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Sample records for dinoflagellate cyst distribution

  1. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) a...

  2. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has

  3. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in western equatorial Atlantic surface sediments: distributions and their relation to environment.

    PubMed

    Vink; Zonneveld; Willems

    2000-11-01

    In contrast to the wide range of studies carried out in temperate and high-latitude oceanic regions, only a few studies have focused on recent and Holocene organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the tropics. This information is, however, essential for fully understanding the ability of species to adapt to different oceanographic regimes, and ultimately their potential application to local and regional palaeoenvironmental and palaeoceanographic reconstructions. Surface sediment samples of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean north of Brazil, an area greatly influenced by Amazon River discharge waters, were therefore analysed in detail for their organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst content. A diverse association of 43 taxa was identified, and large differences in cyst distribution were observed. The cyst thanatocoenosis in bottom sediments reflects the seasonal advection of Amazon River discharge water through the Guyana Current and the North Equatorial Countercurrent well into the North Atlantic. To establish potential links between cyst distribution and the environmental conditions of the upper water column, distribution patterns were compared with mean temperature, salinity, density and stratification gradients within the upper water column (0-100m) over different times of the year, using correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. The analyses show that differences in these parameters only play a subordinate role in determining species distribution. Instead, nutrient availability, or related factors, dominates the distribution pattern. The only possible indicators of slightly reduced salinities are Trinovantedinium applanatum and Lingulodinium machaerophorum. Four assemblage groups of cyst taxa with similar environmental affinities related to specific water masses/currents can be distinguished and have potential for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DINOFLAGELLATE CYST ASSEMBLAGES IN SHALLOW LAGOONS IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface sediment samples from 24 sites within eleven back-barrier lagoons of Rhode Island and Massachusetts (USA) contain abundant (200-6000 cysts cm-3) and diverse (up to 40 taxa) dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The lowest cyst concentrations and diversity are observed in lagoo...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DINOFLAGELLATE CYST ASSEMBLAGES IN SHALLOW LAGOONS IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface sediment samples from 24 sites within eleven back-barrier lagoons of Rhode Island and Massachusetts (USA) contain abundant (200-6000 cysts cm-3) and diverse (up to 40 taxa) dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The lowest cyst concentrations and diversity are observed in lagoo...

  6. Spatial distribution of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts in surface sediments of the Atlantic Ocean between 13 degrees N and 36 degrees S.

    PubMed

    Zonneveld; Brune; Willems

    2000-09-01

    To enhance the limited information available about the palaeo-ecological significance of calcareous dinoflagellates, we have studied their lateral distribution in surface sediments of the equatorial and south Atlantic between 13 degrees N and 36 degrees S. Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts appear to be widely distributed throughout the studied area. In the surface sediments, concentrations (cyst per gram dry sediment) of the vegetative stage Thoracosphaera heimii are generally higher than that of the (presumably) calcareous resting cysts. Distribution patterns in surface sediments of Orthopithonella granifera (Fütterer) Keupp and Versteegh, Rhabdothorax spp. Kamptner., Sphaerodinella albatrosiana (Kamptner) Keupp and Versteegh S. albatrosiana praratabulated, Sphaerodinella tuberosa var. 1 (Kamptner) Keupp and Versteegh and S. tuberosa var. 2 and the ratios between these species have been compared with temperature, salinity, density and stratification gradients in the upper water column. Rhabdothorax spp. is characteristically present in sediments of more temperate regions characterized by high seasonality. Dinoflagellates producing these cysts are able to tolerate high nutrient concentrations, and mixing of the water column. S. albatrosiana is abundant in regions characterized by high sea surface temperatures and oligotrophic surface water conditions. In contrast, the distribution of S. tuberosa var. 2 is negatively related to temperature. The other cyst species did not show a characteristic pattern in relation to the studied environmental gradients.The ratio of Sphaerodinella tuberosa var. 2 to Orthopithonella granifera can be used for reconstructing the presence of stratification in the upper 50m of the water column, whereas the ratios of S. tuberosa var. 2 to Sphaerodinella albatrosiana and of O. granifera to Rhabdothorax spp. might be used for palaeotemperature reconstructions. Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts are abundant in oligotrophic areas and may be useful

  7. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K.; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B.

    2015-01-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm−3) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. PMID:26637596

  8. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.

    PubMed

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-12-04

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm(-3)) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The influence of demersal trawl fishing gears on the resuspension of dinoflagellate cysts.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lyndsay; Bresnan, Eileen; Summerbell, Keith; O'Neill, Finbarr Gerard

    2013-01-15

    To investigate the influence of towed demersal fishing gears on dinoflagellate cyst resuspension, towing trials with four gear components were carried out at three sites of differing sediment type in the Moray Firth, Scotland. Samples of sediment plumes were collected using plankton nets mounted on a towed sledge. Diversity of resuspended dinoflagellate cysts was similar at all sites and included Protoperidinium and Gonyaulax spp., Proroceratium reticulatum and unidentified 'round brown' cysts. Cyst concentrations per gram of resuspended sediment varied by gear component and sediment particle size distribution. Gear components with lower hydrodynamic drag generated wakes with smaller shear stresses, mobilising fewer larger sand particles, giving larger concentrations of cysts. Muddy sediments contained higher cyst concentrations which declined with increasing grain size. This study has shown that fishing gear and sediment type can influence the redistribution of dinoflagellate cysts and highlights the importance this may have in relation to dinoflagellate blooms.

  10. Towards an Ecological Understanding of Dinoflagellate Cyst Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Isabel; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of many dinoflagellates includes at least one nonflagellated benthic stage (cyst). In the literature, the different types of dinoflagellate cysts are mainly defined based on morphological (number and type of layers in the cell wall) and functional (long- or short-term endurance) differences. These characteristics were initially thought to clearly distinguish pellicle (thin-walled) cysts from resting (double-walled) dinoflagellate cysts. The former were considered short-term (temporal) and the latter long-term (resting) cysts. However, during the last two decades further knowledge has highlighted the great intricacy of dinoflagellate life histories, the ecological significance of cyst stages, and the need to clarify the functional and morphological complexities of the different cyst types. Here we review and, when necessary, redefine the concepts of resting and pellicle cysts, examining both their structural and their functional characteristics in the context of the life cycle strategies of several dinoflagellate species. PMID:27694774

  11. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic estuaries.

    PubMed

    Price, Andrea M; Pospelova, Vera; Coffin, Michael R S; Latimer, James S; Chmura, Gail L

    2016-08-01

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has an important influence on cyst assemblages. Due to greater seasonal variations in SSTs and SSSs in estuaries compared to the open ocean, cyst assemblages show distinct latitudinal trends. The estuarine context is important for understanding present-day species distribution, the factors controlling them, and to better predict how they may change in the future.

  12. Impact of industrial pollution on recent dinoflagellate cysts in Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean).

    PubMed

    Aydin, Hilal; Yürür, Emine Erdem; Uzar, Serdar; Küçüksezgin, Filiz

    2015-05-15

    The spatial distribution of dinoflagellate cysts was studied to understand the impact of industrial pollution on the surface sediment of Izmir Bay, Turkey. Forty two dinoflagellate cyst morphotypes belonging to 12 genera were identified and qualified at 12 sampling points. The cyst of Gymnodinium nolleri dominated the bay and had the highest abundance in most of the stations, following Spiniferites bulloideus and Lingulodinium machaerophorum. The highest cyst concentration was recorded in the inner part of the bay. Cyst concentration ranged between 384 and 9944 cyst g(-1) dry weight of sediment in the sampling area. Sediment metal concentrations were determined. Heavy metal levels in Izmir Inner Bay were higher than the Middle and Outer Bay. L. machaerophorum, Dubridinium caperatum and Polykrikos kofoidii showed significant positive correlation with some metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) and organic carbon content. However, there was no significant correlation between dinoflagellate cyst abundance and sediment type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A new heterotrophic dinoflagellate from the North-eastern Pacific, Protoperidinium fukuyoi: cyst-theca relationship, phylogeny, distribution and ecology.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Kenneth N; Yamaguchi, Aika; Takano, Yoshihito; Pospelova, Vera; Head, Martin J; Radi, Taoufik; Pieńkowski, Anna J; de Vernal, Anne; Kawami, Hisae; Matsuoka, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    The cyst-theca relationship of Protoperidinium fukuyoi n. sp. (Dinoflagellata, Protoperidiniaceae) is established by incubating resting cysts from estuarine sediments off southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and San Pedro Harbor, California, USA. The cysts have a brown-coloured wall, and are characterized by a saphopylic archeopyle comprising three apical plates, the apical pore plate and canal plate; and acuminate processes typically arranged in linear clusters. We elucidate the phylogenetic relationship of P. fukuyoi through large and small subunit (LSU and SSU) rDNA sequences, and also report the SSU of the cyst-defined species Islandinium minutum (Harland & Reid) Head et al. 2001. Molecular phylogenetic analysis by SSU rDNA shows that both species are closely related to Protoperidinium americanum (Gran & Braarud 1935) Balech 1974. Large subunit rDNA phylogeny also supports a close relationship between P. fukuyoi and P. americanum. Three subgroups in total are further characterized within the Monovela group. The cyst of P. fukuyoi shows a wide geographical range along the coastal tropical to temperate areas of the North-east Pacific, its distribution reflecting optimal summer sea-surface temperatures of ~14-18 °C and salinities of 22-34 psu. © 2013 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2013 International Society of Protistologists.

  14. Spiniferites cruciformis: a fresh water dinoflagellate cyst?

    PubMed

    Kouli, K; Brinkhuis, H; Dale, B

    2001-04-01

    Palynological studies of cored lacustrine sediments from the late Quaternary of Lake Kastoria, northern Greece, revealed a Late Glacial interval with abundant dinoflagellate cysts. Cyst assemblages include two identifiable species, Spiniferites cruciformis and Gonyaulax apiculata. The presence of the fresh water species G. apiculata is consistent with the lacustrine setting of these deposits, but that of S. cruciformis is anomalous. Previously, this species has only been recorded in abundance from presumed brackish marine sediments from the Black Sea and Marmara Sea sediments where geochemical data clearly record brackish salinities. Therefore, it has been regarded as a low salinity cyst type with a wide range of morphological variation that some workers have suggested to reflect salinity fluctuations. Specimens from Greece display only part of the range of morphological variability previously described from these (brackish) marine settings. Encountered morphological variation includes ellipsoidal/pentameral and cruciform endocyst shapes with rare intermediate shapes, and highly variable septa development. Specimens characterized by extremely reduced ornamentation known from (brackish) marine environments have not been recorded. Our records of S. cruciformis indicate that: (1) it could thrive in fresh water conditions; and (2) that apparently most of the strong morphological variations of the cysts are an intrinsic phenomenon for this taxon, and may only partly be linked to salinity variations as suggested earlier. We suggest that S. cruciformis essentially is a fresh water taxon, and that its records in (brackish) marine environments, with the exception of specimens with strongly reduced ornamentation, may be due to transportation, to short-lived fresh water surface conditions in such environments, or to tolerance of the species to brackish conditions.

  15. Do the levels of industrial pollutants influence the distribution and abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in the recently-deposited sediment of a Mediterranean coastal ecosystem?

    PubMed

    Triki, Habiba Zmerli; Laabir, Mohamed; Lafabrie, Céline; Malouche, Dhafer; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Gonzalez, Catherine; Deidun, Alan; Pringault, Olivier; Daly-Yahia, Ons Kéfi

    2017-10-01

    We studied the relationships between sediment industrial pollutants concentrations, sediment characteristics and the dinoflagellate cyst abundance within a coastal lagoon by investigating a total of 55 sampling stations within the Bizerte lagoon, a highly anthropized Mediterranean ecosystem. The sediment of Bizerte lagoon is characterized by a high dinocyst abundance, reaching a maximum value of 2742cysts·g(-1) of dry sediment. The investigated cyst diversity was characterized by the presence of 22 dominant dinocyst morphotypes belonging to 11 genera. Two dinoflagellate species dominated the assemblage: Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax and Protoperidinium claudicans, representing 29 to 89% and 5 to 38% of the total cyst abundance, respectively, depending on the station. Seven morphotypes belonging to potentially toxic species were detected, including Alexandrium minutum, A. pseudogonyaulax, Alexandrium catenella/tamarense species complex, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Gonyaulax cf. spinifera complex, Prorocentrum micans and Protoceratium reticulatum. Pearson correlation values showed a positive correlation (α=0.05) between cyst abundance and both water content and fine silt sediment content. Clustering revealed that the highest abundance of cysts corresponds to stations presenting the higher amounts of heavy metals. The simultaneous autoregressive model (SAM) highlighted a significant correlation (α=0.05) between cyst accumulation and two main factors: sediment water content and sediment content for several heavy metals, including Hg, Cd, Cu, Ni and Cr. These results suggest that the degree of heavy metal pollution could influence cyst accumulation patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of nutrient pollution on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We analyzed surface sediments from 23 northeast USA estuaries, from Maine to Delaware, and nine estuaries from Prince Edward Island (PEI, Canada), to determine how dinoflagellate cyst assemblages varied with nutrient loading. Overall the abundance of cysts of heterotrophic dinoflagellates correlates with modeled nitrogen loading, but there were also regional signals. On PEI cysts of Gymnodinium microreticulatum characterized estuaries with high nitrogen loading while the sediments of eutrophic Boston Harbor were characterized by high abundances of Spiniferites spp. In Delaware Bay and the Delaware Inland Bays Polysphaeridium zoharyi correlated with higher temperatures and nutrient loading. This is the first study to document the dinoflagellate cyst eutrophication signal at such a large geographic scale in estuaries, thus confirming their value as indicators of water quality change and anthropogenic impact. Estuarine and coastal waters are important resources for US and Canadian citizens. This paper summarizes the use of biological indicators that provide information on the eutrophication status and impacts for estuaries along the NW Atlantic coast. These relatively new biological indicators, dinoflagellate cysts, have the potential to provide environmental managers information on recent and historical environmental conditions in estuaries. Together with information on drivers and pressures, dinoflagellate cysts can be used to develop driver-pressure-state-imp

  17. Spring bloom dinoflagellate cyst dynamics in three eastern sub-basins of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sildever, Sirje; Kremp, Anke; Enke, Annely; Buschmann, Fred; Maljutenko, Ilja; Lips, Inga

    2017-04-01

    Dinoflagellate cyst abundance and species composition were investigated before, during and after the spring bloom in the Gulf of Finland, north-eastern Baltic Proper and Gulf of Riga in order to detect spatial and temporal dynamics. Transport of newly formed cysts by currents was modelled to explore the possible distance travelled by cysts before sedimentation. The cyst community of the spring bloom dinoflagellates was dominated by the cysts of Biecheleria baltica in all basins, despite its marginal value in the planktonic spring bloom community in the Gulf of Riga. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance in the surface sediments displayed temporal dynamics in all basins, however, this appeared to be also influenced by physical processes. The model simulation showed that newly formed cysts are transported around 10-30 km from the point of origin before deposited. The latter suggests that transport of resting stages in the water column significantly affects spatial cyst distribution in the sediments and thus needs to be considered in the interpretation of temporal biological productivity patterns of a water body from cyst proxies.

  18. The distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in marine surface samples of the eastern Indian Ocean in relation to environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, I.; Young, M.; Mohtadi, M.; Lückge, A.; Behling, H.

    2012-04-01

    The eastern Indian Ocean is characterised by a complex system of surface currents that move according to the monsoon-dominated wind regime and show a strong seasonality. The Indonesian Throughflow, which originates in the northwestern and tropical Pacific and passes through the Indonesian archipelago into the Indian Ocean, is the only low-latitude oceanic connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans and represents a key element in the global thermohaline circulation and hence the global climate system. In recent decades it has become increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanographic processes involved in climate variations. Assemblages of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) from marine surface samples provide insights into the relationship between the spatial distribution of dinocysts and modern local environmental conditions (e.g. sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, productivity). These information are of great value for the interpretation of past variations in surface water conditions. We present an extensive data-set of marine surface samples (n=116) from the Eastern Indian Ocean. The conducted Principal Component Analysis (PCA) illustrates the variation of species association between the sites and reveals a geographical affinity of the samples to the regions of (1) Western Indonesia, (2) Java, (3) the Indonesian Throughflow and (4) Western Australia including the Timor Sea. The results of the PCA further indicate the existence of two environmental gradients in the study area, a nutrient gradient increasing from Western Indonesia towards the Indonesian Throughflow region and a temperature gradient increasing from Western Australia towards Western Indonesia. The Redundancy Analysis indicates the presence of three dominating taxa in the sample set, namely Spiniferites spp., Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp., and reveals significant correlations of the three dominant taxa to specific environmental

  19. Eutrophication signals in the sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Barrie

    2009-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the current status of eutrophication signals from the sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts in coastal waters, particularly of NW Europe. There is a dearth of the multi-decadal time series data from plankton needed to document eutrophication, and the cysts may provide an alternative source of information. Two different eutrophication signals have been described so far from cyst records: 1) from the Oslofjord, comprising a marked increase in total cyst concentrations (interpreted as probably reflecting increased phytoplankton productivity), with Lingulodinium polyedrum cysts accounting for most of the increase (interpreted as a species particularly benefiting from added nutrients from cultural eutrophication in late summer when nutrients otherwise may be limiting); and 2) the heterotroph signal, from several other Norwegian fjords and Tokyo Bay, Japan, involving both cases of increased cyst concentrations and others with no particular increase, but with a marked proportional increase in cysts of heterotrophic species (interpreted as reflecting increased diatoms and possibly other prey for the heterotrophic dinoflagellates and/or more unfavourable conditions for autotrophs, e.g. from shading). These signals should be used critically, and there is a particular need to distinguish between eutrophication signals and climate signals that may be co-occurring at a given time. Work by various authors has generally supported the concept of these cyst-based signals since they were first published, including both further records from cored sediments from other parts of the world and studies relating cyst distributions in surface sediments to gradients of pollution and nutrients from sewage discharge. Recent, unpublished work by Dale and Sætre, linked cyst signals in cored sediments to the timing of collapse of local fisheries at different times within the past fifty years in four fjord systems along the Norwegian Skagerrak coast

  20. The intricacies of dinoflagellate pellicle cysts: The example of Alexandrium minutum cysts from a bloom-recurrent area (Bay of Baiona, NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Isabel; Isabel Figueroa, Rosa; Garcés, Esther; Fraga, Santiago; Massanet, Ana

    2010-02-01

    The terms "temporary", "pellicle", and "ecdysal" cyst have been employed arbitrarily in the literature of the dinoflagellate life cycle to describe a non-motile and single-layered-wall stage with no mandatory dormancy period, of asexual or sexual origin. These three terms have been used more or less synonymously, but more specific definitions, taking into account morphological and physiological aspects and their roles in dinoflagellate population dynamics, are still needed. To clarify the current terminology, we examine and discuss the usages and foundations of those terms. The background for this discussion is provided by a comparison of the morphology and germination times of three different types of Alexandrium minutum cysts collected during a seasonal bloom in the Bay of Baiona (NW Spain). The double-walled cysts were similar to the resting cysts reported for this species, but other, thin-walled and thecate cysts were also observed. These latter cyst types needed between 1 and 17 days to germinate and were therefore considered as short-term cysts, in contrast to the 1.5-month dormancy period of resting (hypnozygotic) cysts. Our results showed that the temporal distribution of these short-term cysts during the bloom period followed a pattern very similar to that of vegetative cells. However, resting cysts were only detected at the end of the bloom. In the context of our present knowledge regarding the dormancy and quiescence of dinoflagellate cysts, "temporary" is a very misleading and uncertain term and must be rejected. The term "ecdysal" has been used in reference to thin-walled cysts when ecdysis has been proven; however, ecdysis is not unique to this type of cysts as thick-walled zygotic cysts can be formed thorough ecdysis of a thecate planozygote. In conclusion, based on our current understanding of cysts, the term "pellicle" more appropriately describes single-layered-wall stages.

  1. Effect of nutrient pollution on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages across estuaries of the NW Atlantic

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed surface sediments from 23 northeast USA estuaries, from Maine to Delaware, and nine estuaries from Prince Edward Island (PEI, Canada), to determine how dinoflagellate cyst assemblages varied with nutrient loading. Overall the abundance of cysts of heterotrophic dinofl...

  2. Dinoflagellate Cyst Contribution to Settling Organic Matter in the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringue, M.; Thunell, R.; Pospelova, V.; Tappa, E.; Johannessen, S.; Macdonald, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    The coastal ocean hosts much of the global primary production, with an estimated 40% of carbon sequestration occurring along continental margins alone. This study characterizes the variability in organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst fluxes and assemblage composition during sedimentation through the water column, in the context of bulk organic and inorganic particulate matter export, in three different coastal settings: the Cariaco Basin (off Venezuela), the Santa Barbara Basin (Southern California) and the Strait of Georgia (western Canada). At each site, moorings of 2-5 sediment traps positioned at different depths collected settling particles over intervals of 7-14 days. The contribution of dinoflagellate cysts to particulate matter fluxes, and their fate as they are being exported to the seafloor, is investigated by comparing cyst fluxes and assemblages in samples collected simultaneously from discrete depths at each location. Preliminary results from the 1,400 m deep Cariaco Basin sediment trap time series indicate that dinoflagellate cyst fluxes during the upwelling season are high (average of 117,000 cyst m-2 day-1 in January-February 2006) and highly consistent between depths. The only notable exception is the record from the shallowest trap (Trap Z, 150 m bsl) which shows marked variations in cyst fluxes (from 7,700 to 240,000 cyst m-2 day-1) that are not reflected in the other four trap records. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from each interval along the five traps are statistically identical, indicating that cysts produced in the upper water column are rapidly transported to the seafloor, and that no selective degradation/preservation has altered the cyst assemblages within the water column. Excluding the Trap Z record, the ratio of dinoflagellate cyst to organic carbon fluxes shows an 35% increase from the top to bottom traps, suggesting a dinoflagellate cyst "enrichment" relative to other organic particles in settling material.

  3. Differences in the chemical composition of organic-walled dinoflagellate resting cysts from phototrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Bogus, Kara; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Lauwaert, Johan; Harding, Ian C; Vrielinck, Henk; Zonneveld, Karin A F; Versteegh, Gerard J M

    2014-04-01

    Dinoflagellates constitute a large proportion of the planktonic biomass from marine to freshwater environments. Some species produce a preservable organic-walled resting cyst (dinocyst) during the sexual phase of their life cycle that is an important link between the organisms, the environment in which their parent motile theca grew, and the sedimentary record. Despite their abundance and widespread usage as proxy indicators for environmental conditions, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the dinocyst wall chemical composition. It is likely that numerous factors, including phylogeny and life strategy, determine the cyst wall chemistry. However, the extent to which this composition varies based on inherent (phylogenetic) or variable (ecological) factors has not been studied. To address this, we used micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyze nine cyst species produced by either phototrophic or heterotrophic dinoflagellates from the extant orders Gonyaulacales, Gymnodiniales, and Peridiniales. Based on the presence of characteristic functional groups, two significantly different cyst wall compositions are observed that correspond to the dinoflagellate's nutritional strategy. The dinocyst wall compositions analyzed appeared carbohydrate-based, but the cyst wall produced by phototrophic dinoflagellates suggested a cellulose-like glucan, while heterotrophic forms produced a nitrogen-rich glycan. This constitutes the first empirical evidence nutritional strategy is related to different dinocyst wall chemistries. Our results indicated phylogeny was less important for predicting composition than the nutritional strategy of the dinoflagellate, suggesting potential for cyst wall chemistry to infer past nutritional strategies of extinct taxa preserved in the sedimentary record. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  4. An improved method for the molecular identification of single dinoflagellate cysts.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yangchun; Fang, Hongda; Dong, Yanhong; Li, Haitao; Pu, Chuanliang; Zhan, Aibin

    2017-01-01

    Dinoflagellate cysts (i.e., dinocysts) are biologically and ecologically important as they can help dinoflagellate species survive harsh environments, facilitate their dispersal and serve as seeds for harmful algal blooms. In addition, dinocysts derived from some species can produce more toxins than vegetative forms, largely affecting species through their food webs and even human health. Consequently, accurate identification of dinocysts represents the first crucial step in many ecological studies. As dinocysts have limited or even no available taxonomic keys, molecular methods have become the first priority for dinocyst identification. However, molecular identification of dinocysts, particularly when using single cells, poses technical challenges. The most serious is the low success rate of PCR, especially for heterotrophic species. In this study, we aim to improve the success rate of single dinocyst identification for the chosen dinocyst species (Gonyaulax spinifera, Polykrikos kofoidii, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Pyrophacus steinii, Protoperidinium leonis and Protoperidinium oblongum) distributed in the South China Sea. We worked on two major technical issues: cleaning possible PCR inhibitors attached on the cyst surface and designing new dinoflagellate-specific PCR primers to improve the success of PCR amplification. For the cleaning of single dinocysts separated from marine sediments, we used ultrasonic wave-based cleaning and optimized cleaning parameters. Our results showed that the optimized ultrasonic wave-based cleaning method largely improved the identification success rate and accuracy of both molecular and morphological identifications. For the molecular identification with the newly designed dinoflagellate-specific primers (18S634F-18S634R), the success ratio was as high as 86.7% for single dinocysts across multiple taxa when using the optimized ultrasonic wave-based cleaning method, and much higher than that (16.7%) based on traditional micropipette

  5. Lower Cretaceous dinoflagellate cyst and acritarch stratigraphy of the Cismon APTICORE (Southern Alps, Italy).

    PubMed

    Torricelli

    2000-02-01

    A pelagic sedimentary succession, virtually complete from the Upper Hauterivian to the Upper Aptian and unconformably overlain by the Middle-Upper Albian p.p., was continuously cored in the Belluno Basin (southern Alps, NE Italy) as part of the APTICORE Program. APTICORE at Cismon Valley penetrated 131.8m of limestones, marls and black shales, with 100% recovery of good quality cored material.One hundred and forty-six samples recovered from the marl and shale beds of the Cismon core were processed and analyzed for palynomorphs. Most of them yielded relatively rich and fairly well preserved assemblages of marine and terrestrially-derived palynomorphs.The results of a qualitative study of dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs are presented and discussed. The distributions of 150 taxa are tabulated against the chronostratigraphy independently established on the basis of original litho-, bio-, chemo-, magnetostratigraphic investigations and of correlations with extensively studied sections outcropping in the vicinity of the Cismon drill site.The acritarch Pinocchiodinium erbae gen. et sp. nov. is described. Due to its distinctive morphology and extremely constant occurrence also in the black shales of the Selli Level, it is proposed as a marker species for the Aptian sediments of the Tethys.The dinoflagellate cysts Kallosphaeridium dolomiticum sp. nov. and Nexosispinum hesperus brevispinosum subsp. nov. are described from the Upper Hauterivian. Additional taxonomic remarks are made about other dinoflagellate cyst species, including the emendations of Tanyosphaeridium magneticum Davies 1983 and Bourkidinium granulatum Morgan 1975.The biostratigraphic value of selected taxa is discussed and compared with data known both from the Tethyan and Boreal realms. In particular, the extinction of Bourkidinium granulatum emend. is proposed as the best dinoflagellate cyst event for the delimitation of the Hauterivian-Barremian boundary in the Northern Hemisphere. The first appearance

  6. A dinoflagellate cyst record of Holocene climate and hydrological changes along the southeastern Swedish Baltic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shi-Yong; Berglund, Björn E.

    2007-03-01

    A high-resolution, well-dated dinoflagellate cyst record from a lagoon of the southeastern Swedish Baltic Sea reveals climate and hydrological changes during the Holocene. Marine dinoflagellate cysts occurred initially at about 8600 cal yr BP, indicating the onset of the Littorina transgression in the southeastern Swedish lowland associated with global sea level rise, and thus the opening of the Danish straits. Both the species diversity and the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts continued to increase by 7000 cal yr BP and then decreased progressively. This pattern reveals the first-order change in local sea level as a function of ice-volume-equivalent sea level rise versus isostatic land uplift. Superimposed upon this local sea level trend, well-defined fluctuations of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts occurred on quasi-1000- and 500-yr frequency bands particularly between 7500 and 4000 cal yr BP, when the connection between the Baltic basin and the North Atlantic was broader. A close correlation of the total accumulation rates of dinoflagellate cysts with GISP2 ice core sea-salt ions suggests that fluctuations of Baltic surface conditions during the middle Holocene might have been regulated by quasi-periodic variations of the prevailing southwesterly winds, most likely through a system similar to the dipole oscillation of the modern North Atlantic atmosphere.

  7. Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of biofacies: Molecular evidence linking cyst-forming dinoflagellates with pre-Triassic ancestors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldowan, J. Michael; Dahl, Jeremy; Jacobson, Stephen R.; Huizinga, Bradley J.; Fago, Frederick J.; Shetty, Rupa; Watt, David S.; Peters, Kenneth E.

    1996-02-01

    New data from numerous detailed mass-spectrometric studies have detected triaromatic dinosteroids in Precambrian to Cenozoic rock samples. Triaromatic dinosteroids are organic geochemicals derived from dinosterols, compounds known in modern organisms to be the nearly exclusive widely occurring products of dinoflagellates. We observed the ubiquitous occurrence of these dinosteroids in 49 Late Triassic through Cretaceous marine source rocks and the absence of them in 13 Permian-Carboniferous source rocks synergistic with the dinoflagellate cyst record. However, finding dinosteroids in lower Paleozoic and Precambrian strata presents challenging results for molecular paleontologists, evolutionary biologists, palynologists, and especially for those concerned with the food web at various times of biological crisis. Other than the few species known as parasites and symbionts, many other dinoflagellate species are important as primary producers. The presence of Precambrian to Devonian triaromatic dinosteroids gives chemostratigraphic evidence of dinoflagellates (or other organisms with similar chemosynthetic capabilities) in rocks significantly older than the oldest undisputed dinoflagellate fossils (dinoflagellate cysts from the Middle Triassic, ˜ 240 Ma), and older than the putative Silurian ˜ 420 Ma) dinocyst,Arpylorus antiquus (Calandra) Sargent, from Tunisia. This systematic chemostratigraphic approach can shed light not only on lineages of dinoflagellates and their precursors, but potentially on many other lineages, especially bacteria, algae, plants, and possibly some metazoans.

  8. An improved method for the molecular identification of single dinoflagellate cysts

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanhong; Li, Haitao; Pu, Chuanliang

    2017-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellate cysts (i.e., dinocysts) are biologically and ecologically important as they can help dinoflagellate species survive harsh environments, facilitate their dispersal and serve as seeds for harmful algal blooms. In addition, dinocysts derived from some species can produce more toxins than vegetative forms, largely affecting species through their food webs and even human health. Consequently, accurate identification of dinocysts represents the first crucial step in many ecological studies. As dinocysts have limited or even no available taxonomic keys, molecular methods have become the first priority for dinocyst identification. However, molecular identification of dinocysts, particularly when using single cells, poses technical challenges. The most serious is the low success rate of PCR, especially for heterotrophic species. Methods In this study, we aim to improve the success rate of single dinocyst identification for the chosen dinocyst species (Gonyaulax spinifera, Polykrikos kofoidii, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Pyrophacus steinii, Protoperidinium leonis and Protoperidinium oblongum) distributed in the South China Sea. We worked on two major technical issues: cleaning possible PCR inhibitors attached on the cyst surface and designing new dinoflagellate-specific PCR primers to improve the success of PCR amplification. Results For the cleaning of single dinocysts separated from marine sediments, we used ultrasonic wave-based cleaning and optimized cleaning parameters. Our results showed that the optimized ultrasonic wave-based cleaning method largely improved the identification success rate and accuracy of both molecular and morphological identifications. For the molecular identification with the newly designed dinoflagellate-specific primers (18S634F-18S634R), the success ratio was as high as 86.7% for single dinocysts across multiple taxa when using the optimized ultrasonic wave-based cleaning method, and much higher than that (16.7%) based on

  9. Molecular approaches to the investigation of viable dinoflagellate cysts in natural sediments from estuarine environments.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Kathryn J; Craig Cary, S

    2005-01-01

    Molecular methods offer an efficient alternative to microscopic identification of dinoflagellate cysts in natural sediments. Unfortunately, amplification of DNA also detects the presence of dead cells and is not a reliable indication of cyst viability. Because mRNA transcripts are more labile than DNA, the presence of specific transcripts may be used as a proxy for cyst viability. Here, we evaluate mRNA detection capabilities for identification of viable cysts of the dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida, in natural sediment samples. We targeted transcripts for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, cytochrome b (COB), and Tags 343 and 277, recently identified by serial analysis of gene expression. Expression was confirmed in laboratory cultures and compared with natural sediment samples. Three of the transcripts were detected in sediments by RT-PCR. The fourth transcript, for COB, was not detected in sediments, perhaps because of down-regulation of the gene in anoxic conditions. Our results suggest that methods targeting specific mRNA transcripts may be useful for detection of viable cysts in natural sediment samples. In addition, dinoflagellate cysts, which sustain extended periods of anoxia, may provide an important source of data for studies of anoxia tolerance by microbial eukaryotes.

  10. Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Stüken, Anke; Murray, Shauna A.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous species of marine dinoflagellates synthesize the potent environmental neurotoxic alkaloid, saxitoxin, the agent of the human illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning. In addition, certain freshwater species of cyanobacteria also synthesize the same toxic compound, with the biosynthetic pathway and genes responsible being recently reported. Three theories have been postulated to explain the origin of saxitoxin in dinoflagellates: The production of saxitoxin by co-cultured bacteria rather than the dinoflagellates themselves, convergent evolution within both dinoflagellates and bacteria and horizontal gene transfer between dinoflagellates and bacteria. The discovery of cyanobacterial saxitoxin homologs in dinoflagellates has enabled us for the first time to evaluate these theories. Here, we review the distribution of saxitoxin within the dinoflagellates and our knowledge of its genetic basis to determine the likely evolutionary origins of this potent neurotoxin. PMID:23966031

  11. Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record of climate and marine primary productivity change in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelova, Vera; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Hendy, Ingrid, L.; Pedersen, Thomas F.

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts and other marine palynomorphs from the Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A) demonstrate large variability of primary productivity during the Holocene, as the California Current System responded to climate change. Throughout the sequence, dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are characterized by the dominance of cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and particularly by Brigantedinium, accompanied by other upwelling-related taxa such as Echinidinium and cysts of Protoperidinium americanum. During the early Holocene (~12-7 ka), the species richness is relatively low (16 taxa) and genius Brigantedinium reaches the highest relative abundance, thus indicating nutrient-rich and highly productive waters. The middle Holocene (~7-3.5 ka) is characterized by relatively constant cyst concentrations, and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are indicative of a slight decrease in sea-surface temperature. A noticeable increase and greater range of fluctuations in the cyst concentrations during the late Holocene (~3.5-1 ka) indicate enhanced marine primary productivity and increased climatic variability, most likely related to the intensification of El Niño-like conditions. Keywords: dinoflagellate cysts, Holocene, North Pacific, climate, primary productivity.

  12. Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of palaeoenvironmental and sea-level change: the Late Cenomanian - Early Coniacian (Cretaceous) of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olde, Kate; Jarvis, Ian; Pearce, Martin; Tocher, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous represented a period of greenhouse climate of Earth history, and was characterised by high temperatures, high atmospheric CO2 and high eustatic sea level, with large areas of shallow, warm, epicontinental sea. Understanding the dynamics of the Late Cretaceous climate is important for understanding the Earth System and the impact of modern climate change. The productive Late Cretaceous oceans led to the deposition of a large portion of the world's oil and gas resources, so reconstruction of depositional environments and refinement of stratigraphic correlation are important for the petroleum industry. Dinoflagellates were a prolific and diverse group within the phyto- and zooplankton throughout Late Cretaceous oceans, and their cysts display good preservation across different facies, and so are a good group for biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental study. Selected results from a high-resolution quantitative study of the palynology from 5 European Upper Cenomanian to the Lower Coniacian (Upper Cretaceous) sections are summarised, along with their carbon stable-isotope chemostratigraphy. The sections are from a range of palaeolatitudes and basins, including the North Sea Basin, the Anglo-Paris Basin, the Bohemian Basin, the Polish Trough and the Vocontian Basin. Palynological assemblages differ between sections in the concentration of palynomorphs, proportions of terrestrial and marine palynomorphs, and in the diversity and varying proportions of species of dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). Dinocyst distribution is considered to have been controlled largely by nutrient levels, but was also impacted by temperature, sea level, and water mass changes. Influxes of certain species are related to changes in salinity, changes in temperature, and water mass change, and increased communication between basins. High dinocyst abundance, and particularly a high proportion of peridinioid cysts (which are thought to be derived from eutrophy

  13. Alexandrium minutum resting cyst distribution dynamics in a confined site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglès, Sílvia; Jordi, Antoni; Garcés, Esther; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Palanques, Albert

    2010-02-01

    The life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum consists of an asexual stage, characterized by motile vegetative cells, and a sexual stage, a resting cyst that once formed remains dormant in the sediment. Insight into the factors that determine the distribution and abundance of resting cysts is essential to understanding the dynamics of the vegetative phase. In investigations carried out between January 2005 and January 2008 in Arenys de Mar harbor (northwestern Mediterranean Sea), the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of A. minutum resting cysts and of the sediments were studied during different bloom stages of the vegetative population. Maximum cyst abundance was recorded mainly in the innermost part of the harbor while the lowest abundance always occurred near the harbor entrance, consistent with the distribution of silt-clay sediment fractions. The tendency of cysts in sediments to increase after bloom periods was clearly associated with new cyst formation, while cyst abundance decreased during non-bloom periods. Exceptions to this trend were observed in stations dominated by the deposition of coarse sediments. High correlation between the presence of cysts and clays during non-bloom periods indicates that cysts behave as passive sediment particles and are influenced by the same hydrodynamic processes as clays. In Arenys de Mar, the main physical forcing affecting sediment resuspension is the seiche, which was studied using in situ measurements and numerical models to interpret the observed distribution patterns. During non-bloom periods, cyst losses were smaller when the seiche was more active and at the station where the seiche-induced current was larger. Thus, seiche-forced resuspension appears to reduce cyst losses by reallocating cysts back to the sediment surface such that their burial in the sediment is avoided. The observed vertical profiles of the cysts were consistent with this process.

  14. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy.

    PubMed

    Harland, Rex; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Morley, Audrey; Morris, Angela; Harris, Anthony; Howe, John A

    2016-05-01

    The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC), and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP), Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP), and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP) indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka), given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records) group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial.

  15. Impacts of metal contamination and eutrophication on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages along the Guangdong coast of southern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Zhaohui; Guo, Xin; Gu, Yangguang; Liang, Weibiao; Liu, Lei

    2017-07-15

    Fifty-one surface sediment samples were collected from eleven sea areas along the Guangdong coast in southern China. Biogenic elements, metals and dinoflagellate cysts were analyzed. Twenty-one cyst taxa in 12 genera were identified. The cyst concentrations ranged between 14 and 250 cysts/g, with an average of 69 cysts/g. The low cyst production was caused by coarse sediments, high sedimentation rates, and high anthropogenic disturbances. Biogenic elements were comparable with those reported. However, the metal concentrations were far lower than the sediment quality guidelines. Both biogenic elements and metals were higher in the Mid Coast and lower in the Western Coast. Eutrophication slightly enhanced the productivity of autotrophic dinocysts, and cysts of Scrippsiella indicated eutrophication. Cd had inhibitory effects on cyst production. Alexandrium and Diplopsalis cysts were sensitive to metal contamination; however, Gyrodinium, Pheopolykrikos, and Lingulodinium cysts had high resistance to metal contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Role of resting cysts in Chilean Alexandrium catenella dinoflagellate blooms revisited.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Jorge I; Bolch, Chris; Guzmán, Leonardo; Paredes, Javier; Varela, Daniel; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2016-05-01

    The detection of sparse Alexandrium catenella-resting cysts in sediments of southern Chilean fjords has cast doubts on their importance in the recurrence of massive toxic dinoflagellate blooms in the region. The role of resting cysts and the existence of different regional Chilean populations was studied by culturing and genetic approaches to define: (1) cyst production; (2) dormancy period; (3) excystment success; (4) offspring viability and (5) strain mating compatibility. This study newly revealed a short cyst dormancy (minimum 69 days), the role of key abiotic factors (in decreasing order salinity, irradiance, temperature and nutrients) controlling cyst germination (max. 60%) and germling growth rates (up to 0.36-0.52div.day(-1)). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) characterization showed significant differences in genetic distances (GD) among A. catenella populations that were primarily determined by the geographical origin of isolates and most likely driven by oceanographic dispersal barriers. A complex heterothallic mating system pointed to variable reproductive compatibility (RCs) among Chilean strains that was high among northern (Los Lagos/North Aysén) and southern populations (Magallanes), but limited among the genetically differentiated central (South Aysén) populations. Field cyst surveys after a massive 2009 bloom event revealed the existence of exceptional high cyst densities in particular areas of the fjords (max. 14.627cystscm(-3)), which contrast with low cyst concentrations (<221.3cystscm(-3)) detected by previous oceanographic campaigns. In conclusion, the present study suggests that A. catenella resting cysts play a more important role in the success of this species in Chilean fjords than previously thought. Results from in vitro experiments suggest that pelagic-benthic processes can maintain year-round low vegetative cell concentrations in the water column, but also can explain the detection of high cysts aggregations after the

  17. Marine dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of eutrophication and industrial pollution: a discussion.

    PubMed

    Dale, B

    2001-01-17

    The results from an investigation of dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of eutrophication in Tokyo Bay, Japan, by Matsuoka [Sci Total Environ 231 (1999) 17] are discussed with reference to other pertinent literature not discussed in the original article. Both the Japanese study and previous work from Norwegian fjords show that pollution (including cultural eutrophication) may produce changes in the phytoplankton reflected by a shift from more autotrophic--to more heterotrophic--dominance of cyst assemblages. However, this is a proportional change that seems likely to result from reduced autotrophic production rather than the increased heterotrophic production suggested by Matsuoka. This is not unequivocal evidence of eutrophication, since Tokyo Bay is impacted also by heavy industrial pollution, the possible effects of which cannot be distinguished, and the quantitative method used for estimating changes in cyst productivity is flawed.

  18. Environmental significance of dinoflagellate cysts from the proximal part of the Po-river discharge plume (off southern Italy, Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Chen, Liang; Möbius, Jürgen; Mahmoud, Magdy S.

    2009-11-01

    To determine the relationship between region specific dinoflagellate cyst distribution in the Po-river discharge area and oceanic environmental conditions, surface sediments of 48 sites in the middle and distal part of the discharge plume area have been studied. Establishing such a relationship is a prerequisite to create reconstructions of the eutrophication history as well as the palaeoclimatic and palaeoceanography history of the area. Literature based information about the sedimentation rates based on 210Pb dating methods are available for 18 sites. This enables the calculation of cyst accumulation rates of individual cyst species which reflect their cyst production. Correlation of the accumulation rates of individual species with environmental parameters of the upper waters allows us to adapt and refine the ecological characteristics of a selection of cyst species. This latter is trivial since the current concepts on the ecological significance of dinoflagellate cyst have to be revised as a result of the current developments in the dinoflagellate research field. These developments have elucidated that a considerable part of the relative abundance datasets that form the basis for the present day ecological concepts of dinoflagellate cysts might have suffered from so called "closed sum effects" and have been overprinted by early diagenetic processes. The dinoflagellate cyst association reflects both upper and bottom water circulation. Based on the relative abundance data four associations can be distinguished that are characteristic for the major oceanographic settings in the region. (1) River discharge association. This association consists of Echinidinium spp., Lejeunecysta sabrina, Lingulodinium machaerophorum, Polykrikos kofoidii, Polykrikos schwarzii, cysts of Protoperidinium stellatum, Selenopemphix quanta and reworked cysts. These species have high relative abundances in sites where bottom waters are low in oxygen and upper waters are influenced by river

  19. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito; Mudie, Petra J.; Marret, Fabienne; Aksu, Ali E.; Hiscott, Richard N.; Verleye, Thomas J.; Mousing, Erik A.; Smyrnova, Ludmila L.; Bagheri, Siamak; Mansor, Mashhor; Pospelova, Vera; Matsuoka, Kazumi

    2012-04-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply this calibration to make a regional reconstruction of paleosalinity in the Black Sea, calculated by averaging out process length variation observed at four core sites from the Black Sea with high sedimentation rates and dated by multiple mollusk shell ages. Results show a very gradual change of salinity from ˜14 ± 0.91 psu around 9.9 cal ka BP to a minimum ˜12.3 ± 0.91 psu around 8.5 cal ka BP, reaching current salinities of ˜17.1 ± 0.91 psu around 4.1 cal ka BP. The resolution of our sampling is about 250 years, and it fails to reveal a catastrophic salinization event at ˜9.14 cal ka BP advocated by other researchers. The dinoflagellate cyst salinity-proxy does not record large Holocene salinity fluctuations, and after early Holocene freshening, it shows correspondence to the regional sea-level curve of Brückner et al. (2010) derived from Balabanov (2007).

  20. DINOFLAGELLATE CYST RECORDS AND HUMAN DISTURBANCE IN TWO NEIGHBORING ESTUARIES, NEW BEDFORD HARBOR AND APPONAGANSETT BAY, MASSACHUSETTS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dinoflagellate cyst records in sediments from New Bedford Harbor and Apponagansett Bay demonstrate sensitivity to environmental change caused by human activity in the watersheds over the last 500 years. Changes in the species richness, as well as absolute and relative abundan...

  1. Dinoflagellate cyst production in Hudson Bay, the world's largest inland sea, based on monthly sediment trap data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Maija; Pospelova, Vera; Forest, Alexandre; Stern, Gary

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankters, microscopic primary producers of oceans are capable of responding rapidly to environmental fluctuations due to their high cell replication rates. Fast phytoplankton growth maybe balanced out by equally fast consumption by herbivorous grazers. In high-latitude marine systems, seasonal fluctuations in plankton biomass are essentially linked to light regime controlled by the waxing and waning sea-ice cover. In addition, nutrient limitation in surface waters, seasonal temperature fluctuations and changes in freshwater inputs may play important roles. In cold-water seas, many planktonic organisms cope with seasonal harshness by the production of benthic dormant stages. Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of single-celled plankton, constituting major marine primary producers, as well as herbivorous grazers of the microbial loop. Many dinoflagellate species produce highly resistant, organic-walled resting cysts that are archived in sediments and have been increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, e.g., sea-surface temperature and salinity, productivity, sea-ice cover and eutrophication. Marine sediment core sequences are characterized by slow accumulation rates and high mixing rates: the top centimeter of surface sediment from an arctic shelf may correspond to several years or decades of deposition. Consequently, sedimentary archives do not give direct information on long-term changes in seasonal bloom patterns or cues of annually recurring life-cycle events. We used two particle-intercepting sediment traps moored in eastern and western Hudson Bay, respectively, to study monthly fluctuations in dinoflagellate cyst production from October 2005 to September 2006. The traps were deployed close to the seafloor and recovered during the ArcticNet annual expeditions onboard the CCGS Amundsen in 2005 and the CCGS Pierre Radisson in 2006. We document the seasonal succession of dinoflagellate cyst taxa, together with cyst species composition

  2. Minor element and Ca isotope composition of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts of cultured Thoracosphaera heimii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gussone, Nikolaus; Zonneveld, Karin; Kuhnert, Henning

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the influences of temperature, salinity and pH on the calcium isotope as well as trace and minor element (uranium, strontium, magnesium) to Ca ratios on calcium carbonate cysts of the calcareous dinoflagellate species Thoracosphaera heimii grown in laboratory cultures. The natural habitat of this species is the photic zone (preferentially at the chlorophyll maximum depth) of temperate to tropical oceans, and it is abundant in deep-sea sediments over the entire Cenozoic. In our experiments, temperatures ranged from 12 to 30 °C, salinity from 36.5 to 38.8 and pH from 7.9 to 8.4. The δ44/40Ca of T. heimii cysts resembles that of other marine calcifiers, including coccolithophores, foraminifers and corals. However, its temperature sensitivity is considerably smaller and statistically insignificant, and T. heimii might serve as a recorder of changes in seawater δ44/40Ca over geologic time. The Sr/Ca ratios of T. heimii cysts show a pronounced temperature sensitivity (0.016 mmol/mol °C - 1 ) and have the potential to serve as a palaeo-sea surface temperature proxy. No clear temperature- and pH-dependences were observed for Mg/Ca. U/Ca seems to be influenced by temperature and pH, but the correlations change sign at 23 °C and pH 8.2, respectively.

  3. Dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous succession in the sub-Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radmacher, Wiesława; Tyszka, Jarosław; Mangerud, Gunn; Pearce, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The study provides a solid basis for the first palynostratigraphic zonation of the Upper Cretaceous sub-Arctic succession. Dinoflagellate cysts from the unique composite section, combining samples from the shallow stratigraphic core 6711/4-U-1 and core-samples from well 6707/10-1 in the Norwegian Sea, were studied and compared to palynological data from the south-western Barents Sea, wells 7119/12-1, 7119/9-1, 7120/7-3, 7120/5-1 and 7121/5-1. Dinoflagellate cysts diagnostic for late Maastrichtian that are missing in the Barents Sea are recorded in both sections in the Norwegian Sea. This adds new valuable data from the time interval often represented by a significant regional hiatus in the area. Seven new and three previously recognised zones are identified, based on top and base occurrence of selected age diagnostic taxa. In addition, one Abundance Subzone is introduced. The biostratigraphic zonation includes: the intra late Albian to intra early Cenomanian Subtilisphaera kalaalliti Interval Zone sensu Nøhr-Hansen (1993); the intra early Cenomanian to intra late Cenomanian Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides-Palaeohystrichophora palaeoinfusa Interval Zone sensu Radmacher et al. (2014); the intra Turonian to ?intra early Coniacian Heterosphaeridium difficile Interval Zone sensu Nøhr-Hansen (2012); the ?intra early Coniacian to late Santonian Dinopterygium alatum Interval Zone sensu Radmacher et al. (2014); the ?early Campanian Palaeoglenodinium cretaceum Interval Zone sensu Radmacher et al. (2014); the intra Campanian Hystrichosphaeridium dowlingii-Heterosphaeridium spp. Interval Zone sensu Radmacher et al. (2015); the intra late Campanian Chatangiella bondarenkoi Interval Zone sensu Radmacher et al. (2014) encompassing the Heterosphaeridium bellii Abundance Subzone; the early Maastrichtian Cerodinium diebelii Interval Zone sensu Nøhr-Hansen (1996) and the intra late Maastrichtian Wodehouseia spinata Range Zone sensu Nøhr-Hansen (1996). The Heterosphaeridium

  4. Palaeobiogeographic implications of Late Bajocian-Late Callovian (Middle Jurassic) dinoflagellate cysts from the Central Alborz Mountains, northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nejad, Ebrahim; Sabbaghiyan, Hossein; Mosaddegh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The Dalichai Formation with an age of Late Bajocian-Late Callovian was sampled in Central Alborz Mountains of northern Iran and studied for palynological, palaeobiogeographical and palynocorrelation purposes. Palynological studies revealed diverse and well-preserved dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and lead to identification of three zones i.e., Cribroperidiniumcrispum (Late Bajocian), Dichadogonyaulaxsellwoodii (Bathonian to Early Callovian) and Ctenidodiniumcontinuum (Early to Middle Callovian) Zones. Subzone a of the D. sellwoodii Zone (Early to Middle Bathonian) was also differentiated. This biozonation corresponds to those recognised in Northwest Europe. Furthermore, the ammonoid families recorded including Phylloceratidae, Oppeliidae, Reineckeiidae, Perisphinctidae, Haploceratidae, Parkinsoniidae and Sphaeroceratidae, which confirm the Late Bajocian to Late Callovian age, are quite similar to those of Northwest Europe and the northwestern Tethys. The close similarities of the dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and ammonite fauna of northern Iran with those of Northwest Europe and the northwestern Tethys during the Middle Jurassic indicate direct but episodic marine connection and faunal exchange between the two areas.

  5. Long-term selective degradation of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in a Maderia Abyssal Plain turbidite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Daniel D.; Versteegh, Gerard J. M.; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.

    2017-04-01

    Post-depositional sedimentary dinoflagellate cyst degradation is well documented under oxic conditions, a process characterised by the preferential loss of "S-cysts" at elevated ambient oxygen concentrations. Establishing a quantitative relationship between degradation rates and aerobic exposure would allow paleo-bottom oxygen water profiles to be reconstructed. Here we trace the long-term (centennial-millennial scale) degradation pattern of a dinocyst assemblage from the F-turbidite of core GeoB20305-7 retrieved at Maderia Abyssal Plain (MAP), with reference to a suite of inorganic and organic geochemical profiles. A downward-migrating oxidation front advances through the the upper part of the depositional unit, resulting in a near-total loss of the Peridiniales cyst fraction dominated by Brigantedinium spp. and Echinidinium spp. specimens. In contrast, Gonyaulacales species have subdued degradation responses resulting in the progressive reconstitution of the cyst assemblage away from its source signal. Assuming a diffusion-dominated migration of the oxidation front and a basic parameterisation of boundary conditions we estimate the oxygen exposure time (OET) of the oxidised section to be 5000 years. The resulting degradation profile is well-fitted by an exponential decay curve. Implications of these observations are discussed with regard to existing schemes for dinoflagellate based proxy interpretation in oxic environments.

  6. Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of millennial scale climatic and oceanographic variability in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) during the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Andrea M.; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Pospelova, *Vera; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Ganeshram, Raja S.

    2015-04-01

    A high-resolution record of organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst production in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) reveals a complex paleoceanographic history over the last ~40 ka. Guaymas Basin is an excellent location to perform high resolution studies of changes in Late Quaternary climate and paleo-productivity because it is characterized by high primary productivity, high sedimentation rates, and low oxygen bottom waters. These factors contribute to the deposition and preservation of laminated sediments throughout large portions of core MD02-2515. This is one of the first studies in the Northeast Pacific to document dinoflagellate cyst production at a centennial to millennial scale throughout the Late Quaternary. Based on the cyst assemblages three major dinoflagellate cyst zones were established, and roughly correspond to Marine Isotope Stages 1 to 3. The most dominant dinoflagellate cyst taxa found throughout the core were Brigantedinium spp. and Operculodinium centrocarpum. Dansgaard-Oeschger event 8 is observed in the dinoflagellate cyst record, and is characterized by an increase in warm water taxa such as Spiniferites pachydermus. Other intervals of interest are the Younger Dryas where cooler sea-surface conditions are not recorded, and the Holocene which is characterized by the consistent presence of warm water species Stelladinium reidii, Tuberculodinidum vancampoae, Bitectatodinium spongium and an increase in Quinquecuspis concreta. Changes in cyst assemblages, concentrations and species diversity, along with geochemical data reflect major orbital to millennial-scale climatic and oceanographic changes. Keywords: Dansgaard-Oeschger events; dinoflagellate cyst; Gulf of California; late Quaternary climate change; upwelling; Younger Dryas.

  7. Cyst-theca relationship of the arctic dinoflagellate cyst Islandinium minutum (Dinophyceae) and phylogenetic position based on SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Éric; Rochon, André; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-10-01

    Round brown spiny cysts constitute a morphological group common in high latitude dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The dinoflagellate cyst Islandinium minutum (Harland et Reid) Head, Harland et Matthiessen is the main paleoecological indicator of seasonal sea-ice cover in the Arctic. Despite the importance of this cyst in paleoceanographical studies, its biological affinity has so far been unknown. The biological affinity of the species I. minutum and its phylogenetic position based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) and the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) were established from cyst incubation experiments in controlled conditions, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and single-cell PCR. The thecal motile cell obtained was undescribed. Although the motile cell was similar to Archaeperidinium minutum (Kofoid) Jörgensen, the motile cell of I. minutum lacked a transitional plate in the cingular series, which is present in Archaeperidinium spp. Islandinium minutum and Archaeperidinium spp. were paraphyletic in all phylogenetic analyses. Furthermore, Protoperidinium tricingulatum, which also lacks a transitional plate, was closely related to I. minutum and transfered to the genus Islandinium. Based on available data, it is clear that Islandinium is distinct from Archaeperidinium. Therefore, we considered Islandinium Head, Harland et Matthiessen as a non-fossil genus and emend its description, as well as the species I. minutum. This is the first description of a cyst-theca relationship and the first study that reports molecular data based on SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA on a species assigned to the genus Islandinium. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates: Evaluating the potential for a CO2 proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoins, Mirja; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Eberlein, Tim; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn; Sluijs, Appy

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made regarding the quantification and mechanistic understanding of stable carbon isotope fractionation (13C fractionation) in photosynthetic unicellular organisms in response to changes in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). However, hardly any data is available for organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates while this is an ecologically important group with a unique fossil record. We performed dilute batch experiments with four harmful dinoflagellate species known for their ability to form organic cysts: Alexandrium tamarense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum. Cells were grown at a range of dissolved CO2 concentrations characterizing past, modern and projected future values (∼5-50 μmol L-1), representing atmospheric pCO2 of 180, 380, 800 and 1200 μatm. In all tested species, 13C fractionation depends on CO2 with a slope of up to 0.17‰ (μmol L)-1. Even more consistent correlations were found between 13C fractionation and the combined effects of particulate organic carbon quota (POC quota; pg C cell-1) and CO2. Carbon isotope fractionation as well as its response to CO2 is species-specific. These results may be interpreted as a first step towards a proxy for past pCO2 based on carbon isotope ratios of fossil organic dinoflagellate cysts. However, additional culture experiments focusing on environmental variables other than pCO2, physiological underpinning of the recorded response, testing for possible offsets in 13C values between cells and cysts, as well as field calibration studies are required to establish a reliable proxy.

  9. Early Paleogene dinoflagellate cysts from ODP Hole 959D, Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin, West Africa: New species, biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Walaa K.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, Francisca E.

    2016-11-01

    A nearly continuous sedimentary record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 (Hole 959D) in the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin provides the opportunity to study Lower Paleogene palynology in this equatorial region. This paper presents data for 117 dinoflagellate cyst taxa recorded in 18 samples covering a 91-m interval from 867.60 mbsf to 776.32 mbsf. Preservation of dinoflagellate cysts varied from poor to excellent, and recovery was almost superabundant. Based on last or first occurrence of dinoflagellate cyst events, five zones (zone 1 to zone 5) were identified. The concentration of several dinoflagellate cyst events in the Thanetian interval suggests the presence of hiatuses or condensed horizons as inferred in previous studies of nearby localities. Frequent to common abundance of Apectodinium in the upper Thanetian sediments apparently records the global episodes of intense climatic warming that characterized the latest Paleocene to earliest Eocene time. An assemblage dominated by species of Operculodinium, Spiniferites, and Tectatodinium confirms the outer neritic to oceanic depositional setting of the drill hole as previously inferred from lithologic characteristics. Finally, four new dinoflagellate cyst taxa, Adnatosphaeridium ivoriense, Diphyes digitum, Eocladopyxis furculum and Tectatodinium nigeriaense that were observed only in the Paleocene interval, have been formally identified and described in detail.

