-investigated. In the present study we explore the diversity of dinoflagellates in Lake Baikal by identifying and analyzing dinoflagellate sequences for 18S rDNA and ITS-2 from total DNA extracted from three species of endemic Baikalian sponges (Baikalospongia intermedia,Baikalospongia rectaand Lubomirskia incrustans). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed extensive dinoflagellate diversity in Lake Baikal. We found two groups of sequences clustering within the order Suessiales, known for its symbiotic relationships with various invertebrates. Thus they may be regarded as potential symbionts of Baikalian sponges. In addition,Gyrodinium helveticum, representatives from the genus Gymnodinium, dinoflagellates close to the family Pfiesteriaceae, and a few dinoflagellates without definite affiliation were detected. No pronounced difference in the distribution of dinoflagellates among the studied sponges was found, except for the absence of the Piscinoodinium-like dinoflagellates inL. incrustans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the diversity of dinoflagellates in freshwater sponges, the first systematic investigation of dinoflagellate molecular diversity in Lake Baikal and the first finding of members of the order Suessiales as symbionts of freshwater invertebrates.

  13. Distribution of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) cysts in Greenland and Iceland, with an emphasis on viability and growth in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Richlen, Mindy L.; Zielinski, Oliver; Holinde, Lars; Tillmann, Urban; Cembella, Allan; Lyu, Yihua; Anderson, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    The bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense has been extensively studied due its toxin-producing capabilities and consequent impacts to human health and economies. This study investigated the prevalence of resting cysts of A. fundyense in western Greenland and Iceland to assess the historical presence and magnitude of bloom populations in the region, and to characterize environmental conditions during summer, when bloom development may occur. Analysis of sediments collected from these locations showed that Alexandrium cysts were present at low to moderate densities in most areas surveyed, with highest densities observed in western Iceland. Additionally, laboratory experiments were conducted on clonal cultures established from isolated cysts or vegetative cells from Greenland, Iceland, and the Chukchi Sea (near Alaska) to examine the effects of photoperiod interval and irradiance levels on growth. Growth rates in response to the experimental treatments varied among isolates, but were generally highest under conditions that included both the shortest photoperiod interval (16h:8h light:dark) and higher irradiance levels (~146–366 μmol photons m−2 s−1), followed by growth under an extended photoperiod interval and low irradiance level (~37 μmol photons m−2 s−1). Based on field and laboratory data, we hypothesize that blooms in Greenland are primarily derived from advected Alexandrium populations, as low bottom temperatures and limited light availability would likely preclude in situ bloom development. In contrast, the bays and fjords in Iceland may provide more favorable habitat for germling cell survival and growth, and therefore may support indigenous, self-seeding blooms. PMID:27721528

  14. Benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and Alexandrium cyst inventories

    PubMed Central

    Pilskaln, C.H.; Hayashi, K.; Keafer, B.A.; Anderson, D.M.; McGillicuddy, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50–60 m observed. Mean BNL thickness is 30 m in the eastern gulf and Bay of Fundy, and 20 m in the western gulf. Cyst densities in the near-bottom particle resuspension layers varied by three orders of magnitude across the gulf with maxima of 105 cysts m−3. An important interconnection of elevated BNL cyst densities is observed between the Bay of Fundy, the Maine Coastal Current and the south-central region of the gulf. BNL cyst inventories estimated for the eastern and western gulf are each on the order of 1015 cysts, whereas the BNL inventory in the Bay of Fundy is on the order of 1016 . Although BNL cyst inventories in the eastern and western gulf are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the abundance of cysts in the upper 1 cm of sediment in those regions, BNL and sediment-bound cyst inventories are comparable in the Bay of Fundy. The existence of widespread BNLs containing substantial cyst inventories indicates that these near-bottom layers represent an important source of germinating A. fundyense cysts in the region. PMID:25419055

  15. Benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and Alexandrium cyst inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilskaln, C. H.; Hayashi, K.; Keafer, B. A.; Anderson, D. M.; McGillicuddy, D. J.

    2014-05-01

    Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50-60 m observed. Mean BNL thickness is 30 m in the eastern gulf and Bay of Fundy, and 20 m in the western gulf. Cyst densities in the near-bottom particle resuspension layers varied by three orders of magnitude across the gulf with maxima of 105 cysts m-3. An important interconnection of elevated BNL cyst densities is observed between the Bay of Fundy, the Maine Coastal Current and the south-central region of the gulf. BNL cyst inventories estimated for the eastern and western gulf are each on the order of 1015 cysts, whereas the BNL inventory in the Bay of Fundy is on the order of 1016. Although BNL cyst inventories in the eastern and western gulf are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the abundance of cysts in the upper 1 cm of sediment in those regions, BNL and sediment-bound cyst inventories are comparable in the Bay of Fundy. The existence of widespread BNLs containing substantial cyst inventories indicates that these near-bottom layers represent an important source of germinating A. fundyense cysts in the region.

  16. Vaginal cysts

    MedlinePlus

    Inclusion cyst; Gartner duct cyst ... There are several types of vaginal cysts. Vaginal inclusion cysts are the most common. These may form as a result of injury to the vaginal walls during birth process ...

  17. [Rare location of arachnoid cysts. Extratemporal cysts].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hinojosa, José; Pascual, Beatriz; Panaderos, Teresa; Welter, Diego; Muñoz, María J

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic management of arachnoid cysts depends largely on its location. Almost 50% of arachnoid cysts are located in the temporal fossa-Sylvian fissure, whereas the other half is distributed in different locations, sometimes exceptional. Under the name of infrequent location arachnoid cysts, a description is presented of those composed of 2 sheets of arachnoid membrane, which are not located in the temporal fossa, and are primary or congenital.

  18. Circadian rhythm of a red-tide dinoflagellate Peridinium quadridentatum in the port of Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico, its thecal morphology, nomenclature and geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Okolodkov, Yuri B; Campos-Bautista, Guadalupe; Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael

    2016-07-15

    A circadian rhythm of the dinoflagellate Peridinium quadridentatum was studied at a time-series station in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, in May 2007. Different substrates (water column, the seagrass Thalassia testudinum, macroalgae, coral rubble and sandy sediment surface) were sampled at the site at 1.5-3.5m depth. In the samples of coral rubble, P. quadridentatum was scarce. In the water column, the species showed an abundance peak at 15:00. The cell abundance of P. quadridentatum in Thalassia samples increased from 15:00 until 18:00 (1.81×10(4)cells/gsubstratewet weight), and then continuously decreased until 06:00. Changes in P. quadridentatum cell abundance on macroalgae followed the same trend as on Thalassia, with the maximal value at 18:00. The higher abundance of P. quadridentatum (up to 1.40×10(4)cells/gSWW) in macroalgae samples showed the preference for seaweeds. P. quadridentatum has a neritic tropical-boreal distribution. A new combination is proposed: Peridinium quadridentatum var. trispiniferum.

  19. Circadian rhythm of a red-tide dinoflagellate Peridinium quadridentatum in the port of Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico, its thecal morphology, nomenclature and geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Okolodkov, Yuri B; Campos-Bautista, Guadalupe; Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael

    2016-07-15

    A circadian rhythm of the dinoflagellate Peridinium quadridentatum was studied at a time-series station in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, in May 2007. Different substrates (water column, the seagrass Thalassia testudinum, macroalgae, coral rubble and sandy sediment surface) were sampled at the site at 1.5-3.5m depth. In the samples of coral rubble, P. quadridentatum was scarce. In the water column, the species showed an abundance peak at 15:00. The cell abundance of P. quadridentatum in Thalassia samples increased from 15:00 until 18:00 (1.81×10(4)cells/gsubstratewet weight), and then continuously decreased until 06:00. Changes in P. quadridentatum cell abundance on macroalgae followed the same trend as on Thalassia, with the maximal value at 18:00. The higher abundance of P. quadridentatum (up to 1.40×10(4)cells/gSWW) in macroalgae samples showed the preference for seaweeds. P. quadridentatum has a neritic tropical-boreal distribution. A new combination is proposed: Peridinium quadridentatum var. trispiniferum. PMID:27197764

  20. BAKER'S CYST

    PubMed Central

    Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2015-01-01

    Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually found on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts), presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears) that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule). PMID:27027065

  1. An Illustrated Key to the Cyst-Forming Genera and Species of Heteroderidae in the Western Hemisphere with Species Morphometrics and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, R. H.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1983-01-01

    Diagnoses of the cyst-forming genera of Heteroderidae (viz., Heterodera, Sarisodera, Globodera, Punctodera, Cactodera, and Dolichodera) and distribution and morphometrics of the 34 known cyst species in the Western Hemisphere are presented along with an illustrated key for the identification of these genera and species. The key is based mainly on cysts and larvae, and important morphological and diagnostic features are extensively shown by LM and SEM illustrations. The genus Bidera is placed as a new synonym under the genus Heterodera. PMID:19295764

  2. Worldwide Distribution of Soybean-Cyst Nematode and Its Economic Importance

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Soybean-cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) was first reported from Japan in 1915. It has since been reported from Korea (1936), Manchuria (1938), the United States (USA) (1954), and Egypt (1968). It is of major concern to soybean producers only in Japan and the USA. Soybean was a major crop in the Orient by 1915 but it was grown very little elsewhere. Since that time its cultivation has spread, and in 1974 there were 37.6 million ha with a production of 51.7 billion kg. As soybean cultivation has spread, the soybean-cyst nematode has been more widely found. Soybean is one of the major food sources for feeding the increasing world population. Soybean-cyst nematodes have been spreading rapidly in recent years and are a major threat to this very important crop. PMID:19305568

  3. Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom

    PubMed Central

    Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

  4. Patterns of Toxoplasma gondii cyst distribution in the forebrain associate with individual variation in predator odor avoidance and anxiety-related behavior in male Long-Evans rats

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Andrew K.; Strassmann, Patrick S.; Lee, I-Ping; Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the world’s most successful brain parasites. T. gondii engages in parasite manipulation of host behavior and infection has been epidemiologically linked to numerous psychiatric disorders. Mechanisms by which T. gondii alters host behavior are not well understood, but neuroanatomical cyst presence and the localized host immune response to cysts are potential candidates. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that T. gondii manipulation of specific host behaviors is dependent on neuroanatomical location of cysts in a time-dependent function post-infection. We examined neuroanatomical cyst distribution (53 forebrain regions) in infected rats after predator odor aversion behavior and anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and open field arena, across a 6-week time course. In addition, we examined evidence for microglial response to the parasite across the time course. Our findings demonstrate that while cysts are randomly distributed throughout the forebrain, individual variation in cyst localization, beginning 3 weeks post-infection, can explain individual variation in the effects of T. gondii on behavior. Additionally, not all infected rats develop cysts in the forebrain, and attenuation of predator odor aversion and changes in anxiety-related behavior are linked with cyst presence in specific forebrain areas. Finally, the immune response to cysts is striking. These data provide the foundation for testing hypotheses about proximate mechanisms by which T. gondii alters behavior in specific brain regions, including consequences of establishment of a homeostasis between T. gondii and the host immune response. PMID:24269877

  5. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: Long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2014-05-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with>300 cysts cm-3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts→blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms→cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance (e

  6. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004–2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with>300 cysts cm−3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3–4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0–1 and the 0–3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts→blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms→cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0–3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell

  7. The distribution and life cycle of the dinoflagellate Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca (Dinophyceae, Noctilucales) in the northeastern English Channel.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; Souissi, Sami

    2007-03-01

    The distribution of Spatulodinium (= Gymnodinium) pseudonoctiluca (Pouchet) J. Cachon & M. Cachon has been investigated for eight years (1998-2005) in the northeastern English Channel, type locality of the species and its immature stages. The species can be found after the spring diatom bloom from late May to October. The highest abundance was found in June 2004 after the Phaeocystis bloom. Exceptionally, the Phaeocystis bloom was absent in 2005 and only several specimens of S. pseudonoctiluca were observed. The immature and mature stages of Spatulodinium nearly always co-occurred. No other kofoidiniaceans such as Kofoidinium or Pomatodinium were observed. The first stages of the development of Spatulodinium can easily confuse with gymnodiniaceans. The transformation of the stage 'D', which has been described as Gymnodinium lebouriae (= G. fulgens) or Gymnodinium conicum (= G. viridis), into the mature stage, is illustrated. The stage 'D' originates from a cluster of pairs of smaller cells joined by an elongate episome. In the boreal Atlantic Ocean, Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca, a single species whose life stages are often reported as separate species, is especially adapted to a strongly fluctuant environment.

  8. Renal Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. They are usually characterized as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water- ... of the time, they are simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water- ...

  9. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Functional ovarian cysts are not the same as ovarian tumors, or cysts due to hormone-related conditions such ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson ...

  10. Spontaneous perforation of choledochal cyst: a case with unusual distribution of fluid in the retroperitoneal space.

    PubMed

    Tani, Chihiro; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Masaki, Hidekazu; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Honna, Toshiroh

    2009-06-01

    Images of perforated choledochal cysts typically show an intraperitoneal fluid collection. We report a case with, in addition to free intraperitoneal fluid, fluid collection in the right-side anterior pararenal and perirenal spaces. Surgery confirmed the presence of a perforation at the junction of the cystic duct and the common bile duct. This perforation may explain the biliary leakage extending into the free peritoneal space as well as into the anterior pararenal space and the hepatoduodenal ligament. Anterior pararenal and perirenal spaces communicate with the infrarenal space, and this may result in extension of the fluid into the perirenal space from the anterior pararenal space.

  11. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... or if the cyst does not go away. Birth control pills can help prevent new cysts. A health problem that may involve ovarian cysts is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS can have high levels of male hormones, irregular or no periods and small ovarian ...

  12. Baker cyst

    MedlinePlus

    Popliteal cyst; Bulge-knee ... A Baker cyst is caused by swelling in the knee. The swelling is due to an increase in the fluid that ... squeezes into the back of the knee. Baker cyst commonly occurs with: A tear in the meniscal ...

  13. Myxoid Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... question & answer discussion forum widgets for professionals dermatology education rash and rashes clinical tools ... These cysts form in the middle aged and the elderly. Overview A myxoid cyst, also known as a digital mucous cyst or pseudocyst, is a growth usually ...

  14. Osmoregulation in anthozoan-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Anderson B; Gates, Ruth D

    2007-05-01

    Endosymbiosis creates a unique osmotic circumstance. Hosts are not only responsible for balancing their internal osmolarity with respect to the external environment, but they must also maintain a compatible osmotic environment for their endosymbionts, which may themselves contribute to the net osmolarity of the host cell through molecular fluxes and/or exchange. Cnidarian hosts that harbor intracellular dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) are excellent examples of such a symbiosis. These associations are characterized by the exchange of osmotically active compounds, but they are temporally stable under normal environmental conditions indicating that these osmotically driven exchanges are effectively and rapidly regulated. Although we have some knowledge about how asymbiotic anthozoans and algae osmoregulate, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in regulating an intact anthozoan-dinoflagellate symbiosis is poor. Large-scale expulsion of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae, or bleaching, is currently considered to be one of the greatest threats to coral reefs worldwide. To date, there has been little consideration of the osmotic scenarios that occur when these symbioses are exposed to the conditions that normally elicit bleaching, such as increased seawater temperatures and UV radiation. Here we review what is known about osmoregulation and osmotic stress in anthozoans and dinoflagellates and discuss the osmotic implications of exposure to environmental stress in these globally distributed and ecologically important symbioses.

  15. Molecular Detection of Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates in Surface Waters of the Patagonian Shelf during Early Austral Summer 2008

    PubMed Central

    Valiadi, Martha; Painter, Stuart C.; Allen, John T.; Balch, William M.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. Debora

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in the Patagonian Shelf region using “universal” PCR primers for the dinoflagellate luciferase gene. Luciferase gene sequences and single cell PCR tests, in conjunction with taxonomic identification by microscopy, allowed us to identify and quantify bioluminescent dinoflagellates. We compared these data to coincidental discrete optical measurements of stimulable bioluminescence intensity. Molecular detection of the luciferase gene showed that bioluminescent dinoflagellates were widespread across the majority of the Patagonian Shelf region. Their presence was comparatively underestimated by optical bioluminescence measurements, whose magnitude was affected by interspecific differences in bioluminescence intensity and by the presence of other bioluminescent organisms. Molecular and microscopy data showed that the complex hydrography of the area played an important role in determining the distribution and composition of dinoflagellate populations. Dinoflagellates were absent south of the Falkland Islands where the cold, nutrient-rich, and well-mixed waters of the Falklands Current favoured diatoms instead. Diverse populations of dinoflagellates were present in the warmer, more stratified waters of the Patagonian Shelf and Falklands Current as it warmed northwards. Here, the dinoflagellate population composition could be related to distinct water masses. Our results provide new insight into the prevalence of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in Patagonian Shelf waters and demonstrate that a molecular approach to the detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in natural waters is a promising tool for ecological studies of these organisms. PMID:24918444

  16. Using Gordiid cysts to discover the hidden diversity, potential distribution,
    and new species of Gordiids (Phylum Nematomorpha).

    PubMed

    Harkins, Cleo; Shannon, Ryan; Papeş, Monica; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Hanelt, Ben; Bolek, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sampled aquatic snails for the presence of hairworm cysts from 46 streams in Payne County, Oklahoma. Gordiid cysts were found at 70 % (32/46) of sites examined. Based on cyst morphology, we were able to identify three morphological types of gordiid cysts, including Paragordius, Gordius, and Chordodes/Neochordodes. Using our gordiid cyst presence data in conjunction with environmental variables, we developed an ecological niche model using Maxent to identify areas suitable for snail infections with gordiids. The model successfully predicted all presence localities of gordiid cysts in snails over a geographic area of 1,810 km2. We used this information, along with arthropod host infections and crowdsourcing, citizen scientists sampling for adult free-living worms during peak emergent times in areas predicted suitable by the model, to document Paragordius varius, Chordodes morgani, and a new species of gordiid (Gordius n. sp.). To our knowledge, this is the first ecological niche model attempted on such a narrow geographic scale (county level) that recovered known locations successfully. We provide new scanning electron micrographs and molecular data for these species. Our field data and ecological niche model clearly indicate that gordiid cysts are easy to detect in the environment and together these sampling techniques can be useful in discovering new species of gordiids, even in relatively well sampled areas for these cryptic parasites. PMID:27394355

  17. Using Gordiid cysts to discover the hidden diversity, potential distribution,
    and new species of Gordiids (Phylum Nematomorpha).

    PubMed

    Harkins, Cleo; Shannon, Ryan; Papeş, Monica; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Hanelt, Ben; Bolek, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sampled aquatic snails for the presence of hairworm cysts from 46 streams in Payne County, Oklahoma. Gordiid cysts were found at 70 % (32/46) of sites examined. Based on cyst morphology, we were able to identify three morphological types of gordiid cysts, including Paragordius, Gordius, and Chordodes/Neochordodes. Using our gordiid cyst presence data in conjunction with environmental variables, we developed an ecological niche model using Maxent to identify areas suitable for snail infections with gordiids. The model successfully predicted all presence localities of gordiid cysts in snails over a geographic area of 1,810 km2. We used this information, along with arthropod host infections and crowdsourcing, citizen scientists sampling for adult free-living worms during peak emergent times in areas predicted suitable by the model, to document Paragordius varius, Chordodes morgani, and a new species of gordiid (Gordius n. sp.). To our knowledge, this is the first ecological niche model attempted on such a narrow geographic scale (county level) that recovered known locations successfully. We provide new scanning electron micrographs and molecular data for these species. Our field data and ecological niche model clearly indicate that gordiid cysts are easy to detect in the environment and together these sampling techniques can be useful in discovering new species of gordiids, even in relatively well sampled areas for these cryptic parasites.

  18. Immunological and physiological responses of the periwinkle Littorina littorea during and after exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.

    PubMed

    Neves, Raquel A F; Figueiredo, Gisela M; Valentin, Jean Louis; da Silva Scardua, Patricia Mirella; Hégaret, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    Species of the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium produce phycotoxins responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning. Blooms of Alexandrium minutum reach very high concentrations of vegetative cells in the water column; and when these blooms occur, large numbers of toxic cysts can be produced and deposited on sediments becoming available to benthic species. The present study investigated the potential effect of exposure to toxic cysts of A. minutum on the periwinkle Littorinalittorea. Snails were exposed for nine days to pellicle cysts of toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates, A. minutum and Heterocapsa triquetra, respectively, followed by six days of depuration while they were fed only H. triquetra. Toxin accumulation, condition index, immune and histopathological responses were analyzed. Histological alterations were also monitored in snails exposed to a harmful A. minutum bloom, which naturally occurred in the Bay of Brest. Snails exposed to toxic cysts showed abnormal behavior that seems to be toxin-induced and possibly related to muscle paralysis. Periwinkles accumulated toxins by preying on toxic cysts and accumulation appeared dependent on the time of exposure, increasing during intoxication period but tending to stabilize during depuration period. Toxic exposure also seemed to negatively affect hemocyte viability and functions, as ROS production and phagocytosis. Histological analyses revealed that toxic exposure induced damages on digestive organs of snails, both in laboratory and natural systems. This study demonstrates that an exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum leads to sublethal effects on L. littorea, which may alter individual fitness and increase the susceptibility of snails to pathogens and diseases. PMID:25621399

  19. Immunological and physiological responses of the periwinkle Littorina littorea during and after exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.

    PubMed

    Neves, Raquel A F; Figueiredo, Gisela M; Valentin, Jean Louis; da Silva Scardua, Patricia Mirella; Hégaret, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    Species of the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium produce phycotoxins responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning. Blooms of Alexandrium minutum reach very high concentrations of vegetative cells in the water column; and when these blooms occur, large numbers of toxic cysts can be produced and deposited on sediments becoming available to benthic species. The present study investigated the potential effect of exposure to toxic cysts of A. minutum on the periwinkle Littorinalittorea. Snails were exposed for nine days to pellicle cysts of toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates, A. minutum and Heterocapsa triquetra, respectively, followed by six days of depuration while they were fed only H. triquetra. Toxin accumulation, condition index, immune and histopathological responses were analyzed. Histological alterations were also monitored in snails exposed to a harmful A. minutum bloom, which naturally occurred in the Bay of Brest. Snails exposed to toxic cysts showed abnormal behavior that seems to be toxin-induced and possibly related to muscle paralysis. Periwinkles accumulated toxins by preying on toxic cysts and accumulation appeared dependent on the time of exposure, increasing during intoxication period but tending to stabilize during depuration period. Toxic exposure also seemed to negatively affect hemocyte viability and functions, as ROS production and phagocytosis. Histological analyses revealed that toxic exposure induced damages on digestive organs of snails, both in laboratory and natural systems. This study demonstrates that an exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum leads to sublethal effects on L. littorea, which may alter individual fitness and increase the susceptibility of snails to pathogens and diseases.

  20. Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

  1. Tarlov Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... the herpes simplex virus, which thrives in an alkaline environment, can cause Tarlov cysts to become symptomatic. Making the body less alkaline, through diet or supplements, may lessen symptoms. Microsurgical ...

  2. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Endometriosis fact sheet Ovarian cancer fact sheet Polycystic ovary syndrome fact sheet The javascript used in this widget ... ovaries make many small cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries ...

  3. Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the Large Aral Sea: Abundance, distribution, population structure and cyst production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arashkevich, Elena G.; Sapozhnikov, P. V.; Soloviov, K. A.; Kudyshkin, T. V.; Zavialov, P. O.

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica appeared in the Large Aral Sea (Central Asia) in 1998 when mineralization reached 63 ppt. Data on Artemia abundance and biomass, along with temperature and salinity measurements were collected in the western basin during 2002-2006, primarily in the autumn. During the study period, population density grew progressively, both in terms of number, from 250 to 1260 individuals per m 3, and in terms of biomass, from 0.3 to 1.3 g per m 3. In 2005, the population density and spatial distribution in the different parts of the sea (western and eastern basins and strait) was assessed. The horizontal distribution of the Artemia population was uniform in the deep central part of the western basin, although the distribution was quite patchy in the shallow coastal zone. Depth habitat of Artemia was restricted to the upper 20-25 m of depth, as the oxygen depletion and formation of anoxic layer prevented distribution of Artemia to the deeper waters. In autumn, all females reproduced oviparously, with an average clutch size of 30-35 eggs per female. The number of eggs in a clutch was positively correlated with female body length ( r2 = 0.36-0.44).

  4. [Giant retroperitoneal hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Massoud, W; Saheb, N; Iliescu, B; Kreitmann, L; Chabenne, J; Campeggi, A; Molinie, V; Baumert, H

    2009-06-01

    Hydatidosis is an endemic, widely distributed anthropozoonosis, which involves the liver, lung and other organs [Int J Urol 13 (2006) 76-9]. We reported the case of a large retroperitoneal hydatid cyst, which is a rare situation [Hepatogastroenterology 48 (2001) 1037-9; Int Urol Nephrol 32 (2000) 41-6; J Urol (Paris) 94 (1988) 445-8]. Diagnosis was suspected with blood tests and radiological examinations. A wide incision in the right iliac fossa (such in renal graft) was performed. The cyst wall was excised partially. Before, during and following the operation, the patient was given albendazole tablets (15mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks (1 week before and 2 weeks after the surgery) with blood count and liver enzyme monitorization. Especially in the endemic areas, hydatid cyst should be remembered when evaluating cystic masses in the retroperitoneum. It can be treated successfully with surgery.

  5. [Choledochal cyst].

    PubMed

    Zeithaml, J; Třeška, V; Moláček, J; Heidenreich, F

    2015-09-01

    Choledochal cyst is a rare disease with a considerably higher incidence found in the Asian population. Although its etiology is not completely known, the disease is believed to be associated with anomalies in the anatomy of the biliary tract. While being a benign unit, it is considered as a precancerosis with the risk of conversion to the biliary tract carcinoma. Radical surgical removal with biliary tract reconstruction is the only curative solution. The authors present the case report of a patient with choledochal cyst type I according to Todani

  6. Cob gene pyrosequencing enables characterization of benthic dinoflagellate diversity and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Gurjeet S; Neilan, Brett A; Brown, Mark V; Hoppenrath, Mona; Murray, Shauna A

    2014-02-01

    Dinoflagellates in marine benthic habitats living epiphytically on macroalgae are an important but highly understudied group of protists. Many produce toxins that can have severe economic impacts on marine-based economies, and improved monitoring tools are required to enhance the management of toxin-related hazards. We analysed the distribution and diversity of epibenthic dinoflagellates inhabiting eight sites in Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Broome and Exmouth, Western Australia. We used pyrosequencing approaches based on two DNA barcoding marker genes - 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome b (cob) - and compared these to an approach based on clone libraries (197 sequences) using the cob gene. Dinoflagellate sequences accounted for 133 [64 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU)] out of 10 529 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from all samples. However, using the dinoflagellate specific assay targeting the cob gene marker, we obtained 9748 (1217 unique OTU) dinoflagellate sequences from the same environmental samples, providing the largest, to date, set of dinoflagellate cob gene sequences and reliable estimates of total dinoflagellate richness within the samples and biogeographic comparisons between samples. This study also reports the presence of potentially toxic species of the genera Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, Coolia, Prorocentrum and Amphidinium from the above-mentioned geographical regions.

  7. Putting the N in dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve; Morse, David

    2013-01-01

    The cosmopolitan presence of dinoflagellates in aquatic habitats is now believed to be a direct consequence of the different trophic modes they have developed through evolution. While heterotrophs ingest food and photoautotrophs photosynthesize, mixotrophic species are able to use both strategies to harvest energy and nutrients. These different trophic modes are of particular importance when nitrogen nutrition is considered. Nitrogen is required for the synthesis of amino acids, nucleic acids, chlorophylls, and toxins, and thus changes in the concentrations of various nitrogenous compounds can strongly affect both primary and secondary metabolism. For example, high nitrogen concentration is correlated with rampant cell division resulting in the formation of the algal blooms commonly called red tides. Conversely, nitrogen starvation results in cell cycle arrest and induces a series of physiological, behavioral and transcriptomic modifications to ensure survival. This review will combine physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic data to assess the mechanism and impact of nitrogen metabolism in dinoflagellates and to compare the dinoflagellate responses with those of diatoms. PMID:24363653

  8. Odonto calcifying cyst

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Nalini; Mastan, Kader; Manikandan, Tirupathi; Samuel, Gigi

    2013-01-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO) may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%). The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5%) was a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a single large cyst with tooth-like structures as an integral part, giving the impression of a single lesion. In addition to the unique histologic features, differences in gender and distribution were found between the cases of COCaO and those of simple COC. COCaO may be regarded as a separate entity and classified as a benign, mixed odontogenic tumor. The term odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst is suggested. PMID:23853467

  9. Life cycle and molecular phylogeny of the dinoflagellates Chytriodinium and Dissodinium, ectoparasites of copepod eggs.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación

    2009-11-01

    The dinoflagellates Chytriodinium affine, C. roseum and Dissodinium pseudolunula are ectoparasites of crustacean eggs. Here, we present new observations regarding their life cycle based on coastal plankton samples and incubations and analyze their molecular phylogeny using the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) as a marker. In contrast to the typical stages already documented for its life cycle, we observed that D. pseudolunula dinospores may exceptionally differentiate inside a globular cyst. Despite its parasitic life style, the cysts and dinospores of D. pseudolunula contain chlorophyll a. We obtained the first SSU rDNA sequences for the genera Chytriodinium (the type C. roseum and C. affine) and Dissodinium (D. pseudolunula). Classical taxonomical schemes have ascribed these genera to the order Blastodiniales. However, our SSU rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis shows that these ectoparasites form a clade in the Gymnodinium sensu stricto group, unarmored dinokaryotic dinoflagellates of the order Gymnodiniales. They branch in a subgroup composed of warnowiids, polykrikoids, the type of Gymnodinium, G. fuscum and G. aureolum. Although Chytriodinium and Dissodinium appear to be relatives based on SSU rDNA phylogeny, feeding and host specificity, their life cycles are substantially different. Based on these data we consider that the type of life cycle is a poor criterion for classification at the family level. We suggest that the morphology of the infective cell is probably the most reliable phenotypic characteristic to determine the systematic position of parasitic dinoflagellates.

  10. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Van de Waal, Dedmer B; John, Uwe; Ziveri, Patrizia; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Hoins, Mirja; Sluijs, Appy; Rost, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii.

  11. The Hidden Sexuality of Alexandrium Minutum: An Example of Overlooked Sex in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Rosa I.; Dapena, Carlos; Bravo, Isabel; Cuadrado, Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are haploid eukaryotic microalgae in which rapid proliferation causes dense blooms, with harmful health and economic effects to humans. The proliferation mode is mainly asexual, as the sexual cycle is believed to be rare and restricted to stressful environmental conditions. However, sexuality is key to explaining the recurrence of many dinoflagellate blooms because in many species the fate of the planktonic zygotes (planozygotes) is the formation of resistant cysts in the seabed (encystment). Nevertheless, recent research has shown that individually isolated planozygotes in the lab can enter other routes besides encystment, a behavior of which the relevance has not been explored at the population level. In this study, using imaging flow cytometry, cell sorting, and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH), we followed DNA content and nuclear changes in a population of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum that was induced to encystment. Our results first show that planozygotes behave like a population with an “encystment-independent” division cycle, which is light-controlled and follows the same Light:Dark (L:D) pattern as the cycle governing the haploid mitosis. Resting cyst formation was the fate of just a small fraction of the planozygotes formed and was restricted to a period of strongly limited nutrient conditions. The diploid-haploid turnover between L:D cycles was consistent with two-step meiosis. However, the diel and morphological division pattern of the planozygote division also suggests mitosis, which would imply that this species is not haplontic, as previously considered, but biphasic, because individuals could undergo mitotic divisions in both the sexual (diploid) and the asexual (haploid) phases. We also report incomplete genome duplication processes. Our work calls for a reconsideration of the dogma of rare sex in dinoflagellates. PMID:26599692

  12. The Hidden Sexuality of Alexandrium Minutum: An Example of Overlooked Sex in Dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rosa I; Dapena, Carlos; Bravo, Isabel; Cuadrado, Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are haploid eukaryotic microalgae in which rapid proliferation causes dense blooms, with harmful health and economic effects to humans. The proliferation mode is mainly asexual, as the sexual cycle is believed to be rare and restricted to stressful environmental conditions. However, sexuality is key to explaining the recurrence of many dinoflagellate blooms because in many species the fate of the planktonic zygotes (planozygotes) is the formation of resistant cysts in the seabed (encystment). Nevertheless, recent research has shown that individually isolated planozygotes in the lab can enter other routes besides encystment, a behavior of which the relevance has not been explored at the population level. In this study, using imaging flow cytometry, cell sorting, and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH), we followed DNA content and nuclear changes in a population of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum that was induced to encystment. Our results first show that planozygotes behave like a population with an "encystment-independent" division cycle, which is light-controlled and follows the same Light:Dark (L:D) pattern as the cycle governing the haploid mitosis. Resting cyst formation was the fate of just a small fraction of the planozygotes formed and was restricted to a period of strongly limited nutrient conditions. The diploid-haploid turnover between L:D cycles was consistent with two-step meiosis. However, the diel and morphological division pattern of the planozygote division also suggests mitosis, which would imply that this species is not haplontic, as previously considered, but biphasic, because individuals could undergo mitotic divisions in both the sexual (diploid) and the asexual (haploid) phases. We also report incomplete genome duplication processes. Our work calls for a reconsideration of the dogma of rare sex in dinoflagellates. PMID:26599692

  13. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  14. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Marinov, Georgi K.; Lynch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed. PMID:26646152

  15. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins.

    PubMed

    Marinov, Georgi K; Lynch, Michael

    2015-12-08

    Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed.

  16. A metagenetic approach to determine the diversity and distribution of cyst nematodes at the level of the country, the field and the individual.

    PubMed

    Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J; Reid, Alex; Pickup, Jon; Anderson, Eric; Cock, Peter J A; Blaxter, Mark; Urwin, Peter E; Jones, John T; Blok, Vivian C

    2015-12-01

    Distinct populations of the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera pallida exist in the UK that differ in their ability to overcome various sources of resistance. An efficient method for distinguishing between populations would enable pathogen-informed cultivar choice in the field. Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA) annually undertake national DNA diagnostic tests to determine the presence of PCN in potato seed and ware land by extracting DNA from soil floats. These DNA samples provide a unique resource for monitoring the distribution of PCN and further interrogation of the diversity within species. We identify a region of mitochondrial DNA descriptive of three main groups of G. pallida present in the UK and adopt a metagenetic approach to the sequencing and analysis of all SASA samples simultaneously. Using this approach, we describe the distribution of G. pallida mitotypes across Scotland with field-scale resolution. Most fields contain a single mitotype, one-fifth contain a mix of mitotypes, and less than 3% contain all three mitotypes. Within mixed fields, we were able to quantify the relative abundance of each mitotype across an order of magnitude. Local areas within mixed fields are dominated by certain mitotypes and indicate towards a complex underlying 'pathoscape'. Finally, we assess mitotype distribution at the level of the individual cyst and provide evidence of 'hybrids'. This study provides a method for accurate, quantitative and high-throughput typing of up to one thousand fields simultaneously, while revealing novel insights into the national genetic variability of an economically important plant parasite. PMID:26607216

  17. Middle Eocene paleocirculation of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, the anteroom to an ice-house world: evidence from dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raquel Guerstein, G.; Daners, Gloria; Palma, Elbio; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Premaor, Eduardo; Amenábar, Cecilia R.; Belgaburo, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Middle Eocene dinoflagellate cyst organic walled assemblages from sections located in the Antarctic Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz province and south of Chile are mainly represented by endemic taxa, which are also dominant in several circum - Antarctic sites located southern 45° S. Some members of this endemic Antarctic assemblage, including especies of Enneadocysta, Deflandrea, Vozzhennikovia, and Spinidinium, have been recognised in sites along the Southwest Atlantic Ocean Shelf at Colorado (˜38° S), Punta del Este (˜36° S) and Pelotas (˜30° S) basins. Northern 30° S, at Jequitinhonha (˜17oS) and Sergipe (˜11° S) basins, there is no evidence of the endemic Antarctic members, except for Enneadocysta dictyostila, recorded in very low proportion. Based on its positive correlation with CaCO3 percentages we assume that this species is the unique member of the endemic assemblage apparently tolerant to warm surface waters. Previous research developed in the Tasman area has related the presence of endemic taxa at mid- latitudes to a strong clockwise subpolar gyre favoured by the partial continental blockage of the Tasmanian Gateways and the Drake Passage. In this work we propose that the dinoflagellate cyst distribution along the South Atlantic Ocean Shelf can be explained by a similar dynamical mechanism induced by a cyclonic subpolar gyre on the South Atlantic Ocean. The western boundary current of this gyre, starting on the west Antarctic continental slope, would follow a similar path to the present Malvinas Current on the Patagonian slope. Modelling and observational studies at the Patagonian shelf-break have shown that a cyclonic western boundary current promotes upwelling and intrusion of cold oceanic waters to the shelf and intensifies the northward shelf transport. In a similar way we hypothesize that during the Middle Eocene the western boundary current of a proto-Weddell Gyre transported the circum-antarctic waters and the endemic components

  18. 13C fractionation of dinoflagellates - a new proxy for past CO2 levels?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoins, M.; Van de Waal, D. B.; Eberlein, T.; Reichart, G.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2012-12-01

    Reliable reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 levels prior to ~1 million years ago are required to quantify climate sensitivity as well as ocean acidification in response to past carbon cycle perturbations. Despite recent progress, however, uncertainties in reconstructed values especially from the Paleogene and older, are still very large. We aim to develop a new proxy for CO2 concentrations based on the carbon isotopic fractionation of autotrophic marine dinoflagellates. Dinoflagellates feature RubisCO (type II) with the lowest CO2 affinity of all eukaryote phytoplankton, which makes this group inherently sensitive to changes in carbonate chemistry. Along with growth and carbon production also the 13C versus 12C incorporation, i.e., the 13C fractionation (ɛp), will likely be affected. Hence, the carbon isotopic composition of dinoflagellates may ultimately reflect the prevailing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Crucially, microfossils of dinoflagellates, i.e. organic dinoflagellate cysts, have been recovered from ocean sediments as old as the Triassic (i.e. ~215 Ma BP). We performed dilute batch experiments with four dinoflagellate species: Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum. Cells were grown at various CO2 concentrations representing the Last Glacial Maximum (180 ppm), present day (380 ppm), and future projections (and estimates for distant past levels; 950 ppm and 1400 ppm). Consistent with expectations, ɛp increased with CO2 concentration in all four species (with a slope of up to 0.19 ‰ μM-1), while growth and carbon production (μc) had little effect. ɛp in relation to CO2 varied between species and strains, but the relation of ɛp to μc/CO2 was more consistent. First results of underlying processes affecting ɛp, including carbon acquisition and leakage, will be discussed. Considering that the cysts of P. reticulatum (Operculodinium centrocarpum) and G. spinifera (Spiniferites sp.) are

  19. Retroperitoneal and mesenteric cysts.

    PubMed

    Alwan, M H; Eid, A S; Alsharif, I M

    1999-03-01

    Retroperitoneal and mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumours. This report is a presentation of three cases. One patient had large retroperitoneal cyst which was accidentally discovered, another patient had mesenteric cyst presenting with abdominal pain, and the third patient had emergency admission due to infection of a large mesenteric cyst. The literature on this condition is reviewed.

  20. First report of fossilized cysts produced by the benthic Bysmatrum subsalsum (Dinophyceae) from a shallow Mexican lagoon in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Limoges, Audrey; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Ruíz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Cysts belonging to the benthic dinoflagellate Bysmatrum subsalsum were recovered from palynologically treated sediments collected in the Alvarado Lagoon (southwestern Gulf of Mexico). The cysts are proximate, reflecting the features of the parent thecal stage, and their autofluorescence implies a dinosporin composition similar to the cyst walls of phototrophic species. This finding is important for our understanding of B. subsalsum life cycle transitions and ecology. Encystment may play an important role in the bloom dynamics of this species as it can enable the formation of a sediment cyst bank that allows reinoculation of the water column when conditions become favorable. This is the first report of a fossilized cyst produced by a benthic dinoflagellate recovered from sub-recent sediments.

  1. [Retroperitoneal chylous cyst].

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, C; Johansen, T E

    1993-11-10

    In pathology, cysts of the retroperitoneum are usually classified together with omental and mesenteric cysts. Because of risk of complications and malignancy these cysts should be extirpated. The frequency of complications and recurrence after surgery is significantly higher for retroperitoneal cysts than for the other types mentioned above. We describe a patient with a retroperitoneal chylous cyst of three litres. Correct diagnosis was made by CT-scan and chemical analysis of cyst fluid prior to surgery. The cyst was removed completely using an intercostal, retroperitoneal approach. The postoperative course was uneventful, and no evidence of recurrence was found after six months.

  2. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Çullu, N; Karakaş, Ö; Kiliçaslan, N; Konukoğlu, O; Karakaş, E

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is formed from parasitic infestation by Echinococcus granulosus, and may involve several bodily organs, primarily the liver and lungs. In endemic regions, hydatid cyst should be borne in mind in cases of retroperitoneal cystic masses. Diagnosis of hydatid cyst is made from radiological findings and serological test positivity. Hydatid cyst diagnosis can be made from typical radiological imaging findings. This paper presents the imaging findings of a 56-year old male with retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

  3. Dinoflagellates: a mitochondrial genome all at sea.

    PubMed

    Nash, Edmund A; Nisbet, R Ellen R; Barbrook, Adrian C; Howe, Christopher J

    2008-07-01

    Dinoflagellate algae are notorious for their highly unusual organization of nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Early studies on the dinoflagellate mitochondrial genome indicated that it encodes the same three protein-coding genes found in Plasmodium spp., but with a complex organization and transcript editing. Recent work has extended this view, showing that the dinoflagellate mitochondrial genome contains a wide array of gene fragments and genes interspersed with noncoding inverted repeats. The genome seems to require noncanonical start and stop codons, as well as high levels of editing, trans-splicing and the addition of oligonucleotide caps at the 5' and 3' ends of transcripts. Despite its small coding content, the dinoflagellate mitochondrial genome is one of the most complex known.

  4. Polyketides from dinoflagellates: origins, pharmacology and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rein, K S; Borrone, J

    1999-10-01

    Dinoflagellates, unicellular marine protists, produce some of the largest and most complex polyketides identified to date. The biological activities of these compounds are quite diverse. Compounds having potential therapeutic value as anti-cancer agents as well as deadly neurotoxins, whose production has resulted in severe public health hazards and economic hardships, are represented in this group of secondary metabolites. Stable isotope feeding experiments have firmly established the polyketide origins of representative compounds from each of the three structural classes, the polyether ladders, the macrocycles and the linear polyethers. Yet some unusual labeling patterns have been observed in each class. Pendant methyl groups are most often derived from C-2 of acetate and deletions of C-1 of acetate are common. Studies on the biosynthesis of dinoflagellate derived polyketides at the genomic level have not been reported, in part due to the peculiarities of the dinoflagellate nucleus and the lack of a dinoflagellate transformation system. Nevertheless, a fundamental understanding of the genetics of polyketide biosynthesis by dinoflagellates could be the catalyst for developing several fruitful avenues of research. Dinoflagellate derived polyketides are reviewed with special emphasis on pharmacology and biosynthesis.

  5. Do All Dinoflagellates have an Extranuclear Spindle?

    PubMed

    Moon, Eunyoung; Nam, Seung Won; Shin, Woongghi; Park, Myung Gil; Coats, D Wayne

    2015-11-01

    The syndinean dinoflagellates are a diverse assemblage of alveolate endoparasites that branch basal to the core dinoflagellates. Because of their phylogenetic position, the syndineans are considered key model microorganisms in understanding early evolution in the dinoflagellates. Closed mitosis with an extranuclear spindle that traverses the nucleus in cytoplasmic grooves or tunnels is viewed as one of the morphological features shared by syndinean and core dinoflagellates. Here we describe nuclear morphology and mitosis in the syndinean dinoflagellate Amoebophrya sp. from Akashiwo sanguinea, a member of the A. ceratii complex, as revealed by protargol silver impregnation, DNA specific fluorochromes, and transmission electron microscopy. Our observations show that not all species classified as dinoflagellates have an extranuclear spindle. In Amoebophrya sp. from A. sanguinea, an extranuclear microtubule cylinder located in a depression in the nuclear surface during interphase moves into the nucleoplasm via sequential membrane fusion events and develops into an entirely intranuclear spindle. Results suggest that the intranuclear spindle of Amoebophrya spp. may have evolved from an ancestral extranuclear spindle and indicate the need for taxonomic revision of the Amoebophryidae. PMID:26491972

  6. Bloom of the Yessotoxin producing dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae) in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Díaz, Rosario; Braun, Mauricio; Mariño, Carmen; Blanco, Juan

    2011-05-01

    In summer 2007, a dinoflagellate preliminarily identified as Protoceratium reticulatum bloomed in Bahía Mejillones, northern Chile. Phytoplankton samples were analyzed in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy revealing the presence of resting cyst and motile cells of P. reticulatum. Oceanographic and phytoplankton data suggest that the bloom was initiated offshore by motile cells and germinated cysts during an upwelling pulse. These cells were advected into the bay when upwelling relaxed and grew without any relevant competitor. Phytoplankton net samples were found to contain yessotoxin as the only toxin in an estimated proportion of 0.2 and 0.4 pg cell - 1 , thus confirming that P. reticulatum is a source of yessotoxin in northern Chilean waters and consequently that it poses a risk for human health and mollusk exploitation in the area.