  10. Dinoflagellate cysts and benthic foraminifera in surface sediments from the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, L.; Rubino, F.; Frontalini, F.; Belmonte, M.; Di Leo, A.; Giandomenico, S.; Greco, M.; Lirer, F.; Spada, L.; Vallefuoco, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal areas have traditionally been places of human settlement, with the increasing development of cities, industries and other human-related activities possibly having an impact on the aquatic ecosystem. These impacts may take the form of pollution from industrial, domestic, agricultural or mining activities. For this reason, attention to marine environmental problems has recently increased and the search for new methodologies and techniques for the monitoring of coastal-marine areas become more and more active and accurate. In this context biological indicators result a useful tool to provide indication of environmental conditions including the presence or absence of contaminants; in fact biological monitoring is more directly related to the ecological health of an ecosystem than are chemical data. The increasing importance of bioindicators is also encouraged within the European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good ecological status in all European water bodies (i.e., rivers, lakes and coastal waters). Among the wide range of bioindicators, 5 biological elements are listed within the WFD: phytoplankton, macroalgae, angiosperms, benthic invertebrates and fishes. Benthic invertebrates as foraminifera represent a group of protozoa widely distributed in all brackish and marine environments which are used in studies assessing the environmental quality of areas subject to intense human activity. Moreover in coastal marine environments benthic and pelagic domain present several relationships, one of these is represented by the life cycles of phytoplankton species, as Dinoflagellates, which include the production of benthic stages (cysts). These dormant stages, which accumulate in confined marine muddy areas, such as ports, lagoons or estuaries, can reach high densities, similar to the seed banks of terrestrial plants. The cysts have a high preservation potential and can rest in/on the sediments for decades. Due to this peculiar

  11. Oceanic heterotrophic dinoflagellates: distribution, abundance, and role as microzooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis were to determine the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream system off Cape Hatteras and to assess the potential grazing impact of these microheterotrophs in plankton communities. A list of species encountered in this study and their trophic status based on epifluorescence is presented, as well as observations on the presence of external or internal symbionts. The abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates across the Gulf Stream region off Cape Hatteras was determined from bimonthly net tow samples over a year and from whole water samples in March. Their average abundance was twice that of net ciliates in the net plankton and ten times that of ciliates in the nanoplankton. An isotope technique was developed to measure grazing rates of individual dinoflaggellates and other microzooplankton which cannot be separated in natural populations on the basis of size. /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-bicarbonate were used to label natural heterotrophic (bacteria and bacterivores) and autotrophic (phytoplankton and herbivores) food, respectively. Estimates of the grazing impact of heterotrophic kinoflagellates relative to other groups of heterotrophs on phytoplankton and bacteria were made by combining abundance data and clearance rates. Such calculations suggested that heterotrophic dinoflagellates may be an important group of grazers in oceanic waters.

  12. The Impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Phytoplankton as Evidenced Through the Sedimentary Dinoflagellate Cyst Records in Prince William Sound (Alaska, USA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, M.; Pospelova, V.; Williams, J. R.; Dellapenna, T.; Mertens, K.; Kuehl, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Large volumes of crude oil are extracted from marine environments and transported via the sea, putting coastal communities at a greater risk of oils spills. It is therefore crucial for these communities to properly assess the risk. The first step is to understand the effects of such events on the environment, which is limited by the lack of research on the impact of oil spills on phytoplankton. This first-of-its-kind research aims to identify how one of the major groups of phytoplankton, dinoflagellates, have been affected by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. To do this, sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts, produced during dinoflagellate reproduction and preserved in the sediment, were analyzed. Two sediment cores were collected from PWS in 2012. The sediments are mainly composed of silt with a small fraction of clay. Both well-dated with 210Pb and 137Cs, the cores have high sedimentation rates, allowing for an annual to biannual resolution. Core 10 has a sedimentation rate of 1.1 cm yr-1 and provides continuous record since 1957, while Core 12 has a sedimentation rate of 1.3 cm yr-1 and spans from 1934. The cores were subsampled every centimeter for a total of 110 samples. Samples were treated using a standard palynological processing technique to extract dinoflagellate cysts and 300 cysts were counted per sample. In both cores, cysts were abundant, diverse and well preserved with the average cyst assemblage being characterized by an equal number of cysts produced by autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates. Of the 40 dinoflagellate cyst taxa, the most abundant are: Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp. Other common species are: Spiniferites ramosus, cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei, Echinidinium delicatum, E. zonneveldiae, E. transparantum, Islandinium minutum, and a thin pale brown Brigantedinium type. Changes in the sedimentary sequence of dinoflagellate cysts were analyzed by determining cyst

  13. Lutetian to Priabonian organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the northwestern Tethyan margin (Adelholzen Section, Eastern Alps, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Omar; Egger, Hans

    2015-04-01

    At the Adelholzen section (SE-Germany), a 13 m thick shallow marine Lutetian sequence (Adelholzen beds) comprising shallow benthic foraminifera Zones SBZ13 to SBZ15 (Briguglio in Gebhardt et al., 2013) is overlain by a 1 m thick brownish layer rich in glauconite and ferrigenous phosphate. This layer forms the top of the Adelholzen beds. It marks the onset of strong basin subsidence in the late Lutetian and is separated from the Priabonian by a stratigraphic gap comprising a major part of the Bartonian. The Priabonian marlstone (Stockletten) is 4 m thick at the Adelholzen section. It contains rich and high diverse planktonic foraminifera assemblages ("Globigerina marl") indicating bathyal conditions. Twenty eight samples from the Adelholzen beds and the Stockletten were processed for palynology at the Geological Survey of Austria following standard procedures. Palynological slides were examined for relative abundances of organic walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). One-hundred organic-walled dinocyst species were identified at the Adelholzen section. Stratigraphically important dinoflagellate cyst taxa for the assignment of the Adelholzen beds to the Lutetian are Wilsonidium echinosuturatum, Dracodinium waipawaense, Wetzeliella articulata, Areoligera coronata, Cordosphaeridium cantharellus, Hystrichokolpoma pusillum and Aireiana spp. Stratigraphically important dinoflagellate cyst taxa for the assignment of the Stockletten to the Priabonian are Diphyes ficusoides, Distatodinium ellipticum, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus, Rhombodinium longimanum, Rhombodinium perforatum, and Selenopemphix nephroides. Remarkable bioevents in the section are the abundant occurrences of Areoligera coronata and Cordosphaeridium gracile in the basal greensand. In the overlying marlstone and marly limestone Homotryblium tenuispinosum is the dominating species and the first specimens of Impagidinium dispertitum occur indicating open marine conditions.

  14. A magneto- and chemostratigraphically calibrated dinoflagellate cyst zonation of the early Palaeogene South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2013-09-01

    Investigation of the early Palaeogene palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological evolution of the Polar Regions is hindered by the absence of calcite microfossils in sedimentary archives, which are conventionally the main dating tool. To overcome this problem, we have generated large datasets of organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages from Southern Ocean shelf sediments over the past decade, and we here calibrate these to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) using magnetostratigraphy and stable isotope stratigraphy. This now for the first time allows a high-resolution Southern Pacific Ocean dinocyst zonation for the late Palaeocene to late Eocene (58-36 million years ago; Ma). We compile published dinocyst chronologies from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1171D on the South Tasman Rise, Hole 1172A/D on the East Tasman Plateau and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1356A on the Wilkes Land margin. Correlation to dinocyst zonations from New Zealand lead to revisions of the magnetostratigraphic age model at Holes 1171D and 1172A/D. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope records reveal the stratigraphic location of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (~ 56 Ma) and the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (~ 40 Ma), respectively. The resulting zonation consists of thirteen dinocyst zones, calibrated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) of Vandenberghe et al. (2012), which can likely be applied to the entire Southern Ocean. Finally, we apply the revised stratigraphy to all published TEX86 data, a biomarker-based proxy for sea surface temperature (SST), from ODP Site 1172 to assess long-term climate evolution. This shows that Southwest Pacific SST trends mimic the global compilation of benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes even better than previously appreciated.

  15. Cold-Induced Cysts of the Photosynthetic Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Have an Arrested Circadian Bioluminescence Rhythm and Lower Levels of Protein Phosphorylation1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sougata; Letourneau, Louis; Morse, David

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microscopic, eukaryotic, and primarily marine plankton. Temporary cyst formation is a well-known physiological response of dinoflagellate cells to environmental stresses. However, the molecular underpinnings of cold-induced cyst physiology have never been described. Cultures of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum readily form temporary cysts when placed at low (8°C ± 1°C) temperature and excyst to form normal motile cells following a return to normal temperature (18°C ± 1°C). The normal circadian bioluminescence rhythm and the expected changes in Luciferin Binding Protein abundance were arrested in L. polyedrum cysts. Furthermore, after excystment, the bioluminescence rhythm initiates at a time corresponding to zeitgeber 12, independent of the time when the cells encysted. Phosphoprotein staining after two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as well as column-based phosphoprotein enrichment followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, showed cyst proteins are hypophosphorylated when compared with those from motile cells, with the most marked decreases found for predicted Casein Kinase2 target sites. In contrast to the phosphoproteome, the cyst proteome is not markedly different from motile cells, as assessed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to changes in the phosphoproteome, RNA sequencing revealed that cysts show a significant decrease in the levels of 132 RNAs. Of the 42 RNAs that were identified by sequence analysis, 21 correspond to plastid-encoded gene products and 11 to nuclear-encoded cell wall/plasma membrane components. Our data are consistent with a model in which the highly reduced metabolism in cysts is achieved primarily by alterations in the phosphoproteome. The stalling of the circadian rhythm suggests temporary cysts may provide an interesting model to address the circadian system of dinoflagellates. PMID:24335505

  16. A new biostratigraphic correlation for Late Cretaceous-Paleocene strata of the Gulf of Guinea: Evidence from dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Pellicer, Raquel; Masure, Edwige; Villier, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    A new biostratigraphic correlation for Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene strata of the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana continental margin has been developed from the identification of significant dinoflagellate cyst events in ODP Hole 959D. The Late Cretaceous stage boundaries are mostly consistent with previous studies. However, the Maastrichtian/Danian boundary is placed much lower than previously recognized on the basis of the first occurrences of Carpatella cornuta and Damassadinium californicum. The base of the Selandian is recognized from the last occurrence of Cerodinium diebelii and the first occurrence of Adnatosphaeridium multispinosum. The base of the Thanetian is recognized from the first occurrence of Areoligera gippingensis. The rarity of the age-marker taxa is the main reason for different age determinations among studies of the same section.

  17. Global distribution of ciguatera causing dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus.

    PubMed

    Litaker, R Wayne; Vandersea, Mark W; Faust, Maria A; Kibler, Steven R; Nau, Amy W; Holland, William C; Chinain, Mireille; Holmes, Michael J; Tester, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    Dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that bioaccumulate in tropical and sub-tropical fishes causing ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Little is known about the diversity and distribution of Gambierdiscus species, the degree to which individual species vary in toxicity, and the role each plays in causing CFP. This paper presents the first global distribution of Gambierdiscus species. Phylogenetic analyses of the existing isolates indicate that five species are endemic to the Atlantic (including the Caribbean/West Indies and Gulf of Mexico), five are endemic to the tropical Pacific, and that two species, Gambierdiscus carpenteri and Gambierdiscus caribaeus are globally distributed. The differences in Gambierdiscus species composition in the Atlantic and Pacific correlated with structural differences in the ciguatoxins reported from Atlantic and Pacific fish. This correlation supports the hypothesis that Gambierdiscus species in each region produce different toxin suites. A literature survey indicated a >100-fold variation in toxicity among species compared with a 2 to 9-fold within species variation due to changing growth conditions. These observations suggest that CFP events are driven more by inherent differences in species toxicity than by environmental modulation. How variations in species toxicity may affect the development of an early warning system for CFP is discussed.

  18. First record of resting cysts of the benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum leve in a natural reservoir in Gujan-Mestras, Gironde, France.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Gu, Haifeng; Pospelova, Vera; Chomérat, Nicolas; Nézan, Elisabeth; Gurdebeke, Pieter Roger; Bogus, Kara; Vrielinck, Henk; Rumebe, Myriam; Meteigner, Claire

    2017-09-02

    The resting cysts of the benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum leve from a natural reservoir in Gujan-Mestras (Gironde, France) were described in this study. The incubated urn-shaped cysts gave rise to cells of Prorocentrum leve. Morphological observations through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, particularly of the periflagellar platelets, combined with large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences obtained through single-cell analysis confirm their affinity to the species Prorocentrum leve. The cysts are characterized by a specific shape and the presence of an anterior plug. This is the first conclusive evidence for fossilizable resting stages within the Prorocentrales, one of the major orders within the Dinophyceae. Palynological treatments show that the cysts and endospores withstand hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. MicroFTIR analysis on single specimens suggests that the composition of the endospore is cellulosic and the cyst wall a more robust, non-cellulosic β-glucan. The spectra overall are similar to other published spectra of resting cysts from autotrophic, planktonic dinoflagellates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The first record of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts from the Upper Cretaceous of the Volga River Region.

    PubMed

    Vishnevskaya, V S

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic position of the microproblematics previously considered to be Foraminifera or Calcisphaerulidae is established. The first record from Russia of calcareous cysts of Dinoflagellata is presented. The microfossils originate from the Maastrichtian siliceous clay of the Volga River Region.

  20. Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts from the Tithonian - Valanginian Vaca Muerta Formation in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Daria K.; Kietzmann, Diego A.

    2017-08-01

    The Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous marine sediments of the Andean region show an excellent record of different calcareous microfossils, among which calcareous dinoflagellate cysts stand out. Detailed micropaleontological studies of Vaca Muerta Formation (Early Tithonian - Early Valanginian) in the southern Mendoza Neuquén Basin from three sections are conducted with the aim of establishing a major presence of microfossil representatives from different microfossil groups. The analysis of several thin sections from the outcrops reveals a relatively rich micropaleontological assemblage of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts, as well as levels with poor preserved calpionellids and benthic foraminifera. Particularly, calcareous dinoflagellate cyst includes 24 known species (two of them with two subspecies). Some species with biostratigraphic value of the Tethyan region have been identified also in the Andean region: 1) Committosphaera pulla (Borza) and Parastomiosphaera malmica (Borza) are species known only from Lower Tithonian; 2) Colomisphaera tenuis (Nagy) appears in the latest Early Tithonian; 3) Colomisphaera fortis Řehánek and Stomiosphaerina proxima Řehánek are important markers for the latest Late Tithonian - middle Late Berriasian interval; 4) Stomiosphaera wanneri Borza appears in the middle Late Berriasian; 5) Colomisphaera conferta Řehánek and Colomisphaera vogleri (Borza) appear in the Late Berriasian and marked the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary interval; 6) Carpistomiosphaera valanginiana Borza is a marker for the Lower/Upper Valanginian. More detailed studies of these groups will allow their correlation with Tethyan biozones, and contribute to improve biostratigraphic schemes in the Neuquén Basin.

  1. A Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary geological site, revealed by planktic foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, at Ouled Haddou, eastern external Rif Chain, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimani, Hamid; Toufiq, Abdelkabir

    2013-12-01

    Planktic foraminifera and organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst investigations in the Ouled Haddou outcrop (eastern external Rif Belt) in northern Morocco, revealed a continuous sedimentation and a complete record of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) transition. Both planktic foraminifera and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages observed in the studied Maastrichtian-Danian boundary interval are diverse and well-preserved and contain numerous chronostratigraphically significant bio-events that have allowed a high resolution biostratigraphic analysis, based on the first and last occurrences of index species and also on the massive disappearance and abundance changes of different taxa. Planktic foraminifera allow correlation of the studied interval with the uppermost Maastrichtian Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone and the lower Danian Guembelitria cretacea, Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina, Parasubbotina pseudobulloides and Subbotina triloculinoides zones. A mass extinction of planktic foraminifera is observed at the end of the Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone. This mass extinction is followed by three renewal steps of planktic foraminifera in the basal Danian. The Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary is placed just above the mass extinction of Globotruncanids and Heterohelicids and below the first appearences of earliest Danian markers genera Globoconusa, and Parvularugoglobigerina. According to dinoflagellate cysts, the recognition of the latest Maastrichtian and earliest Danian is based on global bio-events, including the first occurrence of the latest Maastrichtian species Disphaerogena carposphaeropsis, Glaphyrocysta perforata, and Manumiella seelandica, the latest Maastrichtian acme of Manumiella seelandica, and the first occurrence of the earliest Danian markers Carpatella cornuta, Damassadinium californicum and Senoniasphaera inornata. The dinoflagellate Damassadinium californicum Zone characterizing the Danian in the Northern Hemisphere is recognized in this section. The

  2. Two unusual new dinoflagellate cyst genera from the Bunde Borehole, Maastrichtian type area, southern Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Brinkhuis; Klinkenberg; Williams; Fensome

    2000-06-01

    Maastrichtian and Danian deposits from the Bunde Borehole in the Maastrichtian type area contain the morphologically unusual dinoflagellate species Spumadinium felderorum gen. et sp. nov. and Lasagniella herngreenii gen. et sp. nov., both of which have archeopyles formed by the loss of several paraplates. In S. felderorum the paraplates forming the operculum or opercular pieces appear to be the third and fourth precingulars (3"-4") plus the first and second anterior intercalaries (1a-2a). This suggests that Spumadinium, although having a wall resembling some cribroperidinioids, is a cladopyxiinean. L. herngreenii is unique in having up to eight wall layers, separated and supported by buttresses. The archeopyle is also a combination type but formed by loss of one apical (3'), three anterior intercalary (1a-3a) and three precingular (3"-5") paraplates. Thus, Lasagniella is assignable to the Peridiniales. The distinctive morphology and restricted ranges of the two genera make them useful stratigraphic markers for the Upper Maastrichtian-Danian.

  3. Spatial distribution and viability of Alexandrium tamarense resting cysts in surface sediments from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, Stéphanie; Roy, Suzanne; Starr, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense Group 1 (as defined by Lilly et al., 2007) is responsible for recurrent outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Eastern Canada. In August 2008, a major bloom of A. tamarense developed in the SLE and caused major mortality of fish, seabirds and marine mammals notably in the vicinity of a marine park. Eleven months later, surface (0-5 cm) and deeper (5-10 cm) sediments were sampled to determine resting cysts concentrations, locate prospective cyst seedbeds and examine if these had changed following this major bloom. This information is thought to be important to understand inter-annual patterns in algal toxicity, cyst abundance being a good predictor of subsequent bloom magnitude in some regions. Surface cyst distribution was heterogeneous and it confirmed the location of the cyst seedbed previously reported on the north shore near the Manicouagan/aux-Outardes Rivers (>500 cysts cm-3). A zone of cyst accumulation was also observed on the south shore of the SLE (maximum of 1200 cysts cm-3), with higher concentrations relative to previous cyst mapping in the 1980s. A mismatch was observed between the zones with high surface cyst concentrations and those where the highest PSP toxins were detected (used as a proxy for vegetative cells in the water column). Cyst concentrations were negatively correlated with PSP levels from the same sites, suggesting that cysts were formed and deposited away from the major sites of toxicity. Deposition likely took place near the end of the bloom, once it had reached the eastern boundary of the SLE. PSP toxicity was worse near the peak of the bloom, which occurred westward of this region. This highlights the dynamic behaviour of local blooms, influenced by the estuarine and mesoscale circulation. Interestingly, the major bloom of August 2008 was not followed by particularly large cyst deposition or by any major bloom in 2009 in this region. Cyst viability

  4. Millennial-Scale Climate Variability for the Last Glacial Cycle along the Iberian Margin based on Dinoflagellate Cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datema, M.; Sangiorgi, F.; Reichart, G. J.; Lourens, L. J.; Sluijs, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Shackleton Site (IODP Expedition 339 Site U1385), located off the West-Portuguese Margin, preserves a continuous high-fidelity record of millennial-scale climate variability for the last several glacial cycles (~1.4 Myr) that can be correlated precisely to patterns observed in polar ice cores. In addition, rapid delivery of terrestrial material to the deep-sea environment allows the correlation of these marine records to European terrestrial climate records. This unique marine-ice-terrestrial linkage makes the Shackleton Site the ideal reference section for studying Quaternary abrupt climate change. The main objective of studying site U1385 is to establish a marine reference section of Pleistocene climate change. We generated millennial-scale dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage records from the Shackleton Site (IODP Expedition 339) to reconstruct upwelling, sea surface temperature (SST) and productivity across the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. We quantify the validity of dinocyst-based paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on multivariate statistics on dinocyst assemblages and multi-proxy data from regional core-tops and the last glacial cycle. This allows us to conclude that the strength of the West Iberian Margin upwelling system changed from relatively intense upwelling during the last glacial to upwelling relaxation during the Holocene as a result of reduced (strength of the) Portuguese trade winds. Secondly, SST, productivity/upwelling, strength of Portuguese trade winds and climate on the Iberian Peninsula co-vary on stadial-interstadial timescales and correspond to Greenland stadial-interstadial variability (δ18O). Finally, we will present a long-term paleoceanographic perspective down to ~120 ka.

  5. Dinoflagellate cysts and pollen from the Tjörnes / Breidavik section: a biostratigraphical and palaeoclimatological study of Plio-Pleistocene sediments from northern Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeven, Koen; Louwye, Stephen; Eiríksson, Jon

    2010-05-01

    On the Tjörnes peninsula in northern Iceland, a unique sequence of Plio-Pleistocene shallow marine, continental and glacial sediments is exposed in cliffs near the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. The lowest part of the sequence consists of the more than 500 m thick Tjörnes beds of Pliocene age. In the overlying Breidavik Group, marine interglacial sediments are present together with lava flows and glacial deposits. In this unit, cycles 3, 4, 5 and 7 of the 14 glacial/interglacial cycles were examined for palynomorphs. Sixty eight samples from the sedimentary succession of the Tjörnes beds and 20 samples from the overlying Breidavik Group were palynologicaly investigated for dinoflagellate cysts, pollen and spores. Despite the fact that half of the samples were barren or yielded a very low dinoflagellate cyst concentration (<25 cysts/g), the recovered assemblage holds valuable palaeoecological and biostratigraphical information. The dinoflagellate cyst assemblage from the Tjörnes section reflects a Pliocene flora. Typical Miocene species disappearing at the Miocene - Pliocene boundary (5.33 Ma) such as Selenopemphix armageddonensis are not observed. The combination of the Pliocene record and the lack of typical Miocene species sets a maximum age for the base of the Tjörnes Beds at 5.33 Ma. The nearly continuous occurrence of Batiacasphaera minuta (highest occurrence at 3.8 Ma) and Operculodinium tegillatum (HO at 3.7 Ma) in the upper part of the Tjörnes beds (the Serripes mollusc zone) gives a minimum age of about 3.7 Ma for the top of this zone. These results indicate that the sediments of the Tjörnes beds are older and were deposited faster than previously thought, based on a K/Ar dating of the overlying basalt flows (Albertsson, 1976). In the Serripes zone, the new species Selenopemphix islandicus was recorded. Observations of fragile heterotrophic cysts such as Barssidinium pliocenicum (HO at 2.66 Ma), Echinidinium euaxum (HO at 2.66 Ma), Selenopemphix

  6. Orthopithonella collaris sp. nov., a new calcareous dinoflagellate cyst from the K/T boundary (Fish Clay, Stevns Klint/Denmark).

    PubMed

    Wendler, J; Wendler, I; Willems, H

    2001-05-01

    A new calcareous dinoflagellate cyst species, Orthopithonella collaris sp. nov., is described from the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clay (Fish Clay) of Stevns Klint, Denmark, on the basis of SEM studies and light-microscopic analyses of thin sections of single specimens. The species has been found exclusively in the Fish Clay and as such may be a potential marker for the K/T boundary. Its pulse-like occurrence is thought to be due to the abrupt, relatively short-term ecological catastrophe associated with the K/T boundary event.

  7. Analysis of the hydrographic conditions and cyst beds in the San Jorge Gulf, Argentina, that favor dinoflagellate population development including toxigenic species and their toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krock, Bernd; Borel, C. Marcela; Barrera, Facundo; Tillmann, Urban; Fabro, Elena; Almandoz, Gastón O.; Ferrario, Martha; Garzón Cardona, John E.; Koch, Boris P.; Alonso, Cecilia; Lara, Rubén

    2015-08-01

    The overlay of cooler nutrient enriched Beagle-Magellan water with warmer nutrient depleted shelf water and a strong stratification of the water column in the San Jorge Gulf region, Argentina, coincided with relatively high dinoflagellate abundances in April 2012, up to 34,000 cells L- 1. This dinoflagellate proliferation was dominated by Ceratium spp., but environmental conditions also favored to a lesser amount the occurrence of toxigenic dinoflagellates, such as Alexandrium tamarense and Protoceratium reticulatum, whose toxins were hardly detected in any other areas along the expedition transect of the R/V Puerto Deseado between 38 and 56°S (Ushuaia-Mar del Plata) in March/April 2012. Generally vegetative cells of A. tamarense and P. reticulatum co-occurred with their respective phycotoxins in the water column and their cysts in the upper sediment layers. Two strains of A. tamarense were isolated from the bloom sample and morphologically characterized. Their PSP toxin profiles consisted of C1/2, gonyautoxins 1/4 and to a lesser amount of neosaxitoxin and confirmed earlier data from this region. The ratios between autotrophic picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were higher in shelf waters in the north than in Beagle-Magellan waters in the south of San Jorge Gulf.

  8. Warm mid-Cretaceous high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the southern Tethys Ocean and cool high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the Arctic Ocean: asymmetric worldwide distribution of dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masure, Edwige; Desmares, Delphine; Vrielynck, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Dealing with 87 articles and using a Geographical Information System, Masure and Vrielynck (2009) have mapped worldwide biogeography of 38 Late Albian dinoflagellate cysts and have demonstrated Cretaceous oceanic bioclimatic belts. For comparison 30 Aptian species derived from 49 studies (Masure et al., 2013) and 49 Cenomanian species recorded from 33 articles have been encountered. Tropical, Subtropical, Boreal, Austral, bipolar and cosmopolitan species have been identified and Cretaceous dinoflagellate biomes are introduced. Asymmetric distribution of Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian subtropical Tethyan species, from 40°N to 70°S, demonstrates asymmetric Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients with warm water masses in high latitudes of Southern Ocean. The SST gradients were stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. We note that Aptian and Late Albian/Cenomanian dinoflagellates restricted to subtropical and subpolar latitudes met and mixed at 35-40°N, while they mixed from 30°S to 70°S and from 50°S to 70°S respectively in the Southern Hemisphere. Mixing belts extend on 5° in the Northern Hemisphere and along 40° (Aptian) and 20° (Late Albian/Cenomanian) in the Southern one. The board southern mixing belt of Tethyan and Austral dinoflagellates suggest co-occurrence of warm and cold currents. We record climatic changes such as the Early Aptian cooler period and Late Aptian and Albian warming through the poleward migration of species constrained to cool water masses. These species sensitive to temperature migrated from 35°N to 55°N through the shallow Greenland-Norwergian Seaway connecting the Central Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. While Tethyan species did not migrate staying at 40°N. We suggest that the Greenland-Norwergian Seaway might has been a barrier until Late Albian/Cenomanian for oceanic Tethyan dinoflagellates stopped either by the shallow water column or temperature and salinity

  9. Study of DNA extraction methods for use in loop-mediated isothermal amplification detection of single resting cysts in the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and A. catenella.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Keigo; Hata, Naotugu; Itakura, Shigeru

    2012-09-01

    In a previous study, we experienced instable amplification and a low amplification success in loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reactions from naturally occurring vegetative cells or resting cysts of the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium catenella. In this study, we examined 4 methods for extracting DNA from single resting cysts of A. tamarense and A. catenella to obtain more stable and better amplification success and to facilitate unambiguous detection using the LAMP method. Apart from comparing the 4 different DNA extraction methods, namely, (1) boiling in Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer, (2) heating at 65 °C in hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide buffer, (3) boiling in 0.5% Chelex buffer, and (4) boiling in 5% Chelex buffer, we also examined the need for homogenization to crush the resting cysts before DNA extraction in each method. Homogenization of resting cysts was found to be essential for DNA extraction in all 4 methods. The detection time was significantly shorter in 5% Chelex buffer than in the other buffers and the amplification success was 100% (65/65), indicating the importance of DNA extraction and the effectiveness of 5% Chelex buffer in the Alexandrium LAMP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Taxonomy and palaeoecology of dinoflagellate cysts from Upper Oligocene freshwater sediments of Lake Enspel, Westerwald area, Germany.

    PubMed

    Köhler; Clausing

    2000-10-01

    Freshwater dinoflagellates play an important role as primary producers in the lacustrine environment. A new species of dinoflagellates, Cleistosphaeridium lacustre, is described from Upper Oligocene sediments of palaeo-lake Enspel. They are associated with other phytoplankton, such as diatoms, chrysophytes, green algae and benthic cyanobacteria. Mass occurrences of this species are interpreted as algal blooms and may partly reflect seasonal successions. This phenomenon was controlled by volcanic activities in the depositional area, which led to an increase in nutrient supply.

  11. Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... However, removal can be challenging because of its location. Dermoid and Epidermoid Cysts: Surgery is typically recommended. If complete removal is not possible, the remaining portion of the cyst may ... American ...

  12. The matter of preservation: A comparison of recent organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in sediment trap and core top sediments off Cape Blanc (NW Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüßbült, Annegret; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Pospelova, Vera

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades, organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) have become a valuable tool for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. It is known that the sedimentary record depends on several factors like initial cyst production and preservation. Therefore it is necessary to know, to what extent the assemblage in the sediment reflects the primary signal produced in the water column. In this study, we compare undisturbed core top sediments with sediment trap data covering the same time intervals. Both, core and trap, were retrieved at a similar location off Cape Blanc (NW Africa) where high productivity of organic material takes place due to costal upwelling. The samples of trap CBi analyzed for dinocysts were collected over 5 years (2003-2008) and compared to assemblages found in 2 mm interval sections of core GeoB 14103-7. 210Pb dating revealed an age of 2.5 years per core sample, leading to a comparison of the upper 6 mm with CBi 1-5. The dinocyst species composition in core and trap sediments is similar. Both assemblages are dominated by heterotrophic species. However, while the most common species in the trap, Brigantidinium spp., makes up over 50% of each sample, it is less abundant in the core where it forms only 13% of the assemblage. Core samples are dominated by Protoperidinium monospinum with an average of 28%. This species is underrepresented in CBi with 3% abundance. Over time the proportions of the individual species show minor variations both in core and trap samples. We therefore assume that the strong differences in association composition are due to post-depositional processes altering the assemblages in the sediments like degradation or bioturbation rather than to changes in initial cyst production or differences in source areas of trap and sediment core.

  13. Potential distribution of the invasive freshwater dinoflagellate Ceratium furcoides (Levander) Langhans (Dinophyta) in South America.

    PubMed

    Meichtry de Zaburlín, Norma; Vogler, Roberto E; Molina, María J; Llano, Víctor M

    2016-04-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Ceratium are predominantly found in marine environments, with a few species in inland waters. Over the last decades, the freshwater species Ceratium hirundinella and Ceratium furcoides have colonized and invaded several South American basins. The purpose of this study was to create a distribution model for the invasive dinoflagellate C. furcoides in South America in order to further investigate the basins at potential risk, as well as the environmental conditions that influence its expansion. This species is known to develop blooms due to its mobility, resistance to sedimentation, and optimized use of resources. Although nontoxic, blooms of the species cause many problems to both the natural ecosystems and water users. Potential distribution was predicted by using a maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt). Model was run with 101 occurrences obtained from the scientific literature, and climatic, hydrological and topographic variables. The developed model had a very good performance for the study area. The most susceptible areas identified were mainly concentrated in the basins between southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina. Besides already affected regions, new potentially suitable areas were identified in temperate regions of South America. The information generated here will be useful for authorities responsible for water and watershed management to monitor the spread of this species and address problems related to its establishment in new environments.

  14. Variability in surface water properties of the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean related to the Miocene Cooling Events, evidence from calcareous dinoflagellate cysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2009-04-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent major climatic shifts to colder global temperatures. These periods of cooling (Mi-Events) were characterized by oxygen isotopic shifts that have been related to size changes of the Antarctic and Arctic ice-sheets (e.g. Miller et al., 1991, St. John, 2008). The start and development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) during this time-interval is of major interest, as it changed the atmospheric and oceanic circulation pattern which led to the initiation of upwelling off the south western African coast (Paulsen et al., 2007). However, the complex interaction between the initiation and development of the upwelling in the western South Atlantic and its interaction with the evolution of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as well as the built-up of the Antarctic ice-sheet is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst associations. Within this study 53 samples were taken from sediment core ODP 175 1085A off the coast of Namibia and investigated by defining the calcareous dinoflagellate cyst assemblage. The general cooling trend during the middle- and upper Miocene is clearly reflected in the dinocyst record by the decrease of species adapted to warm water conditions (Calciodinellum albatrosianum and Thoracosphaera heimii) and the appearance and increase of Caracomia arctica after ~ 11.1 Ma. C. arctica is a cold water species which today is only present south of the polar front. The concentration of C. arctica varies with a cyclicity of about 200-400 kyrs which reflects an eccentricity signal. We assume that observed changes in association such as the appearance of C. arctica can either be related to the initiation of the upwelling activity in the region, which is suggested to occur at ~11.6 Ma (Paulsen & Bickert 2007), or might be the

  15. Prevalence, distribution, and differential diagnosis of nasopalatine duct cysts

    PubMed Central

    CECCHETTI, F.; OTTRIA, L.; BARTULI, F.; BRAMANTI, N. E.; ARCURI, C.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction. Nasopalatine duct cysts (NPDCs) are the most common developmental epithelial non-odontogenic cysts of the maxillae. Their origin, however, is still a source of considerable debate. Aims. The aim of this investigation is to describe and discuss the etiology, differential diagnosis, clinic-pathological characteristics as well as to report the relative frequency and distribution of nasopalatine duct cysts in population (NPDCs) with a literature’s review on the topic. Methods The retrospective study was carried out using 36 clinical cases, with histopatological confirmation for NPDC, radiographs and oral photographs. Data included age and gender of the patient, radiographic findings, etiological factors, treatment, and prognosis of NPDC. Few surgical consideration are discussed. Results The study results report a clear male predilection with a 3:1 ratio. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the size of the lesion and patient’s gender. Lesions were usually asymptomatic. All cysts were located in the anterior maxillary midline region. Panoramic X-rays and computed tomography was used to identify the lesion. Surgical treatment was performed under local anesthesia including the dissection and removal of the cyst, adopting a usually palatine approach, with an enveloping flap from 1.4 to 2.4. Conclusions The etiology of NPDC is unclear and a male predilection was observed. Simple surgical resection is recommended, followed by clinical and radiological control to ensure correct resolution of the case. PMID:23285406

  16. Calcareous dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the Aptian/Albian boundary interval of the Vöhrum clay pit (Hannover area, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldt, Matthias; Lehmann, Jens; Willems, Helmuth

    2010-05-01

    Lower Cretaceous deposits of the Hannover region, northern Germany, mainly consist of dark to medium grey claystones, which originate from marine sedimentation in the central area of the so-called Lower Saxony Basin. The investigation of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from 14 claystone samples of the Vöhrum clay pit, east of Hannover, yielded a diverse Latest Aptian-Earliest Albian flora (H. jacobi/L. schrammeni ammonite zones). A total number of 24 different morphotypes with radial and oblique wall structures were observed. Among these, eight taxonomically undescribed species have been identified. The associations of all samples are dominated by two common, typical boreal Early- to Mid-Cretaceous morphotypes with radial wall structures: Praecalcigonellum polymorphum and Echinodinella erinacea, which together constitute 75 % of all determined calcispheres. All other morphotypes are scarce, except those of the phylogenetically closely related cysts of the cosmopolitican Pirumella multistrata group (including Pirumella multistrata forma multistrata, Pirumella multistrata forma patriciagreelaye Typ A and B, Pirumella multistrata forma carteri). These cysts with oblique wall structures together constitute another 16 % of all determined dinocysts. Our results are in accordance with the assumption, that cysts with radially structured calcareous walls (particularly those with thin, single-layered walls) tend to dominate the more distal assemblages of the boreal realm. Praecalcigonellum polymorphum and Echinodinella erinacea are alternatingly abundant within the succession; each of the species dominates intervals with a total thickness of 1-1.5 m. This rhythm fits well with pale-dark facies rhythms from time-equivalent outcrops of the Hannover region. A relationship is further supported by variations in CaCO3 and TOC contents across the Vöhrum section, insinuating a rhythmic bedding. Pale-dark facies rhythms of Lower to Mid-Cretaceous deposits from the Lower

  17. Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites, such as some types of roundworms and tapeworms, can form cysts within the muscles, liver, brain, ... King CH, Fairley JK. Tapeworms (cestodes). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, ... Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated ...

  18. Glacial-Interglacial, Orbital and Millennial-Scale Climate Variability for the Last Glacial Cycle at Shackleton Site U1385 based on Dinoflagellate Cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datema, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Shackleton Site (IODP Expedition 339 Site U1385), located off the West-Portuguese Margin, preserves a continuous high-fidelity record of millennial-scale climate variability for the last several glacial cycles (~1.4 Myr) that can be correlated precisely to patterns observed in polar ice cores. In addition, rapid delivery of terrestrial material to the deep-sea environment allows the correlation of these marine records to European terrestrial climate records. This unique marine-ice-terrestrial linkage makes the Shackleton Site the ideal reference section for studying Quaternary abrupt climate change. The main objective of studying Site U1385 is to establish a marine reference section of Pleistocene climate change. We generated (sub)millennial-scale (~600 year interval) dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage records from Shackleton Site U1385 (IODP Expedition 339) to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) and productivity/upwelling over the last 152 kyrs. In addition, our approach allows for detailed land-sea correlations, because we also counted assemblages of pollen and spores from higher plants. Dinocyst SST and upwelling proxies, as well as warm/cold pollen proxies from Site U1385 show glacial-interglacial, orbital and stadial-interstadial climate variability and correlate very well to Uk'37, planktic foraminifer δ18O and Ca/Ti proxies of previously drilled Shackleton Sites and Greenland Ice Core δ18O. The palynological proxies capture (almost) all Dansgaard-Oeschger events of the last glacial cycle, also before ~70 ka, where millennial-scale variability is overprinted by precession. We compare the performance and results of the palynology of Site U1385 to proxies of previously drilled Shackleton Sites and conclude that palynology strengthens the potential of this site to form a multi-proxy reference section for millennial scale climate variability across the Pleistocene-Holocene. Finally, we will present a long-term paleoceanographic perspective down

  19. Oligocene-Miocene paleoceanographic changes offshore the Wilkes Land Margin, Antarctica: dinoflagellate cyst and TEX86 analyses of DSDP Site 269

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter; Boterblom, Wilrieke H.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Hartman, Julian D.; Peterse, Francien

    2017-04-01

    Although a lot of research has been conducted to characterize the onset of Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition, little is known about the subsequent evolution and fluctuations of the size of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The discrepancy between the conclusions of Foster and Rohling (2013) (insensitive global cryosphere between 400-650 ppmv CO2) and variations in benthic foraminiferal δ18O records (0.5-1 ‰) illustrate the uncertainty in particularly the East AIS variability during the Oligocene and Miocene. Increasing awareness of the importance of oceanographic conditions on ice sheet melt emphasize the need to directly infer ice sheet volume fluctuations from sedimentary archives close to the Antarctic margin. In this study, dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages, dinocyst-based biostratigraphy and TEX86 from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 269, offshore the Wilkes Land Margin (WLM), were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and paleoceanographic setting during the Oligocene and Miocene. Preliminary results are indicative of open ocean conditions, Southern Ocean fronts and high productivity waters. Furthermore, biomarker species were found, which are useful for stratigraphic dating. Research conducted at the continental rise of the WLM (Site U1356), by Bijl et al. (in prep.), has allowed for the calibration of dinocysts events of the Oligocene-Miocene Southern Ocean to the international time scale. Comparing the results of Site 269 to Site U1356 can thus provide an age constraint for this record. Correlating paleoceanographic changes between sites can provide insights into the variability of the EAIS during the Oligocene and Miocene, and will contribute to improving predictions of future changes in the Antarctic ice sheet.

  20. Differential distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates in a cyclonic eddy confined in the Bay of La Paz, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coria-Monter, Erik; Monreal-Gómez, María. Adela; Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Aldeco-Ramírez, Javier; Merino-Ibarra, Martín.

    2014-09-01

    The differential distribution of diatoms and dinoflagellates in the Bay of La Paz, Gulf of California, Mexico, was analyzed in summer of 2009, when a cyclonic eddy confined in the bay dominated the circulation. An uplift of the nutricline in the eddy drove high concentrations of nutrients to the euphotic layer. A differential phytoplankton distribution was observed to be associated with the eddy: there was an abundance of dinoflagellates close to the center of the cyclonic eddy, whereas diatoms were more abundant at the periphery. A significant inverse correlation (R = -0.62, p < 0.002) was found between the temperature at 25 m depth and the dinoflagellates abundance. Based on the temporal evolution of chlorophyll measured by MODIS satellite images, and a conceptual model proposed for the lifecycle of eddies, the cyclonic eddy may have been an old decaying structure. The effect of the cyclonic eddy on the phytoplankton distribution in this small semienclosed region was apparently similar to that found in larger eddies in the open ocean, but this is the first time such a differential distribution has been found associated to a confined eddy.

  1. Distribution of diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and dinoflagellates of Dinophysis spp along coast off Goa.

    PubMed

    Alkawri, A A S; Ramaiah, N

    2011-01-01

    As a part of an annual analysis on the phytoplankton distribution and composition, regular monthly sampling carried out during October 2007- September 2008 from salinity gradient zones in the intertidal waters along the coast of Goa. Among the 179 species of phytoplankton observed during this study, as many as 11 of them are recognized, potentially toxic ones. The toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens was quite preponderant, in particular during the pre-monsoon month of May 2008 off Chapora, a perennially low salinity location. Among the 10 toxic dinoflagellate species detected, the known toxic species, Alexandrium minutum followed by Dinophysis acuminata were found to attain maximum cell numbers in the study area. It is apparent from our results that the toxic species do occur in all salinity zones sampled and during many months of the year in coastal waters off Goa. Though directly governed by the variations in nutrient concentrations, some of these toxic phytoplankton species attain high cell numbers. It is reasonable for us to therefore caution that the toxic species do prevail in these waters.

  2. Prevalence and distribution of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts in a Turkish Population

    PubMed Central

    Uzun-Bulut, Emel; Özden, Bora; Gündüz, Kaan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative frequency and distribution of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts in a large Turkish population. Study Design A retrospective survey of jaw cysts was undertaken at the Oral Diagnosis and Radiology and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Ondokuz Mayıs University Dental School, Samsun, Turkey. Data were retrieved from clinical files, imaging, and histopathology reports from 2000 to 2008; a total of 12,350 patients were included. In each case, we analyzed age, gender, type and number of cysts, and cyst location. Imaging patterns and pathologies associated with cystic lesions were also determined. Results: The prevalence of odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts was 3.51%; males were affected more frequently than females. There were 452 odontogenic cysts (98.5%) and seven nonodontogenic cysts (1.5%). The most frequent odontogenic cyst was radicular (54.7%), followed by dentigerous (26.6%), residual (13.7%), odontogenic keratocyst (3.3%), and lateral periodontal cyst (0.2%). Nasopalatine duct cyst (1.5%) was the only nonodontogenic cyst. By age, cysts peaked in the third decade (24.2%). Concerning location, no statistically significant difference was found between the maxilla and mandible (p>0.05). The most frequent radiological feature of these lesions was unilocular cyst (93.7%). Pathologies associated with cystic lesions occurred in 14.7%. Conclusion: The prevalence of both odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts were lower than that reported in many other studies. In our study population, cysts were mainly inflammatory in origin. Key words: Prevalence, odontogenic, nonodontogenic, cysts. PMID:21743428

  3. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  4. Diel vertical distributions of the red tide dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, David W.; Bennett, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Maura A.

    2005-09-01

    Two 24-h experiments, designed to test whether the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense exhibited significant changes in vertical distribution, were performed in offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine in June 2000. Standard hydrocasts with a CTD/carousel water sampler package were made hourly on-station while following a drogue set at 25 m depth. Continuous measurements of T, S, and chlorophyll fluorescence were made on each down cast, and discrete water samples were collected at 5-m intervals from 55 m depth to the surface on the up cast, for analyses of extracted phytoplankton chlorophyll, inorganic nutrients and cell densities of Alexandrium In the first experiment we observed a bimodal vertical distribution of cells, with relatively high cell densities near the surface (<15 m depth) and a second peak of relatively high cell densities at depths between 25 and 40 m, coincident with the depth of the pycnocline and nitricline. Internal waves of 10-15 m amplitude appeared to exert control over the depth distribution of the deep population. Approximately 12 h into the first experiment, a relatively warm surface water mass with low Alexandrium cell densities intruded over the drogue station, leaving only the deep population. In the second experiment overall cell densities of Alexandrium were much lower, but again we observed initially a bimodal depth distribution of cells. As in the first experiment, the surface population effectively disappeared after a few hours, leaving only the deep population; in this case, however, there was some evidence of an initial downward movement of the surface population prior to its complete disappearance. Evidence for intrusion of a surface-water layer was not as clear in the second experiment as in the first. In addition to higher-frequency internal waves, as was observed in the first experiment, we also observed a low-frequency internal tidal wave of greater than 20 m amplitude that controlled the vertical distribution of the

  5. The distribution of intra-genomically variable dinoflagellate symbionts at Lord Howe Island, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Shaun P.; Pontasch, Stefanie; Fisher, Paul L.; Davy, Simon K.

    2016-06-01

    The symbiotic dinoflagellates of corals and other marine invertebrates ( Symbiodinium) are essential to the development of shallow-water coral reefs. This genus contains considerable genetic diversity and a corresponding range of physiological and ecological traits. Most genetic variation arises through the accumulation of somatic mutations that arise during asexual reproduction. Yet growing evidence suggests that occasional sexual reproductive events also occur within, and perhaps between, Symbiodinium lineages, further contributing to the pool of genetic variation available for evolutionary adaptation. Intra-genomic variation can therefore arise from both sexual and asexual reproductive processes, making it difficult to discern its underlying causes and consequences. We used quantitative PCR targeting the ITS2 locus to estimate proportions of genetically homogeneous symbionts and intra-genomically variable Symbiodinium (IGV Symbiodinium) in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis at Lord Howe Island, Australia. We then sampled colonies through time and at a variety of spatial scales to find out whether the distribution of these symbionts followed patterns consistent with niche partitioning. Estimated ratios of homogeneous to IGV Symbiodinium varied between colonies within sites (metres to tens of metres) and between sites separated by hundreds to thousands of metres, but remained stable within colonies through time. Symbiont ratios followed a temperature gradient, with the local thermal maximum emerging as a negative predictor for the estimated proportional abundance of IGV Symbiodinium. While this pattern may result from fine-scale spatial population structure, it is consistent with an increased susceptibility to thermal stress, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that generate IGV (such as inter-lineage recombination and the accumulation of somatic mutations at the ITS2 locus) may have important implications for the fitness of the symbiont and

  6. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very-long-chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids (HUFAs), found in a number of dinoflagellates, are released as methyl esters from phospholipids obtained by fractionation of lipid extracts. By contrast, the highly unsaturated C18 fatty acid octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5n-3), co...

  7. LIPID CLASS DISTRIBUTION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED LONG-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS IN MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very-long-chain highly unsaturated C28 fatty acids (HUFAs), found in a number of dinoflagellates, are released as methyl esters from phospholipids obtained by fractionation of lipid extracts. By contrast, the highly unsaturated C18 fatty acid octadecapentaenoic acid (18:5n-3), co...

  8. Global dinoflagellate event associated with the late Paleocene thermal maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Erica M.; Heilmann-Clausen, Claus; Brinkhuis, Henk; Morgans, Hugh E. G.; Rogers, Karyne M.; Egger, Hans; Schmitz, Birger

    2001-04-01

    The late Paleocene thermal maximum, or LPTM (ca. 55 Ma), represents a geologically brief time interval (˜220 k.y.) characterized by profound global warming and associated environmental change. The LPTM is marked by a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) interpreted to reflect a massive and abrupt input of 12C-enriched carbon to the ocean-atmosphere reservoir, possibly as a result of catastrophic gas-hydrate release, on time scales equivalent to present-day rates of anthropogenic carbon input. The LPTM corresponds to important changes in the global distribution of biota, including mass extinction of marine benthic organisms. The dinoflagellate cyst record indicates that surface- dwelling marine plankton in marginal seas also underwent significant perturbations during the LPTM. We report on the dramatic response of representatives of the genus Apectodinium from two upper Paleocene lower Eocene sections in the Southern (New Zealand) and Northern (Austria) Hemispheres, where the dinoflagellate records are directly correlated with the CIE, benthic foraminifera extinction event, and calcareous nannofossil zonation. The results indicate that the inception of Apectodinium-dominated assemblages appears to be synchronous on a global scale, and that the event is precisely coincident with the beginning of the LPTM. Apectodinium markedly declined in abundance near the end of the LPTM. This Apectodinium event may be associated with (1) exceptionally high global sea-surface temperatures and/or (2) a significant increase in marginal-marine surface-water productivity. Such a globally synchronous acme of dinoflagellate cysts is unprecedented within the dinoflagellate cyst fossil record.

  9. Ecology of the ciguatera causing dinoflagellates from the Northern Great Barrier Reef: changes in community distribution and coastal eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark P; Lewis, Richard J; Morton, Steve

    2013-12-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is known to be caused by the ciguatoxins from the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus, however, there is the potential for other toxins such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins from the genus Prorocentrum, and palytoxin from the genus Ostreopsis, to contaminate seafood. These genera may also be indicators of ecosystem health and potentially impact on coral reef ecosystems and the role they may play in the succession of coral to macroalgae dominated reefs has not been researched. Sixteen GBR field sites spanning inshore, mid-lagoon and outer lagoon (offshore) regions were studied. Samples were collected from September 2006 to December 2007 and abundance of benthic dinoflagellates on different host macroalgae and concentration of nutrients present in the water column were determined. The maximum abundance of Prorocentrum, Ostreopsis and Gambierdiscus found was 112, 793 and 50 cells per gram wet weight of host macroalgae, respectively. The average level of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) in the water column across all sites (0.03 mg/L) was found to be more than double the threshold critical value (0.013 mg/L) for healthy coral reefs. Compared to a previous study 1984, there is evidence of a major shift in the distribution and abundance of these dinoflagellates. Inshore reefs have either of Prorocentrum (as at Green Island) or Ostreopsis (as at Magnetic Island) dominating the macroalgal surface niche which was once dominated by Gambierdiscus, whilst at offshore regions Gambierdiscus is still dominant. This succession may be linked to the ongoing eutrophication of the GBR lagoon and have consequences for the sources of toxins for ongoing cases of ciguatera.

  10. Seasonality in the distribution of dinoflagellates with special reference to harmful algal species in tropical coastal environment, Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gouri; Mohanty, A K; Samantara, M K; Satpathy, K K

    2014-10-01

    A study was carried out in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, southeast coast of India, to find out the seasonal variation in dinoflagellate community structure. Samples were collected for a period of 4 years during 2006-2010. During the study 69 species of dinoflagellates were encountered among which Ceratium furca and Prorocentrum micans were most common during all the seasons. Genus Ceratium was found to be the most diverse one with 23 species which was followed by genus Protoperidinium with 16 species. Of 69 species, 27 species were considered as dominant based on their abundance during pre-monsoon (PRM), monsoon (MON) and post-monsoon (POM) periods. Relatively high density and diversity of dinoflagellates were encountered during the PRM period as compared to the MON and POM periods. Abundance pattern of dinoflagellates for three seasons showed the following trend: PRM > POM > MON. Salinity showed a positive correlation with dinoflagellate community showing its importance in dinoflagellate growth and sustenance. Ammonia and phosphate developed negative correlation with dinoflagellate density indicating the utilization of these nutrients by the dinoflagellate community. The presence of three dinoflagellate associations, broadly representing the three seasons experienced at this location, was evident from the cluster analysis. The study revealed presence of 19 relatively abundant toxic/red tide forming dinoflagellate species in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam.

  11. Spatial distribution of the phytoplankton in the White Sea during atypical domination of dinoflagellates (July 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyash, L. V.; Zhitina, L. S.; Belevich, T. A.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Kravchishina, M. D.; Pantyulin, A. N.; Tolstikov, A. V.; Chultsova, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    The species composition and biomass of phytoplankton, concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and nutrients, and accompanying hydrophysical conditions have been studied in the White Sea on July 6-11, 2009. The temperature of the surface water layer was lower than the multiyear average in July. Dinoflagellates dominated in the entire studied area; this was not the typical event for July. We suggest that domination of dinoflagellates was caused by low water temperature, when the nutrient regeneration rate was insufficient to support diatom growth. The abundance of microalgae and the structure of the phytoplankton community depended on the water structure. Variations in the phytoplankton community structure were caused not by substitution of specific species but rather by variability of the abundance of a single species, Heterocapsa triquetra. The highest phytoplankton biomass has been recorded in weakly stratified waters, where tidal mixing supplied the income of inorganic nutrients. The income of nutrients to the photic layer was limited in the stratified waters of Dvina Bay during the summer low-water period, so the phytoplankton abundance was low. We suggest that the lens of surface desalinated water presumably originated from the outlet of the Dvina River was registered in the central part of the White Sea.

  12. Suspended Alexandrium spp. hypnozygote cysts in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirn, Sarah L.; Townsend, David W.; Pettigrew, Neal R.

    2005-09-01

    The life cycle of dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium includes sexual reproduction followed by the formation of a dormant hypnozygote cyst, which serves as a resting stage. Negatively buoyant cysts purportedly fall to the benthos where they undergo a mandatory period of quiescence. Previous reports of cysts in the surficial sediments of the Gulf of Maine, where Alexandrium blooms are well documented, show a broad distribution of cysts, with highest concentrations generally in sediments below 100 m depth. We report here an exploration of cysts suspended in the water column, where they would be better positioned to inoculate springtime Alexandrium populations. During cruises in February, April, and June of 2000, water samples were collected at depths just off the bottom (within 5 m), at the top of the bottom nepheloid layer, and near the surface (1 m) and examined for cyst concentrations. Suspended cysts were found throughout the Gulf of Maine and westernmost Bay of Fundy. Planktonic cyst densities were generally greater in near-bottom and top of the bottom nepheloid layer samples than in near-surface water samples; densities were of the order of 10 2 cysts m -3 in surface waters, and 10 2-10 3 cysts m -3 at near-bottom depths. Temporally, they were most abundant in February and least abundant in April. Reports by earlier workers of cysts in the underlying sediments were on the order of 10 3 cysts cm -3. We present calculations that demonstrate the likelihood of cyst resuspension from bottom sediments forced by swell and tidal currents, and propose that such resuspended cysts are important in inoculating the seasonal bloom. We estimate that suspended cysts may contribute significantly to the annual vegetative cell population in the Gulf of Maine.

  13. Cyst-Theca Relationship and Phylogenetic Position of Impagidinium caspienense Incubated from Caspian Sea Surface Sediments: Relation to Gonyaulax baltica and Evidence for Heterospory within Gonyaulacoid Dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Kenneth N; Takano, Yoshihito; Gu, Haifeng; Bagheri, Siamak; Pospelova, Vera; Pieńkowski, Anna J; Leroy, Suzanne; Matsuoka, Kazumi

    2017-04-11

    We investigate the cyst-theca relationship of Impagidinium caspienense. Through an incubation experiment, we succeeded in examining the motile stage. Additional molecular analysis of single-cyst PCR (LSU and SSU rDNA) reveal that the cyst is related to the species Gonyaulax baltica Ellegaard et al. (2002). The ability of this species to belong to two types of cyst-based genera (spiniferate and impagidinioid) suggests that environmental (particularly salinity) and not genetic factors explain the formation of both morphotypes by Gonyaulax baltica, which provides evidence for heterospory in this species. The affiliation to Gonyaulax baltica demonstrates that Impagidinium caspienense is not endemic to the Caspian Sea. The phylogenetic position of several other gonyaulacoid species is also documented: Impagidinium pallidum, Ataxiodinium choane, Pyxidinopsis psilata, Spiniferites belerius, and Spiniferites ramosus. The LSU and SSU rDNA based phylogenies suggest that the genera Impagidinium and Spiniferites are not monophyletic, and that Pyxidinopsis psilata and Ataxiodinium choane are close to Gonyaulax verior and Gonyaulax polygramma, respectively. In addition, this study accentuates the importance of cyst morphology in the classification of the Gonyaulacales. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of mast cells and macrophages and expression of interleukin-6 in periapical cysts.

    PubMed

    Bracks, Igor Vieira; Armada, Luciana; Gonçalves, Lúcio Souza; Pires, Fábio Ramôa

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells and macrophages are important components of the inflammatory infiltrate found in inflammatory periapical diseases. Several cytokines participate in the mechanisms of inflammation, tissue repair, and bone resorption associated with periapical cysts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of mast cells and macrophages and the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in periapical cysts. Thirty periapical cysts were selected for the study, and clinical, demographic, and gross information from the cases was obtained from the laboratory records. Five-micrometer sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin were reviewed for analysis of the microscopic features of the cysts, and 3-μm sections on silanized slides were used for immunohistochemical reactions with anti-tryptase, anti-CD68, and anti-IL-6. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number of mast cells and macrophages when comparing superficial and deep regions of the fibrous capsule of the cysts. Mean number of mast cells on the superficial region of the fibrous capsule was higher in cysts showing intense superficial inflammation and exocytosis. Macrophages were more commonly found in areas showing IL-6 expression, and IL-6 was less expressed in deep regions of the fibrous capsule in cysts showing greater gross volume. The results reinforced the participation of mast cells and macrophages in the pathogenesis of periapical cysts and suggested that IL-6 is not the major bone resorption mediator in larger periapical cysts. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dinoflagellates, a new proxy for evidencing (paleo)tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, S.; Do Couto, D.; Suc, J.; Gorini, C.

    2012-12-01

    As a preliminary investigation, dinoflagellates have been searched in the Sri Lanka tsunami deposits (2004, Sumatra earthquake). The goals of this analysis were (1) to establish if dinoflagellate cysts (marine algae) are preserved in such types of deposits, and (2) to delimit the inland flooded surface. This work was performed on only 1-2 grams of sands, which had been sterilized at 121°C to prevent any microbial activity. The analysis points out the presence of several marine dinoflagellate cysts with a poor to moderate preservation, allowing to estimate the extent of the flooded area. In addition, a sample provided two dinoflagellate thecae, an exceptional occurrence because the cellulosic form of a dinoflagellate (i.e. the theca) is generally considered as unable to be preserved within sediments. In laboratory experiments, thecae are known to persist between 2 and 72 hours, depending of the species. If we accept a possible preservation of thecae in "peculiar" conditions, their presence in a tsunami sedimentary sequence may sign a precise instant of a tsunami event. Dinoflagellates have been searched in sedimentary basins affected by intense seismic activity: the Black Sea (Quaternary) and Alboran Sea (Messinian - Zanclean), two areas marked by important environmental changes. Marine dinoflagellate cysts are recorded in the Black Sea before its Holocene connection with Mediterranean through the Bosphorus Strait. Their occurrence constitutes a robust support for tsunamis already described in the region. In Late Messinian and Early Pliocene deposits from the Sorbas and Malaga basins (Alboran Sea region), cysts and thecae of marine dinoflagellates have been evidenced for the first time, maybe in relation with possible tsunamis. This new approach is to be developed on other recent tsunami deposits in order to contribute to identify past tsunami events. One must mention that dinoflagellates may help in reconstruction of past sea-surface physical parameters (salinity

  16. Genetic Diversity and Distribution of the Ciguatera-Causing Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) in Coastal Areas of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Sato, Shinya; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Uehara, Keita; Shah, Md Mahfuzur Rahman; Suda, Shoichiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Background The marine epiphytic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP): one of the most significant seafood-borne illnesses associated with fish consumption worldwide. So far, occurrences of CFP incidents in Japan have been mainly reported in subtropical areas. A previous phylogeographic study of Japanese Gambierdiscus revealed the existence of two distinct phylotypes: Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 from subtropical and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 from temperate areas. However, details of the genetic diversity and distribution for Japanese Gambierdiscus are still unclear, because a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted yet. Methods/Principal Finding A total of 248 strains were examined from samples mainly collected from western and southern coastal areas of Japan during 2006–2011. The SSU rDNA, the LSU rDNA D8–D10 and the ITS region were selected as genetic markers and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. The genetic diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus was high since five species/phylotypes were detected: including two reported phylotypes (Gambierdiscus sp. type 1 and Gambierdiscus sp. type 2), two species of Gambierdiscus (G. australes and G. cf. yasumotoi) and a hitherto unreported phylotype Gambierdiscus sp. type 3. The distributions of type 3 and G. cf. yasumotoi were restricted to the temperate and the subtropical area, respectively. On the other hand, type 1, type 2 and G. australes occurred from the subtropical to the temperate area, with a tendency that type 1 and G. australes were dominant in the subtropical area, whereas type 2 was dominant in the temperate area. By using mouse bioassay, type 1, type 3 and G. australes exhibited mouse toxicities. Conclusions/Significance This study revealed a surprising diversity of Japanese Gambierdiscus and the distribution of five species/phylotypes displayed clear geographical patterns in Japanese coastal areas. The SSU rDNA and the LSU rDNA D8–D10 as

  17. Cyst-motile stage relationship, morphology, ultrastructure, and molecular phylogeny of the gymnodinioid dinoflagellate Barrufeta resplendens comb. nov., formerly known as Gyrodinium resplendens, isolated from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haifeng; Luo, Zhaohe; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Price, Andrea Michelle; Turner, Robert Eugene; Rabalais, Nancy N

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, we redescribed Gyrodinium resplendens through incubation of process bearing cysts extracted from sediment collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The morphology and ultrastructure of the motile stage and cyst stage were examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy and this revealed that the species should be transferred to the genus Barrufeta. This genus differs from other gymnodinioid genera in possessing a Smurf-cap apical structure complex (ASC) and currently encompasses only one species, Barrufeta bravensis. B. resplendens shows a Smurf-cap ASC that consists of three rows of elongated vesicles with small knobs in the middle one. B. resplendens is very similar to B. bravensis in cell morphology, but can be separated using the ultrastructure such as the shape and location of nucleus and pyrenoids, which highlights the importance of ultrastructure at inter-specific level in the genus Barrufeta. The unique cysts of B. resplendens are brown and process bearing, and have a tremic archeopyle with a zigzag margin on the dorsal side of the epicyst, and not polar as in cysts of Polykrikos. The cysts do not survive the palynological treatment used here and probably have a wide distribution. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference were carried out based on partial large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) sequences. Molecular phylogeny supports that the genus Barrufeta is monophyletic, and that the genus Gymnodinium is polyphyletic. Our results suggest that details of the ASC together with ultrastructure are potential features to subdivide the genus Gymnodinium.