  7. A diaphragmatic retroperitoneal cyst.

    PubMed

    Robertson, F P; Tsironis, D; Davidson, B R

    2015-07-01

    Diaphragmatic lesions are usually congenital bronchogenic cysts. A patient with a known diaphragmatic cyst presented with new onset right upper quadrant pain. Repeat imaging showed enlargement of the cyst, the CA19-9 cancer marker was raised at 312 iu/ml (normal: <27 iu/ml) and positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography showed focally increased uptake in the cystic wall. In view of symptoms and risk of neoplasia, the lesion was excised. Histology showed a benign epidermoid cyst. Features falsely suggesting neoplasia have been reported previously with benign splenic cysts but not with a benign diaphragmatic epidermoid cyst.

  8. Description of Two Species of Early Branching Dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Noriko; Horák, Aleš; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    In alveolate evolution, dinoflagellates have developed many unique features, including the cell that has epicone and hypocone, the undulating transverse flagellum. However, it remains unclear how these features evolved. The early branching dinoflagellates so far investigated such as Hematodinium, Amoebophrya and Oxyrrhis marina differ in many ways from of core dinoflagellates, or dinokaryotes. Except those handful of well studied taxa, the vast majority of early branching dinoflagellates are known only by environmental sequences, and remain enigmatic. In this study we describe two new species of the early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp. from marine intertidal sandy beach. Molecular phylogeny of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and Hsp90 gene places Psammosa spp. as an early branch among the dinoflagellates. Morphologically (1) they lack the typical dinoflagellate epicone–hypocone structure, and (2) undulation in either flagella. Instead they display a mosaïc of dinokaryotes traits, i.e. (3) presence of bi-partite trychocysts; Oxyrrhis marina–like traits, i.e. (4) presence of flagellar hairs, (5) presence of two-dimensional cobweb scales ornamenting both flagella (6) transversal cell division; a trait shared with some syndineansand Parvilucifera spp. i.e. (7) a nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus and condensed chromatin distributed beneath the nuclear envelope; as well as Perkinsus marinus -like features i.e. (8) separate ventral grooves where flagella emerge and (9) lacking dinoflagellate-type undulating flagellum. Notably Psammosa retains an apical complex structure, which is shared between perkinsids, colpodellids, chromerids and apicomplexans, but is not found in dinokaryotic dinoflagellates. PMID:22719825

  9. "Dinoflagellate Sterols" in marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Giner, José-Luis; Wikfors, Gary H

    2011-10-01

    Sterol compositions for three diatom species, recently shown to contain sterols with side chains typically found in dinoflagellates, were determined by HPLC and ¹H NMR spectroscopic analyses. The centric diatom Triceratium dubium (=Biddulphia sp., CCMP 147) contained the highest percentage of 23-methylated sterols (37.2% (24R)-23-methylergosta-5,22-dienol), whereas the pennate diatom Delphineis sp. (CCMP 1095) contained the cyclopropyl sterol gorgosterol, as well as the 27-norsterol occelasterol. The sterol composition of Ditylum brightwellii (CCMP 358) was the most complex, containing Δ⁰- and Δ⁷-sterols, in addition to the predominant Δ⁵-sterols. A pair of previously unknown sterols, stigmasta-5,24,28-trienol and stigmasta-24,28-dienol, were detected in D. brightwellii and their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis and by synthesis of the former sterol from saringosterol. Also detected in D. brightwellii was the previously unknown 23-methylcholesta-7,22-dienol. PMID:21621802

  10. Pilonidal cyst resection

    MedlinePlus

    Pilonidal abscess; Pilonidal dimple; Pilonidal disease; Pilonidal cyst; Pilonidal sinus ... An infected pilonidal cyst or abscess requires surgical drainage. It will not heal with antibiotic medicines. If you continue to have infections, the ...

  11. Molecular phylogeny of noctilucoid dinoflagellates (Noctilucales, Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación

    2010-07-01

    The order Noctilucales or class Noctiluciphyceae encompasses three families of aberrant dinoflagellates (Noctilucaceae, Leptodiscaceae and Kofoidiniaceae) that, at least in some life stages, lack typical dinoflagellate characters such as the ribbon-like transversal flagellum or condensed chromosomes. Noctiluca scintillans, the first dinoflagellate to be described, has been intensively investigated. However, its phylogenetic position based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence is unstable and controversial. Noctiluca has been placed either as an early diverging lineage that diverged after Oxyrrhis and before the dinokaryotes -core dinoflagellates- or as a recent lineage branching from unarmoured dino fl agellates in the order Gymnodiniales. So far, the lack of other noctilucoid sequences has hampered the elucidation of their phylogenetic relationships to other dino fl agellates. Furthermore, even the monophyly of the noctilucoids remained uncertain. We have determined SSU rRNA gene sequences for Kofoidiniaceae, those of the type Spatulodinium (=Gymnodinium) pseudonoctiluca and another Spatulodinium species, as well as of two species of Kofoidinium, and the first gene sequence of Leptodiscaceae, that of Abedinium (=Leptophyllus) dasypus. These taxa were collected from their type localities, the English Channel and the NW Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses place the Noctilucales as a monophyletic group at a basal position close to parasites of the Marine Alveolate Group I (MAGI) and the Syndiniales (MAGII), before the core of dinokaryotic dinoflagellates, although with moderate support.

  12. Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review what we currently know about the cell biology of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In doing so, we aim to refocus attention on fundamental cellular aspects that have been somewhat neglected since the early to mid-1980s, when a more ecological approach began to dominate. We review the four major processes that we believe underlie the various phases of establishment and persistence in the cnidarian/coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: (i) recognition and phagocytosis, (ii) regulation of host-symbiont biomass, (iii) metabolic exchange and nutrient trafficking, and (iv) calcification. Where appropriate, we draw upon examples from a range of cnidarian-alga symbioses, including the symbiosis between green Hydra and its intracellular chlorophyte symbiont, which has considerable potential to inform our understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Ultimately, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the field, its current status, and where it should be going in the future. PMID:22688813

  13. Adaptations and selection of harmful and other dinoflagellate species in upwelling systems 1. Morphology and adaptive polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayda, T. J.

    2010-04-01

    The complex three-dimensional physical structure, spatial scale and the variations in the upwelling-relaxation cycles characterizing eastern boundary upwelling systems are summarized. It is suggested that upwelling systems and their bloom dynamics should be accorded the status of biomes. A unique upwelling dinoflagellate flora is not found. The harmful, red tide and other dinoflagellates selected to bloom are cosmopolitan in distribution and commonly bloom in coastal habitats. The morphological features of 27 dinoflagellate species that bloom in upwelling systems are compared to identify commonalities in form and function adaptations relevant to their upwelling occurrences. The upwelling dinoflagellate species are morphologically, physiologically, ecologically and toxicologically diverse; a unique set of morphological traits specifically evolved for growth in upwelling systems is not evident. The absence of a unique dinoflagellate upwelling flora is unexpected given the challenges to survival and growth in upwelling systems posed by the energetic physical conditions and spatial and temporal complexity of upwelling dynamics. Cellular defense mechanisms - “armouring” and small cell formation - against external and internal cellular damage resulting from turbulence-induced stress-strain, and the occurrence of morphological streamlining to facilitate swimming-based strategies adaptive to growth in upwelling systems are evaluated. The occurrence of autotomy, ecdysis, thecal resorption and regeneration, seasonal cyclomorphosis and polymorphism (form variation) among dinoflagellates is evaluated. The impressive commonality and rapidity of ecomorph formation suggest autoregulated polymorphism is potentially an important mode of adaptation available to upwelling dinoflagellates, and specifically directed towards adjustment of their flotation (swim:sink ratio) capacity. However, seasonal cyclomorphosis and regional and local displays of adaptive polymorphism are traits

  14. Retroperitoneal foregut cyst.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Y; Nakajo, M; Ichinari, N; Yamazumi, K; Otuji, T; Tanaka, T

    1997-01-01

    A foregut cyst is formed as a result of abnormal budding and pinching of the tracheobronchial tree when bronchial buds develop to form the primitive respiratory tree. Foregut cysts are clinically classified as bronchogenic, esophageal, enterogastric, or ciliated hepatic. We present a foregut cyst that occurred in the retroperitoneum and was difficult to distinguish from other retroperitoneal cystic mass lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging was useful in revealing the cyst's continuity to adjacent organs.

  15. Tail gut cyst.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  16. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  17. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  18. Hemorrhagic adrenal cyst.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M D

    1993-05-01

    Adrenal cysts are uncommon. They may be fatal if they hemorrhage and are not rapidly diagnosed. Most adrenal cysts are small and asymptomatic. When they are symptomatic, it is usually because the cyst has enlarged, causing flank discomfort, gastrointestinal complaints, and hemorrhage. Occasionally, a palpable mass may be found. It is thought that hemorrhage occurs secondary to trauma or some toxic or infectious process. The author describes a case in which a previously healthy man had a sudden hemorrhage within a benign adrenal cyst with infarction of the kidney. A discussion of adrenal cysts follows.

  19. Bioturbation, germination and deposition of Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, David H.; Kremp, Anke; Mayer, Lawrence M.

    2014-05-01

    Like many other dinoflagellate species, Alexandrium fundyense possesses a benthic resting cyst which enables long-term persistence and annual blooms of this species in the Gulf of Maine. The size and extent of these harmful algal blooms are associated with high cyst concentrations in the top 1 cm of sediment. Despite the importance of this resting stage in the life history of A. fundyense, little work has been done on bioturbation of cysts in the deep-water cyst beds of the western Gulf of Maine. Our work intensively examined one site within a major regional “seedbed” from February 2003 until August 2005, a time span that included an extraordinarily large bloom of A. fundyense in 2005. Over the course of 2 years we collected samples for benthic infauna and cyst profiles down to a depth of 30 cm. We also measured sediment porosity, organic carbon, 210Pb, and porewater dissolved oxygen. On several dates we measured depth profiles of cyst autofluorescence. Profiles of cysts revealed large subsurface maxima peaking between 10 and 15 cm depth with cyst concentrations declining strongly toward the sediment surface. On one sampling date (August 2004) we observed a cyst concentration peak at the sediment surface. Using these data we constructed a mechanistic model of cyst bioturbation, mortality, germination, and deposition. Modeled bioturbation was calibrated using 210Pb and modeled cyst profiles were compared to measured profiles. Model runs with constant and interannually-varying rates of cyst deposition produced similar time-averaged cyst profiles. Results indicate that the deeper portions of cyst profiles are determined primarily by bioturbation, germination and cyst mortality and less so by interannual variation in cyst depositional history. This is due to the relatively low sedimentation rate at the study site compared to the rate of bioturbation, and the fact that the number of cysts deposited each year tends to be a small fraction of the total inventory

  20. Follicular jaw cysts.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Zdenko; Perić, Berislav; Filipović-Zore, Irina; Cabov, Tomislav; Biocić, Josip

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence, localization, size, ways of diagnosing and treatment of a foIlicular jaw cyst. Assessment of the patients' motives and their earlier health status was recorded, as well as their postoperative clinical course. Most of the patients were admitted because of pain, swelling, trismus, or other difficulties associated with cyst formation. Follicular cysts with persisting primary predecessor had an asymptomatic development, and were discovered after orthodontic examination or by chance. In most cases pathohistological finding and description of the formation have coincided with each other (p < 0.05). Cysts of different sizes were treated by different surgical approaches, most commonly alveolotomy and cystectomy in small cysts, while alveolotomy and cystectomy with suction or iodine tampon in large cysts. Cooperation of a dentist, an oral surgeon, a pathologist, and other specialists can lead to early diagnose and prevention of further growth of a follicular jaw cyst, thus preventing substantial bone damage.

  1. Mesenteric and retroperitoneal cysts.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, R J; Heimann, T M; Holt, J; Beck, A R

    1986-01-01

    Mesenteric and retroperitoneal cysts are rare intra-abdominal tumors. Ten new patients are presented as well as 152 other cases reported in the English literature. These 162 cases were then analyzed for significant trends. Patients under 10 years of age were significantly different from the older group with respect to a shorter duration of symptoms, a higher number of patients requiring an emergency operation, a lower number of recurrences and the location of the cyst. Patients with retroperitoneal cysts were more likely to have incomplete excision of the cyst and therefore had a higher incidence of recurrence. They also required marsupialization more often. Retroperitoneal cysts should be considered a different entity from mesenteric cysts even though they present clinically in a similar fashion. The outcome of surgical treatment is less satisfactory in patients with retroperitoneal cysts.

  2. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND TEMPERATURE ON PLANOZYGOTE AND CYST FORMATION OF ALEXANDRIUM MINUTUM (DINOPHYCEAE) IN CULTURE(1).

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Vázquez, Jose Antonio; Massanet, Ana; Murado, Miguel Anxo; Bravo, Isabel

    2011-02-01

    The factors regulating dinoflagellate life-cycle transitions are poorly understood. However, their identification is essential to unravel the causes promoting the outbreaks of harmful algal blooms (HABs) because these blooms are often associated with the formation and germination of sexual cysts. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge on the factors regulating planozygote-cyst transitions in dinoflagellates due to the difficulties of differentiating planozygotes from vegetative stages. In the present study, two different approaches were used to clarify the relevance of environmental factors on planozygote and cyst formation of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim. First, the effects of changes in initial phosphate (P) and nitrate (N) concentrations in the medium on the percentage of planozygotes formed were examined using flow cytometry. Second, two factorial designs were used to determine how salinity (S), temperature (T), and the density of the initial cell inoculum (I) affect planozygote and resting-cyst formation. These experiments led to the following conclusions: 1. Low P/N ratios seem to induce gamete expression because the percentage of planozygotes recorded in the absence of added phosphate (-P) was significantly higher than that obtained in the absence of added nitrogen (-N), or when the concentrations of both nitrogen and phosphate were 20 times lower (N/20 + P/20). 2. Salinity (S) and temperature (T) strongly affected both planozygote and cyst formation, as sexuality in the population increased significantly as salinity decreased and temperatures increased. S, T combinations that resulted in no significant cyst formation were, however, favorable for vegetative growth, ruling out the possibility of negative effects on cell physiology. 3. The initial cell density is thought to be important for sexual cyst formation by determining the chances of gamete contact. However, the inoculum concentrations tested did not explain either

  3. Atypical pulmonary giant hydatid cyst as bilaterally symmetrical solitary cysts.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Saadia; Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain

    2004-09-01

    A pulmonary giant hydatid cyst, a special clinical entity, is rare. Our case involves a young patient who presented with a bilaterally symmetrical solitary cyst in each lung, a feature consistent with congenital lung cysts. The radiological and immunological findings were equivocal. A diagnosis of giant hydatid cyst was made intraoperatively and both cysts were removed conservatively. A follow-up showed complete recovery.

  4. High sequence variability, diverse subcellular localizations, and ecological implications of alkaline phosphatase in dinoflagellates and other eukaryotic phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xin; Zhang, Huan; Cui, Yudong; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a key enzyme for phytoplankton to utilize dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when dissolved inorganic phosphorus is limited. While three major types of AP and their correspondingly diverse subcellular localization have been recognized in bacteria, little is known about AP in eukaryotic phytoplankton such as dinoflagellates. Here, we isolated a full-length AP cDNA from a latest-diverging dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium, and conducted comparative analyses with homologs from a relatively basal (Amphidinium carterae) and late-diverging (Karenia brevis) lineage of dinoflagellates as well as other eukaryotic algae. New data and previous studies indicate that AP is common in dinoflagellates and most other major eukaryotic groups of phytoplankton. AP sequences are more variable than many other genes studied in dinoflagellates, and are divergent among different eukaryotic phytoplankton lineages. Sequence comparison to the other characterized APs suggests that dinoflagellates and some other eukaryotic phytoplankton possess the putative AP as phoA type, but some other eukaryotic phytoplankton seem to have other types. Phylogenetic analyses based on AP amino acid sequences indicated that the "red-type" eukaryotic lineages formed a monophyletic group, suggesting a common origin of their APs. As different amino acid sequences have been found to predictably determine different spatial distribution in the cells, which may facilitate access to different pools of DOP, existing computational models were adopted to predict the subcellular localizations of putative AP in the three dinoflagellates and other eukaryotic phytoplankton. Results showed different subcellular localizations of APs in different dinoflagellates and other lineages. The linkage between AP sequence divergence, subcellular localization, and ecological niche differentiation requires rigorous experimental verification, and this study now provides a framework for such a future effort.

  5. High Sequence Variability, Diverse Subcellular Localizations, and Ecological Implications of Alkaline Phosphatase in Dinoflagellates and Other Eukaryotic Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Zhang, Huan; Cui, Yudong; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a key enzyme for phytoplankton to utilize dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when dissolved inorganic phosphorus is limited. While three major types of AP and their correspondingly diverse subcellular localization have been recognized in bacteria, little is known about AP in eukaryotic phytoplankton such as dinoflagellates. Here, we isolated a full-length AP cDNA from a latest-diverging dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium, and conducted comparative analyses with homologs from a relatively basal (Amphidinium carterae) and late-diverging (Karenia brevis) lineage of dinoflagellates as well as other eukaryotic algae. New data and previous studies indicate that AP is common in dinoflagellates and most other major eukaryotic groups of phytoplankton. AP sequences are more variable than many other genes studied in dinoflagellates, and are divergent among different eukaryotic phytoplankton lineages. Sequence comparison to the other characterized APs suggests that dinoflagellates and some other eukaryotic phytoplankton possess the putative AP as phoA type, but some other eukaryotic phytoplankton seem to have other types. Phylogenetic analyses based on AP amino acid sequences indicated that the “red-type” eukaryotic lineages formed a monophyletic group, suggesting a common origin of their APs. As different amino acid sequences have been found to predictably determine different spatial distribution in the cells, which may facilitate access to different pools of DOP, existing computational models were adopted to predict the subcellular localizations of putative AP in the three dinoflagellates and other eukaryotic phytoplankton. Results showed different subcellular localizations of APs in different dinoflagellates and other lineages. The linkage between AP sequence divergence, subcellular localization, and ecological niche differentiation requires rigorous experimental verification, and this study now provides a framework for such a future effort

  6. Symbiodinium Transcriptomes: Genome Insights into the Dinoflagellate Symbionts of Reef-Building Corals

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Yum, Lauren K.; DeSalvo, Michael K.; Lindquist, Erika; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Voolstra, Christian R.; Medina, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B). With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts. Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation. PMID:22529998

  7. Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Signell, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable. The mass of sediment eroded from the core surface at 0.4 Pa ranged from 0.05 kg m-2 near Grand Manan Island, to 0.35 kg m-2 in northern Wilkinson Basin. The depth of sediment eroded ranged from about 0.05 mm at a station with sandy sediment at 70 m water depth on the western Maine shelf, to about 1.2 mm in clayey-silt sediment at 250 m water depth in northern Wilkinson Basin. The sediment erodibility measurements were used in a sediment-transport model forced with modeled waves and currents for the period October 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011 to predict resuspension and bed erosion. The simulated spatial distribution and variation of bottom shear stress was controlled by the strength of the semi-diurnal tidal currents, which decrease from east to west along the Maine coast, and oscillatory wave-induced currents, which are strongest in shallow water. Simulations showed occasional sediment resuspension along the central and western Maine coast associated with storms, steady resuspension on the eastern Maine shelf and in the Bay of Fundy associated with tidal currents, no resuspension in northern Wilkinson Basin, and very small resuspension in western Jordan Basin. The sediment response in the model depended primarily on the profile of sediment erodibility, strength and time history of bottom stress, consolidation time scale, and the current in the water column

  8. Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Signell, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable. The mass of sediment eroded from the core surface at 0.4 Pa ranged from 0.05 kg m−2 near Grand Manan Island, to 0.35 kg m−2 in northern Wilkinson Basin. The depth of sediment eroded ranged from about 0.05 mm at a station with sandy sediment at 70 m water depth on the western Maine shelf, to about 1.2 mm in clayey–silt sediment at 250 m water depth in northern Wilkinson Basin. The sediment erodibility measurements were used in a sediment-transport model forced with modeled waves and currents for the period October 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011 to predict resuspension and bed erosion. The simulated spatial distribution and variation of bottom shear stress was controlled by the strength of the semi-diurnal tidal currents, which decrease from east to west along the Maine coast, and oscillatory wave-induced currents, which are strongest in shallow water. Simulations showed occasional sediment resuspension along the central and western Maine coast associated with storms, steady resuspension on the eastern Maine shelf and in the Bay of Fundy associated with tidal currents, no resuspension in northern Wilkinson Basin, and very small resuspension in western Jordan Basin. The sediment response in the model depended primarily on the profile of sediment erodibility, strength and time history of bottom stress, consolidation time scale, and the current in the water

  9. Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    PubMed Central

    Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Signell, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable. The mass of sediment eroded from the core surface at 0.4 Pa ranged from 0.05 kg m−2 near Grand Manan Island, to 0.35 kg m−2 in northern Wilkinson Basin. The depth of sediment eroded ranged from about 0.05 mm at a station with sandy sediment at 70 m water depth on the western Maine shelf, to about 1.2 mm in clayey–silt sediment at 250 m water depth in northern Wilkinson Basin. The sediment erodibility measurements were used in a sediment-transport model forced with modeled waves and currents for the period October 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011 to predict resuspension and bed erosion. The simulated spatial distribution and variation of bottom shear stress was controlled by the strength of the semi-diurnal tidal currents, which decrease from east to west along the Maine coast, and oscillatory wave-induced currents, which are strongest in shallow water. Simulations showed occasional sediment resuspension along the central and western Maine coast associated with storms, steady resuspension on the eastern Maine shelf and in the Bay of Fundy associated with tidal currents, no resuspension in northern Wilkinson Basin, and very small resuspension in western Jordan Basin. The sediment response in the model depended primarily on the profile of sediment erodibility, strength and time history of bottom stress, consolidation time scale, and the current in the water

  10. Baker’s Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Frush, Todd J.; Noyes, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Popliteal synovial cysts, also known as Baker’s cysts, are commonly found in association with intra-articular knee disorders, such as osteoarthritis and meniscus tears. Histologically, the cyst walls resemble synovial tissue with fibrosis evident, and there may be chronic nonspecific inflammation present. Osteocartilaginous loose bodies may also be found within the cyst, even if they are not seen in the knee joint. Baker’s cysts can be a source of posterior knee pain that persists despite surgical treatment of the intra-articular lesion, and they are routinely discovered on magnetic resonance imaging scans of the symptomatic knee. Symptoms related to a popliteal cyst origin are infrequent and may be related to size. Evidence Acquisition: A PubMed search was conducted with keywords related to the history, diagnosis, and treatment of Baker’s cysts—namely, Baker’s cyst, popliteal cyst, diagnosis, treatment, formation of popliteal cyst, surgical indications, and complications. Bibliographies from these references were also reviewed to identify related and pertinent literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Baker’s cysts are commonly found associated with intra-articular knee disorders. Proper diagnosis, examination, and treatment are paramount in alleviating the pain and discomfort associated with Baker’s cysts. Conclusion: A capsular opening to the semimembranosus–medial head gastrocnemius bursa is a commonly found normal anatomic variant. It is thought that this can lead to the formation of a popliteal cyst in the presence of chronic knee effusions as a result of intra-articular pathology. Management of symptomatic popliteal cysts is conservative. The intra-articular pathology should be first addressed by arthroscopy. If surgical excision later becomes necessary, a limited posteromedial approach is often employed. Other treatments, such as arthroscopic debridement and closure of the valvular mechanism

  11. A pigmented calcifying odontogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Soames, J V

    1982-04-01

    A case of the pigmented variant of the calcifying odontogenic cyst occurring in a 15-year-old West Indian girl is reported. Melanin pigment was widely distributed and appeared in greatest amount in cells exhibiting the appearance of stellate reticulum. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated large numbers of melanosomes in these cells but relatively few in epithelial ghost cells. The latter contained thick bundles of tonofilaments. Melanocytes were identified and two forms were distinguished, depending on their content of premelanosomes and fully melanized melanosomes.

  12. Mediastinal thoracic duct cyst.

    PubMed Central

    Gowar, F J

    1978-01-01

    A case of mediastinal thoracic duct cyst is described; it is believed to be the first to be reported in Britain. Five surgically treated cases have been reported but in none was the diagnosis made before operation. Symptoms are caused by pressure of the cyst on the trachea and oesophagus and my be aggravted by eating a fatty meal. Differential diagnosis from other mediastinal tumours, especially bronchogenic cyst and neurofibroma, could perhaps be established before operation by lymphangiography. Images PMID:746509

  13. [A retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst].

    PubMed

    Colović, R; Radovanović, N; Micev, M; Colović, N; Stojković, M

    2001-01-01

    Bronchogenic cyst is a rare congenital (developmental) anomaly. It is usually asymptomatic but its enlargement and localization may cause serious symptoms. Exact preoperative diagnosis is rarely established. As a rule, it is established during histological examination of the resected specimen. We present a patient with a subdiaphragmatic retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in whom exact diagnosis was documented by histological examination of excised cyst. To our knowledge this is the third such case ever reported.

  14. Primary retroperitoneal pelvic echinococcal cyst.

    PubMed

    Kalogeris, K G; Christoforidis, L I; Milioudis, N M

    1986-06-01

    We report a case of a single primary retroperitoneal echinococcal cyst located in the pelvis. There were no other hydatid cysts in any other organ. The cyst was excised and serological tests returned to normal.

  15. Cysts of the omentum.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, G D; McAlister, W H

    1975-06-13

    Omental cyst is a rare lesion occurring primarily during childhood and young adulthood. It is closely related to mesenteric and retroperitoneal cysts, all conditions most likely being of congenital or benign neoplastic lymphatic origin. Omental cysts usually present as abdominal distention of long duration, less frequently as a palpable abdominal mass. Rarely they cause an acute abdominal surgical crisis clinically resembling appendicitis with peritonitis. Two cases are reported, one with acute and one with chronic symptoms. The clinical and radiologic features of omental cyst are reviewed in order to increase awareness of this entity.

  16. Isolation of symbiotic dinoflagellates by centrifugal elutriation

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, A.E.; Quinn, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation, a method combining centripetal liquid flow with centrifugal force, has been used to isolate symbiotic dinoflagellates from a cnidarian host. The elutriated cells were shown to be viable by photosynthetic incorporation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and low release of photosynthetic products into the incubation medium. The level of contamination by clinging debris was low and by host solids was negligible.

  17. Mesenteric cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Chung, M A; Brandt, M L; St-Vil, D; Yazbeck, S

    1991-11-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intraabdominal lesions of childhood that may vary in presentation from an asymptomatic mass to an acute abdomen. From 1970 to 1990, 15 children were diagnosed and treated for mesenteric cysts at Ste Justine Hospital in Montreal. The ages ranged from birth to 18 years (average age, 6 years). There were 9 boys and 6 girls. Ten patients required emergency surgery and five underwent elective surgery. The main presenting symptom was abdominal pain. Ten patients had preoperative ultrasounds that were diagnostic for a cystic mass in all patients. The second most frequent preoperative diagnosis was appendicitis. The cysts were located in the small bowel mesentery in 5 cases, the base of the mesentery with retroperitoneal extension in 4 cases, the transverse mesocolon in 4 cases, and the gastrocolic ligament in 2 cases. Operative procedures performed included complete cyst excision (9 patients), complete excision with intestinal resection (5 patients), and drainage of the cyst (1 patient). The only recurrence in this series occurred after drainage. One other patient had recurrence of a mesenteric cyst following resection performed elsewhere. Mesenteric cysts are rare in children, are usually symptomatic, and are most commonly misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis. Accurate preoperative diagnosis is possible with current ultrasonographic imaging techniques. Complete cyst resection is the procedure of choice and results in an excellent outcome.

  18. Functional diversity in coral–dinoflagellate symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Stat, Michael; Morris, Emily; Gates, Ruth D.

    2008-01-01

    Symbioses are widespread in nature and occur along a continuum from parasitism to mutualism. Coral–dinoflagellate symbioses are defined as mutualistic because both partners receive benefit from the association via the exchange of nutrients. This successful interaction underpins the growth and formation of coral reefs. The symbiotic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium is genetically diverse containing eight divergent lineages (clades A–H). Corals predominantly associate with clade C Symbiodinium and to a lesser extent with clades A, B, D, F, and G. Variation in the function and interactive physiology of different coral–dinoflagellate assemblages is virtually unexplored but is an important consideration when developing the contextual framework of factors that contribute to coral reef resilience. In this study, we present evidence that clade A Symbiodinium are functionally less beneficial to corals than the dominant clade C Symbiodinium and may represent parasitic rather than mutualistic symbionts. Our hypothesis is supported by (i) a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium clade A and health-compromised coral; (ii) a phylogeny and genetic diversity within Symbiodinium that suggests a different evolutionary trajectory for clade A compared with the other dominant Symbiodinium lineages; and (iii) a significantly lower amount of carbon fixed and released by clade A in the presence of a coral synthetic host factor as compared with the dominant coral symbiont lineage, clade C. Collectively, these data suggest that along the symbiotic continuum the interaction between clade A Symbiodinium and corals may be closer to parasitism than mutualism. PMID:18591663

  19. DIVISION IN THE DINOFLAGELLATE GYRODINIUM COHNII (SCHILLER)

    PubMed Central

    Kubai, Donna F.; Ris, Hans

    1969-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are of interest because their chromosomes resemble the nucleoplasm of prokaryotes both chemically and ultrastructurally. We have studied nuclear division in the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium cohnii (Schiller), using cells obtained from cultures undergoing phasic growth. Electron micrographs of serial sections were used to prepare three-dimensional reconstructions of nuclei and chromosomes at various stages of nuclear division. During division, a complex process of invagination of the intact nuclear envelope takes place at one side of the nucleus and results in the formation of parallel cylindrical cytoplasmic channels through the nucleus. These invaginations contain bundles of microtubules, and each of the bundles comes to lie in the cytoplasm of a cylindrical channel. Nuclear constriction occurs perpendicular to these channels without displacement of the microtubules. There are no associations between chromosomes and the cytoplasmic microtubules. In dividing cells most chromosomes become V-shaped, and the apices of the V's make contact with the membrane surrounding cytoplasmic channels. It is proposed that the membrane surrounding cytoplasmic channels in the dividing nucleus may be involved in the separation of daughter chromosomes. Thus, dinoflagellates may resemble prokaryotes in the manner of genophore separation as well as in genophore chemistry and ultrastructure. PMID:5761923

  20. [Primary Retroperitoneal Hydatid Cyst].

    PubMed

    Tali, Servet; Aksu, Ali; Bozdağ, Pınar Gündoğan; Bozdağ, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitosis which is created by Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cysts most of ten settled in the liver and lungs. Hydatid cyst is rarely seen in retroperitoneal. Sixty-three year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of abdominal distention and with back pain in the Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography images, on the posterior of the left kidney, in paravertebral area approximately 15 x 10 cm in size septal cystic lesion was observed retroperitoneally. At laparotomy, partial excision of the retroperitoneal cyst was performed and drainage of the cyst pouch was provided by suction drain. Suction drain was removed 5 days after surgery. Histopathological diagnosis is was reported as hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease is a endemic disease in our country and it should be known that has a typical placements.

  1. [Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Gündeş, Ebubekir; Küçükkartallar, Tevfik; Çakır, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid cysts cause diseases most frequently by localizing in the liver and the lungs. Hydatid cysts with retroperitoneal localization are very rare. A 45-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with complaints of back pain, weight loss, and fatigue. The computerized tomography (CT) revealed that the patient had a septated cystic lesion of about 8x7x6 cm localized in the posterior of the left kidney, in the paravertebral site causing destruction of the neighboring costa. During laparotomy, the wall of the cyst with retroperitoneal localization was partially excised and the remaining cavity was drained. The drain was removed on post-op day 5. The histopathological diagnosis was reported to be a hydatid cyst. No problems were seen during the follow-ups of the patient who was administered post-op albendazole. Hydatid cysts are an endemic disease in our country and it should be kept in mind that they also have atypical localizations.

  2. Splenic epidermoid cysts.

    PubMed

    Robbins, F G; Yellin, A E; Lingua, R W; Craig, J R; Turrill, F L; Mikkelsen, W P

    1978-03-01

    Four patients with splenic masses were operated upon and found to have epidermoid cysts of the spleen, a rare lesion comprising less than 10% of benign, nonparasitic splenic cysts. The patients were young and had vague, non-specific symptoms which were related to the size of the slowly enlarging splenic mass. Three patients had palpable masses. Contrast gastrointestinal studies and intravenous urography will help exclude mass lesions of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Sonar scan may confirm the cystic nature of the lesion and localize it to the spleen. A review of 42,327 autopsy records at the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center revealed 32 benign splenic cysts found incidentally at autopsy. Hemorrhage, infection, rupture, and rarely, malignant change are complications of splenic cysts. Splenectomy is recommended to eliminate the symptoms produced by the cyst and prevent the potential complications.

  3. Control of toxic marine dinoflagellate blooms by serial parasitic killers.

    PubMed

    Chambouvet, Aurelie; Morin, Pascal; Marie, Dominique; Guillou, Laure

    2008-11-21

    The marine dinoflagellates commonly responsible for toxic red tides are parasitized by other dinoflagellate species. Using culture-independent environmental ribosomal RNA sequences and fluorescence markers, we identified host-specific infections among several species. Each parasitoid produces 60 to 400 offspring, leading to extraordinarily rapid control of the host's population. During 3 consecutive years of observation in a natural estuary, all dinoflagellates observed were chronically infected, and a given host species was infected by a single genetically distinct parasite year after year. Our observations in natural ecosystems suggest that although bloom-forming dinoflagellates may escape control by grazing organisms, they eventually succumb to parasite attack.

  4. Transcription and Maturation of mRNA in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sougata; Morse, David

    2013-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are of great importance to the marine ecosystem, yet scant details of how gene expression is regulated at the transcriptional level are available. Transcription is of interest in the context of the chromatin structure in the dinoflagellates as it shows many differences from more typical eukaryotic cells. Here we canvas recent transcriptome profiles to identify the molecular building blocks available for the construction of the transcriptional machinery and contrast these with those used by other systems. Dinoflagellates display a clear paucity of specific transcription factors, although surprisingly, the rest of the basic transcriptional machinery is not markedly different from what is found in the close relatives to the dinoflagellates.

  5. Control of toxic marine dinoflagellate blooms by serial parasitic killers.

    PubMed

    Chambouvet, Aurelie; Morin, Pascal; Marie, Dominique; Guillou, Laure

    2008-11-21

    The marine dinoflagellates commonly responsible for toxic red tides are parasitized by other dinoflagellate species. Using culture-independent environmental ribosomal RNA sequences and fluorescence markers, we identified host-specific infections among several species. Each parasitoid produces 60 to 400 offspring, leading to extraordinarily rapid control of the host's population. During 3 consecutive years of observation in a natural estuary, all dinoflagellates observed were chronically infected, and a given host species was infected by a single genetically distinct parasite year after year. Our observations in natural ecosystems suggest that although bloom-forming dinoflagellates may escape control by grazing organisms, they eventually succumb to parasite attack. PMID:19023082

  6. The Symbiodinium kawagutii genome illuminates dinoflagellate gene expression and coral symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Cheng, Shifeng; Song, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Lin, Xin; Li, Wujiao; Li, Ling; Zhang, Yaqun; Zhang, Huan; Ji, Zhiliang; Cai, Meichun; Zhuang, Yunyun; Shi, Xinguo; Lin, Lingxiao; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhaobao; Liu, Xin; Yu, Sheng; Zeng, Peng; Hao, Han; Zou, Quan; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Ying; Xu, Chunyan; Meng, Shanshan; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Campbell, David A; Sturm, Nancy R; Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve; Morse, David

    2015-11-01

    Dinoflagellates are important components of marine ecosystems and essential coral symbionts, yet little is known about their genomes. We report here on the analysis of a high-quality assembly from the 1180-megabase genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii. We annotated protein-coding genes and identified Symbiodinium-specific gene families. No whole-genome duplication was observed, but instead we found active (retro)transposition and gene family expansion, especially in processes important for successful symbiosis with corals. We also documented genes potentially governing sexual reproduction and cyst formation, novel promoter elements, and a microRNA system potentially regulating gene expression in both symbiont and coral. We found biochemical complementarity between genomes of S. kawagutii and the anthozoan Acropora, indicative of host-symbiont coevolution, providing a resource for studying the molecular basis and evolution of coral symbiosis. PMID:26542574

  7. The Symbiodinium kawagutii genome illuminates dinoflagellate gene expression and coral symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Cheng, Shifeng; Song, Bo; Zhong, Xiao; Lin, Xin; Li, Wujiao; Li, Ling; Zhang, Yaqun; Zhang, Huan; Ji, Zhiliang; Cai, Meichun; Zhuang, Yunyun; Shi, Xinguo; Lin, Lingxiao; Wang, Lu; Wang, Zhaobao; Liu, Xin; Yu, Sheng; Zeng, Peng; Hao, Han; Zou, Quan; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Ying; Xu, Chunyan; Meng, Shanshan; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huanming; Campbell, David A; Sturm, Nancy R; Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve; Morse, David

    2015-11-01

    Dinoflagellates are important components of marine ecosystems and essential coral symbionts, yet little is known about their genomes. We report here on the analysis of a high-quality assembly from the 1180-megabase genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii. We annotated protein-coding genes and identified Symbiodinium-specific gene families. No whole-genome duplication was observed, but instead we found active (retro)transposition and gene family expansion, especially in processes important for successful symbiosis with corals. We also documented genes potentially governing sexual reproduction and cyst formation, novel promoter elements, and a microRNA system potentially regulating gene expression in both symbiont and coral. We found biochemical complementarity between genomes of S. kawagutii and the anthozoan Acropora, indicative of host-symbiont coevolution, providing a resource for studying the molecular basis and evolution of coral symbiosis.

  8. Dinoflagellate bioluminescence in response to mechanical stimuli in water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cussatlegras, A. S.; Le Gal, P.

    2005-02-01

    Bioluminescence of plankton organisms induced by water movements has long been observed and is still under investigations because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism occurring at the level of the cell has not been yet fully understood. This work is devoted to the study of the bioluminescence of the dinoflagellates plankton species Pyrocystis noctiluca in response to mechanical stimuli generated by water flows. Several experiments were performed with different types of flows in a Couette shearing apparatus. All of them converge to the conclusion that stationary homogeneous laminar shear does not trigger massive bioluminescence, but that acceleration and shear are both necessary to stimulate together an intense bioluminescence response. The distribution of the experimental bioluminescence thresholds is finally calculated from the light emission response for the Pyrocystis noctiluca species.

  9. Management of adult choledochal cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H

    1981-01-01

    A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

  10. [Intraventricular arachnoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Rico-Cotelo, María; Diaz-Cabanas, Lucía; Allut, Alfredo G; Gelabert-Gonzalez, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. Intracranial arachnoids cysts are considered benign developmental anomalies that occur within the arachnoid membrane and generally contain clear and colourless fluid resembling cerebrospinal fluid. The prevalence of these cysts is higher in the first two decades of life, and the incidence is widely quoted as approximately 1% of all space-occupying intracranial lesions. Arachnoids cysts in the elderly person are a rare occurrence. We report the unusual presentation of a woman with an intraventricular arachnoid cyst treated with endoscopic technique. CASE REPORT. A 75-year-old woman presented with progressive hemiparesis of two years duration. Cranial MR imaging showed a right parieto-occipital intraventricular cyst with local mass effect and moderate dilatation of lateral ventricles. A right-sided burr hole was made and the arachnoids cyst was reached and cysto-ventricle shunting was realized. This was followed by a septum pellucidum fenestration. There were no complications during the surgery and the patient presented no symptoms at time of discharge. CONCLUSIONS. The neuroendoscopic approach to intraventricular arachnoid cysts was effective with few complications.

  11. [Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst].

    PubMed

    Piton, Nicolas; Gobet, Françoise; Werquin, Claire; Landréat, Antoine; Lefebvre, Hervé; Pfister, Christian; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2012-08-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are benign lesions, which are usually described at the chest level. We present here a case report of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst. A 77-year-old man presented with a left retroperitoneal tumor discovered by scanner. There was no endocrine disruption. Excision of the lesion was performed and final diagnosis was a bronchogenic cyst. Current widespread use of modern radiology enables increased discovery of such "incidentalomes". In the future, pathologists will be routinely faced with this type of diagnosis, which up to now has been described as exceptional.

  12. A retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Brient, C; Muller, C; Cassagneau, P; Taieb, D; Sebag, F; Henry, J-F

    2012-10-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are benign congenital malformations usually. A retroperitoneal location is extremely uncommon. We reported a case of bronchogenic cyst occurred in the retroperitoneum in a 60-year-old patient. An abdominal CT for a prostatic adenocarcinoma staging has reported this incidental lesion. Biological, radiological and histological assessment confirmed the bronchogenic cyst diagnosis. The treatment of choice for most authors is surgical excision. However, because of a low malignant transformation risk, we have chosen a follow-up with abdominal computerized tomography every 6 months. During 3 years, biological and radiological assessments have shown a stable lesion. Therefore, it seems reasonable to propose a simple radiological monitoring for bronchogenic cysts in selected patients.

  13. Bartholin cyst or abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... and it does not improve with 2 - 3 days of home treatment. Pain is severe and interferes with your normal activity. You have one of these cysts and develop a fever higher than 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit.

  14. Unusual echinococcal cyst.

    PubMed

    Perimenis, P; Athanasopoulos, A; Barbalias, G

    1991-11-01

    We report a case of a single echinococcal cyst that originated from the liver, and occupied the upper right retroperitoneal space and kidney. The diagnostic problems and the surgical procedure are discussed.

  15. Fibrosis and Simple Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... lobular) Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) Adenosis Fibroadenomas Phyllodes tumors Intraductal papillomas Granular cell tumors Fat necrosis ... caused by fibrosis and/or cysts, which are benign changes in breast tissue that happen in many ...

  16. Gingival Cyst of Newborn.

    PubMed

    Moda, Aman

    2011-01-01

    Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.

  17. Acromioclavicular joint cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Andrew D; Miller, Joshua D; Zeller, John L

    2010-03-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) cysts are an uncommon and unusual sequela associated with shoulder pathophysiology. The majority of literature on ACJ cysts consists of individual case reports with no definitive literature review currently available. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, four clinical cases are presented in this report. First described by Craig (1984), a total of 41 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Of these cases, five occurred with the rotator cuff musculature intact. The remaining 36 cases of ACJ cysts occurred in patients with a complete tear/avulsion of the rotator cuff. Previous attempts at compiling a complete record of all reported cases have combined several distinct conditions into a single category. This article presents two distinct etiologies for the pathogenesis of ACJ cyst formation. In the presence of an intact rotator cuff, a Type 1 cyst can form superficially and be limited to the ACJ. Following a massive or traumatic tear of the rotator cuff, mechanical instability of the humeral head can cause a deterioration of the inferior acromioclavicular capsule (cuff tear arthropathy) and an overproduction of synovial fluid. Overtime, a "geyser" of fluid can form between the glenohumeral and the ACJ, forming a Type 2 cyst. This differentiation and categorization is essential for appropriate classification and treatment.

  18. Acromioclavicular joint cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Andrew D; Miller, Joshua D; Zeller, John L

    2010-03-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) cysts are an uncommon and unusual sequela associated with shoulder pathophysiology. The majority of literature on ACJ cysts consists of individual case reports with no definitive literature review currently available. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, four clinical cases are presented in this report. First described by Craig (1984), a total of 41 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Of these cases, five occurred with the rotator cuff musculature intact. The remaining 36 cases of ACJ cysts occurred in patients with a complete tear/avulsion of the rotator cuff. Previous attempts at compiling a complete record of all reported cases have combined several distinct conditions into a single category. This article presents two distinct etiologies for the pathogenesis of ACJ cyst formation. In the presence of an intact rotator cuff, a Type 1 cyst can form superficially and be limited to the ACJ. Following a massive or traumatic tear of the rotator cuff, mechanical instability of the humeral head can cause a deterioration of the inferior acromioclavicular capsule (cuff tear arthropathy) and an overproduction of synovial fluid. Overtime, a "geyser" of fluid can form between the glenohumeral and the ACJ, forming a Type 2 cyst. This differentiation and categorization is essential for appropriate classification and treatment. PMID:20069645

  19. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  20. Management of Renal Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ismail; Can Sener, Nevzat; Firat, Hacer; Yeşil, Süleyman; Zengin, Kürşad; Yalcınkaya, Fatih; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Renal cysts have a high prevalence in the general population, and their estimated incidence increases with age. Renal cyst aspiration (usually with sclerotherapy) or open/laparoscopic decortication is a generally effective and safe method in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. The success rates of laparoscopic decortication and percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy were compared to assist in the decision making for the procedure. Methods: A total of 184 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts were treated with either laparoscopic decortication in 149 cases or percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy in 35 cases. The follow-up period was approximately 35 months, and the symptomatic and radiologic success rates of the 2 techniques were compared retrospectively. Results: Laparoscopic decortication was found to have high success rates, a low recurrence rate, and minimal morbidity. Percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy is an outpatient procedure with a minimally higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: When a symptomatic cyst is encountered and treatment of the cyst is indicated, laparoscopic decortication is a more efficient method that offers better results than percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy. PMID:25848184

  1. From homothally to heterothally: Mating preferences and genetic variation within clones of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Rengefors, Karin; Bravo, Isabel; Bensch, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    The chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham is responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a human health threat in coastal waters. Sexuality in this species is of great importance in its bloom dynamics, and has been shown to be very complex but lacks an explanation. For this reason, we tested if unreported homothallic behavior and rapid genetic changes may clarify the sexual system of this alga. To achieve this objective, 12 clonal strains collected from the Spanish coast were analyzed for the presence of sexual reproduction. Mating affinity results, self-compatibility studies, and genetic fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP) analysis on clonal strains, showed three facts not previously described for this species: (i) That there is a continuous mating system within G. catenatum, with either self-compatible strains (homothallic), or strains that needed to be outcrossed (heterothallic), and with a range of differences in cyst production among the crosses. (ii) There was intraclonal genetic variation, i.e. genetic variation within an asexual lineage. Moreover, the variability among homothallic clones was smaller than among the heterothallic ones. (iii) Sibling strains (the two strains established by the germination of one cyst) increased their intra- and inter-sexual compatibility with time. To summarize, we have found that G. catenatum's sexual system is much more complex than previously described, including complex homothallic/heterothallic behaviors. Additionally, high rates of genetic variability may arise in clonal strains, although explanations for the mechanisms responsible are still lacking.

  2. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  3. Intracellular pH of symbiotic dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbin, E. M.; Davy, S. K.

    2013-09-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) is likely to play a key role in maintaining the functional success of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, yet until now the pHi of the symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) has never been quantified. Flow cytometry was used in conjunction with the ratiometric fluorescent dye BCECF to monitor changes in pHi over a daily light/dark cycle. The pHi of Symbiodinium type B1 freshly isolated from the model sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella was 7.25 ± 0.01 (mean ± SE) in the light and 7.10 ± 0.02 in the dark. A comparable effect of irradiance was seen across a variety of cultured Symbiodinium genotypes (types A1, B1, E1, E2, F1, and F5) which varied between pHi 7.21-7.39 in the light and 7.06-7.14 in the dark. Of note, there was a significant genotypic difference in pHi, irrespective of irradiance.

  4. Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors.

  5. Inducible Mixotrophy in the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Prorocentrum minimum is a neritic dinoflagellate that forms seasonal blooms and red tides in estuarine ecosystems. While known to be mixotrophic, previous attempts to document feeding on algal prey have yielded low grazing rates. In this study, growth and ingestion rates of P. minimum were measured as a function of nitrogen (-N) and phosphorous (-P) starvation. A P. minimum isolate from Chesapeake Bay was found to ingest cryptophyte prey when in stationary phase and when starved of N or P. Prorocentrum minimum ingested two strains of Teleaulax amphioxeia at higher rates than six other cryptophyte species. In all cases -P treatments resulted in the highest grazing. Ingestion rates of -P cells on T. amphioxeia saturated at ~5 prey per predator per day, while ingestion by -N cells saturated at 1 prey per predator per day. In the presence of prey, -P treated cells reached a maximum mixotrophic growth rate (μmax ) of 0.5 d(-1), while -N cells had a μmax of 0.18 d(-1). Calculations of ingested C, N, and P due to feeding on T. amphioxeia revealed that phagotrophy can be an important source of all three elements. While P. minimum is a proficient phototroph, inducible phagotrophy is an important nutritional source for this dinoflagellate. PMID:25510417

  6. Will harmful dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi grow phagotrophically?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingchun; Yu, Rencheng; Song, Jingjing; Yan, Tian; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-07-01

    We studied the phagotrophic ability of dinoflagellate strain Karenia mikimotoi KM-Lü (isolated from the South China Sea), using fluorescent microspheres, bacteria isolated from the culture of K. mikimotoi and a marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana. We found that K. mikimotoi cultured under conditions of high light intensity could ingest fluorescent microspheres (diameters 0.5 and 2.0 μm) and fluorescence-labeled bacteria and microalgae. Under a low light intensity, however, only fluorescent microspheres (diameter 0.5 μm) and fluorescence-labeled microalgae were ingested. K. mikimotoi showed better growth by ingesting living marine bacteria or microalgae I. galbana than the controls, either in nutrient-depleted or nutrient-replete conditions. In nutrient-depleted conditions, the growth of K. mikimotoi was more significant with I. galbana as the prey item. In conclusion, the harmful dinoflagellate K. mikimotoi from the South China Sea has apparent phagotrophic ability, and some marine bacteria and microalgae may promote the growth of K. mikimotoi.

  7. Purification of plastids from the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunling; MacKenzie, Tyler; Morse, David

    2005-01-01

    Peridinin-containing dinoflagellates are a group of generally marine and photosynthetic protists whose plastids display a number of unusual features. In particular, the plastid genome may be reduced to as few as a dozen genes, and it is not clear if all these genes are expressed. To begin to characterize the plastid proteins, we attempted to purify chloroplasts from the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum. We tested several different protocols and found that the organelles were inherently fragile and difficult to isolate intact. In particular, standard purification protocols as described for higher plants produced only broken plastids, as judged by complete loss of the stromal protein RuBisCO. We found that small amounts of RuBisCO could be retained in the plastids if the cells were treated with cellulase prior to lysis. Finally, we report that almost all RuBisCO was retained in plastids prepared from cells subjected to a heat shock treatment, although cellular proteins were denatured by the treatment.

  8. Successful enucleation of retroperitoneal cyst.

    PubMed

    Singal, Rikki; Gupta, Samita; Singh, Bir

    2012-01-01

    Retroperitoneal mesenteric cyst is a rare entity among the other mesenteric cysts and intra-abdominal tumours. A 42-year-old woman reported with pain abdomen off and on since one month. There were no other complaints. On ultrasonography a mesenteric cyst was diagnosed. Surgery was planned which revealed a retroperitoneal mesenteric cyst. Enucleation of the cyst was done. In follow-up of 6 months patient is asymptomatic. We are reporting a rarely reported retroperitoneal mesenteric cyst in the mesentery of the descending colon or sigmoid.

  9. [Species of dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae) in the Mexican Caribbean Sea].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Becerril, D U; Almazán Becerril, A

    2004-09-01

    Some dinoflagellates with benthic habits are related to ciguatera intoxication by fish consumption, especially in tropical areas. In the Mexican Caribbean, ciguatera is relatively common, but only one paper seems to have been published on the subject, and there are very few publicactions on phytoplankton and benthic microalgae. Material collected along the coast of the State of Quintana Roo with phytoplankton net (54 mm) and directly from sediment and epiphytes of macroscopic plants, was searched for toxic and other associated dinoflagellates. Samples were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Morphological characters were useful for species identification, but eventually physiological, ecological and molecular characters could also be used. Three species of Gambierdiscus, related to the production of ciguatera toxins, were identified: G. belizeanus, G. toxicus and G. yasumotoi. They are distributed in shallow coastal areas, including coastal lagoons.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of symbiotic dinoflagellates from planktonic foraminifera and radiolaria.

    PubMed

    Gast, R J; Caron, D A

    1996-11-01

    Recent analyses of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (srDNA) from dinoflagellate symbionts of cnidaria have confirmed historical descriptions of a diverse but well-defined clade, Symbiodinium, as well as several other independent symbiont lineages (Rowan 1991; Rowan and Powers 1992; Sadler et al. 1992; McNally et al 1994). Dinoflagellates also occur as intracellular symbionts in a number of pelagic protistan taxa, but the srDNA of these symbionts has not been examined. We analyzed the srDNA sequences of the symbiotic dinoflagellates from four planktonic foraminiferal species and six radiolarian species. The symbionts from these sarcodines formed two distinct lineages within the dinoflagellates. Within each lineage, symbionts obtained from different host species showed few, if any, srDNA sequence differences. The planktonic foraminiferal symbionts were most closely related to Gymnodinium simplex and the Symbiodinium clade, whereas the radiolarian symbionts were most closely related to the dinoflagellate symbiont from the oceanic chondrophore, Velella velella. Therefore, although the dinoflagellate symbionts of foraminifera appear to be a sister taxon of the symbionts from benthic foraminifera and invertebrates, the symbionts of radiolaria are distinct and arose from an independent lineage of dinoflagellate symbionts that shares common ancestry with the symbiont of at least one pelagic metazoan. The lack of srDNA variability within the sarcodine symbiont lineages suggests that coevolution of host and symbiont has not occurred. PMID:8896371

  11. Pigment compositions are linked to the habitat types in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Norico; Tanaka, Ayumi; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    Compared to planktonic species, there is little known about the ecology, physiology, and existence of benthic dinoflagellates living in sandy beach or seafloor environments. In a previous study, we discovered 13(2),17(3)-cyclopheophorbide a enol (cPPB-aE) from sand-dwelling benthic dinoflagellates. This enol had never been detected in phytoplankton despite the fact that it is a chlorophyll a catabolite. We speculated from this discovery that habitat selection might be linked to pigment compositions in dinoflagellates. To test the hypothesis of habitat selection linking to pigment compositions, we conducted extensive analysis of pigments with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for 40 species using 45 strains of dinoflagellates including three habitat types; sand-dwelling benthic forms, tidal pool inhabitants and planktonic species. The 40 dinoflagellates are also able to be distinguished into two types based on their chloroplast origins; red alga-derived secondary chloroplasts and diatom-derived tertiary ones. By plotting the pigments profiles onto three habitats, we noticed that twelve pigments including cPPB-aE were found to occur only in benthic sand-dwelling species of red alga-derived type. The similar tendency was also observed in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts, i.e. additional sixteen pigments including chl c 3 were found only in sand-dwelling forms. This is the first report of the occurrence of chl c 3 in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts. These results clarify that far greater diversity of pigments are produced by the dinoflagellates living in sand regardless of chloroplast types relative to those of planktonic and tidal pool forms. Dinoflagellates seem to produce a part of their pigments in response to their habitats. PMID:26243150

  12. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  13. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Osteomas; Exostoses; Tumor - ear; Cysts - ear; Ear cysts; Ear tumors; Bony tumor of the ear canal ... bony tumors of the ear canal (exostoses and osteomas) are caused by excess growth of bone. Repeated ...

  14. Neonatal ovarian cysts: therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed Central

    Widdowson, D J; Pilling, D W; Cook, R C

    1988-01-01

    Seven cases of neonatal ovarian cysts that presented over the past seven years were studied. Complications included torsion and rupture and usually occurred in cysts more than 5 cm in diameter. Surgical removal, either oophorectomy or cystectomy, was the treatment of choice. Because even cystectomy results in loss of normal ovarian tissue, and because spontaneous regression of cysts less than 5 cm in diameter can occur, a more conservative approach is now proposed. Regular ultrasonography alone is recommended if the cysts are less than 5 cm in diameter, and aspiration of the cysts followed by regular ultrasonographs if the cysts are more than 5 cm in diameter. Operation should be reserved for recurrent cysts or for those with complications. Cysts diagnosed antenatally may be aspirated in utero if there are signs of thoracic compression. Images Fig 1a Fig 1b Fig 2 PMID:3046508

  15. Thyroglossal cyst: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Subhamay; Saha, A M; Mukherjee, Dhrubyajyoti

    2013-07-01

    To highlight the difference in symptoms, clinical features and management of an intralingual thyroglossal cyst from a classical thyroglossal cyst. We present here the case of a 10 year old boy, who presented to us with the chief complaint of difficulty in speech for 2 years. A marble shaped swelling was seen on the base of the tongue. It was diagnosed as an intralingual thyroglossal cyst. He underwent a Sistrunk operation and the cyst was removed from the base of the tongue. Literature search revealed the rarity of this intralingual thyroglossal cyst, its atypical presentation and difference in way of management. A case report and review of literature regarding this unusual unusual entity is presented. An intralingual thyroglossal cyst is the rarest form of a thyroglossal cyst, and differs from a classical thyroglossal cyst totally in presentation and management. PMID:24427642

  16. Pathophysiology of glioma cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Adn, Mahmoudreza; Saikali, Stephan; Guegan, Yvon; Hamlat, Abderrahmane

    2006-01-01

    Fluid filled cystic cavities are accompaniments of some cerebral gliomas. These tumoural cysts together with peritumoural vasogenic brain oedema add to the morbid effects of the gliomas in terms of mass effect and increased intracranial pressure. Although different mechanisms have been suggested as to the pathogenesis of glioma-associated cysts, it is still unclear why these cysts appear in only a limited number of cerebral gliomas while brain oedema, a probable precursor of glioma cysts, is a usual accompaniment of most gliomas. Here, the authors present a two-hit hypothesis of brain glioma cyst formation. We suggest that after the formation of vasogenic tumoural brain oedema, microvascular phenomena may lead to the formation of microcysts, which might later become confluent and grow to form macroscopic cysts. Progress in the understanding of pathogenesis of cerebral glioma cysts might set targets for treatment of brain edema and glioma cysts.

  17. Primary retroperitoneal tumours and cysts.

    PubMed

    Bors, G; Polyák, L; Frang, D

    1986-01-01

    The authors give a summarizing report on retroperitoneal tumours and cysts. They review the origin and classification of tumours and cysts, their diagnostic and differential diagnostic possibilities as well as the therapeutic measures. Finally, their own 3 cases are reported.

  18. Statistical observations on jaw cysts in Enugu, Nigeria, 1987-1996.

    PubMed

    Oji, C

    1999-03-01

    Cases of jaw cysts treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu during the 10 year period between 1987 and 1996 were studied clinically. A diagnosis of jaw cyst was established in 20 patients during the above period. According to pathological classification by the WHO method, these patients included 10 (50%) with dentigerous cyst, 3 (15%) with radicular cyst, 3 (15%) with odontogenic keratocyst, 3 (15%) with fissural cyst (nasopalatine duct cyst, nasoalveolar cyst, globulomaxillary cyst), 1 (5%) with dermoid cyst. Patients with dentigerous cyst, which was found at relatively high frequency, were further analyzed with regard to age, sex, and anatomical distribution. Among patients with dentigerous cyst, those aged between 21 and 40 years accounted for 60%. Males outnumbered females in a ratio of 1.5:1. Dentigerous cyst occurred most frequently in the region of the mandibular wisdom teeth. The relatively very small number of cases, the need for more research on the subject and the need to educate the general public on oral hygiene are highlighted.

  19. Oral mucoceles; extravasation cysts and retention cysts. A study of 298 cases.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Carina; Olsson Bergland, Kamilla; Walhjalt, Hanna; Magnusson, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Oral mucoceles can be divided in two different forms, extravasation and retention cysts. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of each form, sex- and age distribution, location, recurrences, referent and the differences between the two forms. A total of three-hundred-five cases were retrieved from the Department of Oral Pathology at the Institution of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University between 1993 and 2003. Seven referrals were disregarded because there was insufficient information, leaving 298 cases for this study. In relation to other studies, our study investigated a larger number of cases. Extravasation cysts were the most common type (258 cases). There was a slight predominance among women (55%) and the most frequent location was the lower lip (71%). 84% occurred between the ages of 0 and 40 years with peak incidence in the second decade (34%). 62% of the referrals came from specialists, 28% from general practitioners, and 10% from the Department of Oral Medicine. Retention cysts were not found as frequently as extravasation cysts (40 cases) and the occurrence in women was also a bit higher (58%). We found a more even distribution regarding age and location. The most common locations were floor of the mouth (25%), cheek (20%), and lower lip (18%). They occurred more often between the ages of 11 and 30 (31%), and between 50 and 80 (50%). 75% of the referrals came from specialists, 15% from general practitioners,and 10% from the Department of Oral Medicine. Recurrences were unusual for both cyst types. 17 cases of extravasation cysts were reported as recurrences and one case of retention cyst. PMID:19994562

  20. Nasopharyngeal branchial cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Shao; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang

    2012-12-01

    Second branchial cleft cysts are almost always located in the neck; thus, their presence in the nasopharynx is extremely rare. A 44-year-old man was referred to our department because a cystic mass was fortuitously found in the right lateral nasopharyngeal wall during transnasal esophagogastroscopy. He had suffered from intermittent right-sided nasal obstruction since childhood. T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense signals. Marsupialization was performed by diode laser via an endoscopy-guided approach. No immediate postoperative complications occurred, and there was no recurrence 6 months following surgery. When a cystic lesion presents in the lateral nasopharynx, branchial cleft cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis. In our experience, marsupialization by diode laser via an endoscopy approach is a safe and straightforward method of treating nasopharyngeal branchial cleft cyst, with no adverse effects.

  1. [Retroperitoneal and mesenteric cysts].

    PubMed

    Vasilev, N; Kirov, G; Avramov, T

    1990-01-01

    Experience is recorded with the diagnosis and successful surgical treatment of 5 patients with retroperitoneal and mesenterial cysts. According to available data in the literature, one patients with retroperitoneal or mesenteric cyst falls among an average of 34,000-105,000 in-lying patients. Basic symptom on physical examination was a palpable tumor mass in the abdomen. In recent years correct preoperative diagnosis of these diseases has been established in 85-95 per cent of the cases with the help of echography and computer tomography. The surgical approach was determined from the possibility for total or partial removal of the cyst, which was sometimes accompanied by partial or total removal of abdominal organs involved in the pathologic process.

  2. Bronchogenic cysts in retroperitoneal region.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunnan; Guo, Zonghua; Cai, Qiliang; Dai, Shipeng; Gao, Weimin; Niu, Yuanjie; Li, Gang; Zhang, Ye

    2013-02-01

    Bronchogenic cyst is a relatively rare abnormality that develop from the accessory lung buds of the foregut. The cyst is regarded as a congenital developmental abnormality. Occurence in the retroperitoneal presentation is rare. Here, we present two patients who had an incidentally discovered retroperitoneal mass which were revealed to be bronchogenic cysts after surgical extirpation.

  3. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  4. Population dynamics of red tide dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Timothy; Zingone, Adriana

    2014-03-01

    Sea-surface discolorations due to high concentrations of phytoplankton are called red tides. Their ecological significance is a long standing puzzle, and they are sometimes considered pathological. Here we propose that many red tides, particularly but not exclusively those composed of certain autotrophic dinoflagellates, are presexual/sexual swarms, essential links in their complex life cycles. This view provides a rationale for the appearance of these organisms in thin surface layers, and helps explain their ephemeral nature. We suggest that further understanding of this phenomenon, and of phytoplankton ecology in general, would benefit from attention to the 'net reproductive value‧ (r) over the whole life cycle as well as to the division rate (μ) of the vegetative phase. It is argued that r is strategically adapted to seasonal cycles and long term environmental variability, while μ reflects tactical needs (timing) and constraints (grazers, parasites) on vegetative growth.

  5. Photoregulation in a Kleptochloroplastidic Dinoflagellate, Dinophysis acuta

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Per J.; Ojamäe, Karin; Berge, Terje; Trampe, Erik C. L.; Nielsen, Lasse T.; Lips, Inga; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Some phagotrophic organisms can retain chloroplasts of their photosynthetic prey as so-called kleptochloroplasts and maintain their function for shorter or longer periods of time. Here we show for the first time that the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta takes control over “third-hand” chloroplasts obtained from its ciliate prey Mesodinium spp. that originally ingested the cryptophyte chloroplasts. With its kleptochloroplasts, D. acuta can synthesize photosynthetic as well as photoprotective pigments under long-term starvation in the light. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that the kleptochloroplasts were fully functional during 1 month of prey starvation, while the chlorophyll a-specific inorganic carbon uptake decreased within days of prey starvation under an irradiance of 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. While D. acuta cells can regulate their pigmentation and function of kleptochloroplasts they apparently lose the ability to maintain high inorganic carbon fixation rates. PMID:27303378

  6. Photoregulation in a Kleptochloroplastidic Dinoflagellate, Dinophysis acuta.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Per J; Ojamäe, Karin; Berge, Terje; Trampe, Erik C L; Nielsen, Lasse T; Lips, Inga; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Some phagotrophic organisms can retain chloroplasts of their photosynthetic prey as so-called kleptochloroplasts and maintain their function for shorter or longer periods of time. Here we show for the first time that the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta takes control over "third-hand" chloroplasts obtained from its ciliate prey Mesodinium spp. that originally ingested the cryptophyte chloroplasts. With its kleptochloroplasts, D. acuta can synthesize photosynthetic as well as photoprotective pigments under long-term starvation in the light. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that the kleptochloroplasts were fully functional during 1 month of prey starvation, while the chlorophyll a-specific inorganic carbon uptake decreased within days of prey starvation under an irradiance of 100 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). While D. acuta cells can regulate their pigmentation and function of kleptochloroplasts they apparently lose the ability to maintain high inorganic carbon fixation rates. PMID:27303378

  7. Primary retroperitoneal echinococcal cyst.

    PubMed

    Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Ananiadis, Ananias; Theodoulidis, Vasilios; Barbanis, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    A 74-year-old man was admitted with right flank pain and discomfort lasting for 2 months. CT scanning revealed a large retroperitoneal cystic mass. There were no cysts elsewhere. Serological testing revealed hydatid disease. Preoperatively he was treated by Albendazole 400 mg for 1 month and then underwent laparotomy. The entire mass was excised en bloc and intact and right hemicolectomy was simultaneously performed for excision of the adhered ascending colon. He recovered uneventfully and was discharged on the eighth day, Albendazole was given and follow-up visits were arranged for every 6 months. Total cystectomy in case of active echinococcal cysts remains the treatment of choice.

  8. Retroperitoneal mesenteric cysts.

    PubMed

    Katsohis, C D; Papapolichroniadis, C; Nenopoulou, H; Aletras, H A

    1989-01-01

    Retroperitoneal cysts are most commonly found in relation to the small bowel but may be found in the mesentery of the colon or in the omentum. Only a few hundred cases have been reported. In the present analysis four more cases are reported and the pertinent literature is reviewed. The diagnosis is made by clinical suspicion, barium meal and/or enema, sonography and axial computerized tomography. Treatment of choice is by enucleation of the cyst, if possible. Morbidity and mortality should be very low, because of recent advances in surgery and intensive care of the patient.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of cyst fluid amphiregulin in pancreatic cysts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate tests to diagnose adenocarcinoma and high-grade dysplasia among mucinous pancreatic cysts are clinically needed. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of amphiregulin (AREG) as a pancreatic cyst fluid biomarker to differentiate non-mucinous, benign mucinous, and malignant mucinous cysts. Methods A single-center retrospective study to evaluate AREG levels in pancreatic cyst fluid by ELISA from 33 patients with a histological gold standard was performed. Results Among the cyst fluid samples, the median (IQR) AREG levels for non-mucinous (n = 6), benign mucinous (n = 15), and cancerous cysts (n = 15) were 85 pg/ml (47-168), 63 pg/ml (30-847), and 986 pg/ml (417-3160), respectively. A significant difference between benign mucinous and malignant mucinous cysts was observed (p = 0.025). AREG levels greater than 300 pg/ml possessed a diagnostic accuracy for cancer or high-grade dysplasia of 78% (sensitivity 83%, specificity 73%). Conclusion Cyst fluid AREG levels are significantly higher in cancerous and high-grade dysplastic cysts compared to benign mucinous cysts. Thus AREG exhibits potential clinical utility in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts. PMID:22333441

  10. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  11. Evolution of saxitoxin synthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Jeremiah D; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Brosnahan, Michael L; Kulis, David M; Anderson, Donald M; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Plumley, F Gerald; Erdner, Deana L

    2013-01-01

    Dinoflagellates produce a variety of toxic secondary metabolites that have a significant impact on marine ecosystems and fisheries. Saxitoxin (STX), the cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning, is produced by three marine dinoflagellate genera and is also made by some freshwater cyanobacteria. Genes involved in STX synthesis have been identified in cyanobacteria but are yet to be reported in the massive genomes of dinoflagellates. We have assembled comprehensive transcriptome data sets for several STX-producing dinoflagellates and a related non-toxic species and have identified 265 putative homologs of 13 cyanobacterial STX synthesis genes, including all of the genes directly involved in toxin synthesis. Putative homologs of four proteins group closely in phylogenies with cyanobacteria and are likely the functional homologs of sxtA, sxtG, and sxtB in dinoflagellates. However, the phylogenies do not support the transfer of these genes directly between toxic cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. SxtA is split into two proteins in the dinoflagellates corresponding to the N-terminal portion containing the methyltransferase and acyl carrier protein domains and a C-terminal portion with the aminotransferase domain. Homologs of sxtB and N-terminal sxtA are present in non-toxic strains, suggesting their functions may not be limited to saxitoxin production. Only homologs of the C-terminus of sxtA and sxtG were found exclusively in toxic strains. A more thorough survey of STX+ dinoflagellates will be needed to determine if these two genes may be specific to SXT production in dinoflagellates. The A. tamarense transcriptome does not contain homologs for the remaining STX genes. Nevertheless, we identified candidate genes with similar predicted biochemical activities that account for the missing functions. These results suggest that the STX synthesis pathway was likely assembled independently in the distantly related cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, although using some

  12. Mast cell-derived tryptase in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Teronen, O; Hietanen, J; Lindqvist, C; Salo, T; Sorsa, T; Eklund, K K; Sommerhoff, C P; Ylipaavalniemi, P; Konttinen, Y T

    1996-08-01

    Inflammatory and developmental cysts of the jaws are relatively common bone destructive lesions in the human maxillofacial skeleton but their pathogenesis is still poorly understood. In this study the role of mast cells (MC), and mast cell tryptase in particular, was evaluated in the pathophysiology of bone resorption and jaw cyst formation in different types of cysts. The distribution of MC and the amount of tryptase in histological tissue sections were determined by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antihuman tryptase antibodies and the results were quantitated by using an image analyzing system. The amount of tryptase was further studied by Western-blotting and measurement of trypsin-like activity from the neutral salt extracts obtained from different types of jaw cysts. In contrast to control tissue, high trypsin-like activities and abundant immunoreactive tryptase were observed in the extracts of all types of cysts studied (radicular, dentigerous and keratocyst). In tissue sections the highest amount of tryptase-positive staining was observed in radicular cysts (mean 6.2% of reference area) and the lowest amount in keratocysts (mean 2.1% of reference area, P < 0.01). MC were found to be located in inflammatory cell-rich tissue areas and just beneath the cyst epithelium. Importantly, MC located at the border of bone were observed to be degranulated, indicating high activity of MC and release of tryptase at the regions of early bone destruction. Based on previous findings addressing the role of mast cell tryptase in proteolytic cascades, and the known association of MC with osteoporosis, we suggest that mast cells and mast cell tryptase may contribute significantly to jaw cyst tissue remodelling during growth of a cyst, and to the destruction of the surrounding bone, resulting in jaw cyst expansion.

  13. Incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kısaoğlu, Abdullah; Özoğul, Bünyami; Atamanalp, Sabri Selçuk; Pirimoğlu, Berhan; Aydınlı, Bülent; Korkut, Ercan

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pancreatic hydatid cysts are a rare parasitic disease even in endemic areas. It is difficult to discriminate primary pancreatic hydatid cysts from other cystic and solid lesions of the pancreas. This is a case report of an incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst. A heterogeneous cystic lesion in the body of the pancreas was identified on magnetic resonance imaging of a patient previously diagnosed patient with cholelithiasis, and because of the malignant possibility of the lesion, splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported as a hydatid cyst. Pancreatic hydatid cysts should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic malignancies.

  14. Giant intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst--a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muddassir; Kirmani, Sanna; Rashid, Mubashir

    2012-01-01

    The hydatidosis, or echinococcosis, has a characteristic geographic distribution, occurring most frequently in sheep-raising regions in Mediterranean, Central Asian, and South American countries and in Australia. Spinal hydatidosis is very rare, and intradural location is a rarer category of spinal hydatidosis. We report a case of intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst in a 9-year-old boy. On magnetic resonance imaging, an intradural extramedullary giant cystic lesion was seen mimicking an arachnoid cyst. However, endemic origin of the patient and positive serology helped to make the diagnosis of hydatid cyst, which was confirmed on postoperative histopathology.

  15. Haemorrhagic Lumbar Juxtafacet Cyst with Ligamentum Flavum Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Ghent, Finn; Davidson, Trent; Mobbs, Ralph Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Juxtafacet cysts are an uncommon cause of radiculopathy. They occur most frequently in the lumbar region, and their distribution across the spine correlates with mobility. Haemorrhagic complications are rare and may occur in the absence of any provocation, although there is some association with anticoagulation and trauma. We present a case of acute radiculopathy due to an L5/S1 juxtafacet cyst with unprovoked haemorrhage which was found to extend into ligamentum flavum. The patient underwent uncomplicated microscope assisted decompression with excellent results. The demographics, presentation, aetiology, and management of juxtafacet cysts are discussed. PMID:25580330

  16. Intrarenal epidermal cyst.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung Chul; Kim, Chul Sung

    2003-08-01

    An epidermal cyst is a very unusual cause of a renal mass, with only three cases reported in English literature. The authors report a case of this in a 51-year-old man with left flank pain and hematuria. A 5 x 4 cm-sized cystic mass, having an irregular margin with stippled calcification, was identified in the lower pole of the left kidney. A retroperitoneal laparoscopic simple nephrectomy was performed under the assumption that it was a renal tumor. Histologically, the tumor was identical in appearance to an epidermal cyst within the skin. Aberrant ectodermal implantation during embryogenesis has been postulated as a histogenesis of intrarenal epidermal cyst. However, the present case had a history of renal stone, which was treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therefore, the authors suspected the pathogenetic mechanism of this lesion was a metaplasia of traumatic origin. The diagnosis of an epidermal cyst was not made preoperatively in the present case, or in the cases described in the literature. This diagnosis should be included in the differentiation of calcified intrarenal masses.

  17. [Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst].

    PubMed

    Frickmann, H; Jungblut, S; Bargon, J; Fellbaum, C; Hanke, P

    2006-12-01

    We describe a 35-year-old female patient who underwent surgery because of a coincidentally occurring cryptic tumour near the left adrenal gland and a right renal carcinoma (pT1, N0, G2, R0). The left-sided tumour was intraoperatively identified as a cystic structure filled with secretion. Histopathological analysis provided the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst.

  18. Plastid genes in a non-photosynthetic dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Puerta, M Virginia; Lippmeier, J Casey; Apt, Kirk E; Delwiche, Charles F

    2007-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of protists, comprising photosynthetic and heterotrophic free-living species, as well as parasitic ones. About half of them are photosynthetic with peridinin-containing plastids being the most common. It is uncertain whether non-photosynthetic dinoflagellates are primitively so, or have lost photosynthesis. Studies of heterotrophic species from this lineage may increase our understanding of plastid evolution. We analyzed an EST project of the early-diverging heterotrophic dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii looking for evidence of past endosymbiosis. A large number of putative genes of cyanobacterial or algal origin were identified using BLAST, and later screened by metabolic function. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that several proteins could have been acquired from a photosynthetic endosymbiont, arguing for an earlier plastid acquisition in dinoflagellates. In addition, intact N-terminal plastid-targeting peptides were detected, indicating that C. cohnii may contain a reduced plastid and that some of these proteins are imported into this organelle. A number of metabolic pathways, such as heme and isoprenoid biosynthesis, seem to take place in the plastid. Overall, these data indicate that C. cohnii is derived from a photosynthetic ancestor and provide a model for loss of photosynthesis in dinoflagellates and their relatives. This represents the first extensive genomic analysis of a heterotrophic dinoflagellate.

  19. Changes in marine dinoflagellate and diatom abundance under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinder, Stephanie L.; Hays, Graeme C.; Edwards, Martin; Roberts, Emily C.; Walne, Anthony W.; Gravenor, Mike B.

    2012-04-01

    Marine diatoms and dinoflagellates play a variety of key ecosystem roles as important primary producers (diatoms and some dinoflagellates) and grazers (some dinoflagellates). Additionally some are harmful algal bloom (HAB) species and there is widespread concern that HAB species may be increasing accompanied by major negative socio-economic impacts, including threats to human health and marine harvesting. Using 92,263 samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey, we generated a 50-year (1960-2009) time series of diatom and dinoflagellate occurrence in the northeast Atlantic and North Sea. Dinoflagellates, including both HAB taxa (for example, Prorocentrum spp.) and non-HAB taxa (for example, Ceratium furca), have declined in abundance, particularly since 2006. In contrast, diatom abundance has not shown this decline with some common diatoms, including both HAB (for example, Pseudo-nitzschia spp.) and non-HAB (for example, Thalassiosira spp.) taxa, increasing in abundance. Overall these changes have led to a marked increase in the relative abundance of diatoms versus dinoflagellates. Our analyses, including Granger tests to identify criteria of causality, indicate that this switch is driven by an interaction effect of both increasing sea surface temperatures combined with increasingly windy conditions in summer.

  20. Dynamics of late spring and summer phytoplankton communities on Georges Bank, with emphasis on diatoms, Alexandrium spp., and other dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettings, Rachel M.; Townsend, David W.; Thomas, Maura A.; Karp-Boss, Lee

    2014-05-01

    We analyzed the distribution, abundance, and succession patterns of major phytoplankton taxa on Georges Bank in relation to hydrography, nutrients, and size-fractionated chlorophyll concentrations (>20 μm; <20 μm) on three oceanographic cruises from late spring through summer 2008 (28 April-5 May, 27 May-4 June, and 27 June-3 July). The April-May phytoplankton community was dominated numerically by the diatoms Skeletonema spp., Thalassiosira spp., Coscinodiscus spp., and Chaetoceros spp., with highest total diatom cell densities exceeding 200,000 cells l-1 on the Northeast Peak. In May-June, low nitrate and silicate concentrations over the Bank, along with patches of slightly elevated ammonium, were apparently supporting a predominantly dinoflagellate population; the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. reached 13,000 cells l-1. Diatom cell densities on the second cruise in May-June were less than 60,000 cells l-1 and their spatial distributions did not overlap with the highest cell densities of Alexandrium spp. or other dinoflagellates. On the third and last cruise, in June-July, reduced nitrate and silicate concentrations were accompanied by a shift in the phytoplankton community: Alexandrium spp. cell densities were lower and heterotrophic and mixotrophic dinoflagellates, notably Polykrikos spp., Gyrodinium spp., Gymnodinium spp., and Prorocentrum spp., had become more abundant. Patches of regenerated silicate during the June-July period appeared to support a post-spring-bloom diatom community on the central crest of the Bank (total diatom cell densities >180,000 cellsl-1) of Leptocylindrus spp., Dactyliosolen spp., and Guinardia flaccida. Multivariate statistical analyses of phytoplankton taxa and station locations revealed distinct assemblages of diatom and dinoflagellate taxa on the Bank throughout the late spring and summer. Results are interpreted in the ecological context of earlier-reported laboratory culture experiments on the competitive interactions

  1. Development of a Dinoflagellate-Oriented PCR Primer Set Leads to Detection of Picoplanktonic Dinoflagellates from Long Island Sound†

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Yubo; Miranda, Lilibeth; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2006-01-01

    We developed dinoflagellate-specific 18S rRNA gene primers. PCR amplification using these oligonucleotides for a picoplanktonic DNA sample from Long Island Sound yielded 24 clones, and all but one of these clones were dinoflagellates primarily belonging to undescribed and Amoebophrya-like lineages. These results highlight the need for a systematic investigation of picodinoflagellate diversity in both coastal and oceanic ecosystems. PMID:16885319

  2. Nuclear and cytoplasmic actin in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Soyer-Gobillard, M O; Ausseil, J; Géraud, M L

    1996-01-01

    Experiments using monoclonal and polyclonal anti-actin antibodies allowed us to demonstrate the presence of F- or G-actin in original protists, dinoflagellates, either by biochemistry, immunofluorescence and in TEM. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and immunoblottings made either from total or nuclear protein extracts revealed the presence of a 44-kDa band reacting with monoclonal anti-actin antibody in two species, Prorocentrum micans and Crypthecodinium cohnii, and thus demonstrated the presence of actin in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. After squash preparation of P micans cells, actin was identified within the nucleus and in some regions of the cytoplasm by immunofluorescence microscopy. Labelling of both the nucleolus and the centrosome region was evident together with amorphous nucleoplasmic material surrounding the chromosomes. The use of cryosections of intact P micans and C cohnii cells for immunofluorescence along with staining with DAPI to delineate the chromosomes themselves, yielded finer resolution of the intranuclear network labelling pattern and allowed us to complete our observations, in particular on the cytoplasmic labelling. In P micans, in addition to the centrosome region, the cytoplasmic channels passing through the nucleus in dividing cells are labelled. In C cohnii, the cortex, the centrosome region, the cytoplasmic channels, the region surrounding the nucleus, the filaments linking it to the cortex and the cleavage furrow are also labelled. In the nucleus of the two species, there is a prominent "weft' of fine actin filaments in the nucleoplasm forming a matrix of varying density around the persistent chromosomes. This actin matrix, of unknown function, is most conspicuous at the end of the S-phase of the cell cycle. Fluorescent derivatives of phalloidin, used as diagnostic cytochemical probes for polymeric actin (F-actin), gave similar results. Positive TEM immunolabelling of intranuclear actin confirms its presence in the nucleoplasm, in the

  3. Pseudo-placentational endometrial cysts in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Bartel, C; Schönkypl, S; Walter, I

    2010-02-01

    Cystic alterations of the canine endometrium compromise reproduction and fertility of the bitch and may lead to life-threatening diseases, such as pyometra. Even without clinical evidence, reduction of the uterine lumen by cysts implicates disturbances during migration, nidation and development of the embryo. Several studies point to the high variability of morphology of uterine endometrial cysts but they lack detailed analyses of alterations. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of steroid hormone receptors (oestrogen, progesterone), proliferation activity, inflammation and infection in the cystic affected tissue regions in contrast to the normal endometrium. Oestrogen receptor expression showed a high density of receptors throughout the surface epithelial cells, crypt epithelial cells, glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells of the normal endometrium as well as the cystic affected regions. Proliferation in the cysts was verified in the middle and basal cells of the crypts. Neither in the endometrium nor in the cysts inflammatory processes or evidence of infection could be detected. Furthermore, lectin histochemistry and electron microscopic methods showed that lectin binding patterns and cell morphology of internal epithelial lining and surface epithelium of the cysts can be used to characterize and distinguish different types of cystic alterations. Analogies between epithelial cells of the glandular chambers of the canine placenta and the cystic cellular morphology, steroid hormone receptor distribution as well as lectin binding patterns of the endometrial cysts, as observed in this study, suggest to introduce the term 'pseudo-placentational endometrial cysts'. PMID:19891664

  4. Growth, feeding and ecological roles of the mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates in marine planktonic food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Jae Seong; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Kang, Nam Seon; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2010-06-01

    Planktonic mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates are ubiquitous protists and often abundant in marine environments. Recently many phototrophic dinoflagellate species have been revealed to be mixotrophic organisms and also it is suggested that most dinoflagellates may be mixotrophic or heterotrophic protists. The mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates are able to feed on diverse prey items including bacteria, picoeukaryotes, nanoflagellates, diatoms, other dinoflagellates, heterotrophic protists, and metazoans due to their diverse feeding mechanisms. In turn they are ingested by many kinds of predators. Thus, the roles of the dinoflagellates in marine planktonic food webs are very diverse. The present paper reviewed the kind of prey which mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates are able to feed on, feeding mechanisms, growth and ingestion rates of dinoflagellates, grazing impact by dinoflagellate predators on natural prey populations, predators on dinoflagellates, and red tides dominated by dinoflagellates. Based on this information, we suggested a new marine planktonic food web focusing on mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates and provided an insight on the roles of dinoflagellates in the food web.

  5. Toxic dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Lesley L; Smith, Kirsty F; Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andy I; McNabb, Paul S; Holland, Patrick T; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine

    2010-10-01

    Dinoflagellate species isolated from the green calcareous seaweed, Halimeda sp. J.V. Lamouroux, growing in Rarotongan lagoons, included Gambierdiscus australes Faust & Chinain, Coolia monotis Meunier, Amphidinium carterae Hulburth, Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge, P. cf. maculosum Faust and species in the genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. Isolates were identified to species level by scanning electron microscopy and/or DNA sequence analysis. Culture extracts of G. australes isolate CAWD149 gave a response of 0.04 pg P-CTX-1 equiv. per cell by an N2A cytotoxicity assay (equivalent to ca 0.4 pg CTX-3C cell(-1)). However, ciguatoxins were not detected by LC-MS/MS. Partitioned fractions of the cell extracts potentially containing maitotoxin were found to be very toxic to mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A. carterae was also of interest as extracts of mass cultures caused respiratory paralysis in mice at high doses, both by i.p. injection and by oral administration. The Rarotongan isolate fell into a different clade to New Zealand A. carterae isolates, based on DNA sequence analysis, and also had a different toxin profile. As A. carterae co-occurred with G. australes, it may contribute to human poisonings attributed to CTX and warrants further investigation. A crude extract of C. monotis was of low toxicity to mice by i.p. injection, and an extract of Ostreopsis sp. was negative in the palytoxin haemolysis neutralisation assay.

  6. Toxic dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Lesley L; Smith, Kirsty F; Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andy I; McNabb, Paul S; Holland, Patrick T; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine

    2010-10-01

    Dinoflagellate species isolated from the green calcareous seaweed, Halimeda sp. J.V. Lamouroux, growing in Rarotongan lagoons, included Gambierdiscus australes Faust & Chinain, Coolia monotis Meunier, Amphidinium carterae Hulburth, Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge, P. cf. maculosum Faust and species in the genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. Isolates were identified to species level by scanning electron microscopy and/or DNA sequence analysis. Culture extracts of G. australes isolate CAWD149 gave a response of 0.04 pg P-CTX-1 equiv. per cell by an N2A cytotoxicity assay (equivalent to ca 0.4 pg CTX-3C cell(-1)). However, ciguatoxins were not detected by LC-MS/MS. Partitioned fractions of the cell extracts potentially containing maitotoxin were found to be very toxic to mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A. carterae was also of interest as extracts of mass cultures caused respiratory paralysis in mice at high doses, both by i.p. injection and by oral administration. The Rarotongan isolate fell into a different clade to New Zealand A. carterae isolates, based on DNA sequence analysis, and also had a different toxin profile. As A. carterae co-occurred with G. australes, it may contribute to human poisonings attributed to CTX and warrants further investigation. A crude extract of C. monotis was of low toxicity to mice by i.p. injection, and an extract of Ostreopsis sp. was negative in the palytoxin haemolysis neutralisation assay. PMID:19481563

  7. [Differential sonographic diagnosis. Pancreas (pseudo) cyst--choledochus cyst].

    PubMed

    Brockmann, W P; Klapdor, R; Kremer, B

    1984-10-01

    The case of a woman patient with an extended prepapillary choledochal cyst and pancreaticobiliary reflux shows that it is necessary to consider the possibility of a choledochal cyst on detecting a cystic structure in the head of the pancreas (condition after acute pancreatitis); besides this, differential diagnosis will have to consider a pancreatic pseudocyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, a retroperitoneal cyst or even vascular aneurysm. If necessary, the physician should take suitable diagnostic measures before performing any percutaneous cyst drainage which he may have planned, since this may entail the risk of biliary peritonitis.

  8. Giant supratentorial neurenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Muhammad; Kalsoom, Anisa; Khalid, Muhammad; Bukhari, Syed Sarmad

    2014-11-01

    Intracranial neurenteric cysts are rare congenital lesions that may be mistaken for other cystic neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. A 35 years old right handed man presented with a one year history of progressive left hemiparesis, headache, personality changes and seizures. Clinical examination revealed a confused patient with left hemiparesis (power 4/5 in both left upper and lower limbs), upper motor neuron type signs in left half of the body (up going plantar reflex and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes at 3+), left facial weakness of upper motor neuron type. CT scan head with contrast revealed a non-enhancing spherical cystic lesion in the frontotemporoparietal region with minimal to moderate mass effect. The cyst was removed using a combination of hydrodissection and excision. Recovery was complete with no evidence of recurrence or residual disease at 3 months.

  9. Angiomyolipoma With Epithelial Cysts.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Michael A; Rao, Priya

    2016-06-01

    Angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts is a rare mesenchymal tumor of the kidney that enters in the differential diagnosis of adult cystic renal neoplasms. These tumors demonstrate a slight female predominance and can present either incidentally or with symptoms, commonly flank pain and hematuria. Unlike conventional angiomyolipoma, this variant is characterized grossly by both solid and cystic areas, and histologically by the presence of single or multiple cysts lined by epithelial cells, a subepithelial "cambium-like" layer of small stromal cells with a prominent capillary vasculature, and a thick exterior wall composed of poorly formed fascicles of smooth muscle and thick-walled dysplastic blood vessels. Tumors show a distinct immunohistochemical profile and are often reactive for melanocytic markers (HMB-45 and Melan-A), as well as estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. These tumors have an indolent clinical course, with no reports of progression or metastasis in reported cases thus far.

  10. Giant supratentorial neurenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Muhammad; Kalsoom, Anisa; Khalid, Muhammad; Bukhari, Syed Sarmad

    2014-11-01

    Intracranial neurenteric cysts are rare congenital lesions that may be mistaken for other cystic neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. A 35 years old right handed man presented with a one year history of progressive left hemiparesis, headache, personality changes and seizures. Clinical examination revealed a confused patient with left hemiparesis (power 4/5 in both left upper and lower limbs), upper motor neuron type signs in left half of the body (up going plantar reflex and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes at 3+), left facial weakness of upper motor neuron type. CT scan head with contrast revealed a non-enhancing spherical cystic lesion in the frontotemporoparietal region with minimal to moderate mass effect. The cyst was removed using a combination of hydrodissection and excision. Recovery was complete with no evidence of recurrence or residual disease at 3 months. PMID:25518778

  11. [Arachnoid cysts: Embriology and pathology].

    PubMed

    García-Conde, Mario; Martín-Viota, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    There is still great controversy surrounding the origin of the arachnoid cyst. The most accepted theory in the case of congenital cysts explains how they are formed from an anomalous development of the arachnoid membrane, which is unfolded allowing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside and creating a cyst. This theory seems to explain the origin of convexity and sylvian cistern arachnoid cysts, whereas those in other locations might be due to other mechanisms. In the anatomopathological analysis, the arachnoid cyst wall can be seen as having few differences from normal, although thickened due to an increase quantity of collagenous material. A description of the embryological development of the arachnoid layer and cyst formation is presented, describing the main anatomopathological findings.