  18. Ecology of the red-tide dinoflagellate Ceratium furca: distribution, mixotrophy, and grazing impact on ciliate populations of Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Smalley, Gabriela W; Coats, D Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Ceratium furca is a primarily photosynthetic dinoflagellate also capable of ingesting other protists. During 1995 and 1996, we documented the abundance of C. furca in Chesapeake Bay and determined grazing rates on prey labeled with fluorescent microspheres. Abundance usually remained below 20 cells ml(-1), although the species was capable of localized late-summer blooms (< or = 478 cells ml(-1)) in the more saline lower to mid-Bay region. Feeding rates ranged from 0 to 0.11 prey dinoflagellate(-1) h(-1) or from 0 to 37 pg C dinoflagellate(-1) h(-1) and were highest at lower salinities. Clearance rates averaged 2.5 +/- 0.35 microl dinoflagellate(-1) h(-1). Impact of C. furca feeding on prey populations was higher in the lower Bay, averaging 67% of Strobilidium spp. removed d(-1). Ingestion rates were positively correlated with prey abundance and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, but negatively with salinity, depth, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, and inorganic P:N ratio. Daily consumption of prey biomass by C. furca averaged 4.6% of body carbon, 6.5% of body nitrogen, and 4.0% of body phosphorus. with maximal values of 36, 51, and 32%, respectively. Thus, the ability to exploit an organic nutrient source when inorganic nutrients are limiting may give C. furca a competitive advantage over purely photosynthetic species.

  19. Dinoflagellate biogeochemistry: developing new proxies for past carbon cycling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluijs, A.; Hoins, M.; van de Waal, D.; Reichart, G.; Rost, B.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 levels for time intervals that are beyond the reach of the ice cores (> ~850 kyr) remain one of the grand challenges of paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental research. Despite recent progress in analytical techniques and application in several proxies, uncertainties in reconstructed values remain large. Based on culturing experiments combined with gene expression analysis and physiological assays, we quantify and mechanistically underpin the geochemical response of dinoflagellates and their cysts to various CO2 concentrations. The results confirm theoretical inferences that the isotopic composition of both organic and calcite dinoflagellate cysts may serve as a proxy for past ocean carbonate chemistry, notably pCO2. We found a strong effect (~10x as strong as in foraminifera) of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of a calcareous dinoflagellate cyst. Moreover, we found that the stable carbon isotopic composition of four dinoflagellate species, of which two have organic dinocyst fossil records down to the early Cenozoic and Cretaceous, strongly respond to pCO2. Critically, the experiments show that the mechanisms forcing the changes in fractionation factors differ between species, opening a suite of opportunities to study past carbon cycling as well as protist physiology during Earth System perturbations. The dinoflagellate Apectodinium dominated dinoflagellate assemblages during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Will its carbon isotopic composition reveal CO2 concentrations at that time?

  20. Structural Confirmation of a Unique Carotenoid Lactoside, P457, in Symbiodinium sp. Strain nbrc 104787 Isolated from a Sea Anemone and its Distribution in Dinoflagellates and Various Marine Organisms.

    PubMed

    Wakahama, Takahiro; Laza-Martínez, Aitor; Bin Haji Mohd Taha, Ahmad Iskandar; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Awai, Koichiro; Kawachi, Masanobu; Maoka, Takashi; Takaichi, Shinichi

    2012-12-01

    The molecular structure of the carotenoid lactoside P457, (3S,5R,6R,3'S,5'R,6'S)-13'-cis-5,6-epoxy-3',5'-dihydroxy-3-(β-d-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucosyl)oxy-6',7'-didehydro-5,6,7,8,5',6'-hexahydro-β,β-caroten-20-al, was confirmed by spectroscopic methods using Symbiodinium sp. strain NBRC 104787 cells isolated from a sea anemone. Among various algae, cyanobacteria, land plants, and marine invertebrates, the distribution of this unique diglycosyl carotenoid was restricted to free-living peridinin-containing dinoflagellates and marine invertebrates that harbor peridinin-containing zooxanthellae. Neoxanthin appeared to be a common precursor for biosynthesis of peridinin and P457, although neoxanthin was not found in peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates did not possess peridinin or P457; green dinoflagellates, which contain chlorophyll a and b, did not contain peridinin, fucoxanthin, or P457; and no unicellular algae containing both peridinin and P457, other than peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, have been observed. Therefore, the biosynthetic pathways for peridinin and P457 may have been coestablished during the evolution of dinoflagellates after the host heterotrophic eukaryotic microorganism formed a symbiotic association with red alga that does not contain peridinin or P457.

  1. Clinical Symptoms, Imaging Features and Cyst Distribution in the Cerebrospinal Fluid Compartments in Patients with Extraparenchymal Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Rodrigo; Hamamoto Filho, Pedro Tadao; Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho; Odashima, Newton Satoru; Dos Santos, Antônio Carlos; Elias Júnior, Jorge; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Fleury, Agnès; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti

    2016-11-01

    Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis has an aggressive course because cysts in the cerebrospinal fluid compartments induce acute inflammatory reactions. The relationships between symptoms, imaging findings, lesion type and location remain poorly understood. In this retrospective clinical records-based study, we describe the clinical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging features, and cyst distribution in the CSF compartments of 36 patients with extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis. Patients were recruited between 1995 and 2010 and median follow up was 38 months. During all the follow up time we found that 75% (27/36) of the patients had symptoms related to raised intracranial pressure sometime, 72.2% (26/36) cysticercotic meningitis, 61.1% (22/36) seizures, and 50.0% (18/36) headaches unrelated to intracranial pressure. Regarding lesion types, 77.8% (28/36) of patients presented with grape-like cysts, 22.2% (8/36) giant cysts, and 61.1% (22/36) contrast-enhancing lesions. Hydrocephalus occurred in 72.2% (26/36) of patients during the follow-up period. All patients had cysts in the subarachnoid space and 41.7% (15/36) had at least one cyst in some ventricle. Cysts were predominantly located in the posterior fossa (31 patients) and supratentorial basal cisterns (19 patients). The fourth ventricle was the main compromised ventricle (10 patients). Spinal cysts were more frequent than previously reported (11.1%, 4/36). Our findings are useful for both diagnosis and treatment selection in patients with neurocysticercosis.

  2. Sedimentary Records of Harmful Bloom-Producing Dinoflagellates from Alvarado Lagoon (Southwestern Gulf of Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoges, A.; Mertens, K. N.; ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Sánchez Cabeza, J. A.; de Vernal, A.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages were studied from a sediment core collected in Alvarado Lagoon (southwestern Gulf of Mexico) in order to evaluate their use as tracers of toxic algal blooms. The sedimentary record spans the last ~560 years (CE) and shows high abundances of Polysphaeridium zoharyi, the cyst of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense, which is known to cause toxic blooms. Cyst fluxes in the sediment of the Alvarado lagoon suggest frequent blooms of Pyrodinium bahamense in the past hundreds of years. Moreover, the high concentrations of the cysts (~ 4000 cysts g-1) in the "modern" surface sediment reveal that the area is susceptible to be affected by future blooms, especially during seasons of heavy rain and wind, when cysts are resuspended in the water column. The dinoflagellate cyst bank in sediment deserves special attention as it may constitute a source for the export of cells in adjacent regions. The cyst of other harmful dinoflagellates have been recovered in the sediment. They notably include those of the benthic dinoflagellate Bysmatrum subsalsum, which is here reported for the first time.

  3. Distribution and histopathological changes induced by cysts of Taenia solium in the brain of pigs from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, E M; Ngowi, H A; Sikasunge, C S; Leifsson, P S; Johansen, M V

    2015-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium cysts is a frequent but neglected parasitic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe anatomical locations of cysts in the CNS and the corresponding inflammation. A total of 17 naturally infected pigs were used to evaluate the distribution of cysts and, of these, seven were used to evaluate the corresponding inflammation further, through histopathology. Clinical signs in the pigs included dullness, sluggishness, somnolence, apathy and loss of consciousness. Cysts were distributed in all cerebral lobes, i.e. 39.7% in the frontal lobe, 20.3% in the parietal lobe, 20.0% in the occipital lobe and 19.7% in the temporal lobe, and only 0.4% in the cerebellum. No cysts were found in the spinal cord. Cysts were localized as follows: 47.9% in the dorsal subarachnoid, 46.9% in the parenchyma, 4.4% in the subarachnoid base and 0.9% in the ventricles. The results of the histopathology revealed lesions in an early inflammatory stage, i.e. stage I, in all anatomical locations except for two, which showed more of an inflammatory reaction, stage III, in one pig. It was concluded that clinical signs in pigs were neither pathognomonic nor consistent. These signs, therefore, cannot be used as a reliable indicator of porcine NCC. Furthermore, T. solium cysts were found to be in abundance in all cerebral lobes, and only a few were found in the cerebellum. Regarding the inflammatory response, no significant differences were found in the location and total number of cysts. Thus, further studies are needed to explain the determinants of cyst distribution in the CNS and assess in detail clinical signs associated with porcine NCC.

  4. Dinoflagellates associated with freshwater sponges from the ancient lake baikal.

    PubMed

    Annenkova, Natalia V; Lavrov, Dennis V; Belikov, Sergey I

    2011-04-01

    Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of protists that are common in both marine and freshwater environments. While the biology of marine dinoflagellates has been the focus of several recent studies, their freshwater relatives remain little-investigated. In the present study we explore the diversity of dinoflagellates in Lake Baikal by identifying and analyzing dinoflagellate sequences for 18S rDNA and ITS-2 from total DNA extracted from three species of endemic Baikalian sponges (Baikalospongia intermedia,Baikalospongia rectaand Lubomirskia incrustans). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed extensive dinoflagellate diversity in Lake Baikal. We found two groups of sequences clustering within the order Suessiales, known for its symbiotic relationships with various invertebrates. Thus they may be regarded as potential symbionts of Baikalian sponges. In addition,Gyrodinium helveticum, representatives from the genus Gymnodinium, dinoflagellates close to the family Pfiesteriaceae, and a few dinoflagellates without definite affiliation were detected. No pronounced difference in the distribution of dinoflagellates among the studied sponges was found, except for the absence of the Piscinoodinium-like dinoflagellates inL. incrustans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the diversity of dinoflagellates in freshwater sponges, the first systematic investigation of dinoflagellate molecular diversity in Lake Baikal and the first finding of members of the order Suessiales as symbionts of freshwater invertebrates.

  5. Alexandrium fundyense cyst dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Stock, Charles A.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Bronzino Nelson, Amy; Thompson, Brian; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Keller, Maureen; Matrai, Patricia A.; Martin, Jennifer

    2005-09-01

    The flux of cells from germinated cysts is critical in the population dynamics of many dinoflagellates. Here, data from a large-scale cyst survey are combined with surveys in other years to yield an Alexandrium fundyense cyst distribution map for the Gulf of Maine that is massive in geographic extent and cyst abundance. The benthic cyst population extends nearly 500 km alongshore. Embedded within it are several distinct accumulation zones or "seedbeds," each 3000-5000 km 2 in area. Maximal cyst abundances range from 2-20×10 6 cysts m -2. Cysts are equally or more abundant in deeper sediment layers; nearshore, cysts are fewer by a factor of 10 or more. This cyst distribution reflects sedimentary dynamics and the location of blooms in overlying surface waters. The flux of germinated cells from sediments was estimated using a combination of laboratory measurements of cyst germination and autofluorescence and observations of cyst autofluorescence in the field. These measurements constrained a germination function that, when applied to the cyst distribution map, provided an estimate of the germination inoculum for a physical/biological numerical model. In the laboratory studies, virtually all cysts incubated at different temperatures and light regimes became autofluorescent, but the rate of development was slower at lower temperatures, with no difference between light and dark incubations. Germination rates were highest at elevated temperatures, and were 2-fold greater in the light than in the dark. Laboratory and field fluorescence measurements suggest that>70% of the cysts in the top cm of sediment would germinate over a 60-90 day period in offshore waters. The combination of laboratory germination experiments and numerical modeling predicts nearly 100% germination of cysts in the top cm of sediment and resulting early season cell concentrations that are comparable in magnitude to observed cell distributions. It cannot account for late-season peaks in cell abundance

  6. Distribution of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) cysts in Greenland and Iceland, with an emphasis on viability and growth in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Richlen, Mindy L.; Zielinski, Oliver; Holinde, Lars; Tillmann, Urban; Cembella, Allan; Lyu, Yihua; Anderson, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    The bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense has been extensively studied due its toxin-producing capabilities and consequent impacts to human health and economies. This study investigated the prevalence of resting cysts of A. fundyense in western Greenland and Iceland to assess the historical presence and magnitude of bloom populations in the region, and to characterize environmental conditions during summer, when bloom development may occur. Analysis of sediments collected from these locations showed that Alexandrium cysts were present at low to moderate densities in most areas surveyed, with highest densities observed in western Iceland. Additionally, laboratory experiments were conducted on clonal cultures established from isolated cysts or vegetative cells from Greenland, Iceland, and the Chukchi Sea (near Alaska) to examine the effects of photoperiod interval and irradiance levels on growth. Growth rates in response to the experimental treatments varied among isolates, but were generally highest under conditions that included both the shortest photoperiod interval (16h:8h light:dark) and higher irradiance levels (~146–366 μmol photons m−2 s−1), followed by growth under an extended photoperiod interval and low irradiance level (~37 μmol photons m−2 s−1). Based on field and laboratory data, we hypothesize that blooms in Greenland are primarily derived from advected Alexandrium populations, as low bottom temperatures and limited light availability would likely preclude in situ bloom development. In contrast, the bays and fjords in Iceland may provide more favorable habitat for germling cell survival and growth, and therefore may support indigenous, self-seeding blooms. PMID:27721528

  7. Pfiesteria piscicida, P. shumwayae, and other Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Miller, Todd R; Belas, Robert

    2003-03-01

    Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria shumwayae are estuarine dinoflagellates thought to be responsible for massive fish deaths and associated human illnesses in the southeastern United States. These dinoflagellates are described as having a complex life cycle involving flagellated zoospores, cysts, and amoeboid stages. Although no Pfiesteria toxin has been identified, certain strains of these dinoflagellates are thought to produce a water-soluble toxin that can kill fish and cause human illness. Recent reports show no evidence for amoeboid stages and indicate that a much more simplified life cycle exists. In addition, researchers have shown that P. shumwayae only kills fish through direct contact that does not necessarily involve the production of one or more toxins. This review summarizes these and other recent findings with an emphasis on establishing basic facts regarding the toxicity and life history of Pfiesteria dinoflagellates.

  8. Benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and Alexandrium cyst inventories

    PubMed Central

    Pilskaln, C.H.; Hayashi, K.; Keafer, B.A.; Anderson, D.M.; McGillicuddy, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50–60 m observed. Mean BNL thickness is 30 m in the eastern gulf and Bay of Fundy, and 20 m in the western gulf. Cyst densities in the near-bottom particle resuspension layers varied by three orders of magnitude across the gulf with maxima of 105 cysts m−3. An important interconnection of elevated BNL cyst densities is observed between the Bay of Fundy, the Maine Coastal Current and the south-central region of the gulf. BNL cyst inventories estimated for the eastern and western gulf are each on the order of 1015 cysts, whereas the BNL inventory in the Bay of Fundy is on the order of 1016 . Although BNL cyst inventories in the eastern and western gulf are 1–2 orders of magnitude smaller than the abundance of cysts in the upper 1 cm of sediment in those regions, BNL and sediment-bound cyst inventories are comparable in the Bay of Fundy. The existence of widespread BNLs containing substantial cyst inventories indicates that these near-bottom layers represent an important source of germinating A. fundyense cysts in the region. PMID:25419055

  9. Benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and Alexandrium cyst inventories.

    PubMed

    Pilskaln, C H; Hayashi, K; Keafer, B A; Anderson, D M; McGillicuddy, D J

    2014-05-01

    Cysts residing in benthic nepheloid layers (BNLs) documented in the Gulf of Maine have been proposed as a possible source of inoculum for annual blooms of a toxic dinoflagellate in the region. Herein we present a spatially extensive data set of the distribution and thickness of benthic nepheloid layers in the Gulf of Maine and the abundance and inventories of suspended Alexandrium fundyense cysts within these near-bottom layers. BNLs are pervasive throughout the gulf and adjacent Bay of Fundy with maximum layer thicknesses of 50-60 m observed. Mean BNL thickness is 30 m in the eastern gulf and Bay of Fundy, and 20 m in the western gulf. Cyst densities in the near-bottom particle resuspension layers varied by three orders of magnitude across the gulf with maxima of 10(5) cysts m(-3). An important interconnection of elevated BNL cyst densities is observed between the Bay of Fundy, the Maine Coastal Current and the south-central region of the gulf. BNL cyst inventories estimated for the eastern and western gulf are each on the order of 10(15) cysts, whereas the BNL inventory in the Bay of Fundy is on the order of 10(16) . Although BNL cyst inventories in the eastern and western gulf are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the abundance of cysts in the upper 1 cm of sediment in those regions, BNL and sediment-bound cyst inventories are comparable in the Bay of Fundy. The existence of widespread BNLs containing substantial cyst inventories indicates that these near-bottom layers represent an important source of germinating A. fundyense cysts in the region.

  10. Prevalence and distribution of odontogenic cysts in a Mexican sample. A 753 cases study

    PubMed Central

    Villasis-Sarmiento, Luis; Melendez-Ocampo, Arcelia; Gaitan-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Leyva-Huerta, Elba-Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Background Odontogenic cysts (OC) are the most frequent lesions of the jaws and their constant epidemiological update is necessary and indispensable. Therefore the principal objective of this report was To determine prevalence and clinical-demographical characteristics of OC in a Mexican sample. Material and Methods 753 cases of OC coming from the archive of a head and neck histopathological teaching service, from January 2000 to December 2013, were included. OC cases were re-assessed according 2005 WHO classification. Chi square test was used to establish possible associations (p<0.05IC95%). Results From 753 OC, 369 were female and 384 male; 52.9% of them were in their 2nd- 4th decade of life. The most common location (41%) was the mandibular posterior area. Radicular cysts were more frequent in maxillary anterior zone of females (p 0.0002) at their fourth decade of life. Dentigerous cysts were more frequent in the mandibular posterior zone of males (p 0.0000) in their second decade of life. Six cases of periodontal lateral cyst; 4 cases of paradental cysts; 4 eruption cysts and 4 cases of adult gingival cyst, as well were identified. Conclusions Radicular cyst and dentigerous cyst are the most prevalent odontogenic cyst in this Mexican sample. Due to their etiology, dental pulpar necrosis and impacted teeth, radicular cyst and dentigerous cyst could be prevenible. Therefore, it is necessary to establish preventive strategies to diminish dental decay and programs of prophylactic extractions of impacted teeth, to in consequence decrease the prevalence of odontogenic cysts. Key words:Cyst, dentigerous cyst, mexican, odontogenic cyst, radicular cyst. PMID:28469818

  11. Spatio-temporal variations in bloom of the red-tide dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi in Imari Bay, Japan, in 2014: Factors controlling horizontal and vertical distribution.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kameda, Takahiko; Yamatogi, Toshifumi; Ishida, Naoya; Hirae, Sou; Kawaguchi, Mayumi; Syutou, Toshio

    2017-07-13

    A massive bloom of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi appeared in 2014 in Imari Bay, Japan. Bloom dynamics and hydrographical conditions were examined by field survey. The bloom initially developed in the eastern area of Imari Bay, subsequently after rainfall during the neap tides, cell density exceeded over 10,000cellsml. Vertical distribution of K. mikimotoi was primarily controlled by the light intensity and secondarily by the water quality during the daytime. Almost all cell-density maxima occurred in depths with weak daytime light intensities of <300μmolm(-2)s(-1). In some cases of weak light intensity, cell-density maxima occurred in depths with favorable hydrodynamic conditions for the growth. Spatially classified areas were identified by cluster analysis using the growth rate calculated from seawater temperature and salinity. This study quantitatively evaluated the environmental factors of the eastern area, where the bloom initially occurred, during the development of the bloom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovarian cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much ... cysts: Follicular cyst. Around the midpoint of your menstrual cycle, an egg bursts out of its follicle and ...

  13. Clinical Symptoms, Imaging Features and Cyst Distribution in the Cerebrospinal Fluid Compartments in Patients with Extraparenchymal Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Rodrigo; Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Nunes, Hélio Rubens de Carvalho; Odashima, Newton Satoru; dos Santos, Antônio Carlos; Elias Júnior, Jorge; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Fleury, Agnès; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti

    2016-01-01

    Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis has an aggressive course because cysts in the cerebrospinal fluid compartments induce acute inflammatory reactions. The relationships between symptoms, imaging findings, lesion type and location remain poorly understood. In this retrospective clinical records-based study, we describe the clinical symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging features, and cyst distribution in the CSF compartments of 36 patients with extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis. Patients were recruited between 1995 and 2010 and median follow up was 38 months. During all the follow up time we found that 75% (27/36) of the patients had symptoms related to raised intracranial pressure sometime, 72.2% (26/36) cysticercotic meningitis, 61.1% (22/36) seizures, and 50.0% (18/36) headaches unrelated to intracranial pressure. Regarding lesion types, 77.8% (28/36) of patients presented with grape-like cysts, 22.2% (8/36) giant cysts, and 61.1% (22/36) contrast-enhancing lesions. Hydrocephalus occurred in 72.2% (26/36) of patients during the follow-up period. All patients had cysts in the subarachnoid space and 41.7% (15/36) had at least one cyst in some ventricle. Cysts were predominantly located in the posterior fossa (31 patients) and supratentorial basal cisterns (19 patients). The fourth ventricle was the main compromised ventricle (10 patients). Spinal cysts were more frequent than previously reported (11.1%, 4/36). Our findings are useful for both diagnosis and treatment selection in patients with neurocysticercosis. PMID:27828966

  14. Circadian rhythm of a red-tide dinoflagellate Peridinium quadridentatum in the port of Veracruz, Gulf of Mexico, its thecal morphology, nomenclature and geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Okolodkov, Yuri B; Campos-Bautista, Guadalupe; Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael

    2016-07-15

    A circadian rhythm of the dinoflagellate Peridinium quadridentatum was studied at a time-series station in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, in May 2007. Different substrates (water column, the seagrass Thalassia testudinum, macroalgae, coral rubble and sandy sediment surface) were sampled at the site at 1.5-3.5m depth. In the samples of coral rubble, P. quadridentatum was scarce. In the water column, the species showed an abundance peak at 15:00. The cell abundance of P. quadridentatum in Thalassia samples increased from 15:00 until 18:00 (1.81×10(4)cells/gsubstratewet weight), and then continuously decreased until 06:00. Changes in P. quadridentatum cell abundance on macroalgae followed the same trend as on Thalassia, with the maximal value at 18:00. The higher abundance of P. quadridentatum (up to 1.40×10(4)cells/gSWW) in macroalgae samples showed the preference for seaweeds. P. quadridentatum has a neritic tropical-boreal distribution. A new combination is proposed: Peridinium quadridentatum var. trispiniferum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom

    PubMed Central

    Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor distribution in pericoronal follicles: relationship with the origin of odontogenic cysts and tumors.

    PubMed

    da Silva Baumgart, Cristina; da Silva Lauxen, Isabel; Filho, Manoel Sant'Anna; de Quadros, Onofre Francisco

    2007-02-01

    Investigate the distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in pericoronal follicles as a predictor of progression to odontogenic cysts and tumors. Immunohistochemical EGFR staining patterns (membrane-only, cytoplasm-only, or combined membrane and cytoplasmic staining) in the reduced enamel epithelium and nests of odontogenic epithelium associated with follicles of impacted molar teeth were evaluated. The staining pattern of 20 specimens of pericoronal follicle was compared with that of 16 normal oral mucosa samples and to squamous cell carcinoma samples. Combined membrane and cytoplasmic staining was observed for normal oral mucosa mostly in proliferating layers (basal and suprabasal), decreasing in intensity toward the surface. Seven epithelial nests presented membrane-only staining, and the majority presented either a cytoplasm-only or a combined staining pattern. The staining patterns observed in reduced enamel epithelium were cytoplasm-only and combined. EGFR membrane-only staining may be an indicator of increased potential for epithelial nests to become odontogenic cysts or tumors.

  17. Speciation and symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Blank, R J; Trench, R K

    1985-08-16

    Morphometric analyses based on three-dimensional reconstruction of the nuclei of four different strains of the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium microadriaticum, the algae that inhabit corals, giant clams, and other marine invertebrates, revealed marked differences in chromosome numbers and chromosome volumes. The differences are not consistent with different ploidy states within the same species, but can most easily be interpreted as indicating different species.

  18. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... is about cysts that form during your monthly menstrual cycle, called functional cysts. Functional cysts are not the ... or other diseases. Causes Each month during your menstrual cycle, a follicle grows on your ovary. The follicle ...

  19. BAKER'S CYST

    PubMed Central

    Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2015-01-01

    Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually found on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts), presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears) that might explain the existence of the cyst, unusual cyst topography, bone erosion, cyst size greater than 5 cm and tissue invasion (joint capsule). PMID:27027065

  20. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... a result of the normal function of your menstrual cycle. These are known as functional cysts. Other types ... cysts: Follicular cyst. Around the midpoint of your menstrual cycle, an egg bursts out of its follicle and ...

  1. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald M; Keafer, Bruce A; Kleindinst, Judith L; McGillicuddy, Dennis J; Martin, Jennifer L; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H; Smith, Juliette L; Sherwood, Christopher R; Butman, Bradford

    2014-05-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with > 300 cysts cm(-3)) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts → blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms → cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance

  2. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with > 300 cysts cm−3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts → blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms → cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance

  3. An Illustrated Key to the Cyst-Forming Genera and Species of Heteroderidae in the Western Hemisphere with Species Morphometrics and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, R. H.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1983-01-01

    Diagnoses of the cyst-forming genera of Heteroderidae (viz., Heterodera, Sarisodera, Globodera, Punctodera, Cactodera, and Dolichodera) and distribution and morphometrics of the 34 known cyst species in the Western Hemisphere are presented along with an illustrated key for the identification of these genera and species. The key is based mainly on cysts and larvae, and important morphological and diagnostic features are extensively shown by LM and SEM illustrations. The genus Bidera is placed as a new synonym under the genus Heterodera. PMID:19295764

  4. Patterns of Toxoplasma gondii cyst distribution in the forebrain associate with individual variation in predator odor avoidance and anxiety-related behavior in male Long-Evans rats

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Andrew K.; Strassmann, Patrick S.; Lee, I-Ping; Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the world’s most successful brain parasites. T. gondii engages in parasite manipulation of host behavior and infection has been epidemiologically linked to numerous psychiatric disorders. Mechanisms by which T. gondii alters host behavior are not well understood, but neuroanatomical cyst presence and the localized host immune response to cysts are potential candidates. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that T. gondii manipulation of specific host behaviors is dependent on neuroanatomical location of cysts in a time-dependent function post-infection. We examined neuroanatomical cyst distribution (53 forebrain regions) in infected rats after predator odor aversion behavior and anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and open field arena, across a 6-week time course. In addition, we examined evidence for microglial response to the parasite across the time course. Our findings demonstrate that while cysts are randomly distributed throughout the forebrain, individual variation in cyst localization, beginning 3 weeks post-infection, can explain individual variation in the effects of T. gondii on behavior. Additionally, not all infected rats develop cysts in the forebrain, and attenuation of predator odor aversion and changes in anxiety-related behavior are linked with cyst presence in specific forebrain areas. Finally, the immune response to cysts is striking. These data provide the foundation for testing hypotheses about proximate mechanisms by which T. gondii alters behavior in specific brain regions, including consequences of establishment of a homeostasis between T. gondii and the host immune response. PMID:24269877

  5. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: Long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2014-05-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with>300 cysts cm-3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts→blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms→cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance (e

  6. Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine: long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Kleindinst, Judith L.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Norton, Kerry; Pilskaln, Cynthia H.; Smith, Juliette L.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Butman, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004–2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization. Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with>300 cysts cm−3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3–4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0–1 and the 0–3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts→blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms→cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0–3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell

  7. [Rare location of arachnoid cysts. Extratemporal cysts].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hinojosa, José; Pascual, Beatriz; Panaderos, Teresa; Welter, Diego; Muñoz, María J

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic management of arachnoid cysts depends largely on its location. Almost 50% of arachnoid cysts are located in the temporal fossa-Sylvian fissure, whereas the other half is distributed in different locations, sometimes exceptional. Under the name of infrequent location arachnoid cysts, a description is presented of those composed of 2 sheets of arachnoid membrane, which are not located in the temporal fossa, and are primary or congenital. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Theoretical Study of Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Yu; Liu, Ya-Jun

    2017-03-01

    Dinoflagellates are the most ubiquitous luminescent protists in the marine environment and have drawn much attention for their crucial roles in marine ecosystems. Dinoflagellate bioluminescence has been applied in underwater target detection. The luminescent system of dinoflagellates is a typical luciferin-luciferase one. However, the excited-state oxyluciferin is not the light emitter of dinoflagellate bioluminescence as in most luciferin-luciferase bioluminescent organisms. The oxyluciferin of bioluminescent dinoflagellates is not fluorescent, whereas its luciferin emits bright fluorescence with similar wavelength of the bioluminescence. What is the light emitter of dinoflagellate bioluminescence and what is the chemical process of the light emission like? These questions have not been answered by the limited experimental evidence so far. In this study, for the first time, the density functional calculation is employed to investigate the geometries and properties of luciferin and oxyluciferin of bioluminescent dinoflagellate. The calculated results agree with the experimental observations and indicate the luciferin or its analogue, rather than oxyluciferin, is the bioluminophore of dinoflagellate bioluminescence. A rough mechanism involving energy transfer is proposed for dinoflagellate bioluminescence.

  9. The Distribution of Toxoplasma gondii Cysts in the Brain of a Mouse with Latent Toxoplasmosis: Implications for the Behavioral Manipulation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Berenreiterová, Miroslava; Flegr, Jaroslav; Kuběna, Aleš A.; Němec, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Background The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii reportedly manipulates rodent behavior to enhance the likelihood of transmission to its definitive cat host. The proximate mechanisms underlying this adaptive manipulation remain largely unclear, though a growing body of evidence suggests that the parasite-entrained dysregulation of dopamine metabolism plays a central role. Paradoxically, the distribution of the parasite in the brain has received only scant attention. Methodology/Principal Findings The distributions of T. gondii cysts and histopathological lesions in the brains of CD1 mice with latent toxoplasmosis were analyzed using standard histological techniques. Mice were infected per orally with 10 tissue cysts of the avirulent HIF strain of T. gondii at six months of age and examined 18 weeks later. The cysts were distributed throughout the brain and selective tropism of the parasite toward a particular functional system was not observed. Importantly, the cysts were not preferentially associated with the dopaminergic system and absent from the hypothalamic defensive system. The striking interindividual differences in the total parasite load and cyst distribution indicate a probabilistic nature of brain infestation. Still, some brain regions were consistently more infected than others. These included the olfactory bulb, the entorhinal, somatosensory, motor and orbital, frontal association and visual cortices, and, importantly, the hippocampus and the amygdala. By contrast, a consistently low incidence of tissue cysts was recorded in the cerebellum, the pontine nuclei, the caudate putamen and virtually all compact masses of myelinated axons. Numerous perivascular and leptomeningeal infiltrations of inflammatory cells were observed, but they were not associated with intracellular cysts. Conclusion/Significance The observed pattern of T. gondii distribution stems from uneven brain colonization during acute infection and explains numerous behavioral

  10. Spontaneous perforation of choledochal cyst: a case with unusual distribution of fluid in the retroperitoneal space.

    PubMed

    Tani, Chihiro; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Masaki, Hidekazu; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Honna, Toshiroh

    2009-06-01

    Images of perforated choledochal cysts typically show an intraperitoneal fluid collection. We report a case with, in addition to free intraperitoneal fluid, fluid collection in the right-side anterior pararenal and perirenal spaces. Surgery confirmed the presence of a perforation at the junction of the cystic duct and the common bile duct. This perforation may explain the biliary leakage extending into the free peritoneal space as well as into the anterior pararenal space and the hepatoduodenal ligament. Anterior pararenal and perirenal spaces communicate with the infrarenal space, and this may result in extension of the fluid into the perirenal space from the anterior pararenal space.

  11. Life Cycle of the pseudocolonial dinoflagellate Polykrikos kofoidii (Gymnodiniales, Dinoflagellata).

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Urban; Hoppenrath, Mona

    2013-04-01

    The athecate, pseudocolonial polykrikoid dinoflag-ellates show a greater morphological complexity than many other dinoflagellate cells and contain not only elaborate extrusomes but sulci, cinguli, flagellar pairs, and nuclei in multiple copies. Among polykrikoids, Polykrikos kofoidii is a common species that plays an important role as a grazer of toxic planktonic algae but whose life cycle is poorly known. In this study, the main life cycle stages of P. kofoidii were examined and documented for the first time. The formation of gametes, 2-zooid-1-nucleus stages very different from vegetative cells, was observed and the process of gamete fusion, isogamy, was recorded. Karyogamy followed shortly after completed plasmogamy. A complex reorganization of furrows (cinguli and sulci) and flagella followed zygote formation, resulting in a 4-zooid zygote with one nucleus. The fate of zygotes under different nutritional conditions was also investigated; well-fed zygotes were able to reenter the vegetative cycle via meiotic divisions as indicated by nuclear cyclosis. However, nuclear cyclosis was preceded by a presumably mitotic division of the primary zygote nucleus which by definition would imply that P. kofoidii has a diplohaplontic life cycle. Nuclear cyclosis in germlings hatched from spiny resting cysts indicate that these cysts are of zygote origin (hypnozygotes). Hypnozygote formation, cyst hatching, the morphology of the germling (a 1-zooid cell), and its development into a normal pseudocolony are documented here for the first time. There is evidence that P. kofoidii has a system of complex heterothallism. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  12. Gastroenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Lauwers, H; Capoen, J; De Baets, F; Azou, M

    1993-08-01

    The authors report a rare case of gastroenteric cyst in a 4-day-old baby with increasing cyanosis. CT and MRI demonstrated a posterior mediastinal cystic mass, which finally was characterised by pathology as a gastroenteric cyst.

  13. Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Sometimes kidney cysts are found when one of ... might want you to have a CT or MRI scan of your kidney to see if the cyst ...

  14. Replication and Distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in the Small Intestine after Oral Infection with Tissue Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Beth; Taylor, Betsy C.; John, Beena; Tait-Wojno, Elia D.; Girgis, Natasha M.; Miller, Natalie; Wagage, Sagie; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural infection by Toxoplasma gondii occurs via oral ingestion of tissue cysts that rupture in the small intestine, releasing zoites that infect locally before disseminating throughout the host. The studies presented here used fluorescent parasites combined with flow cytometry and multiphoton microscopy techniques to understand the events associated with parasite replication in the mucosa. At 3 days postinfection with tissue cysts, parasites were localized in small foci and flow cytometry revealed parasites present in macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes in the lamina propria. By day 6 postinfection, there were large foci of replicating parasites; however, foci unexpectedly varied in the number of villi involved and were associated with the presence of viable tachyzoites within the intestinal lumen. Consistent with the flow cytometry data, neutrophils and monocytes in the lamina propria were preferentially associated with parasite plaques. In contrast, dendritic cells comprised a small fraction of the infected immune cell population and were localized at the periphery of parasite plaques. Together, these findings reveal the formation of localized sites of parasite replication and inflammation early during infection and suggest that sustained replication of T. gondii in the gut may be a function of pathogen luminal spread. PMID:23460516

  15. Renal Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts are fairly common in ... simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in ...

  16. Comparative culture and toxicity studies between the toxic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida and a morphologically similar cryptoperidiniopsoid dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Marshall; Gordon; Seaborn; Dyer; Dunstan; Seaborn

    2000-12-01

    A series of fish bioassays using cultures of the toxic dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida and a cryptoperidiniopsoid dinoflagellate indicated various degrees of toxicity for Pfiesteria piscicida and no toxicity by the cryptoperidiniopsoid. P. piscicida maintained toxicity in the presence of live fish, and this toxicity was perpetuated following a series of inoculations to other culture vessels. Differences in the onset and magnitude of the fish deaths occurred, requiring 16 days for the initial fish death when using P. piscicida from a culture that had previously been maintained on algal cells, to kills within hours when using a culture that had recently (previous day) killed fish. Autopsies of moribund fish from the test and control fish bioassays indicated a general lack of bacterial infection, which ensued following death of other autopsied fish. Moreover, bacterial comparisons of waters in the fish bioassay and control fish cultures indicated that similar bacterial concentrations were present. Neither oxygen or ammonia levels were determined to be factors in the fish death. Life stages of a cryptoperidiniopsoid dinoflagellate from Virginia estuaries were also identified, including motile zoospore, gametes, planozygote, amoebae, and cyst stages. The cryptoperidiniopsioid did not initiate fish deaths in bioassays conducted over a 14-week period at zoospore concentrations of ca. 700-800 cells ml(-1). Elemental X-ray analysis of the scales from cysts of this dinoflagellate and P. piscicida indicate that they both contain silicon. Overall, the data from this study demonstrate that the cryptoperidiniopsoid possesses several similar life stages and feeding patterns as P. piscicida, but was not toxic to fish.

  17. Worldwide Distribution of Potato-Cyst Nematodes and Their Importance in Crop Production

    PubMed Central

    Mai, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The potato-cyst nematodes Heterodera rostochiensis and H. pallida are important pathogens of potatoes, a basic food crop. When soil populations of either species are high, potato yields are often less than the seed planted. Apparently, these nematodes originated in the Andean mountains of South America, the home of the potato. One or both species have spread from this region to approximately 47 countries. The two species may occur together or separately in potato-growing areas. Although these nematodes can be spread in numerous ways, contaminated soil associated with seed potatoes, farm machinery, and reusable containers is among the most important. An integrated control program used in the U.S.A. is described. PMID:19305567

  18. Molecular Detection of Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates in Surface Waters of the Patagonian Shelf during Early Austral Summer 2008

    PubMed Central

    Valiadi, Martha; Painter, Stuart C.; Allen, John T.; Balch, William M.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, M. Debora

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in the Patagonian Shelf region using “universal” PCR primers for the dinoflagellate luciferase gene. Luciferase gene sequences and single cell PCR tests, in conjunction with taxonomic identification by microscopy, allowed us to identify and quantify bioluminescent dinoflagellates. We compared these data to coincidental discrete optical measurements of stimulable bioluminescence intensity. Molecular detection of the luciferase gene showed that bioluminescent dinoflagellates were widespread across the majority of the Patagonian Shelf region. Their presence was comparatively underestimated by optical bioluminescence measurements, whose magnitude was affected by interspecific differences in bioluminescence intensity and by the presence of other bioluminescent organisms. Molecular and microscopy data showed that the complex hydrography of the area played an important role in determining the distribution and composition of dinoflagellate populations. Dinoflagellates were absent south of the Falkland Islands where the cold, nutrient-rich, and well-mixed waters of the Falklands Current favoured diatoms instead. Diverse populations of dinoflagellates were present in the warmer, more stratified waters of the Patagonian Shelf and Falklands Current as it warmed northwards. Here, the dinoflagellate population composition could be related to distinct water masses. Our results provide new insight into the prevalence of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in Patagonian Shelf waters and demonstrate that a molecular approach to the detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates in natural waters is a promising tool for ecological studies of these organisms. PMID:24918444

  19. Nasolabial cyst.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Caner

    2009-01-01

    Nasolabial cyst is a rare nonodontogenics, soft-tissue cyst occurring in the sublabial area and anterior maxillary region. The patient usually presents with a slowly enlarging asymptomatic swelling. They are usually diagnosed in early stages because of cosmetic problems. In our paper we report a nasolabial cyst of a 53-year-old man and discuss the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment in the light of the literature.

  20. Vaginal cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may need a biopsy to rule out vaginal cancer, especially if the mass appears to be solid. If the cyst is located under the bladder or urethra, x-rays may be needed to see if the cyst extends into these organs.

  1. Using Gordiid cysts to discover the hidden diversity, potential distribution,
    and new species of Gordiids (Phylum Nematomorpha).

    PubMed

    Harkins, Cleo; Shannon, Ryan; Papeş, Monica; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Hanelt, Ben; Bolek, Matthew G

    2016-03-11

    In this study, we sampled aquatic snails for the presence of hairworm cysts from 46 streams in Payne County, Oklahoma. Gordiid cysts were found at 70 % (32/46) of sites examined. Based on cyst morphology, we were able to identify three morphological types of gordiid cysts, including Paragordius, Gordius, and Chordodes/Neochordodes. Using our gordiid cyst presence data in conjunction with environmental variables, we developed an ecological niche model using Maxent to identify areas suitable for snail infections with gordiids. The model successfully predicted all presence localities of gordiid cysts in snails over a geographic area of 1,810 km2. We used this information, along with arthropod host infections and crowdsourcing, citizen scientists sampling for adult free-living worms during peak emergent times in areas predicted suitable by the model, to document Paragordius varius, Chordodes morgani, and a new species of gordiid (Gordius n. sp.). To our knowledge, this is the first ecological niche model attempted on such a narrow geographic scale (county level) that recovered known locations successfully. We provide new scanning electron micrographs and molecular data for these species. Our field data and ecological niche model clearly indicate that gordiid cysts are easy to detect in the environment and together these sampling techniques can be useful in discovering new species of gordiids, even in relatively well sampled areas for these cryptic parasites.

  2. Immunological and physiological responses of the periwinkle Littorina littorea during and after exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.

    PubMed

    Neves, Raquel A F; Figueiredo, Gisela M; Valentin, Jean Louis; da Silva Scardua, Patricia Mirella; Hégaret, Hélène

    2015-03-01

    Species of the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium produce phycotoxins responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning. Blooms of Alexandrium minutum reach very high concentrations of vegetative cells in the water column; and when these blooms occur, large numbers of toxic cysts can be produced and deposited on sediments becoming available to benthic species. The present study investigated the potential effect of exposure to toxic cysts of A. minutum on the periwinkle Littorinalittorea. Snails were exposed for nine days to pellicle cysts of toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates, A. minutum and Heterocapsa triquetra, respectively, followed by six days of depuration while they were fed only H. triquetra. Toxin accumulation, condition index, immune and histopathological responses were analyzed. Histological alterations were also monitored in snails exposed to a harmful A. minutum bloom, which naturally occurred in the Bay of Brest. Snails exposed to toxic cysts showed abnormal behavior that seems to be toxin-induced and possibly related to muscle paralysis. Periwinkles accumulated toxins by preying on toxic cysts and accumulation appeared dependent on the time of exposure, increasing during intoxication period but tending to stabilize during depuration period. Toxic exposure also seemed to negatively affect hemocyte viability and functions, as ROS production and phagocytosis. Histological analyses revealed that toxic exposure induced damages on digestive organs of snails, both in laboratory and natural systems. This study demonstrates that an exposure to the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum leads to sublethal effects on L. littorea, which may alter individual fitness and increase the susceptibility of snails to pathogens and diseases.

  3. [Mesenteric cysts].

    PubMed

    Huis, Marijan; Balija, Milivoj; Lez, Cvjetko; Szerda, Ferenc; Stulhofer, Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts and cystic mesenteric tumors are very rare abdominal growths. They may be localized all over the mesentery, from duodenum to rectum, however, they are mostly found in the ileum and right colon mesentery. There are several classifications of these formations, among which the one based on histopathologic features including 6 groups has been most commonly used: 1) cysts of lymphatic origin--lymphatic (hilar cysts) and lymphangiomas; 2) cysts of mesothelial origin--benign or malignant mesothelial cysts; 3) enteric cysts; 4) cysts of urogenital origin; 5) dermoid cysts; and 6) pseudocysts--infectious or traumatic etiology. Two adult female patients treated at the Department of Surgery, Zabok General Hospital, are presented. The diagnosis of mesenteric cyst was based on explorative laparotomy indicated for a cystic abdominal growth and characteristic palpatory finding, US and CT findings. In both patients, the cysts were successfully treated by total cystectomy. Pathohistologic findings pointed to lymphatic cysts. Control US finding at 3 months postoperatively was normal in both patients. Cystic lymphangioma mostly occurs in the first decade of life, with a female predominance. It is usually accompanied by acute abdominal symptomatology. Lymphatic cysts occur later in life (1:100,000 in adults and 1:20,000 in children), also show female predominance, and as a rule are asymptomatic. A mesenteric cyst, especially lymphatic, should be suspected in the presence of painless abdominal tumor, with occasionally painful abdominal pressure, normal laboratory findings, and good general condition in a female patient. In symptomatic cases, acute or chronic abdominal pain is the most common feature, whereas other symptomatology depends on the localization, size and consequential abdominal organ compression (intestinal obstruction, hydronephrosis, lower extremity lymphedema). The term of cystic mesenteric tumor is mostly used to refer to cystic lymphangiomas and

  4. Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from the Large Aral Sea: Abundance, distribution, population structure and cyst production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arashkevich, Elena G.; Sapozhnikov, P. V.; Soloviov, K. A.; Kudyshkin, T. V.; Zavialov, P. O.

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica appeared in the Large Aral Sea (Central Asia) in 1998 when mineralization reached 63 ppt. Data on Artemia abundance and biomass, along with temperature and salinity measurements were collected in the western basin during 2002-2006, primarily in the autumn. During the study period, population density grew progressively, both in terms of number, from 250 to 1260 individuals per m 3, and in terms of biomass, from 0.3 to 1.3 g per m 3. In 2005, the population density and spatial distribution in the different parts of the sea (western and eastern basins and strait) was assessed. The horizontal distribution of the Artemia population was uniform in the deep central part of the western basin, although the distribution was quite patchy in the shallow coastal zone. Depth habitat of Artemia was restricted to the upper 20-25 m of depth, as the oxygen depletion and formation of anoxic layer prevented distribution of Artemia to the deeper waters. In autumn, all females reproduced oviparously, with an average clutch size of 30-35 eggs per female. The number of eggs in a clutch was positively correlated with female body length ( r2 = 0.36-0.44).

  5. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Endometriosis fact sheet Ovarian cancer fact sheet Polycystic ovary syndrome fact sheet The javascript used in this widget ... ovaries make many small cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries ...

  6. Bartholin Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacteria that cause sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. A Bartholin's cyst or abscess may recur and again require treatment. Your first appointment will likely be with either ...

  7. Breast Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... ll discuss your symptoms, their relation to your menstrual cycle and any other relevant information. To prepare for ... in one or both breasts? How does your menstrual cycle affect the breast cyst or lump? When was ...

  8. Pancreatic Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... triggering pancreatitis, you may need to have your gallbladder removed. If your pancreatitis is due to alcohol ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pancreatic-cysts/basics/definition/CON-20024331 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  9. Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... common type of PKD end up with kidney failure. PKD also causes cysts in other parts of ... and lifestyle changes, and if there is kidney failure, dialysis or kidney transplants. Acquired cystic kidney disease ( ...

  10. Molecular isotopic and dinoflagellate evidence for Late Holocene freshening of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Baas, Marianne; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    The Black Sea is the world's largest anoxic basin with oxygen-free conditions below water depths of approximately 100 m resulting from strong density stratification. The salinity of its surface water likely varied substantially over time due to variations in freshwater input from large rivers and in the saline bottom water of Mediterranean origin coming across the shallow sill of the Bosporus. However, long-term reconstructions of surface water salinities are lacking. The invasion of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi in the Black Sea at approximately 2720 a, responsible for a marked change in sediment composition (lithology), has been commonly attributed to salinity levels rising above 11. We analyzed the δD values of long-chain alkenones produced by haptophyte algae, mainly E. huxleyi, in a core from the eastern basin of the Black Sea to reconstruct past variations in sea surface salinities, and combined this with relative salinity changes generated from organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distributions from the same core. Combined results indicate a substantial freshening of Black Sea surface waters in the last 3000 years, suggesting that sea surface salinity was substantially higher than the present-day salinity of approximately 18 at the time E. huxleyi invaded the Black Sea.

  11. Putting the N in dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Steve; Morse, David

    2013-01-01

    The cosmopolitan presence of dinoflagellates in aquatic habitats is now believed to be a direct consequence of the different trophic modes they have developed through evolution. While heterotrophs ingest food and photoautotrophs photosynthesize, mixotrophic species are able to use both strategies to harvest energy and nutrients. These different trophic modes are of particular importance when nitrogen nutrition is considered. Nitrogen is required for the synthesis of amino acids, nucleic acids, chlorophylls, and toxins, and thus changes in the concentrations of various nitrogenous compounds can strongly affect both primary and secondary metabolism. For example, high nitrogen concentration is correlated with rampant cell division resulting in the formation of the algal blooms commonly called red tides. Conversely, nitrogen starvation results in cell cycle arrest and induces a series of physiological, behavioral and transcriptomic modifications to ensure survival. This review will combine physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic data to assess the mechanism and impact of nitrogen metabolism in dinoflagellates and to compare the dinoflagellate responses with those of diatoms. PMID:24363653

  12. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, David P.; Mahood, Albert D.

    1981-01-01

    Many Chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. We have used an ecologic and biogeographic approach to study the distribution of cyst forms in sediments and have established that many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples we have studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Numerous taxonomic problems have yet to be resolved. We believe that chrysophyte cysts have the potential to become a useful tool for both modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits.

  13. Relationship of simple renal cyst to hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Mi; Chung, Tae-Heum; Oh, Myoung-Soon; Kwon, Sung-Gul; Bae, Sung-Jin

    2014-09-01

    Simple renal cyst is the most common cystic deformation found in adults. However, there were a few systematic Korean reports for the clinical symptoms and complications of simple renal cysts. The author's purpose was to determine the relationship between simple renal cysts diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and hypertension. Among 13,482 persons who took a routine physical examination at Ulsan University Hospital in 2002, 5,127 persons who took medical examinations again in 2010 were selected. We excluded persons who had renal cyst, hypertension, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, kidney disease, thyroid disease, and cancer in 2002. Analysis was conducted for 505 subjects with newly diagnosed simple renal cyst and 2,744 subjects without renal cyst in 2010. The simple renal cyst group was compared to a control group without renal cyst. Among 3,249 subjects, simple renal cyst and hypertension were newly diagnosed in 505 subjects and 503 subjects. The subjects who had simple renal cysts had significantly higher hypertension incidence (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.94). Significant hypertension incidence was observed especially when the subjects had cysts located on both kidneys (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.12 to 5.71), two (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.84 to 5.15) or more cysts (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.38 to 7.04), and larger cysts more than 1 cm in diameter (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.07). The presence of simple renal cysts was significantly positively related to the incidence of hypertension. Bilateral distribution, two or more number, and larger size than 1 cm diameter were the characteristics of simple renal cyst related to hypertension.

  14. Relationship of Simple Renal Cyst to Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Mi; Oh, Myoung-Soon; Kwon, Sung-Gul; Bae, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Simple renal cyst is the most common cystic deformation found in adults. However, there were a few systematic Korean reports for the clinical symptoms and complications of simple renal cysts. The author's purpose was to determine the relationship between simple renal cysts diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and hypertension. Methods Among 13,482 persons who took a routine physical examination at Ulsan University Hospital in 2002, 5,127 persons who took medical examinations again in 2010 were selected. We excluded persons who had renal cyst, hypertension, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, kidney disease, thyroid disease, and cancer in 2002. Analysis was conducted for 505 subjects with newly diagnosed simple renal cyst and 2,744 subjects without renal cyst in 2010. The simple renal cyst group was compared to a control group without renal cyst. Results Among 3,249 subjects, simple renal cyst and hypertension were newly diagnosed in 505 subjects and 503 subjects. The subjects who had simple renal cysts had significantly higher hypertension incidence (odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 1.94). Significant hypertension incidence was observed especially when the subjects had cysts located on both kidneys (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.12 to 5.71), two (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.84 to 5.15) or more cysts (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.38 to 7.04), and larger cysts more than 1 cm in diameter (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.07). Conclusion The presence of simple renal cysts was significantly positively related to the incidence of hypertension. Bilateral distribution, two or more number, and larger size than 1 cm diameter were the characteristics of simple renal cyst related to hypertension. PMID:25309704

  15. Mucous cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment should only be done by your provider. Oral surgeons and some dentists can remove the sac. Possible Complications Complications may include: Return of the ... your provider if you: Notice a cyst or mass in your mouth Have difficulty swallowing or talking These may be ...

  16. Prostatic cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraman, L.; Sivasubramanian, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The classification, clinical features, and treatment of prostatic cysts are discussed with reference to 2 personal cases which differed in origin, in mode of presentation, and in the management required. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:718076

  17. Fish Parasite Dinoflagellates Haidadinium ichthyophilum and Piscinoodinium Share a Recent Common Ancestor.

    PubMed

    Hehenberger, Elisabeth; James, Erick R; Del Campo, Javier; Buckland-Nicks, John A; Reimchen, Thomas E; Keeling, Patrick J

    2017-05-25

    The dinoflagellate Haidadinium ichthyophilum Buckland-Nicks, Reimchen and Garbary 1997 is an ectoparasite of the spine-deficient, three-spine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. Reimchen 1984, a fish endemic to Rouge Lake, Haida Gwaii. Haidadinium ichthyophilum proved difficult to assign taxonomically because its morphology and complex life cycle exhibited defining characteristics of both autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and was tentatively assigned to the Phytodiniales. Here, we characterized a 492 bp fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) from preserved H. ichthyophilum cysts. In SSU phylogeny, H. ichthyophilum branches with the fish parasites, Piscinoodinium sp., strongly supporting the inclusion of H. ichthyophilum within the Suessiales. © 2017 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2017 International Society of Protistologists.

  18. Circadian Changes in Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Distribution Inside Individual Chloroplasts Can Account for the Rhythm in Dinoflagellate Carbon Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Nassoury, Nasha; Fritz, Lawrence; Morse, David

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies of photosynthetic carbon fixation in the marine alga Gonyaulax have shown that the reaction rates in vivo vary threefold between day and night but that the in vitro activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in this process, remains constant. Using protein gel blotting, we confirm that Rubisco protein levels are constant over time. We present simultaneous measurements of the rhythms of CO2 fixation and O2 evolution and show that the two rhythms are ∼6 hr out of phase. We further show that the distribution of Rubisco within chloroplasts varies as a function of circadian time and that this rhythm in Rubisco distribution correlates with the CO2 fixation rhythm. At times of high carbon fixation, Rubisco is found in pyrenoids, regions of the chloroplasts located near the cell center, and is separated from most of the light-harvesting protein PCP (for peridinin–chlorophyll a–protein), which is found in cortical regions of the plastids. We propose that the rhythm in Rubisco distribution is causally related to the rhythm in carbon fixation and suggest that several mechanisms involving enzyme sequestration could account for the increase in the efficiency of carbon fixation. PMID:11283345

  19. Dinoflagellate phylogeny revisited: Using ribosomal proteins to resolve deep branching dinoflagellate clades

    PubMed Central

    Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R.; Gornik, Sebastian G.; Concepcion, Gregory T.; Waller, Ross F.; Mendez, Gregory S.; Lippmeier, J. Casey; Delwiche, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    The alveolates are composed of three major lineages, the ciliates, dinoflagellates, and apicomplexans. Together these ‘protist’ taxa play key roles in primary production and ecology, as well as in illness of humans and other animals. The interface between the dinoflagellate and apicomplexan clades has been an area of recent discovery, blurring the distinction between these two clades. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis has yet to determine the position of basal dinoflagellate clades hence the deepest branches of the dinoflagellate tree currently remain unresolved. Large-scale mRNA sequencing was applied to 11 species of dinoflagellates, including strains of the syndinean genera Hematodinium and Amoebophrya, parasites of crustaceans and dinoflagellates, respectively, to optimize and update the dinoflagellate tree. From the transcriptome-scale data a total of 73 ribosomal protein-coding genes were selected for phylogeny. After individual gene orthology assessment, the genes were concatenated into a >15,000 amino acid alignment with 76 taxa from dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, ciliates, and the outgroup heterokonts. Overall the tree was well resolved and supported, when the data was subsampled with gblocks or constraint trees were tested with the approximately unbiased test. The deepest branches of the dinoflagellate tree can now be resolved with strong support, and provides a clearer view of the evolution of the distinctive traits of dinoflagellates. PMID:24135237

  20. Photosynthetic characteristics and organization of chlorophyll in marine dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Prézelin, Barbara B.; Alberte, Randall S.

    1978-01-01

    The photosystem I reaction center complex, the P-700-chlorophyll a-protein, has been isolated from the photosynthetic membranes of two marine dinoflagellates, Gonyaulax polyedra and Glenodinium sp., by detergent solubilization with Triton X-100. The complexes isolated from the two species were indistinguishable, exhibiting identical absorption properties (400-700 nm) at both room (300 K) and low (77 K) temperature. The room temperature, red wavelength maximum was at 675 nm. The absorption properties, kinetics of photobleaching, sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoretic mobilities, and chlorophyll a/P-700 ratio (50 ± 10) of the P-700-chlorophyll a-protein complexes from the two species also were essentially the same and similar to those properties characterizing P-700-chlorophyll a-protein complexes of higher plants and green algae. Photosynthetic unit sizes were determined for cells grown at 1000 μW/cm2. Both dinoflagellates had unit sizes (total chlorophyll/P-700 ratios) of about 600, even though the distribution of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and peridinin in the light-harvesting components differed in Gonyaulax and Glenodinium. The number of photosynthetic units per cell in the two species correlates directly with their photosynthetic activities. A model is presented for the distribution of chlorophyll in the photosynthetic apparatus of these dinoflagellates which accounts for the known role of the isolated pigment-protein complexes and for the known photoadaptive physiology in pigmentation and photosynthesis for these species. PMID:16592518

  1. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Van de Waal, Dedmer B; John, Uwe; Ziveri, Patrizia; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Hoins, Mirja; Sluijs, Appy; Rost, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii.

  2. The Hidden Sexuality of Alexandrium Minutum: An Example of Overlooked Sex in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Rosa I.; Dapena, Carlos; Bravo, Isabel; Cuadrado, Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are haploid eukaryotic microalgae in which rapid proliferation causes dense blooms, with harmful health and economic effects to humans. The proliferation mode is mainly asexual, as the sexual cycle is believed to be rare and restricted to stressful environmental conditions. However, sexuality is key to explaining the recurrence of many dinoflagellate blooms because in many species the fate of the planktonic zygotes (planozygotes) is the formation of resistant cysts in the seabed (encystment). Nevertheless, recent research has shown that individually isolated planozygotes in the lab can enter other routes besides encystment, a behavior of which the relevance has not been explored at the population level. In this study, using imaging flow cytometry, cell sorting, and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH), we followed DNA content and nuclear changes in a population of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum that was induced to encystment. Our results first show that planozygotes behave like a population with an “encystment-independent” division cycle, which is light-controlled and follows the same Light:Dark (L:D) pattern as the cycle governing the haploid mitosis. Resting cyst formation was the fate of just a small fraction of the planozygotes formed and was restricted to a period of strongly limited nutrient conditions. The diploid-haploid turnover between L:D cycles was consistent with two-step meiosis. However, the diel and morphological division pattern of the planozygote division also suggests mitosis, which would imply that this species is not haplontic, as previously considered, but biphasic, because individuals could undergo mitotic divisions in both the sexual (diploid) and the asexual (haploid) phases. We also report incomplete genome duplication processes. Our work calls for a reconsideration of the dogma of rare sex in dinoflagellates. PMID:26599692

  3. Middle Eocene paleocirculation of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, the anteroom to an ice-house world: evidence from dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raquel Guerstein, G.; Daners, Gloria; Palma, Elbio; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Premaor, Eduardo; Amenábar, Cecilia R.; Belgaburo, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Middle Eocene dinoflagellate cyst organic walled assemblages from sections located in the Antarctic Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz province and south of Chile are mainly represented by endemic taxa, which are also dominant in several circum - Antarctic sites located southern 45° S. Some members of this endemic Antarctic assemblage, including especies of Enneadocysta, Deflandrea, Vozzhennikovia, and Spinidinium, have been recognised in sites along the Southwest Atlantic Ocean Shelf at Colorado (˜38° S), Punta del Este (˜36° S) and Pelotas (˜30° S) basins. Northern 30° S, at Jequitinhonha (˜17oS) and Sergipe (˜11° S) basins, there is no evidence of the endemic Antarctic members, except for Enneadocysta dictyostila, recorded in very low proportion. Based on its positive correlation with CaCO3 percentages we assume that this species is the unique member of the endemic assemblage apparently tolerant to warm surface waters. Previous research developed in the Tasman area has related the presence of endemic taxa at mid- latitudes to a strong clockwise subpolar gyre favoured by the partial continental blockage of the Tasmanian Gateways and the Drake Passage. In this work we propose that the dinoflagellate cyst distribution along the South Atlantic Ocean Shelf can be explained by a similar dynamical mechanism induced by a cyclonic subpolar gyre on the South Atlantic Ocean. The western boundary current of this gyre, starting on the west Antarctic continental slope, would follow a similar path to the present Malvinas Current on the Patagonian slope. Modelling and observational studies at the Patagonian shelf-break have shown that a cyclonic western boundary current promotes upwelling and intrusion of cold oceanic waters to the shelf and intensifies the northward shelf transport. In a similar way we hypothesize that during the Middle Eocene the western boundary current of a proto-Weddell Gyre transported the circum-antarctic waters and the endemic components

  4. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Marinov, Georgi K.; Lynch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed. PMID:26646152

  5. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins.

    PubMed

    Marinov, Georgi K; Lynch, Michael

    2015-12-08

    Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed.

  6. Peridinialean dinoflagellate plate patterns, labels and homologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Tabulation patterns for peridinialean dinoflagellate thecae and cysts have been traditionally expressed using a plate labelling system described by C.A. Kofoid in the early 1900's. This system can obscure dinoflagellate plate homologies and has not always been strictly applied. The plate-labelling system presented here introduces new series labels but incorporates key features and ideas from the more recently proposed systems of G.L. Eaton and F.J.R. Taylor, as modified by W.R. Evitt. Plate-series recognition begins with the cingulum (C-series) and proceeds from the cingulum toward the apex for the three series of the epitheca/epicyst and proceeds from the cingulum toward the antapex for the two series of the hypotheca/hypocyst. The epithecal/epicystal model consists of eight plates that touch the anterior margin of the cingulum (E-series: plates E1-E7, ES), seven plates toward the apex that touch the E-series plates (M-series: R, M1-M6), and up to seven plates near the apex that do not touch E-series plates (D-series: Dp-Dv). The hypothecal/hypocystal model consists of eight plates that touch the posterior margin of the cingulum (H-series: H1-H6,HR,HS) and three plates toward the antapex (T1-T3). Epithecal/epicystal tabulation patterns come in both 8- and 7- models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the E-series. Hypothecal/hypocystal tabulation patterns also come in both 8- and 7-models, corresponding to eight and seven plates, respectively, in the H-series. By convention, the 7-model epitheca/epicyst has no plates E1 and M1; the 7-model hypotheca/hypocyst has no plate H6. Within an 8-model or 7-model, the system emphasizes plates that are presumed to be homologous by giving them identical labels. I introduce the adjectives "monothigmate", "dithigmate," and "trithigmate" to designate plates touching one, two, and three plates, respectively, of the adjacent series. The term "thigmation" applies to the analysis of plate contacts between

  7. First report of fossilized cysts produced by the benthic Bysmatrum subsalsum (Dinophyceae) from a shallow Mexican lagoon in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Limoges, Audrey; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Ruíz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Cysts belonging to the benthic dinoflagellate Bysmatrum subsalsum were recovered from palynologically treated sediments collected in the Alvarado Lagoon (southwestern Gulf of Mexico). The cysts are proximate, reflecting the features of the parent thecal stage, and their autofluorescence implies a dinosporin composition similar to the cyst walls of phototrophic species. This finding is important for our understanding of B. subsalsum life cycle transitions and ecology. Encystment may play an important role in the bloom dynamics of this species as it can enable the formation of a sediment cyst bank that allows reinoculation of the water column when conditions become favorable. This is the first report of a fossilized cyst produced by a benthic dinoflagellate recovered from sub-recent sediments.

  8. Different life cycle strategies of the dinoflagellates Fragilidium duplocampanaeforme and its prey Dinophysis acuminata may explain their different susceptibilities to the infection by the parasite Parvilucifera infectans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Park, Myung Gil

    2017-05-01

    Some marine dinoflagellates form ecdysal cyst (=temporary cysts) as part of their life cycle or under unfavorable growth conditions. Whether the dinoflagellates form ecdysal cysts or not may influence susceptibility to parasitism. In this study, parasite prevalence relative to inoculum size of the parasitoid Parvilucifera infectans zoospores for two dinoflagellate hosts (i.e., Fragilidium duplocampanaeforme and Dinophysis acuminata), which have different life cycle strategies, was examined. Further, susceptibility of cysts to parasitism, encystment signal, duration of encystments, and effects of induced encystment on diel periodicity, using ecdysal cyst-forming F. duplocampanaeforme were explored. The percent hosts infected by P. infectans plotted as a function of inoculum size showed a sharp increase to a maximum in D. acuminata, but a gradual linear rise in F. duplocampanaeforme: while the parasite prevalence in D. acuminata increased to a maximum of 78.8 (±2.4%) by a zoospore:host ratio of 20:1, it in F. duplocampanaeforme only reached 8.9 (±0.3%), even at a zoospore:host ratio of 120:1. In F. duplocampanaeforme, infections were observed only in the vegetative cells and not observed in ecdysal cysts. When exposed to live, frozen, and sonicated zoospores and zoospore filtrate, F. duplocampanaeforme formed ecdysal cysts only when exposed to live zoospores, suggesting that temporary cyst formation in the dinoflagellate resulted from direct contact with zoospores. When the Parvilucifera zoospores attacked and struggled to penetrate F. duplocampanaeforme through its flagellar pore, the Fragilidium cell shed all thecal plates, forming a 'thecal cloud layer', in which the zoospores were caught and immobilized and thus could not penetrate anymore. The duration (35±1.8h) of ecdysal cysts induced with addition of zoospores was significantly longer than that (15±0.8h) of normally formed cysts (i.e., without addition of zoospores), thereby resulting in delayed growth as

  9. [Chylous mesenteric cyst].

    PubMed

    Skach, J; Gawlik, V

    2014-09-01

    The authors present a case report of a female patient with a recurrent mesenteric cyst. Chylous cyst is one of rare diagnoses of a cyst close to the pancreas in patients with no history of acute pancreatitis. Chylous cysts need to be managed radically; otherwise, given their nature, they are likely to recur.

  10. Odontogenic Cysts and Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth Ann; Collins, Bobby M

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews a myriad of common and uncommon odontogenic cysts and tumors. The clinical presentation, gross and microscopic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and diagnostic pitfalls are addressed for inflammatory cysts (periapical cyst, mandibular infected buccal cyst/paradental cyst), developmental cysts (dentigerous, lateral periodontal, glandular odontogenic, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst), benign tumors (keratocystic odontogenic tumor, ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma and fibroodontoma, odontoma, squamous odontogenic tumor, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, primordial odontogenic tumor, central odontogenic fibroma, and odontogenic myxomas), and malignant tumors (clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Description of Two Species of Early Branching Dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Noriko; Horák, Aleš; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    In alveolate evolution, dinoflagellates have developed many unique features, including the cell that has epicone and hypocone, the undulating transverse flagellum. However, it remains unclear how these features evolved. The early branching dinoflagellates so far investigated such as Hematodinium, Amoebophrya and Oxyrrhis marina differ in many ways from of core dinoflagellates, or dinokaryotes. Except those handful of well studied taxa, the vast majority of early branching dinoflagellates are known only by environmental sequences, and remain enigmatic. In this study we describe two new species of the early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp. from marine intertidal sandy beach. Molecular phylogeny of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and Hsp90 gene places Psammosa spp. as an early branch among the dinoflagellates. Morphologically (1) they lack the typical dinoflagellate epicone–hypocone structure, and (2) undulation in either flagella. Instead they display a mosaïc of dinokaryotes traits, i.e. (3) presence of bi-partite trychocysts; Oxyrrhis marina–like traits, i.e. (4) presence of flagellar hairs, (5) presence of two-dimensional cobweb scales ornamenting both flagella (6) transversal cell division; a trait shared with some syndineansand Parvilucifera spp. i.e. (7) a nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus and condensed chromatin distributed beneath the nuclear envelope; as well as Perkinsus marinus -like features i.e. (8) separate ventral grooves where flagella emerge and (9) lacking dinoflagellate-type undulating flagellum. Notably Psammosa retains an apical complex structure, which is shared between perkinsids, colpodellids, chromerids and apicomplexans, but is not found in dinokaryotic dinoflagellates. PMID:22719825

  12. Description of two species of early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Noriko; Horák, Aleš; Keeling, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    In alveolate evolution, dinoflagellates have developed many unique features, including the cell that has epicone and hypocone, the undulating transverse flagellum. However, it remains unclear how these features evolved. The early branching dinoflagellates so far investigated such as Hematodinium, Amoebophrya and Oxyrrhis marina differ in many ways from of core dinoflagellates, or dinokaryotes. Except those handful of well studied taxa, the vast majority of early branching dinoflagellates are known only by environmental sequences, and remain enigmatic. In this study we describe two new species of the early branching dinoflagellates, Psammosa pacifica n. g., n. sp. and P. atlantica n. sp. from marine intertidal sandy beach. Molecular phylogeny of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA and Hsp90 gene places Psammosa spp. as an early branch among the dinoflagellates. Morphologically (1) they lack the typical dinoflagellate epicone-hypocone structure, and (2) undulation in either flagella. Instead they display a mosaïc of dinokaryotes traits, i.e. (3) presence of bi-partite trychocysts; Oxyrrhis marina-like traits, i.e. (4) presence of flagellar hairs, (5) presence of two-dimensional cobweb scales ornamenting both flagella (6) transversal cell division; a trait shared with some syndineansand Parvilucifera spp. i.e. (7) a nucleus with a conspicuous nucleolus and condensed chromatin distributed beneath the nuclear envelope; as well as Perkinsus marinus -like features i.e. (8) separate ventral grooves where flagella emerge and (9) lacking dinoflagellate-type undulating flagellum. Notably Psammosa retains an apical complex structure, which is shared between perkinsids, colpodellids, chromerids and apicomplexans, but is not found in dinokaryotic dinoflagellates.

  13. Primary mesenteric hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Gupta, Rajni; Mohanti, Satyabrot; Kumar, Surender

    2012-07-09

    Hydatid disease mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a common parasitic infestation of the liver. Most common sites are liver (70%) and lungs (25%). Intraperitoneal hydatid cyst is found in 13% and it is usually secondary to rupture of primary hepatic cyst. Primary intraperitoeal hydatid cyst is rare (2%). Primary hydatid cyst in mesentery is very rare. In this article, the author presents a case of primary mesenteric hydatid cyst with chronic pain in lower abdomen.

  14. Primary mesenteric hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Gupta, Rajni; Mohanti, Satyabrot; Kumar, Surender

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease mostly caused by Echinococcus granulosus is a common parasitic infestation of the liver. Most common sites are liver (70%) and lungs (25%). Intraperitoneal hydatid cyst is found in 13% and it is usually secondary to rupture of primary hepatic cyst. Primary intraperitoeal hydatid cyst is rare (2%). Primary hydatid cyst in mesentery is very rare. In this article, the author presents a case of primary mesenteric hydatid cyst with chronic pain in lower abdomen. PMID:22778458

  15. Niche partitioning of closely related symbiotic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Sampayo, Eugenia M; Franceschinis, Lorenzo; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2007-09-01

    Reef-building corals are fundamental to the most diverse marine ecosystems, yet a detailed understanding of the processes involved in the establishment, persistence and ecology of the coral-dinoflagellate association remains largely unknown. This study explores symbiont diversity in relation to habitat by employing a broad-scale sampling regime using ITS2 and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Samples from Pocillopora damicornis, Stylophora pistillata and Seriatopora hystrix all harboured host-specific clade C symbiont types at Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). While Ser. hystrix associated with a single symbiont profile along its entire depth distribution, both P. damicornis and Sty. pistillata associated with multiple symbiont profiles that showed a strong zonation with depth. It is shown that, with an increased sampling effort, previously identified 'rare' symbiont types within this group of host species are in fact environmental specialists. A multivariate approach was used to expand on the common distinction of symbionts by a single genetic identity. It shows merit in its capacity not only to include all the variability present within the marker region but also to reliably represent ecological diversification of symbionts. Furthermore, the cohesive species concept is explored to explain how niche partitioning may drive diversification of closely related symbiont lineages. This study provides thus evidence that closely related symbionts are ecologically distinct and fulfil their own niche within the ecosystem provided by the host and external environment.

  16. From Protist to Proxy: Dinoflagellates as signal carriers for past climate and carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluijs, A.; Reichart, G. J.; Hoins, M.; Waal, D. V. D.; Rost, B.; Roij, L. V.

    2016-12-01

    The (paleo)ecology of dinoflagellates and their organic dinocysts that preserve in sediments are often employed as tracers of past ocean conditions, such as temperature, productivity, ocean circulation, salinity, and sea ice, for the late Triassic to the Modern. Over the past decade, such reconstructions, which are based on empirical information as well as extensive studies of modern systems, have made dinocyst paleoecology a pivotal tool that is complementary to other microfossil groups and (in)organic geochemical techniques. Building on this work, we have carried out culturing experiments to quantify and physiologically underpin CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation of several species of dinoflagellates. This work indicates potential for a new CO2 proxy based on fossil dinoflagellate cysts. Moreover, we developed a laser ablation nano combustion gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LA-nC-GC-IRMS) setup capable of measuring δ13C of organic particles of only 40 nanograms of carbon, with accuracy and precision of at most 0.4‰. This allows for the analyses of single to a few dinocyst specimens, setting the stage for a whole new research field investigating variability within populations of dinocysts, but also of pollen and other small scale carbon particles in geology, biology and other research fields. We present the first dinocyst δ13C results of the new method from modern systems and in the paleo-domain, particularly related to marine carbon cycling and CO2.

  17. Adaptations and selection of harmful and other dinoflagellate species in upwelling systems 1. Morphology and adaptive polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayda, T. J.

    2010-04-01

    The complex three-dimensional physical structure, spatial scale and the variations in the upwelling-relaxation cycles characterizing eastern boundary upwelling systems are summarized. It is suggested that upwelling systems and their bloom dynamics should be accorded the status of biomes. A unique upwelling dinoflagellate flora is not found. The harmful, red tide and other dinoflagellates selected to bloom are cosmopolitan in distribution and commonly bloom in coastal habitats. The morphological features of 27 dinoflagellate species that bloom in upwelling systems are compared to identify commonalities in form and function adaptations relevant to their upwelling occurrences. The upwelling dinoflagellate species are morphologically, physiologically, ecologically and toxicologically diverse; a unique set of morphological traits specifically evolved for growth in upwelling systems is not evident. The absence of a unique dinoflagellate upwelling flora is unexpected given the challenges to survival and growth in upwelling systems posed by the energetic physical conditions and spatial and temporal complexity of upwelling dynamics. Cellular defense mechanisms - “armouring” and small cell formation - against external and internal cellular damage resulting from turbulence-induced stress-strain, and the occurrence of morphological streamlining to facilitate swimming-based strategies adaptive to growth in upwelling systems are evaluated. The occurrence of autotomy, ecdysis, thecal resorption and regeneration, seasonal cyclomorphosis and polymorphism (form variation) among dinoflagellates is evaluated. The impressive commonality and rapidity of ecomorph formation suggest autoregulated polymorphism is potentially an important mode of adaptation available to upwelling dinoflagellates, and specifically directed towards adjustment of their flotation (swim:sink ratio) capacity. However, seasonal cyclomorphosis and regional and local displays of adaptive polymorphism are traits

  18. Dozens of toxin-related genes are expressed in a nontoxic strain of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Tovah; Upadhyay, Ravi J; Nagasaki, Keizo; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2012-06-01

    The dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama is lethal to a variety of marine organisms, in particular, commercially important farmed bivalves. Unlike most dinoflagellate toxins, which are polyketides, the only described toxin from H. circularisquama (H2-a) is a porphyrin derivative that functions in light. It is unknown whether H2-a is produced specifically for its lytic properties. We searched for toxin-related genes in the transcriptome of a nontoxic strain of H. circularisquama, and surprisingly found the richest set of toxin-related genes yet described in dinoflagellates. There are 87 distinct expressed sequence tag contigs that encode polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthases, as well as 8 contigs that are involved in porphyrin biosynthesis. Phylogenomic analysis shows that many toxin-related genes are widely distributed among dinoflagellates. Our data likely indicate a variety of unknown metabolic functions for the toxin-related genes in H. circularisquama because they were identified in a nontoxic strain raised in unialgal culture.

  19. Detection of microalgal resting cysts in European coastal sediments using a PCR-based assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Antonella; Battocchi, Cecilia; Garcés, Esther; Anglès, Silvia; Cucchiari, Emellina; Totti, Cecilia; Kremp, Anke; Satta, Cecilia; Grazia Giacobbe, Maria; Bravo, Isabel; Bastianini, Mauro

    2010-02-01

    A PCR-based assay was developed and applied to sediment and sediment trap samples for the detection of different cysts belonging to dinoflagellates and raphidophytes in European coastal areas. Oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the ITS-5.8S and LSU ribosomal gene sequences. The specificity and sensitivity of the PCR assay were assessed using genomic DNA from clonal cultures, plasmid copy number of cloned target sequences, as well as from sediment samples. Qualitative PCR determinations of different cysts in sediment and sediment trap samples were compared to taxonomic examinations by light microscopy. This molecular methodology permitted a fast and specific detection of target cysts in sediment samples. We also detected dinoflagellate and raphidophyte cysts at concentrations not detectable by microscopic methods or that are difficult to identify. The results given by molecular and microscopic methods were comparable. However, higher values of positive detection for target cysts were obtained by PCR than with microscopy. Some taxa were detected in 100% of the samples using PCR, while others were only found in 10% of the samples. The data obtained in this study showed that the PCR-based method is a valid tool for cyst identification in marine sediments.

  20. Giant Earlobe Epidermoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Scilletta, Alessandra; Cabrera-Sánchez, Emilio; Rioja, Luis F; Perrotta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation. PMID:22557855

  1. Discovery of the toxic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria in northern European waters.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Tengs, Torstein; Vatne, Andreas; Bowers, Holly A; Oldach, David W; Burkholder, JoAnn M; Glasgow, Howard B; Rublee, Parke A; Klaveness, Dag

    2002-01-22

    Several dinoflagellate strains of the genus Pfiesteria were isolated by culturing techniques from sediment samples taken in the Oslofjord region of Norway. Pfiesteria piscicida, well known as a fish killer from the Atlantic coast of America, was identified by genetic methods and light microscopy. The related species Pfiesteria shumwayae was attracted from the sediment by the presence of fish, and has proved toxic. This present survey demonstrates the wide distribution of these potentially harmful species, but so far they have not been connected with fish kills in Europe.

  2. "Dinoflagellate Sterols" in marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Giner, José-Luis; Wikfors, Gary H

    2011-10-01

    Sterol compositions for three diatom species, recently shown to contain sterols with side chains typically found in dinoflagellates, were determined by HPLC and ¹H NMR spectroscopic analyses. The centric diatom Triceratium dubium (=Biddulphia sp., CCMP 147) contained the highest percentage of 23-methylated sterols (37.2% (24R)-23-methylergosta-5,22-dienol), whereas the pennate diatom Delphineis sp. (CCMP 1095) contained the cyclopropyl sterol gorgosterol, as well as the 27-norsterol occelasterol. The sterol composition of Ditylum brightwellii (CCMP 358) was the most complex, containing Δ⁰- and Δ⁷-sterols, in addition to the predominant Δ⁵-sterols. A pair of previously unknown sterols, stigmasta-5,24,28-trienol and stigmasta-24,28-dienol, were detected in D. brightwellii and their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis and by synthesis of the former sterol from saringosterol. Also detected in D. brightwellii was the previously unknown 23-methylcholesta-7,22-dienol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Complex Ancestries of Isoprenoid Synthesis in Dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Bentlage, Bastian; Rogers, Travis S; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Delwiche, Charles F

    2016-01-01

    Isoprenoid metabolism occupies a central position in the anabolic metabolism of all living cells. In plastid-bearing organisms, two pathways may be present for de novo isoprenoid synthesis, the cytosolic mevalonate pathway (MVA) and nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted nonmevalonate pathway (DOXP). Using transcriptomic data we find that dinoflagellates apparently make exclusive use of the DOXP pathway. Using phylogenetic analyses of all DOXP genes we inferred the evolutionary origins of DOXP genes in dinoflagellates. Plastid replacements led to a DOXP pathway of multiple evolutionary origins. Dinoflagellates commonly referred to as dinotoms due to their relatively recent acquisition of a diatom plastid, express two completely redundant DOXP pathways. Dinoflagellates with a tertiary plastid of haptophyte origin, by contrast, express a hybrid pathway of dual evolutionary origin. Here, changes in the targeting motif of signal/transit peptide likely allow for targeting the new plastid by the proteins of core isoprenoid metabolism proteins. Parasitic dinoflagellates of the Amoebophyra species complex appear to have lost the DOXP pathway, suggesting that they may rely on their host for sterol synthesis. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of noctilucoid dinoflagellates (Noctilucales, Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Fernando; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación

    2010-07-01

    The order Noctilucales or class Noctiluciphyceae encompasses three families of aberrant dinoflagellates (Noctilucaceae, Leptodiscaceae and Kofoidiniaceae) that, at least in some life stages, lack typical dinoflagellate characters such as the ribbon-like transversal flagellum or condensed chromosomes. Noctiluca scintillans, the first dinoflagellate to be described, has been intensively investigated. However, its phylogenetic position based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence is unstable and controversial. Noctiluca has been placed either as an early diverging lineage that diverged after Oxyrrhis and before the dinokaryotes -core dinoflagellates- or as a recent lineage branching from unarmoured dino fl agellates in the order Gymnodiniales. So far, the lack of other noctilucoid sequences has hampered the elucidation of their phylogenetic relationships to other dino fl agellates. Furthermore, even the monophyly of the noctilucoids remained uncertain. We have determined SSU rRNA gene sequences for Kofoidiniaceae, those of the type Spatulodinium (=Gymnodinium) pseudonoctiluca and another Spatulodinium species, as well as of two species of Kofoidinium, and the first gene sequence of Leptodiscaceae, that of Abedinium (=Leptophyllus) dasypus. These taxa were collected from their type localities, the English Channel and the NW Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses place the Noctilucales as a monophyletic group at a basal position close to parasites of the Marine Alveolate Group I (MAGI) and the Syndiniales (MAGII), before the core of dinokaryotic dinoflagellates, although with moderate support. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Kleptoplast Regulation by an Antarctic Dinoflagellate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gast, R. J.; Hehenberger, E.; Keeling, P.

    2016-02-01

    We are studying the evolutionary history and expression of plastid- targeted genes in an Antarctic dinoflagellate that steals chloroplasts from the haptophyte, Phaeocystis. Our project seeks to determine whether the kleptoplastidic dinoflagellate utilizes ancestral plastid proteins to regulate its stolen plastid, and how their transcription is related to environmental factors that are relevant to the Southern Ocean environment (temperature and light). To accomplish our goals, we have utilized high throughput transciptome analysis and RNA-Seq experiments of the dinoflagellate and Phaeocystis. Analysis of the dinoflagellate transcriptome has revealed complete mevalonic acid-independent and heme plastid-associated pathways as well as petF and petH transcripts with peridinin-plastid targeting sequences. In contrast, the proteins psaE, petJ, petC show similarity to non-Phaeocystis haptophyte homologs in their respective trees, and potentially carry haptophyte transit peptides. Anaylsis of RNA-Seq temperature and light experiments for the dinoflagellate indicate that there are significant differences in gene expression under the different environmental conditions, and we are in the process of identifying the genes associated with these changes. This work will help us to understand the environmental success of this alternative nutritional strategy.

  6. Cell biology of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Davy, Simon K; Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M

    2012-06-01

    The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review what we currently know about the cell biology of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In doing so, we aim to refocus attention on fundamental cellular aspects that have been somewhat neglected since the early to mid-1980s, when a more ecological approach began to dominate. We review the four major processes that we believe underlie the various phases of establishment and persistence in the cnidarian/coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: (i) recognition and phagocytosis, (ii) regulation of host-symbiont biomass, (iii) metabolic exchange and nutrient trafficking, and (iv) calcification. Where appropriate, we draw upon examples from a range of cnidarian-alga symbioses, including the symbiosis between green Hydra and its intracellular chlorophyte symbiont, which has considerable potential to inform our understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Ultimately, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the field, its current status, and where it should be going in the future.

  7. Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review what we currently know about the cell biology of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In doing so, we aim to refocus attention on fundamental cellular aspects that have been somewhat neglected since the early to mid-1980s, when a more ecological approach began to dominate. We review the four major processes that we believe underlie the various phases of establishment and persistence in the cnidarian/coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: (i) recognition and phagocytosis, (ii) regulation of host-symbiont biomass, (iii) metabolic exchange and nutrient trafficking, and (iv) calcification. Where appropriate, we draw upon examples from a range of cnidarian-alga symbioses, including the symbiosis between green Hydra and its intracellular chlorophyte symbiont, which has considerable potential to inform our understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Ultimately, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the field, its current status, and where it should be going in the future. PMID:22688813

  8. Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates: Evidence that the Adaptive Value of Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates is Concentration Dependent.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Karen A; Widder, Edith A

    2017-03-01

    Three major hypotheses have been proposed to explain why dinoflagellate bioluminescence deters copepod grazing: startle response, aposematic warning, and burglar alarm. These hypotheses propose dinoflagellate bioluminescence (A) startles predatory copepods, (B) warns potential predators of toxicity, and (C) draws the attention of higher order visual predators to the copepod's location. While the burglar alarm is the most commonly accepted hypothesis, it requires a high concentration of bioluminescent dinoflagellates to be effective, meaning the bioluminescence selective advantage at lower, more commonly observed, dinoflagellate concentrations may result from another function (e.g. startle response or aposematic warning). Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate copepod grazing (Acartia tonsa) on bioluminescent dinoflagellates (during bioluminescent and nonbioluminescent phases, corresponding to night and day, respectively) at different concentrations (10, 1000, and 3000 cells mL(-1) ), on toxic (Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense) and nontoxic (Lingulodinium polyedrum) bioluminescent dinoflagellates, and in the presence of nonluminescent diatoms (Thalassiosira eccentrica). Changes in copepod ingestion rates, clearance rates, and feeding preferences as a result of these experimental factors, particularly during the mixed trails with nonluminescent diatoms, indicate there is a concentration threshold at which the burglar alarm becomes effective and below which dinoflagellate bioluminescence functions as an aposematic warning.

  9. The Genetic Basis of Specificity in Dinoflagellate-Invertebrate Symbiosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-30

    dinoflagellates which appear to share a common ance~tiy with the Apicomplexa and the Ciliata. . 3is~urioNi avAit.A6ILuf OF LaBSTRAC- 21. ASSTRAC I...cladistic and phenetic methods show that the dinoflagellates are more closely affiliated with the Apicomplexa than with the Ciliaa. Among the dinoflagellates

  10. Branchial cleft cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... Branchial cleft cysts form during development of the embryo . They occur when tissues in the neck area ( ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 19. Read More Cyst Fetal development Review Date 11/3/2015 Updated by: ...

  11. Ovarian Cysts FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... shape, size, location, and makeup of the cyst. • Laparoscopy —In this type of surgery, a laparoscope—a ... into the abdomen to view the pelvic organs. Laparoscopy also can be used to treat cysts. • Blood ...

  12. High sequence variability, diverse subcellular localizations, and ecological implications of alkaline phosphatase in dinoflagellates and other eukaryotic phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xin; Zhang, Huan; Cui, Yudong; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a key enzyme for phytoplankton to utilize dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when dissolved inorganic phosphorus is limited. While three major types of AP and their correspondingly diverse subcellular localization have been recognized in bacteria, little is known about AP in eukaryotic phytoplankton such as dinoflagellates. Here, we isolated a full-length AP cDNA from a latest-diverging dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium, and conducted comparative analyses with homologs from a relatively basal (Amphidinium carterae) and late-diverging (Karenia brevis) lineage of dinoflagellates as well as other eukaryotic algae. New data and previous studies indicate that AP is common in dinoflagellates and most other major eukaryotic groups of phytoplankton. AP sequences are more variable than many other genes studied in dinoflagellates, and are divergent among different eukaryotic phytoplankton lineages. Sequence comparison to the other characterized APs suggests that dinoflagellates and some other eukaryotic phytoplankton possess the putative AP as phoA type, but some other eukaryotic phytoplankton seem to have other types. Phylogenetic analyses based on AP amino acid sequences indicated that the "red-type" eukaryotic lineages formed a monophyletic group, suggesting a common origin of their APs. As different amino acid sequences have been found to predictably determine different spatial distribution in the cells, which may facilitate access to different pools of DOP, existing computational models were adopted to predict the subcellular localizations of putative AP in the three dinoflagellates and other eukaryotic phytoplankton. Results showed different subcellular localizations of APs in different dinoflagellates and other lineages. The linkage between AP sequence divergence, subcellular localization, and ecological niche differentiation requires rigorous experimental verification, and this study now provides a framework for such a future effort.

  13. High Sequence Variability, Diverse Subcellular Localizations, and Ecological Implications of Alkaline Phosphatase in Dinoflagellates and Other Eukaryotic Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Zhang, Huan; Cui, Yudong; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a key enzyme for phytoplankton to utilize dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when dissolved inorganic phosphorus is limited. While three major types of AP and their correspondingly diverse subcellular localization have been recognized in bacteria, little is known about AP in eukaryotic phytoplankton such as dinoflagellates. Here, we isolated a full-length AP cDNA from a latest-diverging dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium, and conducted comparative analyses with homologs from a relatively basal (Amphidinium carterae) and late-diverging (Karenia brevis) lineage of dinoflagellates as well as other eukaryotic algae. New data and previous studies indicate that AP is common in dinoflagellates and most other major eukaryotic groups of phytoplankton. AP sequences are more variable than many other genes studied in dinoflagellates, and are divergent among different eukaryotic phytoplankton lineages. Sequence comparison to the other characterized APs suggests that dinoflagellates and some other eukaryotic phytoplankton possess the putative AP as phoA type, but some other eukaryotic phytoplankton seem to have other types. Phylogenetic analyses based on AP amino acid sequences indicated that the “red-type” eukaryotic lineages formed a monophyletic group, suggesting a common origin of their APs. As different amino acid sequences have been found to predictably determine different spatial distribution in the cells, which may facilitate access to different pools of DOP, existing computational models were adopted to predict the subcellular localizations of putative AP in the three dinoflagellates and other eukaryotic phytoplankton. Results showed different subcellular localizations of APs in different dinoflagellates and other lineages. The linkage between AP sequence divergence, subcellular localization, and ecological niche differentiation requires rigorous experimental verification, and this study now provides a framework for such a future effort

  14. Global transcriptional profiling of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Erdner, Deana L; Anderson, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are one of the most important classes of marine and freshwater algae, notable both for their functional diversity and ecological significance. They occur naturally as free-living cells, as endosymbionts of marine invertebrates and are well known for their involvement in "red tides". Dinoflagellates are also notable for their unusual genome content and structure, which suggests that the organization and regulation of dinoflagellate genes may be very different from that of most eukaryotes. To investigate the content and regulation of the dinoflagellate genome, we performed a global analysis of the transcriptome of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense under nitrate- and phosphate-limited conditions using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). Results Data from the two MPSS libraries showed that the number of unique signatures found in A. fundyense cells is similar to that of humans and Arabidopsis thaliana, two eukaryotes that have been extensively analyzed using this method. The general distribution, abundance and expression patterns of the A. fundyense signatures were also quite similar to other eukaryotes, and at least 10% of the A. fundyense signatures were differentially expressed between the two conditions. RACE amplification and sequencing of a subset of signatures showed that multiple signatures arose from sequence variants of a single gene. Single signatures also mapped to different sequence variants of the same gene. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here provide a quantitative view of the transcriptome and its regulation in these unusual single-celled eukaryotes. The observed signature abundance and distribution in Alexandrium is similar to that of other eukaryotes that have been analyzed using MPSS. Results of signature mapping via RACE indicate that many signatures result from sequence variants of individual genes. These data add to the growing body of evidence for widespread gene duplication in

  15. Beware the Tarlov cyst.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions.

  16. Keratinizing dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Vaishnavi; Ranganathan, Kannan; Praveen, B

    2014-01-01

    Keratinizing dentigerous cyst is a rare entity. This article reports a case of keratinizing dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted mandibular canine. Clinical and radiological features, cone-beam computed tomography findings and histological features of the case are reported along with a discussion on keratinizing odontogenic cysts and the need for follow-up. PMID:24808713

  17. Symbiodinium Transcriptomes: Genome Insights into the Dinoflagellate Symbionts of Reef-Building Corals

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Yum, Lauren K.; DeSalvo, Michael K.; Lindquist, Erika; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Voolstra, Christian R.; Medina, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B). With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts. Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation. PMID:22529998

  18. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  19. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-10-07

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth.

  20. Bioturbation, germination and deposition of Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, David H.; Kremp, Anke; Mayer, Lawrence M.

    2014-05-01

    Like many other dinoflagellate species, Alexandrium fundyense possesses a benthic resting cyst which enables long-term persistence and annual blooms of this species in the Gulf of Maine. The size and extent of these harmful algal blooms are associated with high cyst concentrations in the top 1 cm of sediment. Despite the importance of this resting stage in the life history of A. fundyense, little work has been done on bioturbation of cysts in the deep-water cyst beds of the western Gulf of Maine. Our work intensively examined one site within a major regional “seedbed” from February 2003 until August 2005, a time span that included an extraordinarily large bloom of A. fundyense in 2005. Over the course of 2 years we collected samples for benthic infauna and cyst profiles down to a depth of 30 cm. We also measured sediment porosity, organic carbon, 210Pb, and porewater dissolved oxygen. On several dates we measured depth profiles of cyst autofluorescence. Profiles of cysts revealed large subsurface maxima peaking between 10 and 15 cm depth with cyst concentrations declining strongly toward the sediment surface. On one sampling date (August 2004) we observed a cyst concentration peak at the sediment surface. Using these data we constructed a mechanistic model of cyst bioturbation, mortality, germination, and deposition. Modeled bioturbation was calibrated using 210Pb and modeled cyst profiles were compared to measured profiles. Model runs with constant and interannually-varying rates of cyst deposition produced similar time-averaged cyst profiles. Results indicate that the deeper portions of cyst profiles are determined primarily by bioturbation, germination and cyst mortality and less so by interannual variation in cyst depositional history. This is due to the relatively low sedimentation rate at the study site compared to the rate of bioturbation, and the fact that the number of cysts deposited each year tends to be a small fraction of the total inventory

  1. Iatrogenic postoperative cerebellar cyst.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Robin; Moscovici, Samuel; Wygoda, Marc; Eliahou, Ruth; Spektor, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    Cerebellar cyst is a known but uncommon entity. It is congenital in most cases, or may develop after brain parenchyma injuries or interventions. To our knowledge, de novo cerebellar cyst after extra-axial tumor excision, has not been described in the literature. We present the first reported case of a de novo cerebellar cyst developing in a 70-year-old woman following retrosigmoid craniotomy for vestibular schwannoma excision, and discuss the possible causes. Following cyst fenestration, there was no clinical or radiological evidence of a residual cyst. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunological diagnosis of human hydatid cyst using Western immunoblotting technique

    PubMed Central

    Hadipour, Mahboubeh; Nazari, Mohammad; Sanei, Behnam; Ghayour, Zahra; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Yazdani, Hajar; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with worldwide distribution which is caused by the tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis of the disease relies on imaging techniques, but the techniques are not able to differentiate the cyst from benign or malignant tumors; hence, appropriate serologic methods are required for the differential diagnosis of the infection. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, different sheep hydatid cyst antigens probed with thirty sera of patients with hydatid cyst and also thirty human normal sera using Western immunoblotting technique. Considering results of surgery as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of Western blotting was estimated. Results: Sera of 29, 26, and 16 patients with hydatid cyst reacted with specific bands of hydatid cyst fluid (HCF), protoscolex crude antigen, and cyst wall crude antigen, respectively. However, none of the normal human sera reacted with those specific bands. Conclusion: A 20 kDa band of sheep HCF is an appropriate antigen for serodiagnosis of hydatid cyst infection. PMID:28331516

  3. LIPID BIOMARKER ANALYSIS OF MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many marine eukaryotic algae have been shown to possess characteristic chemotaxonomic lipid biomarkers. Dinoflagellates in particular are often characterized by the presence of sterols and pigments that are rarely found in other classes of algae. To evaluate the utility of chemic...

  4. LIPID BIOMARKER ANALYSIS OF MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many marine eukaryotic algae have been shown to possess characteristic chemotaxonomic lipid biomarkers. Dinoflagellates in particular are often characterized by the presence of sterols and pigments that are rarely found in other classes of algae. To evaluate the utility of chemic...

  5. Sterols of the cultured dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula.

    PubMed

    Kokke, W C; Fenical, W; Djerassi, C

    1982-09-01

    Eighteen components of the sterol fraction of Pyrocystis lunula have been identified. In addition to 4 alpha-methyl sterols (typical dinoflagellate sterols), regular sterols, both with a saturated and delta 5-unsaturated skeleton, were isolated, together with delta 4-3-keto steroids including the hitherto unknown 23,24R-dimethyl-4,22E-cholestadien-3-one.

  6. Paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates: A molecular overview.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Shu-Fei; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of water soluble neurotoxic alkaloids produced by two different kingdoms of life, prokaryotic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic dinoflagellates. Owing to the wide distribution of these organisms, these toxic secondary metabolites account for paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. On the other hand, their specific binding to voltage-gated sodium channels makes these toxins potentially useful in pharmacological and toxicological applications. Much effort has been devoted to the biosynthetic mechanism of PSTs, and gene clusters encoding 26 proteins involved in PST biosynthesis have been unveiled in several cyanobacterial species. Functional analysis of toxin genes indicates that PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria is a complex process including biosynthesis, regulation, modification and export. However, less is known about the toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates owing to our poor understanding of the massive genome and unique chromosomal characteristics [1]. So far, few genes involved in PST biosynthesis have been identified from dinoflagellates. Moreover, the proteins involved in PST production are far from being totally explored. Thus, the origin and evolution of PST biosynthesis in these two kingdoms are still controversial. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the characterization of genes and proteins involved in PST biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, and discuss the standing evolutionary hypotheses concerning the origin of toxin biosynthesis as well as future perspectives in PST biosynthesis. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxins which specifically block voltage-gated sodium channels in excitable cells and result in paralytic shellfish poisonings (PSPs) around the world. Two different kingdoms of life, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates are able to produce PSTs. However, in contrast with cyanobacteria, our understanding of PST biosynthesis in

  7. Thoracic arachnoid cyst resection.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2014-09-01

    Arachnoid cysts in the spinal cord may be asymptomatic. In some cases arachnoid cysts may exert mass effect on the thoracic spinal cord and lead to pain and myelopathy symptoms. Arachnoid cysts may be difficult to visualize on an MRI scan because the thin walled arachnoid may not be visible. Focal displacement of the thoracic spinal cord and effacement of the spinal cord with apparent widening of the cerebrospinal fluid space is seen. This video demonstrates surgical techniques to remove a dorsal arachnoid cyst causing spinal cord compression. The surgery involves a thoracic laminectomy. The dura is opened sharply with care taken not to open the arachnoid so that the cyst can be well visualized. The thickened arachnoid walls of the cyst are removed to alleviate the compression caused by the arachnoid cyst. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/pgUrl9xvsD0.

  8. Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Signell, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable. The mass of sediment eroded from the core surface at 0.4 Pa ranged from 0.05 kg m-2 near Grand Manan Island, to 0.35 kg m-2 in northern Wilkinson Basin. The depth of sediment eroded ranged from about 0.05 mm at a station with sandy sediment at 70 m water depth on the western Maine shelf, to about 1.2 mm in clayey-silt sediment at 250 m water depth in northern Wilkinson Basin. The sediment erodibility measurements were used in a sediment-transport model forced with modeled waves and currents for the period October 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011 to predict resuspension and bed erosion. The simulated spatial distribution and variation of bottom shear stress was controlled by the strength of the semi-diurnal tidal currents, which decrease from east to west along the Maine coast, and oscillatory wave-induced currents, which are strongest in shallow water. Simulations showed occasional sediment resuspension along the central and western Maine coast associated with storms, steady resuspension on the eastern Maine shelf and in the Bay of Fundy associated with tidal currents, no resuspension in northern Wilkinson Basin, and very small resuspension in western Jordan Basin. The sediment response in the model depended primarily on the profile of sediment erodibility, strength and time history of bottom stress, consolidation time scale, and the current in the water column

  9. Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Signell, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable. The mass of sediment eroded from the core surface at 0.4 Pa ranged from 0.05 kg m−2 near Grand Manan Island, to 0.35 kg m−2 in northern Wilkinson Basin. The depth of sediment eroded ranged from about 0.05 mm at a station with sandy sediment at 70 m water depth on the western Maine shelf, to about 1.2 mm in clayey–silt sediment at 250 m water depth in northern Wilkinson Basin. The sediment erodibility measurements were used in a sediment-transport model forced with modeled waves and currents for the period October 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011 to predict resuspension and bed erosion. The simulated spatial distribution and variation of bottom shear stress was controlled by the strength of the semi-diurnal tidal currents, which decrease from east to west along the Maine coast, and oscillatory wave-induced currents, which are strongest in shallow water. Simulations showed occasional sediment resuspension along the central and western Maine coast associated with storms, steady resuspension on the eastern Maine shelf and in the Bay of Fundy associated with tidal currents, no resuspension in northern Wilkinson Basin, and very small resuspension in western Jordan Basin. The sediment response in the model depended primarily on the profile of sediment erodibility, strength and time history of bottom stress, consolidation time scale, and the current in the water

  10. Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine

    PubMed Central

    Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Anderson, Donald M.; Keafer, Bruce A.; Signell, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable. The mass of sediment eroded from the core surface at 0.4 Pa ranged from 0.05 kg m−2 near Grand Manan Island, to 0.35 kg m−2 in northern Wilkinson Basin. The depth of sediment eroded ranged from about 0.05 mm at a station with sandy sediment at 70 m water depth on the western Maine shelf, to about 1.2 mm in clayey–silt sediment at 250 m water depth in northern Wilkinson Basin. The sediment erodibility measurements were used in a sediment-transport model forced with modeled waves and currents for the period October 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011 to predict resuspension and bed erosion. The simulated spatial distribution and variation of bottom shear stress was controlled by the strength of the semi-diurnal tidal currents, which decrease from east to west along the Maine coast, and oscillatory wave-induced currents, which are strongest in shallow water. Simulations showed occasional sediment resuspension along the central and western Maine coast associated with storms, steady resuspension on the eastern Maine shelf and in the Bay of Fundy associated with tidal currents, no resuspension in northern Wilkinson Basin, and very small resuspension in western Jordan Basin. The sediment response in the model depended primarily on the profile of sediment erodibility, strength and time history of bottom stress, consolidation time scale, and the current in the water

  11. Investigating the importance of sediment resuspension in Alexandrium fundyense cyst population dynamics in the Gulf of Maine.

    PubMed

    Butman, Bradford; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L; Dickhudt, Patrick J; Dalyander, P Soupy; Sherwood, Christopher R; Anderson, Donald M; Keafer, Bruce A; Signell, Richard P

    2014-05-01

    Cysts of Alexandrium fundyense, a dinoflagellate that causes toxic algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine, spend the winter as dormant cells in the upper layer of bottom sediment or the bottom nepheloid layer and germinate in spring to initiate new blooms. Erosion measurements were made on sediment cores collected at seven stations in the Gulf of Maine in the autumn of 2011 to explore if resuspension (by waves and currents) could change the distribution of over-wintering cysts from patterns observed in the previous autumn; or if resuspension could contribute cysts to the water column during spring when cysts are viable. The mass of sediment eroded from the core surface at 0.4 Pa ranged from 0.05 kg m(-2) near Grand Manan Island, to 0.35 kg m(-2) in northern Wilkinson Basin. The depth of sediment eroded ranged from about 0.05 mm at a station with sandy sediment at 70 m water depth on the western Maine shelf, to about 1.2 mm in clayey-silt sediment at 250 m water depth in northern Wilkinson Basin. The sediment erodibility measurements were used in a sediment-transport model forced with modeled waves and currents for the period October 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011 to predict resuspension and bed erosion. The simulated spatial distribution and variation of bottom shear stress was controlled by the strength of the semi-diurnal tidal currents, which decrease from east to west along the Maine coast, and oscillatory wave-induced currents, which are strongest in shallow water. Simulations showed occasional sediment resuspension along the central and western Maine coast associated with storms, steady resuspension on the eastern Maine shelf and in the Bay of Fundy associated with tidal currents, no resuspension in northern Wilkinson Basin, and very small resuspension in western Jordan Basin. The sediment response in the model depended primarily on the profile of sediment erodibility, strength and time history of bottom stress, consolidation time scale, and the current in the water

  12. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst masquerading as dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi Charan; Rathore, Ajit Singh; Jain, Anshi; Thokchom, Natasha; Khurana, Neha

    2016-01-01

    The orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst that has been considered as a variant of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor until Wright (1981) defined it as a different entity. Recognition of OOC as a unique entity has long been due, yet its inexplicable clinical, radiographic presentation resembling dentigerous cyst due to its association to an impacted tooth, and its histological features makes it rather perplexing. This is the report of a case of OOC in relation to an impacted maxillary canine and its immunohistochemical analysis with Ki-67. PMID:27857903

  13. Ultrastructural features of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata (Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Escalera, Laura; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Scalco, Eleonora; Zingone, Adriana; Montresor, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata has considerably expanded its distribution range in the last decade, posing risks to human health. Several aspects of this species are still poorly known. We studied ultrastructural features of cultivated and natural populations of Ostreopsis cf. ovata from the Gulf of Naples (Mediterranean Sea) using confocal laser scanning, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. New information on the morphology and location of several sulcal plates was gained and a new plate designation is suggested that better fits the one applied to other Gonyaulacales. The microtubular component of the cytoskeleton, revealed using an anti-β-tubulin antibody, consisted of a cortical layer of microtubules arranged asymmetrically in the episome and in the hyposome, complemented by a complex inner microtubular system running from the sulcal area towards the internal part of the cell. The conspicuous canal was delimited by two thick, burin-shaped lobes ending in a tubular ventral opening. The canal was surrounded by mucocysts discharging their content into it. A similar structure has been reported in other benthic and planktonic dinoflagellates and may be interpreted as an example of convergent evolution in species producing large amounts of mucus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth, Grazing, and Starvation Survival in Three Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sean R; Menden-Deuer, Susanne

    2017-03-01

    To assess the effects of fluctuating prey availability on predator population dynamics and grazing impact on phytoplankton, we measured growth and grazing rates of three heterotrophic dinoflagellate species-Oxyrrhis marina, Gyrodinium dominans and Gyrodinium spirale-before and after depriving them of phytoplankton prey. All three dinoflagellate species survived long periods (> 10 d) without algal prey, coincident with decreases in predator abundance and cell size. After 1-3 wks, starvation led to a 17-57% decrease in predator cell volume and some cells became deformed and transparent. When re-exposed to phytoplankton prey, heterotrophs ingested prey within minutes and increased cell volumes by 4-17%. At an equivalent prey concentration, continuously fed predators had ~2-fold higher specific growth rates (0.18 to 0.55 d(-1) ) than after starvation (-0.16 to 0.25 d(-1) ). Maximum specific predator growth rates would be achievable only after a time lag of at least 3 d. A delay in predator growth poststarvation delays predator-induced phytoplankton mortality when prey re-emerges at the onset of a bloom event or in patchy prey distributions. These altered predator-prey population dynamics have implications for the formation of phytoplankton blooms, trophic transfer rates, and potential export of carbon. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  15. Follicular ovarian cysts in stillbirths and neonates.

    PubMed Central

    deSa, D J

    1975-01-01

    A review of the histology of 332 ovaries from stillbirths and neonatal deaths within the first 28 days of life showed that follicular cysts, lined by granulosa epithelium and having a diameter greater than 1 mm on a microscopical section, were present in 113 infants. In 48 cases multiple cysts were present, while in 65 only a single cyst satisfying the criteria was found. There was an excess number of infants of low birthweight score among those with multiple cysts and the results were highly significant. Cysts, whether single or multiple in distribution, were commoner with increasing gestation, and possibly occurred more commonly in the infants of diabetic mothers and in infants where pregnancy had been complicated by rhesus isoimmunization. The nature of the changes seen in the granulosa lining and theca internal layer surrounding the cysts suggested that these cysts were not some degenerative phenomenon but occured in response to stimulation. It is suggested that homologous changes may occur in the testis of the dysmature male. The possible significance of these findings with regard to hormonal imbalance in the growth-retarded infant is considered, and the need for closer attention to endocrine function in these infants stressed. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. PMID:1124943

  16. Lumbar intraspinal extradural ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Min; Rhee, Woo Tack; Choi, Soo Jung; Eom, Dae Woon

    2009-07-01

    The lumbar intraspinal epidural ganglion cyst has been a rare cause of the low back pain or leg pain. Ganglion cysts and synovial cysts compose the juxtafacet cysts. Extensive studies have been performed about the synovial cysts, however, very little has been known about the ganglion cyst. Current report is about two ganglion cysts associated with implicative findings in young male patients. We discuss about the underlying pathology of the ganglion cyst based on intraoperative evidences, associated disc herniation at the same location or severe degeneration of the ligament flavum that the cyst originated from in young patients.

  17. Major transitions in dinoflagellate evolution unveiled by phylotranscriptomics.

    PubMed

    Janouškovec, Jan; Gavelis, Gregory S; Burki, Fabien; Dinh, Donna; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Gornik, Sebastian G; Bright, Kelley J; Imanian, Behzad; Strom, Suzanne L; Delwiche, Charles F; Waller, Ross F; Fensome, Robert A; Leander, Brian S; Rohwer, Forest L; Saldarriaga, Juan F

    2017-01-10

    Dinoflagellates are key species in marine environments, but they remain poorly understood in part because of their large, complex genomes, unique molecular biology, and unresolved in-group relationships. We created a taxonomically representative dataset of dinoflagellate transcriptomes and used this to infer a strongly supported phylogeny to map major morphological and molecular transitions in dinoflagellate evolution. Our results show an early-branching position of Noctiluca, monophyly of thecate (plate-bearing) dinoflagellates, and paraphyly of athecate ones. This represents unambiguous phylogenetic evidence for a single origin of the group's cellulosic theca, which we show coincided with a radiation of cellulases implicated in cell division. By integrating dinoflagellate molecular, fossil, and biogeochemical evidence, we propose a revised model for the evolution of thecal tabulations and suggest that the late acquisition of dinosterol in the group is inconsistent with dinoflagellates being the source of this biomarker in pre-Mesozoic strata. Three distantly related, fundamentally nonphotosynthetic dinoflagellates, Noctiluca, Oxyrrhis, and Dinophysis, contain cryptic plastidial metabolisms and lack alternative cytosolic pathways, suggesting that all free-living dinoflagellates are metabolically dependent on plastids. This finding led us to propose general mechanisms of dependency on plastid organelles in eukaryotes that have lost photosynthesis; it also suggests that the evolutionary origin of bioluminescence in nonphotosynthetic dinoflagellates may be linked to plastidic tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Finally, we use our phylogenetic framework to show that dinoflagellate nuclei have recruited DNA-binding proteins in three distinct evolutionary waves, which included two independent acquisitions of bacterial histone-like proteins.

  18. Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Joon Bum; Kang, Kyung Taek; Lee, Jun Seok; Song, Geun Seong; Sung, Soon Ki; Lee, Sang Weon

    2016-01-01

    A spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) results from a rare small defect of the dura matter that leads to cerebrospinal fluid accumulation and communication defects between the cyst and the subarachnoid space. There is consensus for the treatment of the dural defect, but not for the treatment of the cyst. Some advocate a total resection of the cysts and repair of the communication site to prevent the recurrence of a SEAC, while others recommended more conservative therapy. Here we report the outcomes of selective laminectomy and closure of the dural defect for a 72-year-old and a 33-year-old woman. Magnetic resonance imaging of these patients showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L4 and an arachnoid cyst at the posterior epidural space of T12 to L2. For both patients, we surgically fenestrated the cyst and repaired the dural defect using a partial hemi-laminectomy. The patient’s symptoms dramatically subsided, and follow-up radiological images show a complete disappearance of the cyst in both patients. Our results suggest that fenestration of the cyst can be a safe and effective approach in treating SEACs compared to a classical complete resection of the cyst wall with multilevel laminectomy. PMID:27857934

  19. The newly described heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium moestrupii, an effective protistan grazer of toxic dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeong Du; Yoon, Eun Young; Jeong, Hae Jin; Lee, Kyung Ha; Hwang, Yeong Jong; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Jae Seong; Park, Jae Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Few protistan grazers feed on toxic dinoflagellates, and low grazing pressure on toxic dinoflagellates allows these dinoflagellates to form red-tide patches. We explored the feeding ecology of the newly described heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodinium moestrupii when it fed on toxic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium tamarense, and Karenia brevis and on nontoxic strains of A. tamarense, Prorocentrum minimum, and Scrippsiella trochoidea. Specific growth rates of G. moestrupii feeding on each of these dinoflagellates either increased continuously or became saturated with increasing mean prey concentration. The maximum specific growth rate of G. moestrupii feeding on toxic A. minutum (1.60/d) was higher than that when feeding on nontoxic S. trochoidea (1.50/d) or P. minimum (1.07/d). In addition, the maximum growth rate of G. moestrupii feeding on the toxic strain of A. tamarense (0.68/d) was similar to that when feeding on the nontoxic strain of A. tamarense (0.71/d). Furthermore, the maximum ingestion rate of G. moestrupii on A. minutum (2.6 ng C/grazer/d) was comparable to that of S. trochoidea (3.0 ng C/grazer/d). Additionally, the maximum ingestion rate of G. moestrupii on the toxic strain of A. tamarense (2.1 ng C/grazer/d) was higher than that when feeding on the nontoxic strain of A. tamarense (1.3 ng C/grazer/d). Thus, feeding by G. moestrupii is not suppressed by toxic dinoflagellate prey, suggesting that it is an effective protistan grazer of toxic dinoflagellates. © 2012 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2012 International Society of Protistologists.

  20. Infected mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Ramesh; Gunadal, Shankar; Banda, Vanaja Reddy; Banda, Naveen Reddy

    2013-04-18

    Mesenteric cyst is a rare condition. Presentation with non-typhoid spontaneous infection in an unusual area makes it even more a rare situation with mesenteric cyst. Its diagnosis is mainly based on the imaging modalities. However, there are difficulties in diagnosis when it is present in an uncommon area and rare known complications. Mesenteric cyst can present with few uncommon emergency conditions which pose difficulties in diagnosis as well as treatment options as mentioned in this case.

  1. Infected mesenteric cyst

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, G Ramesh; Gunadal, Shankar; Banda, Vanaja Reddy; Banda, Naveen Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric cyst is a rare condition. Presentation with non-typhoid spontaneous infection in an unusual area makes it even more a rare situation with mesenteric cyst. Its diagnosis is mainly based on the imaging modalities. However, there are difficulties in diagnosis when it is present in an uncommon area and rare known complications. Mesenteric cyst can present with few uncommon emergency conditions which pose difficulties in diagnosis as well as treatment options as mentioned in this case. PMID:23605820

  2. Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung Won; Seong, Han Yu

    2013-01-01

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare disease and uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The etiology remains still unclear. We experienced 2 cases of SEACs and reviewed the cases and previous literatures. A 59-year-old man complained of both leg radiating pain and paresthesia for 4 years. His MRI showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L3 and we performed cyst fenestration and repaired the dural defect with tailored laminectomy. Another 51-year-old female patient visited our clinical with left buttock pain and paresthesia for 3 years. A large extradural cyst was found at T1-L2 level on MRI and a communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was illustrated by CT-myelography. We performed cyst fenestration with primary repair of dural defect. Both patients' symptoms gradually subsided and follow up images taken 1-2 months postoperatively showed nearly disappeared cysts. There has been no documented recurrence in these two cases so far. Tailored laminotomy with cyst fenestration can be a safe and effective alternative choice in treating SEACs compared to traditional complete resection of cyst wall with multi-level laminectomy. PMID:24294463

  3. Giant mesenteric cyst

    PubMed Central

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Salman, Shaista; Almaramhy, Hamdi H.

    2011-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18-year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy. PMID:24765349

  4. Pituitary Colloid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Guduk, Mustafa; Sun, Halil Ibrahim; Sav, Murat Aydin; Berkman, Zafer

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Colloid cysts appear most commonly in the third ventricle, their occurrence in the sellar region is uncommon. The authors report a female patient with a pituitary colloid cyst. She was diagnosed incidentally with a sellar lesion by a routine paranasal computed tomography examination performed for planning of a dental implant surgery. Radiologic examinations revealed a pituitary lesion that was removed by transnasal transsphenoidal route. Her pathologic examination revealed that the lesion was a colloid cyst. Although rare, colloid cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions PMID:27792102

  5. Giant mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Salman, Shaista; Almaramhy, Hamdi H

    2011-09-28

    Mesenteric cysts are uncommon benign abdominal lesions with no classical clinical features. The preoperative diagnosis requires the common imaging modalities but the final diagnosis is established only during surgery or histological analysis. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision. We report an 18-year-old female with a non-specific abdominal pain and discomfort since 3 weeks. Her CT scan showed a huge cystic swelling, which necessitated surgical exploration. Preoperatively, a giant cyst was encountered with displacement of bowel loops. The cyst was completely removed and histology report confirmed mesenteric cyst without evidence of malignancy.

  6. Isolation of symbiotic dinoflagellates by centrifugal elutriation

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, A.E.; Quinn, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation, a method combining centripetal liquid flow with centrifugal force, has been used to isolate symbiotic dinoflagellates from a cnidarian host. The elutriated cells were shown to be viable by photosynthetic incorporation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and low release of photosynthetic products into the incubation medium. The level of contamination by clinging debris was low and by host solids was negligible.