  12. Retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and omental cysts.

    PubMed

    Vanek, V W; Phillips, A K

    1984-07-01

    Retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and omental cysts are rare abdominal tumors occurring in approximately one of 105,000 hospitalized patients. These cysts have a similar pathogenesis that primarily may be ectopic lymphatic tissue. Retroperitoneal and mesenteric cysts can occur anywhere in the area between the duodenum and rectum but are most common in the small-bowel mesentery, especially the ileum. They can appear as chronic abdominal pain, a painless abdominal mass, or acute abdomen. The most common physical finding of a retroperitoneal or mesenteric cyst is a compressible abdominal mass, movable transversely but not longitudinally; omental cysts are freely movable. Diagnostic aids include abdominal computed tomography and ultrasound. The upper gastro-intestinal (GI) tract series, barium enema examination, and intravenous pyelogram exclude GI and genitourinary cysts and tumors. Treatment of choice is enucleation; resection of the adjacent bowel may occasionally be necessary. Morbidity and mortality should be very low because of modern surgical techniques and follow-up procedures.

  13. Maxillary Air Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options. PMID:24421932

  14. [Retroperitoneal enteroid cyst].

    PubMed

    Patel, J C; Monneins, F; Louvel, A

    1975-04-01

    The author report a case of enteroid retroperitoneal cyst treated by enucleation. Such a lesion raises mainly the problem of histological recognition and embryological interpretation for which there are two possible theories: (1) Uptake, before sealing off of the embryo, of a cell group of endoblastic origin which develops some distance from the digestive tract. (2) Retroperitoneal course of a simple teratoma of enteroid type. Such a possibility of teratoma leaves open the possibility of malignant transformation.

  15. Historical records from dated sediment cores reveal the multidecadal dynamic of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Bay of Brest (France).

    PubMed

    Klouch, Khadidja Z; Schmidt, Sabine; Andrieux-Loyer, Françoise; Le Gac, Mickaël; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Qui-Minet, Zujaila N; Quéré, Julien; Bigeard, Estelle; Guillou, Laure; Siano, Raffaele

    2016-07-01

    The multiannual dynamic of the cyst-forming and toxic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum was studied over a time scale of about 150 years by a paleoecological approach based on ancient DNA (aDNA) quantification and cyst revivification data obtained from two dated sediment cores of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France). The first genetic traces of the species presence in the study area dated back to 1873 ± 6. Specific aDNA could be quantified by a newly developed real-time PCR assay in the upper core layers, in which the germination of the species (in up to 17-19-year-old sediments) was also obtained. In both cores studied, our quantitative paleogenetic data showed a statistically significant increasing trend in the abundance of A. minutum ITS1 rDNA copies over time, corroborating three decades of local plankton data that have documented an increasing trend in the species cell abundance. By comparison, paleogenetic data of the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella donghaienis did not show a coherent trend between the cores studied, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of a species-specific dynamic of A. minutum in the study area. This work contributes to the development of paleoecological research, further showing its potential for biogeographical, ecological and evolutionary studies on marine microbes.

  16. Historical records from dated sediment cores reveal the multidecadal dynamic of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Bay of Brest (France).

    PubMed

    Klouch, Khadidja Z; Schmidt, Sabine; Andrieux-Loyer, Françoise; Le Gac, Mickaël; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Qui-Minet, Zujaila N; Quéré, Julien; Bigeard, Estelle; Guillou, Laure; Siano, Raffaele

    2016-07-01

    The multiannual dynamic of the cyst-forming and toxic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum was studied over a time scale of about 150 years by a paleoecological approach based on ancient DNA (aDNA) quantification and cyst revivification data obtained from two dated sediment cores of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France). The first genetic traces of the species presence in the study area dated back to 1873 ± 6. Specific aDNA could be quantified by a newly developed real-time PCR assay in the upper core layers, in which the germination of the species (in up to 17-19-year-old sediments) was also obtained. In both cores studied, our quantitative paleogenetic data showed a statistically significant increasing trend in the abundance of A. minutum ITS1 rDNA copies over time, corroborating three decades of local plankton data that have documented an increasing trend in the species cell abundance. By comparison, paleogenetic data of the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella donghaienis did not show a coherent trend between the cores studied, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of a species-specific dynamic of A. minutum in the study area. This work contributes to the development of paleoecological research, further showing its potential for biogeographical, ecological and evolutionary studies on marine microbes. PMID:27162179

  17. Intrasphenoidal rathke cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Megdiche-Bazarbacha, H; Ben Hammouda, K; Aicha, A B; Sebai, R; Belghith, L; Khaldi, M; Touibi, S

    2006-05-01

    Symptomatic Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) are reported in the sellar and suprasellar regions, but no case of sphenoidal RCC has been reported. We report a case of sphenoidal RCC in a 41-year-old man. The lesion was revealed by headaches and diplopia. Symptoms disappeared transiently after a spontaneous rhinorrhea but relapsed 4 months later. MR imaging showed a cystic sphenoidal lesion, isointense on T1-weighted images (WI) with peripheral gadolinium enhancement and hyperintense on T2 WI. The patient underwent surgery through a transrhinoseptal approach. The wall of the sphenoid sinus was paper-thin. The cyst contained a motor-oil-like fluid and communicated widely with the nasal fossa. Its wall was partially extracted. Symptoms and signs ceased after surgery. MR imaging performed 1 year later showed the disappearance of the sphenoidal cyst. Embryological origin of RCCs is discussed. The hypothesis of a continuum between the different epithelial cystic lesions of the sellar and parasellar region is discussed. Imaging has an important impact on the diagnosis; nevertheless, the specific characterization remains difficult. PMID:16687551

  18. Conjunctival cysts in anophthalmic orbits.

    PubMed Central

    Smit, T J; Koornneef, L; Zonneveld, F W

    1991-01-01

    Five out of 149 patients (3%) who received an intraorbital implant to prevent or treat the disfiguring symptoms associated with the postenucleation socket syndrome developed intraorbital conjunctival cysts. All five patients had received a secondary implant two 14 months previously. After excision of the cysts four patients required additional surgery for lack of conjunctiva and/or recurrent cyst formation. The clinical findings, mechanism of development, and management of this rare but serious complication of socket surgery are described. Images PMID:2043576

  19. [Mesoappendix cyst. A case report].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Jarquín, José Alvaro; Romero-Morales, Luis Enrique; Enríquez-Adalid, Ramiro Martín; Mendoza-García, Valentín Aurelio; Reyes-Páramo, Pedro; López-Colomo, Aurelio

    2008-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are lesions that appear very rare. Its incidence ranges from 1:20,000 in children and 1:100,000 in adults. Their clinical manifestations are atypical and they include abdominal pain, vomit, tumor and complications from hemorrhage, peritonitis when there is a rupture of infected cyst, intestinal occlusion, renal failure, volvulus and malignant transformation. We present a case of mesenteric cyst, located in the mesoappendix with slight vascular compromise and chronic symptoms, its treatment and evolution.

  20. Giant adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney.

    PubMed

    Chodisetti, Subbarao; Boddepalli, Yogesh; Kota, Malakondareddy

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cysts are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cysts. We present a case of a huge adrenal cyst displacing the right kidney anteriorly toward the left side in a young female.

  1. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  2. Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Dorrell, Richard G; Howe, Christopher J

    2015-08-18

    After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function.

  3. Retroperitoneal cysts: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pace, Gianna; Galatioto Paradiso, Giuseppe; Galassi, Paolo; Vicentini, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Retroperitoneal cysts are rare lesions, variable from asymptomatic cases with incidental discovery to case with acute or chronic abdominal discomfort. A 50-year-old female after a car crash refered chronic abdominal pain. An X-ray revealed the presence of sternal and multiple costal fractures. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) lead to the discovery of a retroperitoneal cyst too. As the patient was well after fractures solution, we decided to control the cyst in the time. In symptomatic cases surgery is the treatment of choice. The advent of laparoscopic surgery allows resection of these cysts to be achieved without full laparotomy.

  4. Environmental Barcoding Reveals Massive Dinoflagellate Diversity in Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Rowena F.; Horak, Ales; Andrew, Rose L.; Coffroth, Mary-Alice; Andersen, Robert A.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Jameson, Ian; Hoppenrath, Mona; Véron, Benoît; Kasai, Fumai; Brand, Jerry; James, Erick R.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known “species”, as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean), including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species. Conclusions/Significance COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of

  5. Unusual localization of hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Türkyilmaz, Z; Sönmez, K; Karabulut, R; Göl, I H; Başaklar, A C; Kale, N

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of a single large echinococcal cyst that originated from the retroperitoneal space. Diagnosis was confirmed with serologic test and radiological examinations. Especially in the endemic areas hydatid cyst should be considered when evaluating cystic masses and it can be treated by extraperitoneal operation.

  6. Retroperitoneal malignant cyst. Case report.

    PubMed

    Melén, K; Sandermann, J; Stubberöd, A; Boiesen, P

    1991-10-01

    Forty years after removal of a benign mucinous cyst from the left retroperitoneal space, a malignant cyst with both sarcomatous and carcinomatous components was removed from the same site in a 75-year-old woman. Within 6 months the lesion recurred as a carcinoma penetrating the left colon and the abdominal wall.

  7. Diagnosis and management of choledochal cyst: 20 years of single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Gadelhak, Nabil; Shehta, Ahmed; Hamed, Hosam

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case series from Africa and the Middle East on choledochal cyst, a disease which shows significant geographical distribution with high incidence in the Asian population. In this study, the epidemiological data of the patients are presented and analyzed. Attention was paid to diagnostic imaging and its accuracy in the diagnosis and classification of choledochal cyst. Most cases of choledochal cyst disease have type I and IV-A cysts according to the Todani classification system, which support the etiological theories of choledochal cyst, especially Babbitt’s theory of the anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction, which are clearly stated. The difficulties and hazards of surgical management and methods used to avoid operative complications are clarified. Early and late postoperative complications are also included. This study should be followed by multicenter studies throughout Egypt to help assess the incidence of choledochal cysts in one of the largest populations in Africa and the Middle East. PMID:24944503

  8. Diagnosis and management of choledochal cyst: 20 years of single center experience.

    PubMed

    Gadelhak, Nabil; Shehta, Ahmed; Hamed, Hosam

    2014-06-14

    We report the first case series from Africa and the Middle East on choledochal cyst, a disease which shows significant geographical distribution with high incidence in the Asian population. In this study, the epidemiological data of the patients are presented and analyzed. Attention was paid to diagnostic imaging and its accuracy in the diagnosis and classification of choledochal cyst. Most cases of choledochal cyst disease have type I and IV-A cysts according to the Todani classification system, which support the etiological theories of choledochal cyst, especially Babbitt's theory of the anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction, which are clearly stated. The difficulties and hazards of surgical management and methods used to avoid operative complications are clarified. Early and late postoperative complications are also included. This study should be followed by multicenter studies throughout Egypt to help assess the incidence of choledochal cysts in one of the largest populations in Africa and the Middle East.

  9. Feeding by heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (Clade E).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Lim, An Suk; Yoo, Yeong Du; Lee, Moo Joon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Jang, Tae Young; Lee, Kitack

    2014-01-01

    To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on Symbiodinium sp., we tested whether the common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Gyrodinium spirale, Oblea rotundata, Oxyrrhis marina, and Polykrikos kofoidii and the ciliates Balanion sp. and Parastrombidinopsis sp. preyed on the free-living dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. (clade E). We measured the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. as a function of prey concentration. Furthermore, we compared the results to those obtained for other algal prey species. In addition, we measured the growth and ingestion rates of other predators at single prey concentrations at which these rates of O. marina and G. dominans were saturated. All predators tested in the present study, except Balanion sp., preyed on Symbiodinium sp. The specific growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration < ca. 740-815 ng C/ml (7,400-8,150 cells/ml), but became saturated at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rates of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (0.87 and 0.61/d) were much higher than those of G. moestrupii and P. kofoidii (0.11 and 0.04/d). Symbiodinium sp. did not support positive growth of G. spirale, O. rotundata, and Parastrombidinopsis sp. However, the maximum ingestion rates of P. kofoidii and Parastrombidinopsis sp. (6.7-10.0 ng C/predator/d) were much higher than those of O. marina and G. dominans on Symbiodinium sp. (1.9-2.1 ng C/predator/d). The results of the present study suggest that Symbiodinium sp. may increase or maintain the populations of some predators.

  10. Laparoscopic treatment of mesenteric cysts.

    PubMed

    Asoglu, O; Igci, A; Karanlik, H; Parlak, M; Kecer, M; Ozmen, V; Muslumanoglu, M

    2003-05-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intraabdominal tumors. We review the diagnosis, laparoscopic management, patient's outcome and follow-up of evaluation for three cases of mesenteric cyst that presented to Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical School, Department of Surgery, from 1999 to 2002. All of the patients presented with nonspecific abdominal symptoms such as constipation, abdominal discomfort, and anorexia. Preoperative evaluation for differentiating mesenteric cyst from malignancy is made by abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography. The procedure was completed laparoscopically using three trocars in three patients. In one patient retroperitoneal resection was performed. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 36 months, and there were no recurrences. Currently, the surgical treatment of mesenteric cyst should be performed by laparoscopy, which offers significant advantages in terms of reduced morbidity and hospital stay. For appropriate cases in which cyst arises from mesenterium of colon, the retroperitoneal approach should be applied.

  11. Simple cyst of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Bo, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure.

  12. STEROLS AS BIOMARKERS IN GYMNODINIUM BREVE DISTRIBUTION IN DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sterol composition of marine microalgae has been shown to be a chemotaxonomic property potentially of value in distinguishing members of different algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae display sterol compositions ranging from as few as two (cholesterol ...

  13. DESCRIPTION OF TYRANNODINIUM GEN. NOV., A FRESHWATER DINOFLAGELLATE CLOSELY RELATED TO THE MARINE PFIESTERIA-LIKE SPECIES(1).

    PubMed

    Calado, António J; Craveiro, Sandra C; Daugbjerg, Niels; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2009-10-01

    On the basis of morphological (light and electron microscopy) as well molecular data, we show that the widely distributed freshwater dinoflagellate presently known as Peridiniopsis berolinensis is a member of the family Pfiesteriaceae, an otherwise marine and estuarine family of dinoflagellates. P. berolinensis is a close relative of the marine species, which it resembles in morphology, mode of swimming, food-uptake mechanism, and partial LSU rRNA sequences. It differs from all known genera of the family in plate tabulation. P. berolinensis is only distantly related to the type species of Peridiniopsis, P. borgei, and is therefore transferred to the new genus Tyrannodinium as T. berolinense comb. nov. T. berolinense is a very common freshwater flagellate that feeds vigorously on other protists and is able to consume injured metazoans much larger than itself. Production of toxins has not been reported.

  14. Auriculotemporal neuralgia secondary to TMJ synovial cyst: a rare presentation of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Hossein; Robertson, Carrie E; Lane, John I; Viozzi, Christopher F; Garza, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Synovial cysts of the temporomandibular joint are rare, and to our knowledge, only 14 cases have been reported. The most common presentation is local pain and swelling. We present a case of a synovial cyst presenting with neuralgia in the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve, initially misdiagnosed as trigeminal neuralgia.

  15. A quantitative real-time PCR assay for the identification and enumeration of Alexandrium cysts in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Erdner, D.L.; Percy, L.; Keafer, B.; Lewis, J.; Anderson, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a global problem that affects both human and ecosystem health. One of the most serious and widespread HAB poisoning syndromes is paralytic shellfish poisoning, commonly caused by Alexandrium spp. dinoflagellates. Like many toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium produces resistant resting cysts as part of its life cycle. These cysts play a key role in bloom initiation and decline, as well as dispersal and colonization of new areas. Information on cyst numbers and identity is essential for understanding and predicting blooms, yet comprehensive cyst surveys are extremely time- and labor-intensive. Here we describe the development and validation of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique for the enumeration of cysts of A. tamarense of the toxic North American/Group I ribotype. The method uses a cloned fragment of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene as a standard for cyst quantification, with an experimentally determined conversion factor of 28,402±6152 LSU ribosomal gene copies per cyst. Tests of DNA extraction and PCR efficiency show that mechanical breakage is required for adequate cyst lysis, and that it was necessary to dilute our DNA extracts 50-fold in order to abolish PCR inhibition from compounds co-extracted from the sediment. The resulting assay shows a linear response over 6 orders of magnitude and can reliably quantify ≥10cysts/cc sediment. For method validation, 129 natural sediment samples were split and analyzed in parallel, using both the qPCR and primulin-staining techniques. Overall, there is a significant correlation (p<0.001) between the cyst abundances determined by the two methods, although the qPCR counts tend to be lower than the primulin values. This underestimation is less pronounced in those samples collected from the top 1 cm of sediment, and more pronounced in those derived from the next 1–3 cm of the core. These differences may be due to the condition of the cysts in the different layers, as the top

  16. A quantitative real-time PCR assay for the identification and enumeration of Alexandrium cysts in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdner, D. L.; Percy, L.; Keafer, B.; Lewis, J.; Anderson, D. M.

    2010-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a global problem that affects both human and ecosystem health. One of the most serious and widespread HAB poisoning syndromes is paralytic shellfish poisoning, commonly caused by Alexandrium spp. dinoflagellates. Like many toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium produces resistant resting cysts as part of its life cycle. These cysts play a key role in bloom initiation and decline, as well as dispersal and colonization of new areas. Information on cyst numbers and identity is essential for understanding and predicting blooms, yet comprehensive cyst surveys are extremely time- and labor-intensive. Here we describe the development and validation of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique for the enumeration of cysts of A. tamarense of the toxic North American/Group I ribotype. The method uses a cloned fragment of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene as a standard for cyst quantification, with an experimentally determined conversion factor of 28,402±6152 LSU ribosomal gene copies per cyst. Tests of DNA extraction and PCR efficiency show that mechanical breakage is required for adequate cyst lysis, and that it was necessary to dilute our DNA extracts 50-fold in order to abolish PCR inhibition from compounds co-extracted from the sediment. The resulting assay shows a linear response over 6 orders of magnitude and can reliably quantify ≥10 cysts/cm 3 sediment. For method validation, 129 natural sediment samples were split and analyzed in parallel, using both the qPCR and primulin-staining techniques. Overall, there is a significant correlation ( p<0.001) between the cyst abundances determined by the two methods, although the qPCR counts tend to be lower than the primulin values. This underestimation is less pronounced in those samples collected from the top 1 cm of sediment, and more pronounced in those derived from the next 1-3 cm of the core. These differences may be due to the condition of the cysts in the different layers, as the

  17. Giant retroperitoneal cyst in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Egawa, S; Satoh, T; Suyama, K; Uchida, T; Iwabuchi, K; Koshiba, K

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents a case of a symptomatic giant retroperitoneal cyst in an adult male. The unilocular cyst was excised successfully with resolution of the attendant symptoms. Histological findings of the cyst wall suggested a lymphangiomatous etiology. Any good risk patient found to harbor such a cyst should undergo complete excision in view of the potential for the development of symptoms and complications.

  18. [Two cystic retroperitoneal lesions mimicking adrenal cysts].

    PubMed

    Grabellus, F; Dereskewitz, C; Schmitz, K J; Kaiser, G M; Kühl, H; Kersting, C; Frilling, A; Metz, K A; Baba, H A

    2005-05-01

    Adrenal cysts are uncommon lesions and most of them are found incidentally during abdominal imaging. We report on two benign extraadrenal lesions mimicking adrenal tumors in abdominal imaging. The histopathological investigation of the lesions revealed a foregut duplication cyst of the lesser gastric curvature and an epithelial inclusion cyst (epidermoid cyst) in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen respectively.

  19. Bilateral nasolabial cysts: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Christmas, Peter I

    2009-06-01

    The nasolabial cyst is one of the rarer soft tissue cysts, and presents beneath the alae of the nose. There have been few reports of an association between nasolabial cysts and dacryocystitis (an infection of the nasolacrimal sac). This case report describes a female who presented with bilateral nasolabial cysts and longstanding symptoms of epiphora (watery eye).

  20. Prey-dependent retention of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) by mixotrophic dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunwoo; Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Jeong, Hae Jin; Yoo, Yeong Du

    2012-01-01

    Summary We investigated the retention of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in phototrophic dinoflagellates arising from mixotrophy by estimating the cellular content of DMSP in Karlodinium veneficum (mixotrophic growth) fed for 7–10 days on either DMSP-rich Amphidinium carterae (phototrophic growth only) or DMSP-poor Teleaulax sp. (phototrophic growth only). In K. veneficum fed on DMSP-poor prey, the cellular content of DMSP remained almost unchanged regardless of the rate of feeding, whereas the cellular content of DMSP in cells of K. veneficum fed on DMSP-rich prey increased by as much as 21 times the cellular concentration derived exclusively from phototrophic growth. In both cases, significant fractions (10–32% in the former case and 55–65% in the latter) of the total DMSP ingested by K. veneficum were transformed into dimethylsulfide and other biochemical compounds. The results may indicate that the DMSP content of prey species affects temporal variations in the cellular DMSP content of mixotrophic dinoflagellates, and that mixotrophic dinoflagellates produce DMS through grazing on DMSP-rich preys. Additional studies should be performed to examine the universality of our finding in other mixotrophic dinoflagellates feeding on diverse prey species. PMID:21958033

  1. Endosymbiotic gene transfer in tertiary plastid-containing dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Burki, Fabien; Imanian, Behzad; Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Keeling, Patrick J

    2014-02-01

    Plastid establishment involves the transfer of endosymbiotic genes to the host nucleus, a process known as endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT). Large amounts of EGT have been shown in several photosynthetic lineages but also in present-day plastid-lacking organisms, supporting the notion that endosymbiotic genes leave a substantial genetic footprint in the host nucleus. Yet the extent of this genetic relocation remains debated, largely because the long period that has passed since most plastids originated has erased many of the clues to how this process unfolded. Among the dinoflagellates, however, the ancestral peridinin-containing plastid has been replaced by tertiary plastids on several more recent occasions, giving us a less ancient window to examine plastid origins. In this study, we evaluated the endosymbiotic contribution to the host genome in two dinoflagellate lineages with tertiary plastids. We generated the first nuclear transcriptome data sets for the "dinotoms," which harbor diatom-derived plastids, and analyzed these data in combination with the available transcriptomes for kareniaceans, which harbor haptophyte-derived plastids. We found low level of detectable EGT in both dinoflagellate lineages, with only 9 genes and 90 genes of possible tertiary endosymbiotic origin in dinotoms and kareniaceans, respectively, suggesting that tertiary endosymbioses did not heavily impact the host dinoflagellate genomes.

  2. Tertiary endosymbiosis driven genome evolution in dinoflagellate algae.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hwan Su; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Van Dolah, Frances M; Nosenko, Tetyana; Lidie, Kristy L; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2005-05-01

    Dinoflagellates are important aquatic primary producers and cause "red tides." The most widespread plastid (photosynthetic organelle) in these algae contains the unique accessory pigment peridinin. This plastid putatively originated via a red algal secondary endosymbiosis and has some remarkable features, the most notable being a genome that is reduced to 1-3 gene minicircles with about 14 genes (out of an original 130-200) remaining in the organelle and a nuclear-encoded proteobacterial Form II Rubisco. The "missing" plastid genes are relocated to the nucleus via a massive transfer unequaled in other photosynthetic eukaryotes. The fate of these characters is unknown in a number of dinoflagellates that have replaced the peridinin plastid through tertiary endosymbiosis. We addressed this issue in the fucoxanthin dinoflagellates (e.g., Karenia brevis) that contain a captured haptophyte plastid. Our multiprotein phylogenetic analyses provide robust support for the haptophyte plastid replacement and are consistent with a red algal origin of the chromalveolate plastid. We then generated an expressed sequence tag (EST) database of 5,138 unique genes from K. brevis and searched for nuclear genes of plastid function. The EST data indicate the loss of the ancestral peridinin plastid characters in K. brevis including the transferred plastid genes and Form II Rubisco. These results underline the remarkable ability of dinoflagellates to remodel their genomes through endosymbiosis and the considerable impact of this process on cell evolution.

  3. Penile Epidermal Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumaraguru, Veerapandian; Prabhu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal cysts also known as epidermoid cysts, is one of the common benign tumours presenting anywhere in the body. However, epidermal cyst in the penis is very rare. This condition in children is usually congenital due to abnormal embryologic closure of the median raphe; hence, it is termed as median raphe cysts (MRCs). Penile epidermal cysts may occur in adults following trauma or surgery due to epidermal elements being trapped within closed space. During wound healing, trapped squamous epithelium, undergoing keratinisation leads to cyst formation. Here, we report a rare case of patient with a penile epidermoid cyst whose main complaints was discomfort during coitus. PMID:27437298

  4. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  5. A ten-year survey of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies of Seoul, the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mok-Young; Cho, Eun-Joo; Lee, Jin-Hyo; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Sang

    2011-03-01

    To understand the distribution of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies in Seoul, Korea, we collected water samples quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River, its largest stream and 6 conventional water treatment plants (WTPs) serving drinking water, from 2000 to 2009. Giardia cysts in each of 10 L water were confirmed in 35.0% of intake water samples and the arithmetic mean was 1.65 cysts/10 L (range 0-35 cysts/10 L). The lowest cyst density was observed at Paldang and Kangbuk intakes, and the pollution level was higher at 4 intakes downstream. It seemed that these 4 intakes were under influence of Wangsuk stream at the end of which cysts were found in all samples with the mean of 140 cysts/10 L. The annual mean number of cysts was 0.21-4.21 cysts/10 L, and the cyst level at the second half of the 10 years was about 1/5 of that at first half on average. The cysts were more frequently found in winter, and their mean density was 3.74 cysts/10 L in winter and 0.80-1.08 cysts/10 L in other seasons. All finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Giardia in each of 100 L sample for 10 years and cyst removal by physical process was average 2.9-log. It was concluded that conventional water treatment at 6 WTPs of Seoul appears to remove the cysts effectively under the present level of their source water. Domestic wastewater from the urban region could be an important source of Giardia pollution in the river.

  6. Characterization of Two Dinoflagellate Cold Shock Domain Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Beauchemin, Mathieu; Roy, Sougata; Pelletier, Sarah; Averback, Alexandra; Lanthier, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly two-thirds of the proteins annotated as transcription factors in dinoflagellate transcriptomes are cold shock domain-containing proteins (CSPs), an uncommon condition in eukaryotic organisms. However, no functional analysis has ever been reported for a dinoflagellate CSP, and so it is not known if they do in fact act as transcription factors. We describe here some of the properties of two CSPs from the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum, LpCSP1 and LpCSP2, which contain a glycine-rich C-terminal domain and an N-terminal cold shock domain phylogenetically related to those in bacteria. However, neither of the two LpCSPs act like the bacterial CSP, since they do not functionally complement the Escherichia coli quadruple cold shock domain protein mutant BX04, and cold shock does not induce LpCSP1 and LpCSP2 to detectable levels, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both CSPs bind to RNA and single-stranded DNA in a nonspecific manner in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and both proteins also bind double-stranded DNA nonspecifically, albeit more weakly. These CSPs are thus unlikely to act alone as sequence-specific transcription factors. IMPORTANCE Dinoflagellate transcriptomes contain cold shock domain proteins as the major component of the proteins annotated as transcription factors. We show here that the major family of cold shock domain proteins in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium do not bind specific sequences, suggesting that transcriptional control is not a predominant mechanism for regulating gene expression in this group of protists. PMID:27303711

  7. Characterization of Two Dinoflagellate Cold Shock Domain Proteins.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, Mathieu; Roy, Sougata; Pelletier, Sarah; Averback, Alexandra; Lanthier, Frederic; Morse, David

    2016-01-01

    Roughly two-thirds of the proteins annotated as transcription factors in dinoflagellate transcriptomes are cold shock domain-containing proteins (CSPs), an uncommon condition in eukaryotic organisms. However, no functional analysis has ever been reported for a dinoflagellate CSP, and so it is not known if they do in fact act as transcription factors. We describe here some of the properties of two CSPs from the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum, LpCSP1 and LpCSP2, which contain a glycine-rich C-terminal domain and an N-terminal cold shock domain phylogenetically related to those in bacteria. However, neither of the two LpCSPs act like the bacterial CSP, since they do not functionally complement the Escherichia coli quadruple cold shock domain protein mutant BX04, and cold shock does not induce LpCSP1 and LpCSP2 to detectable levels, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both CSPs bind to RNA and single-stranded DNA in a nonspecific manner in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and both proteins also bind double-stranded DNA nonspecifically, albeit more weakly. These CSPs are thus unlikely to act alone as sequence-specific transcription factors. IMPORTANCE Dinoflagellate transcriptomes contain cold shock domain proteins as the major component of the proteins annotated as transcription factors. We show here that the major family of cold shock domain proteins in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium do not bind specific sequences, suggesting that transcriptional control is not a predominant mechanism for regulating gene expression in this group of protists.

  8. Characterization of Two Dinoflagellate Cold Shock Domain Proteins.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, Mathieu; Roy, Sougata; Pelletier, Sarah; Averback, Alexandra; Lanthier, Frederic; Morse, David

    2016-01-01

    Roughly two-thirds of the proteins annotated as transcription factors in dinoflagellate transcriptomes are cold shock domain-containing proteins (CSPs), an uncommon condition in eukaryotic organisms. However, no functional analysis has ever been reported for a dinoflagellate CSP, and so it is not known if they do in fact act as transcription factors. We describe here some of the properties of two CSPs from the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum, LpCSP1 and LpCSP2, which contain a glycine-rich C-terminal domain and an N-terminal cold shock domain phylogenetically related to those in bacteria. However, neither of the two LpCSPs act like the bacterial CSP, since they do not functionally complement the Escherichia coli quadruple cold shock domain protein mutant BX04, and cold shock does not induce LpCSP1 and LpCSP2 to detectable levels, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both CSPs bind to RNA and single-stranded DNA in a nonspecific manner in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and both proteins also bind double-stranded DNA nonspecifically, albeit more weakly. These CSPs are thus unlikely to act alone as sequence-specific transcription factors. IMPORTANCE Dinoflagellate transcriptomes contain cold shock domain proteins as the major component of the proteins annotated as transcription factors. We show here that the major family of cold shock domain proteins in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium do not bind specific sequences, suggesting that transcriptional control is not a predominant mechanism for regulating gene expression in this group of protists. PMID:27303711

  9. Eruption cysts: A series of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Preeti; Kochhar, Gulsheen Kaur; Chachra, Sanjay; Advani, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Eruption cysts are benign cysts that appear on the mucosa of a tooth shortly before its eruption. They may disappear by themselves but if they hurt, bleed or are infected they may require surgical treatment to expose the tooth and drain the contents. Here we present 2 case reports of eruption cysts presenting with different chief complaint. The treatment included incising the eruption cyst and draining the contents of the cyst. PMID:23559935

  10. [Treatment of nonparasitic hepatic cysts].

    PubMed

    Bababeĭli, É Iu

    2014-06-01

    The results of treatment of 160 patients, suffering nonparasitic hepatic cysts (NHC), in 2004 - 2013 yrs period are presented. Algorithm of NHC diagnostic and treatment was elaborated. There was noted, that NHC may persist durably, not enhancing, what was confirmed by results of ultrasonographic investigation in dynamics. Threat of fatal complications occurrence in presence of hepatic cysts is exaggerated. The author recommends to restrict indications for operative treatment of cysts, restraintly concerns to their laparoscopic excision, consider the puncture-aspiration method the main in treatment of the disease. The method technology and results of its application are adduced. PMID:25252548

  11. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Truong, L D; Rangdaeng, S; Jordan, P H

    1987-11-01

    A rare cystic lesion of the pancreas is reported. Morphologically, this unilocular cyst was filled with keratin material and lined by mature, keratinizing squamous epithelium; it was surrounded by lymphoid tissue and also focally by pancreatic tissue. Clinically, the lesion was associated with diarrhea and abdominal pain, both of which promptly disappeared after its removal. Although the histogenesis of this lesion is not known, it can be histologically differentiated from other pancreatic and retroperitoneal cysts. We propose the name "lymphoepithelial cyst" for this lesion and note that only one similar case has been described previously.

  12. Splenic hydatid cyst attacking retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Bülent; Uçtum, Yalım; Kutanış, Rıza

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid disease most commonly affects the liver and lungs but no organ is immune. Splenic hydatid cyst is a rare clinical entity. Although the patients are usually asymptomatic, the disease may present with secondary infection, adhesion to adjacent organs with fistulisation or rupture into abdominal cavity. We present a 67 year old women with splenic hydatid cyst. Severe adhesions and tumorlike growth were found in the retroperitoneal region. To our knowledge, retroperitoneal invasion with a splenic hydatid cyst is a very rare clinical condition. Total splenectomy was performed without complication.

  13. Renal hydatid cyst treatment: retroperitoneoscopic "closed cyst" pericystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Ender; Bostanci, Yakup; Mercimek, Mehmet Necmettin; Yakupoglu, Yarkin Kamil; Yilmaz, Ali Faik; Sarıkaya, Saban

    2011-03-01

    Cystic hydatid disease is an endemic disease caused by the larval form of Echinococcus spp. Isolated renal involvement is extremely rare. The treatment methods for renal hydatid disease require some form of intervention, ranging from traditional open techniques to laparoscopic techniques. Herein, we present a large hydatid cyst in the lower pole of the left kidney in a 43-year-old male patient who was treated by the "closed cyst" method via the retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach to prevent soiling of the peritoneal cavity. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a renal hydatid cyst treated by preserving the renal parenchyma by pericystectomy via the retroperitoneoscopic laparoscopic approach in an adult patient. No complications occurred during the perioperative and postoperative periods. After 9 months of follow up, the patient was asymptomatic with no evidence of clinical recurrence. Retroperitoneoscopic laparoscopic closed cyst pericystectomy can be an alternative minimally invasive treatment technique for the treatment of renal hydatid disease.

  14. Retroperitoneal enteric duplication cyst.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Shing; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Chou, Chung-Ping; Chen, Chia-Jung; Lin, Shong-Ling; Lee, Mang-Gang; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Tseng, Hui-Hwa

    2004-09-01

    Enteric duplication cysts (EDCs) can occur in any portion of the alimentary tract, but are most commonly associated with the small bowel and esophagus. Retroperitoneal location is really unusual. This 19-year-old female was in excellent health, but a week's abdominal pain made her search for a doctor's help. After the detailed examination, surgical intervention was performed under the impression of cystic tumor of the retroperitoneum. A retroperitoneal cystic tumor, 13.0 x 8.0 x 3.5 cm in size, without any communication with the alimentary tract was noted during the operation. Finally, EDC was diagnosed after the pathologic examination of this resected cystic lesion. To our knowledge, there have been only 6 reported cases of EDC of the retroperitoneum in the English literature. This report concerns the seventh case of retroperitoneal EDC, in an adolescent, with different clinical presentation and histopathologic findings from the previous ones.

  15. Three-dimensional Analysis of Subchondral Cysts in Hip Osteoarthritis: an ex vivo HR-pQCT study

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Ko; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Osaki, Makoto; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Subchondral cysts are deeply related to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), but the factors contributing to cyst formation are not well known. A three-dimensional analysis of subchondral cysts at the micro-structural level was conducted using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT), and their relationships with cartilage attrition and subchondral bone microstructure were investigated. Methods Femoral heads extracted from ten female patients with hip OA were scanned using HR-pQCT at a voxel size of 41 μm. The volume fractions, numbers, and sizes of the cysts were measured in the subchondral bone region under the area of cartilage loss. Furthermore, the areas of cartilage loss, as well as the microstructure of the subchondral bones, were also measured, and their correlations with the cysts were analyzed. Results The volume fractions of cysts within subchondral bone regions varied from 2% to 33%, the numbers of cysts varied from 6 to 87, and the sizes varied from 1 mm3 to 657 mm3. There was a positive correlation between the number of cysts and bone volume (r>0.8, p<0.01). Conclusion The degree of cyst formation showed a wide distribution in number and volume, and there was a close relationship between multiple cyst formation and bone sclerosis, which might be caused by reactive bone formation that occurred around each cyst. PMID:24925444

  16. Recording High Resolution 3D Lagrangian Motions In Marine Dinoflagellates using Digital Holographic Microscopic Cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.; Place, A. R.; Belas, R.

    2006-11-01

    Detailed data on swimming behavior and locomotion for dense population of dinoflagellates constitutes a key component to understanding cell migration, cell-cell interactions and predator-prey dynamics, all of which affect algae bloom dynamics. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of flagellated cell motions, spatial-temporal Lagrangian measurements of multiple cells in high concentration are very limited. Here we present detailed data on 3D Lagrangian motions for three marine dinoflagellates: Oxyrrhis marina, Karlodinium veneficum, and Pfiesteria piscicida, using digital holographic microscopic cinematography. The measurements are performed in a 5x5x25mm cuvette with cell densities varying from 50,000 ˜ 90,000 cells/ml. Approximately 200-500 cells are tracked simultaneously for 12s at 60fps in a sample volume of 1x1x5 mm at a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4x2 μm. We fully resolve the longitudinal flagella (˜200nm) along with the Lagrangian trajectory of each organism. Species dependent swimming behavior are identified and categorized quantitatively by velocities, radii of curvature, and rotations of pitch. Statistics on locomotion, temporal & spatial scales, and diffusion rate show substantial differences between species. The scaling between turning radius and cell dimension can be explained by a distributed stokeslet model for a self-propelled body.

  17. Pitfall in renal cyst surgery: serous cystadenoma of pancreas mimicking renal cyst.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Alexander; Ruszat, Robin; Wyler, Stephen; Casella, Roberto; Langer, Igor; Gasser, Thomas C; Sulser, Tullio

    2005-04-01

    Pancreatic lesions, particularly cysts, can simulate various diseases. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman with a large, symptomatic, retroperitoneal cyst misdiagnosed as a "renal cyst." During the retroperitoneoscopic marsupialization, the correct diagnosis of a pancreatic cyst was made, leading to an open pancreas tail resection. Histologic evaluation revealed serous cystadenoma. Especially in large retroperitoneal cysts on the left side, the correct diagnosis of a pancreatic cyst can be difficult.

  18. Brandtodinium gen. nov. and B. nutricula comb. Nov. (Dinophyceae), a dinoflagellate commonly found in symbiosis with polycystine radiolarians.

    PubMed

    Probert, Ian; Siano, Raffaele; Poirier, Camille; Decelle, Johan; Biard, Tristan; Tuji, Akihiro; Suzuki, Noritoshi; Not, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    Symbiotic interactions between pelagic hosts and microalgae have received little attention, although they are widespread in the photic layer of the world ocean, where they play a fundamental role in the ecology of the planktonic ecosystem. Polycystine radiolarians (including the orders Spumellaria, Collodaria and Nassellaria) are planktonic heterotrophic protists that are widely distributed and often abundant in the ocean. Many polycystines host symbiotic microalgae within their cytoplasm, mostly thought to be the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella nutricula, a species originally described by Karl Brandt in the late nineteenth century as Zooxanthella nutricula. The free-living stage of this dinoflagellate has never been characterized in terms of morphology and thecal plate tabulation. We examined morphological characters and sequenced conservative ribosomal markers of clonal cultures of the free-living stage of symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from radiolarian hosts from the three polycystine orders. In addition, we sequenced symbiont genes directly from several polycystine-symbiont holobiont specimens from different oceanic regions. Thecal plate arrangement of the free-living stage does not match that of Scrippsiella or related genera, and LSU and SSU rDNA-based molecular phylogenies place these symbionts in a distinct clade within the Peridiniales. Both phylogenetic analyses and the comparison of morphological features of culture strains with those reported for other closely related species support the erection of a new genus that we name Brandtodinium gen. nov. and the recombination of S. nutricula as B. nutricula comb. nov.

  19. Giant adrenal cyst: case study

    PubMed Central

    Carsote, M; Chirita, P; Terzea, D; Paun, S; Beuran, M

    2010-01-01

    One of the rarest situations regarding an adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal cyst. We present the case of a 61Z–year old male patient diagnosed with peritonitis. During surgery, a right adrenal tumor of 2 cm is discovered. The patient was referred to endocrinology. 6 months later the diameter of the tumor is 7 times bigger than the initial stage. It has no secretory phenotype, except for the small increase of serum aldosterone and the 24–h 17–ketosteroids. Open right adrenalectomy is performed and a cyst of 15 cm is removed. The evolution after surgery is good. The pathological exam reveals an adrenal cyst with calcifications and osteoid metaplasia. The immunohistochemistry showed a positive reaction for CD34 and ACT in the vessels and VIM in the stroma. The adrenal cysts are not frequent and represent a challenge regarding the preoperative diagnostic and surgical procedure of resection. The pathological exam highlights the major aspects. PMID:20945822

  20. [Dentigerous cyst: a case report].

    PubMed

    Spini, Roxana G; Bordino, Lucas; Cruz, Daniel; Fitz Maurice, María de Los Ángeles; Martins, Andrea; Michalski, Julian

    2016-10-01

    Maxillary cysts are a diverse group of entities that include benign and malignant odontogenic tumors. Information on the prevalence of this disease is limited. It is more common among males, and usually occurs in the second and third decade of life. The proportion of 6 to 7 year old patients with dentigerous cysts is only 9.1%. Dentigerous cysts encompass the crown of a permanent and unerupted impacted teeth. They are usually slow growing asymptomatic lesions that are not discovered until they affect surrounding organs. The aim of this study is to present an unusual case of dentigerous cyst and to inform the pediatrician about the management of a unilateral maxillary tumor in a healthy child, underlining the importance of a multidisciplinary approach of this disease.

  1. Intra-retroperitoneal duplication cyst.

    PubMed

    Ma, Juine-Yih; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Tseng, Sheng-Hong; Lai, Tsung-Hsein; Chen, Yun

    2004-11-01

    Duplication cyst occupying the retro- and intra-peritoneal space is a rare condition. We describe a case of duplication cyst in a 13-year-old girl who presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and a lower abdominal mass. Plain abdominal X-ray films revealed local ileus over the lower abdomen. Ultrasonography revealed 2 double-layered cystic masses over the lower abdomen with a suspicious communicating tract. Mild hydropelvis of the right kidney was also noted. Abdominal computed tomography revealed 2 cystic lesions. One was located at the pelvic cavity just above the urinary bladder and the other was in the left retroperitoneal space. Laparotomy revealed a dumbbell-shaped intra-retroperitoneal duplication cyst with a small communicating tract. The cyst was excised without disturbing bowel continuity and the vascular supply. The patient was doing well at 1-year follow-up.

  2. Epidermoid cyst of the testis.

    PubMed

    Mak, C W; Chen, C Y; Tzeng, W S; Li, C-F

    2007-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts, though having a variable sonographic appearance, may present with an onion peel configuration, that is, concentric rings of alternating hyperechogenicities and hypoechogenicities. The absence of vascular flow on colour Doppler sonography is also consistent with the avascular nature of these lesions. By combining these two sonographic features and the absence of biochemical tumour marker, preoperative diagnosis of epidermoid cyst is possible and may prompt a testis sparing surgery rather than orchidectomy. PMID:17875166

  3. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Castro, R; Oliveira, M I; Fernandes, T; Madureira, A J

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in a 36-year-old female. She presented with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. An MRI scan revealed an 8 cm cystic lesion in the left upper retroperitoneum, with intermediate signal on T2-weighted images, high signal on T1 weighted images, and lack of internal enhancement after gadolinium. After laparoscopic excision, the histology findings were compatible with a bronchogenic cyst, which is extremely uncommon in the retroperitoneum.

  4. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  5. 75 FR 11111 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...) 734-5038. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a..., eggplants, peppers, tomatillos, and some weeds. The PCN is thought to have originated in Peru and is now widely distributed in many potato-growing regions of the world. PCN infestations may be expressed...

  6. Soybean Cyst Nematode in North America - 55 Years Later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was first discovered in North America in 1954 in Hanover County, North Carolina, USA, when it was found on soybean in a field that had been planted to Easter lilies obtained from Japan prior to World War II. The nematode is now distributed throughout soybe...

  7. 75 FR 54592 - Pale Cyst Nematode; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... INFORMATION: Background The pale cyst nematode (PCN, Globodera pallida) is a major pest of potato crops in... some weeds. The PCN is thought to have originated in Peru and is now widely distributed in many potato-growing regions of the world. PCN infestations may be expressed as patches of poor growth. Affected...

  8. Neurenteric cysts of the cerebellopontine angle.

    PubMed

    Roder, Constantin; Ebner, Florian H; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2013-12-01

    Neurenteric cysts in the central nervous system are rare developmental malformations. Usually the cysts are located ventral to the high thoracic or low cervical spinal cord. Only a few cases of intracranial neurenteric cysts have been reported in the literature to date. We report two cases of intracranial neurenteric cysts in the cerebellopontine angle with totally different radiographic, macroscopic, and microscopic appearance. As seen in these cases, the imaging spectrum of neurenteric cysts can be diverse, including malignancy-suspecting partial rim-enhancement or low-grade glioma features. Microsurgical therapy should include endoscopic assistance to ensure complete removal of cyst content. PMID:23397125

  9. Large retroperitoneal cysts in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    McClellan, D S; Brasch, J; Rifkin, H

    1981-12-01

    Retroperitoneal cysts may be divided into those of urogenital origin: pronephric, mesonephric, metanephric and müllerian; mesocolic; teratoma; lymphatic; parasitic, and traumatic blood cysts. Müllerian cysts are thought to originate from the specialized mesothelial cells of the genital ridge and present as fimbrial cysts or broad ligament wolffian cysts. Symptoms may be absent, or the result of pressure or displacement of an organ. Diagnosis is made by x-ray studies, sonographic evaluation and, frequently, at operation. We report a case of a 14-pound cyst arising from the right broad ligament and partially obstructing the right ureter that was removed surgically.