  7. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-10

    AD____ AD-A 194 466 DNOFLACU.ATh TOXINS RESIONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA FOOD POISONING Annual Summary Report 0 Donald M. Miller 10 December 1987 Supported...21701-5012 62770A 162770A87] AA 7 7 A11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) DINOFLAGELLATE TOXINS RESPONSIBLE FOR CIGUATERA FOOD POISONING .12...occurring in humans who have become intoxicated from eating poison fish. Fish spontaneously accumulate the toxin through the food chain or directly from

  8. Transcription and Maturation of mRNA in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sougata; Morse, David

    2013-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are of great importance to the marine ecosystem, yet scant details of how gene expression is regulated at the transcriptional level are available. Transcription is of interest in the context of the chromatin structure in the dinoflagellates as it shows many differences from more typical eukaryotic cells. Here we canvas recent transcriptome profiles to identify the molecular building blocks available for the construction of the transcriptional machinery and contrast these with those used by other systems. Dinoflagellates display a clear paucity of specific transcription factors, although surprisingly, the rest of the basic transcriptional machinery is not markedly different from what is found in the close relatives to the dinoflagellates. PMID:27694765

  9. Bacterial community associated with Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate cultures.

    PubMed

    Alavi, M; Miller, T; Erlandson, K; Schneider, R; Belas, R

    2001-06-01

    Dinoflagellates (Eukaryota; Alveolata; Dinophyceae) are single-cell eukaryotic microorganisms implicated in many toxic outbreaks in the marine and estuarine environment. Co-existing with dinoflagellate communities are bacterial assemblages that undergo changes in species composition, compete for nutrients and produce bioactive compounds, including toxins. As part of an investigation to understand the role of the bacteria in dinoflagellate physiology and toxigenesis, we have characterized the bacterial community associated with laboratory cultures of four 'Pfiesteria-like' dinoflagellates isolated from 1997 fish killing events in Chesapeake Bay. A polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers specific to prokaryotic 16S rDNA gene sequences was used to characterize the total bacterial population, including culturable and non-culturable species, as well as possible endosymbiotic bacteria. The results indicate a diverse group of over 30 bacteria species co-existing in the dinoflagellate cultures. The broad phylogenetic types of dinoflagellate-associated bacteria were generally similar, although not identical, to those bacterial types found in association with other harmful algal species. Dinoflagellates were made axenic, and the culturable bacteria were added back to determine the contribution of the bacteria to dinoflagellate growth. Confocal scanning laser fluorescence microscopy with 16S rDNA probes was used to demonstrate a physical association of a subset of the bacteria and the dinoflagellate cells. These data point to a key component in the bacterial community being species in the marine alpha-proteobacteria group, most closely associated with the alpha-3 or SAR83 cluster.

  10. Control of toxic marine dinoflagellate blooms by serial parasitic killers.

    PubMed

    Chambouvet, Aurelie; Morin, Pascal; Marie, Dominique; Guillou, Laure

    2008-11-21

    The marine dinoflagellates commonly responsible for toxic red tides are parasitized by other dinoflagellate species. Using culture-independent environmental ribosomal RNA sequences and fluorescence markers, we identified host-specific infections among several species. Each parasitoid produces 60 to 400 offspring, leading to extraordinarily rapid control of the host's population. During 3 consecutive years of observation in a natural estuary, all dinoflagellates observed were chronically infected, and a given host species was infected by a single genetically distinct parasite year after year. Our observations in natural ecosystems suggest that although bloom-forming dinoflagellates may escape control by grazing organisms, they eventually succumb to parasite attack.

  11. Circannual excystment of resting cysts of Alexandrium spp. from eastern Gulf of Maine populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrai, P.; Thompson, B.; Keller, M.

    2005-09-01

    Species of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium, present in most of the Gulf of Maine (GOM), Bay of Fundy and Gulf of St. Lawrence as well as in many other areas of the world, are known to cause toxicity to marine organisms and humans alike. Excystment of Alexandrium fundyense from the eastern region of the GOM (Penobscot Bay to Bay of Fundy) was followed through four germination cycles (4 years). An annual, free-running oscillation in germination was observed under constant environmental conditions, indicating control by an endogenous clock for these eastern cysts, as shown earlier for cysts from the western region of the GOM. This circannual endogenous clock had an average period of 11 months. The phase of germination remained constant for cysts from all three stations sampled. Cysts did not germinate, despite favorable growth conditions, in summer-to-fall and this timing was consistent among cysts from all stations. The timing of cyst germination is highly relevant to modeling of Alexandrium sp. bloom initiation and depletion, as there are cyst "seed beds" near shore and offshore in the eastern and western regions of the GOM.

  12. DIVISION IN THE DINOFLAGELLATE GYRODINIUM COHNII (SCHILLER)

    PubMed Central

    Kubai, Donna F.; Ris, Hans

    1969-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are of interest because their chromosomes resemble the nucleoplasm of prokaryotes both chemically and ultrastructurally. We have studied nuclear division in the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium cohnii (Schiller), using cells obtained from cultures undergoing phasic growth. Electron micrographs of serial sections were used to prepare three-dimensional reconstructions of nuclei and chromosomes at various stages of nuclear division. During division, a complex process of invagination of the intact nuclear envelope takes place at one side of the nucleus and results in the formation of parallel cylindrical cytoplasmic channels through the nucleus. These invaginations contain bundles of microtubules, and each of the bundles comes to lie in the cytoplasm of a cylindrical channel. Nuclear constriction occurs perpendicular to these channels without displacement of the microtubules. There are no associations between chromosomes and the cytoplasmic microtubules. In dividing cells most chromosomes become V-shaped, and the apices of the V's make contact with the membrane surrounding cytoplasmic channels. It is proposed that the membrane surrounding cytoplasmic channels in the dividing nucleus may be involved in the separation of daughter chromosomes. Thus, dinoflagellates may resemble prokaryotes in the manner of genophore separation as well as in genophore chemistry and ultrastructure. PMID:5761923

  13. Functional diversity in coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Stat, Michael; Morris, Emily; Gates, Ruth D

    2008-07-08

    Symbioses are widespread in nature and occur along a continuum from parasitism to mutualism. Coral-dinoflagellate symbioses are defined as mutualistic because both partners receive benefit from the association via the exchange of nutrients. This successful interaction underpins the growth and formation of coral reefs. The symbiotic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium is genetically diverse containing eight divergent lineages (clades A-H). Corals predominantly associate with clade C Symbiodinium and to a lesser extent with clades A, B, D, F, and G. Variation in the function and interactive physiology of different coral-dinoflagellate assemblages is virtually unexplored but is an important consideration when developing the contextual framework of factors that contribute to coral reef resilience. In this study, we present evidence that clade A Symbiodinium are functionally less beneficial to corals than the dominant clade C Symbiodinium and may represent parasitic rather than mutualistic symbionts. Our hypothesis is supported by (i) a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium clade A and health-compromised coral; (ii) a phylogeny and genetic diversity within Symbiodinium that suggests a different evolutionary trajectory for clade A compared with the other dominant Symbiodinium lineages; and (iii) a significantly lower amount of carbon fixed and released by clade A in the presence of a coral synthetic host factor as compared with the dominant coral symbiont lineage, clade C. Collectively, these data suggest that along the symbiotic continuum the interaction between clade A Symbiodinium and corals may be closer to parasitism than mutualism.

  14. Recognizing diversity in coral symbiotic dinoflagellate communities.

    PubMed

    Apprill, Amy M; Gates, Ruth D

    2007-03-01

    A detailed understanding of how diversity in endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities maps onto the physiological range of coral hosts is critical to predicting how coral reef ecosystems will respond to climate change. Species-level taxonomy of the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium has been predominantly examined using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal array (rDNA ITS2) and downstream screening for dominant types using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Here, ITS2 diversity in the communities of Symbiodinium harboured by two Hawaiian coral species was explored using direct sequencing of clone libraries. We resolved sixfold to eightfold greater diversity per coral species than previously reported, the majority of which corresponds to a novel and distinct phylogenetic lineage. We evaluated how these sequences migrate in DGGE and demonstrate that this method does not effectively resolve this diversity. We conclude that the Porites spp. examined here harbour diverse assemblages of novel Symbiodinium types and that cloning and sequencing is an effective methodological approach for resolving the complexity of endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities harboured by reef corals.

  15. Late-Holocene succession of dinoflagellates in an Antarctic fjord using a multi-proxy approach: paleoenvironmental genomics, lipid biomarkers and palynomorphs.

    PubMed

    Boere, A C; Abbas, B; Rijpstra, W I C; Versteegh, G J M; Volkman, J K; Sinninghe Damsté, J S; Coolen, M J L

    2009-06-01

    Recent work has shown that paleoenvironmental genomics, i.e. the application of genomic tools to analyze preserved DNA in sedimentary records, is a promising approach to reconstruct the diversity of past planktonic communities. This provides information about past ecological and environmental changes. A major advantage of this approach is that individual species, including those that did not leave other characteristic markers, can be identified. In this study, we determined which dinoflagellate marker (i.e. 18S rDNA, dinosterol or dinocysts) provided the most detailed information about the late-Holocene succession of dinoflagellates in an Antarctic Fjord (Ellis Fjord, Vestfold Hills). The preserved rDNA revealed two intervals in the 2750-year-old sediment record. The dinoflagellate diversity was the highest until approximately 1850 cal yr bp and included phylotypes related to known dinosterol producers. A lower concentration of dinosterol in sediments <1850 cal yr bp coincided with a community shift towards a predominance of the autotrophic sea-ice dinoflagellate Polarella glacialis, which is not a source of dinosterol. Remarkably, cultures of P. glacialis are known to produce other diagnostic sterols, but these were not recovered here. In addition, conspicuous resting cysts of P. glacialis were not preserved in the analyzed sediments. Overall, dinocysts were rare and the paleoenvironmental genomics approach revealed the highest diversity of dinoflagellates in Ellis Fjord, and was the only approach that recorded a shift in dinoflagellate composition at approximately 1850 cal yr bp indicative of a colder climate with more extensive ice cover - this timing coincides with a period of changing climate reported for this region.

  16. Dinoflagellate bioluminescence in response to mechanical stimuli in water flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cussatlegras, A. S.; Le Gal, P.

    2005-02-01

    Bioluminescence of plankton organisms induced by water movements has long been observed and is still under investigations because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism occurring at the level of the cell has not been yet fully understood. This work is devoted to the study of the bioluminescence of the dinoflagellates plankton species Pyrocystis noctiluca in response to mechanical stimuli generated by water flows. Several experiments were performed with different types of flows in a Couette shearing apparatus. All of them converge to the conclusion that stationary homogeneous laminar shear does not trigger massive bioluminescence, but that acceleration and shear are both necessary to stimulate together an intense bioluminescence response. The distribution of the experimental bioluminescence thresholds is finally calculated from the light emission response for the Pyrocystis noctiluca species.

  17. Nuclear 28S rDNA phylogeny supports the basal placement of Noctiluca scintillans (Dinophyceae; Noctilucales) in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Ki, Jang-Seu

    2010-05-01

    Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney) Kofoid et Swezy, 1921 is an unarmoured heterotrophic dinoflagellate with a global distribution, and has been considered as one of the ancestral taxa among dinoflagellates. Recently, 18S rDNA, actin, alpha-, beta-tubulin, and Hsp90-based phylogenies have shown the basal position of the noctilucids. However, the relationships of dinoflagellates in the basal lineages are still controversial. Although the nuclear rDNA (e.g. 18S, ITS-5.8S, and 28S) contains much genetic information, DNA sequences of N. scintillans rDNA molecules were insufficiently characterized as yet. Here the author sequenced a long-range nuclear rDNA, spanning from the 18S to the D5 region of the 28S rDNA, of N. scintillans. The present N. scintillans had a nearly identical genotype (>99.0% similarity) compared to other Noctiluca sequences from different geographic origins. Nucleotide divergence in the partial 28S rDNA was significantly high (p<0.05) as compared to the 18S rDNA, demonstrating that the information from 28S rDNA is more variable. The 28S rDNA phylogeny of 17 selected dinoflagellates, two perkinsids, and two apicomplexans as outgroups showed that N. scintillans and Oxyrrhis marina formed a clade that diverged separately from core dinoflagellates. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Vellus hair cysts presenting as an atypical acneiform eruption.

    PubMed

    Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira de; Nudelmann, Lisia; Göebel, Joice; Janovik, Nathália; Hein, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    A 32-year-old male patient presented for 8 months an asymptomatic therapy-resistant acneiform eruption on his back and buttocks. Skin examination showed several inflammatory papules, which evolved to hyperpigmentation. At the same distribution non inflammatory papules, which resembled rice grains, were also observed. Light microscopy showed small keratin-filled cysts, with an epithelial multilayered wall, without granular layer. Keratin and some vellus hairs were identified inside the cyst, confirming the diagnosis of vellus hair cysts. Diagnosis of vellus hair cysts should be suspected in cases of multiple papules or therapy-resistant cases of acneiform eruptions.

  19. Left ventricular bronchogenic cyst.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang; Omo, Alfred; Pan, Tiecheng; Li, Jun; Liu, Ligang; Hu, Min

    2006-04-01

    Bronchogenic cysts occurring in the left ventricle are a medical rarity. One successfully operated case is reported herein. The location of the cyst was just between the epicardium and myocardium of the inferior left ventricular wall, adjacent to the apex of the heart. Complete excision was achieved through a left anterolateral thoracotomy without extracorporeal circulation.

  20. Arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture.

    PubMed

    Marques, Inês Brás; Vieira Barbosa, José

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital cerebrospinal fluid collections, usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally in children or adolescents. They may become symptomatic after enlargement or complications, frequently presenting with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. We report an unusual case of progressive refractory headache in an adult patient due to an arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture. Although clinical improvement occurred with conservative treatment, the subdural hygroma progressively enlarged and surgical treatment was ultimately needed. Spontaneous rupture is a very rare complication of arachnoid cysts. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space causes sustained intracranial hypertension that may be life-threatening and frequently requires surgical treatment. Patients with arachnoid cysts must be informed on their small vulnerability to cyst rupture and be aware that a sudden and severe headache, especially if starting after minor trauma or a Valsalva manoeuvre, always requires medical evaluation.

  1. Familial thymic cyst.

    PubMed

    Joshua, Ben Zion; Raveh, Eyal; Saute, Milton; Schwarz, Michael; Tobar, Ana; Feinmesser, Raphael

    2004-05-01

    Thymic cysts are rare lesions of the anterior mediastinum or neck. The majority are asymptomatic, and the remainder are associated mainly with symptoms of dysphagia or dyspnea. Diagnosis is difficult before surgery. Cervical thymic cysts are relatively rare; age at presentation ranges from the neonatal period to adulthood, and the most frequent presenting sign is a lateral neck mass. Mediastinal thymic cysts are more common and account for 1% of all mediastinal masses. They tend to occur in the older age group and are usually detected incidentally on chest X-ray film or computed tomography scans. Dysphagia and dyspnea are the main symptoms. We describe two brothers, aged 5 and 8 years, with mediastinal thymic cysts that presented as low cervical masses and review the embryology, diagnosis and management of thymic cysts.

  2. Splenic epidermoid cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, F G; Yellin, A E; Lingua, R W; Craig, J R; Turrill, F L; Mikkelsen, W P

    1978-01-01

    Four patients with splenic masses were operated upon and found to have epidermoid cysts of the spleen, a rare lesion comprising less than 10% of benign, nonparasitic splenic cysts. The patients were young and had vague, non-specific symptoms which were related to the size of the slowly enlarging splenic mass. Three patients had palpable masses. Contrast gastrointestinal studies and intravenous urography will help exclude mass lesions of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Sonar scan may confirm the cystic nature of the lesion and localize it to the spleen. A review of 42,327 autopsy records at the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center revealed 32 benign splenic cysts found incidentally at autopsy. Hemorrhage, infection, rupture, and rarely, malignant change are complications of splenic cysts. Splenectomy is recommended to eliminate the symptoms produced by the cyst and prevent the potential complications. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:637577

  3. Congenital omental cyst

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Sah, Suresh; Sah, Panna Lal; Shah, Birendra Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Congenital omental cysts are rare intra-abdominal pathology, which are difficult to diagnose preoperatively; as such a high index of suspicion is required for accurate preoperative diagnosis. We present a case of congenital omental cyst in a 3-year-old girl who presented with huge abdominal distension. We performed diagnostic examinations including ultrasonography and CT of the abdomen. An omental cyst was diagnosed because of its position and connection to the surrounding tissues. She was operated and cyst was excised completely. Histological examination revealed an omental cyst with endothelial lining and haemorrhagic fluid inside. She had an uneventful recovery and doing well, without recurrence at follow-up of 24 months. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a surprise upon laparotomy and result in proper management. PMID:22865812

  4. Treatment of ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Suen, Matthew; Fung, B; Lung, C P

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts are soft tissue swellings occurring most commonly in the hand or wrist. Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through surgical excision. This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to patients who do not surgical treatment but would like symptomatic relief. Compared to surgery, which has a lower recurrence rate but have a higher complication rate with longer recovery period. It has been shown that surgical interventions do not provide better symptomatic relief compared to conservative treatment. If symptomatic relief is the patient's primary concern, a conservative approach is preferred, whilst surgical intervention will decrease the likelihood of recurrence.

  5. Seasonal Changes of Bioluminescence in Photosynthetic and Heterotrophic Dinoflagellates at San Clemente Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    the northern Sargasso Sea : seasonal and vertical distribution. Mar. Biol. 104: 153- 164 Seasonal Changes of Bioluminescence in Photosynthetic and...bioluminescence in the northern Sargasso Sea . Mar. Biol. 113: 329-339 Bityukov, E.P., Rybasov, V.P., Shaida, V.G. (1967). Annual variations of the...geographically. Dinoflagellates are most abundant in coastal waters and inland seas and are less abundant in the open ocean (Colebrook and Robinson, 1965

  6. Management of adult choledochal cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C S; Sawyers, J L; Reynolds, V H

    1981-01-01

    A review of the English literature reveals a total of 1,337 patients with choledochal cysts. Improved diagnostic techniques to visualize the biliary system are demonstrating an increasing number of unsuspected choledochal cysts in adult patients. Either choledochal cysts remain clinically silent until adulthood or may develop in later life. Experience is reported with adult patients having type I, II, III, and IV choledochal cysts. Type I cysts are preferably managed by excision but cyst anatomy may necessitate choledochoenteric drainage. Type II cysts are treated by excision except for those located within the pancreatic portion of the common bile duct. These are best managed by transduodenal cystoduodenostomy. The type III cyst (choledochocele) should be excised carefully, identifying and preserving the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Type IV cysts include a combination of any one of the first three types of cyst plus the presence of intrahepatic cyst or cysts. Treatment of these cysts is dictated by the type and location of the extrahepatic cyst. Since choledochal cysts are being recognized with increased frequency in adults, surgeons need to be aware of the diagnostic and treatment modalities available for each type of biliary cyst. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:7235770

  7. Mixotrophy in the phototrophic dinoflagellate Takayama helix (family Kareniaceae): Predator of diverse toxic and harmful dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Ok, Jin Hee; Lim, An Suk; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kim, So Jin; Lee, Sung Yeon

    2016-12-01

    Takayama spp. are phototrophic dinoflagellates belonging to the family Kareniaceae and have caused fish kills in several countries. Understanding their trophic mode and interactions with co-occurring phytoplankton species are critical steps in comprehending their ecological roles in marine ecosystems, bloom dynamics, and dinoflagellate evolution. To investigate the trophic mode and interactions of Takayama spp., the ability of Takayama helix to feed on diverse algal species was examined, and the mechanisms of prey ingestion were determined. Furthermore, growth and ingestion rates of T. helix feeding on the dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum and Alexandrium tamarense, which are two optimal prey items, were determined as a function of prey concentration. T. helix ingested large dinoflagellates ≥15μm in size, except for the dinoflagellates Karenia mikimotoi, Akashiwo sanguinea, and Prorocentrum micans (i.e., it fed on Alexandrium minutum, A. lusitanicum, A. tamarense, A. pacificum, A. insuetum, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Coolia canariensis, Coolia malayensis, Gambierdiscus caribaeus, Gymnodinium aureolum, Gymnodinium catenatum, Gymnodinium instriatum, Heterocapsa triquetra, Lingulodinium polyedrum, and Scrippsiella trochoidea). All these edible prey items are dinoflagellates that have diverse eco-physiology such as toxic and non-toxic, single and chain forming, and planktonic and benthic forms. However, T. helix did not feed on small flagellates and dinoflagellates <13μm in size (i.e., the prymnesiophyte Isochrysis galbana; the cryptophytes Teleaulax sp., Storeatula major, and Rhodomonas salina; the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo; the dinoflagellates Heterocapsa rotundata, Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum minimum; or the small diatom Skeletonema costatum). T. helix ingested Heterocapsa triquetra by direct engulfment, but sucked materials from the rest of the edible prey species through the intercingular region of the sulcus. With increasing mean prey

  8. Tarlov Cyst and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467

  9. [Intraventricular arachnoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Rico-Cotelo, María; Diaz-Cabanas, Lucía; Allut, Alfredo G; Gelabert-Gonzalez, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. Intracranial arachnoids cysts are considered benign developmental anomalies that occur within the arachnoid membrane and generally contain clear and colourless fluid resembling cerebrospinal fluid. The prevalence of these cysts is higher in the first two decades of life, and the incidence is widely quoted as approximately 1% of all space-occupying intracranial lesions. Arachnoids cysts in the elderly person are a rare occurrence. We report the unusual presentation of a woman with an intraventricular arachnoid cyst treated with endoscopic technique. CASE REPORT. A 75-year-old woman presented with progressive hemiparesis of two years duration. Cranial MR imaging showed a right parieto-occipital intraventricular cyst with local mass effect and moderate dilatation of lateral ventricles. A right-sided burr hole was made and the arachnoids cyst was reached and cysto-ventricle shunting was realized. This was followed by a septum pellucidum fenestration. There were no complications during the surgery and the patient presented no symptoms at time of discharge. CONCLUSIONS. The neuroendoscopic approach to intraventricular arachnoid cysts was effective with few complications.

  10. Tarlov cyst and infertility.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Case report and literature review. A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients.

  11. Major transitions in dinoflagellate evolution unveiled by phylotranscriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Gavelis, Gregory S.; Burki, Fabien; Dinh, Donna; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R.; Gornik, Sebastian G.; Bright, Kelley J.; Imanian, Behzad; Strom, Suzanne L.; Waller, Ross F.; Fensome, Robert A.; Leander, Brian S.; Rohwer, Forest L.; Saldarriaga, Juan F.

    2017-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are key species in marine environments, but they remain poorly understood in part because of their large, complex genomes, unique molecular biology, and unresolved in-group relationships. We created a taxonomically representative dataset of dinoflagellate transcriptomes and used this to infer a strongly supported phylogeny to map major morphological and molecular transitions in dinoflagellate evolution. Our results show an early-branching position of Noctiluca, monophyly of thecate (plate-bearing) dinoflagellates, and paraphyly of athecate ones. This represents unambiguous phylogenetic evidence for a single origin of the group’s cellulosic theca, which we show coincided with a radiation of cellulases implicated in cell division. By integrating dinoflagellate molecular, fossil, and biogeochemical evidence, we propose a revised model for the evolution of thecal tabulations and suggest that the late acquisition of dinosterol in the group is inconsistent with dinoflagellates being the source of this biomarker in pre-Mesozoic strata. Three distantly related, fundamentally nonphotosynthetic dinoflagellates, Noctiluca, Oxyrrhis, and Dinophysis, contain cryptic plastidial metabolisms and lack alternative cytosolic pathways, suggesting that all free-living dinoflagellates are metabolically dependent on plastids. This finding led us to propose general mechanisms of dependency on plastid organelles in eukaryotes that have lost photosynthesis; it also suggests that the evolutionary origin of bioluminescence in nonphotosynthetic dinoflagellates may be linked to plastidic tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Finally, we use our phylogenetic framework to show that dinoflagellate nuclei have recruited DNA-binding proteins in three distinct evolutionary waves, which included two independent acquisitions of bacterial histone-like proteins. PMID:28028238

  12. Branchial Cleft Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity. PMID:27904209

  13. [Species of dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae) in the Mexican Caribbean Sea].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Becerril, D U; Almazán Becerril, A

    2004-09-01

    Some dinoflagellates with benthic habits are related to ciguatera intoxication by fish consumption, especially in tropical areas. In the Mexican Caribbean, ciguatera is relatively common, but only one paper seems to have been published on the subject, and there are very few publicactions on phytoplankton and benthic microalgae. Material collected along the coast of the State of Quintana Roo with phytoplankton net (54 mm) and directly from sediment and epiphytes of macroscopic plants, was searched for toxic and other associated dinoflagellates. Samples were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Morphological characters were useful for species identification, but eventually physiological, ecological and molecular characters could also be used. Three species of Gambierdiscus, related to the production of ciguatera toxins, were identified: G. belizeanus, G. toxicus and G. yasumotoi. They are distributed in shallow coastal areas, including coastal lagoons.

  14. Managements of simple liver cysts: ablation therapy versus cyst unroofing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ryong; Lee, Do-Sang; Park, Il-Young

    2012-11-01

    Simple liver cysts were easily recognizable with the advanced imaging procedures, such as ultrasound and computed tomography scan. A large cyst or significant symptoms were indications for the treatments. Ablation therapy with sclerotic agents was effective, but there were several complications including severe pain. With the surgical cyst unroofing method introduced, we compared the cyst unroofing method and ablation therapy. Between March 1997 and May 2011, we performed treatments of simple liver cysts in 27 patients. There were 23 women and 4 men (age range: 42-84 years; mean age: 64 years). The cyst unroofing was undergone with laparoscopic (n=13) and open technique (n=1). The ablation therapy was performed with ethanol (n=13) and acetic acid (n=1). The usual symptoms of the liver cysts were abdominal mass (n=7), indigestion (n=4), abdominal discomfort (n=3), and the increasing size of the cysts (n=4). The mean diameter of the cysts was 10.9 cm. The cyst unroofing method was performed effectively in 14 patients. One patient had bleeding during operation, and was converted to the open technique. One patient had a bile leak from the cyst, but it was successfully closed with the laparoscopic technique. Among the 14 cases with the ablation therapy, there were 4 complications: hematoma (n=1); cyst leaking during aspiration (n=2); acute renal failure (n=1); and death due to acetic acid intoxication (n=1). Laparoscopic cyst unroofing was more effective and safer in management than the ablation therapy in simple liver cysts.

  15. From homothally to heterothally: Mating preferences and genetic variation within clones of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Rengefors, Karin; Bravo, Isabel; Bensch, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    The chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham is responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a human health threat in coastal waters. Sexuality in this species is of great importance in its bloom dynamics, and has been shown to be very complex but lacks an explanation. For this reason, we tested if unreported homothallic behavior and rapid genetic changes may clarify the sexual system of this alga. To achieve this objective, 12 clonal strains collected from the Spanish coast were analyzed for the presence of sexual reproduction. Mating affinity results, self-compatibility studies, and genetic fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP) analysis on clonal strains, showed three facts not previously described for this species: (i) That there is a continuous mating system within G. catenatum, with either self-compatible strains (homothallic), or strains that needed to be outcrossed (heterothallic), and with a range of differences in cyst production among the crosses. (ii) There was intraclonal genetic variation, i.e. genetic variation within an asexual lineage. Moreover, the variability among homothallic clones was smaller than among the heterothallic ones. (iii) Sibling strains (the two strains established by the germination of one cyst) increased their intra- and inter-sexual compatibility with time. To summarize, we have found that G. catenatum's sexual system is much more complex than previously described, including complex homothallic/heterothallic behaviors. Additionally, high rates of genetic variability may arise in clonal strains, although explanations for the mechanisms responsible are still lacking.

  16. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

    PubMed

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-05-10

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without extraction of the adjacent tooth was performed. Lesion samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed a thin, non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Epithelial plaques were also seen. A clinicopathological correlation incorporating the surgical, radiographical and gold standard histopathological findings was obtained to suggest the final diagnosis of the bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

  17. Fibrosis and Simple Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... caffeine and other stimulants found in coffee, tea, chocolate, and many soft drinks. Studies have not found ... side effects. How do fibrosis and simple cysts affect your risk for breast cancer? Neither fibrosis nor ...

  18. Mǔllerian cyst of the mesentery: A case report of an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Boghossian, Shahe; Dasgupta, Kaushik; Haugk, Beate; White, Steve

    2010-10-01

    Mǔllerian cysts or paramesonephric cysts arise from the fused embryonic ducts, which typically regress in the uterus. These cysts are usually located paravertebrally. We present an unusual case of a Mǔllerian cyst developing within the mesentery of the ileocecum that was successfully resected. The patient presented to our surgical unit with abdominal pain and swelling. She underwent all the necessary tests to rule out other pathologies before she underwent right hemicolectomy. The patient was discharged without complications. Histopathology confirmed the presence of female reproductive tract epithelium, which was conclusive of a Mǔllerian cyst or paramesonephric cyst. Mǔllerian cysts are rarely malignant, and they are usually treated surgically. The incidence of Mǔllerian cysts is one in 105,000, with almost equal sex distribution. Their unusual intraperitoneal location further demonstrates their uncommon presentation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Gingival Cyst of Newborn.

    PubMed

    Moda, Aman

    2011-01-01

    Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.

  1. Gingival Cyst of Newborn

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion. PMID:27616865

  2. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    HS, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A.; Astekar, Madhusudan S.

    2012-01-01

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient. PMID:24765458

  3. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Hs, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A; Astekar, Madhusudan S

    2012-05-29

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

  4. Management of Renal Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ismail; Can Sener, Nevzat; Firat, Hacer; Yeşil, Süleyman; Zengin, Kürşad; Yalcınkaya, Fatih; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Renal cysts have a high prevalence in the general population, and their estimated incidence increases with age. Renal cyst aspiration (usually with sclerotherapy) or open/laparoscopic decortication is a generally effective and safe method in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. The success rates of laparoscopic decortication and percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy were compared to assist in the decision making for the procedure. Methods: A total of 184 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts were treated with either laparoscopic decortication in 149 cases or percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy in 35 cases. The follow-up period was approximately 35 months, and the symptomatic and radiologic success rates of the 2 techniques were compared retrospectively. Results: Laparoscopic decortication was found to have high success rates, a low recurrence rate, and minimal morbidity. Percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy is an outpatient procedure with a minimally higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: When a symptomatic cyst is encountered and treatment of the cyst is indicated, laparoscopic decortication is a more efficient method that offers better results than percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy. PMID:25848184

  5. Acromioclavicular joint cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Andrew D; Miller, Joshua D; Zeller, John L

    2010-03-01

    Acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) cysts are an uncommon and unusual sequela associated with shoulder pathophysiology. The majority of literature on ACJ cysts consists of individual case reports with no definitive literature review currently available. In addition to a comprehensive literature review, four clinical cases are presented in this report. First described by Craig (1984), a total of 41 cases have been previously reported in the literature. Of these cases, five occurred with the rotator cuff musculature intact. The remaining 36 cases of ACJ cysts occurred in patients with a complete tear/avulsion of the rotator cuff. Previous attempts at compiling a complete record of all reported cases have combined several distinct conditions into a single category. This article presents two distinct etiologies for the pathogenesis of ACJ cyst formation. In the presence of an intact rotator cuff, a Type 1 cyst can form superficially and be limited to the ACJ. Following a massive or traumatic tear of the rotator cuff, mechanical instability of the humeral head can cause a deterioration of the inferior acromioclavicular capsule (cuff tear arthropathy) and an overproduction of synovial fluid. Overtime, a "geyser" of fluid can form between the glenohumeral and the ACJ, forming a Type 2 cyst. This differentiation and categorization is essential for appropriate classification and treatment.

  6. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  7. Management of renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Bas, Okan; Nalbant, Ismail; Can Sener, Nevzat; Firat, Hacer; Yeşil, Süleyman; Zengin, Kürşad; Yalcınkaya, Fatih; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Renal cysts have a high prevalence in the general population, and their estimated incidence increases with age. Renal cyst aspiration (usually with sclerotherapy) or open/laparoscopic decortication is a generally effective and safe method in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. The success rates of laparoscopic decortication and percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy were compared to assist in the decision making for the procedure. A total of 184 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts were treated with either laparoscopic decortication in 149 cases or percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy in 35 cases. The follow-up period was approximately 35 months, and the symptomatic and radiologic success rates of the 2 techniques were compared retrospectively. Laparoscopic decortication was found to have high success rates, a low recurrence rate, and minimal morbidity. Percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy is an outpatient procedure with a minimally higher recurrence rate. When a symptomatic cyst is encountered and treatment of the cyst is indicated, laparoscopic decortication is a more efficient method that offers better results than percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy.

  8. Juxtafacet Spinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This was a retrospective study. Purpose To study the surgical outcome of synovial cysts of the lumbar spine through posterior laminectomy in combination with transpedicular screw fixation. Overview of Literature Synovial cysts of the lumbar spine contribute significantly to narrowing of the spinal canal and lateral thecal sac and nerve root compression. Cysts form as a result of arthrotic disruption of the facet joint, leading to degenerative spondylolisthesis in up to 40% of patients. Methods Retrospective data from 6 patients, treated during the period of March 2007 to February 2011, were analyzed. All preoperative and postoperative manifestations, extension/flexion radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography records were reviewed. All underwent surgery for synovial cysts with excision and decompression combined with posterior fixation. The result of surgery was evaluated with Macnab's classification. An excellent or good outcome was considered as satisfactory. Japanese Orthopedic Association Scale was used for evaluation of back pain. Results All patients included in this study had excellent outcomes as regarding to improvement of all preoperative manifestations and returning to normal daily activities. Only 2 cases developed postoperative transient cerebro-spinal fluid leak and were treated conservatively and improved during the follow up period. Conclusions Although this study included a small number of cases and we could not have statistically significant results, the good outcome of decompression of synovial cysts combined with posterior fixation and fusion encouraged us to recommend this approach for patients with juxtafacet synovial cysts. PMID:26949457

  9. Submental epidermoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided.

  10. Primary intradural extramedullary hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Tuna, Hakan; Aydin, Zafer; Colpan, Efkan; Egemen, Nihat

    2005-04-01

    Spinal hydatid cysts account for 1% of all cases of hydatid disease; primary intradural hydatid cysts are uncommon. We present a case of pathologically confirmed intradural spinal cyst hydatid in an otherwise healthy patient who showed no other evidence of systemic hydatid cyst disease. The patient presented with back pain, paraparesis, and weakness. An intradural extramedullary cystic lesion was identified with magnetic resonance imaging and was shown to be a hydatid cyst by histopathologic examination after surgical removal. To our knowledge, this is the 25th case of hydatid cyst at an intradural extramedullary location reported in the literature.

  11. Growing Hemorrhagic Choroidal Fissure Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Gelal, Fazıl; Gurkan, Gokhan; Feran, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal fissure cysts are often incidentally discovered. They are usually asymptomatic. The authors report a case of growing and hemorrhagic choroidal fissure cyst which was treated surgically. A 22-year-old female presented with headache. Cranial MRI showed a left-sided choroidal fissure cyst. Follow-up MRI showed that the size of the cyst had increased gradually. Twenty months later, the patient was admitted to our emergency department with severe headache. MRI and CT showed an intracystic hematoma. Although such cysts usually have a benign course without symptoms and progression, they may rarely present with intracystic hemorrhage, enlargement of the cyst and increasing symptomatology. PMID:26962426

  12. Successful enucleation of retroperitoneal cyst.

    PubMed

    Singal, Rikki; Gupta, Samita; Singh, Bir

    2012-01-01

    Retroperitoneal mesenteric cyst is a rare entity among the other mesenteric cysts and intra-abdominal tumours. A 42-year-old woman reported with pain abdomen off and on since one month. There were no other complaints. On ultrasonography a mesenteric cyst was diagnosed. Surgery was planned which revealed a retroperitoneal mesenteric cyst. Enucleation of the cyst was done. In follow-up of 6 months patient is asymptomatic. We are reporting a rarely reported retroperitoneal mesenteric cyst in the mesentery of the descending colon or sigmoid.

  13. Digital holographic microscopy reveals prey-induced changes in swimming behavior of predatory dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jian; Malkiel, Edwin; Katz, Joseph; Adolf, Jason; Belas, Robert; Place, Allen R

    2007-10-30

    The shallow depth of field of conventional microscopy hampers analyses of 3D swimming behavior of fast dinoflagellates, whose motility influences macroassemblages of these cells into often-observed dense "blooms." The present analysis of cinematic digital holographic microscopy data enables simultaneous tracking and characterization of swimming of thousands of cells within dense suspensions. We focus on Karlodinium veneficum and Pfiesteria piscicida, mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates, respectively, and their preys. Nearest-neighbor distance analysis shows that predator and prey cells are randomly distributed relative to themselves, but, in mixed culture, each predator clusters around its respective prey. Both dinoflagellate species exhibit complex highly variable swimming behavior as characterized by radius and pitch of helical swimming trajectories and by translational and angular velocity. K. veneficum moves in both left- and right-hand helices, whereas P. piscicida swims only in right-hand helices. When presented with its prey (Storeatula major), the slower K. veneficum reduces its velocity, radius, and pitch but increases its angular velocity, changes that reduce its hydrodynamic signature while still scanning its environment as "a spinning antenna." Conversely, the faster P. piscicida increases its speed, radius, and angular velocity but slightly reduces its pitch when exposed to prey (Rhodomonas sp.), suggesting the preferred predation tactics of an "active hunter."

  14. [Large mesenteric cyst in a patient suspected of ovarian cyst].

    PubMed

    Czubalski, Andrzej; Barwijuk, Andrzej; Radiukiewicz, Grzegorz

    2004-07-01

    Mesenteric cystic tumors are very rare. They may simulate the ovarian cysts. We report a case of a 38 year-old woman with large cystic tumor suggesting ovarian cyst. The patient was operated on and we found that genital organs were normal. Besides there was a large cyst of small intestine mesentery with 10 liters of clear fluid. The cyst was removed. Histological material showed mucinous cystadenoma.

  15. Population dynamics of red tide dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Timothy; Zingone, Adriana

    2014-03-01

    Sea-surface discolorations due to high concentrations of phytoplankton are called red tides. Their ecological significance is a long standing puzzle, and they are sometimes considered pathological. Here we propose that many red tides, particularly but not exclusively those composed of certain autotrophic dinoflagellates, are presexual/sexual swarms, essential links in their complex life cycles. This view provides a rationale for the appearance of these organisms in thin surface layers, and helps explain their ephemeral nature. We suggest that further understanding of this phenomenon, and of phytoplankton ecology in general, would benefit from attention to the 'net reproductive value‧ (r) over the whole life cycle as well as to the division rate (μ) of the vegetative phase. It is argued that r is strategically adapted to seasonal cycles and long term environmental variability, while μ reflects tactical needs (timing) and constraints (grazers, parasites) on vegetative growth.

  16. Photoregulation in a Kleptochloroplastidic Dinoflagellate, Dinophysis acuta

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Per J.; Ojamäe, Karin; Berge, Terje; Trampe, Erik C. L.; Nielsen, Lasse T.; Lips, Inga; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Some phagotrophic organisms can retain chloroplasts of their photosynthetic prey as so-called kleptochloroplasts and maintain their function for shorter or longer periods of time. Here we show for the first time that the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta takes control over “third-hand” chloroplasts obtained from its ciliate prey Mesodinium spp. that originally ingested the cryptophyte chloroplasts. With its kleptochloroplasts, D. acuta can synthesize photosynthetic as well as photoprotective pigments under long-term starvation in the light. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that the kleptochloroplasts were fully functional during 1 month of prey starvation, while the chlorophyll a-specific inorganic carbon uptake decreased within days of prey starvation under an irradiance of 100 μmol photons m-2 s-1. While D. acuta cells can regulate their pigmentation and function of kleptochloroplasts they apparently lose the ability to maintain high inorganic carbon fixation rates. PMID:27303378

  17. Cyanobacterial endosymbionts in the benthic dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata (Dinophysiales, Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Escalera, Laura; Reguera, Beatriz; Takishita, Kiyotaka; Yoshimatsu, Sadaaki; Koike, Kanae; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2011-04-01

    Photosynthetic dinoflagellates possess a great diversity of plastids that have been acquired through successful serial endosymbiosis. The peridinin-containing plastid in dinoflagellates is canonical, but many other types are known within this group. Within the Dinophysiales, several species of Dinophysis contain plastids, derived from cryptophytes or haptophytes. In this work, the presence of numerous intracellular cyanobacteria-like microorganisms compartmentalized by a separate membrane is reported for the first time within the benthic dinophysoid dinoflagellate Sinophysis canaliculata Quod et al., a species from a genus morphologically close to Dinophysis. Although the contribution of these cyanobacterial endosymbionts to S. canaliculata is still unknown, this finding suggests a possible undergoing primary endosymbiosis in a dinoflagellate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  19. Method of Measuring Dinoflagellate Grazing on Flagellate and Bacteria Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, L. M.; Mulholland, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellates are a major taxa of phytoplankton that include many species that commonly form harmful algal blooms (HABs) throughout the world. A feature of dinoflagellate physiology that may contribute to their competitive success is their ability to grow mixotrophically. As primary producers and photoautotrophs, these organisms convert inorganic nutrients to organic compounds using sunlight. During blooms inorganic nutrients and light commonly become limited. The ability to grow heterotrophically may offer dinoflagellates a competitive advantage over strict autotrophs during blooms. Using a modification of a method used to measure zooplankton grazing rates, we measured grazing by dinoflagellates on co-occurring microbes, including heterotrophic flagellates and bacteria, in the Lafayette River, a tributary in the Chesapeake Bay estuary during non-bloom and bloom conditions. Initial results of these experiments using this method are presented here.

  20. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  1. Pathophysiology of glioma cyst formation.

    PubMed

    Adn, Mahmoudreza; Saikali, Stephan; Guegan, Yvon; Hamlat, Abderrahmane

    2006-01-01

    Fluid filled cystic cavities are accompaniments of some cerebral gliomas. These tumoural cysts together with peritumoural vasogenic brain oedema add to the morbid effects of the gliomas in terms of mass effect and increased intracranial pressure. Although different mechanisms have been suggested as to the pathogenesis of glioma-associated cysts, it is still unclear why these cysts appear in only a limited number of cerebral gliomas while brain oedema, a probable precursor of glioma cysts, is a usual accompaniment of most gliomas. Here, the authors present a two-hit hypothesis of brain glioma cyst formation. We suggest that after the formation of vasogenic tumoural brain oedema, microvascular phenomena may lead to the formation of microcysts, which might later become confluent and grow to form macroscopic cysts. Progress in the understanding of pathogenesis of cerebral glioma cysts might set targets for treatment of brain edema and glioma cysts.

  2. Chocolate cysts from ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Dalton, M E

    1999-11-01

    To study the development of chocolate cysts by serial transvaginal ultrasonographic tracking of ovarian follicles. Retrospective study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland, United Kingdom. We reviewed case notes of all patients who underwent laparoscopy for diathermy to endometriosis/ovarian diathermy/aspiration of ovarian cysts from 1989 to 1998. Twelve women with histories of infertility and proven chocolate cysts with documented ultrasonographic findings were included in the study. Serial ultrasonographic tracking of ovarian follicles in the cycle leading to the development of the chocolate cysts, followed by ultrasonographic tracking of cysts for 3 months and laparoscopy. Development and formation of chocolate cysts. The diagnosis of chocolate cysts was confirmed laparoscopically in all patients and histopathologically in four. Ultrasound confirmed that they had all developed from follicles. Chocolate cysts can develop from ovarian follicles.

  3. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts in the Breast Mastitis Duct Ectasia Other Non-cancerous Breast Conditions Breast ... Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts in the Breast Mastitis Duct Ectasia Other Non-cancerous Breast Conditions Back ...

  4. Evolution of saxitoxin synthesis in cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Jeremiah D; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Brosnahan, Michael L; Kulis, David M; Anderson, Donald M; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Plumley, F Gerald; Erdner, Deana L

    2013-01-01

    Dinoflagellates produce a variety of toxic secondary metabolites that have a significant impact on marine ecosystems and fisheries. Saxitoxin (STX), the cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning, is produced by three marine dinoflagellate genera and is also made by some freshwater cyanobacteria. Genes involved in STX synthesis have been identified in cyanobacteria but are yet to be reported in the massive genomes of dinoflagellates. We have assembled comprehensive transcriptome data sets for several STX-producing dinoflagellates and a related non-toxic species and have identified 265 putative homologs of 13 cyanobacterial STX synthesis genes, including all of the genes directly involved in toxin synthesis. Putative homologs of four proteins group closely in phylogenies with cyanobacteria and are likely the functional homologs of sxtA, sxtG, and sxtB in dinoflagellates. However, the phylogenies do not support the transfer of these genes directly between toxic cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. SxtA is split into two proteins in the dinoflagellates corresponding to the N-terminal portion containing the methyltransferase and acyl carrier protein domains and a C-terminal portion with the aminotransferase domain. Homologs of sxtB and N-terminal sxtA are present in non-toxic strains, suggesting their functions may not be limited to saxitoxin production. Only homologs of the C-terminus of sxtA and sxtG were found exclusively in toxic strains. A more thorough survey of STX+ dinoflagellates will be needed to determine if these two genes may be specific to SXT production in dinoflagellates. The A. tamarense transcriptome does not contain homologs for the remaining STX genes. Nevertheless, we identified candidate genes with similar predicted biochemical activities that account for the missing functions. These results suggest that the STX synthesis pathway was likely assembled independently in the distantly related cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, although using some

  5. Dynamics of late spring and summer phytoplankton communities on Georges Bank, with emphasis on diatoms, Alexandrium spp., and other dinoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettings, Rachel M.; Townsend, David W.; Thomas, Maura A.; Karp-Boss, Lee

    2014-05-01

    We analyzed the distribution, abundance, and succession patterns of major phytoplankton taxa on Georges Bank in relation to hydrography, nutrients, and size-fractionated chlorophyll concentrations (>20 μm; <20 μm) on three oceanographic cruises from late spring through summer 2008 (28 April-5 May, 27 May-4 June, and 27 June-3 July). The April-May phytoplankton community was dominated numerically by the diatoms Skeletonema spp., Thalassiosira spp., Coscinodiscus spp., and Chaetoceros spp., with highest total diatom cell densities exceeding 200,000 cells l-1 on the Northeast Peak. In May-June, low nitrate and silicate concentrations over the Bank, along with patches of slightly elevated ammonium, were apparently supporting a predominantly dinoflagellate population; the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp. reached 13,000 cells l-1. Diatom cell densities on the second cruise in May-June were less than 60,000 cells l-1 and their spatial distributions did not overlap with the highest cell densities of Alexandrium spp. or other dinoflagellates. On the third and last cruise, in June-July, reduced nitrate and silicate concentrations were accompanied by a shift in the phytoplankton community: Alexandrium spp. cell densities were lower and heterotrophic and mixotrophic dinoflagellates, notably Polykrikos spp., Gyrodinium spp., Gymnodinium spp., and Prorocentrum spp., had become more abundant. Patches of regenerated silicate during the June-July period appeared to support a post-spring-bloom diatom community on the central crest of the Bank (total diatom cell densities >180,000 cellsl-1) of Leptocylindrus spp., Dactyliosolen spp., and Guinardia flaccida. Multivariate statistical analyses of phytoplankton taxa and station locations revealed distinct assemblages of diatom and dinoflagellate taxa on the Bank throughout the late spring and summer. Results are interpreted in the ecological context of earlier-reported laboratory culture experiments on the competitive interactions

  6. The transcriptome of the novel dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina (Alveolata: Dinophyceae): response to salinity examined by 454 sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Chris D; Mello, Luciane V; Samatar, Najma; Martin, Laura E; Montagnes, David J S; Watts, Phillip C

    2011-10-20

    The heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina is increasingly studied in experimental, ecological and evolutionary contexts. Its basal phylogenetic position within the dinoflagellates make O. marina useful for understanding the origin of numerous unusual features of the dinoflagellate lineage; its broad distribution has lent O. marina to the study of protist biogeography; and nutritive flexibility and eurytopy have made it a common lab rat for the investigation of physiological responses of marine heterotrophic flagellates. Nevertheless, genome-scale resources for O. marina are scarce. Here we present a 454-based transcriptome survey for this organism. In addition, we assess sequence read abundance, as a proxy for gene expression, in response to salinity, an environmental factor potentially important in determining O. marina spatial distributions. Sequencing generated ~57 Mbp of data which assembled into 7, 398 contigs. Approximately 24% of contigs were nominally identified by BLAST. A further clustering of contigs (at ≥ 90% identity) revealed 164 transcript variant clusters, the largest of which (Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase) was composed of 28 variants displaying predominately synonymous variation. In a genomic context, a sample of 5 different genes were demonstrated to occur as tandem repeats, separated by short (~200-340 bp) inter-genic regions. For HSP90 several intergenic variants were detected suggesting a potentially complex genomic arrangement. In response to salinity, analysis of 454 read abundance highlighted 9 and 20 genes over or under expressed at 50 PSU, respectively. However, 454 read abundance and subsequent qPCR validation did not correlate well - suggesting that measures of gene expression via ad hoc analysis of sequence read abundance require careful interpretation. Here we indicate that tandem gene arrangements and the occurrence of multiple transcribed gene variants are common and indicate potentially complex

  7. Changes in marine dinoflagellate and diatom abundance under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinder, Stephanie L.; Hays, Graeme C.; Edwards, Martin; Roberts, Emily C.; Walne, Anthony W.; Gravenor, Mike B.

    2012-04-01

    Marine diatoms and dinoflagellates play a variety of key ecosystem roles as important primary producers (diatoms and some dinoflagellates) and grazers (some dinoflagellates). Additionally some are harmful algal bloom (HAB) species and there is widespread concern that HAB species may be increasing accompanied by major negative socio-economic impacts, including threats to human health and marine harvesting. Using 92,263 samples from the Continuous Plankton Recorder survey, we generated a 50-year (1960-2009) time series of diatom and dinoflagellate occurrence in the northeast Atlantic and North Sea. Dinoflagellates, including both HAB taxa (for example, Prorocentrum spp.) and non-HAB taxa (for example, Ceratium furca), have declined in abundance, particularly since 2006. In contrast, diatom abundance has not shown this decline with some common diatoms, including both HAB (for example, Pseudo-nitzschia spp.) and non-HAB (for example, Thalassiosira spp.) taxa, increasing in abundance. Overall these changes have led to a marked increase in the relative abundance of diatoms versus dinoflagellates. Our analyses, including Granger tests to identify criteria of causality, indicate that this switch is driven by an interaction effect of both increasing sea surface temperatures combined with increasingly windy conditions in summer.

  8. Pilonidal cyst of the clitoris.

    PubMed

    Kanis, Margaux J; Momeni, Mazdak; Zakashansky, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    A pilonidal cyst is an epithelialized sinus tract or cyst containing hair follicles with a surrounding inflammatory reaction. It usually develops in the sacrococcygeal region with few reports of its development in the genitalia. We present a case of a periclitoral pilonidal cyst in a young woman and its management.

  9. Juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M; Dellaero, D T; Harrelson, J M; Scully, S P

    1999-07-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign primary or secondary lesions that commonly arise in long bones and often before skeletal maturity. Little has been written about aneurysmal bone cysts that abut the physeal plate. The records of 15 patients with juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts were reviewed. Fourteen of the patients were referred with abnormal radiographs after evaluation for pain in the affected limb. One patient presented with abnormal radiographs after fracture about the aneurysmal bone cyst. None of the patients had evidence of growth plate disruption. The children's ages ranged from 2 to 14 years, with a mean of 9.8 years. There were 10 boys and five girls. Lesion locations included: six in the proximal tibia, three in the distal fibula, two in the distal tibia, two in the proximal femur, one in the distal femur, and one in the distal radius. All of the lesions abutted the physeal plate and fell into one of the types in Campanacci's classification of juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts. Three lesions were classified as Type 1, eight were Type 2, and four were Type 3. This study included no cases of Type 4 or 5 lesions. Treatment of all lesions consisted of excision, curettage, and bone grafting with care taken to preserve the growth plate. Adjunctive cauterization was performed in two cases. There were no incidences of postoperative physeal plate arrest. Overgrowth of the fibula occurred in one patient. Three patients experienced recurrent lesions. One of the children underwent repeat curettage and bone grafting with no additional recurrence. In the other two children with recurrence, the lesion had grown away from the physeal plate while remaining static in size and asymptomatic. Based on this study, juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts may be treated satisfactorily with intralesional surgery and bone grafting with expectation of normal physeal growth.

  10. New observations on meniscal cysts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jada Jean; Connor, Gregory F; Helms, Clyde A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meniscal cysts, assess the frequency of various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, and emphasize radiographic observations not commonly reported. A total of 2,095 consecutive knee MR imaging reports from a 22 month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of meniscal cysts. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the cases where cysts were reported. A meniscal cyst was considered present if abnormally increased signal was identified within an enlarged meniscus (i.e., intrameniscal cyst) or if a loculated fluid-intensity lesion with a clear connection to the adjacent meniscus was identified (i.e., parameniscal cyst). Presence or absence of a meniscal tear, intrameniscal and parameniscal signal intensity, patient age, sex, location of meniscal cyst, presence of discoid meniscus, and size of the parameniscal cyst component were recorded. All knee imaging examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR unit. Imaging findings were correlated with arthroscopic reports when available. A total of 167 cases (8.0%) of meniscal cysts were diagnosed in 161 patients. Of the 167 cysts, 69 (41.3%) were located in the lateral meniscus and 98 (58.7%) in the medial meniscus. In 6 patients (3.7%), meniscal cysts were present in both menisci of the same knee. Twelve (7.2%) meniscal cysts were associated with discoid menisci. Ninety-seven (57.8%) meniscal cysts were associated with meniscal tears. Of the total number of meniscal cysts, 104 (62.3%) had a parameniscal cyst. An isolated intrameniscal cyst was present in 63 (37.7%) cases. One hundred (96%) of the parameniscal cyst components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. All cysts exhibited abnormal intrameniscal signal. Only 14 (8.4%) of the intrameniscal components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. The arthroscopic reports of 88 of the 161 (54.7%) patients were available for review and correlation. A tear extending to

  11. Multiple intracranial enterogenous cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Walls, T J; Purohit, D P; Aji, W S; Schofield, I S; Barwick, D D

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 40-year-old woman with increasing ataxia is described. Although the clinical presentation and evoked response studies raised the possibility of multiple sclerosis, further investigation revealed multiple cystic intracranial lesions. Surgical excision of one of the lesions relieved the patient's symptoms. Histological examination revealed that this was an enterogenous cyst. Although single cysts of this type have rarely been reported occurring in the posterior cranial fossa, the occurrence of multiple lesions, some in the supratentorial compartment, appears to be unique. Images PMID:3701354

  12. Development of a dinoflagellate-oriented PCR primer set leads to detection of picoplanktonic dinoflagellates from Long Island Sound.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Yubo; Miranda, Lilibeth; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2006-08-01

    We developed dinoflagellate-specific 18S rRNA gene primers. PCR amplification using these oligonucleotides for a picoplanktonic DNA sample from Long Island Sound yielded 24 clones, and all but one of these clones were dinoflagellates primarily belonging to undescribed and Amoebophrya-like lineages. These results highlight the need for a systematic investigation of picodinoflagellate diversity in both coastal and oceanic ecosystems.

  13. Development of a Dinoflagellate-Oriented PCR Primer Set Leads to Detection of Picoplanktonic Dinoflagellates from Long Island Sound†

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Yubo; Miranda, Lilibeth; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2006-01-01

    We developed dinoflagellate-specific 18S rRNA gene primers. PCR amplification using these oligonucleotides for a picoplanktonic DNA sample from Long Island Sound yielded 24 clones, and all but one of these clones were dinoflagellates primarily belonging to undescribed and Amoebophrya-like lineages. These results highlight the need for a systematic investigation of picodinoflagellate diversity in both coastal and oceanic ecosystems. PMID:16885319

  14. Beware! A simple renal cyst could be a hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Nidhi; Priyadarshi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Kidney is one of the most common sites for the cyst formation in the body, and the management of simple cysts is required entirely for its symptoms and complications. Surgical decortication is an established treatment for a large and symptomatic simple renal cyst. On the other hand, hydatid cysts of the kidney are usually multiloculated complex or calcified cysts and are quite rare. Their surgical treatment also differs and requires complete excision with pericystectomy or partial/complete nephrectomy depending upon residual functional parenchyma, using extreme caution to avoid spillage, recurrence or development of severe anaphylactic shock. A simple cyst harboring a hydatid cyst is highly uncommon and quite dangerous; as if not diagnosed preoperatively, it can create huge trouble for both the patient and the operating surgeon which happened in the present case. PMID:28794599

  15. Beware! A simple renal cyst could be a hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Nidhi; Priyadarshi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Kidney is one of the most common sites for the cyst formation in the body, and the management of simple cysts is required entirely for its symptoms and complications. Surgical decortication is an established treatment for a large and symptomatic simple renal cyst. On the other hand, hydatid cysts of the kidney are usually multiloculated complex or calcified cysts and are quite rare. Their surgical treatment also differs and requires complete excision with pericystectomy or partial/complete nephrectomy depending upon residual functional parenchyma, using extreme caution to avoid spillage, recurrence or development of severe anaphylactic shock. A simple cyst harboring a hydatid cyst is highly uncommon and quite dangerous; as if not diagnosed preoperatively, it can create huge trouble for both the patient and the operating surgeon which happened in the present case.

  16. Giant intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst--a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muddassir; Kirmani, Sanna; Rashid, Mubashir

    2012-01-01

    The hydatidosis, or echinococcosis, has a characteristic geographic distribution, occurring most frequently in sheep-raising regions in Mediterranean, Central Asian, and South American countries and in Australia. Spinal hydatidosis is very rare, and intradural location is a rarer category of spinal hydatidosis. We report a case of intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst in a 9-year-old boy. On magnetic resonance imaging, an intradural extramedullary giant cystic lesion was seen mimicking an arachnoid cyst. However, endemic origin of the patient and positive serology helped to make the diagnosis of hydatid cyst, which was confirmed on postoperative histopathology. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Kısaoğlu, Abdullah; Özoğul, Bünyami; Atamanalp, Sabri Selçuk; Pirimoğlu, Berhan; Aydınlı, Bülent; Korkut, Ercan

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pancreatic hydatid cysts are a rare parasitic disease even in endemic areas. It is difficult to discriminate primary pancreatic hydatid cysts from other cystic and solid lesions of the pancreas. This is a case report of an incidental isolated pancreatic hydatid cyst. A heterogeneous cystic lesion in the body of the pancreas was identified on magnetic resonance imaging of a patient previously diagnosed patient with cholelithiasis, and because of the malignant possibility of the lesion, splenectomy with distal pancreatectomy and cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was reported as a hydatid cyst. Pancreatic hydatid cysts should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic malignancies.

  18. Growth, feeding and ecological roles of the mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates in marine planktonic food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Jae Seong; Seong, Kyeong Ah; Kang, Nam Seon; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2010-06-01

    Planktonic mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates are ubiquitous protists and often abundant in marine environments. Recently many phototrophic dinoflagellate species have been revealed to be mixotrophic organisms and also it is suggested that most dinoflagellates may be mixotrophic or heterotrophic protists. The mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates are able to feed on diverse prey items including bacteria, picoeukaryotes, nanoflagellates, diatoms, other dinoflagellates, heterotrophic protists, and metazoans due to their diverse feeding mechanisms. In turn they are ingested by many kinds of predators. Thus, the roles of the dinoflagellates in marine planktonic food webs are very diverse. The present paper reviewed the kind of prey which mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates are able to feed on, feeding mechanisms, growth and ingestion rates of dinoflagellates, grazing impact by dinoflagellate predators on natural prey populations, predators on dinoflagellates, and red tides dominated by dinoflagellates. Based on this information, we suggested a new marine planktonic food web focusing on mixotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates and provided an insight on the roles of dinoflagellates in the food web.

  19. Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.

    PubMed

    Sajko, Tomislav; Kovać, Damir; Kudelić, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

    2009-12-01

    Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts.

  20. [Botryoid odontogenic cyst].

    PubMed

    Chbicheb, S; Bennani, A; Taleb, B; Wady, W El

    2008-04-01

    The botryoid odontogenic cyst (BOC) is a developmental cyst of odontogenic epithelial origin considered as a rare multilocular variety of lateral periodontal cyst (WHO 1992). This cystic lesion site is in the periodontal space of vital teeth. A 21-year-old woman consulted for a swelling of the anterior maxillary region. The clinical examination revealed bucal swelling extending from the left central incisor to the first left premolar. The mucosa was normal. The adjacent teeth were vital. X-ray revealed a bilocular radiolucency extending between the roots of teeth 21 and 24. The lesion was enucleated, under local anaesthesia via a vestibular approach. Histology was typical of a BOC with cystic spaces lined by squamous epithelium with thickening and clear cells. Forty-eight months after surgery, there was sign of recurrence. BOC is known to be a recurrent odontogenic cyst. Several cases of multiple recurrences have been reported up to nine years after the initial surgery. Long-term follow-up is thus mandatory.

  1. Renal Cysts and Urinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica; Darcy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Renal cysts are a common imaging finding. Although most cysts never have symptoms, some cause pain, collecting system compression, hematuria, hypertension, and secondary infection. The mere presence of a cyst is not an indication for intervention, but treatment may be indicated in symptomatic patients or those with secondary obstruction. Urinomas generally are a contained collection of urine outside of the normal pathways where urine travels. As such, urinomas can arise anywhere from the upper abdomen down into the low pelvis and have a variety of etiologies. Ureteral obstruction with forniceal rupture and trauma (blunt, penetrating, or iatrogenic) are the most common causes of urinomas. When urinomas arise spontaneously, the likely cause varies with the patient's age. Blunt or penetrating trauma can cause perinephric urinomas by two mechanisms—direct disruption of the pelvis or collecting system or by degeneration of nonviable tissue. These urinomas are often perinephric, but can also occur in a subcapsular location. This review will discuss diagnosis, classification, and treatment of renal cysts and urinomas. PMID:23204636

  2. Nasal dermoid sinus cyst.

    PubMed

    Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P

    1994-08-01

    Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.

  3. Pattern of benign ovarian cysts in Qatari women

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Fatimah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the age distribution, histopathological types, lateral distribution and surgical interventions performed for benign ovarian cysts in Qatari women undergoing surgical intervention for an ovarian cyst. Design: A retrospective descriptive study. Setting: Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Al-Ahli Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Patients and methods: Data were collected retrospectively from clinical records of Qatari women who underwent surgical intervention from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015 at Al-Ahli Hospital for an ovarian or paraovarian cyst. The age distribution, frequencies and percentages were calculated for each type of ovarian cyst and the side of the ovary involved was recorded. Results were statistically analysed by IBM SPSS, version 23. Results: A total of 81 women had an ovarian or paraovarian cyst. Age ranged from 16 to 58 years. The maximum number of women were in the 21–30-year-old age group. Benign epithelial cysts were found to be most common (32; 39.5%), of which the majority were for endometriotic cysts (15; 18.5%), serous cystadenoma (13; 16%) and mucinous cystadenoma (4; 4.9%). This was followed by physiological cysts (26; 32.1%), which included corpus luteal cysts (15; 18.5%) and simple follicular cysts (11; 13.6%). The other categories of ovarian tumours were for mature cystic teratoma (14; 17.3%), benign sex cord–stromal tumours (1; 1.2%) which included stromal cell tumours (1; 1.2%), borderline ovarian tumour (1; 1.2%) and paraovarian cysts (7; 8.6%). There was bilateral ovarian involvement in 9 cases (11.1%) and unilateral involvement in 72 (88.9%). The right ovary was involved in more cases (39; 48.1%), than for the left ovary (33; 40.7%). Conclusion: Benign epithelial tumours were found to be the most common type of ovarian tumour in Qatari women. Endometriotic cysts followed by serous cystadenomas were the most common types of benign epithelial tumours. The right ovary was found to be involved in more cases than the

  4. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  5. Historical records from dated sediment cores reveal the multidecadal dynamic of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum in the Bay of Brest (France).

    PubMed

    Klouch, Khadidja Z; Schmidt, Sabine; Andrieux-Loyer, Françoise; Le Gac, Mickaël; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Qui-Minet, Zujaila N; Quéré, Julien; Bigeard, Estelle; Guillou, Laure; Siano, Raffaele

    2016-07-01

    The multiannual dynamic of the cyst-forming and toxic marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum was studied over a time scale of about 150 years by a paleoecological approach based on ancient DNA (aDNA) quantification and cyst revivification data obtained from two dated sediment cores of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France). The first genetic traces of the species presence in the study area dated back to 1873 ± 6. Specific aDNA could be quantified by a newly developed real-time PCR assay in the upper core layers, in which the germination of the species (in up to 17-19-year-old sediments) was also obtained. In both cores studied, our quantitative paleogenetic data showed a statistically significant increasing trend in the abundance of A. minutum ITS1 rDNA copies over time, corroborating three decades of local plankton data that have documented an increasing trend in the species cell abundance. By comparison, paleogenetic data of the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella donghaienis did not show a coherent trend between the cores studied, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of a species-specific dynamic of A. minutum in the study area. This work contributes to the development of paleoecological research, further showing its potential for biogeographical, ecological and evolutionary studies on marine microbes. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cyclic GMP controls R. centenum cyst development

    PubMed Central

    Marden, Jeremiah N.; Dong, Qian; Roychowdhury, Sugata; Berleman, James E.; Bauer, Carl. E.

    2014-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclases are widely distributed across all kingdoms whereas guanylyl cyclases are generally thought to be restricted to eukaryotes. Here we report that the α–proteobacterium Rhodospirillum centenum secretes cGMP when developing cysts and that a guanylyl cyclase deletion strain fails to synthesize cGMP and is defective in cyst formation. The R. centenum cyclase was purified and shown to effectively synthesize cGMP from GTP in vitro, demonstrating that it is a functional guanylyl cyclase. A homolog of the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is linked to the guanylyl cyclase and when deleted is deficient in cyst development. Isothermal calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) analyses demonstrate that the recombinant CRP homolog preferentially binds to, and is stabilized by cGMP, but not cAMP. This study thus provides evidence that cGMP has a crucial role in regulating prokaryotic development. The involvement of cGMP in regulating bacterial development has broader implications as several plant-interacting bacteria contain a similar cyclase coupled by the observation that Azospirillum brasilense also synthesizes cGMP when inducing cysts. PMID:21214648

  7. Involvement of PTCH gene in various noninflammatory cysts.

    PubMed

    Levanat, S; Pavelić, B; Crnić, I; Oresković, S; Manojlović, S

    2000-01-01

    Constitutional hemizygous inactivation of PTCH, the Shh signaling pathway gene that moderates the signal, manifests itself as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome or Gorlin syndrome, a condition variably characterized by a number of developmental disorders and malformations, and by predisposition to some malignancies, basal cell carcinoma in particular. Loss of heterozygosity for the PTCH region was found several years ago in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocysts, the cyst type with highly increased incidence in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. This finding confirmed the expectations that the gene responsible for the syndrome would have a decisive role in the genesis of these cysts even when they are not syndrome related. Suggestive temporal distribution of Shh signaling, recently observed during tooth development, lead us to investigate PTCH association with dentigerous cysts, the other major noninflammatory cyst of odontogenic origin. We report here that PTCH appears to be inactivated in dentigerous cysts, suggesting that it is responsible for their genesis as well. More generally, if our similar observations of incomplete heterozygosity in this region for dermoid cysts can be interpreted as loss of heterozygosity, PTCH alterations may prove to be a necessary, and perhaps the initiating event, in formation and growth of various noninflammatory cysts. This would be consistent with our view that local PTCH inactivation can, under favorable circumstances, lead to persistent though not by itself truly aggressive cell proliferation.

  8. Pseudo-placentational endometrial cysts in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Bartel, C; Schönkypl, S; Walter, I

    2010-02-01

    Cystic alterations of the canine endometrium compromise reproduction and fertility of the bitch and may lead to life-threatening diseases, such as pyometra. Even without clinical evidence, reduction of the uterine lumen by cysts implicates disturbances during migration, nidation and development of the embryo. Several studies point to the high variability of morphology of uterine endometrial cysts but they lack detailed analyses of alterations. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of steroid hormone receptors (oestrogen, progesterone), proliferation activity, inflammation and infection in the cystic affected tissue regions in contrast to the normal endometrium. Oestrogen receptor expression showed a high density of receptors throughout the surface epithelial cells, crypt epithelial cells, glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells of the normal endometrium as well as the cystic affected regions. Proliferation in the cysts was verified in the middle and basal cells of the crypts. Neither in the endometrium nor in the cysts inflammatory processes or evidence of infection could be detected. Furthermore, lectin histochemistry and electron microscopic methods showed that lectin binding patterns and cell morphology of internal epithelial lining and surface epithelium of the cysts can be used to characterize and distinguish different types of cystic alterations. Analogies between epithelial cells of the glandular chambers of the canine placenta and the cystic cellular morphology, steroid hormone receptor distribution as well as lectin binding patterns of the endometrial cysts, as observed in this study, suggest to introduce the term 'pseudo-placentational endometrial cysts'.

  9. Phylogeny of ultra-rapidly evolving dinoflagellate chloroplast genes: a possible common origin for sporozoan and dinoflagellate plastids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Green, B R; Cavalier-Smith, T

    2000-07-01

    Complete chloroplast 23S rRNA and psbA genes from five peridinin-containing dinoflagellates (Heterocapsa pygmaea, Heterocapsa niei, Heterocapsa rotun-data, Amphidinium carterae, and Protoceratium reticulatum) were amplified by PCR and sequenced; partial sequences were obtained from Thoracosphaera heimii and Scrippsiella trochoidea. Comparison with chloroplast 23S rRNA and psbA genes of other organisms shows that dinoflagellate chloroplast genes are the most divergent and rapidly evolving of all. Quartet puzzling, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and LogDet trees were constructed. Intersite rate variation and invariant sites were allowed for with quartet puzzling and neighbor joining. All psbA and 23S rRNA trees showed peridinin-containing dinoflagellate chloroplasts as monophyletic. In psbA trees they are related to those of chromists and red algae. In 23S rRNA trees, dinoflagellates are always the sisters of Sporozoa (apicomplexans); maximum likelihood analysis of Heterocapsa triquetra 16S rRNA also groups the dinoflagellate and sporozoan sequences, but the other methods were inconsistent. Thus, dinoflagellate chloroplasts may actually be related to sporozoan plastids, but the possibility of reproducible long-branch artifacts cannot be strongly ruled out. The results for all three genes fit the idea that dinoflagellate chloroplasts originated from red algae by a secondary endosymbiosis, possibly the same one as for chromists and Sporozoa. The marked disagreement between 16S rRNA trees using different phylogenetic algorithms indicates that this is a rather poor molecule for elucidating overall chloroplast phylogeny. We discuss possible reasons why both plastid and mitochondrial genomes of alveolates (Dinozoa, Sporozoa and Ciliophora) have ultra-rapid substitution rates and a proneness to unique genomic rearrangements.

  10. Biochemistry of dinoflagellate bioluminescence: purification and characterization of dinoflagellate luciferin from Pyrocystis lunula.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, J C; Hastings, J W

    1981-02-17

    Bioluminescence in all dinoflagellate species studied to date is produced by the luciferase-catalyzed oxidation of a newly elucidated type of luciferin, hypothesized to have a substituted polypyrrole-type structure. This paper presents the purification and characterization of the luciferin from Pyrocystis lunula along with evidence that it is a polypyrrole-type molecule. Luciferin is extremely labile at low pH, at high salt concentration, and to O2, so, where possible, the purification steps were carried out in the presence of a buffered reducing agent and under argon. Purified luciferin is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. It is yellow (lambda max 245 and 390 nm with a shoulder at 290 nm in neutral or basic aqueous solution) and displays a strong blue fluorescence (lambda max for excitation at 390 nm, for emission at 474 nm) that closely matches the bioluminescence emission spectrum [Bode, V. C., & Hastings, J. W. (1963) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 103, 488--499]. Autoxidation leads to concomitant decreases in the 390-nm absorbance, 474-nm fluorescence, and biological activity; similar changes occurred with oxidation by K3Fe(CN)6, thus allowing a quantitation of luciferin by titration. Luciferin has a molecular weight between 500 and 600, displays positive Ehrlich and Schlesinger reactions, and yields on acid chromate oxidation fragments apparently resembling substituted maleimides; these data support the proposal that dinoflagellate luciferin contains a substituted polypyrrole of the bile pigment type.

  11. Dermoid cysts of maxillofacial region

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, N.K.; Choudhary, A.K.; Srinivas, V.; Kapil Tomar

    2015-01-01

    The dermoid cyst is an uncommon clinicopathological lesion of developmental origin. The term dermoid cyst is used to describe 3 cysts that are closely related histologically: dermoid cyst, epidermoid cyst, and teratoma. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are benign nature, which may occur anywhere in the body, but most predominantly in the ovary and scrotal regions. Only about 7% are found in the head and neck. The occurrence of such cysts in the oral cavity is extremely rare, with approximately 1.6% located in this area. The floor of the mouth is one of the most commonly affected area, however, these cysts can also be found in the tongue, lips, buccal mucosa and jaw bones. There is always a difficulty of making a correct diagnosis of these lesions with clinical examinations and conventional radiography. To achieve a diagnosis and to develop correct surgical strategy specialized imaging examinations such as ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and histopathological examination should be carried out. Treatment comprises total surgical excision the approach remains dictated logically by the cyst's location. Ample understanding and vigilance about this slow growing painless mass is essential not only because of the symptoms it produces but also due to its malignant potential. When dermoid cysts occur on the floor of the mouth, they may enlarge to such an extent that they can interfere with deglutition and produce respiratory obstruction. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for these cystic entities. PMID:26843755

  12. Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Dorrell, Richard G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function. PMID:25995366

  13. Clinical manifestations of synovial cysts.

    PubMed

    Burt, T B; MacCarter, D K; Gelman, M I; Samuelson, C O

    1980-08-01

    Although synovial cysts are most commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, they may occur in many other conditions. The clinical manifestations of these cysts are numerous and may result from pressure, dissection or acute rupture. Vascular phenomena occur when popliteal cysts compress vessels, and result in venous stasis with subsequent lower extremity edema or thrombophlebitis. Rarely, popliteal cysts may cause arterial compromise with intermittent claudication. Neurological sequelae include pain, paresthesia, sensory loss, and muscle weakness or atrophy. When synovial cysts occur as mass lesions they may mimic popliteal aneurysms or hematomas, adenopathy, tumors or even inguinal hernias. Cutaneous joint fistulas, septic arthritis or osteomyelitis, and spinal cord and bladder compression are examples of other infrequent complications. Awareness of the heterogeneous manifestations of synovial cysts may enable clinicians to avoid unnecessary diagnostic studies and delay in appropriate management. Arthrography remains the definitive diagnostic procedure of choice, although ultrasound testing may be useful.

  14. [Arachnoid cysts: Embriology and pathology].

    PubMed

    García-Conde, Mario; Martín-Viota, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    There is still great controversy surrounding the origin of the arachnoid cyst. The most accepted theory in the case of congenital cysts explains how they are formed from an anomalous development of the arachnoid membrane, which is unfolded allowing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside and creating a cyst. This theory seems to explain the origin of convexity and sylvian cistern arachnoid cysts, whereas those in other locations might be due to other mechanisms. In the anatomopathological analysis, the arachnoid cyst wall can be seen as having few differences from normal, although thickened due to an increase quantity of collagenous material. A description of the embryological development of the arachnoid layer and cyst formation is presented, describing the main anatomopathological findings.

  15. Maxillary air cyst.

    PubMed

    Doucette-Preville, Stephane; Tamm, Alexander; Khetani, Justin; Wright, Erin; Emery, Derek

    2013-12-01

    Pathologic dilatation of the maxillary sinus by air is a rare condition with unclear etiology. We present a case of a 17 year old male with a maxillary air cyst diagnosed by computed tomography. The CT demonstrated air-filled expansion of the maxillary sinus beyond the normal anatomical limits with associated cortical bone thinning. The case report highlights the pathognomonic computed tomography findings of this rare entity and discusses the perplexing nomenclature, proposed etiologies and various treatment options.

  16. Hybrid odontogenic tumor of calcifying odontogenic cyst and ameloblastic fibroma.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hoon; Kim, Hyung Jun; Yook, Jong In; Cha, In Ho; Ellis, Gary L; Kim, Jin

    2004-07-01

    Odontogenic tumors composed of 2 distinct types of lesions are unusual. We report an odontogenic tumor that was composed of calcifying odontogenic cyst and ameloblastic fibroma that occurred in the right posterior maxilla of a 22-year-old Korean woman. The tumor had a cystic component with an ameloblastic epithelial lining and conglomerates of so-called ghost cells, and there were deposits of dentinoid material adjacent to the cyst. These are features characteristic of calcifying odontogenic cyst. Enamel organ-like epithelial islands were observed within a dental papilla-like stroma of the cyst wall. Additionally, a solid portion of the tumor had characteristic features of ameloblastic fibroma, i.e., a myxoid cellular stroma with numerous elongated islands of ameloblastic epithelium. Ghost cell masses were found in the area of ameloblastic fibroma as well. The distribution of the ghost cells suggests that this is a hybrid lesion rather than a collision tumor.

  17. [Mesoappendix cyst. A case report].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Jarquín, José Alvaro; Romero-Morales, Luis Enrique; Enríquez-Adalid, Ramiro Martín; Mendoza-García, Valentín Aurelio; Reyes-Páramo, Pedro; López-Colomo, Aurelio

    2008-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts are lesions that appear very rare. Its incidence ranges from 1:20,000 in children and 1:100,000 in adults. Their clinical manifestations are atypical and they include abdominal pain, vomit, tumor and complications from hemorrhage, peritonitis when there is a rupture of infected cyst, intestinal occlusion, renal failure, volvulus and malignant transformation. We present a case of mesenteric cyst, located in the mesoappendix with slight vascular compromise and chronic symptoms, its treatment and evolution.

  18. Environmental Barcoding Reveals Massive Dinoflagellate Diversity in Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Rowena F.; Horak, Ales; Andrew, Rose L.; Coffroth, Mary-Alice; Andersen, Robert A.; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Jameson, Ian; Hoppenrath, Mona; Véron, Benoît; Kasai, Fumai; Brand, Jerry; James, Erick R.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known “species”, as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean), including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species. Conclusions/Significance COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a massive amount of

  19. [Nasal septum cyst of odontogenic origin].

    PubMed

    Calvo Boizas, E; Sancipriano Hernández, J A; Diego Pérez, C; Rodríguez Gutiérrez, A; Martínez-Alegría López, J; Gómez Toranzo, F

    1997-10-01

    Cysts in the nasal septum are unusual, and the presence of a dental cyst is even rarer. A cyst of dental origin was produced by dental root fracture in the nasal septum. The differential diagnosis and management are discussed.

  20. DESCRIPTION OF TYRANNODINIUM GEN. NOV., A FRESHWATER DINOFLAGELLATE CLOSELY RELATED TO THE MARINE PFIESTERIA-LIKE SPECIES(1).

    PubMed

    Calado, António J; Craveiro, Sandra C; Daugbjerg, Niels; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2009-10-01

    On the basis of morphological (light and electron microscopy) as well molecular data, we show that the widely distributed freshwater dinoflagellate presently known as Peridiniopsis berolinensis is a member of the family Pfiesteriaceae, an otherwise marine and estuarine family of dinoflagellates. P. berolinensis is a close relative of the marine species, which it resembles in morphology, mode of swimming, food-uptake mechanism, and partial LSU rRNA sequences. It differs from all known genera of the family in plate tabulation. P. berolinensis is only distantly related to the type species of Peridiniopsis, P. borgei, and is therefore transferred to the new genus Tyrannodinium as T. berolinense comb. nov. T. berolinense is a very common freshwater flagellate that feeds vigorously on other protists and is able to consume injured metazoans much larger than itself. Production of toxins has not been reported. © 2009 Phycological Society of America.

  1. STEROLS AS BIOMARKERS IN GYMNODINIUM BREVE DISTRIBUTION IN DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sterol composition of marine microalgae has been shown to be a chemotaxonomic property potentially of value in distinguishing members of different algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae display sterol compositions ranging from as few as two (cholesterol ...

  2. STEROLS AS BIOMARKERS IN GYMNODINIUM BREVE DISTRIBUTION IN DINOFLAGELLATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sterol composition of marine microalgae has been shown to be a chemotaxonomic property potentially of value in distinguishing members of different algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae display sterol compositions ranging from as few as two (cholesterol ...

  3. Cerebral arachnoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, M. J. G.

    1971-01-01

    The case histories of 14 children are described in which hydrocephalus was found on investigation to be associated with a cyst of the posterior fossa or subarachnoid cisterns. The neuroradiological and histological findings are described. The cysts are considered to be developmental in origin. Their recognition and management are discussed. Images PMID:5315217

  4. Cyst of accessory lacrimal gland.

    PubMed Central

    Durán, J. A.; Cuevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    We present a case of an epithelial cyst of the conjunctiva caused by the dilatation of an accessory lacrimal gland. The case is peculiar in regard to the size of the cyst and the absence of traumatic or inflammatory factors to explain the retention of fluid. Images PMID:6860616

  5. Chylous mesenteric cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hou-Ping; Liu, Wen-Ying; Tang, Yun-Man; Ma, Bu-Yun; Xu, Bing; Yang, Gang; Wang, Xue-Jun

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of chylous mesenteric cysts (CMCs) in children. We analyzed retrospectively the clinical records of 10 children with a CMC, treated in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, between 1987 and 2008. This series comprised five girls and five boys. The CMC manifested as abdominal distention (n = 9), acute abdomen (n = 8), or an asymptomatic abdominal mass (n = 1), and included five mesojejunal cysts and five mesoileal cysts. Intestinal volvulus occurred in four patients with mesoileal cysts and acute chylous effusion occurred in two patients with mesojejunal cysts. All ten children were treated surgically. The cystic content was positive for Sudan III staining and the chylous test. Chylous mesenteric cysts manifest as an abdominal mass, abdominal distention, and/or acute abdomen more often in children than in adults. The clinical presentation suggests some association with the localization of the cysts. A good prognosis can be expected with removal of the cyst and the affected intestinal segment.

  6. A quantitative real-time PCR assay for the identification and enumeration of Alexandrium cysts in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdner, D. L.; Percy, L.; Keafer, B.; Lewis, J.; Anderson, D. M.

    2010-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a global problem that affects both human and ecosystem health. One of the most serious and widespread HAB poisoning syndromes is paralytic shellfish poisoning, commonly caused by Alexandrium spp. dinoflagellates. Like many toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium produces resistant resting cysts as part of its life cycle. These cysts play a key role in bloom initiation and decline, as well as dispersal and colonization of new areas. Information on cyst numbers and identity is essential for understanding and predicting blooms, yet comprehensive cyst surveys are extremely time- and labor-intensive. Here we describe the development and validation of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique for the enumeration of cysts of A. tamarense of the toxic North American/Group I ribotype. The method uses a cloned fragment of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene as a standard for cyst quantification, with an experimentally determined conversion factor of 28,402±6152 LSU ribosomal gene copies per cyst. Tests of DNA extraction and PCR efficiency show that mechanical breakage is required for adequate cyst lysis, and that it was necessary to dilute our DNA extracts 50-fold in order to abolish PCR inhibition from compounds co-extracted from the sediment. The resulting assay shows a linear response over 6 orders of magnitude and can reliably quantify ≥10 cysts/cm 3 sediment. For method validation, 129 natural sediment samples were split and analyzed in parallel, using both the qPCR and primulin-staining techniques. Overall, there is a significant correlation ( p<0.001) between the cyst abundances determined by the two methods, although the qPCR counts tend to be lower than the primulin values. This underestimation is less pronounced in those samples collected from the top 1 cm of sediment, and more pronounced in those derived from the next 1-3 cm of the core. These differences may be due to the condition of the cysts in the different layers, as the

  7. Renal cyst puncture studies.

    PubMed

    Lang, E K

    1987-02-01

    The edict to contain costs and meet goals imposed by DRG remuneration policies mandates the work-up of asymptomatic renal mass lesions on an outpatient basis. This proved feasible in 98 per cent of patients. The vast majority of such mass lesions (82 to 90 per cent) is diagnosed with acceptable confidence by computed tomography and sonography alone. For a shrinking group of such patients, yet still 16 to 18 per cent, guided percutaneous aspiration biopsy is necessary to affirm the diagnosis. However, this technique has been refined during recent years to incorporate the use of thin needle equipment and can now be performed on an outpatient basis without significant risk of morbidity. For diagnosing hyperdense inflammatory and infected renal cysts, guided percutaneous aspiration is recommended as the most effective method. This procedure should take precedence over surgical exploration because it can diagnose and provide pertinent bacteriologic information that may determine the course of therapy. In many instances inflammatory cysts or even silent renal abscesses are diagnosed by a percutaneous aspiration technique that is then expanded to serve therapeutic purposes such as percutaneous drainage. Even these procedures can be performed safely on an outpatient basis provided the patient is followed closely. Because complications of percutaneous aspiration procedures are extremely rare, the procedure can be used safely on an outpatient basis. The impact of magnetic resonance imaging on the diagnosis of asymptomatic space-occupying lesions of the kidney is as yet not fully determined; however, this method appears promising for diagnosing some of the refractory lesions such as hemorrhagic cysts, aneurysms, or arteriovenous malformations.

  8. Biosynthesis and Molecular Genetics of Polyketides in Marine Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Kellmann, Ralf; Stüken, Anke; Orr, Russell J. S.; Svendsen, Helene M.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2010-01-01

    Marine dinoflagellates are the single most important group of algae that produce toxins, which have a global impact on human activities. The toxins are chemically diverse, and include macrolides, cyclic polyethers, spirolides and purine alkaloids. Whereas there is a multitude of studies describing the pharmacology of these toxins, there is limited or no knowledge regarding the biochemistry and molecular genetics involved in their biosynthesis. Recently, however, exciting advances have been made. Expressed sequence tag sequencing studies have revealed important insights into the transcriptomes of dinoflagellates, whereas other studies have implicated polyketide synthase genes in the biosynthesis of cyclic polyether toxins, and the molecular genetic basis for the biosynthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins has been elucidated in cyanobacteria. This review summarises the recent progress that has been made regarding the unusual genomes of dinoflagellates, the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of dinoflagellate toxins. In addition, the evolution of these metabolic pathways will be discussed, and an outlook for future research and possible applications is provided. PMID:20479965

  9. Chemotaxis of Silicibacter sp. Strain TM1040 toward Dinoflagellate Products†

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Todd R.; Hnilicka, Kristin; Dziedzic, Amanda; Desplats, Paula; Belas, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The α-proteobacteria phylogenetically related to the Roseobacter clade are predominantly responsible for the degradation of organosulfur compounds, including the algal osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Silicibacter sp. strain TM1040, isolated from a DMSP-producing Pfiesteria piscicida dinoflagellate culture, degrades DMSP, producing 3-methylmercaptopropionate. TM1040 possesses three lophotrichous flagella and is highly motile, leading to a hypothesis that TM1040 interacts with P. piscicida through a chemotactic response to compounds produced by its dinoflagellate host. A combination of a rapid chemotaxis screening assay and a quantitative capillary assay were used to measure chemotaxis of TM1040. These bacteria are highly attracted to dinoflagellate homogenates; however, the response decreases when homogenates are preheated to 80°C. To help identify the essential attractant molecules within the homogenates, a series of pure compounds were tested for their ability to serve as attractants. The results show that TM1040 is strongly attracted to amino acids and DMSP metabolites, while being only mildly responsive to sugars and the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Adding pure DMSP, methionine, or valine to the chemotaxis buffer resulted in a decreased response to the homogenates, indicating that exogenous addition of these chemicals blocks chemotaxis and suggesting that DMSP and amino acids are essential attractant molecules in the dinoflagellate homogenates. The implication of Silicibacter sp. strain TM1040 chemotaxis in establishing and maintaining its interaction with P. piscicida is discussed. PMID:15294804

  10. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Oursin, C; Wetzel, S G; Lyrer, P; Bächli, H; Stock, K W

    1999-09-01

    Intradural dermoids are rare congenital tumors representing approximately 0.05% of all intracranial lesions. These benign tumors have a typical appearance on CT and MR due to their lipid components. The complication caused by rupture are the spillage of the fatty material into the cerebrospinal fluid. We report a case of a ruptured dermoid cyst showing fat/fluid levels in both side ventricles and fatty material in the subarachnoid space on CT and MR-imaging and the follow-up over four years after incomplete resection of the tumor.

  11. [Hydatid Cyst Cases with Different Localization: Region of Erzurum].

    PubMed

    Demirci, Elif; Altun, Eren; Çalık, Muhammet; Durur Subaşı, Irmak; Şipal, Sare; Gündoğdu, Özge Beyza

    2015-06-01

    In this study it is aimed to contribute in determination of geographic distribution of Hydatid Cysts in Turkey and to emphasize the clinic chaos of Hydatid Cysts cases found in various localizations, by indicating the prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in our region. It is evaluated that the cases diagnosed as Hydatid Cysts in Atatürk University Medical Faculty Pathology Depatment/Erzurum laboratories between 2003-2013; in terms of their age, gender, organ involvement and histopathologic detail. In our study, 459 Hydatid Cysts cases are defined. The most common localizations of cases are determined as liver (n:280, 61%) and lung (n:86, 18,7%). Those are followed by the kidney (n:12, 2,6%), brain (n:12, 2,6%) and spleen (n:9, 2.3%). Multi-organ involvement is observed in 31 cases (6.7%), in 10 (2.2%) cases co-occurence of liver and lung is determined. Unusual organ involvement is observed in 64 cases (13.9%) while the liver and lung is not involved. Hydatid Cysts is an important health issue which is endemically seen in our region. It can be observed in various localizations of human body, other than the liver and lung. Those various localizations lie behind the serious diagnostic problems in endemic regions.

  12. RESISTANCE OF THE AZOTOBACTER CYST

    PubMed Central

    Socolofsky, M. D.; Wyss, Orville

    1962-01-01

    Socolofsky, M. D. (University of Texas, Austin) and Orville Wyss. Resistance of the Azotobacter cyst. J. Bacteriol. 84:119–124. 1962—The Azotobacter cysts were found to be more resistant than the vegetative cells to various harmful agents. Studies involving ultraviolet irradiation indicated that cysts required twice as great a dosage, as correspondingly treated vegetative cells, to be 90% inactivated. The acquisition of ultraviolet resistance during the encystment process was gradual and appeared to be related to the formation of exine and intine. A slow loss of ultraviolet resistance during germination was also noted. The cysts exhibited no marked resistance to heat, although they were extremely resistant to gamma radiation, sonic treatment, and desiccation. Evidence was presented indicating that the cyst is not a bacterial endospore. The encystment process may confer a survival advantage upon the organism by coupling the low endogenous respiration rate with the ability to withstand desiccation. Images PMID:13914732

  13. [Imaging diagnosis of arachnoid cysts].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-González, Miguel; Santín-Amo, José María; Aran-Echabe, Eduardo; García-Allut, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are malformed lesions that contain a fluid similar to the cerebrospinal fluid, and are usually located within the arachnoidal membrane. They represent 1% of all intracranial lesions, and in recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. Although the majority of diagnosed arachnoid cysts are located in the cranial cavity and especially in the Sylvian fissure, a small number are located at spinal level and they can occur extra- or intra-spinally. An analysis is carried out, detailing the various tests used for the diagnosis of both intracranial and spinal arachnoids cysts, analysing the indications of each one depending on the location of the cysts and patient age. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Simple cyst of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Bo, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure.

  15. Auriculotemporal neuralgia secondary to TMJ synovial cyst: a rare presentation of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Hossein; Robertson, Carrie E; Lane, John I; Viozzi, Christopher F; Garza, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Synovial cysts of the temporomandibular joint are rare, and to our knowledge, only 14 cases have been reported. The most common presentation is local pain and swelling. We present a case of a synovial cyst presenting with neuralgia in the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve, initially misdiagnosed as trigeminal neuralgia. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  16. Characterization of Two Dinoflagellate Cold Shock Domain Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Beauchemin, Mathieu; Roy, Sougata; Pelletier, Sarah; Averback, Alexandra; Lanthier, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly two-thirds of the proteins annotated as transcription factors in dinoflagellate transcriptomes are cold shock domain-containing proteins (CSPs), an uncommon condition in eukaryotic organisms. However, no functional analysis has ever been reported for a dinoflagellate CSP, and so it is not known if they do in fact act as transcription factors. We describe here some of the properties of two CSPs from the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum, LpCSP1 and LpCSP2, which contain a glycine-rich C-terminal domain and an N-terminal cold shock domain phylogenetically related to those in bacteria. However, neither of the two LpCSPs act like the bacterial CSP, since they do not functionally complement the Escherichia coli quadruple cold shock domain protein mutant BX04, and cold shock does not induce LpCSP1 and LpCSP2 to detectable levels, based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both CSPs bind to RNA and single-stranded DNA in a nonspecific manner in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and both proteins also bind double-stranded DNA nonspecifically, albeit more weakly. These CSPs are thus unlikely to act alone as sequence-specific transcription factors. IMPORTANCE Dinoflagellate transcriptomes contain cold shock domain proteins as the major component of the proteins annotated as transcription factors. We show here that the major family of cold shock domain proteins in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium do not bind specific sequences, suggesting that transcriptional control is not a predominant mechanism for regulating gene expression in this group of protists. PMID:27303711

  17. Insights into a dinoflagellate genome through expressed sequence tag analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Jeremiah D; Scheetz, Todd E; Yoon, Hwan Su; Soares, Marcelo B; Bonaldo, Maria F; Casavant, Thomas L; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2005-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are important marine primary producers and grazers and cause toxic "red tides". These taxa are characterized by many unique features such as immense genomes, the absence of nucleosomes, and photosynthetic organelles (plastids) that have been gained and lost multiple times. We generated EST sequences from non-normalized and normalized cDNA libraries from a culture of the toxic species Alexandrium tamarense to elucidate dinoflagellate evolution. Previous analyses of these data have clarified plastid origin and here we study the gene content, annotate the ESTs, and analyze the genes that are putatively involved in DNA packaging. Results Approximately 20% of the 6,723 unique (11,171 total 3'-reads) ESTs data could be annotated using Blast searches against GenBank. Several putative dinoflagellate-specific mRNAs were identified, including one novel plastid protein. Dinoflagellate genes, similar to other eukaryotes, have a high GC-content that is reflected in the amino acid codon usage. Highly represented transcripts include histone-like (HLP) and luciferin binding proteins and several genes occur in families that encode nearly identical proteins. We also identified rare transcripts encoding a predicted protein highly similar to histone H2A.X. We speculate this histone may be retained for its role in DNA double-strand break repair. Conclusion This is the most extensive collection to date of ESTs from a toxic dinoflagellate. These data will be instrumental to future research to understand the unique and complex cell biology of these organisms and for potentially identifying the genes involved in toxin production. PMID:15921535

  18. Role of matrix metalloproteinases in radicular cysts and periapical granulomas.

    PubMed

    D'addazio, G; Artese, L; Piccirilli, M; Perfetti, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and distribution of different classes of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. Twenty consecutive specimens of radicular cysts and 20 of periapical granulomas were selected. Expression of MMP-2, -9, -8, -13, -3 was immunohistochemically evaluated. The intensity of expression of the MMPs was evaluated using a semi-quantitative analysis: low = +; intermediate = ++; high = +++. Positive expression of MMPs was present with different distribution. MMP-9 expressed differently in the lesions. Indeed, in periapical granulomas low expression was found in endothelial cells and fibroblasts, whilst high intensities were only detected in inflammatory cells. On the contrary, in radicular cysts the high intensities were mainly present in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. MMP-8 was mainly expressed in inflammatory cells of periapical granulomas. MMP-2 and -3 presented a low intensity of expression in both groups. MMP-13 showed a variable pattern of distribution in the different cell types of the two different lesions. The present investigation supports the role of MMPs in the inflammatory process leading to the development of radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. The results of the present study suggested that the increased enlargement of radicular cysts, compared to periapical granulomas, might be related to a higher expression of MMP-9. On the other hands, the higher intensity of expression of MMP-8 in periapical granulomas could be related to an active inflammatory process. MMP-8 could play an important role in the inflammation processes during the development of periapical lesions.

  19. Brandtodinium gen. nov. and B. nutricula comb. Nov. (Dinophyceae), a dinoflagellate commonly found in symbiosis with polycystine radiolarians.

    PubMed

    Probert, Ian; Siano, Raffaele; Poirier, Camille; Decelle, Johan; Biard, Tristan; Tuji, Akihiro; Suzuki, Noritoshi; Not, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    Symbiotic interactions between pelagic hosts and microalgae have received little attention, although they are widespread in the photic layer of the world ocean, where they play a fundamental role in the ecology of the planktonic ecosystem. Polycystine radiolarians (including the orders Spumellaria, Collodaria and Nassellaria) are planktonic heterotrophic protists that are widely distributed and often abundant in the ocean. Many polycystines host symbiotic microalgae within their cytoplasm, mostly thought to be the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella nutricula, a species originally described by Karl Brandt in the late nineteenth century as Zooxanthella nutricula. The free-living stage of this dinoflagellate has never been characterized in terms of morphology and thecal plate tabulation. We examined morphological characters and sequenced conservative ribosomal markers of clonal cultures of the free-living stage of symbiotic dinoflagellates isolated from radiolarian hosts from the three polycystine orders. In addition, we sequenced symbiont genes directly from several polycystine-symbiont holobiont specimens from different oceanic regions. Thecal plate arrangement of the free-living stage does not match that of Scrippsiella or related genera, and LSU and SSU rDNA-based molecular phylogenies place these symbionts in a distinct clade within the Peridiniales. Both phylogenetic analyses and the comparison of morphological features of culture strains with those reported for other closely related species support the erection of a new genus that we name Brandtodinium gen. nov. and the recombination of S. nutricula as B. nutricula comb. nov. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  20. BIOLUMINESCENCE AND CHLOROPLAST MOVEMENT IN THE DINOFLAGELLATE PYROCYSTIS LUNULA(1).

    PubMed

    Swift, E; Taylor, W R

    1967-06-01

    The lunate cysts of Pyrocystis lunula have a bioluminescent emission spectrum with a peak intensity of 477.5 ± 1 mμ. The light originates from the protoplasm in the center of the cysts. Six to eight hr after the cysts were placed in the dark, they produced 300 to 800 times more luminescence than controls maintained under constant, illumination. Plastids contract distally when the cysts are placed in the dark. If kept in the dark, the plastids contract distally and expand with a circadian rhythm persisting several days. At intensities of 2200 μm cm-'or less, the plastids are expanded. The plastids are contracted into the central area of the cysts at light intensities of 4000 μw cm-(2) and above. The Gymnodinium stage of the life cycle is not bioluminescent.

  1. [Supratentorial arachnoidal cysts].

    PubMed

    Vizioli, L; Cerillo, A; Falivene, R; Mottolese, C; Tedeschi, G

    1983-01-01

    The AA., after having examined the various hypothesis reported in literature about the etiopathogenesis and the contrasting anatomical and pathological data concerning the arachnoid supratentorial cysts, point out the remarkable frequency of they malformative and above-all post-traumatic genesis. On the formation mechanism of this last type, they agree upon the supposition expressed by Taveras and Ransohoff in 1953. The AA., therefore, after having analysed the principal morphological and topographical aspects, pay attention to the present diagnostic possibilities, above all in radiological range, where the TAC represents, by this time, the examination of election compared with traditional assurances with means of contrast. It follows the analysis of the personal casuistry, consisting in 6 arachnoid supratentorial cysts, two of which clearly post-traumatic and two, very probably, of malformative genesis (for the coexistence of data in favour of both suppositions). The AA. draw these conclusions: the CT Scan is the only diagnostic means which permits an exact pre-operating diagnosis on the nature of the lesion; the surgical and, above all, anatomo-pathological reports assume an essential rule for an exact etiopathogenetic interpretation of the lesion examined.

  2. [Dinoflagellates (Dinophyta) of orders Dinophysiales and Prorocentrales of the Veracruz Reef System, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Parra-Toriz, Dulce; Ramírez-Rodriguez, María de Lourdes Araceli; Hernández-Becerril, David Uriel

    2011-03-01

    Dinoflagellates are a major taxonomic group in marine phytoplankton communities in terms of diversity and biomass. Some species are also important because they form blooms and/or produce toxins that may cause diverse problems. The composition of planktonic dinoflagellates of the orders Prorocentrales and Dinophysiales, in the Veracruz Reef System, were obtained during the period of October 2006 to January 2007. For this, samples were taken from the surface at 10 stations with net of 30 microm mesh, and were analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Each species was described and illustrated, measured and their distribution and ecological data is also given. A total of nine species were found and identified, belonging to four genera: Dinophysis was represented by three species; Prorocentrum by three, Phalacroma by two, and only one species of Ornithocercus was detected. From the samples, four potentially toxin-producer species were found: Dinophysis caudata, D. rapa, Phalacroma rotundata and Prorocentrum micans. The number of species found in this study is low, especially considering the higher numbers observed in other areas of the Gulf of Mexico, where some reports have recorded up to 53 species of the order Dinophysiales and 14 for Prorocentrales. Identification keys for orders, genera and species for the study area are provided with this study.

  3. Recording High Resolution 3D Lagrangian Motions In Marine Dinoflagellates using Digital Holographic Microscopic Cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, J.; Malkiel, E.; Katz, J.; Place, A. R.; Belas, R.

    2006-11-01

    Detailed data on swimming behavior and locomotion for dense population of dinoflagellates constitutes a key component to understanding cell migration, cell-cell interactions and predator-prey dynamics, all of which affect algae bloom dynamics. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of flagellated cell motions, spatial-temporal Lagrangian measurements of multiple cells in high concentration are very limited. Here we present detailed data on 3D Lagrangian motions for three marine dinoflagellates: Oxyrrhis marina, Karlodinium veneficum, and Pfiesteria piscicida, using digital holographic microscopic cinematography. The measurements are performed in a 5x5x25mm cuvette with cell densities varying from 50,000 ˜ 90,000 cells/ml. Approximately 200-500 cells are tracked simultaneously for 12s at 60fps in a sample volume of 1x1x5 mm at a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4x2 μm. We fully resolve the longitudinal flagella (˜200nm) along with the Lagrangian trajectory of each organism. Species dependent swimming behavior are identified and categorized quantitatively by velocities, radii of curvature, and rotations of pitch. Statistics on locomotion, temporal & spatial scales, and diffusion rate show substantial differences between species. The scaling between turning radius and cell dimension can be explained by a distributed stokeslet model for a self-propelled body.

  4. A ten-year survey of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies of Seoul, the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mok-Young; Cho, Eun-Joo; Lee, Jin-Hyo; Han, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Sang

    2011-03-01

    To understand the distribution of Giardia cysts in drinking water supplies in Seoul, Korea, we collected water samples quarterly at 6 intakes in the Han River, its largest stream and 6 conventional water treatment plants (WTPs) serving drinking water, from 2000 to 2009. Giardia cysts in each of 10 L water were confirmed in 35.0% of intake water samples and the arithmetic mean was 1.65 cysts/10 L (range 0-35 cysts/10 L). The lowest cyst density was observed at Paldang and Kangbuk intakes, and the pollution level was higher at 4 intakes downstream. It seemed that these 4 intakes were under influence of Wangsuk stream at the end of which cysts were found in all samples with the mean of 140 cysts/10 L. The annual mean number of cysts was 0.21-4.21 cysts/10 L, and the cyst level at the second half of the 10 years was about 1/5 of that at first half on average. The cysts were more frequently found in winter, and their mean density was 3.74 cysts/10 L in winter and 0.80-1.08 cysts/10 L in other seasons. All finished water samples collected at 6 WTPs were negative for Giardia in each of 100 L sample for 10 years and cyst removal by physical process was average 2.9-log. It was concluded that conventional water treatment at 6 WTPs of Seoul appears to remove the cysts effectively under the present level of their source water. Domestic wastewater from the urban region could be an important source of Giardia pollution in the river.

  5. Relationship of cyst nematode gene frequencies to soybean resistance.

    PubMed

    Luedders, V D

    1989-06-01

    Soybean (S, Glycine max (L.) Merr.) lines with relatively few cysts of soybean cyst nematode (CN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) populations are usually called CN-resistant. The phenotype of number of cysts per plant is of the CN-S (Cyst Nematode-Soybean) association and determined by the interactions of genes for avirulence-resistance. The acronym "alins" was proposed for these alleles for incompatibility, with "xalin" representing the interaction X of one microsymbiont malin with its host h-alin. These alins are dominant in the gene-for-gene model but may be mostly recessive with CN-S. Definitive genetic studies have been hindered by the heterogeneity of sexually reproducing CN populations and lack of the appropriate genetic models. Loegering's abstract interorganismal genetic model was modified so that one model represented all four possible interactions of dominant-recessive alins for an incompatible phenotype. This involved redefining the Boolean algebra symbol 1 to represent both the alins AND their frequencies. The model was used to derive the relationship: {ie893-01} where the expectation E of cysts (of any CN-S combination, as proportion of number of cysts on a check cultivar) is proportional to the product Π of CN genotypic frequencies expressed as functions of m-alin frequencies. Each m-alin is at a different locus, i.e., {ie893-02}. The number of terms multiplied for each CN-S is equal to the number of alins in the S line (or F2 plant). There are too many unknowns in the equation to solve for any of them. The relationship does explain the continuous distributions of phenotypes that were nearly always observed. Basic genetic principles were used to concurrently derive the models and to obtain discontinuous distributions of numbers of cyst phenotypes in segregating generations due to one recessive alin in a CN-"susceptible" soybean line.

  6. Cytologic findings of urogenital mesenteric cyst.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Maral; Kumar, Perikala Vijayananda

    2013-07-01

    Mesenteric cysts are heterogeneous groups of lesions. Most of them are developmental cysts of lymphatic and enteric origin or cystic neoplasm such as mesothelioma or cystic teratoma. Urogenital cysts are a subcategory of developmental cysts of the mesentery. They are thought to arise from vestigial remnants of urogenital apparatus. These cysts may show evidence of mesonephric or metanephric differentiation. An 11 -year -old boy was presented with undescended testis. During preoperative work- up, an incidental cystic lesion was discovered which was attached to the ileum. Aspiration cytology of the cyst content revealed cuboidal to columnar cells; some of them were ciliated. Histologic examination showed a cyst with fibromuscular wall, lined by Mullerian type ciliated epithelium; so the diagnosis of urogenital mesenteric cyst of Mullerian type was made. Urogenital cysts are rare lesions, but they should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cystic lesion of the mesentery. Cytology could be a useful method for evaluation and revealing the nature of these cysts.

  7. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  8. Spinal perineurial and meningeal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Tarlov, I. M.

    1970-01-01

    Perineurial cysts may be responsible for clinical symptoms and a cure effected by their removal. They do not fill on initial myelography but may fill with Pantopaque some time, days or weeks, after Pantopaque has been instilled into the subarachnoid space. Perineurial cysts arise at the site of the posterior root ganglion. The cyst wall is composed of neural tissue. When initial myelography fails to reveal an adequate cause for the patient's symptoms and signs referable to the caudal nerve roots, then about a millilitre of Pantopaque should be left in the canal for delayed myelography which may later reveal a sacral perineurial cyst or, occasionally, a meningeal cyst. Meningeal diverticula occur proximal to the posterior root ganglia and usually fill on initial myelography. They are in free communication with the subarachnoid space and are rarely in my experience responsible for clinical symptoms. Meningeal diverticula and meningeal cysts appear to represent a continuum. Pantopaque left in the subarachnoid space may convert a meningeal diverticulum into an expanding symptomatic meningeal cyst, as in the case described. Many cases described as perineurial cysts represent abnormally long arachnoidal prolongations over nerve roots or meningeal diverticula. In general, neither of the latter is of pathological significance. Perineurial, like meningeal cysts and diverticula, may be asymptomatic. They should be operated upon only if they produce progressive or disabling symptoms or signs clearly attributable to them. When myelography must be done, and this should be done only as a preliminary to a probable necessary operation, then patient effort should be made to remove the Pantopaque. Images PMID:5531903

  9. [Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].

    PubMed

    Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

    2008-01-01

    Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery.

  10. [Microsurgical treatment of intracraneal arachnoid cysts].

    PubMed

    Saura Rojas, J Enrique; Horcajadas Almansa, Ángel; Ros López, Bienvenido

    2016-01-01

    Craniotomy and fenestration of membranes is one of the main treatment options for symptomatic arachnoid cysts. Open surgery advantages include, direct inspection of the cyst, biopsy sampling, fenestration in multilocular cysts and, in certain locations, cyst communication to basal cisterns. The aim of this paper is to review the advantages and disadvantages of this treatment modality for arachnoid cysts taking into account the different anatomical locations.

  11. My Treatment Approach: Pancreatic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Basar, Omer; Brugge, William R

    2017-09-07

    Our treatment approach for either symptomatic or incidentally found pancreatic cysts continues to improve. The true incidence of pancreatic cysts is not known, and pancreatic cystic neoplasms, especially intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, are currently most commonly diagnosed and resected. This is a result of increasing awareness, widespread availability of imaging, and better understanding of the nature of pancreatic cysts as well. Recent studies on molecular analysis and devices such as microbiopsy forceps help us better define and select the treatment approach to alleviate symptoms and to prevent malignant tumors while avoiding unnecessary surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Pericardial cyst simulating intracardiac mass

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.K.; Markivee, C.R.; George, E.A.

    1983-08-01

    Although pericardial celomic or mesothelial cysts are infrequent mediastinal lesions, they represent the most common benign mass lesion of the pericardium. Most often they are located at the right cardiophrenic junction. As a rule, they are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally on routine chest radiography. A symptomatic pericardial cyst is described in a patient with congestive cardiomyopathy, causing progressive atypical chest pain, dyspnea, and palpitation. On computer tomography (CT) and other imaging methods, the lesion simulated a cardiac mass. Thoracotomy revealed a large hemorrhagic pericardial celomic cyst compressing and displacing the heart and midmediastinal vasculature.

  13. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Gafă, R; Grandi, E; Cavazzini, L

    1997-01-01

    A rare case of lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas is reported. Microscopically the cyst content consisted of keratinous material and the walls were lined by mature squamous epithelium surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed diffuse reactivity for CD20 and CD3 in the lymphoid tissue and uniform positivity for cytokeratins in the squamous epithelium. Although the histogenesis of lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas is not understood, awareness of this lesion is helpful in differentiating it from other pancreatic cystic lesions. Images PMID:9389985

  14. Choroid plexus cysts and aneuploidy.

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, D; Yankowitz, J

    1998-01-01

    The association of choroid plexus cysts with fetal aneuploidy, particularly trisomy 18, was first noted in 1986. Through the years there have been numerous reports on this subject, but no consensus has been reached with regard to chromosomal risk. In this review, we attempt to summarise published reports on second trimester choroid plexus cysts, with an emphasis on the strengths and weaknesses of each report. Based on these reports, additional malformations are a significant risk factor for aneuploidy and an indication for determination of fetal karyotype. The management of isolated choroid plexus cysts remains controversial. PMID:9678699

  15. Bovine IgG subclasses and fertility of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Riesle, Silke; García, María Pía; Hidalgo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Saenz, Leonardo; Paredes, Rodolfo

    2014-09-15

    Hydatidosis is an important zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution, causing important health problems to humans and major economical losses in infected livestock. Echinococcus granulosus, the etiological agent of hydatid disease, induces a humoral immune response in the intermediate host (human and herbivorous) against hydatid cyst antigens. Specifically, IgGs are found in the laminar and germinal layers and inside the lumen of fertile and infertile hydatid cysts. In the germinal layer of infertile cysts IgGs are found in an order of magnitude greater than in the germinal layer of fertile cysts; a fraction of those IgGs are associated with high affinity to germinal layer proteins, suggesting their binding to specific parasite antigens. We have previously shown that those immunoglobulins, bound with high affinity to the germinal layer of hydatid cysts, induce apoptosis leading to cyst infertility. In the present work the presence of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in the germinal layer of both fertile and infertile hydatid cysts is reported. IgG1 is the most relevant immunoglobulin subclass present in the germinal layer of infertile cysts and bound with high affinity to that parasite structure. Contrarily, though the IgG2 subclass was also found in the germinal and adventitial layers, those immunoglobulins show low affinity to parasite antigens. We propose that the binding of an IgG1 subclass to parasite antigens present in the germinal layer is involved in the mechanism of cyst infertility.

  16. Age-Specific Frequencies and Characteristics of Ovarian Cysts in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Derinöz, Okşan; Akkoyun, Esra Betül; Güçlü Pınarlı, Faruk; Bideci, Aysun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to document ovarian cyst frequency and characteristics as well as distribution of these parameters with respect to age in children and adolescents. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 1009 girls between the ages of 5-18 years who presented to our pediatric emergency department (PED) with pelvic pain and therefore underwent pelvic ultrasound examination between June 2011 and May 2014. Results: In total, 132 of 1009 girls (13.1%) were identified as having ovarian cysts ≥1 cm in diameter. The frequency of ovarian cysts was found to be 1.8% (6/337) in children aged 5-9 years and 18.8% (126/672) in those aged 10-18 years. All the cysts detected in children aged 5-9 years were small (<3 cm) and simple with age-specific frequencies ranging between 1.5-2.7%. With the onset of adolescence, ovarian cyst frequency started to increase with age and ranged between 3.8-31.3% throughout adolescence. Age of peak ovarian cyst frequency was 15 years with a rate of 31.3%. Large ovarian cysts (>5 cm) were identified in 19 adolescents (15.1%) with most occurring during middle adolescence. Of the 19 adolescents, five were found to have cyst-related significant ovarian pathologies including cystadenoma (n=3) and ovarian torsion (n=2). Conclusion: In children aged 5-9 years, ovarian cysts were infrequent and small (<3 cm). Peak ovarian cyst frequency was detected at the age of 15 years. All patients diagnosed with cyst-related significant ovarian pathologies were adolescents having a cyst >5 cm in diameter with a complex appearance in most. PMID:28044991

  17. Dermoid cyst of the colon.

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Akiyama, N; Ishizaki, M; Tanaka, S; Ohsawa, K; Sugiyama, H; Kanoh, K; Toki, F; Asao, T; Kuwano, H

    2001-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are benign cystic teratomas lined by skin and epidermal appendages. We report a dermoid cyst occurring in a 26-year-old female whose chief complaint was irregular vaginal bleeding. Abdominal magnetic resonance image demonstrated a space-occupying lesion in the right lower abdomen. The mass showed hyperintensity on the T2 image and the signal was homogeneous for the interior. During abdominal surgery we made the diagnosis of subserous tumor of the colon and resected the ileocecal portion of the colon. The tumor measured 5.4 x 4.8 x 3.5 cm and was soft and elastic. On cross section, a unilocular cyst filled with atheromatous material was found. Pathological examination revealed a dermoid cyst. In the view of this diagnosis, a simple excision would have been an adequate treatment.

  18. [Dentigerous cyst: a case report].

    PubMed

    Spini, Roxana G; Bordino, Lucas; Cruz, Daniel; Fitz Maurice, María de Los Ángeles; Martins, Andrea; Michalski, Julian

    2016-10-01

    Maxillary cysts are a diverse group of entities that include benign and malignant odontogenic tumors. Information on the prevalence of this disease is limited. It is more common among males, and usually occurs in the second and third decade of life. The proportion of 6 to 7 year old patients with dentigerous cysts is only 9.1%. Dentigerous cysts encompass the crown of a permanent and unerupted impacted teeth. They are usually slow growing asymptomatic lesions that are not discovered until they affect surrounding organs. The aim of this study is to present an unusual case of dentigerous cyst and to inform the pediatrician about the management of a unilateral maxillary tumor in a healthy child, underlining the importance of a multidisciplinary approach of this disease.

  19. SxtA gene sequence analysis of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norshaha, Safida Anira; Latib, Norhidayu Abdul; Usup, Gires; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2015-09-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is typically known for the production of potent neurotoxins such as saxitoxin, affecting the health of human seafood consumers via paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). These phenomena is related to the harmful algal blooms (HABs) that is believed to be influenced by environmental and nutritional factors. Previous study has revealed that SxtA gene is a starting gene that involved in the saxitoxin production pathway. The aim of this study was to analyse the sequence of the sxtA gene in A. minutum. The dinoflagellates culture was cultured at temperature 26°C with 16:8-hour light:dark photocycle. After the samples were harvested, RNA was extracted, complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesised and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were then purified and cloned before sequenced. The SxtA sequence obtained was then analyzed in order to identify the presence of SxtA gene in Alexandrium minutum.

  20. Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Erik; Thor, Peter; Toth, Gunilla; Pavia, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers. Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Induced A. minutum contained up to 2.5 times more toxins than controls and was more resistant to further copepod grazing. Ingestion of non-toxic alternative prey was not affected by the presence of induced A. minutum. The ability of A. minutum to sense and respond to the presence of grazers by increased PST production and increased resistance to grazing may facilitate the formation of harmful algal blooms in the sea. PMID:16769640

  1. Sampling Error in Relation to Cyst Nematode Population Density Estimation in Small Field Plots.

    PubMed

    Župunski, Vesna; Jevtić, Radivoje; Jokić, Vesna Spasić; Župunski, Ljubica; Lalošević, Mirjana; Ćirić, Mihajlo; Ćurčić, Živko

    2017-06-01

    Cyst nematodes are serious plant-parasitic pests which could cause severe yield losses and extensive damage. Since there is still very little information about error of population density estimation in small field plots, this study contributes to the broad issue of population density assessment. It was shown that there was no significant difference between cyst counts of five or seven bulk samples taken per each 1-m(2) plot, if average cyst count per examined plot exceeds 75 cysts per 100 g of soil. Goodness of fit of data to probability distribution tested with χ(2) test confirmed a negative binomial distribution of cyst counts for 21 out of 23 plots. The recommended measure of sampling precision of 17% expressed through coefficient of variation (cv) was achieved if the plots of 1 m(2) contaminated with more than 90 cysts per 100 g of soil were sampled with 10-core bulk samples taken in five repetitions. If plots were contaminated with less than 75 cysts per 100 g of soil, 10-core bulk samples taken in seven repetitions gave cv higher than 23%. This study indicates that more attention should be paid on estimation of sampling error in experimental field plots to ensure more reliable estimation of population density of cyst nematodes.

  2. Germination fluctuation of toxic Alexandrium fundyense and A. pacificum cysts and the relationship with bloom occurrences in Kesennuma Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Natsuike, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Katsuhide; Nishitani, Goh; Yamada, Yuichiro; Yoshinaga, Ikuo; Ishikawa, Akira

    2017-02-01

    While cyst germination may be an important factor for the initiation of harmful/toxic blooms, assessments of the fluctuation in phytoplankton cyst germination, from bottom sediments to water columns, are rare in situ due to lack of technology that can detect germinated cells in natural bottom sediments. This study introduces a simple mesocosm method, modeled after previous in situ methods, to measure the germination of plankton resting stage cells. Using this method, seasonal changes in germination fluxes of toxic dinoflagellates resting cysts, specifically Alexandrium fundyense (A. tamarense species complex Group I) and A. pacificum (A. tamarense species complex Group IV), were investigated at a fixed station in Kesennuma Bay, northeast Japan, from April 2014 to April 2015. This investigation was conducted in addition to the typical samplings of seawater and bottom sediments to detect the dinoflagellates vegetative cells and resting cysts. Bloom occurrences of A. fundyense were observed June 2014 and February 2015 with maximum cell densities reaching 3.6×10(6) cells m(-2) and 1.4×10(7) cells m(-2), respectively. The maximum germination fluxes of A. fundyense cysts occurred in April 2014 and December 2014 and were 9.3×10(3) cells m(-2)day(-1) and 1.4×10(4) cells m(-2)day(-1), respectively. For A. pacificum, the highest cell density was 7.3×10(7) cells m(-2) during the month of August, and the maximum germination fluxes occurred in July and August, reaching 5.8×10(2) cells m(-2)day(-1). Thus, this study revealed the seasonal dynamics of A. fundyense and A. pacificum cyst germination and their bloom occurrences in the water column. Blooms occurred one to two months after peak germination, which strongly suggests that both the formation of the initial population by cyst germination and its continuous growth in the water column most likely contributed to toxic bloom occurrences of A. fundyense and A. pacificum in the bay.

  3. MICROSPECTROPHOTOMETRY AS A METHOD TO IDENTIFY KLEPTOPLASTIDS IN THE NAKED FRESHWATER DINOFLAGELLATE GYMNODINIUM ACIDOTUM(1).