  10. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mirsadeghi, Ali; Farrokhi, Farid; Fazli-Shahri, Azadeh; Gholipour, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are among developmental disorders of the primitive foregut which are typically found above the diaphragm. Bronchial cysts discovered in the abdominal cavity or retroperitoneum are extremely rare. We present a rare case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst which was incidentally detected after a wrestling injury in a 23-year-old man who had a negative medical history. Although initial imaging studies suggested an adrenal tumor, histopathological analysis provided a definite diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst. Though rare, bronchogenic cysts must be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic lesions. This is the first case of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst reported in Iran.

  11. [Laparoscopic approach excision of mesenteric cysts].

    PubMed

    Bosco, L; Clerico, G; Galetto, P V; Jon, G

    1997-11-01

    The authors reports a case of a young woman suffering from mesenteric cyst. The incidence of these lesions is 1 to 100,000 admissions in adult patients and 1 to 20,000 admissions in pediatric age. These cysts, with retroperitoneal and omental cysts, have a similar etiopathogenesis as lymphatic ectopic tissue. In the majority of cases these cysts are asymptomatic and often the diagnosis is intraoperative. In this case the cyst was removed successfully with laparoscopic approach. This mini-invasive method allows a complete and radical excision of the cyst and reduces postoperative hospital stay and morbidity.

  12. Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Erik; Thor, Peter; Toth, Gunilla; Pavia, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers. Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Induced A. minutum contained up to 2.5 times more toxins than controls and was more resistant to further copepod grazing. Ingestion of non-toxic alternative prey was not affected by the presence of induced A. minutum. The ability of A. minutum to sense and respond to the presence of grazers by increased PST production and increased resistance to grazing may facilitate the formation of harmful algal blooms in the sea. PMID:16769640

  13. SxtA gene sequence analysis of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norshaha, Safida Anira; Latib, Norhidayu Abdul; Usup, Gires; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2015-09-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is typically known for the production of potent neurotoxins such as saxitoxin, affecting the health of human seafood consumers via paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). These phenomena is related to the harmful algal blooms (HABs) that is believed to be influenced by environmental and nutritional factors. Previous study has revealed that SxtA gene is a starting gene that involved in the saxitoxin production pathway. The aim of this study was to analyse the sequence of the sxtA gene in A. minutum. The dinoflagellates culture was cultured at temperature 26°C with 16:8-hour light:dark photocycle. After the samples were harvested, RNA was extracted, complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesised and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were then purified and cloned before sequenced. The SxtA sequence obtained was then analyzed in order to identify the presence of SxtA gene in Alexandrium minutum.

  14. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Domen, Hiromitsu; Ohara, Masanori; Kimura, Noriko; Takahashi, Mizuna; Yamabuki, Takumi; Komuro, Kazuteru; Iwashiro, Nozomu; Ishizaka, Masanori

    2012-09-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas can be divided into true cysts, pseudocysts, and cystic neoplasms. Lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are a type of true cyst that can mimic pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. LECs are rare lesions; fewer than 90 cases have been reported in the English language literature. The case of a 60-year-old man with an LEC of the pancreas is reported. He was admitted with upper abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography showed a 64 × 39 mm cystic mass in the retroperitoneum behind the duodenum and inferior caval vein. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right-sided mass on T1-weighted imaging, with a clear boundary between the mass and its surroundings, except for the pancreas. The mass had an inhomogeneous intensity on T2-weighted imaging. Within the mass, small floating nodules with low intensity were seen. Endoscopic ultrasound showed many high-echoic nodules and smaller grains scattered everywhere in the mass. Fine needle aspiration and cytologic examination were performed. Characteristic chylaceous fluid was obtained in which anucleate squamous cells were found. There were also a few atypical large cells with irregularly shaped marked nucleoli and degenerative cytoplasm. Cytologic diagnosis was suspicious for malignancy. The lesion was diagnosed as a retroperitoneal cyst, probably of pancreatic origin. Since a neoplastic lesion could not be ruled out, surgery was performed. The lesion was palpable on the dorsal side of the second portion of the duodenum. The mass was completely resected. Macroscopically, the lesion was a multilocular cyst with a thin septal wall. The cyst was filled with cottage cheese-like substance. Microscopically, the cyst wall was composed of stratified squamous epithelium and dense subepithelial lymphatic tissue with developed lymph follicles. The epithelial cells had no atypia. The histopathologic diagnosis was LEC of the pancreas. The patient's postoperative course was good.

  15. Toxic dinoflagellates and Vibrio spp. act independently in bivalve larvae.

    PubMed

    De Rijcke, M; Van Acker, E; Nevejan, N; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2016-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and marine pathogens - like Vibrio spp. - are increasingly common due to climate change. These stressors affect the growth, viability and development of bivalve larvae. Little is known, however, about the potential for interactions between these two concurrent stressors. While some mixed exposures have been performed with adult bivalves, no such work has been done with larvae which are generally more sensitive. This study examines whether dinoflagellates and bacteria may interactively affect the viability and immunological resilience of blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae. Embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (100, 500, 2500 & 12,500 cells ml(-1)) of a dinoflagellate (Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Karenia mikimotoi, Protoceratium reticulatum, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. lima or P. micans), a known pathogen (Vibrio coralliilyticus/neptunius-like isolate or Vibrio splendidus; 10(5) CFU ml(-1)), or both. After five days of exposure, significant (p < 0.05) adverse effects on larval viability and larval development were found for all dinoflagellates (except P. cordatum) and V. splendidus. Yet, despite the individual effect of each stressor, no significant interactions were found between the pathogens and harmful algae. The larval viability and the phenoloxidase innate immune system responded independently to each stressor. This independence may be related to a differential timing of the effects of HABs and pathogens.

  16. Toxic dinoflagellates and Vibrio spp. act independently in bivalve larvae.

    PubMed

    De Rijcke, M; Van Acker, E; Nevejan, N; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2016-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and marine pathogens - like Vibrio spp. - are increasingly common due to climate change. These stressors affect the growth, viability and development of bivalve larvae. Little is known, however, about the potential for interactions between these two concurrent stressors. While some mixed exposures have been performed with adult bivalves, no such work has been done with larvae which are generally more sensitive. This study examines whether dinoflagellates and bacteria may interactively affect the viability and immunological resilience of blue mussel Mytilus edulis larvae. Embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (100, 500, 2500 & 12,500 cells ml(-1)) of a dinoflagellate (Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Karenia mikimotoi, Protoceratium reticulatum, Prorocentrum cordatum, P. lima or P. micans), a known pathogen (Vibrio coralliilyticus/neptunius-like isolate or Vibrio splendidus; 10(5) CFU ml(-1)), or both. After five days of exposure, significant (p < 0.05) adverse effects on larval viability and larval development were found for all dinoflagellates (except P. cordatum) and V. splendidus. Yet, despite the individual effect of each stressor, no significant interactions were found between the pathogens and harmful algae. The larval viability and the phenoloxidase innate immune system responded independently to each stressor. This independence may be related to a differential timing of the effects of HABs and pathogens. PMID:27554394

  17. Photoresponse in the heterotrophic marine dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Aaron J; Sherr, Barry F; Sherr, Evelyn B

    2011-01-01

    Expressed rhodopsins were detected by proteomic analysis in an investigation of potential signal receptors in the cell membrane of the marine heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina (CCMP604). We inferred these to be sensory rhodopsins, a type of G-protein-coupled receptor trans-membrane signaling molecule. Because phototactic behavior based on sensory rhodopsins has been reported in other protists, we investigated the photosensory response of O. marina. This dinoflagellate exhibited strongest positive phototaxis at low levels (2-3 μE/m(2)/s) of white light when the cells were previously light adapted and well fed. Positive phototaxis was also found for blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), and red (680 nm) wavelengths. In a further test, O. marina showed significantly greater phototaxis toward concentrated algal food illuminated by blue light to stimulate red chlorophyll-a autofluorescence in the prey, compared with using bleached algae as prey. Concentration of a cytoplasmic downstream messenger molecule, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a component of the signaling pathway of G-protein-coupled receptor molecules, rapidly increased in O. marina cells after exposure to white light. In addition, treatment with hydroxylamine, a rhodopsin signaling inhibitor, significantly decreased their phototactic response. Our results demonstrate that a heterotrophic marine dinoflagellate can orient to light based on rhodopsins present in the outer cell membrane and may be able to use photosensory response to detect algal prey based on chlorophyll autofluorescence.

  18. Arthroscopic management of popliteal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Pankaj, Amite; Chahar, Deepak; Pathrot, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Management of popliteal cyst is controversial. Owing to high failure rates in open procedures, recent trend is towards arthroscopic decompression and simultaneous management of intraarticular pathology. We retrospectively analysed clinical results of symptomatic popliteal cysts after arthroscopic management at 24 month followup. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of hospital database for patients presenting with pathology suggestive of a popliteal cyst from June 2007 to December 2012 was done. Twelve cases of popliteal cyst not responding to NSAIDS and with Rauschning and Lindgren Grade 2 or 3 who consented for surgical intervention were included in the study. All patients underwent arthroscopic decompression using a posteromedial portal along with management of intraarticular pathologies as encountered. Furthermore, the unidirectional valvular effect was corrected to a bidirectional one by widening the cyst joint interface. The results were assessed as per the Rauschning and Lindgren criteria. Results: All patients were followed for a minimum of 24 months (range 24-36 months). It revealed that among the study group, six patients achieved Grade 0 status while five had a minimal limitation of range of motion accompanied by occasional pain (Grade 1). One patient had a failure of treatment with no change in the clinical grading. Conclusion: Arthroscopic approach gives easy access to decompression with the simultaneous management of articular pathologies. PMID:27053804

  19. [Prenatal diagnosis of choledochal cyst].

    PubMed

    Hernández Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Flores Santos, Roberto; Hinojosa Salinas, Adán; Ramos González, René; Ramírez González, Beatriz

    2013-02-01

    The choledocal cyst is a defect of the biliary extrahepatic route, the incidence is 1 in 100-150,000 newborns. This paper reports the case of a female newborn with choledocal cyst detected prenatally, from a 32-year-old mother, 2nd term pregnancy, who was diagnosed in the routine obstetric ultrasound as an abdominal fetal cyst. An anatomic obstetric ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis that was defined of a probable hepatic origin. Newborn was delivered at 39 weeks by caesarean section, with weight of 3,980 g and Apgar score 9-9 in conventional time. Newborn presented a maxim bilirubin level of 16 mg, controlled with phototherapy; the hepatic function was normal. Ultrasound showed a choledocal cyst which measured 50 x 49 x 48 mm, with dilatation of the hepatic common conduct, the gall bladder was normal. The abdominal scan reported a cystic mass in the middle abdominal region of 44 x 53 x 52 mm confirming a choledocal cyst. The diagnosis was confirmed after surgery. Patient had a satisfactory post-surgical evolution. PMID:23596735

  20. SELDI-TOF analysis of glioblastoma cyst fluid is an approach for assessing cellular protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Hoelscher, Martin; Richter, Nina; Melle, Christian; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Schaenzer, Anne; Nestler, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In about 10% of glioblastoma patients, preoperative MRI discloses the presence of tumor cysts. Whereas the impact of cystic appearance on prognosis has been discussed extensively, only little is known about the tumor cyst fluid. In this study, we tested the feasibility of the surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF) technique to detect cyst fluid proteins. Methods: Cyst fluid was collected from 21 glioblastoma patients for SELDI-TOF analysis and compared to control cerebrospinal fluids from 15 patients with spinal stenosis. Resulting protein peaks with significant differences between groups were further described, using the molecular weight in an internet search of protein databases and publications. Two potential cyst fluid proteins, basigin and ferritin light chain, were selected for immunohistological detection in the histologic slides of the patients, metallothionein (MT) served as negative control. Results: As supposed from the results of the SELDI-TOF analysis, basigin and ferritin were detected immunohistochemically in the cyst wall, whereas MT was more equally distributed between the cyst wall and the surrounding tumor tissue. Median survival time of the patients was 20 months (range 2 to 102 months) and correlated with age, but not with expression of the three proteins. Discussion: The SELDI-TOF approach reveals a number of proteins, potentially present in glioblastoma cyst fluid. Identification of these proteins in tumor cells may help understand the pathogenetic pathways and the prognostic value of cystic changes. PMID:24225180

  1. Respiratory epithelial cysts of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Hardy, Thomas G; Williams, Richard A; McNab, Alan A

    2016-10-01

    To describe post-traumatic and congenital respiratory epithelial cysts in the orbit, which are rare lesions with only 5 and 13 published cases, respectively. We reviewed all cases of respiratory epithelial cysts diagnosed at three institutions (two tertiary referral hospitals, one private clinic) between 1995 and 2015. We describe 10 cases of post-traumatic respiratory epithelial cyst (age range 23 - 82), presenting a mean of 17.4 years after their original trauma; and 3 congenital cases (age range 17-34). All but one case underwent surgical excision of the cyst and its lining, along with any surgical implant within the cyst. Two were recurrent after incomplete excision. Three presented with acute infection within the cyst. Respiratory epithelial orbital cysts are probably commoner than the paucity of published reports would suggest. Post-traumatic cysts often present many years after trauma, and may become secondarily infected. Complete surgical removal is recommended to prevent future recurrence. PMID:27468088

  2. Ependymal cyst in the conus medullaris.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Satoshi; Ijiri, Kosei; Kawabata, Ryodai; Zenmyo, Michihisa; Yone, Kazunori; Kitajima, Shinichi; Komiya, Setsuro

    2010-02-01

    The immunohistological features and surgical treatment of an intramedullary ependymal cyst in the conus medullaris is presented. An intramedullary ependymal cyst is a rare lesion of dysembryoplastic origin. There have been only seven patients reported with pathologically proven ependymal cysts in the conus medullaris. A 64-year-old woman reported pain and numbness in both thighs and feet. Neither sensory nor motor impairment was present in the lower extremities. MRI revealed a cyst on the right side of the conus medullaris, compressing the spinal cord upward. Clinical signs and symptoms disappeared following surgical resection of the cyst. Histological examination showed that this cyst was lined with a single layer of tall columnar or low cuboidal cells on fibrous connective tissue. The basement membrane was absent in the cyst wall. Reactivity to CAM5.2 and AE1/AE3 anti-keratin antibodies suggested that the cyst was of neuroepithelial origin. No recurrence has been noted 3 years after surgery.

  3. Respiratory epithelial cysts of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Hardy, Thomas G; Williams, Richard A; McNab, Alan A

    2016-10-01

    To describe post-traumatic and congenital respiratory epithelial cysts in the orbit, which are rare lesions with only 5 and 13 published cases, respectively. We reviewed all cases of respiratory epithelial cysts diagnosed at three institutions (two tertiary referral hospitals, one private clinic) between 1995 and 2015. We describe 10 cases of post-traumatic respiratory epithelial cyst (age range 23 - 82), presenting a mean of 17.4 years after their original trauma; and 3 congenital cases (age range 17-34). All but one case underwent surgical excision of the cyst and its lining, along with any surgical implant within the cyst. Two were recurrent after incomplete excision. Three presented with acute infection within the cyst. Respiratory epithelial orbital cysts are probably commoner than the paucity of published reports would suggest. Post-traumatic cysts often present many years after trauma, and may become secondarily infected. Complete surgical removal is recommended to prevent future recurrence.

  4. A retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: laparoscopic treatment.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, O; Misawa, K; Nakazawa, M; Nishizawa, O

    2004-01-01

    Subdiaphragmatic bronchogenic cysts are rare, and those located retroperitoneally are exceptional. We describe a retroperitoneal cyst presenting as an asymptomatic adrenal mass which was treated with laparoscopic surgery with three trocars.

  5. Calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma: a possible separate entity (odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst).

    PubMed

    Hirshberg, A; Kaplan, I; Buchner, A

    1994-06-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) has been reported to be associated with odontoma in about 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of COC associated with odontoma (COCaO) may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. A screen of the literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. The most common location was the maxilla (61.5%). The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5%) was of a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion. Histologically, the lesions usually consisted of a single large cyst (which is similar to simple COC) with tooth-like structures that appear to be an integral part of the lesion, giving the impression of a single lesion. In addition to the unique histologic features, differences in gender and in distribution were found between the cases of COCaO and those of simple COC. COCaO may be regarded as a separate entity and classified as a benign, mixed odontogenic tumor. The term odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst is suggested.

  6. Primary Peritoneal Hydatid Cyst Presenting as Ovarian Cyst Torsion: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gandhiraman, Kavitha; Balakrishnan, Renukadevi; Ramamoorthy, Rathna; Rajeshwari, Raja

    2015-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus, E.multilocularis or E.Vogli. The most common primary site is liver (75%) followed by lungs (5-15%) and other organs constitute 10-20%. Peritoneal hydatid cysts are very rare especially primary peritoneal hydatid. Secondary peritoneal hydatid cysts are relatively common, which usually occurs due to rupture of primary hepatic hydatid cyst. We present a rare case of large primary peritoneal hydatid cyst misdiagnosed as torsion of ovarian cyst that underwent Laparotomy with cyst excision and postoperative Albendazole therapy. PMID:26436004

  7. Developmentally regulated localization of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in different tissue layers of coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.-J.; Wang, L.-H.; Chen, W.-N. U.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2008-06-01

    In adult cnidarians, symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium are usually located in the gastrodermis. However, the onset of this endosymbiotic association and its regulation during larval development are unclear. This study examined the distribution of the Symbiodinium population in tissue layers of planula larvae released from the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens. Symbiodinium were redistributed from the epidermis to the gastrodermis, at a rate that was fastest during early planulation and then decreased prior to metamorphosis. This process indicates that the endosymbiotic activity of coral tissues is developmentally regulated. During the early larval stage, both the epidermis and gastrodermis contained Symbiodinium; then, as the larvae developed toward metamorphosis, the numbers in the epidermis gradually diminished until they were only found in the gastrodermis. The mechanism of redistribution remains unknown, but may be due to a direct translocation and/or change in the proliferation of symbionts in different tissue layers.

  8. Proximal Sciatic Nerve Intraneural Ganglion Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Karin R.; Wilson, Dianne; Boland, Michael; Fee, Dominic B.

    2009-01-01

    Intraneural ganglion cysts are nonneoplastic, mucinous cysts within the epineurium of peripheral nerves which usually involve the peroneal nerve at the knee. A 37-year-old female presented with progressive left buttock and posterior thigh pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sciatic nerve mass at the sacral notch which was subsequently revealed to be an intraneural ganglion cyst. An intraneural ganglion cyst confined to the proximal sciatic nerve has only been reported once prior to 2009. PMID:20069041

  9. Urogenital mesenteric cyst with fallopian tubal features.

    PubMed

    Harpaz, N; Gellman, E

    1987-01-01

    Urogenital cysts are retroperitoneal or mesenteric cysts that are derived from vestigial remnants of the embryonic urogenital apparatus. Although their precise embryonic origins are usually obscure, occasionally they display histologic features indicative of a mesonephric or metanephric origin. This report describes an unusual mesenteric müllerian cyst consisting of an endosalpingial lining and two-layered smooth muscle walls, probably representing a müllerian duct duplication cyst.

  10. [Primary retroperitoneal enteric cyst in an adult].

    PubMed

    Kondor, Ariella; Hajdu, Gábor; Zöllei, István; Bende, Mariann

    2005-06-01

    The posterior mediastinum is the usual location of enteric cysts. They can be located at any part of the posterior mediastinum adjacent to the oesophagus, but communication with that structure is rare. Approximately 60 percent of the cysts occur in infants less than one year of age, and symptoms of tracheal or oesophageal obstruction are common. The cysts usually contain clear, colorless mucoid fluid. The authors describe here a successfully treated enteric cyst with an unusual, retroperitoneal location, which presented in an adult.

  11. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Piattelli, A; Tetè, S

    1995-09-01

    Cystic lesions of the parotid gland are not common and are often erroneously diagnosed as benign tumors. Lymphoepithelial cysts are only rarely diagnosed in the parotid gland. The term "lymphoepithelial cyst" is used because it is a descriptive term and takes no account of the origin and development of these cysts. An origin from sequestered lymph nodes epithelium in the parotid gland may be a feasible explanation for the origin of these cysts.

  12. Asymptomatic vallecular cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Yuce, Yucel; Uzun, Sennur; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented himself for an intracranial glioblastoma multiforme excision. After being routinely monitored, he was preoxygenated. We induced anesthesia and paralysis with 200 mg propofol, 50 μg fentanyl and 9 mg vecuronium. Direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh 3 blade revealed a 2x2 cm cyst, pedunculated, arising from the right side of the vallecula preventing the endotracheal intubation. While the patient remained anesthetized, we urgently consulted an otolaryngologist and aspirated the cyst with a 22-gauge needle and syringe under direct laryngoscopy. We aspirated 10 cc of liquid content. This was followed by an uneventful tracheal intubation with a 9.0 enforced spiral cuffed tube. An alternative to fiberoptic intubation may be careful cyst aspiration to facilitate the intubation.

  13. Paradental (mandibular inflammatory buccal) cyst.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Reis, Brenda Mayra Maciel Vasconcelos; Freire-Maia, Belini

    2011-06-01

    The paradental cyst is commonly misinterpreted when associated with atypical clinical and radiographic characteristics, in turn causing diagnostic problems. For this reason, the study of the differential diagnosis of this lesion has become extremely important. In addition, the correlation of clinical, histologic, and radiographic findings are also of great value in obtaining accurate diagnoses. The minor variations in the clinical appearance of paradental cysts make it feasible to consider the two main groups of cysts separately: those associated with 1st and 2nd permanent molars of the mandible and those associated with the 3rd mandibular molar. Moreover, this distinction in localization may well dictate the necessary treatment. Bearing in mind the minor clinical variations, the present article aims to discuss the differential diagnosis of this lesion and its different possible treatments by presenting a case report to illustrate the findings. PMID:21161456

  14. Epithelial cysts of the spleen: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Sachin B; Hinge Ingle, Chitra R; Patrike, Swapna

    2014-10-14

    Primary splenic epithelial cyst is an unusual event in everyday surgical practice with about 800 cases reported until date in the English literature. Splenic cysts may be parasitic or non-parasitic in origin. Nonparasitic cysts are either primary or secondary. Primary cysts are also called true, congenital, epidermoid or epithelial cysts. Primary splenic cysts account for 10% of all benign non-parasitic splenic cysts and are the most frequent type of splenic cysts in children. Usually, splenic cysts are asymptomatic and can be found incidentally during imaging techniques or on laparotomy. The symptoms are related to the size of cysts. When they assume large sizes, they may present with fullness in the left abdomen, local or referred pain, symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures (like nausea, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhoea) or rarely thrombocytopenia, and occasionally complications such as infection, rupture and/or haemorrhage. The preoperative diagnosis of primary splenic cysts can be ascertained by ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, although the wide use of USG today has led to an increase in the incidence of splenic cysts by 1%. However, careful histopathological evaluation along with immunostaining for presence of epithelial lining is mandatory to arrive at the diagnosis. The treatment has changed drastically from total splenectomy in the past to splenic preservation methods recently.

  15. Intrapericardial foregut cyst associated with intrauterine death.

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, E E; Wax, T D; Reimer, K A

    1997-01-01

    Intrapericardial developmental foregut cysts are rare and are most frequently incidental findings at necropsy in adults. A 29 year old Asian woman delivered a 24 week stillborn fetus seven days after diagnosis of intrauterine death caused by rupture of a foregut cyst. Multiple cysts occupied the wall of the right atrium and its rupture caused haemopericardium and cardiac tamponade. Images PMID:9462251

  16. Postlaminectomy Bilateral Lumbar Intraspinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Ik; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts are included in the difference diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy. Developing imaging modalities has result in increased reporting about these lesions. However, the case of bilateral new lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy has been rarely reported. We report of a rare case with bilateral lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:27799997

  17. Unicystic ameloblastoma arising from a residual cyst

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Amit D; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Khurana, Neha M; Shah, Navin

    2014-01-01

    Intraoral swellings involving alveolar ridges in edentulous patients are clinically diagnosed as residual cysts, traumatic bone cysts, Stafne's jaw bone cavity, ameloblastoma and metastatic tumours of the jaw. This case report describes a residual cyst in a 68-year-old edentulous male patient which was enucleated and histopathologically confirmed as a unicystic ameloblastoma. PMID:25199192

  18. [Unusual localization of an echinococcal cyst].

    PubMed

    De Both, T; Vidović, M; Pasini, J

    1993-01-01

    Hardly ever one can find a hydatid cyst in other parts of the organism except in the liver and lungs. The localization in the retroperitoneum is very rare. We have shown an unusually located hydatid cyst in the retroperitoneum. The cyst was firmly integrated with the structure of m. psoas and the muscle resection was necessary.

  19. [Two cases of abdominal bronchogenic cyst].

    PubMed

    Takeshita, K; Watabe, N; Sato, A; Watanabe, I; Yamaguchi, M; Tezuka, H; Abe, H; Sakamoto, K

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of abdominal bronchogenic cyst were reported. In the first case, the cyst was communicated with gastric fundus and existed as gastric abscess. In the second case, the cyst showed high CT number and chemical analysis of the contents revealed high range of Ca, Fe and Amylase levels.

  20. An Alexandrium Spp. Cyst Record from Sequim Bay, Washington State, USA, and its Relation to Past Climate Variability(1).

    PubMed

    Feifel, Kirsten M; Moore, Stephanie K; Horner, Rita A

    2012-06-01

    Since the 1970s, Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, has experienced an increase in detections of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish due to blooms of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium. Natural patterns of climate variability, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and changes in local environmental factors, such as sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature, have been linked to the observed increase in PSTs. However, the lack of observations of PSTs in shellfish prior to the 1950s has inhibited statistical assessments of longer-term trends in climate and environmental conditions on Alexandrium blooms. After a bloom, Alexandrium cells can enter a dormant cyst stage, which settles on the seafloor and then becomes entrained into the sedimentary record. In this study, we created a record of Alexandrium spp. cysts from a sediment core obtained from Sequim Bay, Puget Sound. Cyst abundances ranged from 0 to 400 cysts · cm(-3) and were detected down-core to a depth of 100 cm, indicating that Alexandrium has been present in Sequim Bay since at least the late 1800s. The cyst record allowed us to statistically examine relationships with available environmental parameters over the past century. Local air temperature and sea surface temperature were positively and significantly correlated with cyst abundances from the late 1800s to 2005; no significant relationship was found between PDO and cyst abundances. This finding suggests that local environmental variations more strongly influence Alexandrium population dynamics in Puget Sound when compared to large-scale changes. PMID:27011070

  1. Lymphoepithelial Cyst of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Prabhu; Fletcher, Natalie; Kyriakides, Charis; Mears, Lisa; Kocher, Hemant M.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of the pancreas is an extremely rare, benign pancreatic cystic lesion that is difficult to differentiate preoperatively from other cystic pancreatic lesions. LEC may have malignant potential. Here, we describe a case of LEC of the pancreas – initially suspected to be a mucinous cyst neoplasm – in an elderly man presenting with abdominal pain, who went on to have a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. We also review the relevant literature and discuss implications for the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion. PMID:27403123

  2. [Retroperitoneal marsupialization of renal cysts].

    PubMed

    Radović, N; Popović, D; Rifai, M; Mavrić, I; Sefc, J; Hrmić, I

    1997-01-01

    The use of minimal invasive surgery in urology continue to increase. Retroperitoneoscopic approach in performing minimal invasive surgery of retroperitoneum shortens the duration of operation in comparison with transabdominal approach, with minimal risk of intraabdominal complications. We described the use of the retroperitoneoscopic approach to the upper pole of a kidney for marsupialization of a symptomatic renal cyst. The procedure was minimally traumatic, morbidity was negligible and the patient was discharged from the hospital the third day after the operation. We believe that retroperitoneoscopic management of giant symptomatic renal cysts will be applicable, together with other existing methods.

  3. [Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Székely, E; Tarján, Z; Csapó, Z

    2001-10-01

    Authors present a case of a retroperitoneal lymphoepithelial cyst, which occurs rarely in this localisation. The histological picture is reminiscent of a branchiogen cyst. Usually it is recognised accidentally, with US or CT examinations performed for other reasons. In case the general condition of the patient is satisfactory, the surgical removal of such a tumour is recommended, since it is almost impossible to differentiate from more harmful lesions by CT or US examination, and if there are no tumour cells on the smears obtained by fine needle aspiration, there is always the doubt of sampling error.

  4. Treatment of neonatal abdominal cysts.

    PubMed

    Dénes, J; Lukäcs, F V; Léb, J; Bognár, M

    1974-01-01

    Intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cystic structures in the newborn appear with a variable clinical picture and in the case of intra-abdominal cysts, surgery is performed mostly on an emergency basis. In such cases the exact preoperative diagnosis is difficult and is seldom made. With early laparotomy, extensive small bowel resection can usually be avoided. Retroperitoneal lesions are mostly of renal origin; in such cases, preoperative diagnosis is easy, being based on specific examinations. In the year 1973, 5 newborns with an intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal cyst have been treated surgically. In this series, one infant died after resection of 90% of the small bowel.

  5. EFFECT OF FLUID SHEAR AND IRRADIANCE ON POPULATION GROWTH AND CELLULAR TOXIN CONTENT OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE ALEXANDRIUM FUNDYENSE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for in situ turbulence to inhibit dinoflagellate population growth has been demonstrated by experimentally exposing dinoflagellate cultures to quantified shear flow. However, despite interest in understanding environmental factors that affect the growth of toxic din...

  6. Benign retroperitoneal cyst of Mullerian type.

    PubMed

    Yohendran, Jay; Dias, Maxwell M; Eckstein, Robert; Wilson, Tim

    2004-10-01

    Retroperitoneal cysts are rare, usually asymptomatic, lesions. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with an asymptomatic abdominal mass. The mass excised at our district hospital was found in the retroperitoneum. Histologically, the cyst was lined with benign Mullerian-type epithelium. The classification, aetiology and clinical manifestations of retroperitoneal cysts are discussed. Retroperitoneal cysts present as an acute abdomen in only a minority of cases. Ultrasound is the most reliable test for their detection, usually followed by computed tomography and/or an upper gastrointestinal series. Optimally, these cysts should be completely excised.

  7. Retroperitoneoscopic excision of a mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, T; Shimomatsuya, T; Uchinami, M; Yoshida, M; Amaya, H; Aotake, T; Chiba, Y; Imamura, Y

    2000-02-01

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intra-abdominal lesions. We present a case of a mesenteric cyst that was discovered by abdominal computed tomography (CT) and excised by retroperitoneoscopic surgery. There have been 10 reports of excision of mesenteric cysts by laparoscopy in the literature, but retroperitoneoscopic resection of such cysts has not been reported. This case suggests that when a mesenteric cyst arises from the ascending or descending colon, the retroperitoneal approach has a lower risk of traumatizing the bowel than does the laparoscopic intra-abdominal approach, and it does not have to compress other intra-abdominal organs.

  8. Primary hydatid cyst of the retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Sall, Ibrahima; Ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; El Kaoui, Hakim; Bouchentouf, Sidi Mohammed; El Hjouji, Abderrahmane; El Fahssi, Mohammed; Bounaim, Ahmed; Zentar, Aziz; Sair, Khalid

    2010-02-01

    Retroperitoneal contamination may occur during the natural history of hydatid disease. Primary hydatid cyst of the retroperitoneum is extremely rare. The authors report a case of a giant retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. Clinicians and surgeons must be aware of this possibility and follow a policy of nonsystematic puncture of an abdominal cyst and avoid spillage during surgery. Symptoms are related to the size, location, or ensuing complications of a cyst. Its occurrence should be strongly suspected ahead of any abdominal cyst, especially in an endemic area, where it may act as a parasite. Total and careful surgical excision is the gold-standard therapy.

  9. Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multi-parametric flow cytometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking of cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor as fragile dinoflagellates, such a...

  10. Putative Monofunctional Type I Polyketide Synthase Units: A Dinoflagellate-Specific Feature?

    PubMed Central

    Eichholz, Karsten; Beszteri, Bánk; John, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Marine dinoflagellates (alveolata) are microalgae of which some cause harmful algal blooms and produce a broad variety of most likely polyketide synthesis derived phycotoxins. Recently, novel polyketide synthesase (PKS) transcripts have been described from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (gymnodiniales) which are evolutionarily related to Type I PKS but were apparently expressed as monofunctional proteins, a feature typical of Type II PKS. Here, we investigated expression units of PKS I-like sequences in Alexandrium ostenfeldii (gonyaulacales) and Heterocapsa triquetra (peridiniales) at the transcript and protein level. The five full length transcripts we obtained were all characterized by polyadenylation, a 3′ UTR and the dinoflagellate specific spliced leader sequence at the 5′end. Each of the five transcripts encoded a single ketoacylsynthase (KS) domain showing high similarity to K. brevis KS sequences. The monofunctional structure was also confirmed using dinoflagellate specific KS antibodies in Western Blots. In a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of KS domains from diverse PKSs, dinoflagellate KSs formed a clade placed well within the protist Type I PKS clade between apicomplexa, haptophytes and chlorophytes. These findings indicate that the atypical PKS I structure, i.e., expression as putative monofunctional units, might be a dinoflagellate specific feature. In addition, the sequenced transcripts harbored a previously unknown, apparently dinoflagellate specific conserved N-terminal domain. We discuss the implications of this novel region with regard to the putative monofunctional organization of Type I PKS in dinoflagellates. PMID:23139807

  11. STRATEGIES OF MARINE DINOFLAGELLATE SURVIVAL AND SOME RULES OF ASSEMBLY. (R829368)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dinoflagellate ecology is based on multiple adaptive strategies and species having diverse habitat preferences. Nine types of mixing-irradiance-nutrient habitats selecting for specific marine dinoflagellate life-form types are recognised, with five rules of assembly proposed t...

  12. Recent radiation in a marine and freshwater dinoflagellate species flock

    PubMed Central

    Annenkova, Nataliia V; Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind; Rengefors, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Processes of rapid radiation among unicellular eukaryotes are much less studied than among multicellular organisms. We have investigated a lineage of cold-water microeukaryotes (protists) that appear to have diverged recently. This lineage stands in stark contrast to known examples of phylogenetically closely related protists, in which genetic difference is typically larger than morphological differences. We found that the group not only consists of the marine-brackish dinoflagellate species Scrippsiella hangoei and the freshwater species Peridinium aciculiferum as discovered previously but also of a whole species flock. The additional species include Peridinium euryceps and Peridinium baicalense, which are restricted to a few lakes, in particular to the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, and freshwater S. hangoei from Lake Baikal. These species are characterized by relatively large conspicuous morphological differences, which have given rise to the different species descriptions. However, our scanning electron microscopic studies indicate that they belong to a single genus according to traditional morphological characterization of dinoflagellates (thecal plate patterns). Moreover, we found that they have identical SSU (small subunit) rDNA fragments and distinct but very small differences in the DNA markers LSU (large subunit) rDNA, ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and COB (cytochrome b) gene, which are used to delineate dinoflagellates species. As some of the species co-occur, and all four have small but species–specific sequence differences, we suggest that these taxa are not a case of phenotypic plasticity but originated via recent adaptive radiation. We propose that this is the first clear example among free-living microeukaryotes of recent rapid diversification into several species followed by dispersion to environments with different ecological conditions. PMID:25603395

  13. Recent radiation in a marine and freshwater dinoflagellate species flock.

    PubMed

    Annenkova, Nataliia V; Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind; Rengefors, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Processes of rapid radiation among unicellular eukaryotes are much less studied than among multicellular organisms. We have investigated a lineage of cold-water microeukaryotes (protists) that appear to have diverged recently. This lineage stands in stark contrast to known examples of phylogenetically closely related protists, in which genetic difference is typically larger than morphological differences. We found that the group not only consists of the marine-brackish dinoflagellate species Scrippsiella hangoei and the freshwater species Peridinium aciculiferum as discovered previously but also of a whole species flock. The additional species include Peridinium euryceps and Peridinium baicalense, which are restricted to a few lakes, in particular to the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, and freshwater S. hangoei from Lake Baikal. These species are characterized by relatively large conspicuous morphological differences, which have given rise to the different species descriptions. However, our scanning electron microscopic studies indicate that they belong to a single genus according to traditional morphological characterization of dinoflagellates (thecal plate patterns). Moreover, we found that they have identical SSU (small subunit) rDNA fragments and distinct but very small differences in the DNA markers LSU (large subunit) rDNA, ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and COB (cytochrome b) gene, which are used to delineate dinoflagellates species. As some of the species co-occur, and all four have small but species-specific sequence differences, we suggest that these taxa are not a case of phenotypic plasticity but originated via recent adaptive radiation. We propose that this is the first clear example among free-living microeukaryotes of recent rapid diversification into several species followed by dispersion to environments with different ecological conditions. PMID:25603395

  14. New-old hemoglobin-like proteins of symbiotic dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Leggat, William; Kaniewska, Paulina; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellates are unicellular photosynthetic algae that live in mutualistic symbioses with many marine organisms. Within the transcriptome of coral endosymbionts Symbiodinium sp. (type C3), we discovered the sequences of two novel and highly polymorphic hemoglobin-like genes and proposed their 3D protein structures. At the protein level, four isoforms shared between 87 and 97% sequence identity for Hb-1 and 78–99% for Hb-2, whereas between Hb-1 and Hb-2 proteins, only 15–21% sequence homology has been preserved. Phylogenetic analyses of the dinoflagellate encoding Hb sequences have revealed a separate evolutionary origin of the discovered globin genes and indicated the possibility of horizontal gene transfer. Transcriptional regulation of the Hb-like genes was studied in the reef-building coral Acropora aspera exposed to elevated temperatures (6–7°C above average sea temperature) over a 24-h period and a 72-h period, as well as to nutrient stress. Exposure to elevated temperatures resulted in an increased Hb-1 gene expression of 31% after 72 h only, whereas transcript abundance of the Hb-2 gene was enhanced by up to 59% by both 1-day and 3-day thermal stress conditions. Nutrient stress also increased gene expression of Hb-2 gene by 70%. Our findings describe the differential expression patterns of two novel Hb genes from symbiotic dinoflagellates and their polymorphic nature. Furthermore, the inducible nature of Hb-2 gene by both thermal and nutrient stressors indicates a prospective role of this form of hemoglobin in the initial coral–algal responses to changes in environmental conditions. This novel hemoglobin has potential use as a stress biomarker. PMID:23610627

  15. Recent radiation in a marine and freshwater dinoflagellate species flock.

    PubMed

    Annenkova, Nataliia V; Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind; Rengefors, Karin

    2015-08-01

    Processes of rapid radiation among unicellular eukaryotes are much less studied than among multicellular organisms. We have investigated a lineage of cold-water microeukaryotes (protists) that appear to have diverged recently. This lineage stands in stark contrast to known examples of phylogenetically closely related protists, in which genetic difference is typically larger than morphological differences. We found that the group not only consists of the marine-brackish dinoflagellate species Scrippsiella hangoei and the freshwater species Peridinium aciculiferum as discovered previously but also of a whole species flock. The additional species include Peridinium euryceps and Peridinium baicalense, which are restricted to a few lakes, in particular to the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, and freshwater S. hangoei from Lake Baikal. These species are characterized by relatively large conspicuous morphological differences, which have given rise to the different species descriptions. However, our scanning electron microscopic studies indicate that they belong to a single genus according to traditional morphological characterization of dinoflagellates (thecal plate patterns). Moreover, we found that they have identical SSU (small subunit) rDNA fragments and distinct but very small differences in the DNA markers LSU (large subunit) rDNA, ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and COB (cytochrome b) gene, which are used to delineate dinoflagellates species. As some of the species co-occur, and all four have small but species-specific sequence differences, we suggest that these taxa are not a case of phenotypic plasticity but originated via recent adaptive radiation. We propose that this is the first clear example among free-living microeukaryotes of recent rapid diversification into several species followed by dispersion to environments with different ecological conditions.

  16. Saccular cyst with atypical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Zamfir-Chiru-Anton, A; Gheorghe, DC

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory obstruction and stridor in infants and children are not uncommon. A rare cause of these sometimes life-threatening symptoms is the congenital saccular cyst. Objectives: We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with a cervical tumor, which appeared after a laryngeal endoscopic surgery of a saccular cyst with two relapses and a particular local evolution of its recurrence through the cricothyroid membrane. Material and method: The patient data has been reviewed over the entire follow-up period and a thorough an analysis of her investigations and surgery was performed. Results: The unusual evolution of this case was marked by an atypical exteriorization – not found in the published literature. The surgical approach was external, by paramedian thyrotomy, with no further long-term recurrence. Conclusions: An accurate diagnosis of saccular cysts can be made with the help of medical history, by an endoscopic visualization of the lesion and by the CT-scan imaging of the cervical region. Sometimes, saccular cysts can extend beyond laryngeal limits, determining fluid-filled tumors in the cervical region. PMID:27453755

  17. A giant splenic hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Karamjot Singh; Mittal, Amit; Gupta, Samita; Jindal, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with pain in the left hypochondrium, which had been progressing for 5 months. Examination revealed large splenomegaly, and ultrasonography showed a huge hydatid cyst in the spleen. Preoperative planning and postoperative care lead to successful management of this entity. Radiological investigations also play a major role in diagnosis and decrease morbidity. PMID:26722171

  18. [Adventitial cyst of the aorta].

    PubMed

    Kitzis, M; Assens, P; Couffinhal, J C; Bourgeois, P; Weiss, A M; Remond, P; Andreassian, B

    1983-11-10

    The authors report a case of adventitial cyst of the abdominal aorta. This would seem to be the first time that a cyst has been reported in the literature with this localization. A 54 year old female patient was treated surgically for a suspected aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. Her antecedents included syphilis treated with bismuth. The condition began with a lumbago with no clearly defined etiology. An abdominal X-ray without preparation visualized a calcified abdominal tumor in a retroperitoneal position, apparently attached to the aorta. Arteriography showed that the tumor was excluded from the circulation. Surgical exploration of the aorta demonstrated a cystic tumor, which was resected. A review of the literature concerning the pathology of arterial cysts shows no previous cases of aortic cyst. On the other hand, references to identical anomalies of the iliac, femoral, popliteal and radial arteries provide grounds for discussion of the etiology of this aortic disease. The macroscopic data and histological studies suggest a phenomenon of cystic degeneration rather than a constitutional anomaly of the artery, or, in this particular case, an anomaly connected with syphilitic lesions.

  19. Multidirectional Instability Accompanying an Inferior Labral Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Kim, Sung-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Paralabral cyst of the shoulder joint can be observed in 2% to 4% of the general population, particularly in men during the third and fourth decade. On average, these cysts measure 10 mm to 20 mm in diameter and are located preferentially on the postero-superior aspect of the glenoid. The MRI has increased the frequency of the diagnosis of paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint. Paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint usually develop in the proximity of the labrum. The relationship between shoulder instability and labral tears is well known, however, the association of shoulder instability with a paralabral cyst is rare. Shoulder instability may cause labral injury or labral injury may cause shoulder instability, and then injured tear develops paralabral cyst. In our patient, the inferior paralabral cyst may be associated with inferior labral tears and instability MRI. PMID:20514270

  20. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    PubMed

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  1. Familial multiple mesothelial cysts of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Iwanaka, T; Nakanishi, H; Tsuchida, Y; Oka, T; Honna, T; Shimizu, K

    1995-12-01

    A 5-month-old boy who was diagnosed as having hydrops fetalis at 25 weeks' gestation had severe ascites of unknown origin. At the age 12 months, ultrasonography and computed tomography showed multiple cysts in the spleen that were increasing in size rapidly. Splenectomy resulted in complete disappearance of the ascites. These cysts were diagnosed as mesothelial cysts because the cell lining of the splenic cysts stained positively with alcian blue and cytokeratin. The boy's mother had undergone splenectomy for splenic and retroperitoneal lymphangiomas at 4 years of age. Histological reevaluation showed that the lining of her splenic cysts had the same mesothelial components as her son's. Their chromosomal assay showed normal karyotypes. Mesothelial cyst of the spleen appears similar to splenic lymphangioma morphologically; however, bleomycin and OK-432 were not effective. Familial splenic mesothelial (epidermoid) cysts have been reported in three sets of siblings, but this is the first report of their occurrence in mother and son.

  2. Architecture and evolution of dinoflagellate chromosomes: an enigmatic origin.

    PubMed

    Costas, E; Goyanes, V

    2005-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a highly diversified group of unicellular protists that present fascinating nuclear features which have intrigued researchers for many years. As examples, a dense nuclear matrix accommodates permanently condensed chromosomes that are composed of fibers organized without histones and nucleosomes in stacked rows of parallel nested arches. The macromolecular chromosome structure corresponds to cholesteric liquid crystals with a constant left-handed twist. RNA acts to maintain the chromosome structure. Whole mounted chromosomes have a left-handed screw-like configuration with coils which progressively increase their pitch. This helical arrangement seems to be the result of a couple of narrow strands coiling together. Chromosomes do not show Q, G and C banding patterns. However, a roughly spherical differentiated upper end (primitive kinetochore?) and two differentiated coiling regions, the upper one composed of two to three coils where a couple of sister strands run together and parallel to each other, and the lower one where sister strands run out of phase by 180 degrees angular difference along the immediate next turns, can be distinguished. The chromosome segregation into two daughter chromatids begins at the telomere that attaches to the nuclear envelope, follows along the chromosome axis constituting first a Y-shaped and afterwards a V-shaped chromosome, which packs the newly synthesized DNA inside the "old" chromosome. Dividing chromosomes remain highly condensed, and the diameters of the new chromatids and the undivided chromosome are similar, but the number of arches is twice as large in G1 as in G2. The nuclear envelope remains through the cell cycle and shows spindle fibers, which penetrate intranuclear cytoplasmic channels during mitosis constituting an extra nuclear spindle. These and other cytogenetic features suggest that dinoflagellates are a group of enigmatic protists, unique and different from the usual eukaryotes. In contrast, DNA

  3. Surgical strategy for multiple huge spinal extradural meningeal cysts. Case report.

    PubMed

    Samura, Kazuhiro; Morioka, Takato; Miyagi, Yasushi; Nagata, Shinji; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Mihara, Futoshi; Sasaki, Tomio

    2007-10-01

    The authors describe the case of an 8-year-old boy who developed spastic paraparesis and hypalgesia below the middle thoracic level. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed huge and multiple extradural cystic lesions posterior to the spinal cord from T-5 to S-1, which were associated with severe spinal cord compression, especially at the T5-8 level. Using constructive interference in steady state (CISS) MR imaging, many septa were visible that were dividing the cysts in a tandem arrangement, and the multiple cysts were distributed far laterally, extending to the root sleeves. Three transdural communications of cerebrospinal fluid into the cysts, including one that was located ventrally, were revealed by multiangled observation using CISS MR imaging and intraoperative inspection. The huge and multiple appearances of the extradural meningeal cysts on MR images suggested various stages of growth of these cysts. As this case demonstrates, cysts of this type (huge, multiple, extradural meningeal [arachnoid] cysts) need to be completely removed during one-stage surgery.

  4. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. Case presentation: We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region–left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Discussion: Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions. PMID:27594757

  5. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking hydatid liver: a case report.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf; Dangroo, Sajad Ahmad; Bisati, Rafia Aziz; Malik, Nighat Shaffi

    2012-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts frequently occur in the mediastinum. They may be rarely encountered in the abdomen and retroperitoneum. Bronchogenic cysts can in fact mimic hydatid cysts. We report a case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst below the right hemidiaphragm mimicking a hydatid cyst of the liver in a 30-year-old female.

  6. Laparoscopic management of hydatid cyst in the lesser sac

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Kumar, Saurabh; Panda, Srikanta; Shameel, P. Ahammed

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Various anatomical location of hydatid cyst has been described in literature. Liver is the most common site of hydatid cyst and lungs are the second most common site. Hydatid cyst of lesser sac is a rare entity. Here we present a rare case report of laparoscopic management of hydatid cyst in lesser sac. PMID:27073313

  7. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    PubMed

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate. PMID:26375331

  8. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    PubMed

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate.

  9. Significance of plankton community structure and nutrient availability for the control of dinoflagellate blooms by parasites: a modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Alves-de-Souza, Catharina; Pecqueur, David; Le Floc'h, Emilie; Mas, Sébastien; Roques, Cécile; Mostajir, Behzad; Vidussi, Franscesca; Velo-Suárez, Lourdes; Sourisseau, Marc; Fouilland, Eric; Guillou, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellate blooms are frequently observed under temporary eutrophication of coastal waters after heavy rains. Growth of these opportunistic microalgae is believed to be promoted by sudden input of nutrients and the absence or inefficiency of their natural enemies, such as grazers and parasites. Here, numerical simulations indicate that increasing nutrient availability not only promotes the formation of dinoflagellate blooms but can also stimulate their control by protozoan parasites. Moreover, high abundance of phytoplankton other than dinoflagellate hosts might have a significant dilution effect on the control of dinoflagellate blooms by parasites, either by resource competition with dinoflagellates (thus limiting the number of hosts available for infection) or by affecting numerical-functional responses of grazers that consume free-living parasite stages. These outcomes indicate that although both dinoflagellates and their protozoan parasites are directly affected by nutrient availability, the efficacy of the parasitic control of dinoflagellate blooms under temporary eutrophication depends strongly on the structure of the plankton community as a whole.

  10. Large-subunit ribosomal RNA systematics of symbiotic dinoflagellates: morphology does not recapitulate phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, T P

    1998-12-01

    Biochemical, histological, physiological, and genetic evidence indicates that dinoflagellates symbiotic with marine invertebrates are a heterogeneous complex of taxa, representing at least five genera in three orders. Despite a wealth of data regarding morphological, biochemical, and behavioral differences among symbiotic dinoflagellates, knowledge concerning patterns of diversification is limited. I analyzed approximately 900 bp of the 5' end of the large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene from 14 dinoflagellate isolates: six cultured Symbiodinium specimens, two cultured symbiotic Gymnodinium, two algal samples isolated from reef-building corals, an algal sample obtained from cultures of the jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana, and three free-living Gymnodinium isolates. Results show that morphological similarities among the examined symbiotic taxa do not necessarily correspond with molecular phylogeny. The included Symbiodinium taxa represent a paraphyletic assemblage while Gymnodinium is reconstructed as a polyphyletic assemblage. Analysis indicates that all the included symbiotic dinoflagellates descended from a common, symbiotic ancestor (though within the dinoflagellates, symbiosis is a polyphyletic trait). Additionally, two free-living dinoflagellates emerge within the symbiotic clade, suggesting that the symbiotic lifestyle has been lost at least once in this group. It has been hypothesized that rates of evolution within mutualistic endosymbioses should be reduced relative to free-living taxa. However, results indicate that rates of molecular, morphological, biochemical and behavioral change are similar among branches leading to symbiotic and free-living dinoflagellates. PMID:10051396

  11. NanoSIMS study of trophic interactions in the coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Christophe; Mathieu, Pernice; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Djediat, Chakib; Spangenberg, Jorge; Alexander, Duncan; Hignette, Michel; Meziane, Tarik; Meibom, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Tropical and subtropical reef-building corals generally form a stable endosymbiotic association with autotrophic single-celled dinoflagellate algae, commonly known as "zooxanthellae", which is crucial for the development of coral reef ecosystems. In the present work, the spatial and temporal dynamics of trophic interactions between corals and their dinoflagellates was investigated in situ and at a subcellular level in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative NanoSIMS isotopic imaging of tissue ultra-thin sections (70 nm) were combined to precisely track the assimilation and the fate of 15N-labeled compounds (ammonium, nitrate and aspartic acid) within each symbiotic partner of the coral-dinoflagellate association. Among our main results, we found that (i) both dinoflagellate algae and coral tissue rapidly assimilate ammonium and aspartic acid from the environment, (ii) however only the dinoflagellates assimilate nitrate, (ii) nitrogen is rapidly and temporary stored within the dinoflagellate cells into uric acid crystals, and (iii) the dinoflagellate endosymbionts translocate nitrogenous compounds to their coral host. This study paves the way for exploring in details the wide range of metabolic interactions between partners of any symbiosis in the biosphere.

  12. When Naked Became Armored: An Eight-Gene Phylogeny Reveals Monophyletic Origin of Theca in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Murray, Shauna A.; Stüken, Anke; Rhodes, Lesley; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are a diverse lineage of microbial eukaryotes. Dinoflagellate monophyly and their position within the group Alveolata are well established. However, phylogenetic relationships between dinoflagellate orders remain unresolved. To date, only a limited number of dinoflagellate studies have used a broad taxon sample with more than two concatenated markers. This lack of resolution makes it difficult to determine the evolution of major phenotypic characters such as morphological features or toxin production e.g. saxitoxin. Here we present an improved dinoflagellate phylogeny, based on eight genes, with the broadest taxon sampling to date. Fifty-five sequences for eight phylogenetic markers from nuclear and mitochondrial regions were amplified from 13 species, four orders, and concatenated phylogenetic inferences were conducted with orthologous sequences. Phylogenetic resolution is increased with addition of support for the deepest branches, though can be improved yet further. We show for the first time that the characteristic dinoflagellate thecal plates, cellulosic material that is present within the sub-cuticular alveoli, appears to have had a single origin. In addition, the monophyly of most dinoflagellate orders is confirmed: the Dinophysiales, the Gonyaulacales, the Prorocentrales, the Suessiales, and the Syndiniales. Our improved phylogeny, along with results of PCR to detect the sxtA gene in various lineages, allows us to suggest that this gene was probably acquired separately in Gymnodinium and the common ancestor of Alexandrium and Pyrodinium and subsequently lost in some descendent species of Alexandrium. PMID:23185516

  13. Imaging in pulmonary hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Mandeep K; Sharma, Madhurima; Gulati, Ajay; Gorsi, Ujjwal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Agarwal, Ritesh; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonosis that can involve almost any organ in the human body. After the liver, the lungs are the most common site for hydatid disease in adults. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of the disease, as clinical features are often nonspecific. Classical radiological signs of pulmonary hydatid cysts have been described in the literature, aiding in the diagnosis of the disease. However, complicated hydatid cysts can prove to be a diagnostic challenge at times due to their atypical imaging features. Radiography is the initial imaging modality. Computed tomography can provide a specific diagnosis in complicated cases. Ultrasound is particularly useful in peripheral lung lesions. The role of magnetic resonance imaging largely remains unexplored. PMID:27358685

  14. A note on the discovery of the suturocavate dinoflagellate cyst (Limbodinium absidatum) in the Middle East (Binalud Mountains, NE Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafi, Abradat; Ghasemi-Nejad, Ebrahim; Ashouri, Alireza; Vahidi-Nia, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    Limbodinium absidatum is a suturocavate dinocyst that is being reported here from the Binalud Mountains, NE Iran, which is also the first record of this rare species from the Middle East. A few specimens of L. absidatum are recorded from samples taken from the Dalichai Formation at a section measured at Ghoroneh. The stratigraphic range of this species (Late Callovian-Early Oxfordian) is very important for Jurassic palynologists. Morphological characteristics of this Sexiform species are described in detail to support the identification.

  15. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

  16. An unusual presentation of a retroperitoneal cyst.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debashis; Gulur, Dev; Patel, Snehal; Nambirajan, Thiagarajan

    2014-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented to the surgical assessment unit with severe right loin to groin pain. An ultrasound scan of the abdomen revealed a complex cyst in the right iliac fossa and a subsequent CT scan revealed a 7.5 cm retroperitoneal cystic lesion below the lower pole of the right kidney. The patient also had MRI of the kidneys, which confirmed the finding. The image showed the cyst was not attached to the kidneys and was clearly separate. She underwent a laparoscopic excision of the cyst. Histopathology revealed a cyst lined by a single layer of mucinous epithelium of endocervical type with foci of calcification and hyalinisation on the wall. The cyst was thought to be a benign cyst of Mullerian origin.

  17. Glandular odontogenic cyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Monali; Kale, Hemant; Ranginwala, Amena; Patel, Govind

    2014-01-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is an uncommon developmental odontogenic cyst of jaws with a relative frequency between 0.012 and 1.3%. GOC is very rare and only 111 cases have been documented in the English literature so far. Generally, this cyst is encountered in the anterior areas of the mandible and is more common with a wide age range, the mean age being 49.5 years and has a tendency to recur. GOC is often misdiagnosed because of its overlapping histopathological features with that of other odontogenic cysts such as lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) or botryoid cyst and central low-grade Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histopathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of GOC is challenging for pathologist. Here, we present a case of GOC in a 40 year old male patient in left mandibular region that crossed the midline. PMID:24959044

  18. An unusual presentation of a retroperitoneal cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Debashis; Gulur, Dev; Patel, Snehal; Nambirajan, Thiagarajan

    2014-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented to the surgical assessment unit with severe right loin to groin pain. An ultrasound scan of the abdomen revealed a complex cyst in the right iliac fossa and a subsequent CT scan revealed a 7.5 cm retroperitoneal cystic lesion below the lower pole of the right kidney. The patient also had MRI of the kidneys, which confirmed the finding. The image showed the cyst was not attached to the kidneys and was clearly separate. She underwent a laparoscopic excision of the cyst. Histopathology revealed a cyst lined by a single layer of mucinous epithelium of endocervical type with foci of calcification and hyalinisation on the wall. The cyst was thought to be a benign cyst of Mullerian origin. PMID:25368127

  19. [Acquired renal cysts in maintenance dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Lie, B; Hust, W; Asgarzadeh, A; Mann, H

    1986-03-01

    Ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys of 111 patients on long term maintenance hemodialysis was performed. None of the patients had genuine polycystic kidney disease. In many patients acquired cysts were found. Frequency and volume of these cysts were the same on the right and left side. There was no correlation between the age of the patients and the number of cysts. There were no differences concerning sex and type of primary renal disease. There was a significant positive correlation between time on maintenance hemodialysis and number of cysts but no correlation between number of cysts and hemoglobin concentration. This is in contrast to data in the literature. Clinical relevance of acquired kidney cysts in dialysis patients concerns hematuria, retroperitoneal bleeding, kidney stone formation, septicemia and malignancy.

  20. Retroperitoneal localization of hydatid cyst disease.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, A R; Coskun, I; Karakaya, K; Ibis, C

    2001-01-01

    In this study we discuss a rare case; hydatid cyst disease that is located in the retroperitoneum. Two cases were treated in our department with hydatid cyst disease located in the retroperitoneum; one of the cysts was in the minor pelvis and the other was on the left psoas muscle. Diagnosis was confirmed with blood tests, and radiological examinations. The cyst wall was excised partially and was oversewn. Following the operation both of the patients were given albendasole tablets for 10 weeks with blood count and liver enzyme monitorization. Hydatic cysts located in retroperitoneum were treated successfully. Especially in the endemic areas hydatid cyst should be remembered when evaluating cystic masses in the retroperitoneum. It can be treated successfully with surgery.

  1. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking pancreatic cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shin-E; Tsai, Yi-Fang; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Li, Fen-Yau; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun; Lui, Wing-Yiu

    2006-11-01

    Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst is detected extremely rarely and often masquerades as other diseases. Here, we report 2 cases of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking pancreatic mucinous tumor. Histologically, both cysts were composed of ciliated respiratory-like epithelium with abundant mucin content, smooth muscle bundles and mature cartilage, compatible with the diagnosis of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst. In addition to these 2 cases, another 42 retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts reported in the English literature were collected for review and analysis. Twelve (28%) were located over the peripancreatic area. Just over half (51%) of them were asymptomatic. No accurate preoperative diagnosis could be made for any of the lesions. About a third (33.3%) of the peripancreatic retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts masqueraded as pancreatic cystic lesions.

  2. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ingu, Akira; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ichimiya, Yasunori; Saito, Tatsuya; Abe, Tomio

    2002-04-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of progressive left-arm numbness. A cyst below the left hemidiaphragm was discovered incidentally when a CT scan was performed to examine the thymus for a suspected tumor. A thymic mass was found. MRI indicated that the cyst contained proteinaceous fluid. The thymoma was approached through a median sternotomy and resected, but the cyst was found to be infradiaphragmatic. A separate, left paraspinal incision was made to access the retroperitoneum, and the cyst was resected. Histologic examination showed that the cyst was bronchogenic in origin. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts are very rare, and only four cases have been reported in the English-language literature.

  3. The highly reduced and fragmented mitochondrial genome of the early-branching dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina shares characteristics with both apicomplexan and dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Slamovits, Claudio H; Saldarriaga, Juan F; Larocque, Allen; Keeling, Patrick J

    2007-09-14

    The mitochondrial genome and the expression of the genes within it have evolved to be highly unusual in several lineages. Within alveolates, apicomplexans and dinoflagellates share the most reduced mitochondrial gene content on record, but differ from one another in organisation and function. To clarify how these characteristics originated, we examined mitochondrial genome form and expression in a key lineage that arose close to the divergence of apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, Oxyrrhis marina. We show that Oxyrrhis is a basal member of the dinoflagellate lineage whose mitochondrial genome has some unique characteristics while sharing others with apicomplexans or dinoflagellates. Specifically, Oxyrrhis has the smallest gene complement known, with several rRNA fragments and only two protein coding genes, cox1 and a cob-cox3 fusion. The genome appears to be highly fragmented, like that of dinoflagellates, but genes are frequently arranged as tandem copies, reminiscent of the repeating nature of the Plasmodium genome. In dinoflagellates and Oxyrrhis, genes are found in many arrangements, but the Oxyrrhis genome appears to be more structured, since neighbouring genes or gene fragments are invariably the same: cox1 and the cob-cox3 fusion were never found on the same genomic fragment. Analysing hundreds of cDNAs for both genes and circularized mRNAs from cob-cox3 showed that neither uses canonical start or stop codons, although a UAA terminator is created in the cob-cox3 fusion mRNA by post-transcriptional oligoadenylation. mRNAs from both genes also use a novel 5' oligo(U) cap. Extensive RNA editing is characteristic of dinoflagellates, but we find no editing in Oxyrrhis. Overall, the combination of characteristics found in the Oxyrrhis genome allows us to plot the sequence of many events that led to the extreme organisation of apicomplexan and dinoflalgellate mitochondrial genomes.

  4. Discovery of Nuclear-Encoded Genes for the Neurotoxin Saxitoxin in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Stüken, Anke; Orr, Russell J. S.; Kellmann, Ralf; Murray, Shauna A.; Neilan, Brett A.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2011-01-01

    Saxitoxin is a potent neurotoxin that occurs in aquatic environments worldwide. Ingestion of vector species can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning, a severe human illness that may lead to paralysis and death. In freshwaters, the toxin is produced by prokaryotic cyanobacteria; in marine waters, it is associated with eukaryotic dinoflagellates. However, several studies suggest that saxitoxin is not produced by dinoflagellates themselves, but by co-cultured bacteria. Here, we show that genes required for saxitoxin synthesis are encoded in the nuclear genomes of dinoflagellates. We sequenced >1.2×106 mRNA transcripts from the two saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate strains Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and A. minutum CCMP113 using high-throughput sequencing technology. In addition, we used in silico transcriptome analyses, RACE, qPCR and conventional PCR coupled with Sanger sequencing. These approaches successfully identified genes required for saxitoxin-synthesis in the two transcriptomes. We focused on sxtA, the unique starting gene of saxitoxin synthesis, and show that the dinoflagellate transcripts of sxtA have the same domain structure as the cyanobacterial sxtA genes. But, in contrast to the bacterial homologs, the dinoflagellate transcripts are monocistronic, have a higher GC content, occur in multiple copies, contain typical dinoflagellate spliced-leader sequences and eukaryotic polyA-tails. Further, we investigated 28 saxitoxin-producing and non-producing dinoflagellate strains from six different genera for the presence of genomic sxtA homologs. Our results show very good agreement between the presence of sxtA and saxitoxin-synthesis, except in three strains of A. tamarense, for which we amplified sxtA, but did not detect the toxin. Our work opens for possibilities to develop molecular tools to detect saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellates in the environment. PMID:21625593

  5. [Cysts and cyst-like formations of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space in children].

    PubMed

    Fuchko, V I; Bibliuk, I I; Martyniuk, N A; Koturbash, R I; Matiiash, Ia V

    1992-01-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 29 children with cysts, and 10--with cyst-like formations of the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space are described. In majority of the patients, a cyst at the terminal stage was revealed. In presence of complications, they were operated on with tentative diagnosis of acute appendicitis, or ileus. The operation consisted of cyst enucleation, its elimination with resection, or removal of the organ, creation of cystodigestive anastomosis. Postoperative lethality was 12.8%.

  6. Cyst-based measurements for assessing lymphangioleiomyomatosis in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, P. Brown, M. S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Goldin, J. G.; Argula, R.; Strange, C.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a new family of measurements made on individual pulmonary cysts extracted from computed tomography (CT) for assessing the severity of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Methods: CT images were analyzed using thresholding to identify a cystic region of interest from chest CT of LAM patients. Individual cysts were then extracted from the cystic region by the watershed algorithm, which separates individual cysts based on subtle edges within the cystic regions. A family of measurements were then computed, which quantify the amount, distribution, and boundary appearance of the cysts. Sequential floating feature selection was used to select a small subset of features for quantification of the severity of LAM. Adjusted R{sup 2} from multiple linear regression and R{sup 2} from linear regression against measurements from spirometry were used to compare the performance of our proposed measurements with currently used density based CT measurements in the literature, namely, the relative area measure and the D measure. Results: Volumetric CT data, performed at total lung capacity and residual volume, from a total of 49 subjects enrolled in the MILES trial were used in our study. Our proposed measures had adjusted R{sup 2} ranging from 0.42 to 0.59 when regressing against the spirometry measures, with p < 0.05. For previously used density based CT measurements in the literature, the best R{sup 2} was 0.46 (for only one instance), with the majority being lower than 0.3 or p > 0.05. Conclusions: The proposed family of CT-based cyst measurements have better correlation with spirometric measures than previously used density based CT measurements. They show potential as a sensitive tool for quantitatively assessing the severity of LAM.

  7. Quantification of PCNA+ cells within odontogenic jaw cyst epithelium.

    PubMed

    Li, T J; Browne, R M; Matthews, J B

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reactivity of the epithelial linings of the three major types of odontogenic cyst with a monoclonal antibody to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA; clone PC10). PCNA expression was studied in odontogenic cysts (n = 31) and normal oral epithelium (n = 10) using a biotin-streptavidin method on routinely processed paraffin sections. PCNA+ cells were counted manually and related to the length of basement membrane (mm) and the epithelial area (mm2) as determined by TV image analysis. The epithelial linings of odontogenic keratocysts (OKC; n = 11) contained the highest number of PCNA+ cells, most of which were located in the suprabasal layers. The mean value of PCNA+ cells in OKC linings (94.4 +/- 22.7 cells/mm) was similar to that of oral epithelia (80.8 +/- 20.6 cells/mm), but both were significantly higher than that of dentigerous (n = 10, 5.1 +/- 3.0 cells/mm) and radicular (n = 10, 11.0 +/- 4.1 cells/mm) cyst linings (P < 0.005). The epithelial distribution of PCNA+ cells differed between groups with the basal/suprabasal PCNA+ cell ratio in OKC linings (0.05 +/- 0.02) being significantly lower than that of normal oral epithelium (0.5 +/- 0.14), dentigerous (1.6 +/- 1.23) and radicular (1.9 +/- 1.09) cyst linings respectively (P < 0.005). These results demonstrate differences in PCNA expression between the epithelial linings of the major odontogenic cyst types, indicating differences in proliferative and differentiation processes within these lesions.

  8. Brainstem epidermoid cyst: An update

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, M. R.; Yerramneni, Vamsi Krishna; Mudumba, Vijaya S.; Manisha, Nukavarapu; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of epidermoid tumors is between 1% and 2% of all intracranial tumors. The usual locations of epidermoid tumor are the parasellar region and cerebellopontine angle, and it is less commonly located in sylvian fissure, suprasellar region, cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, and lateral and fourth ventricles. Epidermoid cysts located in the posterior fossa usually arise in the lateral subarachnoid cisterns, and those located in the brain stem are rare. These epidermoids contain cheesy and flaky white soft putty like contents. Epidermoid cysts are very slow growing tumors having a similar growth pattern of the epidermal cells of the skin and develop from remnants of epidermal elements during closure of the neural groove and disjunction of the surface ectoderm with neural ectoderm between the third and fifth weeks of embryonic life. We are presenting an interesting case of intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cyst containing milky white liquefied material with flakes in a 5-year-old girl. Diffusion-weighted imaging is definitive for the diagnosis. Ideal treatment of choice is removal of cystic components with complete resection of capsule. Although radical resection will prevent recurrence, in view of very thin firmly adherent capsule to brainstem, it is not always possible to do complete resection of capsule without any neurological deficits. PMID:27366244

  9. Neurenteric Cyst Presenting with Bleeding Per Rectum

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Taruna; Rattan, Kamal Nain

    2016-01-01

    Neurenteric cyst in the thoracic cavity may produce a myriad of clinical features. We report a 7-month-old girl who presented with significant bleeding per rectum. On imaging, a mediastinal cystic structure with air-fluid levels was evident with cervico-thoracic vertebral anomalies. The cyst was excised and histopathology showed intestinal mucosal lining with heterotopic pancreatic tissue confirming the diagnosis of neurenteric cyst.

  10. Neurenteric Cyst Presenting with Bleeding Per Rectum.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Taruna; Parmar, Padam; Rattan, Kamal Nain

    2016-01-01

    Neurenteric cyst in the thoracic cavity may produce a myriad of clinical features. We report a 7-month-old girl who presented with significant bleeding per rectum. On imaging, a mediastinal cystic structure with air-fluid levels was evident with cervico-thoracic vertebral anomalies. The cyst was excised and histopathology showed intestinal mucosal lining with heterotopic pancreatic tissue confirming the diagnosis of neurenteric cyst. PMID:27672582

  11. Neurenteric Cyst Presenting with Bleeding Per Rectum.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Taruna; Parmar, Padam; Rattan, Kamal Nain

    2016-01-01

    Neurenteric cyst in the thoracic cavity may produce a myriad of clinical features. We report a 7-month-old girl who presented with significant bleeding per rectum. On imaging, a mediastinal cystic structure with air-fluid levels was evident with cervico-thoracic vertebral anomalies. The cyst was excised and histopathology showed intestinal mucosal lining with heterotopic pancreatic tissue confirming the diagnosis of neurenteric cyst.

  12. Neurenteric Cyst Presenting with Bleeding Per Rectum

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Taruna; Rattan, Kamal Nain

    2016-01-01

    Neurenteric cyst in the thoracic cavity may produce a myriad of clinical features. We report a 7-month-old girl who presented with significant bleeding per rectum. On imaging, a mediastinal cystic structure with air-fluid levels was evident with cervico-thoracic vertebral anomalies. The cyst was excised and histopathology showed intestinal mucosal lining with heterotopic pancreatic tissue confirming the diagnosis of neurenteric cyst. PMID:27672582

  13. Laparoscopic treatment for renal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Essaki, Hicham; Fekak, Hamid; Joual, Abdenbi; Meziane, Fethi

    2006-03-01

    A multivesicular hydatid cyst was removed from the left kidney of a 26-year-old woman by retroperitoneal laparoscopy to avoid contamination of the abdominal cavity. A scolicidal agent (20% hypertonic saline) was injected around the kidney initially and then instilled into the cyst after the contents had been evacuated. There were no complications and no anaphylactic shock. This appears to be the first reported case of treatment of renal hydatid cyst by laparoscopy.

  14. Endoscopic management of a retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Chowbey, Pradeep K; Wadhwa, Atul; Shah, Sumeet; Sharma, Anil; Khullar, Rajesh; Soni, Vandana; Baijal, Manish

    2004-08-01

    Hydatid cyst is a significant health problem in endemic regions. Although progress has been made in medical treatment and interventional radiology techniques, surgery is currently the treatment of choice. The hydatid cysts are known to occur at several unusual sites in the body. With increasing experience in laparoscopy and retroperitoneoscopy, attempts have been made to offer the advantages of minimal access procedures to hydatid disease patients. We present a case report of such a patient whose retroperitoneal hydatid cyst was removed endoscopically.

  15. CT demonstration of perirenal lymphatic cysts.

    PubMed

    De Maeyer, P; Baert, A L; Usewils, R; Wynants, P; De Pauw, A

    1982-01-01

    A case of perirenal lymphatic cysts demonstrated by computed tomography is reported. These lymphatic cysts, a histological subtype of lymphangiomata, are clearly visible as collections with clear fluid-type density surrounding both kidneys. The retroperitoneal localization of this rarity has been reported in the radiological literature, whereas, to our knowledge, the radiological demonstration of the perirenal localization has not. CT provides a unique method for direct radiological visualization of the cyst.

  16. Dinoflagellate Phylogeny as Inferred from Heat Shock Protein 90 and Ribosomal Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenrath, Mona; Leander, Brian S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Interrelationships among dinoflagellates in molecular phylogenies are largely unresolved, especially in the deepest branches. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences provide phylogenetic signals only at the tips of the dinoflagellate tree. Two reasons for the poor resolution of deep dinoflagellate relationships using rDNA sequences are (1) most sites are relatively conserved and (2) there are different evolutionary rates among sites in different lineages. Therefore, alternative molecular markers are required to address the deeper phylogenetic relationships among dinoflagellates. Preliminary evidence indicates that the heat shock protein 90 gene (Hsp90) will provide an informative marker, mainly because this gene is relatively long and appears to have relatively uniform rates of evolution in different lineages. Methodology/Principal Findings We more than doubled the previous dataset of Hsp90 sequences from dinoflagellates by generating additional sequences from 17 different species, representing seven different orders. In order to concatenate the Hsp90 data with rDNA sequences, we supplemented the Hsp90 sequences with three new SSU rDNA sequences and five new LSU rDNA sequences. The new Hsp90 sequences were generated, in part, from four additional heterotrophic dinoflagellates and the type species for six different genera. Molecular phylogenetic analyses resulted in a paraphyletic assemblage near the base of the dinoflagellate tree consisting of only athecate species. However, Noctiluca was never part of this assemblage and branched in a position that was nested within other lineages of dinokaryotes. The phylogenetic trees inferred from Hsp90 sequences were consistent with trees inferred from rDNA sequences in that the backbone of the dinoflagellate clade was largely unresolved. Conclusions/Significance The sequence conservation in both Hsp90 and rDNA sequences and the poor resolution of the deepest nodes suggests that dinoflagellates reflect an explosive

  17. Swollen eyelid reveals multiple intracranial hydatid cysts associated with a palpebral cyst.

    PubMed

    Tzili, N; Ahbeddou, S; Ahmimech, J; Abboud, H; Boutarbouch, M; El Hassan, A; Berraho, A

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a hydatid cyst of the eyelid in a 12-year-old boy associated with cerebral involvement. The patient was initially treated by neurosurgeons for brain cysts. The course after an interval of two months was marked by regression of the palpebral cyst on albendazole.

  18. Nasoalveolar cyst: an enigma for the dentist.

    PubMed

    Misra, Satya Ranjan; Gopal, Maragathavalli; Mohanty, Neeta; Rastogi, Varun

    2015-01-07

    A nasoalveolar cyst is a rare, non-odontogenic soft tissue cyst encountered in the anterior maxillary labial sulcus as an asymptomatic soft tissue swelling. Often, patients with these cysts report them to the dental clinic where they are mistaken for odontogenic lesions by the dental surgeon, especially if concomitant dental problems are present. They cannot be detected by routine conventional dental radiography as they are peripheral, lying within the mucosa thereby posing a diagnostic challenge. We document a case of a 47-year-old woman with a nasoalveolar cyst.

  19. Congenital laryngeal cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mariën, S; Jespers, A; Vidts, G; Schmelzer, B

    2003-01-01

    Congenital laryngeal cysts are a rare cause of stridor in the neonate. Nevertheless, delayed diagnosis and treatment can cause life-threatening airway obstruction. Even though the diagnosis is easily made by careful inspection, treatment results often in recurrence. These facts are illustrated by a case of a baby with a saccular cyst. Immediately after diagnosis and 5 days later the cyst was de-roofed using a CO2 laser via an endolaryngeal approach. Because of a second recurrence an excision of the cyst was performed via a lateral cervical approach. PMID:12836468

  20. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of mediastinal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Brzeziński, Daniel; Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Progress in the development of surgical techniques has led to the growing use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) techniques in mediastinal cyst treatment. Aim To present our experience of treating mediastinal cysts with the minimally invasive technique. Material and methods Fifty patients with mediastinal cysts were treated from 2001 to 2011. There were 32 women and 18 men. The age of the patients ranged from 17 to 72, the mean age being 42 years. All patients underwent basic preoperative diagnostic tests of the chest: X-ray, computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and spirometry; 4 patients underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and 3 fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the described lesions. Results The VATS was performed in each case. Conversion was carried out due to superior mediastinal location in 10 cases and pleural adhesions in 3 cases. The partial resection of a cyst was performed in 3 patients. One patient was treated conservatively due to heart failure. In that patient the transthoracic needle aspiration of a cyst under ultrasound guidance using alcoholisation with 76% ethanol with a good effect was performed twice. Cyst recurrence was observed in 1 case. Conclusions The surgical access depends on the location of a cyst. The VATS resection of a superior mediastinal cyst is not always feasible. Surgery of mediastinal cysts is both diagnostic and curative. PMID:25337163

  1. [Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Violeta; Trandafir, Daniela; Ferariu, D; Boişteanu, Otilia; Haba, Danisia

    2011-01-01

    Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland is a rare clinical entity. Definitive clinical diagnosis is often difficult to determine preoperatively because of the lack of pathognomonic features. The most frequent location of a parotid dermoid cyst is a triangular area lying above the pinna. Imaging studies do not definitely diagnose a parotid dermoid cyst. Although parotid dermoid cyst is (generally) well-encapsulated, complete removal of the cyst wall is not sufficient to cure it, so it is mandatory to perform careful excision of the cyst by parotidectomy, in terms of preserving facial nerve integrity. Histopathology of the parotid gland tumor removed by parotidectomy makes a diagnosis of certainty, by revealing a cyst wall with keratinization of the squamous epithelium and the presence of skin annexes (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands). We present a rare case of parotid dermoid cyst in a 21-year-old male patient with symptoms and imaging rather suggestive of arch I branchial cyst and a brief review of data in the medical literature of the last 20 years.

  2. Lone, Mobile Left Atrial Hydatid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ugurlu, Mehmet; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Tekin, Ali Ihsan; Tok, Ahmet; Yagmur, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcosis is endemic in various regions of Turkey. Cardiac involvement in echinococcosis is rare, and lone cardiac hydatid cysts are even more unusual. Because cardiac hydatid disease can be fatal, even asymptomatic patients are optimally referred for surgical treatment. We present a rare case of a lone, primary, mobile hydatid cyst in the left atrium of a 62-year-old woman. The cyst caused dyspnea from left ventricular inflow obstruction. In addition to reporting the patient's fatal case, we discuss cardiac hydatid cysts in terms of the scant medical literature. PMID:27303247

  3. Laparoscopic ablation of symptomatic renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, S C; Hulbert, J C; Pharand, D; Schuessler, W W; Vancaillie, T G; Kavoussi, L R

    1993-10-01

    We report a laparoscopic approach to the drainage and ablation of symptomatic simple renal cysts. Ten patients with chronic pain, 6 of whom failed primary aspiration, underwent laparoscopic cyst ablation: 6 had solitary renal cysts, 3 had multiple cysts and 1 had a peripelvic cyst. The approach was transabdominal in 9 patients and extraperitoneal in 1. Intraoperatively, cyst fluid was obtained for cytological examination, and cyst walls were excised and sent for pathological examination. When possible, the remaining inner cyst walls were fulgurated to prevent recurrence. Mean total operating room time was 2 hours 27 minutes and blood loss was minimal. The sole complication was a postoperative retroperitoneal hematoma, which was managed conservatively. Malignancy was diagnosed in 2 patients, each of whom had a negative preoperative aspiration. These patients subsequently underwent radical nephrectomy. All remaining patients were asymptomatic at a mean followup of 10 months. Laparoscopic ablation of renal cysts is a safe and effective alternative to open surgery in patients who have failed conservative measures. Preoperative and intraoperative evaluation for malignancy should be performed.

  4. Parotid duct cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Erkan, A N; Hürcan, C; Bal, N; Yilmazer, C; Ozlüoglu, L

    2006-01-01

    Salivary gland cysts can be benign or malignant. Salivary duct cysts are benign tumours that occur mainly in the parotid gland and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who presented with a painless preauricular mass on the right side. Superficial parotidectomy was performed based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Histopathologic examination of the specimen revealed a parotid duct cyst. Here we report clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of the case as well as a review of the literature.

  5. Regional cyst concentration as a prognostic biomarker for polycystic kidney disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Joshua D.; Irazabal, Maria V.; Torres, Vicente E.; King, Bernard F.; Erickson, Bradley J.

    2014-03-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a major cause of renal failure. Despite recent advances in understanding the biochemistry and genetics of PKD, the functional mechanisms underpinning the declines in renal function observed in the disorder are not well established. No studies investigating the distribution of cysts within polycystic kidneys exist. This work introduces regional cyst concentration as a new biomarker for evaluation of patients suffering from PKD. We derive a method to define central and peripheral regions of the kidney, approximating the anatomical division between cortex and medulla, and apply it to two cohorts of ten patients with early/mild or late/severe disease. Our results from the late/severe cohort show peripheral cyst concentration correlates with the current standard PKD biomarker, total kidney volume (TKV), signi cantly better than central cyst concentration (p < 0.05). We also find that cyst concentration was globally increased in the late/severe cohort (p << 0.01) compared to the early/mild cohort, for both central and peripheral regions. These findings show cysts in PKD are not distributed homogeneously throughout the renal tissues.

  6. Marine downscaling of a future climate scenario in the North Sea and possible effects on dinoflagellate harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Friocourt, Y F; Skogen, M; Stolte, W; Albretsen, J

    2012-01-01

    Two hydrodynamic and ecological models were used to investigate the effects of climate change-according to the IPCC A1b emission scenario - on the primary productivity of the North Sea and on harmful algal blooms. Both models were forced with atmospheric fields from a regional downscaling of General Circulation Models to compare two sets of 20-year simulations representative of present climate (1984-2004) conditions and of the 2040s. Both models indicated a general warming of the North Sea by up to 0.8°C and a slight freshening by the 2040s. The models suggested that the eastern North Sea would be subjected to more temperature and salinity changes than the western part. In addition, the ecological modules of the models indicated that the warming up of the sea would result in a slightly earlier spring bloom. The one model that also computes the distribution of four different phytoplankton groups suggests an increase in the abundance of dinoflagellates, whereas the abundance of diatoms, flagellates and Phaeocystis sp. remains comparable to current levels, or decrease. Assuming that Dinophysis spp. would experience a similar increase in abundance as the modelled group of dinoflagellates, it is hypothesised that blooms of Dinophysis spp. may occur more frequently in the North Sea by 2040. However, implications for shellfish toxicity remain unclear.

  7. Mycosporine-like amino acids from coral dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Dove, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most important marine ecosystems, providing habitat for approximately a quarter of all marine organisms. Within the foundation of this ecosystem, reef-building corals form mutualistic symbioses with unicellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Exposure to UV radiation (UVR) (280 to 400 nm) especially when combined with thermal stress has been recognized as an important abiotic factor leading to the loss of algal symbionts from coral tissue and/or a reduction in their pigment concentration and coral bleaching. UVR may damage biological macromolecules, increase the level of mutagenesis in cells, and destabilize the symbiosis between the coral host and their dinoflagellate symbionts. In nature, corals and other marine organisms are protected from harmful UVR through several important photoprotective mechanisms that include the synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). MAAs are small (<400-Da), colorless, water-soluble compounds made of a cyclohexenone or cyclohexenimine chromophore that is bound to an amino acid residue or its imino alcohol. These secondary metabolites are natural biological sunscreens characterized by a maximum absorbance in the UVA and UVB ranges of 310 to 362 nm. In addition to their photoprotective role, MAAs act as antioxidants scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressing singlet oxygen-induced damage. It has been proposed that MAAs are synthesized during the first part of the shikimate pathway, and recently, it has been suggested that they are synthesized in the pentose phosphate pathway. The shikimate pathway is not found in animals, but in plants and microbes, it connects the metabolism of carbohydrates to the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. However, both the complete enzymatic pathway of MAA synthesis and the extent of their regulation by environmental conditions are not known. This minireview discusses the current knowledge of MAA

  8. Toxicity and Growth Assessments of Three Thermophilic Benthic Dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) Developing in the Southern Mediterranean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Gharbia, Hela; Yahia, Ons Kéfi-Daly; Amzil, Zouher; Chomérat, Nicolas; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Sibat, Manoella; Zmerli Triki, Habiba; Nouri, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Harmful benthic dinoflagellates, usually developing in tropical areas, are expanding to temperate ecosystems facing water warming. Reports on harmful benthic species are particularly scarce in the Southern Mediterranean Sea. For the first time, three thermophilic benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) were isolated from Bizerte Bay (Tunisia, Mediterranean) and monoclonal cultures established. The ribotyping confirmed the morphological identification of the three species. Maximum growth rates were 0.59 ± 0.08 d−1 for O. cf. ovata, 0.35 ± 0.01 d−1 for C. monotis and 0.33 ± 0.04 d−1 for P. lima. Toxin analyses revealed the presence of ovatoxin-a and ovatoxin-b in O. cf. ovata cells. Okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were detected in P. lima cultures. For C. monotis, a chromatographic peak at 5.6 min with a mass m/z = 1061.768 was observed, but did not correspond to a mono-sulfated analogue of the yessotoxin. A comparison of the toxicity and growth characteristics of these dinoflagellates, distributed worldwide, is proposed. PMID:27754462

  9. Prevalence of Simple Renal Cysts in Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Takahashi, Michiko; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Suda, Kentaro; Bando, Hironori; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective Various organs are known to be affected by the comorbidities of acromegaly. However, the involvement of renal structural comorbidities, such as cysts, has so far remained largely unknown. In this single-center study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with simple renal cysts in Japanese patients with acromegaly. Methods A total of 71 consecutive patients with acromegaly were analyzed, who all underwent abdominal ultrasonography at diagnosis between 1986 and 2012 at Kobe University Hospital. Results Of these 71 patients, 23 (32.4%) exhibited simple renal cysts. Acromegalic patients with renal cysts tended to be significantly older, had a higher prevalence of smoking- and higher nadir growth hormone (GH) levels during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) than did those without renal cysts. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed age, smoking, and nadir GH to be independent factors associated with renal cysts. Interestingly, the number of renal cysts positively correlated with both the basal GH levels and nadir GH levels during OGTT (r=0.66, p<0.05 and r=0.70, p<0.05, respectively). In addition, the mean diameter of renal cysts positively correlated with the systolic blood pressure (r=0.84, p<0.005). Conclusion This is the first report to show the prevalence of simple renal cysts in patients with acromegaly. Elevated nadir GH levels during OGTT were found to be associated with an increased risk of simple renal cysts. Therefore, an excessive secretion of GH may be related to the development of renal cysts. PMID:27374666

  10. 2D-PAGE protein analysis of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum based on three different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latib, Norhidayu Abdul; Norshaha, Safida Anira; Usup, Gires; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Harmful algae bloom or red tide seems to be considered as threat to ecosystem, especially to human consumption because of the production of neurotoxin by dinoflagellates species such as Alexandrium minutum which can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning. The aim of this study is to determine the most suitable method for protein extraction of A. minutum followed by determination of differential protein expression of A. minutum on three different temperatures (15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C). After the optimization, the protein extract was subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to compare the intensity and distribution of the protein spots. Based on quantitative and qualitative protein assessment, use of Trizol reagent is the most suitable method to extract protein from A. minutum. 2-DE analysis of the samples results in different distribution and intensity of the protein spots were compared between 15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C.

  11. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES AND OTHER EUKARYOTIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  12. Molecular phylogeny of the ocelloid-bearing dinoflagellates erythropsidinium and warnowia (warnowiaceae, dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; López-García, Purificación; Moreira, David

    2009-01-01

    Members of the family Warnowiaceae are unarmored phagotrophic dinoflagellates that possess an ocelloid. The genus Erythropsidinium (=Erythropsis) has also developed a unique dynamic appendage, the piston, which is able to independently retract and extend for at least 2 min after the cell lyses. We provide the first small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of warnowiid dinoflagellates, those of the type Erythropsidinium agile and one species of Warnowia. Phylogenetic analyses show that warnowiid dinoflagellates branch within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto group, forming a cluster separated from the Polykrikos clade and with autotrophic Pheopolykrikos beauchampii as closest relative. This reinforces their classification as unarmored dinoflagellates based on the shape of the apical groove, despite the strong ecological and ultrastructural diversity of the Gymnodinium s.s. group. Other structures, such as the ocelloid and piston, have no systematic value above the genus level.

  13. MECHANISMS OF FLUID SHEAR-INDUCED INHIBITION OF POPULATION GROWTH IN A RED-TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net population growth of some dinoflagellates is inhibited by fluid shear at shear stresses comparable with those generated during oceanic turbulence. Decreased net growth may occur through lowered cell division, increased mortality, or both. The dominant mechanism under various ...

  14. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Herzog, M; Maroteaux, L

    1986-11-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage.

  15. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Michel; Maroteaux, Luc

    1986-01-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:16578795

  16. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Herzog, M; Maroteaux, L

    1986-11-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:16578795

  17. Simulation and analysis of a model dinoflagellate predator-prey system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, M. J.; Antonelli, T.; Coyne, K. J.; Rossi, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of a model dinoflagellate predator-prey system and uses simulations to validate theoretical and experimental studies. A simple model for predator-prey interactions is derived by drawing upon analogies from chemical kinetics. This model is then modified to account for inefficiencies in predation. Simulation results are shown to closely match the model predictions. Additional simulations are then run which are based on experimental observations of predatory dinoflagellate behavior, and this study specifically investigates how the predatory dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum uses toxins to immobilize its prey and increase its feeding rate. These simulations account for complex dynamics that were not included in the basic models, and the results from these computational simulations closely match the experimentally observed predatory behavior of K. veneficum and reinforce the notion that predatory dinoflagellates utilize toxins to increase their feeding rate.

  18. Common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers

    PubMed Central

    Daneshpour, Shima; Bahadoran, Mehran; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Eskandarian, Abas Ali; Mahmoudzadeh, Mehdi; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different research groups reported a negative correlation between cancers and parasitical infections. As an example, the prevalence of a hydatid cyst among patients with cancer was significantly lower than its prevalence among normal population. Tn antigens exist both in cancer and hydatid cyst. This common antigen may be involved in the effect of parasite on cancer growth. So in this work, common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Different hydatid cyst antigens including hydatid fluid, laminated and germinal layer antigens, and excretory secretory antigens of protoscolices were run in SDS PAGE and transferred to NCP paper. In western immunoblotting, those antigens were probed with sera of patients with different cancer and also sera of non-cancer patients. Also, cross reaction among excretory secretory products of cancer cells and antisera raised against different hydatid cyst antigen was investigated. Results: In western immunoblotting, antisera raised against laminated and germinal layers of hydatid cyst reacted with excretory secretory products of cancer cells. Also, a reaction was detected between hydatid cyst antigens and sera of patients with some cancers. Conclusion: Results of this work emphasize existence of common antigens between hydatid cyst and cancers. More investigation about these common antigens is recommended. PMID:26962511

  19. Dermoid Cyst Within Concha: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nasirmohtaram, Sevil; Akbari, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    Dermoid cysts are congenital anomalies derived from ectoderm. They are rare in head and neck region and especially in pinna. We presented an 8-year-old girl with a dermoid cyst in the conchal region of auricle which was treated with complete surgical resection. PMID:27306349

  20. Cysts of the mandible and maxilla.

    PubMed

    Parrish, K L; Kreutziger, K L

    1992-06-01

    Mandibular and maxillary cysts originate from elements of the teeth (odontogenic), or from epithelial remnants trapped in fusion lines during development (nonodontogenic). Both types can be clinically asymptomatic and must be treated surgically. The specific diagnosis of a jaw cyst and its recurrence depends upon the anatomical location, the radiographic appearance, and the pathological diagnosis.

  1. Congenital hepatic cyst with intracystic hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qingqiang; Zhang, Minfeng; Yang, Cheng; Cai, Wenchang; Zhao, Qian; Shen, Weifeng; Yang, Jiamei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Fast-growing congenital hepatic cysts with intracystic hemorrhage are rare in clinical practice. Additionally, the clinical manifestations of and laboratory and imaging findings for this condition are often nonspecific and are particularly difficult to differentiate from those of hepatobiliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma, thus posing great challenges for diagnosis and treatment. The 2 case reports presented here aim to analyze the diagnosis and treatment of 2 rare cases of congenital hepatic cysts with intracystic hemorrhage in the Chinese Han population to provide an important reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Diagnoses: These 2 case reports present 2 rare cases of congenital hepatic cysts with intracystic hemorrhage. Case 1 involved a 31-year-old patient with a very large, fast-growing hepatic cyst with intracystic hemorrhage and elevated carbohydrate antigen 199. Case 2 involved a patient with intense, paroxysmal right upper abdominal pain; computed tomography suggested a hepatic cyst with intracystic hemorrhage and possibly hepatobiliary cystadenoma. Outcomes: Both patients underwent liver resection. Postoperative follow-up showed that for both patients, the symptoms improved, the laboratory findings returned to normal levels, and the surgical outcomes were satisfactory. Conclusion: Liver resection is an ideal treatment for patients with congenital hepatic cysts with intracystic hemorrhage, and especially those with fast-growing, symptomatic hepatic cysts or hepatic cysts that are difficult to differentiate from hepatobiliary cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma. PMID:27759646

  2. [Diaphragmatic bronchogenic cyst: a rare case report].

    PubMed

    Chatti, K; Bedioui, H; Saïd, W; Chelbi, M; Saies, O; Bouzani, A; Abdallah, N B; Zidi, B

    2003-07-01

    Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts are rare and those located in the diaphragm are exceptional. We describe an additional case of bronchogenic cyst of the left crus of diaphragm. Diagnosis of a diaphragmatic lesion was confirmed during laparotomy and complete resection was successful. Final diagnosis was done on pathology.

  3. Retroperitoneal Cyst: An Uncommon Presentation of Filariasis.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Senthil; Galodha, Saurabh; Saxena, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal parasitic cysts are rare. Here we report about a middle aged male patient from rural north India with a recent onset of central abdominal retroperitoneal lump, pain, and fever. After surgical resection due to diagnostic uncertainty, at histopathology, it turned out be a filarial cyst. After receiving a course of diethylcarbamazine, the patient is asymptomatic at 4 months' follow-up.

  4. Unusual perirenal location of a tailgut cyst.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joon-Won; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kim, Kyung Won; Moon, Seung Kyu; Kim, Chong Jai; Chi, Je Geun

    2002-01-01

    The authors describe a case in which a tailgut cyst occurred at an unusual location in a 22-year-old woman referred for abdominal discomfort and urinary frequency. The left abdomen contained a palpable mass, found at imaging studies to be a homogeneous, unilocular and cystic, and anterior to the left kidney. After surgical excision, it was shown to be a tailgut cyst.

  5. Dumbbell hydatid cyst of the spine.

    PubMed

    Parvaresh, M; Moin, H; Miles, J B

    1996-04-01

    We describe a case of dumbbell hydatid cyst of the T(10) pedicle. This cyst had both extradural and retroperitoneal components,leading to spinal cord compression and abdominal pain. Following surgical excision and irrigation with hypertonic saline the patient made a full recovery, and is recurrence-free after 18 months follow-up.

  6. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: CT and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Murakami, R; Machida, M; Kobayashi, Y; Ogura, J; Ichikawa, T; Kumazaki, T

    2000-01-01

    Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare congenital anomalies that represent malformations of the embryonic foregut and are morphologically expressed as maldevelopments of the respiratory system. Because of the low prevalence of these tumors, their imaging features have seldom been described. We present the computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst.

  7. Surgical management of primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hardev; Walia, Darshanjit Singh; Samra, Navdeep Singh; Kaur, Sarbarinder; Gill, Daljit Singh; Mahna, Vijay Kumar

    2005-06-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by the cystic stage of infestation by Echinococcus granulosus. Most hydatid cysts occur in the liver followed in frequency by the lung but no site is immune. Hydatid disease of the retroperitoneum is a rare condition. A case study is described here of a 30-year-old female with diagnosis of hydatid cyst of retroperitoneum which was treated surgically.

  8. A retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst with malignant change.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, S M; Okada, S; Kudo, M; Ebihara, Y

    1999-04-01

    A unique case of adenocarcinoma arising in a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst is presented. A 55-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography revealed a retroperitoneal cystic mass attached to the ascending colon. The resected cyst was unilocular and filled with milky white mucus and hemorrhagic debris. Histologically, most of the cyst wall was of well-differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma with no cyst wall invasion. Other small areas of the cyst were lined with variably atypical dysplastic/metaplastic cuboidal to pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The cyst wall was mostly hyalinized, but there was apparent thickened subepithelial basement membrane, elastosis, and a single layer of smooth muscle that suggested bronchial wall structures. A mucin staining study with O-acylated sialic acid, which is used for the demonstration of gastrointestinal, cholecystic and uterine cervical mucins, was negative for the mucin-producing epithelial cells of the cyst. Thus, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of adenocarcinoma arising in a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst.

  9. Germination of cysts in acetabularia mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Koop, H U

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for the growth of uniformly reacting populations of cysts of Acetabularia mediterranea and for quantitative measurement of cyst germination have been developed. Cysts of A. mediterranea can be induced to germinated by exposure to the atmosphere. Germination rates are very low in young cysts. They increased during exposure to total darkness. This "maturation of cysts" is found to be completed after a period of 12-15 weeks. Germination rates of cysts that have passed the maturation period exceed 90 percent in continuous white light and 80 percent in darkness. Cysts germinate in less than two days in darkness and less than four days in light. The influence of temperature at a range of 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C on germination kinetics is studied in light and darkness. Germination is accelerated with increasing temperature up to 21 degrees C. At higher temperature germination is delayed in light but the time of germination remains constant in darknesss. Rates of germination are not altered by the influence of temperature in light while in darkness there is a dramatic decrease at temperatures higher than 21 degrees C. From these findings it is concluded that cyst germinationA. mediteranea does not need any light but is influenced by light dependent systems. The influence of light is strongest at elevated temperatures.

  10. Bilateral follicular cysts in a water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Nabi, S U; Pande, Megha; Das, G K; Sarkar, M

    2011-03-01

    The present short communication puts on record a case of bilateral, multiple follicular cysts in a water buffalo along with a detailed description of its ovarian biometry and follicular fluid composition. The ovarian weight and biometrical parameters were much higher than in normal cycling buffaloes. A total of three follicular cysts were observed, two on the right ovary and one on the left ovary, measuring 4.9, 3.0 and 2.6 cm yielding 21, 9 and 5 ml of follicular fluid, respectively. The cystic fluid was deep yellow in colour with a viscous consistency. The follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and progesterone in all the cysts were within the range reported previously in normal buffalo follicular fluid; however, the alkaline phosphatase concentration in cyst 1 and total bilirubin concentration in cysts 1 and 2 were higher than the values in normal follicular fluid. In contrast, the levels of urea nitrogen in cysts 1 and 3, and oestradiol in cyst 3 were lower than the normal values. All the three follicles had an oestradiol to progesterone ratio less than 1. The results of our study suggest that follicular cysts in buffalo are oestrogenically inactive and have an altered concentration of certain biochemical and hormonal constituents.

  11. Osteolytic lumbar discal cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Marushima, Aiki; Uemura, Kazuya; Sato, Naoaki; Maruno, Toru; Matsumura, Akira

    2008-08-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with left lumboischialgia refractory to medical treatment. Neurological examination revealed L5 and S1 radiculopathy which rapidly worsened over a short period. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated disk bulging with a discal cyst at the L4-5 intervertebral space and disk herniation at the L5-S1 intervertebral space. Computed tomography showed osteolytic change of the L5 vertebral body adjacent to the cyst. Resection of the cyst and removal of the herniated disk were performed following fenestration of the L4-5 and L5-S1 interlaminar spaces. Bloody serous fluid followed by clear serous fluid was recognized during the aspiration and partial resection of the cyst at the L4-5 level. Histological examination demonstrated a cyst wall consisting of fibrous connective tissue without a single-layer lining of cells, and fibrin deposits. The patient's symptoms disappeared immediately after the operation. This osteolytic lumbar discal cyst possibly occurred subsequent to hemorrhage from the epidural venous plexus following intervertebral disk injury, hematoma encapsulation by connective fibrous tissue, and cyst wall formation in reaction to the disk injury and hemorrhage. The cyst may have enlarged due to the inflow of the serous fluid from the water-containing degenerated disk. PMID:18719328

  12. A Comparative Overview of the Flagellar Apparatus of Dinoflagellate, Perkinsids and Colpodellids

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Noriko; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a member of the Alveolata, and elucidation of the early evolution of alveolates is important for our understanding of dinoflagellates, and vice versa. The ultrastructure of the flagellar apparatus has been described from several dinoflagellates in the last few decades, and the basic components appear to be well conserved. The typical dinoflagellate apparatus is composed of two basal bodies surrounded by striated collars attached to a connective fiber. The longitudinal basal body is connected to a longitudinal microtubular root (LMR; equivalent of R1) and single microtubular root (R2), whereas the transverse basal body is connected to a transverse microtubular root (TMR; R3) and transverse striated root (TSR) with a microtubule (R4). Some of these components, especially the connective fibers and collars, are dinoflagellate specific characteristics that make their flagellar apparatus relatively complex. We also compare these structures with the flagellar apparatus from a number of close relatives of dinoflagellates and their sister, the apicomplexans, including colpodellids, perkinsids, and Psammosa. Though the ultrastructural knowledge of these lineages is still relatively modest, it provides us with an interesting viewpoint of the character evolution of the flagellar apparatus among those lineages.

  13. A Comparative Overview of the Flagellar Apparatus of Dinoflagellate, Perkinsids and Colpodellids

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Noriko; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a member of the Alveolata, and elucidation of the early evolution of alveolates is important for our understanding of dinoflagellates, and vice versa. The ultrastructure of the flagellar apparatus has been described from several dinoflagellates in the last few decades, and the basic components appear to be well conserved. The typical dinoflagellate apparatus is composed of two basal bodies surrounded by striated collars attached to a connective fiber. The longitudinal basal body is connected to a longitudinal microtubular root (LMR; equivalent of R1) and single microtubular root (R2), whereas the transverse basal body is connected to a transverse microtubular root (TMR; R3) and transverse striated root (TSR) with a microtubule (R4). Some of these components, especially the connective fibers and collars, are dinoflagellate specific characteristics that make their flagellar apparatus relatively complex. We also compare these structures with the flagellar apparatus from a number of close relatives of dinoflagellates and their sister, the apicomplexans, including colpodellids, perkinsids, and Psammosa. Though the ultrastructural knowledge of these lineages is still relatively modest, it provides us with an interesting viewpoint of the character evolution of the flagellar apparatus among those lineages. PMID:27694777

  14. Genetic Diversity, Morphological Uniformity and Polyketide Production in Dinoflagellates (Amphidinium, Dinoflagellata)

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenrath, Mona; Neilan, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are an intriguing group of eukaryotes, showing many unusual morphological and genetic features. Some groups of dinoflagellates are morphologically highly uniform, despite indications of genetic diversity. The species Amphidinium carterae is abundant and cosmopolitan in marine environments, grows easily in culture, and has therefore been used as a ‘model’ dinoflagellate in research into dinoflagellate genetics, polyketide production and photosynthesis. We have investigated the diversity of ‘cryptic’ species of Amphidinium that are morphologically similar to A. carterae, including the very similar species Amphidinium massartii, based on light and electron microscopy, two nuclear gene regions (LSU rDNA and ITS rDNA) and one mitochondrial gene region (cytochrome b). We found that six genetically distinct cryptic species (clades) exist within the species A. massartii and four within A. carterae, and that these clades differ from one another in molecular sequences at levels comparable to other dinoflagellate species, genera or even families. Using primers based on an alignment of alveolate ketosynthase sequences, we isolated partial ketosynthase genes from several Amphidinium species. We compared these genes to known dinoflagellate ketosynthase genes and investigated the evolution and diversity of the strains of Amphidinium that produce them. PMID:22675531

  15. The Large Mitochondrial Genome of Symbiodinium minutum Reveals Conserved Noncoding Sequences between Dinoflagellates and Apicomplexans.

    PubMed

    Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Satoh, Nori; Mungpakdee, Sutada

    2015-08-01

    Even though mitochondrial genomes, which characterize eukaryotic cells, were first discovered more than 50 years ago, mitochondrial genomics remains an important topic in molecular biology and genome sciences. The Phylum Alveolata comprises three major groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates), the mitochondrial genomes of which have diverged widely. Even though the gene content of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes is reportedly comparable to that of apicomplexans, the highly fragmented and rearranged genome structures of dinoflagellates have frustrated whole genomic analysis. Consequently, noncoding sequences and gene arrangements of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have not been well characterized. Here we report that the continuous assembled genome (∼326 kb) of the dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum, is AT-rich (∼64.3%) and that it contains three protein-coding genes. Based upon in silico analysis, the remaining 99% of the genome comprises transcriptomic noncoding sequences. RNA edited sites and unique, possible start and stop codons clarify conserved regions among dinoflagellates. Our massive transcriptome analysis shows that almost all regions of the genome are transcribed, including 27 possible fragmented ribosomal RNA genes and 12 uncharacterized small RNAs that are similar to mitochondrial RNA genes of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gene map comparisons show that gene order is only slightly conserved between S. minutum and P. falciparum. However, small RNAs and intergenic sequences share sequence similarities with P. falciparum, suggesting that the function of noncoding sequences has been preserved despite development of very different genome structures.

  16. Algae or protozoa: phylogenetic position of euglenophytes and dinoflagellates as inferred from mitochondrial sequences.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Y; Hayashi-Ishimaru, Y; Ehara, M; Igarashi, I; Ohama, T

    1997-09-01

    The chloroplasts of euglenophytes and dinoflagellates have been suggested to be the vestiges of endosymbiotic algae acquired during the process of evolution. However, the evolutionary positions of these organisms are still inconclusive, and they have been tentatively classified as both algae and protozoa. A representative gene of the mitochondrial genome, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (coxI), was chosen and sequenced to clarify the phylogenetic positions of four dinoflagellates, two euglenophytes and one apicomplexan protist. This is the first report of mitochondrial DNA sequences for dinoflagellates and euglenophytes. Our COXI tree shows clearly that dinoflagellates are closely linked to apicomplexan parasites but not with algae. Euglenophytes and algae appear to be only remotely related, with euglenophytes sharing a possible evolutionary link with kinetoplastids. The COXI tree is in general agreement with the tree based on the nuclear encoded small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, but conflicts with that based on plastid genes. These results support the interpretation that chloroplasts present in euglenophytes and dinoflagellates were captured from algae through endosymbioses, while their mitochondria were inherited from the host cell. We suggest that dinoflagellates and euglenophytes were originally heterotrophic protists and that their chloroplasts are remnants of endosymbiotic algae.

  17. Global patterns of pelagic dinoflagellate diversity across protist size classes unveiled by metabarcoding.

    PubMed

    Le Bescot, Noan; Mahé, Frédéric; Audic, Stéphane; Dimier, Céline; Garet, Marie-José; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; de Vargas, Colomban; Siano, Raffaele

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellates (Alveolata) are one of the ecologically most important groups of modern phytoplankton. Their biological complexity makes assessment of their global diversity and community structure difficult. We used massive V9 18S rDNA sequencing from 106 size-fractionated plankton communities collected across the world's surface oceans during the Tara Oceans expedition (2009-2012) to assess patterns of pelagic dinoflagellate diversity and community structuring over global taxonomic and ecological scales. Our data and analyses suggest that dinoflagellate diversity has been largely underestimated, representing overall ∼ 1/2 of protistan rDNA metabarcode richness assigned at ≥ 90% to a reference sequence in the world's surface oceans. Dinoflagellate metabarcode diversity and abundance display regular patterns across the global scale, with different order-level taxonomic compositions across organismal size fractions. While the pico to nano-planktonic communities are composed of an extreme diversity of metabarcodes assigned to Gymnodiniales or are simply undetermined, most micro-dinoflagellate metabarcodes relate to the well-referenced Gonyaulacales and Peridiniales orders, and a lower abundance and diversity of essentially symbiotic Peridiniales is unveiled in the meso-plankton. Our analyses could help future development of biogeochemical models of pelagic systems integrating the separation of dinoflagellates into functional groups according to plankton size classes.

  18. The Large Mitochondrial Genome of Symbiodinium minutum Reveals Conserved Noncoding Sequences between Dinoflagellates and Apicomplexans

    PubMed Central

    Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Hisata, Kanako; Satoh, Nori; Mungpakdee, Sutada

    2015-01-01

    Even though mitochondrial genomes, which characterize eukaryotic cells, were first discovered more than 50 years ago, mitochondrial genomics remains an important topic in molecular biology and genome sciences. The Phylum Alveolata comprises three major groups (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates), the mitochondrial genomes of which have diverged widely. Even though the gene content of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes is reportedly comparable to that of apicomplexans, the highly fragmented and rearranged genome structures of dinoflagellates have frustrated whole genomic analysis. Consequently, noncoding sequences and gene arrangements of dinoflagellate mitochondrial genomes have not been well characterized. Here we report that the continuous assembled genome (∼326 kb) of the dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum, is AT-rich (∼64.3%) and that it contains three protein-coding genes. Based upon in silico analysis, the remaining 99% of the genome comprises transcriptomic noncoding sequences. RNA edited sites and unique, possible start and stop codons clarify conserved regions among dinoflagellates. Our massive transcriptome analysis shows that almost all regions of the genome are transcribed, including 27 possible fragmented ribosomal RNA genes and 12 uncharacterized small RNAs that are similar to mitochondrial RNA genes of the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gene map comparisons show that gene order is only slightly conserved between S. minutum and P. falciparum. However, small RNAs and intergenic sequences share sequence similarities with P. falciparum, suggesting that the function of noncoding sequences has been preserved despite development of very different genome structures. PMID:26199191

  19. Abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates from coastal waters off Jeju Island, Korea During Autumn 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Seop; Yih, Wonho; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Myung, Geumog; Jeong, Hae Jin

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of harmful epiphytic dinoflagellates is of concern to scientists, the aquaculture industry, and government due to their toxicity not only to marine organisms but also to humans. There have been no studies on the abundance of the epiphytic dinoflagellates in Korean waters. We explored the presence of epiphytic dinoflagellates in the coastal waters off Jeju Island, southwestern Korea. Furthermore, we measured the abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates on the thalli of 24 different macroalgae, collected from five different locations in October 2009. Five epiphytic dinoflagellate genera Amphidinium, Coolia, Gambierdiscus, Ostreopsis, and Prorocentrum were found. These five genera were observed on the thalli of the macroalgae Chordaria flagelliformis, Martensia sp., Padina arborescens, and Sargassum sp., while none were observed exceptionally on Codium fragile. The abundance of Ostreopsis spp. was highest on Derbesia sp. (8,660 cells/g wet weight), while that of Gambierdiscus spp. was highest on Martensia sp. (4,870 cells/g-ww). The maximum abundances of Amphidinium spp., Coolia spp., and Prorocentrum spp. were 410, 710, and 300 cells/g-ww, respectively. The maximum abundance of Coolia spp., Gambierdiscus spp., and Ostreopsis spp. obtained in the present study was lower than for other locations reported in literature. The results of the present study suggest that the presence and abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates may be related to the macroalgal species of the coastal waters of Jeju Island.

  20. Transient sexual precocity and ovarian cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, A J; De Bruyn, R; Grant, D B

    1985-01-01

    Nine girls presenting under the age of 7 years with unsustained sexual precocity are described. Large ovarian cysts were detected by ultrasound in three and laparotomy in one. In two girls the symptoms resolved after surgical removal of the cyst; the other seven had spontaneous remission of symptoms, but in two of these transient breast development and bleeding recurred: further ovarian cyst formation was found in one of these patients. Endocrine studies performed before resolution of the cysts showed raised plasma oestradiol concentrations (64 to 440 pmol/l) in three girls and no appreciable rise in plasma luteinising hormone after gonadotrophin releasing hormone stimulation in two. We conclude that ovarian cyst formation with spontaneous resolution may cause transient sexual precocity in girls, and that ultrasound examination is an effective means of diagnosing and following these patients. Images Figure p820-b PMID:3901933

  1. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal cysts in children].

    PubMed

    Józsa, Gergő; Mohay, Gabriella; Pintér, András; Vástyán, Attila

    2015-09-13

    19 children were diagnosed with abdominal cysts of different origin in the Surgical Unit of the Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Pécs, Hungary between 2010 and 2013. The authors discuss the details of representative cases of a parovarial cyst, an intestinal duplication, and an omental cyst with emphasis on the clinical symptoms, diagnostic tools, and surgical interventions. The authors conclude that abdominal cysts often cause mild symptoms only, and they are discovered accidentally by ultrasound imaging performed for other reasons. In some cases, the cyst can cause severe complaints or even acute abdomen requiring emergency surgery. Laporoscopy may be a valuable method both in diagnosis and surgical therapy. Abdominal CT or MRI are not required in the majority of the patients.

  2. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Christina; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2011-12-13

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach.

  3. Voice Change Due to Paratracheal Air Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Youn Ju; Han, Sung Joon; Chong, Yoo Young; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kang, Shin Kwang; Lee, Choong-Sik; Kang, Min-Woong

    2016-01-01

    Paratracheal air cysts are a rare entity in which cystic formation occurs adjacent to the trachea. Most patients with paratracheal air cysts are asymptomatic, and the cysts are detected incidentally on chest radiograph or computed tomography (CT) scan. Most symptomatic patients complain of pulmonary symptoms or repeated respiratory infection. Rarely, the air cysts can lead to paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve as a result of direct compression. We report a case of a 59-year-old male patient who presented with voice change, and the cause was identified as paratracheal air cysts on a chest CT scan. Surgical resection via video-assisted mediastinoscopy was performed, and the voice recovered immediately after the operation. PMID:27525245

  4. Case report of primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Wang, Xuejun; Mao, Yu; Liu, Wenying

    2011-09-01

    Hydatid cyst develops in retroperitoneal space without accompanied lesion in other organs is defined as primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. It is extremely rare though hydatid cyst may affect every organ in human body. A 15 years old boy presented with a giant retroperitoneal cyst and hydatid cyst was suspected. Thorough examination did not revealed lesions in liver, lung, kidney or other organs. The diagnosis was confirmed through laparotomy. The diagnosis is difficult, but the possibility should be considered before operation to prevent spillage or fatal anaphylactic shock. Living in an endemic area, ultrasonography, CT or serology test is helpful in the diagnosis of this disease. Total cystectomy is the ideal surgery, if not possible or at high risk, partial pericystectomy is acceptable.

  5. Retroperitoneal Bronchogenic Cyst Originating from Diaphragmatic Crura.

    PubMed

    Herek, Duygu; Erbiş, Halil; Kocyigit, Ali; Yagci, Ahmet Baki

    2015-12-01

    Bronchogenic cyst is a benign lesion which is commonly seen in the posterior mediastinum. Diaphragmatic origin in retroperitoneum is an unusual location for a bronchogenic cyst. Cross-sectional imaging modalities describe the origin and content of the cyst evidently. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of a 42-year-old male patient who attended ER with back pain revealed a huge retroperitoneal complicated bronchogenic cyst arising from the diaphragm and surrounding the abdominal aorta anteriorly. Bronchogenic cysts in the retroperitoneum rarely originate from the diaphragm and should be kept in mind in the differential diagnoses of abdominal cystic lesions. MR imaging (MRI) is superior to other imaging techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) in detecting the origin and content of these cystic lesions.

  6. Midline Prostatic Cyst Marsupialization Using Holmium Laser

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Mehmet; Goger, Yunus Emre; Piskin, Mesut; Balasar, Mehmet; Kandemir, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Many of the prostatic cysts are asymptomatic and only 5% are symptomatic (Hamper et al., 1990; Higashi et al., 1990). These symptoms include pelvic pain, hematospermia, infertility, voiding dysfunction, prostatitis-like syndrome, and painful ejaculation. Treatment of prostatic cysts includes TRUSG guided drainage, endoscopic transurethral resection, and in some cases even open surgery. In the literature, endoscopic interventions use marsupialization of the midline prostatic cyst with transurethral resection (TUR) or transurethral incision with endoscopic urethrotomy (Dik et al., 1996; Terris, 1995). Holmium: YAG laser was employed for the marsupialization of the cyst wall in midline prostatic cyst treatment for the first time in the present study. Symptoms, treatment, and follow-up are presented in this paper. PMID:26101688

  7. Chylous mesenteric cysts: a rare surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Perri, Giampaolo; Freschi, Giancarlo

    2014-03-01

    A mesenteric cyst is defined as a cyst that is located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. It is often asymptomatic and therefore it is usually found as an incidental finding. Preoperative diagnosis may be possible with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, the correct diagnosis can only be made with histology. The first-choice therapy is the complete removal of the cyst, which must be accurately planned according to the anatomy of the lesion, its dimensions and its relationships with major abdominal structures. We present two clinical cases: the one of a 30-year-old man with a mesenteric cyst that was removed by laparoscopy and the other of a 61-year-old woman who underwent open excision of a huge retroperitoneal cyst.

  8. [Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: a case report].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Norio; Murakami, Husao; Umeda, Hiroyuki; Haga, Nobuhiro; Kameoka, Hiroshi; Shishido, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2002-05-01

    A rare case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst is presented. A 50-year-old man was referred to our hospital for an investigation of a retroperitoneal mass. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a retroperitoneal mass, about 4 cm in diameter, adjacent to the left kidney and spleen. On the basis of these imaging modalities, a definitive diagnosis of this mass could not be made. So, resection of the mass was performed. The removed mass was an unilocular cyst and filled with mucinous fluid. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was composed of a fibrovascular connective tissue containing mucus-secreting glands and cartilages and was lined by ciliated pseudostratified columnar epitherium. Thus, a diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst was made. Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital anomalies of the primitive foregut and usually develop in the mediastinum and lung.

  9. [Dentigerous cyst in the mixed dentition].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Mariann; Adrienn, Barta; Zsuzsanna, Suba; Szilvia, Mihályi

    2012-12-01

    Dentigerous cyst is a developmental odontogenic cyst, which apparently develops by accumulation of fluid between the reduced enamel epithelium and the tooth crown of an unerupted tooth. Management of dentigerous cyst in primary dentition needs special consideration regarding the preservation of the developing permanent tooth buds. A case of dentigerous cyst is reported in primary dentition of a 7-year-old female patient and its management. By extracting the infected primary teeth, opening the cyst and ensuring continuous drainage, it is possible to achieve spontaneous eruption of the involved permanent teeth into the dental arch even if they are badly dislocated. Simultaneous with the eruption of the permanent teeth, ossification of the bony defect can take place. The reparatory process is completed in one to two years, during this time the patient has been given a space-maintainer.

  10. Sensitivity of Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) vermiformis cysts to conventional disinfectants and protease.

    PubMed

    Fouque, Emilie; Héchard, Yann; Hartemann, Philippe; Humeau, Philippe; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile

    2015-06-01

    Vermamoeba vermiformis is a free-living amoeba (FLA) widely distributed in the environment, known to colonize hot water networks and to be the reservoir of pathogenic bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila. FLA are partly resistant to biocides, especially in their cyst form. The control of V. vermiformis in hot water networks represents an important health issue, but there are very few data on their resistance to disinfection treatments. The sensitivity of cysts of two strains of V. vermiformis to three disinfectants frequently used in hot water networks (chlorine, heat shock, peracetic acid (PAA) mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) was investigated. In vitro, several concentrations of biocides, temperatures and exposure times according to the French regulation were tested. Cysts were fully inactivated by the following conditions: 15 mg/L of chlorine for 10 min; 60 °C for 30 min; and 0.5 g/L equivalent H2O2 of PAA mixed with H2O2 for 30 min. For the first time, the strong efficacy of subtilisin (0.625 U/mL for 24 h), a protease, to inactivate the V. vermiformis cysts has been demonstrated. It suggests that novel approaches may be efficient for disinfection processes. Finally, V. vermifomis cysts were sensitive to all the tested treatments and appeared to be more sensitive than Acanthamoeba cysts.

  11. Sensitivity of Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) vermiformis cysts to conventional disinfectants and protease.

    PubMed

    Fouque, Emilie; Héchard, Yann; Hartemann, Philippe; Humeau, Philippe; Trouilhé, Marie-Cécile

    2015-06-01

    Vermamoeba vermiformis is a free-living amoeba (FLA) widely distributed in the environment, known to colonize hot water networks and to be the reservoir of pathogenic bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila. FLA are partly resistant to biocides, especially in their cyst form. The control of V. vermiformis in hot water networks represents an important health issue, but there are very few data on their resistance to disinfection treatments. The sensitivity of cysts of two strains of V. vermiformis to three disinfectants frequently used in hot water networks (chlorine, heat shock, peracetic acid (PAA) mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)) was investigated. In vitro, several concentrations of biocides, temperatures and exposure times according to the French regulation were tested. Cysts were fully inactivated by the following conditions: 15 mg/L of chlorine for 10 min; 60 °C for 30 min; and 0.5 g/L equivalent H2O2 of PAA mixed with H2O2 for 30 min. For the first time, the strong efficacy of subtilisin (0.625 U/mL for 24 h), a protease, to inactivate the V. vermiformis cysts has been demonstrated. It suggests that novel approaches may be efficient for disinfection processes. Finally, V. vermifomis cysts were sensitive to all the tested treatments and appeared to be more sensitive than Acanthamoeba cysts. PMID:26042964

  12. IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Dorosti, Zahra; Tolouei, Sepideh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Jafari, Rasool; Jafaee, Fereshteh; Sharafi, Seyedeh Marayam; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). With high rate of IL4 expression especially in fibrous layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship. PMID:27605798

  13. Review of 244 cases of ovarian cysts

    PubMed Central

    Abduljabbar, Hassan S.; Bukhari, Yasir A.; Hachim, Estabrq G. Al; Ashour, Ghazal S.; Amer, Afnan A.; Shaikhoon, Mohammed M.; Khojah, Mohammed I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review cases of ovarian cysts managed at a University Hospital, and to identify the factors necessitating the use of laparotomy over laparoscopy. Methods: We carried out a retrospective chart review of all cases of ovarian cysts diagnosed and managed at the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 2010 and August 2014. All data collected from medical record charts, patents details, clinical presentations, ovarian cysts description, and pathology type were recorded, and management by laparoscopy or laparotomy was identified. Ethical approval was obtained from ethical hospital committee. Results: There were 244 cases of ovarian cysts during the study period. The age ranged from 3 months to 77 years of age. The parity from 0-6. The height range from 37-180 cm. The weight range from 3-161 kg, and calculated body mass index ranged from 12-47. Out of 244 patients diagnosed, 165 were married (67.4%). Of those, only 16 patients were pregnant (6.6%). The most common presentation was abdominal pain in 142 patients (58.2%). Only 79.9% were ovarian cysts, and 17.5% were either para-ovarian or retroperitoneal. The right ovaries were affected in 63.1%, and only 18.9% were bilateral. The types of ovarian cysts included functional cysts 33.2%, benign cyst-adenoma 19.3%, and dermoid cysts 12.3%. Conclusion: Factors associated with laparotomy management rather than laparoscopy included older age >35, single, pregnant, or patients presenting with abdominal pain, and more than one cyst. PMID:26108588

  14. Oligotrophication and emergence of picocyanobacteria and a toxic dinoflagellate in Thau lagoon, southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collos, Yves; Bec, Béatrice; Jauzein, Cécile; Abadie, Eric; Laugier, Thierry; Lautier, Jacques; Pastoureaud, Annie; Souchu, Philippe; Vaquer, André

    2009-01-01

    Time series data have been examined in Thau lagoon (Southern France) from 1972 to 2006 for water temperature, salinity, nutrients and from 1987 to 2006 for phytoplankton. A first main trend identified is an increase in mean annual water temperature (1.5 °C over 33 years or 0.045 °C/year) that was not evenly distributed among seasons. The highest rate of increase was in the spring (+ 3.0 °C over 33 years), followed by summer (+ 2.0 °C) and fall (+ 1.7 °C). In winter, no significant increase over the 33 year period could be found. A second clear trend is a large decrease in soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration over the same 33 year period (summer values decreased from 10 µM to 1 µM, while winter values decreased from 3 µM to undetectable at present). Nitrate concentrations depended mainly on rainfall events and watershed runoff. Ammonium data were too fragmentary to be useful. N/P ratios expressed the traditional way of DIN/SRP cannot be used for phytoplankton that are not strict autotrophs. The recent and almost simultaneous appearance of both picocyanobacteria (mostly Synechococcus) and the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella in Thau seem to be related to reduced nutrient loading and the increase in water temperature. A. catenella blooms occur either in the spring or the fall when water temperature is near 20 °C and remains so for several weeks with winds speeds below 2-3 m s - 1 . Picocyanobacterial growth is stimulated by increased summer temperatures, and lowered SRP levels provide picocyanobacteria an ecological advantage over other phytoplankton classes, in particular diatoms such as Skeletonema costatum whose cell densities have decreased over the last 8 years in summer and fall, but not in winter. An hypothesis is presented according to which A. catenella is not stimulated by increased temperatures, but is able to use picocyanobacteria for growth, and this provides this organism an additional resource over other strictly

  15. Location of B- and Z-DNA in the chromosomes of a primitive eukaryote dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Soyer-Gobillard, M O; Géraud, M L; Coulaud, D; Barray, M; Théveny, B; Révet, B; Delain, E

    1990-08-01

    The usual conformation of DNA is a right-handed double helix (B-DNA). DNA with stretches of alternating purine-pyrimidine (G-C or A-T) can form a left-handed helix (Z-DNA). The transition B----Z, facilitated by the presence of divalent cations, cytosine methylation, or constraints on DNA such as superhelicity may play a role in the regulation of gene expression and/or in DNA compaction (Zarling, D. A., D. J. Arndt-Jovin, M. Robert-Nicoud, L. P. McIntosh, R. Tomae, and T. M. Jovin. 1984. J. Mol. Biol. 176:369-415). Divalent cations are also important in the structure of the quasi-permanently condensed chromosomes of dinoflagellate protists (Herzog, M., and M.-O. Soyer. 1983. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 30:33-41) which also have superhelicity in their DNA. The absence of histones in dinoflagellate chromosomes suggest that the search for Z-DNA sequences might be fruitful and could provide one indication of the physiological role of this particular DNA conformation. We report a complete immunofluorescent and immunogold analysis of the nuclei of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans E. using monoclonal and polyclonal anti-B and anti-Z-DNA antibodies. Positive labeling was obtained with immunofluorescence using squash preparations and cryosections, both of which showed the intranuclear presence of the two DNA conformations. In ultrathin sections of aldehyde-prefixed, osmium-fixed, and epoxy-embedded cells, we have localized B-DNA and Z-DNA either with single or double immunolabeling using IgG labeled with 5- and 7-nm gold particles, respectively. Chromosomal nucleofilaments of dividing or nondividing chromosomes, as seen in ultrathin sections in their arch-shaped configuration, are abundantly labeled with anti-B-DNA antibody. Extrachromosomal anti-B-DNA labeling is also detected on the nucleoplasm that corresponds to DNA loops; we confirm the presence of these loops previously described external to the chromosomes (Soyer, M.-O., and O. K. Haapala. 1974. Chromosoma (Berl.). 47

  16. Hepatic Echinococcal Cysts: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pakala, Tina; Molina, Marco; Wu, George Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widely endemic helminthic disease caused by infection with metacestodes (larval stage) of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm. E. granulosus are common parasites in certain parts of the world, and are present on every continent with the exception of Antarctica. As a result, a large number of people are affected by CE. The increased emigration of populations from endemic areas where prevalence rates are as high as 5–10% and the relatively quiescent clinical course of CE pose challenges for accurate and timely diagnoses. Upon infection with CE, cyst formation mainly occurs in the liver (70%). Diagnosis involves serum serologic testing for antibodies against hydatid antigens, but preferably with imaging by ultrasound or CT/MRI. Treatment methods include chemotherapy with benzimidazole carbamates and/or surgical approaches, including percutaneous aspiration injection and reaspiration. The success of these methods is influenced by the stage and location of hepatic cysts. However, CE can be clinically silent, and has a high risk for recurrence. It is important to consider the echinococcal parasite in the differential diagnosis of liver cystic lesions, especially in patients of foreign origin, and to perform appropriate long-term follow-ups. The aim of this review is to highlight the epidemiology, natural history, diagnostic methods, and treatment of liver disease caused by E. granulosus. PMID:27047771

  17. Sports participation with arachnoid cysts.

    PubMed

    Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.

  18. Hepatic Echinococcal Cysts: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pakala, Tina; Molina, Marco; Wu, George Y

    2016-03-28

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widely endemic helminthic disease caused by infection with metacestodes (larval stage) of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm. E. granulosus are common parasites in certain parts of the world, and are present on every continent with the exception of Antarctica. As a result, a large number of people are affected by CE. The increased emigration of populations from endemic areas where prevalence rates are as high as 5-10% and the relatively quiescent clinical course of CE pose challenges for accurate and timely diagnoses. Upon infection with CE, cyst formation mainly occurs in the liver (70%). Diagnosis involves serum serologic testing for antibodies against hydatid antigens, but preferably with imaging by ultrasound or CT/MRI. Treatment methods include chemotherapy with benzimidazole carbamates and/or surgical approaches, including percutaneous aspiration injection and reaspiration. The success of these methods is influenced by the stage and location of hepatic cysts. However, CE can be clinically silent, and has a high risk for recurrence. It is important to consider the echinococcal parasite in the differential diagnosis of liver cystic lesions, especially in patients of foreign origin, and to perform appropriate long-term follow-ups. The aim of this review is to highlight the epidemiology, natural history, diagnostic methods, and treatment of liver disease caused by E. granulosus. PMID:27047771

  19. The Cutaneous Ciliated Cyst in Young Male: The Possibility of Ciliated Cutaneous Eccrine Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngjoon; Kim, Hyunjung

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst was described as a painless cyst occurring on the lower limbs of women between the ages of 15 and 30 years. The cysts are typically lined by ciliated cuboidal to columnar epithelium with pseudostratified areas and focal squamous metaplasia is occasionally present. Immunohistochemical studies have demonstrated that the cysts are PR and ER positive, similar to the epithelia of the fallopian tubes. However, outliers of cutaneous ciliated cysts, including those in male patients and in unexpected locations such as the scalp, finger, and scapular area, have been reported. Thus, some hypotheses have been proposed including the Mullerian heterotopias, ciliated metaplasia of eccrine sweat glands, and embryonic remnants of the cloacal membrane. We report a rare case of cutaneous ciliated cyst on the left shoulder of a 7-year-old boy and this is the eighth case of cutaneous ciliated cyst in male patients. Moreover, through reviewing the articles, we try to propose the classification of the cutaneous ciliated cysts into the cutaneous Mullerian cysts and the ciliated cutaneous eccrine cysts. PMID:26491452

  20. Bilateral nasolabial cysts - case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Aruna R; Singh, Abhinav Pratap; Nandikoor, Shrivalli; Meganathan, Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Nasolabial cyst is a non-odontogenic, extraosseous, soft tissue cyst, commonly unilateral, located in the nasolabial fold. Bilateral nasolabial cysts are of rare occurrence. This case report describes the multimodality imaging appearance of bilateral nasolabial cysts with a review of literature. PMID:27413273

  1. Case report: prenatally detected dumdbell-shaped retroperitoneal duplication cyst.

    PubMed

    May, D A; Spottswood, S E; Ridick-Young, M; Nwomeh, B C

    2000-10-01

    Enteric duplication cysts are infrequently located in the retroperitoneum. Such cysts are typically spherical or ovoid. We report a retroperitoneal duplication cyst with extension across the abdominal midline in a previously unreported dumbbell configuration. This is the third reported case of prenatally detected retroperitoneal enteric duplication cyst.

  2. A laparoscopic method for excision of large retroperitoneal paraovarian cysts.

    PubMed

    Herbert, C M; Segars, J H; Hill, G A

    1990-01-01

    Large retroperitoneal paraovarian cysts often present in reproductive-age women as an adnexal mass, with the appearance of a simple cyst on ultrasound. This report describes a laparoscopic method for removal of large paraovarian retroperitoneal cysts. Use of this technique permits successful removal of these cysts while avoiding laparotomy.

  3. REPORT OF A BLOOM-FORMING DINOFLAGELLATE TAKAYAMAACROTROCHA FROM TROPICAL COASTAL WATERS OF SINGAPORE(1).

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Kong, Lesheng; Morse, Ryan E; Gobler, Christopher J; Holmes, Michael James

    2012-04-01

    Four clonal cultures of the unarmored dinoflagellate Takayama acrotrocha (J. Larsen) de Salas, Bolch et Hallegraeff were established from Singapore coastal water on October 20, 2004, and January 1, 2007, for a HAB monitoring project. LM and SEM observations demonstrated that the isolates were not consistent with the other five species within this genus in position of nucleus, shape of the apical groove, and number and shape of chloroplasts. New morphological observations of the Singapore isolates that were not in the type description of T. acrotrocha include a narrow and shallow slit located above the entire anterior edge of the cingulum, a tube-like structure in the sulcus, numerous multilateral plate-like surface vesicles, a sulcal intrusion into the epicone, and possibly a peduncle in between the two emerging points of flagella. The presence of sulcal intrusion into the epicone was not consistent with the type description but is prominent in SEM micrographs. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial LSU rDNA sequences indicated Singapore strains of T. acrotrocha are conspecific with two isolates from Italy, but less homologous to T. helix, T. tasmanica, and T. tuberculata. Laboratory fish bioassays using Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegates) did not indicate fish-killing activity by this species, and to our knowledge, there were no reports of fish-kills occurring during blooms of this species in Singapore and Italy. This is the first report of T. acrotrocha from tropical waters and indicates a likely cosmopolitan distribution of the species.

  4. Erythropsidinium (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) in the Pacific Ocean, a unique dinoflagellate with an ocelloid and a piston.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    The distribution and morphology of the dinoflagellate Erythropsidinium (=Erythropsis) was studied in the vicinity of the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents, the Philippine, Celebes, Sulu and South China Seas, western and central equatorial and southeast Pacific Ocean. Ninety-four specimens were observed, most of them collected from depths of less than 90m. The highest abundance (15cellsL(-1)) was recorded in the north Philippine Sea in May (32 degrees N, 138 degrees E, 30-m depth). Twenty-four specimens were found in a station in the offshore Perú-Chile Current (31 degrees 52'S, 91 degrees 24'W). The transition regions between open warm waters and productive currents or upwellings seem to favour the abundance of Erythropsidinium. Specimens with duplicate pistons, with two protuberant ocelloids, and specimens with a piston that attains up to 20 times the body length are illustrated for the first time. All the specimens have been ascribed to the type species, Erythropsidinium agile, until stable taxonomical criteria are established for the species diagnosis. Despite the complexity of its organelles, the ocelloid and piston, the competitiveness of Erythropsidinium in the pelagic ecosystem seems to be low.

  5. The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184

  6. Arthroscopic Decompression for a Giant Meniscal Cyst.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the case of a giant medial meniscal cyst in an osteoarthritic knee of an 82-year-old woman that was successfully treated with only arthroscopic cyst decompression. The patient noticed a painful mass on the medial side of the right knee that had been gradually growing for 5 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an encapsulated large medial cystic mass measuring 80×65×40 mm that was adjacent to the medial meniscus. An accompanying horizontal tear was also detected in the middle and posterior segments of the meniscus. The medial meniscus was resected up to the capsular attachment to create bidirectional flow between the joint and the cyst with arthroscopic surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging performed 14 months postoperatively showed that the cyst had completely disappeared, and no recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. An excellent result could be obtained by performing limited meniscectomy to create a channel leading to the meniscal cyst, even though the cyst was large. Among previously reported cases of meniscal cysts, this case is the largest to be treated arthroscopically without open excision.

  7. Isolated retroperitoneal hydatid cyst invading splenic hilum.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Safak; Unver, Mutlu; Kibar Ozturk, Burcin; Kebapci, Eyup; Bozbiyik, Osman; Erol, Varlık; Zalluhoglu, Nihat; Olmez, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Hydatid disease (HD) is an infestation that is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The liver is affected in approximately two-thirds of patients, the lungs in 25%, and other organs in a small proportion. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst is extremely rare. The most common complaint is abdominal pain; however, the clinical features of HD may be generally dependent on the location of the cyst. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old female was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain. Her physical examination was normal. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 17 × 11 cm cystic lesion, with a thick and smooth wall that is located among the left liver lobe, diaphragm, spleen, tail of the pancreas, and transverse colon and invading the splenic hilum. Total cystectomy and splenectomy were performed. Pathological examination was reported as cyst hydatid. Discussion. Cysts in the peritoneal cavity are mainly the result of the spontaneous or traumatic rupture of concomitant hepatic cysts or surgical inoculation of a hepatic cyst. Serological tests contribute to diagnosis. In symptomatic and large hydatid peritoneal cysts, surgical resection is the only curative treatment. Total cystectomy is the gold standard. Albendazole or praziquantel is indicated for inoperable and disseminated cases. Percutaneous aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) technique is another nonsurgical option.

  8. Conservative management of dentigerous cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Arjona-Amo, Manuel; Serrera-Figallo, María-Angeles; Hernández-Guisado, José-María; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Introduction Dentigerous cysts are epithelial in origin and are the most commonly found cyst in children. The majority of these lesions are usually a radiological finding and are capable of quite large before being diagnosed. The standard treatment for these cysts is the enucleation and the extraction of the affected tooth. However, if the patient is a child and the affected tooth is not developed, a more conservative attitude should be considered. Material and Methods (Clinical case): A 7-year-old patient is presented with an eruptive backlog of the lower permanent first molars. Radiological examination reveals two radiolucid lesions in relation to them, which are compatible with a dentigerous cyst, and in relation to the inferior aveolar nerve and various germs. A partial enucleation is carried out, maintaining all the dental germs related to the cyst in mouth and monitoring the patient until the case study is over. Results and Discussion Diagnosis and early treatment of these lesions in children is of great importance, especially in cases where the lesions enclose permanent teeth. Conclusions Whenever possible, a conservative attitude should be taken, one that allows for the maintenance of the dentition and treatment of the associated cyst in order to not compromise either the occlusion or the mental state of these patients. Key words:Dentigerous cyst, conservative treatment, dental impaction, child. PMID:26644847

  9. Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... be (benign noncancerous), they are sometimes found in parts of the brain that control vital functions. There are four main ... be located in the area where the top part of the brain meets the brain stem. Description Just like a ...

  10. Comparative analysis of dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes reveals rRNA and tRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Barbrook, Adrian C; Santucci, Nicole; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Hiller, Roger G; Howe, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Background Peridinin-containing dinoflagellates have a highly reduced chloroplast genome, which is unlike that found in other chloroplast containing organisms. Genome reduction appears to be the result of extensive transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. Unusually the genes believed to be remaining in the chloroplast genome are found on small DNA 'minicircles'. In this study we present a comparison of sets of minicircle sequences from three dinoflagellate species. Results PCR was used to amplify several minicircles from Amphidinium carterae so that a homologous set of gene-containing minicircles was available for Amphidinium carterae and Amphidinium operculatum, two apparently closely related peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. We compared the sequences of these minicircles to determine the content and characteristics of their chloroplast genomes. We also made comparisons with minicircles which had been obtained from Heterocapsa triquetra, another peridinin-containing dinoflagellate. These in silico comparisons have revealed several genetic features which were not apparent in single species analyses. The features include further protein coding genes, unusual rRNA genes, which we show are transcribed, and the first examples of tRNA genes from peridinin-containing dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes. Conclusion Comparative analysis of minicircle sequences has allowed us to identify previously unrecognised features of dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes, including additional protein and RNA genes. The chloroplast rRNA gene sequences are radically different from those in other organisms, and in many ways resemble the rRNA genes found in some highly reduced mitochondrial genomes. The retention of certain tRNA genes in the dinoflagellate chloroplast genome has important implications for models of chloroplast-mitochondrion interaction. PMID:17123435

  11. A new approach to discriminate dinoflagellate from diatom blooms from space in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Shaoling; Wu, Jingyu; Huang, Bangqin; Lin, Gong; Lee, Zhongping; Liu, James; Shang, Shaoping

    2014-07-01

    Dinoflagellate and diatom blooms often occur in the East China Sea (ECS) during spring and summer. Some of the dinoflagellate blooms are toxic, resulting in widespread economic damage. In order to mitigate the negative impacts, remote-sensing methods that can effectively and accurately discriminate between bloom types are demanded for early warning and continuous monitoring of bloom events at large scales. An in situ bio-optical data set collected from diatom and dinoflagellate blooming waters indicates that the two types of blooms exhibited distinctive differences in the shapes and magnitudes of remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs). The ratio of in situ measured Rrs spectral slopes at two spectral ranges (443-488 and 531-555 nm, bands available with the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) sensor), abbreviated as BI (representing bloom index), was found effective in differentiating dinoflagellates from diatoms. Reflectance model simulations, which were carried out using in situ and algal culture data as input, provided consistent results. A classification approach for separating dinoflagellate from diatom blooms in the ECS was then developed: When fluorescence line height (FLH) is doubled over the background level and total absorption coefficient at 443 nm ≥ 0.5 m-1, if 0.0 < BI ≤ 0.3, it suggests a dinoflagellate bloom; if 0.3 < BI ≤ 1.0, it suggests a diatom bloom. Finally, the approach was applied to MODIS measurements over the ECS, and a series of diatom and dinoflagellate bloom events during April-June 2005 and 2011 were successfully identified, suggesting that the proposed approach is generally valid for the ECS.

  12. Pelvic and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts superinfected with Brucella sp. and review of infected hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Arslan, F; Zengin, K; Mert, A; Ozaras, R; Tabak, F

    2013-03-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection resulting from the tissue infestation of the larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cysts superinfected with pyogenic organisms have been reported previously. Brucellosis is more prevalent in people with close contact to animals and those consuming fresh milk or fresh milk products. Although these two disorders have some similar epidemiological features, we did not encounter any hydatid cyst cases superinfected with Brucella species (sp.) in a search of medical literature (Pubmed). Here, we present a case of hydatid cyst disease superinfected with Brucella and review the literature on other hydatid cyst cases superinfected with pyogenic organisms. We conclude that in regions where brucellosis and hydatid cysts are endemic, cysts may be infected with Brucella sp.

  13. Simple mesothelial pericardial cyst in a rare location.

    PubMed

    Ranchordás, Sara; Gomes, Catarina; Abecasis, Miguel; Gouveia, Rosa; Abecasis, João; Lopes, Luís R; Fazendas, Paula

    2016-09-01

    Pericardial cysts are rare and generally benign intrathoracic lesions, most frequently located in the cardiophrenic angles, but other locations have been described. We present a case of a pericardial cyst in a previously undescribed site. Our patient presented with a cyst in the interventricular septum which was discovered as an incidental finding. After surgical excision of the cyst, it was described pathologically as a simple mesothelial pericardial cyst. The explanation of this rare condition is uncertain, but some hypotheses can be outlined.

  14. Epidermoid cysts of the vocal cords.

    PubMed

    Monday, L A; Cornut, G; Bouchayer, M; Roch, J B

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-three cases of intracordal epidermoid cysts diagnosed, treated and followed from 1972 to 1981 are presented. In the clinical evaluation, special attention must be paid to the type of dysphonia and morphology of the vocal cords at indirect laryngoscopy. The epidermoid cyst is not easily visualized and the examiner must take into account signs like "monochorditis," slight bulging, unilateral nodule and diminished or abolished vibrations of one of the cords at stroboscopy. Microsurgical excision followed by voice therapy is the recommended treatment. The pathogenesis of these cysts is still speculative. Two theories are discussed: the traumatic theory and the dysembryoplastic theory.

  15. Post-traumatic (haemorrhagic)liver cyst.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunal Krishna; Nizarudeen, A; Sulfikar, M S; Maheshwaran, A; George, Deepak

    2013-06-01

    Traumatic cysts of liver are amongst the less frequently known sequelae of liver trauma. The incidence of this entity is very low. We report a case of large posttraumatic liver cyst in a young adult female, who sustained blunt abdominal trauma 2 months back. The cyst was diagnosed by CECT Abdomen and was treated by hepatic resection(left lobe). The aim of presentation of this report is to highlight the fact that blunt trauma abdomen can result in such rare presentations which can lead to hepatic resection.

  16. Glabellar dermoid cyst: A case presentation.

    PubMed

    Celik, Tuba

    2016-09-01

    Dermoid cysts are one of the most common non-inflammatory space-occupying orbital lesions in the pediatric population. They are ectodermal cysts which may contain squamous epithelium with dermal contents such as skin, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, or sweat glands. Dermoid cyts are often innocent, however complications such as inflammation of the fistula or preseptal cellulitis are occasionally seen. We present a case of a 6-year-old girl with a glabellar dermoid cyst and describe the appropriate investigations and definitive treatment. PMID:26885559

  17. Polidocanol sclerotherapy for hydroceles and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, T; Johansson, J E; Jahnson, S; Helgesen, F; Andersson, S O

    1994-04-01

    A total of 87 patients with 63 hydroceles and 29 epididymal cysts underwent injection sclerotherapy with polidocanol on an outpatient basis. In the hydrocele group the cure rate after 1 treatment was 67% and the overall cure rate was 87% after a median followup of 14 months. In the group treated for epididymal cyst the corresponding cure rates were 46% and 64%, respectively, with a median followup of 12 months. A low rate of complications was observed. Of 86 evaluable patients 81 (94%) were satisfied with the procedure and the treatment results. Therefore, we recommend injection sclerotherapy with polidocanol as primary treatment for hydroceles and epididymal cysts in patients older than 40 years.

  18. Tetracycline sclerotherapy for hydroceles and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Bullock, N; Thurston, A V

    1987-04-01

    Tetracycline (Achromycin, Lederle) solution was used to produce sclerosis of 37 hydroceles and 18 epididymal cysts in patients over the age of 50 years. All but one of the epididymal cysts were sclerosed satisfactorily at 9 months; 35 hydroceles sclerosed satisfactorily, although four patients required re-treatment at 3 months. One patient required orchiectomy for an infected haematocele. Pain after instillation of tetracycline was an occasional complication which could be prevented by prophylactic spermatic cord block. Tetracycline sclerotherapy is a safe and effective alternative to surgery for hydroceles and epididymal cysts in older patients.

  19. Mediastinal bronchogenic cyst mimicking congenital lobar emphysema.

    PubMed

    Arun, Sumitha; Kumar, Manish; Ross, Benjamin Jeyanth

    2016-01-01

    Bronchogenic cyst (BC) is a rare congenital malformation of the lung. Most patients remain asymptomatic until adulthood while some are symptomatic in the first few years of life. However, symptoms in newborn period are rare. We report a case of a 3-day-old preterm baby with respiratory distress diagnosed as congenital lobar emphysema on chest X-ray. A CT scan revealed a mediastinal cyst causing obstructive lobar emphysema. The cyst was excised and pathological examination was suggestive of BC. PMID:27609589

  20. Pseudoadrenal mass: unusual presentation of bronchogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Swanson, S J; Skoog, S J; Garcia, V; Wahl, R C

    1991-12-01

    Isolated abdominal bronchogenic cysts are extremely rare. We report the fourth such case in an asymptomatic 4-year-old girl who initially presented for evaluation of urinary tract infection and new-onset urinary incontinence. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with an adrenal mass. At exploration, the patient was found to have a mass in the area of the gastroesophageal junction and a normal left adrenal gland. The final pathology confirmed the diagnosis of a bronchogenic cyst. Abdominal bronchogenic cysts, although rare, should be considered in the diagnosis of a retroperitoneal mass.

  1. Isolate abdominal bronchogenic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cetinkurşun, S; Oztürk, H; Celasun, B; Sakarya, M T; Sürer, I

    1997-04-01

    Isolated abdominal bronchogenic cysts are rare abnormalities. They are usually asymptomatic unless secondarily infected or large enough to cause compression of other vital structures. The authors report on a 20-month-old girl who had an abdominal bronchogenic cyst and presented with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. The evaluation and treatment of this patient is presented as well as a review of the ten previously reported cases. A literature review showed only four cases in the pediatric age group. Excision is recommended to establish diagnosis and alleviate any symptoms. Abdominal bronchogenic cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal masses.

  2. Molecular quantification of symbiotic dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Loram, Jeannette E; Boonham, Neil; O'Toole, Peter; Trapido-Rosenthal, Henry G; Douglas, Angela E

    2007-06-01

    The dinoflagellate microalga Symbiodinium is the dominant algal symbiont in corals and related marine animals. To explore the incidence of mixed infections, methods employing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were developed. In experiments focusing on Symbiodinium clades A and B, QPCR and FISH results were well correlated and generally more precise and sensitive than those from the endpoint PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) traditionally used for this application, thus increasing the detected incidence of mixed infections. For example, the prevalence of mixed infections in the sea anemone Condylactis gigantea was 40% by PCR-RFLP and 80%-90% by QPCR and FISH. However, the use of QPCR and FISH was limited by inter-host variation in the rRNA gene copy number per Symbiodinium cell, precluding any single conversion factor between QPCR signal and Symbiodinium cell number; and one FISH probe that gave excellent hybridization efficiency with cultured Symbiodinium yielded variable results with Symbiodinium from symbioses. After controlling for these caveats, QPCR studies revealed that field-collected hosts previously described as universally unialgal bore up to 1.6% of the alternative clade. Further research is required to establish the contribution that algal cells at low density in symbiosis and external to the symbiosis make to the minor clade. PMID:17565115

  3. Proteomic analysis of symbiosome membranes in Cnidaria-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shao-En; Wang, Yu-Bao; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Wan-Nan Uang; Lu, Chi-Yu; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2010-03-01

    Symbiosomes are specific intracellular membrane-bound vacuoles containing microalgae in a mutualistic Cnidaria (host)-dinoflagellate (symbiont) association. The symbiosome membrane is originally derived from host plasma membranes during phagocytosis of the symbiont; however, its molecular components and functions are not clear. In order to investigate the protein components of the symbiosome membranes, homogenous symbiosomes were isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and their purities and membrane intactness examined by Western blot analysis for host contaminants and microscopic analysis using various fluorescent probes, respectively. Pure and intact symbiosomes were then subjected to biotinylation by a cell impermeant agent (Biotin-XX sulfosuccinimidyl ester) to label membrane surface proteins. The biotinylated proteins, both Triton X-100 soluble and insoluble fractions, were subjected to 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by MS using an LC-nano-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 17 proteins were identified. Based on their different subcellular origins and functional categories, it indicates that symbiosome membranes serve as the interface for interaction between host and symbiont by fulfilling several crucial cellular functions such as those of membrane receptors/cell recognition, cytoskeletal remodeling, ATP synthesis/proton homeostasis, transporters, stress responses/chaperones, and anti-apoptosis. The results of proteomic analysis not only indicate the molecular identity of the symbiosome membrane, but also provide insight into the possible role of symbiosome membranes during the endosymbiotic association. PMID:20049864

  4. Proteomic analysis of symbiosome membranes in Cnidaria-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shao-En; Wang, Yu-Bao; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Wan-Nan Uang; Lu, Chi-Yu; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2010-03-01

    Symbiosomes are specific intracellular membrane-bound vacuoles containing microalgae in a mutualistic Cnidaria (host)-dinoflagellate (symbiont) association. The symbiosome membrane is originally derived from host plasma membranes during phagocytosis of the symbiont; however, its molecular components and functions are not clear. In order to investigate the protein components of the symbiosome membranes, homogenous symbiosomes were isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and their purities and membrane intactness examined by Western blot analysis for host contaminants and microscopic analysis using various fluorescent probes, respectively. Pure and intact symbiosomes were then subjected to biotinylation by a cell impermeant agent (Biotin-XX sulfosuccinimidyl ester) to label membrane surface proteins. The biotinylated proteins, both Triton X-100 soluble and insoluble fractions, were subjected to 2-D SDS-PAGE and identified by MS using an LC-nano-ESI-MS/MS. A total of 17 proteins were identified. Based on their different subcellular origins and functional categories, it indicates that symbiosome membranes serve as the interface for interaction between host and symbiont by fulfilling several crucial cellular functions such as those of membrane receptors/cell recognition, cytoskeletal remodeling, ATP synthesis/proton homeostasis, transporters, stress responses/chaperones, and anti-apoptosis. The results of proteomic analysis not only indicate the molecular identity of the symbiosome membrane, but also provide insight into the possible role of symbiosome membranes during the endosymbiotic association.

  5. A dinoflagellate exploits toxins to immobilize prey prior to ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jian; Malkiel, Edwin; Katz, Joseph; Adolf, Jason E; Place, Allen R

    2010-02-01

    Toxins produced by the harmful algal bloom (HAB) forming, mixotrophic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum have long been associated with fish kills. To date, the perceived ecological role for toxins has been relief from grazing pressures. Here, we demonstrate that karlotoxins also serve as a predation instrument. Using high-speed holographic microscopy, we measure the swimming behavior of several toxic and nontoxic strains of K. veneficum and their prey, Storeatula major, within dense suspensions. The selected strains produce toxins with varying potency and dosages, including a nontoxic one. Results clearly show that mixing the prey with the predatory, toxic strains causes prey immobilization at rates that are consistent with the karlotoxins' potency and dosage. Even prey cells that continue swimming slow down after exposure to toxic predators. The swimming characteristics of predators vary substantially in pure suspensions, as quantified by their velocity, radii of helical trajectories, and direction of helical rotation. When mixed with prey, all toxic strains that are involved in predation slow down. Furthermore, they substantially reduced their predominantly vertical migration, presumably to remain in the vicinity of their prey. Conversely, the nontoxic control strain does not alter its swimming and does not affect prey behavior. In separate experiments, we show that exposing prey to exogenous toxins also causes prey immobilization at rates consistent with potency. Clearly, the toxic predatory strains use karlotoxins as a means of stunning their prey, before ingesting it. These findings add a substantiated critical understanding for why some HAB species produce such complex toxin molecules.

  6. Lipid biomarkers in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: new indicators of thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeland, J.; Hughen, K.; Cervino, J.; Hauff, B.; Eglinton, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lipid content and fatty acid profiles of corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts are known to vary in response to high-temperature stress. To better understand the heat-stress response in these symbionts, we investigated cultures of Symbiodinium goreauii type C1 and Symbiodinium sp. clade subtype D1 grown under a range of temperatures and durations. The predominant lipids produced by Symbiodinium are palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) saturated fatty acids and their unsaturated analogs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3; DHA), and a variety of sterols. Prolonged exposure to high temperature causes the relative amount of unsaturated acids within the C18 fatty acids in Symbiodinium tissue to decrease. Thermal stress also causes a decrease in abundance of fatty acids relative to sterols, as well as the more specific ratio of DHA to an algal 4-methyl sterol. These shifts in fatty acid unsaturation and fatty acid-to-sterol ratios are common to both types C1 and D1, but the apparent thermal threshold of lipid changes is lower for type C1. This work indicates that ratios among free fatty acids and sterols in Symbiodinium can be used as sensitive indicators of thermal stress. If the Symbiodinium lipid stress response is unchanged in hospite, the algal heat-stress biomarkers we have identified could be measured to detect thermal stress within the coral holobiont. These results provide new insights into the potential role of lipids in the overall Symbiodinium thermal stress response.

  7. An epizootic of Florida manatees associated with a dinoflagellate bloom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Rathbun, G.B.; Bonde, R.K.; Buergelt, C.D.; Odell, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-wk period in early 1982, 39 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were found dead in the lower Caloosahatchee River and nearby waters of southwestern Florida. Two were killed by boats. The remainder showed no evidence of trauma. Lesions indicative of infectious agents were not identified, and bacteriological and contaminant residue findings were unremarkable. Nonspecific lesions of congestion and hemorrhage were identified in brain tissue. Numerous reports were also received of manatee morbidity. Some distressed manatees showed no biochemical lesions in clinical analyses of blood samples and recovered quickly. Timing of manatee illnesses coincided with fish and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) mortality and morbidity. A widespread bloom of the dinoflagellate red tide organism (Gymnodinium breve) also coincided with these incidents. G. breve produces potent neurotoxins (brevetoxins). Circumstantial evidence links these events, and possible routes of exposure may include ingestion of filter-feeding ascidians. Ecological conditions that magnified the extent of the epizootic included an early dispersal of manatees into the area from a nearby winter aggregation site and unusually high salinities that facilitated the inshore spread of the red tide bloom. Management responses to future episodes of red tide in manatee areas are suggested.

  8. Functional Relationship between a Dinoflagellate Host and Its Diatom Endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Hehenberger, Elisabeth; Burki, Fabien; Kolisko, Martin; Keeling, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    While we know much about the evolutionary patterns of endosymbiotic organelle origins, we know less about how the actual process unfolded within each system. This is partly due to the massive changes endosymbiosis appears to trigger, and partly because most organelles evolved in the distant past. The dinotoms are dinoflagellates with diatom endosymbionts, and they represent a relatively recent but nevertheless obligate endosymbiotic association. We have carried out deep sequencing of both the host and endosymbiont transcriptomes from two dinotoms, Durinskia baltica and Glenodinium foliaceum, to examine how the nucleocytosolic compartments have functionally integrated. This analysis showed little or no functional reduction in either the endosymbiont or host, and no evidence for genetic integration. Rather, host and endosymbiont seem to be bound to each other via metabolites, such as photosynthate exported from the endosymbiont to the host as indicated by the presence of plastidic phosphate translocators in the host transcriptome. The host is able to synthesize starch, using plant-specific starch synthases, as a way to store imported photosynthate. PMID:27297471

  9. Tailgut Cyst and Perineal Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report with Multimodality Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Alghofaily, Khalefa Ali

    2016-01-01

    A tailgut cyst is a rare developmental lesion and usually is located in the retrorectal or presacral space. Extrahepatic hydatid disease has been reported in several locations including the pelvis and it often poses a diagnostic challenge. There are very few reported cases of primary perineal hydatid cysts. We present the multimodality imaging findings of a tailgut cyst and concurrent perineal hydatid disease in a 32-year-old male patient. PMID:27630782

  10. Tailgut Cyst and Perineal Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report with Multimodality Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Alghofaily, Khalefa Ali

    2016-01-01

    A tailgut cyst is a rare developmental lesion and usually is located in the retrorectal or presacral space. Extrahepatic hydatid disease has been reported in several locations including the pelvis and it often poses a diagnostic challenge. There are very few reported cases of primary perineal hydatid cysts. We present the multimodality imaging findings of a tailgut cyst and concurrent perineal hydatid disease in a 32-year-old male patient.

  11. Tailgut Cyst and Perineal Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report with Multimodality Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Aljohani, Ibtisam Musallam; Alghofaily, Khalefa Ali; McWilliams, Sebastian R; Bin Saeedan, Mnahi

    2016-01-01

    A tailgut cyst is a rare developmental lesion and usually is located in the retrorectal or presacral space. Extrahepatic hydatid disease has been reported in several locations including the pelvis and it often poses a diagnostic challenge. There are very few reported cases of primary perineal hydatid cysts. We present the multimodality imaging findings of a tailgut cyst and concurrent perineal hydatid disease in a 32-year-old male patient. PMID:27630782

  12. Multi-vesicular pulmonary hydatid cyst, the potent underestimated factor in the formation of daughter cysts of pulmonary hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Sokouti, Mohsen; Sokouti, Babak; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Rahimi-Rad, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary multi-vesicular hydatid disease (HD) with Echinococcus granulosus is rare. A 28-year-old woman presented to our center with cough and respiratory distress. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography scan revealed bilateral giant cysts with water-lily sign (ruptured hydatid cysts). The left cyst was in vicinity of heart. With thoracotomy cysts of both lungs were removed. Thousands of translucent, homogenized small daughter cysts were discovered from the left side cyst. Pathologic examinations revealed the ruptured hydatid cysts of both lungs with daughter cysts on the left lung cyst. To best of our knowledge probably this is the first report of multi-vesicular HD in lung. We suppose that the heart pulsation was effective in the formation of daughter cysts.

  13. Human vaginal epithelium and the epithelial lining of a cyst model constructed from it: a comparative light microscopic and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, I O; van Wyk, C W; Darling, M R

    2001-11-01

    The light microscopic features and keratin filament distribution of human vaginal epithelium resemble those of buccal mucosa. We used vaginal epithelium to establish a human cyst model in immunodeficient mice. To strengthen the view that this experimental cyst is a suitable model to study mucosal diseases, we compared specific light microscopic and ultra-structural features of vaginal epithelium and the epithelial lining of the cyst. Nineteen cyst walls and 6 specimens of vaginal mucosa, which had been used to establish the cysts, were examined. We counted the number of cell layers of 17 cyst linings and the 6 vaginal specimens. Surface keratinisation was evaluated on sections stained with the Picro-Mallory method. To demonstrate intercellular lamellae and membrane coating granules 2 cyst linings were examined ultra-structurally. The epithelium lining of the cyst wall was thinner than that of vaginal mucosa but the surface keratinisation and ultra-structural features of the intercellular lamellae and membrane coating granules were similar. We concluded that vaginal mucosa is a useful substitute for oral mucosa in the cyst model.

  14. [Retroperitoneal cyst: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Okasho, A; Hisazumi, H

    1984-12-01

    A 71-year-old woman who had an abdominal mass was admitted to our hospital in May, 1983. Physical examination revealed the presence of a soft mass without tenderness in the right upper abdomen. The results of laboratory tests were within the normal range. An excretory urogram showed a slight lateral displacement of the upper position of the right ureter and a slight dilatation of the right pyelocalyceal system. The urogram for the left kidney and ureter was normal. Abdominal CT scan revealed a cystic homogeneous mass anterior to the right kidney, 12 X 11 cm in size. Ultrasonography showed a cystic mass corresponding to the CT scan finding. Under ultrasonographic guidance, percutaneous puncture of the cyst was performed, and 800 ml clear straw-yellow fluid containing 457 ng/ml alpha-fetoprotein was drained. A repeat CT scan 9 months later showed no evidence of fluid reaccumulation and the patient remained asymptomatic.

  15. [Unusual localizations of hydatid cysts].

    PubMed

    Lazăr, C; Chifan, M; Strat, V; Dolinescu, C; Tircoveanu, E; Niculescu, D; Boingeanu, A

    1978-01-01

    In a total of 448 hydatic cysts that have been treated in the I-st Surgery Clinic of Jassy between 1947 and 1977 rare localizations were noted in 61 cases. Of these 47 were primary echinococcoses and 14 were secondary. The clinical and therapeutic aspects are discussed for each particular localization: the splenic localization was encountered in 16 cases, the peritoneal one in 10 cases, the diaphragmatic in 6 cases. There were also 2 renal localizations, 3 retro-peritoneal ones, 3 ovarian and salpyngean localizations, 3 thyroid, 7 endo-thoracic but extra-pulmonary, 5 muscular and 6 subcutaneous localizations. Radical surgery had immediate and late results that were quite satisfactory. No deaths or recidives were noted.

  16. Intramedullary cyst formation after removal of multiple intradural spinal arachnoid cysts: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zekaj, Edvin; Saleh, Christian; Servello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Background: A rare cause of spinal cord compression is spinal arachnoid cysts. Symptoms are caused by spinal cord compression, however, asymptomatic patients have been also reported. Treatment options depend upon symptom severity and clinical course. Case Description: We report the case of a 47-year-old patient who developed an intramedullary arachnoid cyst after removal of an intradural extramedullary cyst. Conclusion: Surgery should be considered early in a symptomatic disease course. Longstanding medullary compression may reduce the possibility of neurological recovery as well as secondary complications such as intramedullary cyst formation. PMID:27512608

  17. Dinoflagellate nuclear SSU rRNA phylogeny suggests multiple plastid losses and replacements.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, J F; Taylor, F J; Keeling, P J; Cavalier-Smith, T

    2001-09-01

    Dinoflagellates are a trophically diverse group of protists with photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic members that appears to incorporate and lose endosymbionts relatively easily. To trace the gain and loss of plastids in dinoflagellates, we have sequenced the nuclear small subunit rRNA gene of 28 photosynthetic and four non-photosynthetic species, and produced phylogenetic trees with a total of 81 dinoflagellate sequences. Patterns of plastid gain, loss, and replacement were plotted onto this phylogeny. With the exception of the apparently early-diverging Syndiniales and Noctilucales, all non-photosynthetic dinoflagellates are very likely to have had photosynthetic ancestors with peridinin-containing plastids. The same is true for all dinoflagellates with plastids other than the peridinin-containing plastid: their ancestors have replaced one type of plastid for another, in some cases most likely through a non-photosynthetic intermediate. Eight independent instances of plastid loss and three of replacement can be inferred from existing data, but as more non-photosynthetic lineages are characterized these numbers will surely grow.

  18. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer from bacteroidetes bacteria to dinoflagellate minicircles.

    PubMed

    Moszczynski, Krzysztof; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Bodyl, Andrzej

    2012-03-01

    Dinoflagellate protists harbor a characteristic peridinin-containing plastid that evolved from a red or haptophyte alga. In contrast to typical plastids that have ∼100-200 kb circular genomes, the dinoflagellate plastid genome is composed of minicircles that each encode 0-5 genes. It is commonly assumed that dinoflagellate minicircles are derived from a standard plastid genome through drastic reduction and fragmentation. However, we demonstrate that the ycf16 and ycf24 genes (encoded on the Ceratium AF490364 minicircle), as well as rpl28 and rpl33 (encoded on the Pyrocystis AF490367 minicircle), are related to sequences from Algoriphagus and/or Cytophaga bacteria belonging to the Bacteroidetes clade. Moreover, we identified a new open reading frame on the Pyrocystis minicircle encoding a SRP54 N domain, which is typical of FtsY proteins. Because neither of these minicircles share sequence similarity with any other dinoflagellate minicircles, and their genes resemble bacterial operons, we propose that these Ceratium and Pyrocystis minicircles resulted from a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from a Bacteroidetes donor. Our findings are the first indication of HGT to dinoflagellate minicircles, highlighting yet another peculiar aspect of this plastid genome.

  19. Isolation of a dinoflagellate mitotic cyclin by functional complementation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Bertomeu, Thierry; Morse, David

    2004-10-29

    Dinoflagellates are protists with permanently condensed chromosomes that lack histones and whose nuclear membrane remains intact during mitosis. These unusual nuclear characters have suggested that the typical cell cycle regulators might be slightly different than those in more typical eukaryotes. To test this, a cyclin has been isolated from the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra by functional complementation in cln123 mutant yeast. This GpCyc1 sequence contains two cyclin domains in its C-terminal region and a degradation box typical of mitotic cyclins. Similar to other dinoflagellate genes, GpCyc1 has a high copy number, with approximately 5000 copies found in the Gonyaulax genome. An antibody raised against the N-terminal region of the GpCYC1 reacts with a 68kDa protein on Western blots that is more abundant in cell cultures enriched for G2-phase cells than in those containing primarily G1-phase cells, indicating its cellular level follows a pattern expected for a mitotic cyclin. This is the first report of a cell cycle regulator cloned and sequenced from a dinoflagellate, and our results suggest control of the dinoflagellate cell cycle will be very similar to that of other organisms.

  20. Horizontal gene transfer is a significant driver of gene innovation in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Brosnahan, Michael L; Hackett, Jeremiah D

    2013-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are an evolutionarily and ecologically important group of microbial eukaryotes. Previous work suggests that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important source of gene innovation in these organisms. However, dinoflagellate genomes are notoriously large and complex, making genomic investigation of this phenomenon impractical with currently available sequencing technology. Fortunately, de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly provides an alternative approach for investigating HGT. We sequenced the transcriptome of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense Group IV to investigate how HGT has contributed to gene innovation in this group. Our comprehensive A. tamarense Group IV gene set was compared with those of 16 other eukaryotic genomes. Ancestral gene content reconstruction of ortholog groups shows that A. tamarense Group IV has the largest number of gene families gained (314-1,563 depending on inference method) relative to all other organisms in the analysis (0-782). Phylogenomic analysis indicates that genes horizontally acquired from bacteria are a significant proportion of this gene influx, as are genes transferred from other eukaryotes either through HGT or endosymbiosis. The dinoflagellates also display curious cases of gene loss associated with mitochondrial metabolism including the entire Complex I of oxidative phosphorylation. Some of these missing genes have been functionally replaced by bacterial and eukaryotic xenologs. The transcriptome of A. tamarense Group IV lends strong support to a growing body of evidence that dinoflagellate genomes are extraordinarily impacted by HGT.

  1. A Rare Case Report of Conjunctival Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Pujari, M. R.; Murthy, Chethan N

    2015-01-01

    A conjunctival cyst is a thin-walled sac or vesicle that contains fluid. This vesicle may develop either on or under the conjunctiva. It develops due to variety of causes such as infection, inflammation, retention cyst and rarely drug induced. The authors aimed to report a case of conjuctival cyst in a 34-year-old male following instillation of anti-allergic topical drugs for over period of one year. Conjuctival cyst developing due to chronic use of anti-allergic topical drugs containing preservatives is one of the complications associated with it. Presence of a preservative in an ocular medication has often been considered in damaging the epithelium. Inclusion of a preservative is equally necessary, especially in multiple-drug therapy in order to protect against dangerous organisms accidentally gaining access during instillation. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorobutanol, chlorhexidine acetate (CHA) and phenylmercuric nitrate or acetate are some commonly used preservatives in eye drops. PMID:26675748

  2. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  3. Floating Vitreous Cyst: Two Clinical Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lavric, Alenka; Urbancic, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report two cases of solitary unilateral vitreous cyst. Methods A complete ocular examination, fundus photography, B-scan ultrasound and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed in both patients. Results The first patient (a 39-year-old man) presented with transient blurred vision in the right eye. The second patient (a 78-year-old man) reported transient blurred vision in the right eye when changing head position. He was referred to the Eye Hospital because of vitreomacular traction in the other eye. After examination, a diagnosis of vitreous cyst was made in both cases. Conclusions Vitreous cysts are rare clinical findings. They can occur in normal eyes or in eyes with certain ocular pathologies. When a cyst floats into the visual axis area, it can disturb visual function; therefore, patients usually report transient blurring of vision. A prompt clinical examination is necessary for differentiating this rare condition. PMID:24348410

  4. Extensive epidermoid cyst of the submental region

    PubMed Central

    Utumi, Estevam Rubens; Araujo, Juliane Pirágine; Pedron, Irineu Gregnanin; Yonezaki, Frederico; Machado, Gustavo Grothe

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are malformations that are rarely observed in the submental region. Imaging has an important role in surgical planning according to the size and location of the cyst in relation to geniohyoid and mylohyoid muscles. This article reports the case of a 15-year-old female patient complaining of submental swelling. The differential diagnosis included infection, tumor, ranula, and abnormalities during embryonic development. The lesion was surgically excised using an extra-oral approach. The histopathological examination revealed a cyst wall lined with stratified squamous epithelium with the presence of several horny scales consistent with the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. No recurrences were found after 1 year of follow-up. PMID:27547744

  5. [Congenital medulloblastoma associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Gelabert González, Miguel; Serramito-García, Ramón; Liñares Paz, Mercedes; Aran-Echabe, Eduardo; García-Allut, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are very common lesions in paediatric patients, with treatment depending on their location and symptomatology. They are usually solitary cysts but may be associated with other central nervous system diseases such as tumours and congenital deformities. We describe the case of a neonate diagnosed with an arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern treated by endoscopy. After the operation, the child's condition worsened; a CT scan revealed a midline posterior fossa tumour not visible in the preoperative neuroradiological tests. The tumour, a medulloblastoma, was partially removed. Given the child's age and the poor prognosis, oncological treatment was not undertaken. The association between medulloblastoma and arachnoid cyst is very rare, and we could find only one such case in the literature.

  6. [Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Orellana, Franco; Cárdenas, Rubén; Manríquez, María Eugenia; Ríos, Horacio; Suárez, Leopoldo; Videla, Domingo

    2007-07-01

    Retroperitoneal cystic tumors are uncommon. More than two thirds are malignant. Benign lesions include lipomas and leiomyomas, among others. Bronchogenic cysts are congenital anomalies that result from an abnormal budding of the primitive foregut, and are most commonly found in the mediastinum. Occasionally they can be seen in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, in the pre-sternal and pericardial areas, but those located under the diaphragm are extremely rare. We report a 24 year-old female who consulted for abdominal pain. An abdominal ultrasound disclosed a retroperitoneal cystic lesion, that was confirmed with a CAT scan. The patient was operated, finding a cyst that was adhered to the pancreas. A distal pancreatectomy and cyst excision were done. The pathological examination of the lesion showed a bronchogenic cyst. The patient was discharged ten days after surgery.

  7. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Resl, M; Navrátil, P; Krajina, A

    1996-01-01

    Abdominal sonography performed in a 21-year-old man for suspected hepatopathy revealed a pathological lesion within the retroperitoneal space. Morphological examination showed an unusual mode of presentation of an asymptomatic bronchogenic cyst.

  8. Isolated renal and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Tan, M O; Emir, L; Germiyanoğlu, C; Uygur, C; Altuğ, U; Erol, D

    2000-01-01

    Four patients (3 male, 1 female) with isolated renal and 1 female patient with isolated retroperitoneal cysts were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 46 (25-64). The most common presenting symptom was pain. Two cases were discovered incidentally by the observance of renal calcification on abdominal x-ray. Indirect hemagglutination test was positive in all cases but eosinophilia was present only in 1 (20%) case. Nephrectomy was performed to 1 patient who presented with hydaturia and had a large communicating cyst involving most of the kidney. Total cystectomy was performed in other renal cysts. Total cystectomy with wide excision of the involved muscle was performed to the retroperitoneal hydatid cyst. Patients were followed by an average of 23.8 (9-50) months with indirect hemagglutination test and USG. No evidence for recurrence was found up to date.

  9. Symptomatic retroperitoneal cyst: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Renzulli, Pietro; Candinas, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Retroperitoneal cystic masses pose an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Simple drainage, internal or external, is usually not sufficient. We report a case of a large symptomatic retroperitoneal cyst and its management.

  10. Nasolabial Cyst Associated with Odontogenic Infection.

    PubMed

    Martini, Eveline Claudia; Coppla, Fabiana Madalozzo; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The nasolabial cyst or Klestadt cyst is a relatively uncommon nonodontogenic cyst that develops in the nasal alar region; it has uncertain pathogenesis. This lesion has slow growth and variable dimensions and is characterized clinically by a floating tumefaction in the nasolabial fold area around the bridge of the nose, causing an elevation of the upper lip and relative facial asymmetry. Diagnosis is primarily made clinically; if necessary, this is complemented by imaging. This paper reports the case of a 39-year-old male patient who complained of pain in the right upper premolar region and poor aesthetics due to a firm tumor in the right wing of the nose. Initially, this was thought to be due to an odontogenic abscess; however, the differential diagnosis was that a nasolabial cyst was communicating with the apex of teeth 14 and 15. Surgical treatment was carried out, followed by histopathological examination and concomitant endodontic treatment of the teeth involved. PMID:26904312

  11. [Urothelial carcinoma in a pyelocaliceal cyst].

    PubMed

    Abate, Danilo; Vella, Marco; Alonge, Vincenza; Serretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Renal complex cysts are lesions whose nature can be either benign or malignant. Depending on the presence of septa, solid components, enhancement or calcifications, they are distinguished according to the Bosniak classification based on CT findings, as well as MRI and ETG. We report a rare case of urothelial carcinoma, originating over a pyelocalyceal cyst in a 50-year-old man, and classified as Bosniak IIF by CT and MRI investigations.

  12. [Epidermoid cyst of the mouth floor].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Rodríguez, S; Morán Penco, J M; Ruiz Orpez, A; Santamaria Ossorio, J I; Berchi García, F J

    2003-07-01

    The epidermoid cysts are frequent during childhood, however mouth floor location are very unusual, because of their more difficult diagnosis and therapeutic approach. We present a 5 years old male, symptoms free until a week before, when his parents noticed a well defined mass in the mouth floor. A physical examination leaded to the diagnosis of possible epidermoid cyst. The tumor was excised through an introral approach. A review of different diagnostic means and surgical management are undertaken.

  13. Fetal vulvar cysts with spontaneous resolution

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Ferreira, Luisa; Rodrigues, Maria do Céu

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the external genitalia occur in 2–3 per 100 infants. These anomalies might bring variable degrees of morbidity to the infant and often constitute diagnostic challenges for health professionals. We present a case report of a fetus with bilateral vulvar cysts diagnosed during the third trimester ultrasound. The cysts spontaneously regressed before birth and the newborn showed no genital anomalies at birth. PMID:25312972

  14. Supradiaphragmatic bronchogenic cyst extending into the retroperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Jo, Won-Min; Shin, Jae Seung; Lee, In Sung

    2006-01-01

    We experienced a case of bronchogenic cyst located on the left lower pleural space extending into the retroperitoneum in a 33-year-old man with left chest pain. Preoperative imaging studies and operative findings showed a broad-based cystic mass on the left lower posterior pleura and diaphragmatic pleura extending into the retroperitoneal region across the diaphragm. Histologic studies proved this mass to be a bronchogenic cyst.

  15. Primary Intraosseous Hydatid Cyst of Femur

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Hasan Onur; Arican, Mehmet; Cetin, Nesibe Kahraman; Sarp, Umit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Echinococcosis is a parasitic and zoonotic disease of animals and humans. The cause is Echinococcus granulosus and occasionally, Echinococcus multilocularis. Hydatid cysts are mostly seen in the liver and lungs, although almost all organs and systemscan be involvement. Hydatid cysts seen with bone involvement comprise approximately 3% of all hydatid cysts. Even if a long period of survey is possible, it is still difficult to eradicate the disease and effect a cure. Case Presentation: In this study, an evaluation was made of a patient referred at Yozgat State Hospital Orthopedics and Traumatology Polyclinic with complaints of pain in her left thigh close to the knee. After examinations of plain radiographs, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance images, and blood parameters, a diagnosis was made of left femoral intramedullary hydatid cyst from excised intraoperative material. Throughout a 6-month follow-up period, there was no recurrence and functional results were good. Conclusions: Based on this report (of a patient presented with an intramedullary cyst in the long bones), the primary bone hydatid cyst disease should be kept in mind and be investigated in the differential diagnosis. PMID:25838934

  16. Chronic Hydatid Cyst in Malaysia: A Rare Occurence

    PubMed Central

    SURIA HAYATI, Md Pauzi; BOON TECK EUGENE, Chan; JAN JIN, Bong; MOHD ROSE, Isa

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cysts are not endemic in Malaysia and are rarely seen. We hereby report a case of hydatid cyst of the liver in a 55-year-old Chinese-Australian lady who presented with a calcified liver cyst and negative hydatid serology. A liver segmentectomy was performed and revealed a well-circumscribed, calcified liver cyst containing only creamy whitish material without the typical daughter cyst. A histological examination revealed different layers of the cyst wall and the presence of loose, calcified scolices without a daughter cyst. The case highlights the importance of considering hydatid cyst in the differential diagnosis of liver cyst even in non-endemic areas, as the ease of travelling and migration allows the condition to be seen outside the endemic region. PMID:25892954

  17. Strategies for the Management of Congenital Iris Cysts.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Shabana; Shoaib, Khawaja Khalid; Hing, Stephen; Smith, James

    2016-06-01

    Iris cysts can arise from iris pigment epithelium or stroma. We present 3 cases of iris cysts which have been managed in different ways. In a one-month neonate, cyst was punctured with keratome and gentle diode laser endophotocoagulation was applied to the base. A2.5-month infant presented with watering and blepharospasm since birth. Clear fluid was aspirated from the cyst with a 27-gauge needle and Ethanol 96% (ETOH) was injected into the cyst and then aspirated. It was followed by injection/aspiration of 0.3 ml of balanced salt solution thrice. Cyst wall was excised. A13-month toddler presented with 4-month history of intermittent irritation and photophobia. The cyst was aspirated with a 25-gauge needle and the cyst walls were nibbled with 20-gauge vitrectomy cutter. Excision is better than injection of sclerosing solutions. The aim is to remove the whole cyst to avoid recurrence and to prevent amblyopia. PMID:27376231

  18. Histone-Like Proteins of the Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Have Homologies to Bacterial DNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wong, J. T. Y.; New, D. C.; Wong, J. C. W.; Hung, V. K. L.

    2003-01-01

    The dinoflagellates have very large genomes encoded in permanently condensed and histoneless chromosomes. Sequence alignment identified significant similarity between the dinoflagellate chromosomal histone-like proteins of Crypthecodinium cohnii (HCCs) and the bacterial DNA-binding and the eukaryotic histone H1 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis also supports the origin of the HCCs from histone-like proteins of bacteria. PMID:12796310

  19. In vitro function of cyst epithelium from human polycystic kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, R D

    1985-01-01

    It is thought that cysts in polycystic kidneys originate from nephron segments and function in a manner similar to the segment or origin. The indirect evidence for this derives from studies of microanatomy and cyst fluid composition. Cysts with low Na+ have been classified as distal, whereas cysts with high Na+ have been classified as proximal. In order to directly determine the transport characteristics of cyst epithelium, cysts from a human polycystic kidney were studied in vitro using Ussing chamber techniques. Composition of cyst fluid was determined in parallel with these studies. Cysts with low Na+ (gradient cysts) demonstrate characteristics consistent with distal nephron origin including elevated potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (Isc), and low conductance. PD and Isc of gradient cysts were amiloride sensitive. Nongradient cysts, however, require additional characterization. At least two types of nongradient cysts were identified, one with characteristics consistent with proximal nephron origin and another apparently without function. These studies are the first direct evidence for active transport of cysts from human polycystic kidney and provide strong evidence to support the concept that cysts function in the same manner as the nephron segment of origin. PMID:4056045

  20. Molecular and morphological characterization of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae was first detected in India, where it has wide distribution. This nematode has also been reported from Pakistan, Egypt, Thailand, Nepal, the United States, and Portugal. There is limited information regarding nematodes attacking cereals in Greece, and thus far ...