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Coltelli, Primo; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2009-12-01

    A relatively small number of freshwater dinoflagellates are involved in symbiotic association with cryptophytes. The chloroplasts of the cryptophytes are retained by the dinoflagellate and give it the characteristic phycobilin pigmentation, either phycoerythrin or phycocyanin. The pigment characterization of the retained chloroplasts can give precise and accurate information about the type of cryptophyte preyed upon by the dinoflagellate. For this purpose, we performed microspectrophotometric evaluation of the pigments of Gymnodinium acidotum Nygaard and three different cryptophytes present in samples collected from a tributary of the river Arno, in Tuscany (Italy). The comparison of the different spectroscopic data allowed us to discriminate effectively among the cryptophytes preyed upon by the dinoflagellate.

  4. Adaptive immune responses to Acanthamoeba cysts.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Kathy; Howard, Kevin; Mayhew, Elizabeth; Niederkorn, Jerry; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2002-09-01

    Acanthamoeba cysts are not eliminated from the corneas of human subjects or experimentally infected animals. The persistence of Acanthamoeba cysts in the cornea indicates that either the cysts escape immunological elimination or are not recognized by the host's immunological elements. The aim of this study was to determine the immunogenicity and antigenicity of the Acanthamoeba cyst. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally and serum anti-Acanthamoeba IgG was measured by ELISA. Lymphoproliferative assay and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to Acanthamoeba castellanii cyst and trophozoite antigens were used to determine the cell mediated immune responses against Acanthamoeba cysts. A. castellanii cysts were both immunogenic and antigenic, producing anti-Acanthamoeba serum IgG, T lymphocyte proliferation, and delayed type hypersensitivity responses. These results indicate that Acanthamoeba cysts are recognized by the immune system. The persistence of the organism in the human cornea means that these adaptive immune responses fail to kill Acanthamoeba cysts.

  5. Clinical study of histologically proven conjunctival cysts

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Shreya; Jain, Jagriti; Kinger, Mallika; Palod, Sapan; Wadhva, Jatin; Vishnoi, Avijit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This is a clinco-histopathological study of different varieties of conjunctival cysts where modification of surgical technique was done as per requirement for intact removal of cysts to minimise recurrence rate. Materials and methods Retrospective study of 40 cases of conjunctival cysts. A thorough ocular examination and basic haematological work up was done for all patients. B-scan USG and MRI was done wherever required to see the posterior extent. All patients underwent surgical excision of cyst followed by histo-pathological examination. Results The various types of conjunctival cysts found in our study were primary inclusion cyst 12 (30%), secondary inclusion cyst 6 (15%), pterygium with cysts 15 (37.5%), parasitic cyst 4 (10%), lymphatic cyst 2 (5%), and orbital cyst with rudimentary eye 1 (2.5%). The common symptoms noted were progressive increase in size of cyst (39.45%), cosmetic disfigurement (26.23%), foreign body sensations (27.86%), proptosis (1.6%), ocular motility restrictions (3.2%) and decreased visual acuity (1.6%). The patients were followed till one year after surgical excision for any recurrence and complications and no recurrence was seen. Conclusion Careful and intact removal of conjunctival cyst is important to prevent recurrence. Minor modifications in surgical technique according to the size, site and nature of cyst help in intact removal and prevent recurrence. PMID:25892928

  6. Photoresponse in the heterotrophic marine dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Aaron J; Sherr, Barry F; Sherr, Evelyn B

    2011-01-01

    Expressed rhodopsins were detected by proteomic analysis in an investigation of potential signal receptors in the cell membrane of the marine heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina (CCMP604). We inferred these to be sensory rhodopsins, a type of G-protein-coupled receptor trans-membrane signaling molecule. Because phototactic behavior based on sensory rhodopsins has been reported in other protists, we investigated the photosensory response of O. marina. This dinoflagellate exhibited strongest positive phototaxis at low levels (2-3 μE/m(2)/s) of white light when the cells were previously light adapted and well fed. Positive phototaxis was also found for blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), and red (680 nm) wavelengths. In a further test, O. marina showed significantly greater phototaxis toward concentrated algal food illuminated by blue light to stimulate red chlorophyll-a autofluorescence in the prey, compared with using bleached algae as prey. Concentration of a cytoplasmic downstream messenger molecule, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a component of the signaling pathway of G-protein-coupled receptor molecules, rapidly increased in O. marina cells after exposure to white light. In addition, treatment with hydroxylamine, a rhodopsin signaling inhibitor, significantly decreased their phototactic response. Our results demonstrate that a heterotrophic marine dinoflagellate can orient to light based on rhodopsins present in the outer cell membrane and may be able to use photosensory response to detect algal prey based on chlorophyll autofluorescence. © 2011 The Author(s). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology© 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  7. Rampant polyuridylylation of plastid gene transcripts in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunling; Morse, David

    2006-01-01

    Dinoflagellate plastid genes are believed to be encoded on small generally unigenic plasmid-like minicircles. The minicircle gene complement has reached saturation with an incomplete set of plastid genes (18) compared with typical functional plastids (60–200). While some of the missing plastid genes have recently been found in the nucleus, it is still unknown if additional genes, not located on minicircles, might also contribute to the plastid genome. Sequencing of tailed RNA showed that transcripts derived from the known minicircle genes psbA and atpB contained a homogenous 3′ polyuridine tract of 25–40 residues. This unusual modification suggested that random sequencing of a poly(dA) primed cDNA library could be used to characterize the plastid transcriptome. We have recovered only 12 different polyuridylylated transcripts from our library, all of which are encoded on minicircles in several dinoflagellate species. The correspondence of all polyuridylylated transcripts with previously described minicircle genes thus supports the dinoflagellate plastid as harbouring the smallest genome of any functional chloroplast. Interestingly, northern blots indicate that the majority of transcripts are modified, suggesting that polyuridylylation is unlikely to act as a degradation signal as do the heterogeneous poly(A)-rich extensions of transcripts in cyanobacteria and other plastids. PMID:16434702

  8. Molecular Insights Into a Dinoflagellate Bloom Imply Bacterial Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Hall, N.; Schruth, D.; Paerl, H. W.; Marchetti, A.

    2016-02-01

    In coastal waters, an increase in frequency and intensity of algal blooms worldwide has recently been observed primarily due to eutrophication, with further increases predicted as a consequence of climate change. In many marine habitats most impacted by human activities, efforts have been made to prevent conditions that promote harmful algal blooms, or HABs, although progress is limited, due in part to our current lack of understanding of the environmental and cellular processes that promote and propagate these blooms. Comparative metatranscriptomics was used to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with a dinoflagellate bloom in a highly eutrophied estuarine system. Here we show that under bloom conditions, there is increased expression of metabolic pathways indicative of rapidly growing cells, including energy production, carbon metabolism, transporters and synthesis of nucleic acids and cellular membrane components. In addition, there is a prominence of highly expressed genes involved in synthesis of membrane-associated molecules, including those for the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which may serve roles in nutrient acquisition and/or cell surface adhesion. Biotin and thiamine synthesis genes also increased expression along with several cobalamin biosynthesis-associated genes that suggests processing of B12 intermediates by dinoflagellates. The patterns in gene expression observed are consistent with bloom-forming dinoflagellates eliciting a cellular response to facilitate interactions with their surrounding bacterial consortium, possibly in an effort to cultivate for enhancement of vitamin and nutrient exchanges and/or direct consumption. Our findings provide potential molecular targets for HAB detection and remediation efforts.

  9. Soybean Cyst Nematode in North America - 55 Years Later

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was first discovered in North America in 1954 in Hanover County, North Carolina, USA, when it was found on soybean in a field that had been planted to Easter lilies obtained from Japan prior to World War II. The nematode is now distributed throughout soybe...

  10. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of the cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp. and Globodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to many crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria, El Behera and Sohag governorates during 2012-...

  11. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  12. Chitin-binding proteins of Artemia diapause cysts participate in formation of the embryonic cuticle layer of cyst shells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen-Ming; Li, Hua-Wei; Dai, Zhong-Min; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Fan; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia reproduces either ovoviviparously, producing free-swimming nauplii, or oviparously, producing encysted embryos (diapause cysts) able to cope with harsh and complex habitats. When the cysts enter diapause they are encased in a complex external shell that protects them from certain extreme environments. The genomic comparison of oviparous and ovoviviparous ovisacs has been described previously. We isolated three significantly up-regulated genes in oviparous oocytes and identified them as Arp-CBP (Artemia parthenogenetica chitin-binding protein) genes. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of Arp-CBP genes gradually increases during diapause cyst formation and significant mRNA accumulation occurs during the ovisac stage of oviparous development. Moreover, in situ hybridization results demonstrated that Arp-CBP mRNAs are expressed in the embryo. Interestingly, the results of immune electron microscopy showed that all three Arp-CBPs are distributed throughout the cellular ECL (embryonic cuticle layer) of the cyst shell. Furthermore, knockdown of Arp-CBP by RNA interference resulted in marked changes in the composition of the embryonic cuticular layer. The fibrous layer of the cyst shell adopted a loose conformation and the inner and outer cuticular membranes exhibited marked irregularities when Arp-CBP expression was suppressed. Finally, an in vitro recombinant protein-binding assay showed that all three Arp-CBPs have carbohydrate-binding activities. These findings provide significant insight into the mechanisms by which the ECL of Artemia cyst shell is formed, and demonstrate that Arp-CBPs are involved in construction of the fibrous lattice and are required for formation of the ECL of the cyst shell.

  13. Atypical findings of perineural cysts on postmyelographic computed tomography: a case report of intermittent intercostal neuralgia caused by thoracic perineural cysts.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Hirokazu; Yanagawa, Taro; Takamizawa, Sachiko; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2017-06-13

    Perineural cysts are sometimes found incidentally with magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical symptoms requiring treatment are rare. Perineural cysts typically exhibit delayed filling with contrast medium on myelography, which is one of the criteria used by Tarlov to distinguish perineural cysts from meningeal diverticula. We present a case of multiple thoracolumbar perineural cysts, one of which was considered the cause of intermittent intercostal neuralgia with atypical findings on postmyelographic computed tomography seen as selective filling of contrast medium. A 61-year-old woman presented with intermittent pain on her left chest wall with distribution of the pain corresponding to the T10 dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple thoracolumbar perineural cysts with the largest located at the left T10 nerve root. On postmyelographic computed tomography immediately after contrast medium injection, the largest cyst and another at left T9 showed selective filling of contrast medium, suggesting that inflow of cerebrospinal fluid to the cyst exceeded outflow. Three hours after the injection, the intensity of the cysts was similar to the intensity of the thecal sac, and by the next day, contrast enhancement was undetectable. The patient was treated with an intercostal nerve block at T10, and the pain subsided. However, after 9 months of observation, the neuralgia recurred, and the nerve block was repeated with good effect. There was no recurrence 22 months after the last nerve block. We concluded that intermittent elevation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the cyst caused the neuralgia because of an imbalance between cerebrospinal fluid inflow and outflow, and repeated intercostal nerve blocks resolved the neuralgia. Our case demonstrates the mechanism of cyst expansion.

  14. Proof that dinoflagellate spliced leader (DinoSL) is a useful hook for fishing dinoflagellate transcripts from mixed microbial samples: Symbiodinium kawagutii as a case study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhuang, Yunyun; Gill, John; Lin, Senjie

    2013-07-01

    The ability to analyze dinoflagellate lineage-specific transcriptomes in the natural environment would be powerful for gaining understanding on how these organisms thrive in diverse environments and how they form harmful algal blooms and produce biotoxins. This can be made possible by lineage-specific mRNA markers such as the dinoflagellate-specific trans-spliced leader (DinoSL). By constructing and sequencing a 5'-cap selective full-length cDNA library for a monoculture of the coral reef endosymbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii and a DinoSL-based cDNA library for a mixture of S. kawagutii and other phytoplankton, we found DinoSL in essentially all full-length cDNAs in the 5'-cap selective library. We also discovered that the DinoSL-based library contained functionally diverse transcripts all belonging to dinoflagellates with no evidence of biases toward certain groups of functional genes. The results verified that DinoSL is specific to dinoflagellate mRNAs and is ubiquitous in the dinoflagellate transcriptomes. Annotation of the unigene dataset generated from the two libraries combined indicated high functional diversity of the transcriptome and revealed some biochemical pathways previously undocumented in Symbiodinium such as an mRNA splicing machinery potentially serving both cis- and trans-splicing. The protocol will be useful for transcriptomic studies of Symbiodinium in hospite and other dinoflagellates in natural environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmentally regulated localization of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in different tissue layers of coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.-J.; Wang, L.-H.; Chen, W.-N. U.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2008-06-01

    In adult cnidarians, symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium are usually located in the gastrodermis. However, the onset of this endosymbiotic association and its regulation during larval development are unclear. This study examined the distribution of the Symbiodinium population in tissue layers of planula larvae released from the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens. Symbiodinium were redistributed from the epidermis to the gastrodermis, at a rate that was fastest during early planulation and then decreased prior to metamorphosis. This process indicates that the endosymbiotic activity of coral tissues is developmentally regulated. During the early larval stage, both the epidermis and gastrodermis contained Symbiodinium; then, as the larvae developed toward metamorphosis, the numbers in the epidermis gradually diminished until they were only found in the gastrodermis. The mechanism of redistribution remains unknown, but may be due to a direct translocation and/or change in the proliferation of symbionts in different tissue layers.

  16. Non parasitic splenic cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Showkat, Hakim Irfan; Parray, Fazl Q; Lone, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    Primary splenic cyst is a rare entity and majority of the cases are classified as epithelial cysts. They are uncommon, comprising only about 10% of benign non-parasitic cysts. Most of the cysts are asymptomatic, and they are incidental findings during abdominal ultrasonography. We report a case of 20 years old male who presented with 1 year history of mild abdominal pain and left upper quadrant fullness. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) both were suggestive of splenic cyst. Serological tests were negative for parasitic infection. Splenectomy was done. Histopathological findings are consistent with splenic epithelial cyst.

  17. Paraurethral Skene's duct cyst in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Moralioğlu, Serdar; Bosnalı, Oktav; Celayir, Ayşenur Cerrah; Şahin, Ceyhan

    2013-01-01

    Paraurethral or Skene's duct cysts are rare causes of interlabial masses in neonates. The diagnosis of Skene's duct cysts in the neonatal period is based on its location, in relation to the urethra, and the demonstration of transitional epithelium in the cyst wall. The distinguishing features of paraurethral cysts are the displacement of urethral meatus by the mass and a cyst containing milky fluid. Thus, we report a case of a Skene's duct cyst in a newborn which was treated by incision and drainage. PMID:24049387

  18. A Standard Greenhouse Method for Assessing Soybean Cyst Nematode Resistance in Soybean: SCE08 (Standardized Cyst Evaluation 2008)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is distributed throughout the soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production areas of the United States and Canada. SCN remains the most economically important pathogen of soybean in North America; the most recent estimate of soybean yield...

  19. Feeding by the Pfiesteria-like heterotrophic dinoflagellate Luciella masanensis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Ha, Jeong Hyun; Yoo, Yeong Du; Park, Jae Yeon; Kim, Jong Hyeok; Kang, Nam Seon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Hyung Seop; Yih, Won Ho

    2007-01-01

    To explore the feeding ecology of the Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate (PLD) Luciella masanensis (GenBank Accession no. AM050344, previously Lucy), we investigated the feeding behavior and the kinds of prey species that L. masanensis fed on and determined its growth and ingestion rates of L. masanensis when it fed on the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae and an unidentified cryptophyte species (equivalent spherical diam., ESD=5.6 microm), which were the dominant phototrophic species when L. masanensis and similar small heterotrophic dinoflagellates were abundant in Masan Bay, Korea in 2005. Additionally, these parameters were also measured for L. masanensis fed on blood cells of the perch Lateolabrax japonicus and the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo in the laboratory. Luciella masanensis fed on prey cells by using a peduncle after anchoring the prey with tow filament, and was able to feed on diverse prey such as cryptophytes, raphidophytes, diatoms, mixotrophic dinoflagellates, and the blood cells of fish and humans. Among the prey species tested in the present study, perch blood cells were observed to be the optimal prey for L. masanensis. Specific growth rates of L. masanensis feeding on perch blood cells, A. carterae, H. akashiwo, and the cryptophyte, either increased continuously or became saturated with increasing the mean prey concentration. The maximum specific growth rate of L. masanensis feeding on perch blood cells (1.46/day) was much greater than that of A. carterae (0.59/day), the cryptophyte (0.24/day), or H. akashiwo (0.20/day). The maximum ingestion rate of L. masanensis on perch blood cells (2.6 ng C/grazer/day) was also much higher than that of A. carterae (0.32 ng C/grazer/day), the cryptophyte (0.44 ng C/grazer/day), or H. akashiwo (0.16 ng C/grazer/day). The kinds of prey species which L. masanensis is able to feed on were the same as those of Pfiesteria piscicida, but very different from those of another PLD Stoeckeria algicida. However, the

  20. The mitochondrial genome and transcriptome of the basal dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp.: character evolution within the highly derived mitochondrial genomes of dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C J; Gornik, S G; Waller, R F

    2012-01-01

    The sister phyla dinoflagellates and apicomplexans inherited a drastically reduced mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) containing only three protein-coding (cob, cox1, and cox3) genes and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. In apicomplexans, single copies of these genes are encoded on the smallest known mtDNA chromosome (6 kb). In dinoflagellates, however, the genome has undergone further substantial modifications, including massive genome amplification and recombination resulting in multiple copies of each gene and gene fragments linked in numerous combinations. Furthermore, protein-encoding genes have lost standard stop codons, trans-splicing of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is required to generate complete cox3 transcripts, and extensive RNA editing recodes most genes. From taxa investigated to date, it is unclear when many of these unusual dinoflagellate mtDNA characters evolved. To address this question, we investigated the mitochondrial genome and transcriptome character states of the deep branching dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. Genomic data show that like later-branching dinoflagellates Hematodinium sp. also contains an inflated, heavily recombined genome of multicopy genes and gene fragments. Although stop codons are also lacking for cox1 and cob, cox3 still encodes a conventional stop codon. Extensive editing of mRNAs also occurs in Hematodinium sp. The mtDNA of basal dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. indicates that much of the mtDNA modification in dinoflagellates occurred early in this lineage, including genome amplification and recombination, and decreased use of standard stop codons. Trans-splicing, on the other hand, occurred after Hematodinium sp. diverged. Only RNA editing presents a nonlinear pattern of evolution in dinoflagellates as this process occurs in Hematodinium sp. but is absent in some later-branching taxa indicating that this process was either lost in some lineages or developed more than once during the evolution of the highly unusual

  1. EFFECT OF FLUID SHEAR AND IRRADIANCE ON POPULATION GROWTH AND CELLULAR TOXIN CONTENT OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE ALEXANDRIUM FUNDYENSE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for in situ turbulence to inhibit dinoflagellate population growth has been demonstrated by experimentally exposing dinoflagellate cultures to quantified shear flow. However, despite interest in understanding environmental factors that affect the growth of toxic din...

  2. [Mesenteric cysts in children].

    PubMed

    Fernández Ibieta, M; Rojas Ticona, J; Martinez Castaño, I; Reyes Rios, P; Villamil, V; Giron Vallejo, O; Mendez Aguirre, N; Sanchez Morote, J; Aranda Garcia, M J; Guirao Piñera, M J; Zambudio Carmona, G; Ruiz Pruneda, R; Ruiz Jiménez, J I

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric cysts (MC) are benign cystic tumors that grow within mesentery or omentum tissue. We have reviewed the cases of MC reported and operated on in our centre. Retrospective review of clinical records of MC cases during the period 2002-2012 RESULTS: A total of 7 patients were found. Mean age was 5.3 years (range 3-11). Abdominal ultrasound was the diagnostic tool in all cases, except for one, which was diagnosed during laparotomy. All presented abdominal pain, 5 (71.4%) vomiting, 4 (57%) gross abdominal distension, 3 (42.8%) fever, and none presented complete abdominal obstruction, although 2 patients (28.6%) had slight sub-occlusion symptoms. All MC were pedicled or sesil, except for our last case, which extended into the retroperitoneum. All specimens were reported as Limphatic Malformation. None recurred. MC in children are mostly Lymphatic Malformations of mesentery or omentum origin, and clinical presentation varies from chronic abdominal pain to sudden-onset peritonitis or volvulus. About 50-60% require intestinal resection and anastomosis. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonodontogenic cysts of the oral and maxillofacial region: demographic profile in a Brazilian population over a 40-year period.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Henriques, Aguida Cristina Gomes; de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; de Souza, Lélia Batista; Pinto, Leão Pereira

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of histologically diagnosed nonodontogenic cysts (nOCs) over a 40-year period in a Brazilian population. Biopsy records from patients with nOC from the files of the Oral Pathology Service during the period of 1970-2009 were evaluated. Among 10,311 oral biopsies, 58 met the criteria of nOCs. The most frequent nOCs were nasopalatine duct cysts (32.8%), followed by epidermoid cysts (20.7%) and oral lymphoepithelial cysts (17.2%). Nasopalatine duct cysts showed predominance among females (68.4%). Epidermoid cysts were most commonly found in the floor of the mouth (36.4%), tongue (27.3%), and buccal mucosa (27.3%). Oral lymphoepithelial cysts exhibited female prevalence (80.0%) and were commonly located in the tongue (44.4%). The frequency of nOCs found in the population studied here is slightly different from those reported in other case series. Nasopalatine duct cysts, epidermoid cysts, and oral lymphoepithelial cysts were the most common nOCs found, accounting for 70.7% of all nOCs.

  4. SELDI-TOF analysis of glioblastoma cyst fluid is an approach for assessing cellular protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Hoelscher, Martin; Richter, Nina; Melle, Christian; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Schaenzer, Anne; Nestler, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In about 10% of glioblastoma patients, preoperative MRI discloses the presence of tumor cysts. Whereas the impact of cystic appearance on prognosis has been discussed extensively, only little is known about the tumor cyst fluid. In this study, we tested the feasibility of the surface enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF) technique to detect cyst fluid proteins. Methods: Cyst fluid was collected from 21 glioblastoma patients for SELDI-TOF analysis and compared to control cerebrospinal fluids from 15 patients with spinal stenosis. Resulting protein peaks with significant differences between groups were further described, using the molecular weight in an internet search of protein databases and publications. Two potential cyst fluid proteins, basigin and ferritin light chain, were selected for immunohistological detection in the histologic slides of the patients, metallothionein (MT) served as negative control. Results: As supposed from the results of the SELDI-TOF analysis, basigin and ferritin were detected immunohistochemically in the cyst wall, whereas MT was more equally distributed between the cyst wall and the surrounding tumor tissue. Median survival time of the patients was 20 months (range 2 to 102 months) and correlated with age, but not with expression of the three proteins. Discussion: The SELDI-TOF approach reveals a number of proteins, potentially present in glioblastoma cyst fluid. Identification of these proteins in tumor cells may help understand the pathogenetic pathways and the prognostic value of cystic changes. PMID:24225180

  5. Odontogenic and nonodontogenic cysts: An analysis of 526 cases in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, A; Gundogdu, B; Saruhan, N; Yalcin, E; Ertas, U; Urvasizoglu, G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the age, gender, and sites of different types of odontogenic cysts (OCs) and non-OCs (nOCs) (seen in eastern Anatolian population in Turkey. The following data were collected from the clinical records and histopathology reports of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and the Department of Oral Pathology, Ataturk University, Turkey, during a period of 10 years. They were analyzed descriptively in terms of incidence, age, sex, cyst type, and site. A total of 526 cysts were diagnosed during a 10-year period. Of these, 330 (62.7%) were in males, and 196 (37.3%) were in females, the male:female ratio was 1.7:1. There were 509 (96.8%) OCs and 17 (3.2%) nOCs. There were 406 (77.2%) inflammatory OCs and 103 (19.6%) developmental OCs. Radicular cysts were the most frequent (66.4%), followed by dentigerous (19.2%) and residual (10.8%) cysts. Only nasopalatine duct cyst was found as nOC in this study (3.2%). The distribution of jaw cysts in the Turkish Eastern Anatolian population is relatively similar to that of other populations reported in previous studies in the literature, in which most OCs were of inflammatory origin. However, the relative rates of cysts were higher than those reported in other studies.

  6. An Alexandrium Spp. Cyst Record from Sequim Bay, Washington State, USA, and its Relation to Past Climate Variability(1).

    PubMed

    Feifel, Kirsten M; Moore, Stephanie K; Horner, Rita A

    2012-06-01

    Since the 1970s, Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, has experienced an increase in detections of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in shellfish due to blooms of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium. Natural patterns of climate variability, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and changes in local environmental factors, such as sea surface temperature (SST) and air temperature, have been linked to the observed increase in PSTs. However, the lack of observations of PSTs in shellfish prior to the 1950s has inhibited statistical assessments of longer-term trends in climate and environmental conditions on Alexandrium blooms. After a bloom, Alexandrium cells can enter a dormant cyst stage, which settles on the seafloor and then becomes entrained into the sedimentary record. In this study, we created a record of Alexandrium spp. cysts from a sediment core obtained from Sequim Bay, Puget Sound. Cyst abundances ranged from 0 to 400 cysts · cm(-3) and were detected down-core to a depth of 100 cm, indicating that Alexandrium has been present in Sequim Bay since at least the late 1800s. The cyst record allowed us to statistically examine relationships with available environmental parameters over the past century. Local air temperature and sea surface temperature were positively and significantly correlated with cyst abundances from the late 1800s to 2005; no significant relationship was found between PDO and cyst abundances. This finding suggests that local environmental variations more strongly influence Alexandrium population dynamics in Puget Sound when compared to large-scale changes. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  7. Hydatid cyst of the uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Başgül, A; Kavak, Z N; Gökaslan, H; Küllü, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydatidosis is a common zoonosis that affects a large number of humans and animals, especially in poorly developed countries. The infesting parasite has four forms named Echinococcus granulosis, E. multilocularis, E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus (very rare in humans). The most frequently involved organs are liver followed by the lung. The involvement of the genital tract is rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the uterus. CASE: A 70-year-old female with a history of hydatid cysts of the liver, was admitted to hospital after complaining of low abdominal pains. On physical and gynecological examinations, no pathological finding was detected. However, the uterus was significantly large for a postmenopausal patient. Transvaginal sonography (TS) revealed a cystic mass in the uterus with a size of 7 x 6 cm. After further examinations a subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Microscopic examination showed scolices of Echinococcus granulosis. CONCLUSION: Hydatid cysts in the genital tract are rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. Differentiation between hydatid cyst and malignant disease of the related organ is difficult. To avoid misdiagnosis, a careful examination of pelvic masses should be carried out in endemic areas for detection of hydatid cysts. PMID:12530482

  8. A huge presacral Tarlov cyst. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiko; Yuzurihara, Masahito; Asamoto, Shunji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Motoo

    2007-08-01

    Perineural cysts have become a common incidental finding during lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Only some of the symptomatic cysts warrant treatment. The authors describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with, to the best of their knowledge, the largest perineural cyst reported to date. A 29-year-old woman had been suffering from long-standing constipation and low-back pain. During an obstetric investigation for infertility, the clinician discovered a huge presacral cystic mass. Computed tomography myelography showed the lesion to be a huge Tarlov cyst arising from the left S-3 nerve root and compressing the ipsilateral S-2 nerve. The cyst was successfully treated by ligation of the cyst neck together with sectioning of the S-3 nerve root. Postoperative improvement in her symptoms and MR imaging findings were noted. Identification of the nerve root involved by the cyst wall, operative indication, operative procedure, and treatment of multiple cysts are important preoperative considerations.

  9. Median raphe cyst: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Das, Anupam; Savant, Sushil S; Barkat, Rizwana

    2017-02-15

    Median raphe cysts are rare congenital lesions ofthe male genitalia that occur as a result of alteredembryologic development. We report two such casesof median raphe cysts in the pediatric age group. Inaddition, we review the literature.

  10. Respiratory epithelial cysts of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Hardy, Thomas G; Williams, Richard A; McNab, Alan A

    2016-10-01

    To describe post-traumatic and congenital respiratory epithelial cysts in the orbit, which are rare lesions with only 5 and 13 published cases, respectively. We reviewed all cases of respiratory epithelial cysts diagnosed at three institutions (two tertiary referral hospitals, one private clinic) between 1995 and 2015. We describe 10 cases of post-traumatic respiratory epithelial cyst (age range 23 - 82), presenting a mean of 17.4 years after their original trauma; and 3 congenital cases (age range 17-34). All but one case underwent surgical excision of the cyst and its lining, along with any surgical implant within the cyst. Two were recurrent after incomplete excision. Three presented with acute infection within the cyst. Respiratory epithelial orbital cysts are probably commoner than the paucity of published reports would suggest. Post-traumatic cysts often present many years after trauma, and may become secondarily infected. Complete surgical removal is recommended to prevent future recurrence.

  11. Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multi-parametric flow cytometry.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking of cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor as fragile dinoflagellates, such a...

  12. Putative Monofunctional Type I Polyketide Synthase Units: A Dinoflagellate-Specific Feature?

    PubMed Central

    Eichholz, Karsten; Beszteri, Bánk; John, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Marine dinoflagellates (alveolata) are microalgae of which some cause harmful algal blooms and produce a broad variety of most likely polyketide synthesis derived phycotoxins. Recently, novel polyketide synthesase (PKS) transcripts have been described from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (gymnodiniales) which are evolutionarily related to Type I PKS but were apparently expressed as monofunctional proteins, a feature typical of Type II PKS. Here, we investigated expression units of PKS I-like sequences in Alexandrium ostenfeldii (gonyaulacales) and Heterocapsa triquetra (peridiniales) at the transcript and protein level. The five full length transcripts we obtained were all characterized by polyadenylation, a 3′ UTR and the dinoflagellate specific spliced leader sequence at the 5′end. Each of the five transcripts encoded a single ketoacylsynthase (KS) domain showing high similarity to K. brevis KS sequences. The monofunctional structure was also confirmed using dinoflagellate specific KS antibodies in Western Blots. In a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of KS domains from diverse PKSs, dinoflagellate KSs formed a clade placed well within the protist Type I PKS clade between apicomplexa, haptophytes and chlorophytes. These findings indicate that the atypical PKS I structure, i.e., expression as putative monofunctional units, might be a dinoflagellate specific feature. In addition, the sequenced transcripts harbored a previously unknown, apparently dinoflagellate specific conserved N-terminal domain. We discuss the implications of this novel region with regard to the putative monofunctional organization of Type I PKS in dinoflagellates. PMID:23139807

  13. Mimosine, the Allelochemical from the leguminous tree Leucaena leucocephala, selectively enhances cell proliferation in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Patrick K K; Wong, Francis T W; Wong, Joseph T Y

    2002-10-01

    Mimosine, the allelochemical from the leguminous tree Leucaena leucocephala, is toxic to most terrestrial animals and plants. We report here that while mimosine inhibits major phytoplankton groups, it enhances cell proliferation in dinoflagellates. On addition to coastal seawater samples, mimosine is able to confer a growth advantage to dinoflagellates. The use of mimosine will promote the isolation and culture of this group of phytoplankton.

  14. STRATEGIES OF MARINE DINOFLAGELLATE SURVIVAL AND SOME RULES OF ASSEMBLY. (R829368)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dinoflagellate ecology is based on multiple adaptive strategies and species having diverse habitat preferences. Nine types of mixing-irradiance-nutrient habitats selecting for specific marine dinoflagellate life-form types are recognised, with five rules of assembly proposed t...

  15. Dinoflagellate Toxins Responsible for Ciguatera Food Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-30

    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901-6521 Distribution authorized to U. S. Government...process with a great deal of success. At the end of this year (1990) we acquired over 50 Australian and Fijian clones. These are now in the acclimation...effect of ciguatoxin c teleost nerves, Proceedings, World Congress on Animal, Plant and Microb Toxins (9th) 11. Capra, M.F., Cameron, J., Mowers, A.E

  16. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  17. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  18. Isolated Pericardial Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cece, Hasan; Yildiz, Sema; Sogut, Ozgur; Hazar, Abdussamet; Sezen, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac echinococcosis is extremely rare, and cysts are found mostly within the myocardium. Most cardiac hydatid cysts are located in the left ventricular wall. Only a few cases of isolated pericardial hydatid cysts have been reported. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are important diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of echinococcosis. Herein, we report a rare case of isolated pericardial hydatid cyst who presented to our emergency department with complaints of mid-sternal chest pain and shortness of breath.

  19. Asymptomatic vallecular cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Yuce, Yucel; Uzun, Sennur; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented himself for an intracranial glioblastoma multiforme excision. After being routinely monitored, he was preoxygenated. We induced anesthesia and paralysis with 200 mg propofol, 50 μg fentanyl and 9 mg vecuronium. Direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh 3 blade revealed a 2x2 cm cyst, pedunculated, arising from the right side of the vallecula preventing the endotracheal intubation. While the patient remained anesthetized, we urgently consulted an otolaryngologist and aspirated the cyst with a 22-gauge needle and syringe under direct laryngoscopy. We aspirated 10 cc of liquid content. This was followed by an uneventful tracheal intubation with a 9.0 enforced spiral cuffed tube. An alternative to fiberoptic intubation may be careful cyst aspiration to facilitate the intubation.

  20. Unicystic ameloblastoma arising from a residual cyst

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Amit D; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Khurana, Neha M; Shah, Navin

    2014-01-01

    Intraoral swellings involving alveolar ridges in edentulous patients are clinically diagnosed as residual cysts, traumatic bone cysts, Stafne's jaw bone cavity, ameloblastoma and metastatic tumours of the jaw. This case report describes a residual cyst in a 68-year-old edentulous male patient which was enucleated and histopathologically confirmed as a unicystic ameloblastoma. PMID:25199192

  1. Spontaneous hemorrhage into a lumbar synovial cyst

    PubMed Central

    Alen, Jose F.; Ramos, Ana; Lobato, Ramiro D.; Lagares, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Lumbar synovial cysts frequently present with back pain, chronic radiculopathy and/or progressive symptoms of spinal canal compromise. These cysts generally appear in the context of degenerative lumbar spinal disease. Few cases of spontaneous hemorrhage into synovial cysts have been reported in the literature. PMID:20174835

  2. Childhood cervical enterogenous cyst presenting with hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, P. Y. C.; Sharr, M. M.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical features of a cervical enterogenous cyst in a one-year-old boy mimicked those of an intracranial mass. Following removal of the cyst the neurological signs rapidly disappeared. The literature is reviewed from histological and clinical aspects and a classification of these cysts is proposed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:7122385

  3. Arachnoid cyst producing recurrent neurological disturbances.

    PubMed

    Lehman, R A; Fieger, H G

    1978-08-01

    A patient with an arachnoid cyst of the posteriro fossa experienced repeated episodes of transient right upper extremity numbness and weakness. Review of the literature indicates that arachnoid cysts of the posterior fossa and spinal canal as well as extradural spinal cysts may present with symptoms of transient neurological deficit which often suggest the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

  4. [Inflammatory paradental cyst. Report of 6 cases].

    PubMed

    Reichart, P A; Philipsen, H P

    2003-05-01

    The inflammatory paradental cyst has been described as an entity in the WHO classification of odontogenic tumors and cysts (1992). It is mainly located at mandibular molars, in particular third molars of the lower jaw. Radiologically, involved molars show a circumscribed, mostly half-moon shaped translucency distal or distobuccal to the involved tooth. Patients frequently report episodes of infection (pericoronitis). The histological findings are identical to those of inflammatory radicular cysts. The inflammatory paradental cyst has been described infrequently in the international literature. There are no reports available in German. The aim of the present study was to present six of our own cases of inflammatory paradental cysts. Five men and one woman with an average age of 29.5 years were affected. In two cases paradental cysts occurred bilaterally. Three patients reported recurrent previous infections (pericoronitis). Radiologically, the typical translucency with clear demarcation distal to the third molars was observed. All of the third molars were vertically retained. Histologically, the inflammatory paradental cysts showed features identical to those of radicular cysts. The inflammatory paradental cyst is a clear indication for osteotomy of lower wisdom teeth. Postoperative complications or recurrences of the inflammatory paradental cysts have not been described. A correct clinical, radiological, and histopathological diagnosis of paradental cysts is mandatory, and more reports are needed in order to compile more information about relative frequency and pathogenesis of this cyst variant.

  5. Postlaminectomy Bilateral Lumbar Intraspinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Ik; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts are included in the difference diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy. Developing imaging modalities has result in increased reporting about these lesions. However, the case of bilateral new lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy has been rarely reported. We report of a rare case with bilateral lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:27799997

  6. Extraneural rupture of intraneural ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Kameron R; Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Amrami, Kimberly K; Spinner, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of simple (extraneural) cysts such as popliteal cysts (Baker's cysts) is a well-known occurrence. The purpose of this report is to introduce the similar occurrence of extraneural rupture of peroneal and tibial intraneural cysts in the knee region, describe the associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and identify risk factors. There was MRI evidence of rupture in 20 of 38 intraneural cases reviewed, mainly in the region of the fibular head and popliteal fossa. Ruptured intraneural cysts and simple cysts share these MRI findings: T2 hyperintense fluid within surrounding intermuscular fascial planes and enhancement with intravenous contrast consistent with inflammation. The mean maximal diameter of the ruptured intraneural cysts was statistically significantly smaller than that of the unruptured cysts. The authors believe that extraneural rupture of an intraneural cyst is due to increased intraarticular pressures transmitted within the cyst and/or elevated extrinsic pressure delivered to the cyst, such as by trauma, akin to the etiology of rupture of extraneural ganglion cysts.

  7. Microbial arms race: Ballistic "nematocysts" in dinoflagellates represent a new extreme in organelle complexity.

    PubMed

    Gavelis, Gregory S; Wakeman, Kevin C; Tillmann, Urban; Ripken, Christina; Mitarai, Satoshi; Herranz, Maria; Özbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas; Keeling, Patrick J; Leander, Brian S

    2017-03-01

    We examine the origin of harpoon-like secretory organelles (nematocysts) in dinoflagellate protists. These ballistic organelles have been hypothesized to be homologous to similarly complex structures in animals (cnidarians); but we show, using structural, functional, and phylogenomic data, that nematocysts evolved independently in both lineages. We also recorded the first high-resolution videos of nematocyst discharge in dinoflagellates. Unexpectedly, our data suggest that different types of dinoflagellate nematocysts use two fundamentally different types of ballistic mechanisms: one type relies on a single pressurized capsule for propulsion, whereas the other type launches 11 to 15 projectiles from an arrangement similar to a Gatling gun. Despite their radical structural differences, these nematocysts share a single origin within dinoflagellates and both potentially use a contraction-based mechanism to generate ballistic force. The diversity of traits in dinoflagellate nematocysts demonstrates a stepwise route by which simple secretory structures diversified to yield elaborate subcellular weaponry.

  8. Hyperdiversity of Genes Encoding Integral Light-Harvesting Proteins in the Dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp

    PubMed Central

    Boldt, Lynda; Yellowlees, David; Leggat, William

    2012-01-01

    The superfamily of light-harvesting complex (LHC) proteins is comprised of proteins with diverse functions in light-harvesting and photoprotection. LHC proteins bind chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoids and include a family of LHCs that bind Chl a and c. Dinophytes (dinoflagellates) are predominantly Chl c binding algal taxa, bind peridinin or fucoxanthin as the primary carotenoid, and can possess a number of LHC subfamilies. Here we report 11 LHC sequences for the chlorophyll a-chlorophyll c2-peridinin protein complex (acpPC) subfamily isolated from Symbiodinium sp. C3, an ecologically important peridinin binding dinoflagellate taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins suggests the acpPC subfamily forms at least three clades within the Chl a/c binding LHC family; Clade 1 clusters with rhodophyte, cryptophyte and peridinin binding dinoflagellate sequences, Clade 2 with peridinin binding dinoflagellate sequences only and Clades 3 with heterokontophytes, fucoxanthin and peridinin binding dinoflagellate sequences. PMID:23112815

  9. [Free-Floating Intraocular Cysts].

    PubMed

    Werner, Jens Ulrich; Lang, Gerhard K; Enders, Christian

    2017-05-03

    Background Free-floating intraocular cysts may be found in the anterior chamber (FZV) and the vitreous (FZG). The first description of a cyst was 150 years ago, and they are considered to be ocular rarities. Materials and Methods The actual knowledge about FZV and FZG is shown on the basis of two exemplary patients. Results and Discussion Patient 1 had a FZV as an incidental finding which had a smooth surface, a slight pigmentation and was translucent. The ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed an echo-free interior space. Without the patient's discomfort and missing treatment indication, a watch-and-wait strategy was chosen. Cysts of the iris can be classified as primary and secondary cysts. Primary cysts of the iris can arise from the stroma as the pigment epithelium wherein it is believed that FZV descend from the pigment epithelium. Secondary cysts and FZV can be generated by tumors, inflammation, epithelial ingrowth, the use of eye-drops or intraocular foreign bodies. Patient 2 showed marked myopic fundus changes and an FZG with a yellowish-greenish surface; the transparency was reduced and the surface was not pigmented. The ultrasound examination also revealed an echo-free interior space. Clinical controls were advised. Congenital and acquired causes are discussed for the formation of FZG. FZG could originate from the pigment epithelium of the iris, but there are conflicting study results. Trauma, inflammation and chorioretinal diseases are considered as a reason for acquired causes of FZG. The genesis, especially of FZG, is still unclear. For the treatment of patients with FZV and FZG, it is important to know the potential causes to be able to make a therapeutic decision. High quality photographic and sonographic documentation is needed in the watch-and-wait strategy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Intracranial, intradural aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Afnan, Jalil; Snuderl, Matija; Small, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansile, blood-filled, osteolytic lesions with internal septations that may be intraosseous or extraosseous. The cysts may cause local mass effect, and changes in the regional vascular supply necessitating intervention. A case of an intracranial, intradural ABC in a young male patient with progressively severe headaches is presented. This is only the third recorded intradural case, the majority of these rare lesions being extracranial and only a minute fraction intracranial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lymphoepithelial Cyst of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Prabhu; Fletcher, Natalie; Kyriakides, Charis; Mears, Lisa; Kocher, Hemant M.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of the pancreas is an extremely rare, benign pancreatic cystic lesion that is difficult to differentiate preoperatively from other cystic pancreatic lesions. LEC may have malignant potential. Here, we describe a case of LEC of the pancreas – initially suspected to be a mucinous cyst neoplasm – in an elderly man presenting with abdominal pain, who went on to have a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy. We also review the relevant literature and discuss implications for the diagnosis and management of this rare lesion. PMID:27403123

  12. Arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Nicholas A; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Arthroscopy is an advancing field in orthopedics, the applications of which have been expanding over time. Traditionally, excision of ganglion cysts has been done in an open fashion. However, more recently, studies show outcomes following arthroscopic excision to be as good as open excision. Cosmetically, the incisions are smaller and heal faster following arthroscopy. In addition, there is the suggested benefit that patients will regain function and return to work faster following arthroscopic excision. More prospective studies comparing open and arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts need to be done in order to delineate if there is a true functional benefit.

  13. Recent radiation in a marine and freshwater dinoflagellate species flock

    PubMed Central

    Annenkova, Nataliia V; Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind; Rengefors, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Processes of rapid radiation among unicellular eukaryotes are much less studied than among multicellular organisms. We have investigated a lineage of cold-water microeukaryotes (protists) that appear to have diverged recently. This lineage stands in stark contrast to known examples of phylogenetically closely related protists, in which genetic difference is typically larger than morphological differences. We found that the group not only consists of the marine-brackish dinoflagellate species Scrippsiella hangoei and the freshwater species Peridinium aciculiferum as discovered previously but also of a whole species flock. The additional species include Peridinium euryceps and Peridinium baicalense, which are restricted to a few lakes, in particular to the ancient Lake Baikal, Russia, and freshwater S. hangoei from Lake Baikal. These species are characterized by relatively large conspicuous morphological differences, which have given rise to the different species descriptions. However, our scanning electron microscopic studies indicate that they belong to a single genus according to traditional morphological characterization of dinoflagellates (thecal plate patterns). Moreover, we found that they have identical SSU (small subunit) rDNA fragments and distinct but very small differences in the DNA markers LSU (large subunit) rDNA, ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and COB (cytochrome b) gene, which are used to delineate dinoflagellates species. As some of the species co-occur, and all four have small but species–specific sequence differences, we suggest that these taxa are not a case of phenotypic plasticity but originated via recent adaptive radiation. We propose that this is the first clear example among free-living microeukaryotes of recent rapid diversification into several species followed by dispersion to environments with different ecological conditions. PMID:25603395

  14. New-old hemoglobin-like proteins of symbiotic dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Leggat, William; Kaniewska, Paulina; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic dinoflagellates are unicellular photosynthetic algae that live in mutualistic symbioses with many marine organisms. Within the transcriptome of coral endosymbionts Symbiodinium sp. (type C3), we discovered the sequences of two novel and highly polymorphic hemoglobin-like genes and proposed their 3D protein structures. At the protein level, four isoforms shared between 87 and 97% sequence identity for Hb-1 and 78–99% for Hb-2, whereas between Hb-1 and Hb-2 proteins, only 15–21% sequence homology has been preserved. Phylogenetic analyses of the dinoflagellate encoding Hb sequences have revealed a separate evolutionary origin of the discovered globin genes and indicated the possibility of horizontal gene transfer. Transcriptional regulation of the Hb-like genes was studied in the reef-building coral Acropora aspera exposed to elevated temperatures (6–7°C above average sea temperature) over a 24-h period and a 72-h period, as well as to nutrient stress. Exposure to elevated temperatures resulted in an increased Hb-1 gene expression of 31% after 72 h only, whereas transcript abundance of the Hb-2 gene was enhanced by up to 59% by both 1-day and 3-day thermal stress conditions. Nutrient stress also increased gene expression of Hb-2 gene by 70%. Our findings describe the differential expression patterns of two novel Hb genes from symbiotic dinoflagellates and their polymorphic nature. Furthermore, the inducible nature of Hb-2 gene by both thermal and nutrient stressors indicates a prospective role of this form of hemoglobin in the initial coral–algal responses to changes in environmental conditions. This novel hemoglobin has potential use as a stress biomarker. PMID:23610627

  15. Spliced leader-based metatranscriptomic analyses lead to recognition of hidden genomic features in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Zhuang, Yunyun; Tran, Bao; Gill, John

    2010-11-16

    Environmental transcriptomics (metatranscriptomics) for a specific lineage of eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Dinoflagellata) would be instrumental for unraveling the genetic mechanisms by which these microbes respond to the natural environment, but it has not been exploited because of technical difficulties. Using the recently discovered dinoflagellate mRNA-specific spliced leader as a selective primer, we constructed cDNA libraries (e-cDNAs) from one marine and two freshwater plankton assemblages. Small-scale sequencing of the e-cDNAs revealed functionally diverse transcriptomes proven to be of dinoflagellate origin. A set of dinoflagellate common genes and transcripts of dominant dinoflagellate species were identified. Further analyses of the dataset prompted us to delve into the existing, largely unannotated dinoflagellate EST datasets (DinoEST). Consequently, all four nucleosome core histones, two histone modification proteins, and a nucleosome assembly protein were detected, clearly indicating the presence of nucleosome-like machinery long thought not to exist in dinoflagellates. The isolation of rhodopsin from taxonomically and ecotypically diverse dinoflagellates and its structural similarity and phylogenetic affinity to xanthorhodopsin suggest a common genetic potential in dinoflagellates to use solar energy nonphotosynthetically. Furthermore, we found 55 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RPs) from the e-cDNAs and 24 more from DinoEST, showing that the dinoflagellate phylum possesses all 79 eukaryotic RPs. Our results suggest that a sophisticated eukaryotic molecular machine operates in dinoflagellates that likely encodes many more unsuspected physiological capabilities and, meanwhile, demonstrate that unique spliced leaders are useful for profiling lineage-specific microbial transcriptomes in situ.

  16. Spliced leader–based metatranscriptomic analyses lead to recognition of hidden genomic features in dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Zhuang, Yunyun; Tran, Bao; Gill, John

    2010-01-01

    Environmental transcriptomics (metatranscriptomics) for a specific lineage of eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Dinoflagellata) would be instrumental for unraveling the genetic mechanisms by which these microbes respond to the natural environment, but it has not been exploited because of technical difficulties. Using the recently discovered dinoflagellate mRNA-specific spliced leader as a selective primer, we constructed cDNA libraries (e-cDNAs) from one marine and two freshwater plankton assemblages. Small-scale sequencing of the e-cDNAs revealed functionally diverse transcriptomes proven to be of dinoflagellate origin. A set of dinoflagellate common genes and transcripts of dominant dinoflagellate species were identified. Further analyses of the dataset prompted us to delve into the existing, largely unannotated dinoflagellate EST datasets (DinoEST). Consequently, all four nucleosome core histones, two histone modification proteins, and a nucleosome assembly protein were detected, clearly indicating the presence of nucleosome-like machinery long thought not to exist in dinoflagellates. The isolation of rhodopsin from taxonomically and ecotypically diverse dinoflagellates and its structural similarity and phylogenetic affinity to xanthorhodopsin suggest a common genetic potential in dinoflagellates to use solar energy nonphotosynthetically. Furthermore, we found 55 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RPs) from the e-cDNAs and 24 more from DinoEST, showing that the dinoflagellate phylum possesses all 79 eukaryotic RPs. Our results suggest that a sophisticated eukaryotic molecular machine operates in dinoflagellates that likely encodes many more unsuspected physiological capabilities and, meanwhile, demonstrate that unique spliced leaders are useful for profiling lineage-specific microbial transcriptomes in situ. PMID:21041634

  17. Gambierdiscus balechii sp. nov (Dinophyceae), a new benthic toxic dinoflagellate from the Celebes Sea (SW Pacific Ocean).

    PubMed

    Fraga, Santiago; Rodríguez, Francisco; Riobó, Pilar; Bravo, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    A new benthic toxic dinoflagellate is described from the Celebes Sea. Gambierdiscus balechii sp. nov. was isolated from seaweeds growing in tidal ponds. Its morphology was studied by means of LM and SEM; G. balechii has a very ornamented theca, a hatchet shaped second apical plate, a narrow second antapical plate and an asymmetrical third precigular plate, a unique combination of characters among Gambierdiscus species. It has a very wide size range with widths from 36 to 88μm. Phylogenetic analyses of two G. balechii strains, based on LSU rRNA (D8-D10) and partial SSUrRNA sequences confirmed that these clustererd in its' own group, separated from the rest of Gambierdiscus species and with G. pacificus, G. belizeanus and G. scabrosus as its closest relatives. Thecate cysts are described from culture as non motile vegetative-like cells which germinated after being isolated and transferred to fresh medium. Mouse tests showed that this species is toxic and hence it is a potential cause of ciguatera in the Celebes Sea.

  18. High-Level Diversity of Dinoflagellates in the Natural Environment, Revealed by Assessment of Mitochondrial cox1 and cob Genes for Dinoflagellate DNA Barcoding ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Yubo; Zhuang, Yunyun; Miranda, Lilibeth

    2009-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a diagnostic technique for species identification using a short, standardized DNA. An effective DNA barcoding marker would be very helpful for unraveling the poorly understood species diversity of dinoflagellates in the natural environment. In this study, the potential utility for DNA barcoding of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cob) was assessed. Among several primer sets examined, the one amplifying a 385-bp cob fragment was most effective for dinoflagellates. This short cob fragment is easy to sequence and yet possess reasonable taxon resolution. While the lack of a uniform gap between interspecific and intraspecific distances poses difficulties in establishing a phylum-wide species-discriminating distance threshold, the variability of cob allows recognition of species within particular lineages. The potential of this cob fragment as a dinoflagellate species marker was further tested by applying it to an analysis of the dinoflagellate assemblages in Long Island Sound (LIS) and Mirror Lake in Connecticut. In LIS, a highly diverse assemblage of dinoflagellates was detected. Some taxa can be identified to the species and some to the genus level, including a taxon distinctly related to the bipolar species Polarella glacialis, and the large number of others cannot be clearly identified, due to the inadequate database. In Mirror Lake, a Ceratium species and an unresolved taxon were detected, exhibiting a temporal transition from one to the other. We demonstrate that this 385-bp cob fragment is promising for lineage-wise dinoflagellate species identification, given an adequate database. PMID:19114529

  19. High-level diversity of dinoflagellates in the natural environment, revealed by assessment of mitochondrial cox1 and cob genes for dinoflagellate DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Yubo; Zhuang, Yunyun; Miranda, Lilibeth

    2009-03-01

    DNA barcoding is a diagnostic technique for species identification using a short, standardized DNA. An effective DNA barcoding marker would be very helpful for unraveling the poorly understood species diversity of dinoflagellates in the natural environment. In this study, the potential utility for DNA barcoding of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) and cytochrome b (cob) was assessed. Among several primer sets examined, the one amplifying a 385-bp cob fragment was most effective for dinoflagellates. This short cob fragment is easy to sequence and yet possess reasonable taxon resolution. While the lack of a uniform gap between interspecific and intraspecific distances poses difficulties in establishing a phylum-wide species-discriminating distance threshold, the variability of cob allows recognition of species within particular lineages. The potential of this cob fragment as a dinoflagellate species marker was further tested by applying it to an analysis of the dinoflagellate assemblages in Long Island Sound (LIS) and Mirror Lake in Connecticut. In LIS, a highly diverse assemblage of dinoflagellates was detected. Some taxa can be identified to the species and some to the genus level, including a taxon distinctly related to the bipolar species Polarella glacialis, and the large number of others cannot be clearly identified, due to the inadequate database. In Mirror Lake, a Ceratium species and an unresolved taxon were detected, exhibiting a temporal transition from one to the other. We demonstrate that this 385-bp cob fragment is promising for lineage-wise dinoflagellate species identification, given an adequate database.

  20. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ciro Dantas; Gurgel, Alberto Costa; de Souza Júnior, Francisco de Assis; de Oliveira, Samila Neres; de Carvalho, Maria Goretti Freire; Oliveira, Hanieri Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning. PMID:26180645

  1. Clinical experience of symptomatic sacral perineural cyst.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young; Lim, Kyung Joon

    2012-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst.

  2. Clinical Experience of Symptomatic Sacral Perineural Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ki Tae; Lee, Hyun Young

    2012-01-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion and are usually asymptomatic. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon but sometimes require surgical treatment. A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the buttock. He was diagnosed as having a sacral cyst with magnetic resonance imaging. For the nonoperative diagnosis and treatment, caudal peridurography and block were performed. After the treatment, the patient's symptom was relieved. We suggest a caudal peridural block is effective in relieving pain from a sacral cyst. PMID:22787551

  3. Patterns of intraneural ganglion cyst descent.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Robert J; Carmichael, Stephen W; Wang, Huan; Parisi, Thomas J; Skinner, John A; Amrami, Kimberly K

    2008-04-01

    On the basis of the principles of the unifying articular theory, predictable patterns of proximal ascent have been described for fibular (peroneal) and tibial intraneural ganglion cysts in the knee region. The mechanism underlying distal descent into the terminal branches of the fibular and tibial nerves has not been previously elucidated. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate if and when cyst descent distal to the articular branch-joint connection occurs in intraneural ganglion cysts to understand directionality of intraneural cyst propagation. In Part I, the clinical records and MRIs of 20 consecutive patients treated at our institution for intraneural ganglion cysts (18 fibular and two tibial) arising from the superior tibiofibular joint were retrospectively analyzed. These patients underwent cyst decompression and disconnection of the articular branch. Five of these patients developed symptomatic cyst recurrence after cyst decompression without articular branch disconnection which was done elsewhere prior to our intervention. In Part II, five additional patients with intraneural ganglion cysts (three fibular and two tibial) treated at other institutions without disconnection of the articular branch were compared. These patients in Parts I and II demonstrated ascent of intraneural cyst to differing degrees (12 had evidence of sciatic nerve cross-over). In addition, all of these patients demonstrated previously unrecognized MRI evidence of intraneural cyst extending distally below the level of the articular branch to the joint of origin: cyst within the proximal most portions of the deep fibular and superficial fibular branches in fibular intraneural ganglion cysts and descending tibial branches in tibial intraneural ganglion cysts. The patients in Part I had complete resolution of their cysts at follow-up MRI examination 1 year postoperatively. The patients in Part II had intraneural recurrences postoperatively within the articular branch, the parent

  4. [Ganglion cysts of the hand and wrist].

    PubMed

    Sarig, Oren; Hass, Avraham; Oron, Amir

    2013-10-01

    Ganglion cysts are considered the most common tumor of the wrist and hand. They are most common between the second and fourth decades of life. The most common anatomical location is the dorsal wrist. This article includes a general review of these cysts including symptoms, pathology and methods of diagnosis, as well as a review of these cysts in specific anatomic locations. The article also includes an updated review of the literature comparing open surgery vs. arthroscopic treatment. The authors believe that arthroscopic surgery of ganglion cysts will gain an important role in the treatment of these cysts.

  5. Elucidating the evolutionary relationships of the Aiptasiidae, a widespread cnidarian-dinoflagellate model system (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Metridioidea).

    PubMed

    Grajales, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    Sea anemones of the family Aiptasiidae sensu Grajales and Rodríguez (2014) are conspicuous members of shallow-water environments, including several species widely used as model systems for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral bleaching. Although previously published phylogenetic studies of sea anemones recovered Aiptasiidae as polyphyletic, they only included a sparse sample in terms of its taxonomic diversity and membership of the family had not been yet revised. This study explores the phylogenetic relationships of this family using five molecular markers and including newly collected material from the geographical distribution of most of the currently described genera and species. We find a monophyletic family Aiptasiidae. All the currently proposed genera were recovered as monophyletic units, a finding also supported by diagnostic morphological characters. Our results confirm Bellactis and Laviactis as members of Aiptasiidae, also in agreement with previous morphological studies. The monophyly of the group is congruent with the morphological homogeneity of the members of this family. The obtained results also allow discussing the evolution of morphological characters within the family. Furthermore, we find evidence for and describe a new cryptic species, Exaiptasia brasiliensis sp. nov., based on molecular data, geographical distribution, and the identity of its endosymbiotic dinoflagellate.

  6. Presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun; Choi, Hye Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts have been described rarely, particularly among adolescents. Only a few reports have described the ultrasonographic features of bronchogenic cysts, characterizing them as nonspecific cystic masses with or without internal echogenic foci or debris. Therefore, it is hard to differentiate subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts from other subcutaneous cystic tumors ultrasonographically. We report a case of presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in an 18-year-old man with unusual ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography revealed a small, oval, cystic mass containing a well-circumscribed, heterogeneously hypoechoic, egg-shaped lesion in the dependent portion of the mass within the subcutaneous fat layer overlying the sternum. Surgical excision was performed, and the cystic mass was diagnosed as a bronchogenic cyst. On pathological examination, the internal, heterogeneously hypoechoic, ball-like lesion was found to be mucous material within the cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst presenting with a ball-like lesion inside of the cyst. This unusual ultrasonographic feature can be a clue to the diagnosis of subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst. In conclusion, if an anechoic cyst containing an internal, well-circumscribed, hypoechoic ball-like lesion is seen in the presternal subcutaneous fat layer, subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous cystic masses. PMID:28151916

  7. Mixotrophy in the newly described dinoflagellate Yihiella yeosuensis: A small, fast dinoflagellate predator that grows mixotrophically, but not autotrophically.

    PubMed

    Jang, Se Hyeon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kwon, Ji Eun; Lee, Kyung Ha

    2017-02-01

    To investigate tropical roles of the newly described Yihiella yeosuensis (ca. 8μm in cell size), one of the smallest phototrophic dinoflagellates in marine ecosystems, its trophic mode and the types of prey species that Y. yeosuensis can feed upon were explored. Growth and ingestion rates of Y. yeosuensis on its optimal prey, Pyramimonas sp. (Prasinophyceae), as a function of prey concentration were measured. Additionally, growth and ingestion rates of Y. yeosuensis on the other edible prey, Teleaulax sp. (Cryptophyceae), were also determined for a single prey concentration at which both these rates of Y. yeosuensis on Pyramimonas sp. were saturated. Among bacteria and diverse algal prey tested, Y. yeosuensis fed only on small Pyramimonas sp. and Teleaulax sp. (both cell sizes=5.6μm). With increasing mean prey concentrations, both specific growth and ingestion rates of Y. yeosuensis increased rapidly before saturating at a mean Pyramimonas concentration of 109ngCmL(-1) (2725cellsmL(-1)). The maximum growth rate (mixotrophic growth) of Y. yeosuensis fed with Pyramimonas sp. at 20°C under a 14:10-h light-dark cycle of 20μEm(-2)s(-1) was 1.32d(-1), whereas the growth rate of Y. yeosuensis without added prey was 0.026d(-1). The maximum ingestion rate of Y. yeosuensis fed with Pyramimonas sp. was 0.37ngCpredator(-1)d(-1) (9.3cellspredator(-1)d(-1)). At a Teleaulax concentration of 1130ngCmL(-1) (66,240cellsmL(-1)), growth and ingestion rates of Y. yeosuensis fed with Teleaulax sp. were 1.285d(-1) and 0.38ngCpredator(-1)d(-1) (22.4cellspredator(-1)d(-1)), respectively. Thus, Y. yeosuensis rarely grows without mixotrophy, and mixotrophy supports high growth rates in Y. yeosuensis. Y. yeosuensis has the highest maximum mixotrophic growth rate with the exception of Ansanella graniferaamong engulfment feeding mixotrophic dinoflagellates. However, the high swimming speed of Y. yeosuensis (1572μms(-1)), almost the highest among phototrophic dinoflagellates, may prevent

  8. Symptomatic Tarlov cyst: report and review.

    PubMed

    Chaiyabud, Pradit; Suwanpratheep, Kitti

    2006-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand.

  9. [Laparoscopic resection of a mesenteric cyst].

    PubMed

    Dede, Kristóf; Mersich, Tamás; Faludi, Sándor; Blans, Beáta; Salamon, Ferenc; Jakab, Ferenc

    2010-03-14

    Mesenteric cysts are rare intraabdominal tumors, which cause plain symptoms. Despite the modern imaging techniques, the correct preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The optimal treatment is surgical excision of the cysts with open surgery, laparoscopy, or even retroperitoneoscopy. Surgical excision needs to be considered in case of complaints, growing cyst, or suspicion of malignancy. Indications for urgent surgery treatment are: bleeding, volvulus, torquation or ileus. Most frequently, mesenterial cysts are diagnosed during the operation of an unknown palpable abdominal cystic resistance. We present a case of a 32-year-old female patient with a jejunal mesenteric cyst, treated by laparoscopic resection. Postoperative period was uneventful, and after an early discharge the patient's recovery was free of symptoms. Histopathological examination revealed a benign cyst. We conclude that laparoscopic resection of abdominal cysts with unknown origin is a safe operation and can be recommended.

  10. Chylous mesenteric cyst: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doreen L P; Madhuvrata, Priya; Reed, Malcolm W; Balasubramanian, Saba P

    2016-07-01

    A mesenteric cyst is defined as a cyst that is located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. A case report of a patient with mesenteric cyst is presented. In addition, a systematic review was performed of English language literature on chylous mesenteric cysts in adult humans. Of the 18 articles included in the review, there were 19 cases of chylous mesenteric cysts reported. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1 with a median age of 46 years. A preoperative diagnosis of mesenteric cyst was made in four patients based on computed tomography. All patients underwent surgery and there were no reports of recurrence on follow up. Chylous mesenteric cyst is a rare entity that needs to be recognized whenever a preliminary diagnosis of intra-abdominal cystic mass is made. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  11. The expression of cytokeratin in keratocystic odontogenic tumor, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst and dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kaname; Wato, Masahiro; Hayashi, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Norihiro; Matsushita, Takumi; Ito, Tomohiko; Gamoh, Shoko; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Akio; Morita, Shosuke

    2014-09-01

    The epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocysts exhibits either parakeratosis or orthokeratosis. In 2005, the WHO classified odontogenic keratocysts with parakeratosis as keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT). Odontogenic keratocysts with orthokeratosis were not classified as odontogenic tumors, but instead referred to as orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). To clarify the difference between these two lesions, we investigated their biological characteristics using immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins (CK) in KCOT and OOC as well as in dentigerous cysts (DC), radicular cysts (RC) and dermoid cysts (DMC). We examined twenty-five cases of KCOT, fifteen cases each of OOC, DC and RC, and ten cases of DMC. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of CK10, 13, 17 and 19. To evaluate the immunohistochemical staining pattern, we divided the epithelial lining of the lesions into three layers (surface layer: su, spinous layer: sp, basal layer: ba). For CK10, most OOC and DMC specimens of su and sp were positive. For CK13 and 19, most KCOT, DC and RC specimens of su and sp were positive. For CK17, most KCOT specimens of su and sp were positive. The percentages of total CK expression of su and sp, and ba of CK19 differed significantly between the lesions (P < 0.001). These results support the hypothesis that OOC originate from not the odontogenic apparatus, but the oral epithelial component.

  12. Unusually located primary hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Aksakal, Nihat; Kement, Metin; Okkabaz, Nuri; Altuntaş, Yunus Emre; Öncel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is an endemic parasitic disease affecting several Mediterranean countries. Echinococcal cysts are mostly located in the liver and the lung, but the disease can be detected anywhere in the body. In this study, we present uncommon extrahepatic localizations of primary hydatid disease. Patients who were operated on for hydatid disease or cystic lesions, which were later diagnosed as hydatid disease, between 2004 and 2010 were retrieved retrospectively. Patients with lesions localized outside the liver and the lung were enrolled in the study. Eight patients with extrahepatic primary hydatid disease were treated surgically at our clinic. The cysts were located in the scapular region, spleen, pancreas, lumbosacral region and gluteal muscle. Surgical techniques were partial or total cystectomy with or without tube drainage. Splenectomy was performed for splenic hydatid disease and partial pericystectomy, Roux-en-Y cystojejunostomy, cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage for pancreatic hydatid disease. There were no complications or mortality in the postoperative period. Hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions, especially in endemic areas. Surgical technique should be planned according to the location of the cyst. PMID:27436938

  13. Splenic Hydatid Cysts: 17 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ozogul, Bunyami; Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk; Ozturk, Gurkan; Aydinli, Bulent; Yıldırgan, Mehmet İlhan; Kantarcı, A Mecit

    2015-12-01

    Hydatid cyst disease, which is endemically observed and an important health problem in our country, involves the spleen at a frequency ranking third following the liver and the lungs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and results of management in splenic hydatid cysts. The demographic data, localization, diagnosis, treatment methods, and the length of postoperative hospital stay of patients with splenic hydatid cysts in a 12-year period were evaluated retrospectively. Seventeen cases were evaluated. Among these, 13 were females and four were males. Seven had solitary splenic involvement, eight had involvement of both the spleen and the liver, and two had multiple organ involvement. Ten had undergone splenectomy, one had undergone distal splenectomy, and the remaining cases had undergone different surgical procedures. The patients had received albendazole treatment in the pre- and postoperative period. One patient had died secondary to hypernatremia on the first postoperative day. The clinical picture in splenic hydatid cysts, which is seen rarely, is usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography and abdominal CT. Although splenectomy is the standard mode of treatment, spleen-preserving methods may be used.

  14. Laparoscopic transperitoneal renal cyst decortication.

    PubMed

    Hinev, Alexander; Anakievski, Deyan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report our experience with the llaparoscopic transperitoneal treatment of simple renal cysts, to analyze the immediate and long-term clinical outcomes, and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this miniinvasive surgical technique. Between 2009 and 2014 we diagnosed and treated a total of 48 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts. The diagnosis was set up by ultrasound (US) and/or computed tomography (CT) examination. All cases were managed by transperitoneal laparoscopic cyst decortication. Demographic data, perioperative blood loss, duration of operative procedure, length of hospital stay and peri- and postoperative complications were analyzed. Follow-up included clinical examination and renal US, performed at 3-monthly intervals during the first year and yearly thereafter. Patient age ranged from 32 to 68 years (mean age 52.4 years). 27 (56.2%) of the patients were males and 21 (43.8%)--females. 42 (87.5%) of the cysts were peripheral, and 6 (12.5%)-peripelvic; 28 (58.3%) were localized to the left and 20 (41.7%)--to the right; and they ranged by size from 5 to 30 cm (mean 9.8 cm). 45 (93.8%) of the cysts were identified as category I, and only 3 (6.2%)--as category II, according to the Bosniak classification. None of the cases required conversion to open surgery. There were no peri- and postoperative complications. The average duration of the laparoscopic procedure was 55 min, and the average perioperative blood loss--50 mL. All patients had negative cytological and histological findings indicative for malignancy. The follow-up period ranged from 5 to 52ain months (average--25.4 months). In 47 cases (97.9%) exellent therapeutic results were reported: complete relief of clinical symptoms, fast recovery of physical activity and patient quality of life. There were three recurrences (6.2%) met in patients with multiple cysts, but only one of them required repeated surgery. Laparoscopic transperitoneal decortication is a

  15. Significance of plankton community structure and nutrient availability for the control of dinoflagellate blooms by parasites: a modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Alves-de-Souza, Catharina; Pecqueur, David; Le Floc'h, Emilie; Mas, Sébastien; Roques, Cécile; Mostajir, Behzad; Vidussi, Franscesca; Velo-Suárez, Lourdes; Sourisseau, Marc; Fouilland, Eric; Guillou, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellate blooms are frequently observed under temporary eutrophication of coastal waters after heavy rains. Growth of these opportunistic microalgae is believed to be promoted by sudden input of nutrients and the absence or inefficiency of their natural enemies, such as grazers and parasites. Here, numerical simulations indicate that increasing nutrient availability not only promotes the formation of dinoflagellate blooms but can also stimulate their control by protozoan parasites. Moreover, high abundance of phytoplankton other than dinoflagellate hosts might have a significant dilution effect on the control of dinoflagellate blooms by parasites, either by resource competition with dinoflagellates (thus limiting the number of hosts available for infection) or by affecting numerical-functional responses of grazers that consume free-living parasite stages. These outcomes indicate that although both dinoflagellates and their protozoan parasites are directly affected by nutrient availability, the efficacy of the parasitic control of dinoflagellate blooms under temporary eutrophication depends strongly on the structure of the plankton community as a whole.

  16. Dinoflagellate bioluminescence: a comparative study of invitro components.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, R E; Njus, D; Sulzman, F M; Gooch, V D; Hastings, J W

    1976-01-01

    In vitro bioluminescence components of the dinoflagellates Gonyaulax polyedra, G. tamarensis, Dissodinium lunual, and Pyrocystis noctiluca were studied. The luciferases and luciferins of the four species cross-react in all combinations. All of these species possess high-molecular weight luciferases (200,000-400,000 daltons) with similar pH activity profiles. The active single chains of luciferases from the Gonyaulax species have a MW of 130,000 while those from P. noctiluca and D. lunula have a MW of 60,000. Extractable luciferase activity varies with time of day in the two Gonyaulax species, but not in the other two. A luciferin binding protein (LBP) can easily be extracted from the two Gonyaulax species (MW approximately 120,000 daltons), but none could be detected in extracts of either D. lunula or P. noctiluca. Scintillons are extractable from all four species, but they vary in density and the degree to which activity can be increased by added luciferin. Although the biochemistry of bioluminescence in these dinoflagellates is generally similar, the observations that D. lunula and P. noctiluca apparently lack LBP and have luciferases with low MW single chains require further clarification.

  17. Grazer cues induce stealth behavior in marine dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Erik; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Lombard, Fabien; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Chain formation is common among phytoplankton organisms but the underlying reasons and consequences are poorly understood. Here we show that chain formation is strongly impaired by waterborne cues from copepod grazers in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Chains of Alexandrium cells exposed to copepod cues responded by splitting into single cells or shorter chains. Motion analysis revealed significantly lower swimming velocities for single cells compared with chains, with two- to fivefold higher simulated predator encounter rates for two- and four-cell chains, respectively. In addition, the few remaining two-cell chains in grazed treatments were swimming at approximately half the speed of two-cell chains in treatments without grazers, which reduced encounter rates with grazers to values similar to that of single cells. Chain length plasticity and swimming behavior constitute unique mechanisms to reduce encounters with grazers. We argue that dinoflagellates can regulate the balance between motility and predator avoidance by adjusting chain length. The high predator encounter rate for motile chains may have contributed to the low prevalence of chain formation in motile phytoplankton compared with in nonmotile phytoplankton where chain formation is more common. PMID:21368128

  18. Combined heat shock protein 90 and ribosomal RNA sequence phylogeny supports multiple replacements of dinoflagellate plastids.

    PubMed

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Minge, Marianne A; Cavalier-Smith, Tom; Nedreklepp, Joachim M; Klaveness, Dag; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2006-01-01

    Dinoflagellates harbour diverse plastids obtained from several algal groups, including haptophytes, diatoms, cryptophytes, and prasinophytes. Their major plastid type with the accessory pigment peridinin is found in the vast majority of photosynthetic species. Some species of dinoflagellates have other aberrantly pigmented plastids. We sequenced the nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the "green" dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum and show that it is sister to Lepidodinium viride, indicating that their common ancestor obtained the prasinophyte (or other green alga) plastid in one event. As the placement of dinoflagellate species that acquired green algal or haptophyte plastids is unclear from small and large subunit (LSU) rRNA trees, we tested the usefulness of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 gene for dinoflagellate phylogeny by sequencing it from four species with aberrant plastids (G. chlorophorum, Karlodinium micrum, Karenia brevis, and Karenia mikimotoi) plus Alexandrium tamarense, and constructing phylogenetic trees for Hsp90 and rRNAs, separately and together. Analyses of the Hsp90 and concatenated data suggest an ancestral origin of the peridinin-containing plastid, and two independent replacements of the peridinin plastid soon after the early radiation of the dinoflagellates. Thus, the Hsp90 gene seems to be a promising phylogenetic marker for dinoflagellate phylogeny.

  19. NanoSIMS study of trophic interactions in the coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Christophe; Mathieu, Pernice; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Djediat, Chakib; Spangenberg, Jorge; Alexander, Duncan; Hignette, Michel; Meziane, Tarik; Meibom, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Tropical and subtropical reef-building corals generally form a stable endosymbiotic association with autotrophic single-celled dinoflagellate algae, commonly known as "zooxanthellae", which is crucial for the development of coral reef ecosystems. In the present work, the spatial and temporal dynamics of trophic interactions between corals and their dinoflagellates was investigated in situ and at a subcellular level in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative NanoSIMS isotopic imaging of tissue ultra-thin sections (70 nm) were combined to precisely track the assimilation and the fate of 15N-labeled compounds (ammonium, nitrate and aspartic acid) within each symbiotic partner of the coral-dinoflagellate association. Among our main results, we found that (i) both dinoflagellate algae and coral tissue rapidly assimilate ammonium and aspartic acid from the environment, (ii) however only the dinoflagellates assimilate nitrate, (ii) nitrogen is rapidly and temporary stored within the dinoflagellate cells into uric acid crystals, and (iii) the dinoflagellate endosymbionts translocate nitrogenous compounds to their coral host. This study paves the way for exploring in details the wide range of metabolic interactions between partners of any symbiosis in the biosphere.

  20. When Naked Became Armored: An Eight-Gene Phylogeny Reveals Monophyletic Origin of Theca in Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Murray, Shauna A.; Stüken, Anke; Rhodes, Lesley; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

    2012-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are a diverse lineage of microbial eukaryotes. Dinoflagellate monophyly and their position within the group Alveolata are well established. However, phylogenetic relationships between dinoflagellate orders remain unresolved. To date, only a limited number of dinoflagellate studies have used a broad taxon sample with more than two concatenated markers. This lack of resolution makes it difficult to determine the evolution of major phenotypic characters such as morphological features or toxin production e.g. saxitoxin. Here we present an improved dinoflagellate phylogeny, based on eight genes, with the broadest taxon sampling to date. Fifty-five sequences for eight phylogenetic markers from nuclear and mitochondrial regions were amplified from 13 species, four orders, and concatenated phylogenetic inferences were conducted with orthologous sequences. Phylogenetic resolution is increased with addition of support for the deepest branches, though can be improved yet further. We show for the first time that the characteristic dinoflagellate thecal plates, cellulosic material that is present within the sub-cuticular alveoli, appears to have had a single origin. In addition, the monophyly of most dinoflagellate orders is confirmed: the Dinophysiales, the Gonyaulacales, the Prorocentrales, the Suessiales, and the Syndiniales. Our improved phylogeny, along with results of PCR to detect the sxtA gene in various lineages, allows us to suggest that this gene was probably acquired separately in Gymnodinium and the common ancestor of Alexandrium and Pyrodinium and subsequently lost in some descendent species of Alexandrium. PMID:23185516

  1. Comparison of aspiration-sclerotherapy versus laparoscopic decortication in management of symptomatic simple renal cysts.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qiang; Xu, Jianfeng; Adams, Tamara; Tao, Sha; Cui, Yon; Shen, Hua; Cao, Wenzhou; Xie, Jianjun; Fan, Youzhang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Huang, Min

    2013-01-01

    To perform a retrospective study to compare the efficiency, safety and costs using aspiration-sclerotherapy with 95% ethanol vs. laparoscopic decortications in management of symptomatic simple renal cysts. Patients with simple renal cysts (diamante > 4 cm) were recruited from our hospital between October 2008 and October 2012. A total of 986 patients (Group 1) underwent aspiration-sclerotherapy with 95% ethanol and 208 patients (Group 2) underwent laparoscopic decortication. All patients were followed up with ultrasonography or computerized tomography (CT) for one year. Regression rates, recurrence rates and costs were compared. Similarity in symptoms (back pain, cloudy urine or mass in abdomen), renal cyst size, and cyst distribution, complete regression rate after treatment between the two groups; A higher recurrence rate, but shorter procedure times and lower cost in Group 1 compared to Group 2. The procedures used for both groups were safe and had minimum complications. Aspiration-sclerotherapy, as well as laparoscopic decortication are effective and safe therapy for symptomatic simple renal cysts. Aspiration-sclerotherapy is more suitable for medium size of renal cysts, while Laparoscopic decortication is superior to the cysts in large sizes.

  2. Dinoflagellate Phylogeny as Inferred from Heat Shock Protein 90 and Ribosomal Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenrath, Mona; Leander, Brian S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Interrelationships among dinoflagellates in molecular phylogenies are largely unresolved, especially in the deepest branches. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences provide phylogenetic signals only at the tips of the dinoflagellate tree. Two reasons for the poor resolution of deep dinoflagellate relationships using rDNA sequences are (1) most sites are relatively conserved and (2) there are different evolutionary rates among sites in different lineages. Therefore, alternative molecular markers are required to address the deeper phylogenetic relationships among dinoflagellates. Preliminary evidence indicates that the heat shock protein 90 gene (Hsp90) will provide an informative marker, mainly because this gene is relatively long and appears to have relatively uniform rates of evolution in different lineages. Methodology/Principal Findings We more than doubled the previous dataset of Hsp90 sequences from dinoflagellates by generating additional sequences from 17 different species, representing seven different orders. In order to concatenate the Hsp90 data with rDNA sequences, we supplemented the Hsp90 sequences with three new SSU rDNA sequences and five new LSU rDNA sequences. The new Hsp90 sequences were generated, in part, from four additional heterotrophic dinoflagellates and the type species for six different genera. Molecular phylogenetic analyses resulted in a paraphyletic assemblage near the base of the dinoflagellate tree consisting of only athecate species. However, Noctiluca was never part of this assemblage and branched in a position that was nested within other lineages of dinokaryotes. The phylogenetic trees inferred from Hsp90 sequences were consistent with trees inferred from rDNA sequences in that the backbone of the dinoflagellate clade was largely unresolved. Conclusions/Significance The sequence conservation in both Hsp90 and rDNA sequences and the poor resolution of the deepest nodes suggests that dinoflagellates reflect an explosive

  3. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking hydatid liver: a case report.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf; Dangroo, Sajad Ahmad; Bisati, Rafia Aziz; Malik, Nighat Shaffi

    2012-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts frequently occur in the mediastinum. They may be rarely encountered in the abdomen and retroperitoneum. Bronchogenic cysts can in fact mimic hydatid cysts. We report a case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst below the right hemidiaphragm mimicking a hydatid cyst of the liver in a 30-year-old female.

  4. Retroperitoneal Bronchogenic Cyst Mimicking Hydatid Liver: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Parray, Fazl Q.; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf; Dangroo, Sajad Ahmad; Bisati, Rafia Aziz; Malik, Nighat Shaffi

    2012-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts frequently occur in the mediastinum. They may be rarely encountered in the abdomen and retroperitoneum. Bronchogenic cysts can in fact mimic hydatid cysts. We report a case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst below the right hemidiaphragm mimicking a hydatid cyst of the liver in a 30-year-old female. PMID:22606600

  5. Neonatal Gartner Duct Cyst: Two Case Reports and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Charu; Shah, Hemanshi; Desale, Jayesh; Waghmare, Mukta

    Vaginal cysts are rare, particularly in the newborn. They usually present as one of these three entities in the newborn: paraurethral cysts (Skene duct cysts), Gartner duct cysts (mesonephric ductal remnants) or a covered ectopic ureter. Abdominal ultrasound should always be included in the clinical evaluation in search of renal anomalies. We report two cases of Gartner cysts in neonates.

  6. Pineal gland cysts--an overview.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, Jelena; Budisić, Mislav; Azman, Drazen; Strineka, Maja; Crnjaković, Miljenko; Demarin, Vida

    2009-09-01

    Pineal cysts occur in all ages, predominantly in adults in the fourth decade of life. In series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, the prevalence of pineal cysts ranged between 1.3% and 4.3% of patients examined for various neurologic reasons and up to 10.8% of asymptomatic healthy volunteers. The diagnosis of pineal cyst is usually established by MRI with defined radiological criteria to distinguish benign pineal cyst from tumors of this area. A recent study demonstrated the findings obtained by transcranial sonography to correspond to those obtained by MRI in the detection of both pineal gland cyst and pineal gland itself, and could be used in the future mainly as follow up examination. Pineal cysts usually have no clinical implications and remain asymptomatic for years. The most common symptoms include headache, vertigo, visual and oculomotor disturbances, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Less frequently, patients present with ataxia, motor and sensory impairment, mental and emotional disturbances, epilepsy, circadian rhythm disturbances, hypothalamic dysfunction of precocious puberty, and recently described occurrence of secondary parkinsonism. Symptomatic cysts vary in size from 7 mm to 45 mm, whereas asymptomatic cysts are usually less than 10 mm in diameter, although a relationship between the cyst size and the onset of symptoms has been proved to be irrelevant in many cases. There is agreement that surgical intervention should be undertaken in patients presenting with hydrocephalus, progression of neurologic symptoms, or cyst enlargement. Tissue sample of the pineal lesion can be obtained by open surgery, stereotaxy and neuroendoscopy.

  7. Macrophage polarization differs between apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Manuel; Schlittenbauer, Tilo; Moebius, Patrick; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Ries, Jutta; Preidl, Raimund; Geppert, Carol-Immanuel; Neukam, Friedrich W; Wehrhan, Falk

    2017-05-13

    Apical periodontitis can appear clinically as apical granulomas or radicular cysts. There is evidence that immunologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both pathologies. In contrast to radicular cysts, the dentigerous cysts have a developmental origin. Macrophage polarization (M1 vs M2) is a main regulator of tissue homeostasis and differentiation. There are no studies comparing macrophage polarization in apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts. Forty-one apical granulomas, 23 radicular cysts, and 23 dentigerous cysts were analyzed in this study. A tissue microarray (TMA) of the 87 consecutive specimens was created, and CD68-, CD11c-, CD163-, and MRC1-positive macrophages were detected by immunohistochemical methods. TMAs were digitized, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively assessed. Radicular cysts are characterized by M1 polarization of macrophages while apical granulomas show a significantly higher degree of M2 polarization. Dentigerous cysts have a significantly lower M1 polarization than both analyzed periapical lesions (apical granulomas and radicular cysts) and accordingly, a significantly higher M2 polarization than radicular cysts. Macrophage cell density in dentigerous cysts is significantly lower than in the periapical lesions. The development of apical periodontitis towards apical granulomas or radicular cysts might be directed by macrophage polarization. Radicular cyst formation is associated with an increased M1 polarization of infiltrating macrophages. In contrast to radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts are characterized by a low macrophage infiltration and a high degree of M2 polarization, possibly reflecting their developmental rather than inflammatory origin. As M1 polarization of macrophages is triggered by bacterial antigens, these results underline the need for sufficient bacterial clearance during endodontic treatment to prevent a possible M1 macrophage-derived stimulus for radicular cyst

  8. Recurrence of chocolate cysts after laparoscopic ablation.

    PubMed

    Jones, K D; Sutton, C J G

    2002-08-01

    To estimate the recurrence rate of chocolate cysts 3 to 12 months after ablative laparoscopic surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the need for a repeat surgical procedure. Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Tertiary referral center for laparoscopic treatment of endometriosis. Seventy-three consecutive women with chocolate cysts larger than 2 cm. Laparoscopy at which cyst capsules were vaporized or coagulated with the potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser or Bicap bipolar diathermy. There were 96 cysts (23 bilateral) in 73 women (1 patient underwent a two-stage procedure). Their mean diameter was 4.79 cm (range 2-25 cm). The median r-AFS score was 56 (range 22-128), and 55 patients (75.3%) had stage 4 disease. The KTP laser was used in 50 women (68.5%) and bipolar diathermy in 23 (31.5%). At 12 months, 5 patients (6.9%) were lost to follow-up, and 12 had a recurrent cyst. Therefore, the cyst recurrence rate/patient was 16.4% (12/73) and the rate/cyst was 12.5% (12/96). Women who had recurrences were significantly more likely to have bilateral cysts, 7/12 (58.3%), than those with single cysts, 16/61 (26.2%, p =0.032). Bicap bipolar diathermy was associated with a recurrence rate of 20.8% (5/24). The rate in women who had KTP laser ablation was 14.3% (7/49, NS). Eighteen patients had repeat operations (including on recurrent cysts). Therefore the reoperation rate was 24.6% (18/73). No major surgical complications occurred. One woman had a postoperative wound infection after a second procedure to remove an ovary with a recurrent cyst. Laparoscopic cyst fenestration followed by capsule ablation is safe and effective treatment for preventing recurrence of chocolate cysts.

  9. Complex renal cysts associated with crizotinib treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Patrick; Bartlett, Cynthia H; Solomon, Benjamin J; Tassell, Vanessa; Shaw, Alice T; de Pas, Tommaso; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Tanaka, Kaoru; Tan, Weiwei; Tang, Yiyun; Wilner, Keith D; Safferman, Allan; Han, Ji-Youn

    2015-01-01

    An apparent causal association between crizotinib treatment and renal cyst development emerged during clinical trials in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Serious adverse event (SAE) reports of renal cysts from a safety database of 1375 patients from four clinical trials were reviewed. A blinded, retrospective, independent radiologic review (IRR) was performed using scans from patients on study for ≥6 months in three clinical trials; risk factors for renal cyst development were assessed. Among 17 patients with renal cysts reported as SAEs, evidence of invasion into adjacent structures was noted in seven patients, with no evidence of malignancy found. These patients generally did not require dose reductions, none required permanent crizotinib discontinuation due to this AE, and most continued treatment with clinical benefit. In the blinded IRR, among 255 crizotinib-treated patients, 22%, 3%, and 2% had preexisting simple cysts, complex cysts, or both, respectively. At the 6-month tumor assessment, 9% of all patients had acquired new cysts, and 2% of patients with preexisting cysts had developed new cysts and enlargements (>50%) of preexisting simple cysts. Asians appeared to have an increased risk of developing new cysts on treatment; Koreans in particular had 5.18 times higher odds of developing cysts than non-Asians (95% confidence interval, 1.51–17.78; P = 0.05). Crizotinib treatment appears to be associated with an increased risk of development and progression of renal cysts in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. While close monitoring is recommended, dosing modification was not generally necessary, allowing patients to remain on crizotinib treatment. PMID:25756473

  10. Complex renal cysts associated with crizotinib treatment.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Patrick; Bartlett, Cynthia H; Solomon, Benjamin J; Tassell, Vanessa; Shaw, Alice T; de Pas, Tommaso; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Tanaka, Kaoru; Tan, Weiwei; Tang, Yiyun; Wilner, Keith D; Safferman, Allan; Han, Ji-Youn

    2015-06-01

    An apparent causal association between crizotinib treatment and renal cyst development emerged during clinical trials in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Serious adverse event (SAE) reports of renal cysts from a safety database of 1375 patients from four clinical trials were reviewed. A blinded, retrospective, independent radiologic review (IRR) was performed using scans from patients on study for ≥ 6 months in three clinical trials; risk factors for renal cyst development were assessed. Among 17 patients with renal cysts reported as SAEs, evidence of invasion into adjacent structures was noted in seven patients, with no evidence of malignancy found. These patients generally did not require dose reductions, none required permanent crizotinib discontinuation due to this AE, and most continued treatment with clinical benefit. In the blinded IRR, among 255 crizotinib-treated patients, 22%, 3%, and 2% had preexisting simple cysts, complex cysts, or both, respectively. At the 6-month tumor assessment, 9% of all patients had acquired new cysts, and 2% of patients with preexisting cysts had developed new cysts and enlargements (>50%) of preexisting simple cysts. Asians appeared to have an increased risk of developing new cysts on treatment; Koreans in particular had 5.18 times higher odds of developing cysts than non-Asians (95% confidence interval, 1.51-17.78; P = 0.05). Crizotinib treatment appears to be associated with an increased risk of development and progression of renal cysts in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. While close monitoring is recommended, dosing modification was not generally necessary, allowing patients to remain on crizotinib treatment. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Toxicity and Growth Assessments of Three Thermophilic Benthic Dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) Developing in the Southern Mediterranean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Gharbia, Hela; Yahia, Ons Kéfi-Daly; Amzil, Zouher; Chomérat, Nicolas; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Sibat, Manoella; Zmerli Triki, Habiba; Nouri, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Harmful benthic dinoflagellates, usually developing in tropical areas, are expanding to temperate ecosystems facing water warming. Reports on harmful benthic species are particularly scarce in the Southern Mediterranean Sea. For the first time, three thermophilic benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima and Coolia monotis) were isolated from Bizerte Bay (Tunisia, Mediterranean) and monoclonal cultures established. The ribotyping confirmed the morphological identification of the three species. Maximum growth rates were 0.59 ± 0.08 d−1 for O. cf. ovata, 0.35 ± 0.01 d−1 for C. monotis and 0.33 ± 0.04 d−1 for P. lima. Toxin analyses revealed the presence of ovatoxin-a and ovatoxin-b in O. cf. ovata cells. Okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were detected in P. lima cultures. For C. monotis, a chromatographic peak at 5.6 min with a mass m/z = 1061.768 was observed, but did not correspond to a mono-sulfated analogue of the yessotoxin. A comparison of the toxicity and growth characteristics of these dinoflagellates, distributed worldwide, is proposed. PMID:27754462

  12. Generalist dinoflagellate endosymbionts and host genotype diversity detected from mesophotic (67-100 m depths) coral Leptoseris

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yvonne L; Pochon, Xavier; Fisher, Marla A; Wagner, Daniel; Concepcion, Gregory T; Kahng, Samuel E; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2009-01-01

    Background Mesophotic corals (light-dependent corals in the deepest half of the photic zone at depths of 30 - 150 m) provide a unique opportunity to study the limits of the interactions between corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. We sampled Leptoseris spp. in Hawaii via manned submersibles across a depth range of 67 - 100 m. Both the host and Symbiodinium communities were genotyped, using a non-coding region of the mitochondrial ND5 intron (NAD5) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2), respectively. Results Coral colonies harbored endosymbiotic communities dominated by previously identified shallow water Symbiodinium ITS2 types (C1_ AF333515, C1c_ AY239364, C27_ AY239379, and C1b_ AY239363) and exhibited genetic variability at mitochondrial NAD5. Conclusion This is one of the first studies to examine genetic diversity in corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates sampled at the limits of the depth and light gradients for hermatypic corals. The results reveal that these corals associate with generalist endosymbiont types commonly found in shallow water corals and implies that the composition of the Symbiodinium community (based on ITS2) alone is not responsible for the dominance and broad depth distribution of Leptoseris spp. The level of genetic diversity detected in the coral NAD5 suggests that there is undescribed taxonomic diversity in the genus Leptoseris from Hawaii. PMID:19747389

  13. Generalist dinoflagellate endosymbionts and host genotype diversity detected from mesophotic (67-100 m depths) coral Leptoseris.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yvonne L; Pochon, Xavier; Fisher, Marla A; Wagner, Daniel; Concepcion, Gregory T; Kahng, Samuel E; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2009-09-11

    Mesophotic corals (light-dependent corals in the deepest half of the photic zone at depths of 30-150 m) provide a unique opportunity to study the limits of the interactions between corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. We sampled Leptoseris spp. in Hawaii via manned submersibles across a depth range of 67-100 m. Both the host and Symbiodinium communities were genotyped, using a non-coding region of the mitochondrial ND5 intron (NAD5) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2), respectively. Coral colonies harbored endosymbiotic communities dominated by previously identified shallow water Symbiodinium ITS2 types (C1_ AF333515, C1c_ AY239364, C27_ AY239379, and C1b_ AY239363) and exhibited genetic variability at mitochondrial NAD5. This is one of the first studies to examine genetic diversity in corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates sampled at the limits of the depth and light gradients for hermatypic corals. The results reveal that these corals associate with generalist endosymbiont types commonly found in shallow water corals and implies that the composition of the Symbiodinium community (based on ITS2) alone is not responsible for the dominance and broad depth distribution of Leptoseris spp. The level of genetic diversity detected in the coral NAD5 suggests that there is undescribed taxonomic diversity in the genus Leptoseris from Hawaii.

  14. Marine downscaling of a future climate scenario in the North Sea and possible effects on dinoflagellate harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Friocourt, Y F; Skogen, M; Stolte, W; Albretsen, J

    2012-01-01

    Two hydrodynamic and ecological models were used to investigate the effects of climate change-according to the IPCC A1b emission scenario - on the primary productivity of the North Sea and on harmful algal blooms. Both models were forced with atmospheric fields from a regional downscaling of General Circulation Models to compare two sets of 20-year simulations representative of present climate (1984-2004) conditions and of the 2040s. Both models indicated a general warming of the North Sea by up to 0.8°C and a slight freshening by the 2040s. The models suggested that the eastern North Sea would be subjected to more temperature and salinity changes than the western part. In addition, the ecological modules of the models indicated that the warming up of the sea would result in a slightly earlier spring bloom. The one model that also computes the distribution of four different phytoplankton groups suggests an increase in the abundance of dinoflagellates, whereas the abundance of diatoms, flagellates and Phaeocystis sp. remains comparable to current levels, or decrease. Assuming that Dinophysis spp. would experience a similar increase in abundance as the modelled group of dinoflagellates, it is hypothesised that blooms of Dinophysis spp. may occur more frequently in the North Sea by 2040. However, implications for shellfish toxicity remain unclear.

  15. Modulation of ecdysal cyst and toxin dynamics of two Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species under small-scale turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolli, L.; Llaveria, G.; Garcés, E.; Guadayol, Ó.; van Lenning, K.; Peters, F.; Berdalet, E.

    2007-03-01

    In some dinoflagellate species, physiological processes appear to be altered by exposure to certain turbulent conditions. Here we investigated how two levels of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates (ɛ = 0.4 and 27 cm2 s-3) affected the toxin and ecdysal cyst dynamics of two bloom forming species, Alexandrium minutum and A. catenella. The most striking responses were observed at the high ɛ generated by an orbital shaker. In A. catenella, lower cellular toxin content was measured in cultures shaken for more than 4 days. The same trend was observed in A. minutum, although variability masked statistical significance. For the two species, inhibition of ecdysal cyst production occurred immediately and during the period of exposure of the cultures to stirring (4 or more days) at any time during their growth curve. Recovery of cyst abundances was always observed when turbulence stopped. When turbulence persisted for more than 4 days the net growth rate significantly decreased and the final biomass yield was lower than in the unshaken cultures. This study suggests that high levels of small-scale turbulence would contribute to the modulation of the harmful bloom dynamics through the interaction at the level of toxin and encystment processes.

  16. Osteophyte excision without cyst excision for a mucous cyst of the finger.

    PubMed

    Lee, H-J; Kim, P-T; Jeon, I-H; Kyung, H-S; Ra, I-H; Kim, T-K

    2014-03-01

    Osteophyte excision is a mainstay of treatment for mucous cyst combined with Heberden's node in a distal interphalangeal joint or in an interphalangeal joint of the thumb. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of osteophyte excision without cyst excision for the treatment of a mucous cyst combined with Heberden's node. The medical records of 37 patients (42 cases) with a mucous cyst with Heberden's node were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-eight of 40 cases with available pre-operative simple radiographs showed evidence of joint arthrosis. A T-shaped skin incision of the joint capsule between the extensor tendon and lateral collateral ligament was used. Osteophyte excision without cyst excision was performed. All cysts, except one, regressed without recurrence or a skin complication after osteophyte excision, but eight cases showed post-operative pain and loss of range of motion. Osteophyte excision without cyst excision may be a good treatment choice for mucous cyst of the finger.

  17. A ganglion cyst derived from a synovial cyst: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kizilay, Zahir; Yilmaz, Ali; Gurcan, Sevilay; Berber, Osman; Ozsunar, Yelda; Eliyatkın, Nuket

    2015-01-01

    The synovial and ganglion cysts originating from the facet joint have been named under the name of the Juxtafacet cyst by the several researchers. They put forward that the synovial cyst originated from the synovial joint. But, they failed to clarify the pathophysiology of the formation of the ganglion cyst. In this case report, we reported a 67-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency from another center with the complaint of a left leg pain and weakness in the left foot and patient was treated with microchirurgical technique. His patological examination was evaluated a ganglion cyst. We have discussed and explained the pathophysiology of the formation of a ganglion cyst derivered from a synovial cyst. And separately, we have presented the spinal cysts by grouping them under a new classification called a cystic formation of the soft tissue attachments of the mobile spine as well as dividing them into sub-groups.

  18. Imaging in pulmonary hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Mandeep K; Sharma, Madhurima; Gulati, Ajay; Gorsi, Ujjwal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Agarwal, Ritesh; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonosis that can involve almost any organ in the human body. After the liver, the lungs are the most common site for hydatid disease in adults. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of the disease, as clinical features are often nonspecific. Classical radiological signs of pulmonary hydatid cysts have been described in the literature, aiding in the diagnosis of the disease. However, complicated hydatid cysts can prove to be a diagnostic challenge at times due to their atypical imaging features. Radiography is the initial imaging modality. Computed tomography can provide a specific diagnosis in complicated cases. Ultrasound is particularly useful in peripheral lung lesions. The role of magnetic resonance imaging largely remains unexplored. PMID:27358685

  19. Scintigraphy of aneurysmal bone cysts

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.

    1984-04-01

    Bone scintigrams with Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals of 25 aneurysmal bone cysts showed abnormal activity in every case. In 22 cases, the activity was correlated with the true pathologic extent of the lesions; only three exhibited a false-positive extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor margins. Sixteen scintigrams (64%) revealed increased uptake, chiefly around the periphery of the lesions, with less activity in their centers. This feature could not be explained simply by the cystic nature of the lesions, since aneurysmal bone cysts may contain considerable fibrous tissue septa containing trabeculae of reactive new bone. However, there was no correlation between any specific anatomic or histologic pattern and the intensity and pattern of abnormal scintigraphic activity.

  20. Giant radicular cyst of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Shrivastava, Ratika; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2014-01-01

    Radicular cysts are inflammatory odontogenic cysts of tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Most of these lesions involve the apex of offending tooth and appear as well-defined radiolucencies. Owing to its clinical characteristics similar to other more commonly occurring lesions in the oral cavity, differential diagnosis should include dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, periapical cementoma and Pindborg tumour. The present case report documents a massive radicular cyst crossing the midline of the palate. Based on clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings, the present case was diagnosed as an infected radicular cyst. The clinical characteristics of this cyst could be considered as an interesting and unusual due to its giant nature. The lesion was surgically enucleated along with the extraction of the associated tooth; preservation of all other teeth and vital structures, without any postoperative complications and satisfactory healing, was achieved. PMID:24792022

  1. Parotid dermoid cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Birsan, Christina; Raza, Anwar; Cobb, Camilla

    2013-04-01

    A dermoid cyst arising in the parotid is rare and usually represents the rare first branchial cleft type II anomaly, which can have morphology similar to a dermoid cyst. This study reports the case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with a parotid mass, which on histologic review was consistent with a dermoid cyst. This appears to be the first case report of a parotid dermoid cyst with focus on the gross and histopathologic findings and to be presented in a histopathology focused journal. The discussion includes the clinical presentation, imaging findings, gross pathology, histologic features, and differential diagnosis of parotid dermoid cysts. Although there was no prior fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the lesion in this case, parotid masses are commonly subject to FNA prior to excision. Therefore, a brief review of the FNA findings in dermoid cysts is also included.

  2. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

  3. [Laparoscopic cleavage in splenic symptomatic cyst].

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, Antonio-José; Candel-Arenas, Marifé; González-Valverde, Francisco-Miguel; Luján-Martínez, Delia; Medina-Manuel, Esther; Albarracín Marín-Blázquez, Antonio

    2016-12-30

    Splenic cysts are rare diseases that are diagnosed incidentally during imaging studies. When cysts are recognized, surgical treatment is recommended adapted to the particular case, depending on the size and location of the cyst and the age of the patient in order to avoid dangerous complications such as spleen rupture or cyst infection with abscess. We report 2patients with symptomatic splenic epidermoid cyst treated by laparoscopic cleavage. Laparoscopic cleavage is a surgical option for splenic cyst, with the goal of reducing postoperative complications while preserving splenic function. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitreous cysts in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Murakami, Yusuke; Nakatake, Shunji; Tachibana, Takashi; Notomi, Shoji; Hisatomi, Toshio; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of vitreous cysts in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 435 consecutive patients diagnosed as having typical RP. Vitreous cysts were diagnosed in 37 eyes of 28 patients with RP (13 males and 15 females; mean age 47.0 ± 19.8 years; range 15-79 years), for an overall prevalence of 6.4%. The cysts were observed bilaterally in nine of the patients (32.1%). Among these 28 patients, 11 (39.3%) were younger than 40 years. In all, 81.8% of the vitreous cysts were detected around the optic nerve head. We demonstrated that the prevalence of vitreous cysts was 6.4% in patients with RP. These cysts were considered to be asymptomatic.

  5. Cyst-based measurements for assessing lymphangioleiomyomatosis in computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, P. Brown, M. S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Goldin, J. G.; Argula, R.; Strange, C.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a new family of measurements made on individual pulmonary cysts extracted from computed tomography (CT) for assessing the severity of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). Methods: CT images were analyzed using thresholding to identify a cystic region of interest from chest CT of LAM patients. Individual cysts were then extracted from the cystic region by the watershed algorithm, which separates individual cysts based on subtle edges within the cystic regions. A family of measurements were then computed, which quantify the amount, distribution, and boundary appearance of the cysts. Sequential floating feature selection was used to select a small subset of features for quantification of the severity of LAM. Adjusted R{sup 2} from multiple linear regression and R{sup 2} from linear regression against measurements from spirometry were used to compare the performance of our proposed measurements with currently used density based CT measurements in the literature, namely, the relative area measure and the D measure. Results: Volumetric CT data, performed at total lung capacity and residual volume, from a total of 49 subjects enrolled in the MILES trial were used in our study. Our proposed measures had adjusted R{sup 2} ranging from 0.42 to 0.59 when regressing against the spirometry measures, with p < 0.05. For previously used density based CT measurements in the literature, the best R{sup 2} was 0.46 (for only one instance), with the majority being lower than 0.3 or p > 0.05. Conclusions: The proposed family of CT-based cyst measurements have better correlation with spirometric measures than previously used density based CT measurements. They show potential as a sensitive tool for quantitatively assessing the severity of LAM.

  6. Surgical treatment of choledochal cysts.

    PubMed

    Lipsett, Pamela A; Pitt, Henry A

    2003-01-01

    Biliary cystic disease is uncommon in Asia and very rare in Europe and the Americas. Patients with biliary cysts may present as infants, children, or adults. When patients present as adults, they are more likely to have stones in the gallbladder, common duct, or intrahepatic ducts and to present with biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, cholangitis, or gallstone pancreatitis. With increasing age at presentation, the risks of intrahepatic strictures and stones, segmented hepatic atrophy/hypertrophy, secondary biliary cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and biliary malignancy all increase significantly. Factors to be considered when performing surgery on patients with biliary cystic disease include: (1) age, (2) presenting symptoms, (3) cyst type, (4) associated biliary stones, (5) prior biliary surgery, (6) intrahepatic strictures, (7) hepatic atrophy/hypertrophy, (8) biliary cirrhosis, (9) portal hypertension, and (10) associated biliary malignancy. In general, regardless of age, presenting symptoms, biliary stones, prior surgery or other secondary problems, surgery should include cholecystectomy and excision of extrahepatic cyst(s). With respect to the distal bile duct, the surgical principle should be excision of a portion of the intrapancreatic bile duct with care to not injure the pancreatic duct or a long common channel. Resection of the pancreatic head should be reserved for patients with an established malignancy. With respect to the intrahepatic ducts, surgery should be individualized depending on whether (1) both lobes are involved, (2) strictures and stones are present, (3) cirrhosis has developed, or (4) an associated malignancy is localized or metastatic. When the liver is not cirrhotic, hepatic parenchyma should be preserved even when strictures and stones are present. If cirrhosis is advanced, hepatic transplantation may be indicated, but this sequence of events is unusual. If a malignancy has developed, oncologic principles should be followed. Whenever

  7. Treatment of Maxillary Glandular Odontogenic Cyst Involving the Same Place of Previously Treated Traumatic Bone Cyst.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Emel; Baş, Burcu; Dinçer, Duygu; Günhan, Ömer

    2016-03-01

    Glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare developmental odontogenic cysts of the jaws having an aggressive behavior. The most common site of occurrence is the anterior mandible, and it is widely seen in middle-aged people. It is suggested that trauma could be a precipitating factor for its occurrence. This article presents the diagnosis and treatment of a case of glandular odontogenic cyst at anterior maxilla that occurred at the same localization of a traumatic bone cyst, 5 years after its management.

  8. Sterols and Fatty Acids of the Harmful Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides.

    PubMed

    Giner, José-Luis; Ceballos, Harriette; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Sterol and fatty acid compositions were determined for Cochlodinium polykrikoides, a toxic, bloom-forming dinoflagellate of global significance. The major sterols were dinosterol (40% of total sterols), dihydrodinosterol (32%), and the rare 4α-methyl Δ(8(14)) sterol, amphisterol (23%). A minor sterol, 4α-methylergost-24(28)-enol was also detected (5.0%). The fatty acids had a high proportion of PUFAs (47%), consisting mainly of EPA (20%) and the relatively uncommon octadecapentaenoic acid (18 : 5, 22%). While unlikely to be responsible for toxicity to fish, these lipids may contribute to the deleterious effects of this alga to invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. New insights into shear-sensitivity in dinoflagellate microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Rodríguez, J J; López-Rosales, L; Sánchez-Mirón, A; García-Camacho, F; Molina-Grima, E; Chalmers, J J

    2016-01-01

    A modification of a flow contraction device was used to subject shear-sensitive microalgae to well-defined hydrodynamic forces. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the inhibition of shear-induced growth commonly observed in dinoflagellate microalgae is in effect due to cell fragility that results in cell breakage even at low levels of turbulence. The microalgae assayed did not show any cell breakage even at energy dissipation rates (EDR) around 10(12)Wm(-3), implausible in culture devices. Conversely, animal cells, tested for comparison purposes, showed high physical cell damage at average EDR levels of 10(7)Wm(-3). Besides, very short exposures to high levels of EDR promoted variations in the membrane fluidity of the microalgae assayed, which might trigger mechanosensory cellular mechanisms. Average EDR values of only about 4·10(5)Wm(-3) increased cell membrane fluidity in microalgae whereas, in animal cells, they did not.

  10. New scenario for speciation in the benthic dinoflagellate genus Coolia (Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Leaw, Chui Pin; Tan, Toh Hii; Lim, Hong Chang; Teng, Sing Tung; Yong, Hwa Lin; Smith, Kirsty F; Rhodes, Lesley; Wolf, Matthias; Holland, William C; Vandersea, Mark W; Litaker, R Wayne; Tester, Patricia A; Gu, Haifeng; Usup, Gires; Lim, Po Teen

    2016-05-01

    In this study, inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity within the marine harmful dinoflagellate genus Coolia Meunier was evaluated using isolates obtained from the tropics to subtropics in both Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. The aim was to assess the phylogeographic history of the genus and to clarify the validity of established species including Coolia malayensis. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D2 LSU rDNA sequences identified six major lineages (L1-L6) corresponding to the morphospecies Coolia malayensis (L1), C. monotis (L2), C. santacroce (L3), C. palmyrensis (L4), C. tropicalis (L5), and C. canariensis (L6). A median joining network (MJN) of C. malayensis ITS2 rDNA sequences revealed a total of 16 haplotypes; however, no spatial genetic differentiation among populations was observed. These MJN results in conjunction with CBC analysis, rDNA phylogenies and geographical distribution analyses confirm C. malayensis as a distinct species which is globally distributed in the tropical to warm-temperate regions. A molecular clock analysis using ITS2 rDNA revealed the evolutionary history of Coolia dated back to the Mesozoic, and supports the hypothesis that historical vicariant events in the early Cenozoic drove the allopatric differentiation of C. malayensis and C. monotis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 2D-PAGE protein analysis of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum based on three different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latib, Norhidayu Abdul; Norshaha, Safida Anira; Usup, Gires; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Harmful algae bloom or red tide seems to be considered as threat to ecosystem, especially to human consumption because of the production of neurotoxin by dinoflagellates species such as Alexandrium minutum which can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning. The aim of this study is to determine the most suitable method for protein extraction of A. minutum followed by determination of differential protein expression of A. minutum on three different temperatures (15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C). After the optimization, the protein extract was subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to compare the intensity and distribution of the protein spots. Based on quantitative and qualitative protein assessment, use of Trizol reagent is the most suitable method to extract protein from A. minutum. 2-DE analysis of the samples results in different distribution and intensity of the protein spots were compared between 15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C.

  12. Brainstem epidermoid cyst: An update

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, M. R.; Yerramneni, Vamsi Krishna; Mudumba, Vijaya S.; Manisha, Nukavarapu; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of epidermoid tumors is between 1% and 2% of all intracranial tumors. The usual locations of epidermoid tumor are the parasellar region and cerebellopontine angle, and it is less commonly located in sylvian fissure, suprasellar region, cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, and lateral and fourth ventricles. Epidermoid cysts located in the posterior fossa usually arise in the lateral subarachnoid cisterns, and those located in the brain stem are rare. These epidermoids contain cheesy and flaky white soft putty like contents. Epidermoid cysts are very slow growing tumors having a similar growth pattern of the epidermal cells of the skin and develop from remnants of epidermal elements during closure of the neural groove and disjunction of the surface ectoderm with neural ectoderm between the third and fifth weeks of embryonic life. We are presenting an interesting case of intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cyst containing milky white liquefied material with flakes in a 5-year-old girl. Diffusion-weighted imaging is definitive for the diagnosis. Ideal treatment of choice is removal of cystic components with complete resection of capsule. Although radical resection will prevent recurrence, in view of very thin firmly adherent capsule to brainstem, it is not always possible to do complete resection of capsule without any neurological deficits. PMID:27366244

  13. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES AND OTHER EUKARYOTIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  14. Simulation and analysis of a model dinoflagellate predator-prey system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, M. J.; Antonelli, T.; Coyne, K. J.; Rossi, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of a model dinoflagellate predator-prey system and uses simulations to validate theoretical and experimental studies. A simple model for predator-prey interactions is derived by drawing upon analogies from chemical kinetics. This model is then modified to account for inefficiencies in predation. Simulation results are shown to closely match the model predictions. Additional simulations are then run which are based on experimental observations of predatory dinoflagellate behavior, and this study specifically investigates how the predatory dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum uses toxins to immobilize its prey and increase its feeding rate. These simulations account for complex dynamics that were not included in the basic models, and the results from these computational simulations closely match the experimentally observed predatory behavior of K. veneficum and reinforce the notion that predatory dinoflagellates utilize toxins to increase their feeding rate.

  15. MECHANISMS OF FLUID SHEAR-INDUCED INHIBITION OF POPULATION GROWTH IN A RED-TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net population growth of some dinoflagellates is inhibited by fluid shear at shear stresses comparable with those generated during oceanic turbulence. Decreased net growth may occur through lowered cell division, increased mortality, or both. The dominant mechanism under various ...

  16. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Michel; Maroteaux, Luc

    1986-01-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:16578795

  17. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Herzog, M; Maroteaux, L

    1986-11-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage.

  18. MECHANISMS OF FLUID SHEAR-INDUCED INHIBITION OF POPULATION GROWTH IN A RED-TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Net population growth of some dinoflagellates is inhibited by fluid shear at shear stresses comparable with those generated during oceanic turbulence. Decreased net growth may occur through lowered cell division, increased mortality, or both. The dominant mechanism under various ...

  19. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES AND OTHER EUKARYOTIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  20. Tarlov cysts: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Goyal, Tarun; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Chakraborty, Soumya

    2012-04-01

    Perineural cysts are common and usually detected incidentally during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. Treatment is indicated only when the cyst is symptomatic. We report one such patients presented with cauda equina syndrome and another with low back pain with claudication. They underwent excision and duraplasty; both motor and sensory fibres were carefully separated from the cyst wall using a nerve root retractor and penfield. There was no nerve root damage or neural deficit. Symptoms were relieved postoperatively.

  1. Suprasellar arachnoid cyst with delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Singhal, Namit

    2007-11-01

    A 15-year-old female presented with primary amenorrhea and delayed onset of secondary sexual characteristics. Earlier she was operated for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for a tense suprasellar arachnoid cyst with obstructive hydrocephalus. MRI revealed recurrence of hydrocephalus. Hormonal levels were suggestive of hypogonadism and deficiency of growth hormone. She was operated for fenestration of cyst. In this case, suprasellar arachnoid cyst presented with delayed puberty, which is unusual.

  2. Bronchogenic cysts with high CT numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelson, D.S.; Rose, J.S.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kirschner, P.A.; Cohen, B.A.

    1983-03-01

    Four patients with mediastinal masses are described. CT examinations demonstrated masses of high attenuation, and solid masses were suspected. At thoracotomy each patient had a cystic mass containing a brownish, turbid, mucoid material. The pathologic diagnosis in each case was a bronchogenic cyst. The possibility of such a cyst should not be excluded because of a high CT number, which reflects the turbid contents of the cyst.

  3. [Pineal cyst: usefulness of endoscopic treatment].

    PubMed

    Leveque, S; Derrey, S; Martinaud, O; Freger, P; Proust, F

    2007-06-01

    Glial cysts of the pineal gland are usually benign and asymptomatic. They develop from the pineal parenchyma and contain liquid. The diagnosis is made by magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast large cysts can be symptomatic due to compression of the aqueduct of Sylvius, compression of the midbrain tectum or mass effect in the posterior fossa. We report the case of a symptomatic cyst treated by an endoscopic procedure.

  4. Laparoscopic treatment for renal hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Essaki, Hicham; Fekak, Hamid; Joual, Abdenbi; Meziane, Fethi

    2006-03-01

    A multivesicular hydatid cyst was removed from the left kidney of a 26-year-old woman by retroperitoneal laparoscopy to avoid contamination of the abdominal cavity. A scolicidal agent (20% hypertonic saline) was injected around the kidney initially and then instilled into the cyst after the contents had been evacuated. There were no complications and no anaphylactic shock. This appears to be the first reported case of treatment of renal hydatid cyst by laparoscopy.

  5. Mediastinal bronchogenic cyst mimicking congenital lobar emphysema.

    PubMed

    Arun, Sumitha; Kumar, Manish; Ross, Benjamin Jeyanth

    2016-09-08

    Bronchogenic cyst (BC) is a rare congenital malformation of the lung. Most patients remain asymptomatic until adulthood while some are symptomatic in the first few years of life. However, symptoms in newborn period are rare. We report a case of a 3-day-old preterm baby with respiratory distress diagnosed as congenital lobar emphysema on chest X-ray. A CT scan revealed a mediastinal cyst causing obstructive lobar emphysema. The cyst was excised and pathological examination was suggestive of BC.

  6. Retroclival arachnoid cyst with hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Bonde, V; Muzumdar, D; Goel, A

    2008-10-01

    Arachnoid cysts are rare lesions occurring anywhere in the cerebrospinal axis. The sylvian fissure remains the most favoured site for their occurrence, followed by cerebellopontine angle, suprasellar, and quadrigeminal cisterns. Retroclival arachnoid cysts are very rare. We report a retroclival arachnoid cyst with bilateral cerebellopontine angle extensions with hemifacial spasm in a 26-year-old woman. The patient underwent surgery and her hemifacial spasm improved.

  7. Surgical treatment of sacral perineural cyst--case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Miki, Takanori; Miyaji, Yuki; Minami, Hiroaki; Masuda, Atsushi; Tominaga, Shogo; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Yamaura, Ikuya; Natsume, Shigeatsu; Yoshida, Kozo

    2011-01-01

    A 67-year-old man presented with persistent penis and scrotum pain due to S-2 and S-3 radiculopathy caused by a sacral perineural cyst. The cyst was treated with microsurgical partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication, together with closure of the point through which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flowed from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity. His pain resolved without recurrence of the cyst or complications. Symptomatic perineural cysts are quite rare. Surgical closure of the point through which CSF flows from the subarachnoid space into the cyst cavity is the most important intervention for symptomatic perineural cysts. If the source of CSF leakage cannot be detected, placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt should be considered in addition to partial cyst removal and cyst wall imbrication.

  8. Fungal community dynamics during a marine dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans) bloom.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing-Yun; Song, Yu; Ma, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Huai-Jing; Yang, Zhong-Duo; Cai, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Jin

    2017-10-04

    Contamination and eutrophication have caused serious ecological events (such as algal bloom) in coastal area. During this ecological process, microbial community structure is critical for algal bloom succession. The diversity and composition of bacteria and archaea communities in algal blooms have been widely investigated; however, those of fungi are poorly understood. To fill this gap, we used pyrosequencing and correlation approaches to assess fungal patterns and associations during a dinoflagellate (Noctiluca scintillans) bloom. Phylum level fungal types were predominated by Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota, Mucoromycotina, and Basidiomycota. At the genus level drastic changes were observed with Hysteropatella, Malassezia and Saitoella dominating during the initial bloom stage, while Malassezia was most abundant (>50%) during onset and peak-bloom stages. Saitoella and Lipomyces gradually became more abundant and, in the decline stage, contributed almost 70% of sequences. In the terminal stage of the bloom, Rozella increased rapidly to a maximum of 50-60%. Fungal population structure was significantly influenced by temperature and substrate (N and P) availability (P < 0.05). Inter-specific network analyses demonstrated that Rozella and Saitoella fungi strongly impacted the ecological trajectory of N. scintillans. The functional prediction show that symbiotrophic fungi was dominated in the onset stage; saprotroph type was the primary member present during the exponential growth period; whereas pathogentroph type fungi enriched in decline phase. Overall, fungal communities and functions correlated significantly with N. scintillans processes, suggesting that they may regulate dinoflagellate bloom fates. Our results will facilitate deeper understanding of the ecological importance of marine fungi and their roles in algal bloom formation and collapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mycosporine-like amino acids from coral dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Dove, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most important marine ecosystems, providing habitat for approximately a quarter of all marine organisms. Within the foundation of this ecosystem, reef-building corals form mutualistic symbioses with unicellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Exposure to UV radiation (UVR) (280 to 400 nm) especially when combined with thermal stress has been recognized as an important abiotic factor leading to the loss of algal symbionts from coral tissue and/or a reduction in their pigment concentration and coral bleaching. UVR may damage biological macromolecules, increase the level of mutagenesis in cells, and destabilize the symbiosis between the coral host and their dinoflagellate symbionts. In nature, corals and other marine organisms are protected from harmful UVR through several important photoprotective mechanisms that include the synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). MAAs are small (<400-Da), colorless, water-soluble compounds made of a cyclohexenone or cyclohexenimine chromophore that is bound to an amino acid residue or its imino alcohol. These secondary metabolites are natural biological sunscreens characterized by a maximum absorbance in the UVA and UVB ranges of 310 to 362 nm. In addition to their photoprotective role, MAAs act as antioxidants scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressi