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Sample records for dioica opuntia ficus-inidica

  1. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

  2. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Satyendra; Manvi; Gupta, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Trichosanthes, a genus of family Cucurbitaceae, is an annual or perennial herb distributed in tropical Asia and Australia. Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is known by a common name of parwal and is cultivated mainly as a vegetable. Juice of leaves of T. dioica is used as tonic, febrifuge, in edema, alopecia, and in subacute cases of enlargement of liver. In Charaka Samhita, leaves and fruits find mention for treating alcoholism and jaundice. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of T. dioica, but some other traditionally important therapeutical uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. According to Ayurveda, leaves of the plant are used as antipyretic, diuretic, cardiotonic, laxative, antiulcer, etc. The various chemical constituents present in T. dioica are vitamin A, vitamin C, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, mixture of noval peptides, proteins tetra and pentacyclic triterpenes, etc. PMID:22654406

  3. Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Dar, Sabzar Ahmad; Ganai, Farooq Ahmad; Yousuf, Abdul Rehman; Balkhi, Masood-Ul-Hassan; Bhat, Towseef Mohsin; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-02-01

    Medicinal plants are a largely unexplored source of drug repository. Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat diverse conditions. The present study describes the antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antibacterial activity, and toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. U. dioica leaves were subjected to solvent extraction with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous, respectively, and screened for antidiabetic (300 mg/kg bw by glucose tolerance test; GTT), antiinflammatory (200 mg/kg bw by rat paw edema assay) and antibacterial activities [by disc-diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays]. Toxicological studies were carried on Artemia salina and Wistar rats; phytochemical analyses were carried out, using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The aqueous extract of U. dioica (AEUD) significantly (p < 0.001; 67.92%) reduced the blood glucose level during GTT in Wistar rats with an effective dose of 300 mg/kg bw in dose-dependent studies. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis showed the presence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids in AEUD. Hexane Fraction-2 (HF2) exhibited both antiinflammatory activity (48.83% after 3 h), comparable to that of indomethacin (53.48%), and potent antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging from 31.25-250 µg/mL against all the tested strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed fatty acid esters and terpenes as the major constituents of HF2. Toxicity tests showed higher safety margin of all the solvent extracts with LC(50) > 1000 μg/mL each on A. salina. Our results showed that the U. dioica leaves are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, to treat various diseases.

  4. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia cactus.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Camacho, R; Roman-Ramos, R

    1979-01-01

    Nopal (Opuntia sp.) has been traditionally used by the Mexican population for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this work is to describe effects produced by directly liquified nopal and extracts from this plant in healthy and pancreatectomized rabbits. Preliminary results allow us to conclude that Opuntia streptacantha, Lemaire, has hypoglycemic properties when orally administered, in animals with experimentally induced diabetes as well as in healthy ones with physiologic hyperglycemia.

  5. Neuropharmacological properties of Trichosanthes dioica root.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2013-03-01

    Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as pointed gourd in English, is a dioecious climber grown widely in the Indian subcontinent. Traditionally, this plant has been used in India for several medicinal purposes. The present study aimed to evaluate certain neuropharmacological properties of the hydroalcoholic extract of T. dioica root (TDA) in experimental animal models. TDA (at 100 and 200 mg·kg(-1) body weight, p.o.) was evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by the acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick methods. Locomotor depressant activity was measured by means of an actophotometer. Skeletal muscle relaxant effects were evaluated by using a rota-rod apparatus, and the sedative potentiating property by a phenobarbitone-induced sleep potentiation study. The results of the present study revealed significant (P < 0.001) and dose dependent anti-nociceptive, locomotor depressant, muscle relaxant, and sedative potentiating effects of TDA, demonstrating its depressant action on the central nervous system (CNS). From the present study, it can be concluded that T. dioica root possessed prominent anti-nociceptive, as well as depressant, action on the CNS, as manifested by these important neuropharmacological properties in mice. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aromatase inhibitors from Urtica dioica roots.

    PubMed

    Gansser, D; Spiteller, G

    1995-04-01

    Methanolic extracts of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) roots were investigated for aromatase inhibition. Enzyme inhibition was detected only after appropriate chromatographic separation. Inhibitory effects on aromatase could be demonstrated in vitro for a variety of compounds belonging to different classes. The following compounds developed weak to moderate activity: secoisolariciresinol, oleanolic and ursolic acid, (9Z,11E)-13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid, and 14-octacosanol (5). Inhibitory effects on aromatase have been known to date neither for pentacyclic triterpenes nor for secondary fatty alcohols. The potential physiological significance of the above findings is discussed. Compound 5 is a previously unknown constituent of plants.

  7. Lithium Inhibition of the Thigmomorphogenetic Response in Bryonia dioica1

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Nicole; Chapelle, Brigitte; Gaspar, Thomas

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of young Bryonia dioica plants with lithium prevents the inhibition of elongation due to rubbing. Lithium treatment also suppresses the appearance of a specific cathodic isoperoxidase characteristic of rubbed plants. PMID:16660886

  8. Phenolic glycosides from berries of Pimenta dioica.

    PubMed

    Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Miyajima, Yoshiko; Nakatani, Nobuji

    2008-05-01

    Four new phenolic glycosides, (2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-allyl)phenyl beta- d-(6-O-E-sinapoyl)glucopyranoside (1), (1' R,5' R)-5-(5-carboxymethyl-2-oxocyclopentyl)-3 Z-pentenyl beta-D-(6-O-galloyl)glucopyranoside (2), (S)-alpha-terpinyl [alpha-L-(2-O-galloyl)arabinofuranosyl]-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (R)-alpha-terpinyl [alpha-L-(2-O-galloyl)arabinofuranosyl]-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), were isolated from the berries of Pimenta dioica together with eight known flavonoids. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of MS and NMR data and enzymatic hydrolysis. All four glycosides showed radical-scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals.

  9. Drought Adaptation in Opuntia basilaris

    PubMed Central

    Szarek, Stan R.; Johnson, Hyrum B.; Ting, Irwin P.

    1973-01-01

    Contrasting metabolic regimes operate in Opuntia basilaris Engelm. and Bigelov, before and after precipitation. During periods of drought, atmospheric CO2 exchange and transpiration are greatly reduced throughout the day/night cycle by stomatal closure and a highly impervious cuticle. The hypothesis is that endogenously produced CO2 is retained and recycled through dark CO2 fixation, organic acid transformations, photosynthesis, and respiration. Immediately following precipitation, nighttime stomatal opening is initiated, permitting increased atmospheric CO2 assimilation and organic acid synthesis. PMID:16658600

  10. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  11. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage.

    PubMed

    González-Ponce, Herson Antonio; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2016-10-04

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800mg/kg/day, orally) were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20mmol/LAPAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF.

  12. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    González-Ponce, Herson Antonio; Martínez-Saldaña, María Consolación; Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800 mg/kg/day, orally) were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20 mmol/L APAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF. PMID:27782042

  13. Insulin mimetics in Urtica dioica: structural and computational analyses of Urtica dioica extracts.

    PubMed

    Domola, Masoud Shabani; Vu, Vivian; Robson-Doucette, Christine A; Sweeney, Gary; Wheeler, Michael B

    2010-06-01

    Urtica Dioica (UD) is a plant shown to reduce blood glucose levels upon oral ingestion; however, neither its active component nor its mechanism of action has been identified. One active fraction of this extract, termed UD-1, was separated by molecular sieve column chromatography and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). While UD-1 did not stimulate insulin secretion in glucose-responsive MIN6 clonal beta-cells, chronic exposure (24 h) significantly enhanced glucose uptake (approximately 1.5-fold) in L6-GLUT4myc myoblast cells. Using HPLC and MALDI-TOF, we further purified the UD-1 fraction into two fractions termed UD-1A and UD-1B. Computational and structural analyses strongly suggested that the antidiabetic component of UD-1 was due to one or more structurally related cyclical peptides that facilitate glucose uptake by forming unique glucose permeable pores. The structure and function of these glucose-conducting pores are discussed herein.

  14. De novo transcriptome assembly of heavy metal tolerant Silene dioica.

    PubMed

    Cegan, Radim; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Hobza, Roman

    2017-03-01

    Silene dioica is a dioecious plant of the family Caryophyllaceae. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (MiSeq) to sequence, de novo assembly and annotate the transcriptomes of male and female copper tolerant S. dioica individuals. We sequenced the normalized mRNA of roots, shoots, flower buds and flowers for each sex. Raw reads of the transcriptome assembly project for S. dioica male and female individual have been deposited in NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database with the accession number SRP094611. The Trinity and Detonate program was used to de novo assembly 92,347 transcripts for male and 94,757 transcripts for female transcriptome. The assembled transcriptome sequences for S. dioica male and female individuals can be accessed at NCBI with the following accession numbers: GFCG00000000 (male); GFCH00000000 (female). The obtained transcriptomic data will be useful for further studies focusing on copper tolerance, comparative transcriptome analysis with other Silene species and sex chromosomes evolution.

  15. Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Abbasi, Esmail; Daneshi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effects of extract of Urtica dioica, a perennial herb in Iran, on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. The effects of Urtica dioica extract were tested by using it as a supplement in a high-cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 mL/kg) for 4 weeks with Urtica dioica extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) or 10 mg/kg lovastatin supplementation to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of Urtica dioica on plasma lipid levels, hepatic enzymes activities, and liver histopathological changes. Urtica dioica extract at 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that in the 100 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, the appearance of the liver cells was similar to the control group, and steatosis and inflammation were not found. In the 300 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, mild steatosis was observed but mononuclear inflammatory infiltration was not found. The hepatic histopathological results reflect the correlation of Urtica dioica extract with both liver weight and the levels of plasma TC and LDL-C. These results indicate that Urtica dioica extract has hypocholesterolemic effects in the animal model.

  16. Phytochemical, Phytotherapeutical and Pharmacological Study of Momordica dioica

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Sattya Narayan; Hossain, Mohammad Nazir

    2014-01-01

    Momordica dioica is a perennial, dioecious, cucurbitaceous climbing creeper (commonly known as kakrol, spiny gourd or teasle gourd). It is native to Asia with extensive distribution in India and Bangladesh. It is used not only as preventive and curative agent for various diseases but also as vegetable with a significant nutritional value over thousands of years. This review aims to take an attempt to evaluate the phytochemical, ethnobotanical, phytotherapeutical and pharmacological properties of kakrol according to the view of traditional medicinal plant based treatment including ayurveda along with recent scientific observations. Kakrol is considered as an underutilized vegetable, although having significant presence of certain compounds containing higher nutritional value than many frequently consumed vegetables. Moreover, as a traditional medicinal plant, it is still potential for its phytochemical components that increase the demand of further extensive evaluation to justify its other therapeutical roles. Therefore, this effort will be helpful to researchers who interested to disclose the unjustified phytotherapeutical role of Momordica dioica. PMID:25197312

  17. Inhibition of rat platelet aggregation by Urtica dioica leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    El Haouari, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed; Bendahou, Mourad; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Mekhfi, Hassane

    2006-07-01

    Platelet hyperactivity plays an important role in arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different extracts of Urtica dioica leaves on platelet aggregation. Rat platelets were prepared and incubated in vitro with different concentrations of the tested extracts and aggregation was induced by different agonists including thrombin (0.5 U/mL), ADP (10 microm), epinephrine (100 microm) and collagen (5 mg/mL). The crude aqueous extract inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. At 1 mg/mL, the percent inhibition was 17.1 +/- 4.2%. Soxhlet extraction of the plant leaves with different successive solvents showed that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most antiaggregant effect with an inhibition of 76.8 +/- 6.1% at 1 mg/mL. Flavonoids isolated from the plant leaves, produced a strong inhibitory effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 0.25 +/- 0.05 and 0.40 +/- 0.04 mg/mL for genins and heterosidic flavonoids, respectively. Flavonoids also markedly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and epinephrine. It is concluded that Urtica dioica has an antiplatelet action in which flavonoids are mainly implicated. These results support the traditional use of Urtica dioica in the treatment and/or prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  18. Pleurotus opuntiae (Durieu et Lév.) Sacc. (higher Basidiomycetes) and other species related to Agave and Opuntia plants in Mexico-taxonomy, distribution, and applications.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Marcelo; Guzmán, Gastón; Guzmán-Dávalos, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus opuntiae is an important mushroom from xerophytic temperate regions of Mexico, as parasite or saprobe on Agave and Opuntia. Discussions on the taxonomic relationships of P opuntiae with P djamor, P. agaves, P. levis, and P. yuccae are presented, of which P. agaves is a synonym of P. opuntiae, and P. yuccae is a synonym of P. djamor. This latter and P levis are close species of P. opuntiae. The traditional uses of P opuntiae and P. djamor as food and remedy for several health problems, and also to get a traditional alcoholic drink from the Agave, are also considered.

  19. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  20. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine. PMID:28491239

  1. Culture optimization for the emergent zooplanktonic model organism Oikopleura dioica

    PubMed Central

    Bouquet, Jean-Marie; Spriet, Endy; Troedsson, Christofer; Otterå, Helen; Chourrout, Daniel; Thompson, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    The pan-global marine appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, shows considerable promise as a candidate model organism for cross-disciplinary research ranging from chordate genetics and evolution to molecular ecology research. This urochordate, has a simplified anatomical organization, remains transparent throughout an exceptionally short life cycle of less than 1 week and exhibits high fecundity. At 70 Mb, the compact, sequenced genome ranks among the smallest known metazoan genomes, with both gene regulatory and intronic regions highly reduced in size. The organism occupies an important trophic role in marine ecosystems and is a significant contributor to global vertical carbon flux. Among the short list of bona fide biological model organisms, all share the property that they are amenable to long-term maintenance in laboratory cultures. Here, we tested diet regimes, spawn densities and dilutions and seawater treatment, leading to optimization of a detailed culture protocol that permits sustainable long-term maintenance of O. dioica, allowing continuous, uninterrupted production of source material for experimentation. The culture protocol can be quickly adapted in both coastal and inland laboratories and should promote rapid development of the many original research perspectives the animal offers. PMID:19461862

  2. Antihypoxic activities of Eryngium caucasicum and Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Khalili, M; Dehdar, T; Hamedi, F; Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Karami, M

    2015-09-01

    Urtica dioica and Eryngium spp. have been used in traditional medicine for many years. In spite of many works, nothing is known about their protective effect against hypoxia-induced lethality. Protective effects of U. dioica (UD) aerial parts and E. caucasicum (EC) inflorescence against hypoxia-induced lethality in mice were evaluated by three experimental models of hypoxia, asphyctic, haemic and circulatory. Statistically significant protective activities were established in some doses of extracts in three models. Antihypoxic activity was especially pronounced in polyphenol fractions in asphyctic model. EC polyphenol fraction at 400 mg/kg prolonged survival time (48.80 ± 4.86, p < 0.001) which was comparable with that of phenytoin (p > 0.05). It was the most effective extract in circulatory model, too. It prolonged survival time significantly respect to control group (p < 0.001). UD extracts protected the mice but the response was not dose-dependent. In haemic model, extracts of EP significantly and dose dependently prolonged survival time as compared to control group (p < 0.001). At 600 mg/kg, EP was the most effective one, being capable of keeping the mice alive for 12.71 ± 0.75 min. Only the concentration of 300 mg/kg of UD was effective (p < 0.001). Extracts showed remarkable antihypoxic effects. Pharmacological effects may be attributed to the presence of polyphenols in the extracts.

  3. Phytochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of the cladodes of Opuntia macrorhiza (Engelm.) and Opuntia microdasys (Lehm.).

    PubMed

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Achour, Lotfi

    2014-09-01

    The genus Opuntia (Cactaceae) includes different plants well adapted to arid and semi-arid zones. These species are cultivated under restricted growth conditions, not suitable for the growth of other fruits/vegetables. The cactus pear is a well-known example inside Opuntia genus. Its young cladodes, also known as nopalitos, are frequently consumed and used in folk medicine due to their beneficial effects and phytochemical composition. Herein, hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts from cladodes of Opuntia microdasys and Opuntia macrorhiza were characterized. Furthermore, their antioxidant properties were compared to the corresponding phytochemical profile. Despite the phylogenetic proximity and similar geographical origin O. microdasys and O. macrorhiza showed significant differences in sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids and tocopherols profiles. In particular, O. microdasys distinguished for having high contents in fructose, glucose, C6:0, C8:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C16:0, C18:3, C20:0, C22:0, C23:0, C24:0, SFA and tocopherols, and also for its higher DPPH EC50 values. O. microdasys by its side proved to have significantly higher amounts of trehalose, organic acids, C13:0, C16:1, C17:0, C18:0, C18:1, C20:1, C20:2 and MUFA. The obtained phytochemical profiles might be considered as useful information to select the best Opuntia species regarding a determined application of its natural extracts/isolated compounds.

  4. Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Xie, Gang; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Klein, Robyn A.; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Opuntia polyacantha (prickly pear cactus) has been used extensively for its nutritional properties; however, less is known regarding medicinal properties of Opuntia tissues. In the present study, we extracted polysaccharides from O. polyacantha and used size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude polysaccharides into four polysaccharide fractions (designated as Opuntia polysaccharides C-I to C-IV). The average Mr of fractions C-I through C-IV was estimated to be 733, 550, 310, and 168 kDa, respectively, and sugar composition analysis revealed that Opuntia polysaccharides consisted primarily of galactose, galacturonic acid, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose. Analysis of the effects of Opuntia polysaccharides on human and murine macrophages demonstrated that all four fractions had potent immunomodulatory activity, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin 6. Furthermore, modulation of macrophage function by Opuntia polysaccharides was mediated, at least in part, through activation of nuclear factor κB. Together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain a portion of the beneficial therapeutic properties of extracts from O. polyacantha and support the concept of using Opuntia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18597716

  5. Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha.

    PubMed

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Xie, Gang; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Klein, Robyn A; Jutila, Mark A; Quinn, Mark T

    2008-10-01

    Opuntia polyacantha (prickly pear cactus) has been used extensively for its nutritional properties; however, less is known regarding medicinal properties of Opuntia tissues. In the present study, we extracted polysaccharides from O. polyacantha and used size-exclusion chromatography to fractionate the crude polysaccharides into four polysaccharide fractions (designated as Opuntia polysaccharides C-I to C-IV). The average M(r) of fractions C-I through C-IV was estimated to be 733, 550, 310, and 168 kDa, respectively, and sugar composition analysis revealed that Opuntia polysaccharides consisted primarily of galactose, galacturonic acid, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose. Analysis of the effects of Opuntia polysaccharides on human and murine macrophages demonstrated that all four fractions had potent immunomodulatory activity, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6. Furthermore, modulation of macrophage function by Opuntia polysaccharides was mediated, at least in part, through activation of nuclear factor kappaB. Together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain a portion of the beneficial therapeutic properties of extracts from O. polyacantha and support the concept of using Opuntia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant.

  6. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive properties of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Rahila; Qamar, Hafiz Misbah-Ud-Din; Khan, Shamim; Salma, Umme; Khan, Taous; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2016-09-01

    Urtica dioica has traditionally been used in the management of cardiovascular disorders especially hypertension. The aim of this study was to explore pharmacological base of its use in hypertension. Crude methanolic extract of U. dioica (Ud.Cr) and its fractions (Ud.EtAc, Ud.nHex, Ud.Chl and Ud.Aq) were tested in vivo on normotensive and hypertensive rats under anesthesia for blood pressure lowering effect. In-vitro experiments on rat and rabbit aortae were employed to probe the vasorelaxation mechanism(s). The responses were measured using pressure and force transducers connected to PowerLab Data Acquisition System. Ud.Cr and fractions were found more effective antihypertensive in hypertensive rats than normotensive with remarkable potency exhibited by the ethyl acetate fraction. The effect was same in the presence of atropine. In isolated rat aortic rings, Ud.Cr and all its fractions exhibited L-NAME sensitive endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect and also inhibit K(+) (80 mM)-induced pre-contractions. In isolated rabbit thoracic aortic rings Ud.Cr and its fractions induced relaxation with more potency against K(+) (80 mM) than phenylephrine (1 µM) like verapamil, showing Ud.EtAc fraction the most potent one. Pre-incubation of aortic rings with Ud.Cr and its fractions exhibited Ca(2+) channel blocking activity comparable with verapamil by shifting Ca(2+) concentration response curves to the right. Ud.Cr and its fractions also ablated the intracellular Ca(2+) release by suppressing PE peak formation in Ca(2+) free medium. When tested on basal tension, the crude extract and all fractions were devoid of any vasoconstrictor effect. These data indicate that crude methanolic extract and its fractions possess antihypertensive effect. Identification of NO-mediated vasorelaxation and calcium channel blocking effects explain the antihypertensive potential of U. dioica and provide a potential pharmacological base to its medicinal use in the management of hypertension.

  7. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of fertilizer application on Urtica dioica and its element concentrations in a cut grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müllerová, Vladimíra; Hejcman, Michal; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Pavlů, Vilém

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability in cut grasslands on growth characteristics of Urtica dioica and its aboveground chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of N, P and K application on the growth of U. dioica were studied over five years in a Dactylis glomerata grassland cut twice per year under unfertilized control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments (300, 80 and 200 kg of N, P and K ha-1 per year). Nitrogen application in the form of NH4NO3 over five years decreased the soil pH, while P and K application increased P and K availability in the soil. Over five years, cover of U. dioica increased from 1% initially to 7, 9, 58, 83 and 99% in the control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and Ca in the aboveground biomass of U. dioica were very high in comparison to other species and concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were comparable with other grassland species. N and P limitation of U. dioica growth was expected if concentrations of N and P in the aboveground biomass were lower than 25 g N kg-1 and 4 g P kg-1 in the phenological stage of flowering. We concluded that two cuts per year are not sufficient to suppress expansion of U. dioica under high N, P and K availability. This probably explains why U. dioica survive also in frequently cut intensive grasslands under adequately high nutrient supply.

  9. Paralytic and lethal effects of Trichosanthes dioica root extracts in experimental worms.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti; Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), called pointed gourd in English, is a dioecious climber and its roots are traditionally used in India as a hydrogouge cathartic, tonic, and febrifuge, and in the treatment of jaundice, anasarca, and ascites. To evaluate the in vitro effects of different solvent extracts of T. dioica root in experimental worms, viz. annelids and nematodes. The in vitro paralytic and lethal effects of defatted dichloromethane (DCTD), methanol (METD), and aqueous (AQTD) extracts of T. dioica root were evaluated against Pheretima posthuma (Annelida) and Ascaridia galli (Nematoda) by keeping the worms in different concentrations of each test extract under specific experimental conditions followed by determination of mean paralysis and lethal times. Albendazole was used as the reference drug. All the extracts demonstrated concentration-dependent paralytic and lethal effects on P. posthuma and lethal effects on A. galli. The DCTD was found to be the most potent followed by the METD and AQTD. A. galli was found to be more sensitive than P. posthuma against all extracts, indicating T. dioica root as an effective nematocide. The present study establishes the in vitro wormicidal property of T. dioica root extracts against the experimental worms, showing promising nematocidal (and hence anthelmintic) potential.

  10. Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum by Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L.

    PubMed Central

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady Devasya

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigated into the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of Syzygium cumini L. (S. cumini) and Pimenta dioica L. (P. dioica) using Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) strains. Methods In this study, anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L. were screened using C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay. By bioassay guided fractionation of S. cumini and P. dioica, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) with strong anti-QS activity was separated. Inhibition of QS regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 by EAF was assessed at different concentrations. The effect of EAF on the synthesis of autoinducer like N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was studied in C. violaceum ATCC31532 using its mutant C. violaceum CV026 by standard methods. Results EAF inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 in a concentration dependent manner without significant reduction in bacterial growth. Complete inhibition of violacein production was evidenced in 0.75-1.0 mg/mL concentration of EAF without inhibiting the synthesis of the AHL. TLC biosensor overlay profile of EAF revealed two translucent spots in S. cumini and P. dioica that inhibited C6-AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum CV026. Conclusions This study indicates the anti-QS activity of the tested medicinal plants against C. violaceum. PMID:24093786

  11. Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum by Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L.

    PubMed

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady Devasya

    2013-12-01

    To investigated into the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of Syzygium cumini L. (S. cumini) and Pimenta dioica L. (P. dioica) using Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) strains. In this study, anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L. were screened using C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay. By bioassay guided fractionation of S. cumini and P. dioica, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) with strong anti-QS activity was separated. Inhibition of QS regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 by EAF was assessed at different concentrations. The effect of EAF on the synthesis of autoinducer like N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was studied in C. violaceum ATCC31532 using its mutant C. violaceum CV026 by standard methods. EAF inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 in a concentration dependent manner without significant reduction in bacterial growth. Complete inhibition of violacein production was evidenced in 0.75-1.0 mg/mL concentration of EAF without inhibiting the synthesis of the AHL. TLC biosensor overlay profile of EAF revealed two translucent spots in S. cumini and P. dioica that inhibited C6-AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum CV026. This study indicates the anti-QS activity of the tested medicinal plants against C. violaceum. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Urtica dioica extract attenuates depressive like behavior and associative memory dysfunction in dexamethasone induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that glucocorticoids results in depression and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further diabetes induces oxidative stress and hippocampal dysfunction resulting in cognitive decline. Traditionally Urtica dioica has been used for diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. The present study investigated the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.m.) induced diabetes and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. We observed that mice administered with chronic dexamethasone resulted in hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, depressive like behavior, cognitive impairment, hyperglycemia with reduced body weight, increased water intake and decreased hippocampal glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression. Urtica dioica significantly reduced hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, oxidative stress and depressive like behavior as well as improved associative memory and hippocampal GLUT4 mRNA expression comparable to rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Further, Urtica dioica insignificantly improved spatial memory and serum insulin. In conclusion, Urtica dioica reversed dexamethasone induced hyperglycemia and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction.

  13. Allergenic proteins in Urtica dioica, a member of the Urticaceae allergenic family.

    PubMed

    Vega-Maray, Ana María; Fernández-González, Delia; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa; Suárez-Cervera, María

    2006-09-01

    Allergy to the pollen of flowering plant species significantly affects the health of people in many parts of the world. Pollens of related genera usually share common antigens and are often, but not always, cross-reactive. Several studies have shown that Parietaria pollen is one of the most common causes of pollinosis in the Mediterranean area, whereas Urtica has no allergenic significance. To report on the localization of Parietaria judaica major allergen in Urtica dioica pollen grains and on the detection of allergenic proteins in U. dioica pollen grains during the hydration-activation process. A combination of transmission electron microscopy and immunocytochemical methods was used to locate allergenic proteins in U. dioica pollen grains after different periods of hydration-activation using the anti-Par j 1 (4.1.3.) monoclonal antibody and serum samples from allergic patients. No significant labeling was noted for Parj 1 allergen after 10, 15, and 20 minutes in the walls and cytoplasm. Slight labeling was observed for allergic proteins in the walls of U. dioica after 10 minutes of hydration, and no significant labeling was found after 15 and 20 minutes of hydration. Immunocytochemical methods confirmed the absence of cross-reactivity between 2 related genera, Parietaria and Urtica, and the lowest allergenic potential of U. dioica.

  14. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-12-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30 microg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17), and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11); besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342) which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  15. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic effects of essential oil from Urtica dioica L.

    PubMed

    Gül, Süleyman; Demirci, Betül; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can; Akpulat, H Aşkin; Aksu, Pinar

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Urtica dioica essential oil, and to evaluate its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, using cytogenetic tests such as the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration analysis in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro. GC-MS analysis of U. dioica essential oil identified 43 compounds, representing 95.8% of the oil. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of U. dioica revealed that carvacrol (38.2%), carvone (9.0%), naphthalene (8.9%), (E)-anethol (4.7%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.0%), (E)-geranyl acetone (2.9%), (E)-β-ionone (2.8%) and phytol (2.7%) are the main components, comprising 72.2% of the oil. A significant correlation was found between the concentration of essential oil and the following: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells, and binucleated cells.

  16. Anticancer and antioxidant tannins from Pimenta dioica leaves.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed S A; Moharram, Fatma A; Mohamed, Mona A; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Aboutabl, Elsayed A

    2007-01-01

    Two galloylglucosides, 6-hydroxy-eugenol 4-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-beta-D-4C1-glucopyranoside (4) and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1,2-diol-2-O-(2',6'-di-O-galloyl)-beta-D -4C1-glucopyranoside (7), and two C-glycosidic tannins, vascalaginone (10) and grandininol (14), together with fourteen known metabolites, gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), nilocitin (3), 1-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (5), 4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (6), 3,4,6-valoneoyl-(alpha/beta)-D-glucopyranose (8), pedunculagin (9), casuariin (11), castalagin (12), vascalagin (13), casuarinin (15), grandinin (16), methyl-flavogallonate (17) and ellagic acid (18), were identified from the leaves of Pimenta dioica (Merr.) L. (Myrtaceae) on the basis of their chemical and physicochemical analysis (UV, HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). It was found that 9 is the most cytotoxic compound against solid tumour cancer cells, the most potent scavenger against the artificial radical DPPH and physiological radicals including ROO*, OH*, and O2-*, and strongly inhibited the NO generation and induced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes and macrophages. On the other hand, 3 was the strongest NO inhibitor and 16 the highest stimulator for the proliferation of T-lymphocytes, while 10 was the most active inducer of macrophage proliferation.

  17. Urticaria due to Urtica dioica in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Sinan; Bulbul, Ali; Diler, Betul; Bas, Evrim Kiray; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2011-03-01

    Urticaria is one of the most common dermatoses during the childhood, but it is very rare in the neonates. A 17-day-old infant with a generalized urticaria was admitted to our pediatric emergency unit. The mother of the infant reported having applied water boiled with stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) onto her nipples twice a day (before and after each breastfeeding) for 2 days in order to heal her nipple cracks. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE levels for stinging nettle were high in the infant and the mother. The rashes began to regress within the first day of the hospitalization and disappeared completely on the second day without treatment. The skin prick test with the water boiled with stinging nettle was positive for the infant with significant induration, but not for the mother. Conclusion Reporting the first urticaria case in newborns due to stinging nettle, the authors suggest that breastfeeding mothers should always consult a physician before using skincare products.

  18. Asymmetrical conspecific seed-siring advantage between Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Soper, Deanna M.; Delph, Lynda F.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Silene dioica and S. latifolia experience only limited introgression despite overlapping flowering phenologies, geographical distributions, and some pollinator sharing. Conspecific pollen precedence and other reproductive barriers operating between pollination and seed germination may limit hybridization. This study investigates whether barriers at this stage contribute to reproductive isolation between these species and, if so, which mechanisms are responsible. Methods Pollen-tube lengths for pollen of both species in styles of both species were compared. Additionally, both species were pollinated with majority S. latifolia and majority S. dioica pollen mixes; then seed set, seed germination rates and hybridity of the resulting seedlings were determined using species-specific molecular markers. Key Results The longest pollen tubes were significantly longer for conspecific than heterospecific pollen in both species, indicating conspecific pollen precedence. Seed set but not seed germination was lower for flowers pollinated with pure heterospecific versus pure conspecific pollen. Mixed-species pollinations resulted in disproportionately high representation of nonhybrid offspring for pollinations of S. latifolia but not S. dioica flowers. Conclusions The finding of conspecific pollen precedence for pollen-tube growth but not seed siring in S. dioica flowers may be explained by variation in pollen-tube growth rates, either at different locations in the style or between leading and trailing pollen tubes. Additionally, this study finds a barrier to hybridization operating between pollination and seed germination against S. dioica but not S. latifolia pollen. The results are consistent with the underlying cause of this barrier being attrition of S. dioica pollen tubes or reduced success of heterospecifically fertilized ovules, rather than time-variant mechanisms. Post-pollination, pre-germination barriers to hybridization thus play a partial role in

  19. Recruitment of two Opuntia species invading abandoned olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno, Isabel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2002-08-01

    In Europe, many agricultural areas are now abandoned and hence can be invaded by exotic species. The abundance and spatial distribution patterns of two Opuntia species were studied in old olive groves in the Parc Natural del Cap de Creus, Catalonia (Spain). Seedling recruitment (97.3% and 51.5% of juveniles for O. maxima and O. stricta, respectively) was higher than recruitment by cladodes. O. maxima had more seedlings recruited beneath olive trees and beneath Opuntia adults than expected. Most O. stricta seedlings were also located beneath Opuntia adult plants. However, although most seedlings were recruited beneath Opuntia, some (10-30%) were found away from putative parental plants. This may be due to seed dispersal by birds and wild boars. Seeds dispersed by wild boars were not significantly more viable than seeds from intact fruits. Seedlings grow very slowly but have a high survival rate. In conclusion, Opuntia seedling recruitment is very successful and ensures the persistence of these species within old olive groves. Consequently, it prevents restoration from an agricultural land-use back to the native community.

  20. [Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.)--botanical characteristics, biochemical composition and health benefits].

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela; Wolska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) belongs to the family Urticaceae. It grows in the wild form in Asia, Europe, North America and North Africa. Stinging nettle is also a widespread ruderal plant found in Poland. Urtica dioica L., as a plant rich in biologically active compounds, is considered one of the most important plants used in phytotherapy. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, antiplatelet, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic properties. Research conducted in recent years indicates the possibility of using nettle in chemoprevention, diabetes, benign prostatic hyperplasia and urologic diseases.

  1. The Urtica dioica Agglutinin Is a Complex Mixture of Isolectins 1

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Els J. M.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Peumans, Willy J.

    1988-01-01

    Rhizomes of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) contain a complex mixture of isolectins. Ion exchange chromatography with a high resolution fast protein liquid chromatography system revealed six isoforms which exhibit identical agglutination properties and carbohydrate-binding specificity and in addition have the same molecular structure and virtually identical biochemical properties. However, since the U. dioica agglutinin isolectins differ definitely with respect to their amino acid composition, it is likely that at least some of them are different polypeptides coded for by different genes. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16665952

  2. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-Hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  3. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Results: Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN. PMID:28656084

  4. Urtica dioica pollen allergy: Clinical, biological, and allergomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Tiotiu, Angelica; Brazdova, Andrea; Longé, Cyril; Gallet, Patrice; Morisset, Martine; Leduc, Virginie; Hilger, Christiane; Broussard, Cédric; Couderc, Rémy; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    The most emblematic members of Urticaceae at allergic risk level are wall pellitories (Parietaria), whereas nettle (Urtica) pollen is considered as poorly allergenic. No allergen from nettle pollen has yet been characterized, whereas 4 are listed for Parietaria pollen by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Clinical and biological profiles of 2 adult men who developed symptoms against nettle pollen and/or leaves were studied. To characterize the allergic reaction and identify the potential nettle pollen sensitizing allergens. IgE-mediated reaction to nettle pollen extract was evaluated by skin prick test, immunoassay, nasal provocation, and basophil activation test. To characterize specific nettle pollen allergens, an allergomic (IgE immunoproteomic) analysis was performed combining 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, IgE immunoblots of nettle pollen extract, identification of allergens by mass spectrometry, and database queries. The results of biological and immunochemical analyses revealed that the allergic rhinitis was due to Urtica dioica pollen in both patients. The allergomic analysis of nettle pollen extract allowed the characterization of 4 basic protein allergens: a thaumatin-like protein (osmotin) with a relative molecular mass of 27 to 29 kDa, a pectinesterase (relative molecular mass, 40 kDa), and 2 other basic proteins with relative molecular masses of 14 to 16 kDa and 43 kDa. There is no or only very weak allergen associations between pellitory and nettle pollen. Exposure to nettle pollen can be responsible of allergic symptoms, and several allergens were characterized. Unravelling the allergens of this underestimated allergy might help to improve diagnosis and care for patients, to predict cross-reactivities and design adapted specific immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiviral properties of extract of Opuntia streptacantha.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A; Davies, J; Randall, S; Skinner, G R

    1996-05-01

    An extract of the cactus plant Opuntia streptacantha inhibited intracellular virus replication and inactivated extracellular virus. Inhibition of virus replication also occurred following pre-infection treatment--a favourable finding in terms of in-vivo limitation of virus disease. There was inhibition of both DNA and RNA virus replication, for example, herpes simplex virus, equine herpes virus, pseudorabies virus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human immunodeficiency virus, with normal protein synthesis in uninfected cells at extract concentrations which were 15-fold in excess of 50% viral inhibitory concentrations (1 mg/ml). The active inhibitory component(s) of the extract appeared to be protein in nature and resided mainly in the wall of the plant rather than in the cuticle or inner sap. The extract was non-toxic on oral administration to mice, horses and human patients; the non-toxicity of intravenous administration of 70 mg to a mouse representing at least fifty tissue culture 50% viral inhibitory dosages encourages clinical trial of this extract in virus disease of human and veterinary species.

  6. RNA interference in the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica reveals the function of the Brachyury gene.

    PubMed

    Omotezako, Tatsuya; Nishino, Atsuo; Onuma, Takeshi A; Nishida, Hiroki

    2013-07-01

    The appendicularian Oikopleura dioica is a chordate that has a remarkably simple adult body with small cell number. Its transparency, stereotyped cell lineages, short life cycle, and small genome make it a promising new experimental model of chordate developmental biology. However, the functions of its various genes are still poorly understood due to lack of a tool for suppression of gene expression. Here, we applied a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-based-RNA interference (RNAi) method in O. dioica. For introducing dsRNA into eggs and embryos, we injected dsRNAs into the ovary. dsRNA, which is specific to EGFP or mCherry mRNA, decreased the exogenous mRNA-derived fluorescence in both eggs and embryos. dsRNA specific to the Brachyury gene of O. dioica, which is a homologous gene of a key notochord transcriptional factor in ascidians, triggered degradation of endogenous Brachyury mRNA and induced malformation or loss of the notochord in the tail. This effect was Brachyury sequence specific, as three dsRNAs covering different sequences produced the same phenotype. The result is in accordance with its expression site and also with the key regulatory function of Brachyury in notochord formation in other chordates. RNAi in O. dioica would be a useful tool for gaining insight into the oogenesis and early developmental processes in chordates.

  7. Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

    2014-11-01

    Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases.

  8. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury. METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion‐injured rats. PMID:21340227

  9. Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on testicular tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, S; Balajadeh, B Kabiri; Golalipour, M J

    2011-08-15

    Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has already been known for a long time as a medicinal plant in the world. This histopathological and morphometrical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats were allocated to equally normal, diabetic and treatment groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by Streptozotocin (80 mg kg(-1)) in animals of diabetic and treatment groups. One week after STZ injection (80 mg kg(-1)), the rats of treatment group received the extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for 28 days. After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and testes were removed and fixed in bouin and after tissue processing stained with H and E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization and decrease in sperm concentration in seminiferous tubules were seen in diabetic and treatment groups group in comparison with control. External Seminiferous Tubular Diameter (STD) and Seminiferous Epithelial Height (SEH) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the diabetic rats compared with controls and these parameters in the treatment group were similar to diabetics animals. This study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves, after induction of diabetes; has no treatment effect on seminiferous tubules alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  10. Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. Objectives: This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Results: Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Conclusions: Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases. PMID:25625045

  11. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion-injured rats.

  12. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on Morphometric and Morphologic Alterations of Seminiferous Tubules in STZ Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Kabiri Balajadeh, Babak; Ghafari, Soraya; Azarhosh, Ramin; Khori, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Urtica dioica L. has been known as a medicinal plant in the world. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on seminiferous tubules of diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated to control, diabetic and protective groups. Treated animals received extract of U. dioica (100 mg/ kg/ day) IP for the first 5 days and STZ injection on the 6th day. After 5 weeks, testes removed and stained with H&E technique. Results Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization, and decrease in sperm concentration observed in diabetic in comparison with control and protective groups. External seminiferous tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height significantly reduced (P< 0.05) in diabetic compared with controls, and these parameters increased (P< 0.05) in the treated compared with diabetics. Conclusion Hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica, before induction of diabetes; has protective role on seminiferous tubules alterations. PMID:23493848

  13. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Salehzadeh, Ali; Asadpour, Leila; Naeemi, Akram Sadat; Houshmand, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Increase in the emergence of drug -resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant S. aureus have been studied. Solvent extraction procedure was done using soxhlet apparatus for extracting antimicrobial agents from freeze dried plants. Antibacterial activity was measured using agar well diffusion method. The MIC of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica extracts against the standard strain of S. aureus ATCC 6538 were determined using the micro dilution method at 15 mg and 20 mg respectively. All the test bacteria were found sensitive to the Sambucus ebulus extract and only one isolate was resistant to Urtica dioica extract. Extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica possess antibacterial potency against MRSA isolates and may be used as a natural antiseptics and antimicrobial agents in medicine.

  14. Protective Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on Morphometric and Morphologic Alterations of Seminiferous Tubules in STZ Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Kabiri Balajadeh, Babak; Ghafari, Soraya; Azarhosh, Ramin; Khori, Vahid

    2011-09-01

    Urtica dioica L. has been known as a medicinal plant in the world. This study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on seminiferous tubules of diabetic rats. Animals were allocated to control, diabetic and protective groups. Treated animals received extract of U. dioica (100 mg/ kg/ day) IP for the first 5 days and STZ injection on the 6th day. After 5 weeks, testes removed and stained with H&E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization, and decrease in sperm concentration observed in diabetic in comparison with control and protective groups. External seminiferous tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height significantly reduced (P< 0.05) in diabetic compared with controls, and these parameters increased (P< 0.05) in the treated compared with diabetics. Hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica, before induction of diabetes; has protective role on seminiferous tubules alterations.

  15. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed Central

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml) was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH) level (liver, kidney and testis) and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis) were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats

  16. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml) was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH) level (liver, kidney and testis) and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis) were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa's concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms' numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats. Nettle leaves have not only played a clear

  17. The Urtica dioica extract enhances sensitivity of paclitaxel drug to MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali; Mansoori, Behzad; Aghapour, Mahyar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Nami, Sanam; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-10-01

    Due to the chemo resistant nature of cancer cells and adverse effects of current therapies, researchers are looking for the most efficient therapeutic approach which has the lowest side effects and the highest toxicity on cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the synergic effect of Urtica dioica extract in combination with paclitaxel on cell death and invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cell line. To determine the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel, MTT assay was performed. The scratch test was exploited to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of cancer cells. The expression levels of snail-1, ZEB1, ZEB2, twist, Cdc2, cyclin B1 and Wee1 genes were quantified using qRT-PCR and western blot performed for snail-1expression. The effects of plant extract, Paclitaxel alone and combination on different phases of cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results of MTT assay showed that Urtica dioica significantly destroyed cancer cells. Interestingly, Concurrent use of Urtica dioica extract with paclitaxel resulted in decreased IC50 dose of paclitaxel. Moreover, findings of scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica, Paclitaxel alone and combination on migration of MDA-MB-468 cell line. Our findings also demonstrated that the extract substantially decreased the Snail-1 and related gene expression. Ultimately, Cell cycle arrest occurred at G2/M phase post-treatment by deregulating Cdc2 and wee1. Our results demonstrated that the dichloromethane extract of Urtica dioica inhibit cell growth and migration. Also, Urtica dioica extract substantially increased sensitivity of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel. Therefore, it can be used as a potential candidate for treatment of breast cancer with paclitaxel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective role of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) extract on hepatocytes morphometric changes in STZ diabetic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Ghafari, Soraya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2010-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on the quantitative morphometric changes in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into control (G1), diabetic (G2), diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) groups. The control group received only sham injections of intraperitoneal saline; the diabetic group received intraperitoneal saline for 5 days followed by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day; and the diabetic + Urtica dioica group received 100 mg/kg Urtica dioica intraperitoneal (7) injections for 5 days and streptozotocin injection on the 6th day. After five weeks, the animals were sacrificed and whole livers removed. Liver specimens were used for quantitative morphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining. All data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and expressed as the mean with standard error of means. In the G3 (diabetic + Urtica diocia) group, the mean surface area of hepatocytes in the periportal zone (Z1) was greater than in G2 (diabetic) and G1 (control) groups, but this difference was not significant. No alteration was observed in the surface area of hepatocytes in the perivenous zone (Z3) in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group compared to the diabetic (G2) group. The mean nuclear area of hepatocytes of the rats in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group was higher in Z1 and lower in Z3 than that of rats in the diabetic (G2) group. The mean diameter of hepatocyte nuclei in the diabetic + Urtica dioica (G3) group was lower than that of diabetic (G2) and control (G1) groups in both Z1 and Z3. This study revealed that the administration of extract of Urtica dioica leaves before induction of diabetic with streptozotocin has a protective effect on the morphometric alterations of hepatocytes in the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver lobule in rats.

  19. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. Objective: The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. Results: The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). Conclusion: It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters. PMID:25071848

  20. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  1. Trichosanthes dioica fruit ameliorates experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in male albino rats through the alleviation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2012-08-01

    The present work was focused to evaluate the ameliorative property of aqueous extract of Trichosanthes dioica fruit (AQ T. dioica fruit) against arsenic-induced toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. AQ T. dioica fruit was administered orally to rats at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 20 consecutive days prior to oral administration of sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. Then the rats were sacrificed for the evaluation of body weights, organ weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile, and hepatic and renal antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and DNA fragmentation. Pretreatment with AQ T. dioica fruit at both doses markedly and significantly normalized body weights, organ weights, hematological profiles, and serum biochemical profile in arsenic-treated animals. Further, AQ T. dioica fruit pretreatment significantly modulated all the aforesaid hepatic and renal biochemical perturbations and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic-intoxicated rats. Therefore, from the present findings, it can be concluded that T. dioica fruit possessed remarkable value in amelioration of arsenic-induced hepatic and renal toxicity, mediated by alleviation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms in male albino rats.

  2. Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effects of therapy with Urtica dioica for symptomatic relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, partial crossover, comparative trial of Urtica dioica with placebo in 620 patients was conducted. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), Serum Prostatic- Specific Antigen (PSA), testosterone levels, and prostate size. At the end of 6-month trial, unblinding revealed that patients who initially received the placebo were switched to Urtica dioica. Both groups continued the medication up to 18 months. 558 patients (90%) completed the study (287/305, 91% in the Urtica dioica group, and 271/315, 86% in the placebo group). By intention- to-treat analysis, at the end of 6-month trial, 232 (81%) of 287 patients in the Urtica dioica group reported improved LUTS compared with 43 (16%) of 271 patients in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Both IPSS and Qmax showed greater improvement with drug than with placebo. The IPSS went from 19.8 down to 11.8 with Urtica dioica and from 19.2 to 17.7 with placebo (P = 0.002). Peak flow rates improved by 3.4 mL/s for placebo recipients and by 8.2 mL/s for treated patients (P < 0.05). In Urtica dioica group, PVR decreased from an initial value of 73 to 36 mL (P < 0.05). No appreciable change was seen in the placebo group. Serum PSA and testosterone levels were unchanged in both groups. A modest decrease in prostate size as measured by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) was seen in Urtica dioica group (from 40.1 cc initially to 36.3 cc; P < 0.001). There was no change in the prostate volume at the end of study with placebo. At 18-month follow-up, only patients who continued therapy, had a favorable treatment variables value. No side effects were identified in either group. In the present study, Urtica dioica

  3. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted from...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted from...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and... derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle is exempted...

  8. Arsenic induced myocardial toxicity in rats: alleviative effect of Trichosanthes dioica fruit.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Das, Sanjit Kumar; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the alleviative effect of aqueous extract of Trichosanthes dioica fruit (AQTD) against arsenic induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. AQTD (50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats for 20 consecutive days before oral administration of sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) for 8 days. Then the body weights, heart weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile; myocardial antioxidative parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidized glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and DNA fragmentation were evaluated. Pretreatment with AQTD markedly and significantly normalized body weights, heart weights, hematological profile, serum biochemical profile and significantly modulated all the myocardial antioxidative parameters and reduced DNA fragmentation in arsenic intoxicated rats. Therefore, T. dioica fruit possessed remarkable alleviative effects against arsenic induced myocardial toxicity in Wistar albino rats mediated by amelioration of arsenic induced myocardial oxidative stress by several mechanisms.

  9. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts.

    PubMed

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-06-01

    One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  10. Protective effect of Urtica dioica methanol extract against experimentally induced urinary calculi in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiying; Li, Ning; Li, Kun; Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Renal calculi formation is one of the most common urological disorders. Urinary stone disease is a common disease, which affects 10‑12% of the population in industrialized countries. In males, the highest prevalence of the disease occurs between the age of 20 and 40 years, while in females, the highest incidence of the disease occurs later. Previous studies have shown that long‑term exposure to oxalate is toxic to renal epithelial cells and results in oxidative stress. In the present study, a methanolic extract of aerial parts of Urtica dioica was screened for antiurolithiatic activity against ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride‑induced calcium oxalate renal stones in male rats. In the control rats, ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride administration was observed to cause an increase in urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine levels, as well as an increase in renal calcium and oxalate deposition. Histopathological observations revealed calcium oxalate microcrystal deposits in the kidney sections of the rats treated with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, indicating the induction of lithiasis. In the test rats, treatment with the methanolic extract of Urtica dioica was found to decrease the elevated levels of urinary calcium, oxalate and creatinine, and significantly decrease the renal deposition of calcium and oxalate. Furthermore, renal histological observations revealed a significant reduction in calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the test rats. Phytochemical analysis of the Urtica dioica extract was also performed using liquid chromatography‑electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, to determine the chemical composition of the extract. The eight chemical constituents identified in the extract were protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, luteolin, gossypetin, rutin, kaempferol‑3‑O‑rutinoside, kaempferol‑3‑O‑glucoside and chlorogenic acid. In conclusion

  11. Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract induce apoptosis from intrinsic pathway on human prostate cancer cells (PC3).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Aghapour, M; Baradaran, B

    2016-03-31

    Prostate cancer is considered as the major cause of death among men around the world. There are a number of medicinal plants triggering apoptosis response in cancer cells, thus have a therapeutic potential. Therefore, further studies to characterize beneficial properties of these plants in order to introduce novel anti-cancer drugs are the interest of recent researches on the alternative medicine. On the other hand, due to traditional uses and availability of Urtica dioica extract, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of this medicinal herb on pc3 prostate cancer cell line. In the present study the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract were assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue viability dye. Then, DNA fragmentation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were exploited to measure cell death and apoptosis stage. The expression levels of caspase 3, caspase 9 and Bcl-2 genes were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Finally, Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. MTT assay showed that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica significantly inhibited the cell growth. According to the DNA fragmentation and TUNEL assay results, the herbal extract was able to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Our findings also demonstrated that the plant extract substantially increases the caspase 3 and 9 mRNA expression, while decreases Bcl-2. Cell cycle arrest was occurred in G2 stage, due to the results of flow cytometry. These results indicate that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica can successfully induce apoptosis in PC3 cells. Therefore, it could be used as a novel therapeutic candidate for prostate tumor treatment.

  12. Urtica dioica extract suppresses miR-21 and metastasis-related genes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ali; Hashemzadeh, Shahriar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Baradaran, Ali; Asadi, Milad; Doustvandi, Mohammad Amin; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women worldwide. Tumor invasion and metastasis still remains an open issue that causes most of the therapeutic failures and remains the prime cause of patient mortality. Hence, there is an unmet need to develop the most effective therapeutic approach with the lowest side effects and highest cytotoxicity that will effectively arrest or eradicate metastasis. An MTT assay and scratch test were used to assess the cytotoxicity and migration effects of Urtica dioica on the breast cancer cells. The QRT-PCR was used to study the expression levels of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, CXCR4, vimentin, and E-cadherin. The results of gene expression in tumoral groups confirmed the overexpression of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4, and the lower expression of E-cadherin compared to control groups (P<0.05). Moreover, the results of the MTT assay show that Urtica dioica significantly inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, findings from the scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica on the migration of breast cancer cell lines. Urtica dioica extract could inhibit cancer cell migration by regulating miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, CXCR4, and E-Cadherin. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that the extract could decrease miR-21 expression, which substantially lessens the overexpressed MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4 and increases E-cadherin in the tumoral group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.

  14. [Anti-inflammatory effect of Urtica dioica folia extract in comparison to caffeic malic acid].

    PubMed

    Obertreis, B; Giller, K; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-01-01

    Urtica dioica extract is a traditionary used adjuvant therapeutic in rheumatoid arthritis. The antiphlogistic effects of the urtica dioica folia extract IDS 23 (Extractum Urticae dioicae foliorum) and the main phenolic ingredient caffeic malic acid were tested concerning the inhibitory potential on biosynthesis of arachidonic acid metabolites in vitro. The caffeic malic acid was isolated from Urtica folia extract using gel exclusion- and high performance liquid chromatography and identified by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Concerning the 5-lipoxygenase products IDS 23 showed a partial inhibitory effect. The isolated phenolic acid inhibited the synthesis of the leukotriene B4 in a concentration dependent manner. The concentration for halfmaximal inhibition (IC50) was 83 microns/ml in the used assay. IDS 23 showed a strong concentration dependent inhibition of the synthesis of cyclooxygenase derived reactions. The IC50 were 92 micrograms/ml for IDS 23 and 38 micrograms/ml for the caffeic malic acid. Calculating the content in IDS 23 the caffeic malic acid is a possible but not the only active ingredient of the plant extract in the tested assay systems. It is demonstrated that the phenolic component showed a different enzymatic target compared with IDS 23. The antiphlogistic effects observed in vitro may give an explanation for the pharmacological and clinical effects of IDS 23 in therapie of rheumatoid diseases.

  15. The effects of Urtica dioica L. leaf extract on aniline 4-hydroxylase in mice.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Tevfik; Korkmaz, Halil

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol-20% water) extract of Urtica dioica L. on microsomal aniline 4-hydroxylase (A4H) were investigated in the liver of Swiss albino mice (8- 10-weeks-old) treated with two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, given orally for 14 days ). The activities of A4H showed a significant increase in the liver at both dose levels of extract treatment. The hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica induced the activities of A4H that had been increased by treatment of metal ions (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and the mixture of cofactors (NADH and NADPH). At saturated concentration of cofactor, microsomal A4H exhibited significantly even higher activities in the presence of the mixture of cofactors than NADPH and NADH. Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions acted as stimulants in vitro. The present results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica may have modalatory effect on aniline hydroxylase at least in part and enhance the activity of A4H adding metals ions and cofactors.

  16. Dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis caused by a prickly pear (Opuntia microdasys).

    PubMed

    Whiting, D A; Bristow, J H

    1975-08-16

    Two patients were affected by the barbed bristles of the ornamental cactus Opuntia microdasys, a small prickly pear plant. Dermatitis occurred in both patients and consisted of itchy papules produced by implantation of the glochids. One patient developed a severe keratoconjunctivitis in the right eye, which cleared after a glochid had been located in the palpebral conjunctiva, and removed. The glochids were studied under light and scanning electron microscopes and their structral details are described.

  17. Plasma Emission Spectra of Opuntia Nopalea Obtained with Microsecond Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, L.; Flores, T.; Arronte, A.; Flores, A.

    2008-04-15

    Laser-induced Plasma Spectroscopy was performed during the spines ablation of Opuntia by using Nd:YAG microsecond laser pulses. The results show strong absorption in Glochids that causes the intense electronic noise on the spectra. This process is consider suitable for practical elimination of spines in alimentary products like opuntia.

  18. Plasma Emission Spectra of Opuntia Nopalea Obtained with Microsecond Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, L.; Flores, T.; Arronte, A.; Flores, A.

    2008-04-01

    Laser-induced Plasma Spectroscopy was performed during the spines ablation of Opuntia by using Nd:YAG microsecond laser pulses. The results show strong absorption in Glochids that causes the intense electronic noise on the spectra. This process is consider suitable for practical elimination of spines in alimentary products like opuntia.

  19. Opuntia Extract Reduces Scar Formation in Rabbit Ear Model: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Quan; Huang, Chunlan; You, Chuangang; Ma, Shaolin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of Opuntia stricta H (Cactaceae) extract on suppression of hypertrophic scar on ventral surface wounds of rabbit ears. Full thickness skin defection was established in a rabbit ear to simulate hypertrophic scar. Opuntia extract was sprayed on the wounds in the experimental group, and normal saline was used in the control group. After the wounds healed with scar formation, the hypertrophic scar tissue was harvested on days 22, 39, and 54 for histological analysis. The expression of type I and type III collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the scar of the control group is more prominent compared with the opuntia extract group. The expression of type I collagen in the opuntia extract group was lower than the control group, while type III collagen in opuntia extract group gradually increased and exceeded control group. The expression of MMP-1 decreased in the opuntia extract group, while the control group increased over time, but the amount of MMP-1 was much higher than that in the control group on day 22. In conclusion, opuntia extract reduces hypertrophic scar formation by means of type I collagen inhibition, and increasing type III collagen and MMP-1.T he novel application of opuntia extract may lead to innovative and effective antiscarring therapies.

  20. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng; Yuan, Qingxia; Zhou, Xianjiao; Zeng, Fuhua; Lu, Xiangyang

    2016-11-24

    Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP). Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2-4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP) was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5-10 month-old materials (O-ODP) (18.97% ± 0.58%). The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb). Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia) was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  1. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous medium with Opuntia biomass.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, José A; Angosto, José M; Avilés, María D

    2014-01-01

    The biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Opuntia cladodes and ectodermis from cactus fruits was investigated. Both types of biomass are considered low-cost, natural, and ecofriendly biosorbents. Batch experiments were carried out to determine Cr(VI) biosorption capacity and the efficiency of the biosorption process under different pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and sorbent dosage. The biosorption of Cr(VI) by Opuntia biomass was highly pH dependent, favoring higher metal uptake at low pH. The higher biosorption capacity was exhibited at pH 2. The optimal conditions were obtained at a sorbent dosage of 1 g L(-1) and initial metal concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The rate constant, the initial biosorption rate, and the equilibrium biosorption capacity were determined. The experimental equilibrium data obtained were analyzed using two-parameter isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin). The Langmuir maximum monolayer biosorption capacity (q max) was 18.5 mg g(-1) for cladodes and 16.4 mg g(-1) for ectodermis. The results suggest that Opuntia biomass could be considered a promising low-cost biosorbent for the ecofriendly removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous systems.

  2. Chemical composition and antidiabetic activity of Opuntia Milpa Alta extracts.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Zheng, Chengjian; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan

    2010-12-01

    Three new compounds, 1-3, and 20 known compounds were isolated from the AcOEt and BuOH extract of edible Opuntia Milpa Alta. The petroleum ether extract was examined by GC and MS. A total of 26 compounds were identified, representing 95.6% of the total extract, phytosterol (36.03%) being the most abundant component, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (18.57%) represented the second largest group, followed by phytol (12.28%), palmitic acid, palmitate (13.54%), vitamin E (4.51%), and other compounds (7.47%). The effects of various extracts from edible Opuntia Milpa Alta (petroleum ether extract, AcOEt extract, BuOH extract, aqueous extract, H₂O parts) and the positive control (received dimethylbiguanide) were tested on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results indicated that all the treatment groups could significantly decrease blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice compared to the model control group (P<0.01), except the aqueous extract group (P<0.05). Especially, the petroleum ether extract group and the positive control group showed remarkable decrease of blood glucose levels. Taken together, the results indicate that the petroleum ether extract is the major hypoglycemic part in edible Opuntia Milpa Alta, which may be developed to a potential natural hypoglycemic functional ingredient.

  3. Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Medium with Opuntia Biomass

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Opuntia cladodes and ectodermis from cactus fruits was investigated. Both types of biomass are considered low-cost, natural, and ecofriendly biosorbents. Batch experiments were carried out to determine Cr(VI) biosorption capacity and the efficiency of the biosorption process under different pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and sorbent dosage. The biosorption of Cr(VI) by Opuntia biomass was highly pH dependent, favoring higher metal uptake at low pH. The higher biosorption capacity was exhibited at pH 2. The optimal conditions were obtained at a sorbent dosage of 1 g L−1 and initial metal concentration of 10 mg L−1. Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The rate constant, the initial biosorption rate, and the equilibrium biosorption capacity were determined. The experimental equilibrium data obtained were analyzed using two-parameter isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin). The Langmuir maximum monolayer biosorption capacity (q max) was 18.5 mg g−1 for cladodes and 16.4 mg g−1 for ectodermis. The results suggest that Opuntia biomass could be considered a promising low-cost biosorbent for the ecofriendly removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous systems. PMID:24982975

  4. Genotoxic and cytotoxic evaluation of Jatropha dioica Sessé ex Cerv. by the micronucleus test in mouse peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Espino, Diana Isela; Zamora-Perez, Ana Lourdes; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo Moisés; Gutiérrez-Hernández, Rosalinda; Morales-Velazquez, Gabriela; Lazalde-Ramos, Blanca Patricia

    2017-03-23

    Jatropha dioica Sessé ex Cerv. is a medicinal plant credited with low cytotoxicity in vitro. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the possible genotoxic and cytotoxic effect in vivo of the J. dioica aqueous extract by means of micronucleus assay in mouse peripheral blood. Four different J. dioica aqueous extract dose-units were evaluated (30, 60, 100, and 300 mg/kg). The extract was administered orally to male Balb-C-strain mice every 24 h during 5 days. Blood samples were taken at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h from the mouse's tail and were performed in duplicate extensions. The number of Polychromatic Erythrocytes (PCE), Polychromatic Micronucleus Erythrocytes (PCEMN), and Micronucleus Erythrocytes (MNE) was determined at the different sampling times in the different study groups. Our results showed that the group that received 60 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (positive control) presented a significant decrease in the PCE (p = 0.044) proportion and a significant increase in MNE (p = 0.032, p = 0.0001). The groups that received the different J. dioica aqueous extract doses did not present either a PCE decrease or an increase in PCEMN and MNE. J. dioica exerts neither a genotoxic nor a cytotoxic effect on mouse peripheral blood at high doses.

  5. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  6. Dietary cladode powder from wild type and domesticated Opuntia species reduces atherogenesis in apoE knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Garoby-Salom, Sandra; Guéraud, Françoise; Camaré, Caroline; de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina Barba; Rossignol, Michel; Santos Díaz, María del Socorro; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intake of Opuntia species may prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to characterize the biological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia species and to investigate whether Opuntia cladodes prevent the development of atherosclerosis in vivo, in apoE(-)KO mice. The effects of the two Opuntia species, the wild Opuntia streptacantha and the domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, were tested on the generation of intra- and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and kinetics of the LDL oxidation by murine CRL2181 endothelial cells and on the subsequent inflammatory signaling leading to the adhesion of monocytes on the activated endothelium and the formation of foam cells. Opuntia species blocked the extracellular ROS (superoxide anion) generation and LDL oxidation by CRL2181, as well as the intracellular ROS rise and signaling evoked by the oxidized LDL, including the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFκB, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules, and the adhesion of monocytes to CRL2181. In vivo, Opuntia significantly reduced the formation of atherosclerotic lesions and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in the vascular wall of apoE-KO mice, indicating that Opuntia cladodes prevent lipid oxidation in the vascular wall. In conclusion, wild and domesticated Opuntia species exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties which emphasize their nutritional benefit for preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lem.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Wiedenfeld, Helmut

    2011-01-27

    This experiment studied two extracts of Opuntia streptacantha, a plant used by the Mexican population to treat type 2 diabetes, in different assays to contribute to the understanding of the hypoglycemic mechanism of this plant. Two different extracts were prepared and tested: the first extract was a filtrate of the traditional liquefied extract (LE) preparation of the cladode; and the second filtrate extract (FE) is a filtered sample of the first. Both extracts contained a newly identified compound for Opuntia (4-hydroxy)-phenyl acetic acid derivate, they were tested on streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats in a series of two tests. The first test was performed to confirm if STZ-diabetic rats presented a hypoglycemic effect after administration of the extracts (LE 135 mg/kg and FE 27 mg/kg). In the second experiment, the extracts were administered before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to confirm if they have an anti-hyperglycemic effect (LE 135 mg/kg, FE 12 and 27 mg/kg). The extracts administered to STZ-diabetic rats did not produce a significant hypoglycemic effect compared to the control group, while the same extracts administered before an OGTT produced an anti-hyperglycemic effect compared to the control group. The filtered, traditional LE of the cladode of Opuntia streptacantha produces an anti-hyperglycemic effect when administered before a glucose challenge, and this anti-hyperglycemic effect is maintained after filtering the extract. Administration of both plants can improve glycemic control by blocking the hepatic glucose output, especially in the fasting state. These data support the traditional use of the plants as "agua de uso", a cold infusion of the plant consumed over the course of a day. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary studies of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia dillenii aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Loro, J F; del Rio, I; Pérez-Santana, L

    1999-11-01

    Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw is a cactus that belongs to the family Opuntiae. Lyophilized aqueous extract of the fruits of the plant, used in Canarian traditional medicine for gastrointestinal and bronchial troubles, was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in rats and mice. The Opuntia dillenii extract (100-400 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited, in a dose-related manner, carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. A dose-dependent action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and thermic (hot plate test) stimuli, respectively, with doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  10. Oikopleura dioica culturing made easy: a low-cost facility for an emerging animal model in EvoDevo.

    PubMed

    Martí-Solans, Josep; Ferrández-Roldán, Alfonso; Godoy-Marín, Hector; Badia-Ramentol, Jordi; Torres-Aguila, Nuria P; Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Bouquet, Jean Marie; Chourrout, Daniel; Thompson, Eric M; Albalat, Ricard; Cañestro, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequencing and the development of RNAi knockdown technologies in the urochordate Oikopleura dioica are making this organism an attractive emergent model in the field of EvoDevo. To succeed as a new animal model, however, an organism needs to be easily and affordably cultured in the laboratory. Nowadays, there are only two facilities in the world capable to indefinitely maintain Oikopleura dioica, one in the SARS institute (Bergen, Norway) and the other in the Osaka University (Japan). Here, we describe the setup of a new facility in the University of Barcelona (Spain) in which we have modified previously published husbandry protocols to optimize the weekly production of thousands of embryos and hundreds of mature animals using the minimum amount of space, human resources, and technical equipment. This optimization includes novel protocols of cryopreservation and solid cultures for long-term maintenance of microalgal stocks-Chaetoceros calcitrans, Isochrysis sp., Rhinomonas reticulate, and Synechococcus sp.-needed for Oikopleura dioica feeding. Our culture system maintains partially inbred lines healthy with similar characteristics to wild animals, and it is easily expandable to satisfy on demand the needs of any laboratory that may wish to use Oikopleura dioica as a model organism.

  11. Type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins from Phytolacca dioica L. leaves: differential seasonal and age expression, and cellular localization.

    PubMed

    Parente, Augusto; Conforto, Barbara; Di Maro, Antimo; Chambery, Angela; De Luca, Paolo; Bolognesi, Andrea; Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

    2008-11-01

    The expression of type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) in Phytolacca dioica L. leaves was investigated. Fully expanded leaves of young P. dioica plants (up to 3 years old) expressed two novel RIPs, dioicin 1 and dioicin 2. The former was also found in developing leaves from adult P. dioica within about two and a half weeks after leaf development, and the latter continuously synthesized, with no seasonal or ontogenetic constraint. Fully expanded leaves from adult P. dioica expressed four RIPs (PD-Ls1-4) exhibiting seasonal variation. RIPs were localized in the extracellular space, in the vacuole and in the Golgi apparatus of mesophyll cells. Dioicin 1 and dioicin 2 showed rRNA N-beta-glycosidase activity and displayed the following properties, respectively: (1) Mr values of 30,047.00 and 29,910.00, (2) pIs of 8.74 and 9.37, and (3) IC(50) values of 19.74 (0.658 nM) and 6.85 ng/mL (0.229 nM). Furthermore, they showed adenine polynucleotide glycosylase activity and nicked pBR322 dsDNA. The amino acid sequence of dioicin 2 had 266 amino acid residues, and the highest percentage identity (81.6%) and similarity (84.6%) with PAP-II from Phytolacca americana, while its identity with other RIPs from Phytolaccaceae was around 40%.

  12. Effect of Urtica dioica on morphometric indices of kidney in streptozotocin diabetic rats--a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; Ghafari, Sorya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica on Morphometric indices of kidney in diabetic rats. Thirty male adult albino wistar rats of 125-175 g divided into control, diabetic and Urtica dioica treatment groups. In treatment Group, diabetic rats received 100 mg kg(-1) daily hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. After the animals had been sacrified, the kidneys were removed and fixed by formaldehyde, cut horizontally into 1 mm slices and processed, Stained with H and E. Stereological study performed using light microscope and the image projected on a table of olysa software. Cavalieri principle was used to estimate the volume of cortex, medulla and whole kidney. All the grouped data statistically evaluated using Student's t-test, expressed as the Mean +/- SE. Ration of kidney weight/body weight in diabetes (0.51) and diabetes-extract group (0.67) were higher then control group (0.42). Ratio of kidney volume/body weight in diabetes (350) and diabetes-extract group (348) were higher then control group (323). Volume Ratio of cortex/medulla in diabetes-extract group (1.65) was higher then control (1.34) and diabetes group (1.33). Glomerular area and diameter and proximal tubule diameter in diabetes-Extract group was higher than control and diabetes groups. This study revealed that Urtica dioica has no effect on renal morphometric indices in induced diabetic rats.

  13. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  14. Further evidence from the effect of fungi on breaking Opuntia seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Ortega-Amaro, María Azucena; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we found that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of Opuntia streptacantha, and that the effect of fungi on seeds is species-specific. However, the effect of fungi on seed germination from other Opuntia spp. has not been evaluated. Thus, we evaluated the effect of four fungal species (Penicillium chrysogenum, Phoma sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii) on the germination of Opuntia leucotricha, an abundant species in the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico. We found that seeds inoculated with the four fungal species had higher germination than control seeds. Trichoderma spp. were the most effective. Our results strongly indicate that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of O. leucotricha. Thus, we suggest that these fungi could promote seed germination from other Opuntia species. PMID:20861689

  15. Further evidence from the effect of fungi on breaking Opuntia seed dormancy.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Ortega-Amaro, María Azucena; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aída Araceli; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Flores, Joel

    2010-10-01

    Recently, we found that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of Opuntia streptacantha, and that the effect of fungi on seeds is species-specific. However, the effect of fungi on seed germination from other Opuntia spp has not been evaluated. Thus, we evaluated the effect of four fungal species (Penicillium chrysogenum, Phoma sp., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii) on the germination of Opuntia leucotricha, an abundant species in the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico. We found that seeds inoculated with the four fungal species had higher germination than control seeds. Trichoderma spp. were the most effective. Our results strongly indicate that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of O. leucotricha. Thus, we suggest that these fungi could promote seed germination from other Opuntia species.

  16. Genetic variability of Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera, Dactylopiidae) on forage cactus in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, D M P; do E S Mergulhão, A C; de Medeiros, L V; Figueiredo, M V B; Burity, H A

    2013-10-30

    The carmine cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae is a key pest in productive fields of forage cactus in Pernambuco, Brazil. Species identification by means of molecular markers assists in understanding the genetic profile, underpins morphological characterization, and supports the monitoring of populations in integrated management programs designed to control this pest. We evaluated the genetic variability of natural populations of D. opuntiae. Genetic variability was analyzed with ISSR and RAPD primers in 24 populations from 12 municipalities of Pernambuco State in Brazil. Morphological characterization confirmed that D. opuntiae was the only cochineal species present in all samples. Nine ISSR primers and six RAPD produced a total of 62 and 58 polymorphic fragments, respectively. Both types of markers showed an average genetic similarity of 80% regardless of the geographic origin of samples. The low genetic variability demonstrates a high degree of relatedness among these D. opuntiae populations.

  17. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Aragona, M; Lauriano, E R; Pergolizzi, S; Faggio, C

    2017-08-14

    Plants with beneficial properties are known in traditional medicine. Nowadays, in spite of widespread availability of synthetic compounds, the search goes towards natural compounds to lower cost and few side effects. The increasing interest in preventive medicine encourages use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values. Among the medicinal plants, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Family Cactaceae, subfamily Opuntiodeae, Genus Opuntia, subgenus Platyopuntia, species Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) is widely known for its beneficial properties. The aim of the present review is to stress the major classes of Opuntia components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefits and therapeutic impacts on fish and mammals.

  18. Competitive interactions are mediated in a sex-specific manner by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Antennaria dioica.

    PubMed

    Varga, S; Vega-Frutis, R; Kytöviita, M-M

    2017-03-01

    Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment. Females and males were grown in the following competitive settings: (i) without competition, (ii) with intrasexual competition, (iii) with intersexual competition, and (iv) with interspecific competition by Hieracium pilosella - a plant with similar characteristics to A. dioica. Half of the pots were grown with Claroideoglomus claroideum, an AM fungus isolated from the same habitat as the plant material. We evaluated plant survival, growth, flowering phenology, and production of AM fungal structures. Plant survival was unaffected by competition or AM fungi. Competition and the presence of AM fungi reduced plant biomass. However, the sexes responded differently to the interaction between fungal and competition treatments. Both intra- and interspecific competition results were sex-specific, and in general, female performance was reduced by AM colonization. Plant competition or sex did not affect the intraradical structures, extraradical hyphae, or spore production of the AM fungus. These findings suggest that plant sexual differences affect fundamental processes such as competitive ability and symbiotic relationships with AM fungi.

  19. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets. PMID:25140210

  20. Simple procedure for sperm cryopreservation in the larvacean tunicate Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Kazuaki; Nishino, Atsuo; Nishida, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    The larvacean tunicate Oikopleura dioica is an attractive organism for studies of the development, evolution, and physiology of chordates, showing considerable promise for genetic approaches given its short life cycle of five days. To facilitate future genetic studies, the development of protocols for the maintenance of individual strains is essential. Here we report a simple and practical protocol for the cryopreservation of sperm using liquid nitrogen (-196°C) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a protective agent. The quality of the frozen-thawed sperm was evaluated in terms of fertilizing ability and subsequent development of the fertilized eggs. We examined several parameters to optimize the efficiency of cryopreservation, such as the concentration of DMSO, the method for acclimation of sperm to DMSO before freezing, and for placing sperm in liquid nitrogen, as well as the pH of the seawater used in resuspending the thawed sperm. We confirmed that viable sperm were recovered after preservation for more than one year. In addition, mature animals, and even a subsequent generation, were obtained from eggs fertilized by the cryopreserved sperm. The present procedure seems to be simple and sufficiently practical for maintenance of future established lines of O. dioica using frozen sperm.

  1. DNA interference: DNA-induced gene silencing in the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Omotezako, Tatsuya; Onuma, Takeshi A; Nishida, Hiroki

    2015-05-22

    RNA interference is widely employed as a gene-silencing system in eukaryotes for host defence against invading nucleic acids. In response to invading double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), mRNA is degraded in sequence-specific manner. So far, however, DNA interference (DNAi) has been reported only in plants, ciliates and archaea, and has not been explored in Metazoa. Here, we demonstrate that linear double-stranded DNA promotes both sequence-specific transcription blocking and mRNA degradation in developing embryos of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica. Introduced polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products or linearized plasmids encoding Brachyury induced tail malformation and mRNA degradation. This malformation was also promoted by DNA fragments of the putative 5'-flanking region and intron without the coding region. PCR products encoding Zic-like1 and acetylcholine esterase also induced loss of sensory organ and muscle acetylcholinesterase activity, respectively. Co-injection of mRNA encoding EGFP and mCherry, and PCR products encoding these fluorescent proteins, induced sequence-specific decrease in the green or red fluorescence, respectively. These results suggest that O. dioica possesses a defence system against exogenous DNA and RNA, and that DNA fragment-induced gene silencing would be mediated through transcription blocking as well as mRNA degradation. This is the first report of DNAi in Metazoa. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Medicinal Properties of the Jamaican Pepper Plant Pimenta dioica and Allspice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2014-01-01

    The Caribbean tropical tree, Pimenta dioica has been used for a variety of human endeavors, such as in perfumery industry, food spice, as a natural pesticide, and in folk medicine. Discovered in Jamaica during the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the dried unripe berries of P. dioica also known as Allspice can be found in all continents with unique names in over 50 languages. Systematic investigation of aromatic constituents of Pimenta leaves and its unripe berries, Allspice, have resulted in discovery of many and novel aromatic compounds, mostly glycosides and polyphenols that show antibacterial, hypotensive, anti-neuralgic and analgesic properties. Recent studies have shown two of the known compounds isolated from Allspice, Eugenol and Gallic acid have selective antiproliferative and anti-tumor properties on human cancer cells and their animal models. New characterization of novel compounds such as Ericifolin from the aqueous extract of Allspice berries show potent anti-prostate cancer and anti-breast cancer properties that can be verified in vitro as well as in vivo. Considering its purity, mostly available as “organically grown” berries, availability at low cost, wide acceptance in culinary delights of many cultures world-wide, Allspice may have an additional space in most households, in their medicine cabinets. PMID:23140298

  3. Medicinal properties of the Jamaican pepper plant Pimenta dioica and Allspice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Lokeshwar, Bal L

    2012-12-01

    The Caribbean tropical tree, Pimenta dioica has been used for a variety of human endeavors, such as in perfumery industry, food spice, as a natural pesticide, and in folk medicine. Discovered in Jamaica during the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the dried unripe berries of P. dioica also known as Allspice can be found in all continents with unique names in over 50 languages. Systematic investigation of aromatic constituents of Pimenta leaves and its unripe berries, Allspice, have resulted in discovery of many and novel aromatic compounds, mostly glycosides and polyphenols that show antibacterial, hypotensive, anti-neuralgic and analgesic properties. Recent studies have shown two of the known compounds isolated from Allspice, Eugenol and Gallic acid have selective antiproliferative and anti-tumor properties on human cancer cells and their animal models. New characterization of novel compounds such as Ericifolin from the aqueous extract of Allspice berries show potent anti-prostate cancer and anti-breast cancer properties that can be verified in vitro as well as in vivo. Considering its purity, mostly available as "organically grown" berries, availability at low cost, wide acceptance in culinary delights of many cultures world-wide, Allspice may have an additional space in most households, in their medicine cabinets.

  4. Differential competitive ability between sexes in the dioecious Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differences in competitive ability between the sexes of dioecious plants are expected as a result of allocation trade-offs associated with sex-differential reproductive costs. However, the available data on competitive ability in dioecious plants are scarce and contradictory. In this study sexual competition was evaluated using the dioecious plant Antennaria dioica in a common garden transplantation experiment. Methods Male and female plants were grown for 3 years either in isolation, or in competition with a plant of the same sex or the opposite sex. Flowering phenology, sexual and asexual reproduction, plant growth, nutrient content and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in the roots were assessed. Key Results Our results showed little evidence of sexual differences in competitive ability. Both sexes suffered similarly from competition, and competitive effects were manifested in some traits related to fitness but not in others. Survival was unaffected by competition, but competing plants reduced their vegetative growth and reproductive investment compared with non-competing plants. In addition, differences in sexual competitive ability were observed in relation to flowering frequency, an important life history trait not reported in previous studies. Conclusions The findings indicate that female and male A. dioica plants possess similar intersexual competitive abilities which may be related to the similar costs of reproduction between sexes in this species. Nevertheless, intrasexual competition is higher in females, giving support for asymmetric niche segregation between the sexes. PMID:22887023

  5. Influence of temperature and brewing time of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) infusions on vitamin C content

    PubMed

    Wolska, Jolanta; Czop, Michał; Jakubczyk, Karolina; Janda, Katarzyna

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) can be found in temperate climate zones of Europe, Africa and America Nettle may be a source of nutritional ingredients, mineral salts, vitamins and antioxidants. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of temperature and brewing time Urtica dioica L. infusions from different parts of this plant on vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content. Infusions of nettle leaf, stem and root were prepared at room temperature, 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C for 10 minutes. Leaf infusions were also brewed for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes at initial water temperature of 60°C. The amount of vitamin C was determined by the spectrophotometric method. The best temperature of brewing nettle infusions, in terms of vitamin C concentration, is between 50 °C and 60 °C as it is sufficient to extract the substance, yet not high enough to destroy it. The optimal time of brewing appeared to be 10 minutes as the prolonged exposure to high temperature appeared to be detrimental for ascorbic acid as well.

  6. Influence of heavy metal stress on antioxidant status and DNA damage in Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity.

  7. Antioxidant and wound healing potential of saponins extracted from the leaves of Algerian Urtica dioica L.

    PubMed

    Razika, Laoufi; Thanina, Affif Chaouche; Nadjiba, Chebouti-Meziou; Narimen, Benhabyles; Mahdi, Dahmani Mohamed; Karim, Arab

    2017-05-01

    The Nettle is a herbaceous and vivace plant of Asian origin. It is integrated in several areas especially alimentary, agricultural, industrial and medicinal. The aim of this work is to demonstrate through pharmacological tests a possible antioxidant and wound healing effect of crude saponins of the leaves of Urtica dioica L. The extraction method is based on the degree of solubility of saponins in organic solvents. The antioxidant activity of the leaves extracts was evaluated by the diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl test (DPPH). The wound healing effect is interpreted on the basis of the healing time and the evaluation of the surface of wounds. It appears from this study that the Nettle is rich in saponins, either 4.08% to 30 g of plant powder. The results also showed significant antioxidant effect similar to that of ascorbic acid (p> 0.05) with an IC50 of 0.159mg/ml. As regards the healing power, treatment of rats with the product based on crude saponins is achieved after 15 days, either 100% of wound reduction. This value is much higher than that obtained by the reference product (Madécassol®) on the same duration of treatment with 93.73% of wound reduction. The achievement of pharmacological tests has thus shown that crude saponins extracted from the leaves of Urtica dioica L. can be integrated into the pharmaceutical field or even in cosmetic.

  8. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress on Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage in Urtica dioica

    PubMed Central

    Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity. PMID:23862140

  9. Phylogeny of Opuntia s.s. (Cactaceae): clade delineation, geographic origins, and reticulate evolution.

    PubMed

    Majure, Lucas C; Puente, Raul; Griffith, M Patrick; Judd, Walter S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2012-05-01

    The opuntias (nopales, prickly pears) are not only culturally, ecologically, economically, and medicinally important, but are renowned for their taxonomic difficulty due to interspecific hybridization, polyploidy, and morphological variability. Evolutionary relationships in these stem succulents have been insufficiently studied; thus, delimitation of Opuntia s.s. and major subclades, as well as the biogeographic history of this enigmatic group, remain unresolved. We sequenced the plastid intergenic spacers atpB-rbcL, ndhF-rpl32, psbJ-petA, and trnL-trnF, the plastid genes matK and ycf1, the nuclear gene ppc, and ITS to reconstruct the phylogeny of tribe Opuntieae, including Opuntia s.s. We used phylogenetic hypotheses to infer the biogeographic history, divergence times, and potential reticulate evolution of Opuntieae. Within Opuntieae, a clade of Tacinga, Opuntia lilae, Brasiliopuntia, and O. schickendantzii is sister to a well-supported Opuntia s.s., which includes Nopalea. Opuntia s.s. originated in southwestern South America (SA) and then expanded to the Central Andean Valleys and the desert region of western North America (NA). Two major clades evolved in NA, which subsequently diversified into eight subclades. These expanded north to Canada and south to Central America and the Caribbean, eventually returning back to SA primarily via allopolyploid taxa. Dating approaches suggest that most of the major subclades in Opuntia s.s. originated during the Pliocene. Opuntia s.s. is a well-supported clade that includes Nopalea. The clade originated in southwestern SA, but the NA radiation was the most extensive, resulting in broad morphological diversity and frequent species formation through reticulate evolution and polyploidy.

  10. The granule cell density of the dentate gyrus following administration of Urtica dioica extract to young diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, S A; Gharravi, A M; Ghafari, S; Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J

    2008-08-01

    Urtica dioica L. Stinging nettle has long been known worldwide as a medicinal plant. To study the benefits of the nettle in diabetic encephalopathy, the granule cell density of the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats was studied following administration of Urtica dioica extract. A total of 24 male albino Wistar rats were allocated equally to normal, diabetic, preventive and treatment groups. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. The rats of the preventive group received hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for the first 5 days and an injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day. After 5 weeks of study all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres and stained with cresyl violet. The area densities of the granule cells were measured and compared in the four groups. The density was lower in the diabetic rats compared with the controls (p > 0.05). The preventive group showed lower cell density than the controls (p > 0.05). The densities in the treated rats were higher than in the diabetic rats (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the control and treated rats showed similar densities (p > 0.05). It seems that U. dioica extract can help compensate for granule cell loss in the diabetic rat dentate gyrus, which can ameliorate cognitive impairment in diabetes. However, preventive use of the extract showed no significant benefit.

  11. Antioxidant and apoptotic effects of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica on the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Sadegh; Ardekani, Ali Motevalizadeh; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Abedian, Zeinab; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Pourbagher, Roghayeh; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and one of the leading causes of death among women in the world. Plants and herbs may play an important role in complementary or alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-proliferative potential of Urtica dioica. The anti oxidant activity of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica leaf was measured by MTT assay and the FRAP method while its anti-proliferative activity on the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and fibroblasts isolated from foreskin tissue was evaluated using MTT assay. Mechanisms leading to apoptosis were also investigated at the molecular level by measuring the amount of anti and pro-apoptotic proteins and at the cellular level by studying DNA fragmentation and annexin V staining by flow cytometry. The aqueous extract of Urtica dioica showed antioxidant effects with a correlation coefficient of r(2)=0.997. Dose-dependent and anti-proliferative effects of the extract were observed only on MCF-7 cells after 72 hrs with an IC50 value of 2 mg/ml. This anti proliferative activity was associated with an increase of apoptosis as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation, the appearance of apoptotic cells in flow cytometry analysis and an increase of the amount of calpain 1, calpastatin, caspase 3, caspase 9, Bax and Bcl-2, all proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway. This is the first time such in vitro antiproliferative effect of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica leaf has been described for a breast cancer cell line. Our findings warrant further research on Urtica dioica as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer.

  12. Effect of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill on mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sanjay P; Sheth, N R; Suhagia, B N

    2015-01-01

    The presence of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make prickly pear a perfect candidate for the production of phytopharmaceutical products. Among the numerous Opuntia species, bioactive compounds have been isolated and characterized primarily from Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia polycantha, Opuntia stricta, Opuntia dilleni for various medicinal properties. Based on the traditional use of prickly pear for enhancement of immune function, the objective of the present study to evaluate the effect of prickly pear on mast cell degranulation function. The Opuntia fruit juice (OFJ) (10-200 μl/ml) were studied for the effect on sensitized rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation induced by immunological (egg albumin), and nonimmunological (compound 48/80) stimuli and compared with that of the reference standard, sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen (10 μg/ml). The OFJ exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) concentration dependent inhibition of mast cell degranulation. The IC50 value of OFJ was found 12.24 and 18 μl/ml for immunological and nonimmunological induced mast cell degranulation, respectively. The betacyanin is an active principle compound in prickly pear that may responsible for mast cell stabilizing action.

  13. A purified extract from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fuliginosa) controls experimentally induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Trejo-González, A; Gabriel-Ortiz, G; Puebla-Pérez, A M; Huízar-Contreras, M D; Munguía-Mazariegos, M R; Mejía-Arreguín, S; Calva, E

    1996-12-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of a purified extract from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fuliginosa) was evaluated on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were reduced to normal values by a combined treatment of insulin and Opuntia extract. When insulin was withdrawn from the combined treatment, the prickly pear extract alone maintained normoglycemic state in the diabetic rats. The blood glucose response to administered glucose also showed that the rats receiving the combination treatment of insulin and Opuntia extract for 7 weeks followed by Opuntia extract alone were capable of rapidly returning blood glucose to the levels of the nondiabetic rats. Although the mechanism of action is unknown, the magnitude of the glucose control by the small amount of Opuntia extract required (1 mg/kg body weight per day) preclude a predominant role for dietary fiber. These very encouraging results for diabetes control by the purified extract of this Opuntia cactus make the need for clinical studies in humans evident.

  14. Effect of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill on mast cell degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sanjay P.; Sheth, N. R.; Suhagia, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make prickly pear a perfect candidate for the production of phytopharmaceutical products. Among the numerous Opuntia species, bioactive compounds have been isolated and characterized primarily from Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia polycantha, Opuntia stricta, Opuntia dilleni for various medicinal properties. Objective: Based on the traditional use of prickly pear for enhancement of immune function, the objective of the present study to evaluate the effect of prickly pear on mast cell degranulation function. Materials and Methods: The Opuntia fruit juice (OFJ) (10-200 μl/ml) were studied for the effect on sensitized rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation induced by immunological (egg albumin), and nonimmunological (compound 48/80) stimuli and compared with that of the reference standard, sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen (10 μg/ml). Results and Conclusion: The OFJ exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) concentration dependent inhibition of mast cell degranulation. The IC50 value of OFJ was found 12.24 and 18 μl/ml for immunological and nonimmunological induced mast cell degranulation, respectively. The betacyanin is an active principle compound in prickly pear that may responsible for mast cell stabilizing action. PMID:25883521

  15. Appendicularian ecophysiology I: Food concentration dependent clearance rate, assimilation efficiency, growth and reproduction of Oikopleura dioica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, Fabien; Renaud, Florent; Sainsbury, Christopher; Sciandra, Antoine; Gorsky, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    Three aspects of the appendicularian O. dioica' s ecophysiology were measured here: 1) morphological parameters over a wide range of appendicularian sizes, including mature animals in order to document the morphological characteristics inducing reproduction; 2) clearance rate and assimilation efficiency using feeding incubations with different algal concentrations and 3) the effect of food concentration on growth, mortality and reproduction. The relationship between the body carbon weight and the clearance rate follows a power function, with an exponent of 0.91 (± 0.07). The rate of particles retention increases with the food concentration following a Michaelis-Menten relationship (half-saturation constant = 151 ± 22 µg C l - 1 , maximum clearance rate = 12 ± 1 µg C µg C - 1 d - 1 ). The carbon assimilation efficiency decreases with the increasing food concentration. As a result, appendicularian growth which is limited in concentrations lower than 50 µg C l - 1 is saturated above 100 µg C l - 1 . In immature animals the gonad represents less than 30% of the body volume whereas in mature individuals, its volume varies between 50% and 87% (mean 63%) suggesting that gonad/total volume ratio can be used as indicator of the maturation stages. The gonad weight in mature animals represents 70.3 (± 4.6)% of the total body carbon weight. Two major maturity stages can explain the changes in energy allocation: i) the somatic growth, when less energy is invested in gonad growth when compared to the rest of the body and ii) the maturation phase where most of the assimilated matter is invested in gonad maturation. This process is rapid, lasting only few hours. For this reason we measured completely mature organisms that are generally not measured during the experimental work with appendicularians. In food-limited conditions, the gonad maturation process starts with smaller individuals and ends with smaller reproductive animals having the same gonad to total volume ratio

  16. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. Results: The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:28078249

  17. Effects of Urtica dioica supplementation on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in type 2 diabetic patients: A double blind, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Amiri Behzadi, Alidad; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Ahmadi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic complications including metabolic abnormality-induced diabetic micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications. Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica) has been traditionally used in Iranian medicine as an herbal remedy for hypoglycemic or due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica on blood lipids, hepatic enzymes and nitric oxide levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 50 women with type 2 diabetes participated in this study and were randomly divided into two groups namely, control and intervention groups. Control group received placebo and intervention group received hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica. Before and after 8 weeks of continuous treatment, some biochemical serum levels including FPG, TG, SGPT, SGOT, HDL, LDL, SOD and NO were measured. The results indicated that after 8 weeks, in the intervention group, FPG, TG, and SGPT levels significantly decreased and HDL, NO and SOD levels significantly increased as compared to the control group. Our results encourage the use of hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica as an antioxidant agent for additional therapy of diabetes as hydro-alcoholic extract of U. dioica may decrease risk factors of cardiovascular incidence and other complications in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  18. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Toxqui-López, Santa; Padilla-Velasco, Ana L.

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm). We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  19. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    PubMed

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a cactus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Dong; Seong, Chi Nam

    2014-06-01

    A novel high G+C actinobacterium, designated strain OS1-21(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a cactus (Opuntia fiscus-indica var. sanboten) and the taxonomic status was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain OS1-21(T) were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming, non-motile rods; colonies of the cells were circular, translucent, smooth and moderate yellow in colour. LL-Diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) 2-OH, 10-methyl C(17 : 0), 10-methyl C(18 : 0) and C(17 : 1)cis9. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 73.7 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Nocardioides panacihumi Gsoil 616(T) (98.7% sequence similarity) and Nocardioides terrae VA15(T) (97.8%), followed by Nocardioides marinus CL-DD14(T) (97.1%). DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain OS1-21(T) with the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours were low (<16.0%). Combined data of polyphasic taxonomic analyses revealed that the organism could be assigned to a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OS1-21(T) ( = KCTC 19804(T) = NBRC 107915(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  1. A pseudoautosomal random amplified polymorphic DNA marker for the sex chromosomes of Silene dioica.

    PubMed Central

    Di Stilio, V S; Kesseli, R V; Mulcahy, D L

    1998-01-01

    The segregation pattern of an 810-bp random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band in the F1 and backcross generations of a Silene dioica (L.) Clairv. family provides evidence that this molecular marker is located in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. The marker was found through a combination of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and RAPD techniques. Recombination rates between this pseudoautosomal marker and the differentiating portion of the Y chromosome are 15% in both generations. Alternative explanations involving nondisjunction or autosomal inheritance are presented and discussed. Chromosome counts provide evidence against the nondisjunction hypothesis, and probability calculations argue against the possibility of autosomal inheritance. This constitutes the first report of a pseudoautosomal DNA marker for plant sex chromosomes. PMID:9691057

  2. Study of stinging nettle (urtica dioica l.) Fibers reinforced green composite materials : a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus Suryawan, I. G. P.; Suardana, N. P. G.; Suprapta Winaya, I. N.; Budiarsa Suyasa, I. W.; Tirta Nindhia, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L., latin) is a wild plant that grows in Indonesia, Asia, and Europe. Nettle in Bali, Indonesia is called as Lateng, Jelatang. Nettle plant has a very strong fiber and high fixed carbon. Nettle plants are covered with fine hairs, especially in the leaves and stems. When it is touched, it will release chemicals, sting and trigger inflammation that causes redness, itching, bumps and irritation to the skin. Nettle plants grow in the wild, regarded as a weed in the agricultural industry, easy to grow and snatch food from the parent plant. The main objective of this paper is to review of the potential nettle fibers and then explain about the potential of local nettle plant in Indonesia. Nettle is a plant group at the end of bast. Its plant fibers taken from the bark, as reinforcement in composite materials. Nettle fibers have three main advantages such as strong, lightweight and low environmental impact.

  3. Effects of various doses of selenite on stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    PubMed

    Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se.

  4. Optimization of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extracts of Pimenta dioica (Allspice).

    PubMed

    Geetha, Akshay Rajeev; George, Elizabeth; Srinivasan, Akshay; Shaik, Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles from the leaf extracts of Pimenta dioica is reported for the first time in this paper. Three different sets of leaves were utilized for the synthesis of nanoparticles-fresh, hot-air oven dried, and sun-dried. These nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy and AFM. The results were diverse in that different sizes were seen for different leaf conditions. Nanoparticles synthesized using sun-dried leaves (produced using a particular ratio (1 : 0.5) of the leaf extract sample and silver nitrate (1 mM), resp.) possessed the smallest sizes. We believe that further optimization of the current green-synthesis method would help in the production of monodispersed silver nanoparticles having great potential in treating several diseases.

  5. Optimization of Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extracts of Pimenta dioica (Allspice)

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, Akshay Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles from the leaf extracts of Pimenta dioica is reported for the first time in this paper. Three different sets of leaves were utilized for the synthesis of nanoparticles—fresh, hot-air oven dried, and sun-dried. These nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy and AFM. The results were diverse in that different sizes were seen for different leaf conditions. Nanoparticles synthesized using sun-dried leaves (produced using a particular ratio (1 : 0.5) of the leaf extract sample and silver nitrate (1 mM), resp.) possessed the smallest sizes. We believe that further optimization of the current green-synthesis method would help in the production of monodispersed silver nanoparticles having great potential in treating several diseases. PMID:24453836

  6. Effects of Various Doses of Selenite on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Babula, Petr; Zehnalek, Josef; Beklova, Miroslava; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se. PMID:21139861

  7. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  8. Effect of Momordica dioica Roxb on gentamicin model of acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Jain, Avijeet; Singhai, A K

    2010-09-01

    The ethanolic extract of the fruits of Momordica dioica was studied for its protective and curative effect against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats of both sexes. Gentamicin intoxicated group showed significant increase in blood urea (69.48 +/- 4.34) and serum creatinine (3.017 +/- 0.208) from normal levels 33.72 +/- 1.92 and 0.818 +/- 0.073, respectively, in control group. In the preventive regimen, the extract at dose levels of 200 mg kg(-1) showed significant reduction in the elevated blood urea (47.93 +/- 2.46) and serum creatinine (2.067 +/- 0.1745), respectively. This treatment normalised the histopathological changes compared to the intoxicated group. In the curative regimen at 200 mg kg(-1) blood urea was found to be 48.21 +/- 2.36 and serum creatinine level was 2.050 +/- 0.183, which revealed significant curative effect. In vivo antioxidant and free radial scavenging activities were also determined. The maximum free radical scavenging activity with ethanolic extract was the basis of selection of this extract for in vivo study. Reduced glutathione (GSH) level was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the extract treated groups whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced significantly (p < 0.05). High content of flavonoids and phenolic compounds was found in ethanolic extract, which may be responsible for free radical activity. The findings suggest that the ethanol extract of Momordica dioica seeds possesses marked nephroprotective and curative activities without any toxicity due to its antioxidant activity and could offer a promising role in the treatment of acute renal injury caused by nephrotoxin-like gentamicin.

  9. Evolutionary volatile Cysteines and protein disorder in the fast evolving tunicate Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Berná, Luisa; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Cysteine (Cys) is regarded as the most conservative amino acid in nature, something that does not occur in the tunicate Oikopleura dioica, where this amino acid is one of the fastest evolving. In this work we analyze some of the causes of this intriguing absence of conservation. Considering the well-known stabilizing role of Cys, it was first investigated whether the lack of conservation was accompanied by an increase in intrinsic protein disorder. In contrast to expectations, it was found that O. dioica is the chordate that has the lowest levels of intrinsic disorder, while vertebrates (represented by Bos taurus) contain the most disordered proteins. Oikopleura proteins are shorter than their homologs in other Chordates (Ciona and B. taurus proteins are respectively 11% and 18% longer). This process of protein shortening was more intense in intrinsic disordered regions. As a result proteins became not only shorter but also more compact. It is also reported here that the conservation/divergence behavior of Cys depends on whether they are located in ordered or disordered regions. In the four species analyzed, disordered Cys are majorly (> 75%) not conserved at all. Ordered Cys instead, are much more free to diverge in Oikopleura than in the other chordates. We hypothesize that the preferential deletion of disordered regions resulted in a decreased protein disorder and a direct elimination (by deletion) of many ancestral Cys. Besides, the alterations (shortening or complete elimination) of some disordered regions (loops/random coils) probably promoted further Cys evolutionary volatility, because some ancestral Cys (and other amino acids which play a role in stability like Trp) located outside deleted regions became redundant due to the loss of their stabilizing partners.

  10. Antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of a protein fraction from aerial parts of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Di Sotto, Antonella; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Savickiene, Nijole; Staršelskytė, Rasa; Baksenskaite, Vaida; Di Giacomo, Silvia; Vitalone, Annabella

    2015-06-01

    Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), stinging nettle, has been employed as a folklore remedy for a wide spectrum of ailments, including urinary disorders, prostatic hyperplasia, and liver diseases. It has been also used traditionally for cancer treatment. To evaluate the potential chemopreventive properties of a protein fraction from the aerial part of Urtica dioica (namely UDHL30). UDHL30 has been tested for the antimutagenic activity in bacteria (50-800 μg/plate; Ames test by the preincubation method) and for the cytotoxicity on human hepatoma HepG2 cells (0.06-2 mg/mL; 24 and 48 h incubation). Moreover, the antioxidant activity of UDHL30 (0.1-1200 μg/mL; ABTS and superoxide-radical scavenger assays) was evaluated as potential protective mechanisms. UDHL30 was not cytotoxic on HepG2 cells up to 2 mg/mL; conversely, it exhibited a strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagen 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) in all strains tested (maximum inhibition of 56, 78, and 61% in TA98, TA100, and WP2uvrA strains, respectively, at 800 μg/plate). In addition, a remarkable scavenging activity against ABTS radical and superoxide anion (IC50 values of 19.9 ± 1.0 μg/mL and 75.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL, respectively) was produced. UDHL30 possesses antimutagenic and radical scavenging properties. Being 2AA a pro-carcinogenic agent, we hypothesize that the antimutagenicity of UDHL30 can be due to the inhibition of CYP450-isoenzymes, involved in the mutagen bioactivation. The radical scavenger ability could contribute to 2AA-antimutagenicity. These data encourage further studies in order to better define the potential usefulness of UDHL30 in chemoprevention.

  11. Laboratory Performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on South and North American Opuntia Species Occurring in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, is native to South America. Since the insects’ unintentional arrival to the US in 1989 and to Mexican islands in 2006, it has become a serious threat to the diversity of Opuntia species in North America and to the wild and cultivated species of Opuntia. The na...

  12. Expression of ripening-related genes in prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Collazo-Siqués, P; Valverde, M E; Paredes-López, O; Guevara-Lara, F

    2003-01-01

    To throw light on the expression of ripening-related genes in prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) fruits and on the possible role of the gaseous hormone ethylene in nonclimacteric fruit ripening, cDNA fragments that showed high homologies with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase cDNAs from other plants were cloned and partially characterized. Thus, the corresponding genes were accordingly named opaccs-1 and opacco-1, after Opuntia ACC synthase-1 and Opuntia ACC oxidase-1, respectively. Southern analysis suggests the presence of at least one copy of both genes, as well as other related homologous sequences in the Opuntia genome. Northern analysis of the opaccs-1 gene shows an enhanced expression in ripening fruit tissues, whereas opacco-1 expression is highly induced in ripe tissues with respect to the green fruits and mature cladodes. These results are in agreement with an active metabolic role of ethylene during nonclimacteric prickly pear fruit ripening. This is the first report on the analysis at the molecular level of ripening-related genes of the Opuntia genus.

  13. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  14. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  15. A specific insertion of a solo-LTR characterizes the Y-chromosome of Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Relatively few species of flowering plants are dioecious and even fewer are known to have sex chromosomes. Current theory posits that homomorphic sex chromosomes, such as found in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), offer insight into the early stages in the evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes. Little is known about these early steps, but an accumulation of transposable element sequences has been observed on the Y-chromosomes of some species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Recombination, by which transposable elements are removed, is suppressed on at least part of the emerging Y-chromosome, and this may explain the correlation between the emergence of sex chromosomes and transposable element enrichment. Findings We sequenced 2321 bp of the Y-chromosome in Bryonia dioica that flank a male-linked marker, BdY1, reported previously. Within this region, which should be suppressed for recombination, we observed a solo-LTR nested in a Copia-like transposable element. We also found other, presumably paralogous, solo-LTRs in a consensus sequence of the underlying Copia-like transposable element. Conclusions Given that solo-LTRs arise via recombination events, it is noteworthy that we find one in a genomic region where recombination should be suppressed. Although the solo-LTR could have arisen before recombination was suppressed, creating the male-linked marker BdY1, our previous study on B. dioica suggested that BdY1 may not lie in the recombination-suppressed region of the Y-chromosome in all populations. Presence of a solo-LTR near BdY1 therefore fits with the observed correlation between retrotransposon accumulation and the suppression of recombination early in the evolution of sex chromosomes. These findings further suggest that the homomorphic sex chromosomes of B. dioica, the first organism for which genetic XY sex-determination was inferred, are evolutionarily young and offer reference information for comparative studies of other plant sex

  16. A specific insertion of a solo-LTR characterizes the Y-chromosome of Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Oyama, Ryan K; Silber, Martina V; Renner, Susanne S

    2010-06-14

    Relatively few species of flowering plants are dioecious and even fewer are known to have sex chromosomes. Current theory posits that homomorphic sex chromosomes, such as found in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), offer insight into the early stages in the evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes. Little is known about these early steps, but an accumulation of transposable element sequences has been observed on the Y-chromosomes of some species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Recombination, by which transposable elements are removed, is suppressed on at least part of the emerging Y-chromosome, and this may explain the correlation between the emergence of sex chromosomes and transposable element enrichment. We sequenced 2321 bp of the Y-chromosome in Bryonia dioica that flank a male-linked marker, BdY1, reported previously. Within this region, which should be suppressed for recombination, we observed a solo-LTR nested in a Copia-like transposable element. We also found other, presumably paralogous, solo-LTRs in a consensus sequence of the underlying Copia-like transposable element. Given that solo-LTRs arise via recombination events, it is noteworthy that we find one in a genomic region where recombination should be suppressed. Although the solo-LTR could have arisen before recombination was suppressed, creating the male-linked marker BdY1, our previous study on B. dioica suggested that BdY1 may not lie in the recombination-suppressed region of the Y-chromosome in all populations. Presence of a solo-LTR near BdY1 therefore fits with the observed correlation between retrotransposon accumulation and the suppression of recombination early in the evolution of sex chromosomes. These findings further suggest that the homomorphic sex chromosomes of B. dioica, the first organism for which genetic XY sex-determination was inferred, are evolutionarily young and offer reference information for comparative studies of other plant sex chromosomes.

  17. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae) is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. Methods The crude methanol extract (EAD) and hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and hydromethanol fractions (HMF) were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg) in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. Results The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg) and EAF (15 mg/kg) inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg) exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids. PMID:23311341

  18. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill.

    PubMed

    Formagio, Anelise S N; Kassuya, Candida A L; Neto, Frederico Formagio; Volobuff, Carla R F; Iriguchi, Edna K K; Vieira, Maria do C; Foglio, Mary Ann

    2013-01-11

    Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae) is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. The crude methanol extract (EAD) and hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and hydromethanol fractions (HMF) were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg) in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg) and EAF (15 mg/kg) inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg) exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.

  19. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model. PMID:24551786

  20. Effect of Urtica dioica Leaf Alcoholic and Aqueous Extracts on the Number and the Diameter of the Islets in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Qujeq, Durdi; Tatar, Mohsen; Feizi, Farideh; Parsian, Hadi; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Halalkhor, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica has been known as a plant that decreases blood glucose. Despite the importance of this plant in herbal medicine, relatively little research has been down on effects of this plant on islets yet. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts on the number and the diameter of the islets and histological parameters in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Six rats were used in each group. Group I: Normal rats were administered saline daily for 8 weeks. Group II: Diabetic rats were administered streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg of body weight; Group III: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf aqueous extracts for 8 weeks; Group IV: Diabetic rats were administered dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic extracts for 8 weeks. The animals, groups of diabetic and normal, were sacrificed by ether anaesthesia. Whole pancreas was dissected. The tissue samples were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded for microscopic examination. Histologic examination and grading were carried out on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections. The effects of administration of dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts to diabetic rats were determined by histopathologic examination. The pancreas from control rats showed normal pancreatic islets histoarchitecture. Our results also, indicate that the pancreas from diabetic rats show injury of pancreas tissue while the pancreas from diabetic rats treated with dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts show slight to moderate rearrangement of islets. According to our findings, dried Urtica dioica leaf alcoholic and aqueous extracts can cause a suitable repair of pancreatic tissue in streptozocin-induced diabetic experimental model.

  1. Trichosanthes dioica root extract induces tumor proliferation and attenuation of antioxidant system in albino mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2011-01-01

    Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), called pointed gourd in English, is a dioecious climber grown widely in the Indian subcontinent. The present study assessed the influence of treatment of hydroalcoholic extract of Trichosanthes dioica root (TDA) on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice with effects on antioxidant systems. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor (EAC) cells in mice, TDA was administered at 25 and 50 mg/kg for 8 consecutive days. On the 9th day, half of the mice were sacrificed for estimation of tumor proliferation, hematological, and hepatic antioxidative parameters. The rest were kept for assessment of survival parameters. TDA exhibited dose dependent and significant increase in tumor weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cells and reduced non-viable cells and life span of EAC bearing animals. Hematological parameters were significantly worsened in TDA-treated mice. TDA treatment significantly aggravated the hepatic antioxidative parameters. The present study demonstrated that T. dioica root possessed tumor promoting activity in EAC bearing albino mice, plausibly mediated by attenuation of endogenous antioxidant systems. PMID:22319252

  2. The protective activity of Urtica dioica leaves on blood glucose concentration and beta-cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Khori, Vahid

    2007-04-15

    This study was done to determine the protective activity of the hydroalcholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on Hyperglycemia and beta-cells in hyperglycemic rats. Thirty Wistar rats were allocated in groups of normal, Diabetic and treatment. Hyperglycemia in Rats induced by 80 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin. In treatment group, animals received hydroalcholic extract of Urtica dioica 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for five days, intraperitoneally and then hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin. The blood glucose concentration was measured by using a Glucometer in 1st, 3rd and 5th weeks. In the end of 5th weeks the animals in each group were sacrificed by anesthesia and whole pancreas in three groups extracted and fixed in bouin's fluid and stained by chromealum hematoxiline-phloxine and beta cells were counted in three groups by Olympus microscope. Mean +/- SE of blood glucose concentrations in the end of fifth weeks were 99.4 +/-5.0, 454.7 +/- 34.5 and 303.6 +/- 100.6 in control, diabetic and treatment groups, respectively (p < 0.05). The percentages of beta-cells in control, diabetic and treatment groups were 73.6, 1.9 and 22.9%, respectively. The percentage of beta-cells in treatment group comparing with diabetic group was significant (p < 0.05). This study showed that the protective administration of hydroalcholic extract of Urtica dioica has hypoglycemic effect and protective activity of beta-cells of langerhans in hyperglycemic rats.

  3. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Mohammadian, Maryam; Dianat, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined. Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP. Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:23115450

  4. Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].

    PubMed

    Ginestra, Giovanna; Parker, Mary L; Bennett, Richard N; Robertson, Jim; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2009-11-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes represent the green stem of the plant and are generally used as animal feed or disposed of in landfills. The present work investigated the anatomical and chemical composition of Opuntia cladodes, which form the basis of their pharmacological effects. Glucose and galacturonic acid were the main sugars of Opuntia cladodes, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of mainly kaempherol and isorhamnetin glycosides (glucoside and rhamnoside). The presence of high amounts of calcium oxalate crystals was demonstrated by light microscopy on fresh and lyophilized cladodes. No antimicrobial activity was observed even after enzymatic treatment. O. ficus-indica cladodes may retain material tightly associated with cell-wall components, and this property will have the potential to greatly reduce the bioavailability of bioactive compounds.

  5. Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, Charles C; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Mugo-Bundi, James; Orina, Paul Sagwe; Chemoiwa, Emily Jepyegon; Aloo, Peninah A

    2015-06-01

    We investigated effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on growth performance, biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into 4 groups and fed for 4 and 16 weeks with 0%, 1%, 2% and 5% of U. dioica incorporated into the diet. Use of U. dioica in the diet resulted in improved biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters. Among the biochemical parameters; plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while total protein and albumin in fish increased with increasing dietary inclusion of U. dioica. Among the haematology parameters: red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and netrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion levels of U. dioica, some depending on the fish age. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst were the main immunological parameters in the adult and juvenile L. victorianus measured and they all increased with increasing herbal inclusion of U. dioica in the diet. Dietary incorporation of U. dioica at 5% showed significantly higher relative percentage survival (up to 95%) against A. hydrophila. The current results demonstrate that using U. dioica can stimulate fish immunity and make L. victorianus more resistant to bacterial infection (A. hydrophila). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. First evidence for the presence of weddellite crystallites in Opuntia ficus indica parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Malainine, Mohamed E; Dufresne, Alain; Dupeyre, Danielle; Vignon, Michel R; Mahrouz, Mostafa

    2003-01-01

    Calcium oxalate crystallites occur very often in the plants tissues and their role is still poorly known. We report here the experimental protocol leading to the isolation of two forms of calcium oxalate crystallites differing in their hydration level in the parenchymal tissues of Opuntia ficus indica (Miller). Whereas the whewellite crystallites are habitual in all Opuntia species, the weddellite form has never been isolated from these species before, which is probably due to their small size (about 1 microm). We have identified these forms using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Antiulcer activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae): ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Galati, E M; Monforte, M T; Tripodo, M M; d'Aquino, A; Mondello, M R

    2001-06-01

    In Sicily folk medicine, Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. cladodes are used for the treatment of gastric ulcer. We studied the effect of administration of lyophilized cladodes on experimental ethanol-induced ulcer in rat. In this paper, we report the ultrastructural observations of gastric mucosa. The ultrastructural changes were observed by trasmission electronic microscopy (TEM) confirming the protective effect exercised by administration of lyophilized cladodes. Pre-treatment test in rats revealed a protective action against ethanol-induced ulcer. Probably, the mucilage of Opuntia ficus indica is involved.

  8. Accumulation and biotransformation of vanadium in Opuntia microdasys.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Yan; Tang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation and biotransformation of vanadium (V) in Opuntia microdasys were investigated under hydroponic conditions to determine the toxicity of pentavalent V [i.e., V(V)] to the plant and the mechanism of tolerance by the plant to V. Results showed that the concentration of V(V) in nutrient solution was negatively correlated to plant biomass. Moreover, the water content of cladodes decreased under V(V) stress. In V(V)-treated plants, most of the adsorbed V remained in the roots and in the cell wall compartment. In the cladodes, the ratios of V(V) to Vtotal were lower in V(V)-treated plants than those in the control plants. These results indicate that a high concentration of V(V) is toxic to O. microdasys but that the plants may limit this toxicity through the compartmentalization of V in the cell wall and the biotransformation of V from V(V) to tetravalent V [i.e., V(IV)].

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.

    PubMed

    Frati-Munari, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R

    1988-01-01

    To assess the hypoglycemic effect of the nopal Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire (O. streptacantha Lem.), three groups of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied. Group one (16 patients) ingested 500 g of broiled nopal stems. Group 2 (10 patients) received only 400 ml of water as a control test. Three tests were performed on group 3 (6 patients): one with nopal, a second with water, and a third with ingestion of 500 g broiled squash. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120, and 180 min. After the intake of O. streptacantha Lem., serum glucose and serum insulin levels decreased significantly in groups 1 and 3, whereas no similar changes were noticed in group 2. The mean reduction of glucose reached 17.6 +/- 2.2% of basal values at 180 min in group 1 and 16.2 +/- 1.8% in group 3; the reduction of serum insulin at 180 min reached 50.2 +/- 8.0% in group 1 and 40.3 +/- 12.4% in group 3. This study shows that the stems of O. streptacantha Lem. cause a hypoglycemic effect in patients with NIDDM. The mechanism of this effect is unknown, but an increased insulin sensitivity is suggested.

  10. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  11. Opuntia humifusa ameliorated cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Bok; Bae, Gi-Sang; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Jo, Il-Joo; Seo, Seung-Hee; Song, Kyung; Lee, Dong-Sung; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Jong-Jin; Shin, Yong Kook; Park, Jin-Han; Seo, Min-Jun; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Opuntia humifusa (OH) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). Acute pancreatitis was induced via intraperitoneal injection of cholecystokinin analog cerulein (50 μg/kg). In the OH pretreatment group, OH was administered intraperitoneally (100, 250, or 500 mg/kg) 1 hour before first cerulein injection. In the posttreatment group, OH was administered intraperitoneally (500 mg/kg) 1 hour after the first cerulein injection. Furthermore, we isolated the pancreatic acinar cells using collagenase method, then investigated the acinar cell viability, cytokine productions, and the regulating mechanisms. The both pretreatment and posttreatment of OH treatment attenuated the severity of AP, as shown by the histology of the pancreas and lung, and inhibited neutrophil infiltration; serum amylase and lipase activities; proinflammatory cytokine expression such as interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α; and cell death including apoptosis and necrosis. Furthermore, OH inhibited the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases. These results suggest that OH reduces the severity of AP by inhibiting acinar cell death through c-Jun N-terminal kinases.

  12. Aborted fruits of Opuntia microdasys (Cactaceae): insurance against reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Palleiro, N; Mandujano, M C; Golubov, J

    2006-04-01

    New individuals in clonal populations arise through the recruitment of sexual or clonal offspring. The predominance of one type of regeneration over the other has been correlated with different selective environmental pressures. We compared the reproductive mode (sexual through seeds and vegetative through plantlets or detached cladodes) of Opuntia microdasys from three desert habitats of the Chihuahuan Desert: bajada (BH), hill-piedmont (HPH), and an interdune (IDH). Successful establishment and growth of plantlets were determined in two experiments: (1) the effect of light (three levels of photosynthetically active radiation [PAR]: full, low, and medium) and two levels of watering and (2) maternal effects and provenance of plantlets. Adult plant densities did not differ among habitats (639 individuals/ha), but the number of offspring and fruit production increased significantly at BH. Plantlets (94.3%) dominated the form of recruitment for all habitats, followed by cladodes (3.1%) and seedlings (2.6%). A higher proportion of plantlets established in the low and medium PAR treatments (76%) in comparison to full exposure (39%). Maternal factors affected survival and growth, but plantlet provenance did not. The high fruit abortion rate resulting from environmental and maternal effects provided suitable conditions for establishment of plantlets.

  13. Application of a rule-based knowledge system using CLIPS for the taxonomy of selected Opuntia species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymans, Bart C.; Onema, Joel P.; Kuti, Joseph O.

    1991-01-01

    A rule based knowledge system was developed in CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) for identifying Opuntia species in the family Cactaceae, which contains approx. 1500 different species. This botanist expert tool system is capable of identifying selected Opuntia plants from the family level down to the species level when given some basic characteristics of the plants. Many plants are becoming of increasing importance because of their nutrition and human health potential, especially in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The expert tool system described can be extremely useful in an unequivocal identification of many useful Opuntia species.

  14. Sex ratio and spatial distribution of male and female Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2011-09-01

    Sex ratio, sex spatial distribution and sexual dimorphism in reproduction and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation were investigated in the dioecious clonal plant Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae). Plants were monitored for five consecutive years in six study plots in Oulanka, northern Finland. Sex ratio, spatial distribution of sexes, flowering frequency, number of floral shoots and the number and weight of inflorescences were recorded. In addition, intensity of mycorrhizal fungi in the roots was assessed. Both sexes flowered each year with a similar frequency, but the overall genet sex ratio was strongly female-biased. The bivariate Ripley's analysis of the sex distribution showed that within most plots sexes were randomly distributed except for one plot. Sexual dimorphism was expressed as larger floral and inflorescence production and heavier inflorescences in males. In addition, the roots of both sexes were colonised to a similar extent by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The female sex-biased flowering ratios reported are not consistent among years and cannot be explained in terms of spatial segregation of the sexes or sex lability. The possible reasons for the female-biased sex ratio are discussed.

  15. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.

  16. Appendicularian ecophysiology. II. Modeling nutrition, metabolism, growth and reproduction of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, Fabien; Sciandra, Antoine; Gorsky, Gabriel

    2009-11-01

    A model has been developed to simulate the growth of an individual appendicularian ( Oikopleura dioica) from egg to spawning. This model uses a new set of experimental data presented in a companion paper in this volume and estimates growth rates and generation times as well as clearance rates, house and fecal pellet production and reproductive capacity at different temperatures and food concentrations. According to the model outputs, the weight of a single house represents 11.5% of the individual's total weight, a lower value than previously estimated. The relative weight of one fecal pellet varies as a function of food concentration. The model also confirms that the minimum food concentration for growth is about 20-30 µg C l - 1 and that growth is maximal for a 100 µg C l - 1 feeding concentration. The limits of the growth optimum in relation to food concentration and temperature can be considered as a first description of the fundamental ecological niche of appendicularians. This model can be used both for predicting (1) the impact of in situ observed populations on the pico- and nanoseston and (2) the production of large aggregates. These two pieces of information are often needed for large-scale biogeochemical models.

  17. Effect of Lithium on Thigmomorphogenesis in Bryonia dioica Ethylene Production and Sensitivity 1

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Nicole; Desbiez, Marie-Odile; Hofinger, Michel; Gaspar, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Rubbing internodes of Bryonia dioica plants reduced their ethylene production but increased their capacity to convert 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to ethylene. These results were explained by the previously shown rubbing-induced decrease of indoleacetic acid, which controls the level of ACC synthase, and by the increase of membrane-associated peroxidases which would participate in the conversion of ACC-ethylene. Pretreatment of the plants with Li had no significant effect on control plants but counteracted the rubbing-induced decrease of ethylene production and diminished the capacity of the internodes to convert ACC to ethylene. Exogenously applied ethylene induced an increase of peroxidase activity similar to that caused by rubbing. Inasmuch as both effects were reduced by Li, it was concluded that Li inhibition of thigmomorphogenetic processes was essentially due to a Li inhibition of the effect of ethylene formed in response to mechanical stimuli. The decreased ethylene production and ACC conversion capacity in the presence of Li were explained by a cellular redistribution of peroxidases. PMID:16663035

  18. Developmental Characterization of Tail Movements in the Appendicularian Urochordate Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Kreneisz, Orsolya; Glover, Joel C

    2015-01-01

    Using high-speed video cinematography, we characterized kinematically the spontaneous tail movements made by the appendicularian urochordate Oikopleura dioica. Videos of young adult (1-day-old) animals discriminated 4 cardinal movement types: bending, nodding, swimming and filtering, each of which had a characteristic signature including cyclicity, event or cycle duration, cycle frequency, cycle frequency variation, laterality, tail muscle segment coordination and episode duration. Bending exhibited a more common, unilateral form (single bending) and a rarer, bilateral form (alternating bending). Videos of developing animals showed that bending and swimming appeared in rudimentary form starting just after hatching and exhibited developmental changes in movement excursion, duration and frequency, whereas nodding and filtering appeared in the fully mature form in young adults at the time of first house production. More complex behaviors were associated with inflating, entering and exiting the house. We also assessed the influence of descending inputs by separating the tail (which contains all muscles and most likely the neural circuits that generate most motor outputs) from the head. Isolated tails spontaneously generated either bending or swimming movements in abnormally protracted episodes. This together with other observations of interactions between bending and swimming behaviors indicates the presence of several types of descending inputs that regulate the activity of the pattern generating circuitry in the tail nervous system.

  19. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L−1). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets. PMID:26904610

  20. Peculiar patterns of amino acid substitution and conservation in the fast evolving tunicate Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Berná, Luisa; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    We analyze the patterns and rates of amino acid evolution in tunicates with special interest on the extremely fast evolving Oikopleura dioica. We show that this species, on average, is twice as fast as the already fast evolving Ciona intestinalis. The acceleration in both species seems to be affected by similar evolutionary forces yet to different extent, since a substantial proportion of the most and less accelerated genes are orthologous between the two species. Among the possible causes that underlie the genome wide acceleration in Oikopleura, relaxation of functional constraints appears to be an important one, since all amino acids exhibit surprisingly homogenous levels of divergence. Such homogeneity, however, is not observed in Ciona. Apart from the genome wide acceleration, detailed analysis of functional groups of genes revealed that genes associated with regulatory functions (transcription regulators, chromatin remodeling proteins and metabolic regulators), have been subjected to an even more extreme process of acceleration, suggesting that adaptive evolution is the most probable cause of their unusual exacerbated rates. Another remarkable observation is that cysteine is among the less conserved amino acids, contrary to what is commonly observed in other species. The possible causes of this particular behavior are discussed.

  1. Characterization and virulence of Beauveria bassiana associated with auger beetle (Sinoxylon anale) infesting allspice (Pimenta dioica).

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; D'Silva, Sharon; Nandeesh, P G

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of auger beetle, Sinoxylon anale Lesne (Bostrichidae: Coleoptera), a destructive pest of cosmopolitan occurrence is reported for the first time on allspice trees, Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. in Kerala, India. The insects bored through the basal region of fresh twigs resulting in dieback symptoms. Morphological characterization and sequencing of a partially amplified fragment of the mitochondrial CO1 gene (696bp) revealed the insect to be Sinoxylon anale. An entomopathogenic fungus was isolated from infected cadavers of S. anale that was identified as Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., sensu stricto (s.s.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) based on morphological and molecular studies. The partial sequences of the ITS, TUB, TEF and Bloc gene regions were sequenced. The fungus grew well in ambient room temperature conditions (28-32±2°C; 60-70% relative humidity) and the infection process on the insect was documented by scanning electron microscopy. Bioassay studies with the isolate indicated that the fungus was virulent against adult beetles as evidenced by the LC50 (3.6×10(6)conidia/ml) and ST50 values (6.8days at a dose of 1×10(7)conidia/ml and 5.8days at a dose of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, respectively). This is the first record of B. bassiana naturally infecting S. anale and the fungus holds promise to be developed as a mycoinsecticide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: Pharmacognostic standardization of the female leaves with special emphasis on the microscopic technique

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saurabh; Chauhan, M. G.; Machawal, Lalit

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Standardization is essentially a measure for ensuring the quality control of herbal drugs. But the gender of the plant affecting the quality of crude drugs does not appear to have been taken care of so far. Today, sophisticated modern research tools for the evaluation of the plant drugs are available but the microscopic method is one of the simplest and cheapest methods. Methods and Materials: The pharmacognostic investigation of the fresh, powdered, and anatomical sections of the female leaves of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. was carried out to determine its bioprospective constants. Results and Discussion: Externally, the leaves possess a cordate base, a sinuate and dentate margin, an acute to acuminate apex, and both surfaces are very rough with rigid hair surface. Internally, it shows the presence of anomocytic stomata, unicellular, and both glandular and simple covering trichomes scattered as such throughout or attached with the cells of the epidermis. Majority of the glandular trichomes are with a four-to-five-celled uniseriate stalk and unicellular head; very few are short and with uni- to bicellular stalk and uni- to multicellular head especially from that of the petiole region. Simple covering, multicellular, uniseriate thick-walled trichomes are of various sizes. Usually cells of both simple and glandular trichomes are often embedded with cystolith. Phytochemical studies of the powdered leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, resins, glycosides, flavonoids and some carbohydrates. The pharmacognostic profile of the leaves will assist in the standardization for quality, purity, and sample identification. PMID:21687354

  3. DNA interference-mediated screening of maternal factors in the chordate Oikopleura dioica

    PubMed Central

    Omotezako, Tatsuya; Matsuo, Masaki; Onuma, Takeshi A.; Nishida, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    The maternal contribution to the oocyte cytoplasm plays an important role during embryogenesis because it is involved in early cell fate specification and embryonic axis establishment. However, screening projects targeting maternal factors have only been conducted in a limited number of animal models, such as nematodes, fruit flies, and zebrafish, while few maternal genes have been analysed because of difficulties encountered in inhibiting gene products already expressed in the ovaries. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for large-scale maternal screening are necessary. The appendicularian Oikopleura dioica is a planktonic tunicate member of the chordates. Gonadal microinjection and a novel gene knockdown method, DNA interference (DNAi), have been developed for use in this animal with the aim of inhibiting gene functions during oogenesis within the gonad. In this study, we adapted these methods for large-scale maternal factor screening, and observed malformation phenotypes related to some maternal factors. Approximately 2000 (56.9%) ovary-enriched gene products were screened, of which the knockdown of seven encoding genes resulted in various abnormalities during embryonic development. Most of these were related to microtubules and cell adhesion-related proteins. We conclude that DNAi is a potentially powerful screening tool for the identification of novel maternal factors in chordates. PMID:28281645

  4. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.).

    PubMed

    Rutto, Laban K; Xu, Yixiang; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Brandt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96-98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·L(-1)). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%-100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets.

  5. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions.

  6. Effect of Urtica dioica on memory dysfunction and hypoalgesia in an experimental model of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, M

    2013-09-27

    Diabetic neuropathy is considered as a disease of the peripheral nervous system, but recent evidences suggest the involvement of central nervous system as well. In this study we evaluated the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against memory dysfunction and hypoalgesia on a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic neuropathy. STZ (50 mg/kg, i.p. consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes, followed by treatment with the UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) and rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. Cognitive functions were evaluated using Morris water maze and passive avoidance step through task. Pain thresholds were measured using thermal, mechanical and chemical induced hyperalgesia. We observed that chronic diabetes resulted in a decline in circulating insulin level, elevated blood glucose, reduced body weight, increased water intake, cognitive impairment and hypoalgesia. UD significantly reduced the blood glucose and polydypsia, as well as improved the body weight, insulin level, cognition and insensate neuropathy. In conclusion, UD showed results comparable to rosiglitazone in reversing the long standing diabetes induced complications such as central and peripheral neuronal dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Omer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Oztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-α levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study.

  8. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  9. Effects of Urtica dioica on oxidative stress, proliferation and apoptosis after partial hepatectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Toydemir, Toygar; Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Onur, Hatice

    2015-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, PH and PH + UD; each group contains eight animals. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg/day) once a day orally for 7 days starting 3 days prior to hepatectomy operation. At day 7 after resection, liver samples were collected. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated in liver homogenates. Moreover, histopathological examination, mitotic index (MI), proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling, proliferation index (PI), transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay, apoptotic index (AI) were evaluated at day 7 after hepatectomy. As a result, UD significantly increased MI and PI, significantly decreased AI and also attenuated hepatic vacuolar degeneration and sinusoidal congestion in PH rats. UD treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue MDA level and increased the reduced SOD activity and GSH level in the tissues. These results suggest that UD pretreatment was beneficial for rat liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Ömer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Öztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with intraperitoneal injection of cerulein, followed by intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml saline (pancreatitis group) and 1 ml 5.2% UDE (treatment group). Pancreatic tissues were examined histopathologically. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α), amylase and markers of apoptosis (M30, M65) were also measured in blood samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with Caspase-3 antibody. Histopathological findings in the UDE treatment group were less severe than in the pancreatitis group (5.7 vs 11.7, p = 0.010). TNF-α levels were not statistically different between treated and control groups (63.3 vs. 57.2, p = 0.141). UDE treatment was associated with less apoptosis [determined by M30, caspase-3 index (%)], (1.769 vs. 0.288, p = 0.056; 3% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.224; respectively). UDE treatment of pancreatitis merits further study. PMID:24995088

  12. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. Results: The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. Conclusion: The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract. PMID:25050274

  13. Protective effect of Urtica dioica on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Ibis, Cem

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Urtica dioica (UD) against liver damage in the common bile duct-ligated rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups, namely, control, bile duct ligation (BDL) and BDL + received UD groups, containing eight animals in each group. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg) once a day intraperitoneally for 2 weeks starting 3 days prior to BDL operation. The change demonstrating the bile duct proliferation and fibrosis in expanded portal tracts includes the extension of proliferated bile ducts into the lobules; inflammatory cell infiltration into the widened portal areas were observed in BDL group. Treatment of BDL with UD attenuated alterations in liver histology. The α-smooth muscle actin, cytokeratin-positive ductular proliferation and the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling in the BDL were observed to be reduced with the UD treatment. The data indicate that UD attenuates BDL-induced cholestatic liver injury, bile duct proliferation and fibrosis.

  14. Protective effects of Urtica dioica L. on experimental testicular ischaemia reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aktas, C; Erboga, M; Fidanol Erboga, Z; Bozdemir Donmez, Y; Topcu, B; Gurel, A

    2017-05-01

    In this study, it was aimed to examine the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UD) that has antioxidant feature in the experimental testicular I/R model in rats in terms of anti-apoptotic and antioxidative effects. In our study, 24 male rats were divided into three groups: control group, I/R group and I/R + UD (2 mg kg(-1) ) group. Seminiferous tubule calibre measurement, Johnson score, haematoxylin-eosin staining, proliferative cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining and TUNEL as histopathological have been conducted. The structural deterioration in the testicular on I/R group has reduced after the treatment of UD. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL), and there was a rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in testis tissues of UD-treated rats in the I/R group. The I/R + UD group showed a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in comparison with the I/R group. It could be concluded that protective effects of UD on the I/R testicles are via reduction of histological damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Klooshani, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica dioica leaf extract in animal models. Hydroalcoholic extract of the plant leaves was prepared by percolation method. Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) and male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly distributed in control, standard drug, and three experimental groups (n=6 in each group). Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin test, and carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. The extract dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal twitches. In formalin test, the extract at any of applied doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) could not suppress the licking behavior of first phase while doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the second phase of formalin test. In carrageenan test, the extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly inhibited the paw edema by 26%. The results confirm the folkloric use of the plant extract in painful and inflammatory conditions. Further studies are needed to characterize the active constituents and the mechanism of action of the plant extract.

  16. Urtica dioica modulates hippocampal insulin signaling and recognition memory deficit in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Gupta, Sahil; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been associated with functional abnormalities in the hippocampus and performance of cognitive function. Urtica dioica (UD) has been used in the treatment of diabetes. In our previous report we observed that UD extract attenuate diabetes mediated associative and spatial memory dysfunction. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of UD extract on mouse model of diabetes-induced recognition memory deficit and explore the possible mechanism behind it. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p. consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (ROSI) (5 mg/kg, oral) administration for 8 weeks. STZ induced diabetic mice showed significant decrease in hippocampal insulin signaling and translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to neuronal membrane resulting in cognitive dysfunction and hypolocomotion. UD treatment effectively improved hippocampal insulin signaling, glucose tolerance and recognition memory performance in diabetic mice, which was comparable to ROSI. Further, diabetes mediated oxidative stress and inflammation was reversed by chronic UD or ROSI administration. UD leaves extract acts via insulin signaling pathway and might prove to be effective for the diabetes mediated central nervous system complications.

  17. Anti-mycobacterial screening of five Indian medicinal plants and partial purification of active extracts of Cassia sophera and Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rambir; Hussain, Shariq; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Poonam

    2013-05-13

    To find out the anti-mycobacterial potential of Cassia sophera (C. sophera), Urtica dioica (U. dioica), Momordica dioica, Tribulus terrestris and Coccinia indica plants against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Plant materials were extracted successively with solvents of increasing polarity. Solvent extracts were screened for anti-mycobacterial activity against fast growing, non-pathogenic mycobacterium strain, Mycobacterium semegmatis, by disk diffusion method. The active extracts were tested against MDR and clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis by absolute concentration and proportion methods. The active extracts were subjected to bio-autoassay on TLC followed by silica column chromatography for isolation of potential drug leads. Hexane extract of U. dioica (HEUD) and methanol extract of C. sophera (MECS) produced inhibition zone of 20 mm in disc diffusion assay and MIC of 250 and 125 μ g/mL respectively in broth dilution assay against Mycobacterium semegmatis. Semipurified fraction F2 from MECS produced 86% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. F18 from HEUD produced 81% inhibition against clinical isolate and 60% inhibition against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. Phytochemical analysis indicated that anti-mycobacterial activity of MECS may be due to presence of alkaloids or flavonoids and that of HEUD due to terpenoids. C. sophera and U. dioica plant extracts exhibited promising anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR strain of M. tuberculosis. This is the first report of anti-mycobacterial activity form C. sophera. This study showed possibility of purifying novel anti-mycobacterial compound(s) from C. sophera and U. dioica. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome Assembly of Schlumbergera Virus X Infecting Prickly Pear (Opuntia cochenillifera) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Márcio Martinello; Lamas, Natalia Silva; Reis, Marcelo Banho A.; Arieta-Sosa, Juan Gabriel; Romano, Eduardo; Melo, Fernando Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Potexviruses frequently infect plants from the family Cactaceae. We report the complete genome sequence of a new Schlumbergera virus X (SchVX) isolate. The genome has 6,615 nucleotides and shares 94% nucleotide identity with SchVX-K11 from Schlumbergera. This is the first sequence of an isolate of SchVX from the genus Opuntia. PMID:25792054

  19. Coral settlement onto Halimeda opuntia: a fatal attraction to an ephemeral substrate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugues, Maggy M.; Szmant, Alina M.

    2006-11-01

    Degraded reefs with a high abundance of macroalgae usually also have low densities of coral recruits. Few studies, however, have examined whether these algae affect coral larval settlement. This study demonstrates, experimentally, that larvae of the Caribbean coral Favia fragrum can settle on the green alga Halimeda opuntia even when another substrate more suitable for settlement is present. Larval settlement onto experimental substrates was quantified under three treatments: rubble only, rubble plus plastic algal mimic, and rubble plus live H. opuntia. Similar total larval settlement was observed in all treatments. No larvae settled on the algal mimic, but total settlement was similar on the rubble in the first two treatments, showing that the rubble alone offered sufficient substrate for high settlement success. About half the larvae in the live algal treatment settled on H. opuntia instead of on the rubble, showing that larvae did not reject this substrate as they did the algal mimic. This result raises the possibility that corals will settle on some macroalgae when their abundance is high. Most macroalgae, including H. opuntia, are ephemeral substrates unsuitable for post-settlement survival. Such unexpected settlement may therefore have significant consequences for coral recruitment success on algal-dominated reefs.

  20. Two new alpha-pyrones and other components from the cladodes of Opuntia dillenii.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying Kun; Zhao, Yan Yan; Dou, De Qiang; Xu, Bi Xia; Liu, Ke

    2007-06-01

    The aqueous ethanolic extract from the fresh cladodes of Opuntia dillenii HAW. was found to show anti-inflammatory activity. Two new alpha-pyrones, named opuntioside II (1) and opuntioside III (2), were isolated from the extract together with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  1. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    PubMed

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  3. Quality of Opuntia robusta and its use in development of mayonnaise-like product.

    PubMed

    Bernardino-Nicanor, Aurea; Hinojosa-Hernández, Emma Noemí; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo Simitrio; Montañez-Soto, José Luis; Ramírez-Ortiz, María Eugenia; González-Cruz, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Opuntia robusta parenchyma and mucilage as foodstuffs. Solute absorption of Opuntia robusta parenchyma was studied, mucilage was used to develop a mayonnaise-like product as substitute emulsifier alternative to egg yolk and oil substitute. Shelf life of mayonnaise-like product was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that oxalate calcium crystal were present in the Opuntia robusta parenchyma and mucilage with druses morphology; whereas that in the mayonnaise-like product were not observed calcium oxalate crystals, due probably to the product pH is acidic. The heat treatment of parenchyma at 50 °C, 65°Brix, had highest influence on the solute absorption (about 35 %). Results revealed that best mixture was the formulated with 26.79 % oil, 62.50 % mucilage and 10.71 % whey protein. Mucilage was the component showing the highest effect on all textural characteristics of mayonnaise-like product. The storage temperature had highest effect on the textural characteristics of mayonnaise-like product than storage time. With the right combination of mucilage of Opuntia, oil and whey protein, it is possible to develop a low-fat mayonnaise with functional properties similar to those of commercial mayonnaise.

  4. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plants as uranium ((234)U, (238)U) contamination bioindicator near phosphogypsum stockpile.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    The aim of this study was to determine uranium concentrations in common nettle (Urtica dioica) plants and corresponding soils samples which were collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The uranium concentrations in roots depended on its concentrations in soils. Calculated BCF and TF values showed that soils characteristics and air deposition affect uranium absorption and that different uranium species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The values of (234)U/(238)U activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. Uranium concentration in plants roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  5. Antiatherogenic and antitumoral properties of Opuntia cladodes: inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation by vascular cells, and protection against the cytotoxicity of lipid oxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal in a colorectal cancer cellular model.

    PubMed

    Keller, Julia; Camaré, Caroline; Bernis, Corinne; Astello-García, Marizel; de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina Barba; Rossignol, Michel; del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Guéraud, Françoise

    2015-09-01

    Opuntia species have been used for thousands of years as a folk medicine in the treatment of diseases. However, the components and protective mechanisms are still unclear. We make the hypothesis that Opuntia species may protect the development of oxidative stress-associated diseases, such as atherosclerosis or colon cancer, via their antioxidant properties. We investigated the protective effect of Opuntia cladode powder against the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) evoked by vascular endothelial cells, an important risk factor for atherosclerosis development, and the toxicity of 4-hydroxynonenal (a major lipid peroxidation product) on normal (Apc +/+) and preneoplastic (Apc min/+) immortalized epithelial colon cells. Various Opuntia species classified according to their degree of domestication, from the wildest (Opuntia streptacantha, Opuntia hyptiacantha, Opuntia megacantha), medium (Opuntia albicarpa), to the most domesticated (Opuntia ficus-indica) were tested. Cladode powders prepared from these Opuntia species significantly inhibited LDL oxidation induced by incubation with murine endothelial cells and the subsequent foam cell formation of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and cytotoxicity on murine endothelial cells. Moreover, Opuntia cladode powder blocked the promotion of colon cancer development on an in vitro model of colonocytes. It may be noted that the phenolic acid and flavonoids content, the antioxidant capacity, and the protective effect were relatively similar in all the cladode powders from wild (O. streptacantha) and domesticated Opuntia. Altogether, these data confirm the therapeutic potential of Opuntia cladodes in diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  6. Irrigation magnifies CAM-photosynthesis in Opuntia basilaris (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Hanscom, Zac; Ting, Irwin P

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of acid metabolism and gas exchange were carried out four times during a year to assess the relative importance of temperature and the accompanying seasonal change to the carbon metabolism of Opuntia basilaris Engelm. & Bigel. plants growing in situ under irrigated and natural (control) conditions. Our experiments showed that this cactus did not change its pattern of carbon assimilation when continuously irrigated under field conditions. Non-irrigated cacti had maximum acid accumulation after periods of precipitation. Maximum acid accumulation in irrigated cacti occurred when there was a large difference between day/night temperatures (i.e., 16°C), and when nighttime temperatures were moderate (14C). Irrigated cacti had greater duration of stomatal opening and lower resistance to (14)CO2 uptake. When temperatures were low, daytime stomatal resistance to (14)CO2 uptake decreased (to 20-40 s cm(-1)), but never to the level of the nocturnal resistances (5-10 s cm(-1)). During periods of drought, nonirrigated cycti changed to a pattern in which organic acids fluctuated. Irrigated cacti continued to have (14)CO2 uptake when nighttime temperatures were as high as 33°C. (13)C/(12)C isotope composition ratios, determined after two years of irrigation, were near -12‰ in irrigated and non-irrigated plants. Therefore, under conditions of continual irrigation, seasonal and temperature changes affected the degree of dark CO2 fixation and acid metabolism, but these cacti did not change from CAM to CO2 fixation in the light.

  7. Structural characterization of dioicin 1 from Phytolacca dioica L. gains novel insights into phylogenetic relationships of Phytolaccaceae type 1 RIPs.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rosita; Chambery, Angela; Severino, Valeria; Parente, Augusto; Di Maro, Antimo

    2015-08-07

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins are plant cytotoxic enzymes, also present in fungi, algae and bacteria, mainly known for their ability to inhibit protein synthesis. We previously purified and structurally characterized three type 1 RIPs (PD-S1-3) from Phytolacca dioica seeds and four type 1 RIPs (PD-L1-4) from adult plant leaves. Two additional RIPs, named dioicin 1 and dioicin 2, were isolated from leaves of young plants and developing leaves of adult plants. The evidence that P. dioica synthesizes and accumulates these RIPs isoforms suggests that these proteins have been conserved during evolution. Though several aspects of P. dioica type 1 RIP characterization have been studied, some important questions remain to be answered especially with respect to Phytolaccaceae RIP evolution. One of the major problems encountered in approaching RIPs phylogeny concerns the availability of their sequences. In this study, we report the characterization of biological and structural properties of dioicin 1, including the determination of its primary structure by using a combined approach based on Edman degradation, de novo sequencing by ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS and peptide mapping by MALDI-TOF MS. Knowledge of dioicin 1 primary structure provide us a mean to deepen Phytolaccaceae's RIPs phylogeny. We speculate that both dioicins 1 and 2 share common ancestors with PAP-II and PAP icos-II and that dioicin 1 is not closely related to other members of this clade, thus shedding lights on evolutionary relationships among type 1 RIPs from Phytolaccaceae.

  8. The effect of Urtica dioica extract on the number of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J; Afshar, M

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with cerebral alterations in both human and animal models of the disease. These alterations include abnormal expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hippocampal astrogliosis. Urtica dioica (Nettle) is among several species listed for their use against diabetes in folk medicine. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the astrocyte number in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats after treatment with nettle. A total of 21 male albino Wistar rats were used in the present study. The animals were divided into three groups: control, nettle-untreated diabetic, and nettle treated diabetic. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin, the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. After a 5-week survival period, all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres. The area densities of the astrocytes were measured and compared between the three groups (p < 0.05). The number of astrocytes increased in the diabetic rats (24.06 +/- 9.57) compared with the controls (17.52 +/- 6.66). The densities in the treated rats (19.50 +/- 6.16) were lower than in the diabetic rats. Furthermore, the control and treated rats showed similar densities. We concluded that U. dioica extract helped compensate for astrocytes in the treatment rats dentate gyrus in comparison with diabetic rats.

  9. Effect of Selected Pyrazine Derivatives on the Production of Phenolics and Rutin in Urtica dioica and Fagopyrum esculentum.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Sárka; Fiedlerová, Vendula; Tůma, Jirí; Musil, Karel; Tůmová, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    The effect of four pyrazine derivatives on the content of phenolic compounds in Urtica dioica L. and rutin in Fagopyrum esculentum Moench was studied. Pyrazine derivatives H1 and H2 were used on U. dioica, and derivatives S1 and S2 on F. esculentum, both separately and in combination with urea. The content of phenolic compounds in the stems of U. dioica after treatment with H2 at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased compared with the control and to a lower concentration of the same pyrazine derivative. In the case of S1 and S2 for F. esculentum, rutin content also increased in stems, mainly after treatment together with urea. By contrast, rutin and phenolics contents in the leaves did not change in comparison with controls after application of H1, H2, S I and S2. Treatment with H1 and H2 in two chosen concentrations resulted in a significant increase in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. A slight increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed also after application of variants of S1 and S1 with urea. Pyrazine derivatives did not show any effect on either the relative content of chlorophyll or chlorophyll fluorescence. A slight weight reduction of above ground biomass was shown only after application of Si and S2. Dark necrosis on the edges and center of the leaves was observed in all treated plants after pyrazine application. The results suggest that all the pyrazine derivatives possess herbicidal effects.

  10. Predation potential of Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to the prickly pear cacti pest Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Olvera, H; Rodríguez, S; Barranco, J

    2013-08-01

    Functional response of the predator Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on five densities of Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) female adults was assessed under laboratory conditions. The searching efficiency of C. cacti significantly decreased as prey density increased. The logistic regression for the predator had a negative and significant linear parameter indicating a type II functional response. Non-linear regression for Holling predator equation estimated a handling time of 1.79 ± 0.129 h and attack rate coefficient of 0.1003 ± 0.030. Most of this handling time was because the predator spent a lot of time removing the waxy coating that protects adult females of D. opuntiae. Chilocorus cacti consumes females of D. opuntiae in their reproductive stage; therefore, it could be an effective natural enemy to suppress or regulate low density populations of D. opuntiae, preventing them to reach high densities.

  11. Food-chain transfer of cadmium and zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica to Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Hodson, Mark E; Hutchings, Tony R

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines the potential of Urtica dioica as an ecologically relevant species for use in ecotoxicological testing. It is prevalent in degraded ecosystems and is a food source for invertebrates. Urtica dioica grown in hydroponic solutions containing from less than 0.003 to 5.7 mg Cd/L or from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/L accumulated metals resulting in leaf tissue concentrations in the range of 0.10 to 24.9 mg Cd/kg or 22.5 to 2,772.0 mg Zn/kg. No toxicological effects were apparent except at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting that this species may be an important pathway for transfer of metals to primary plant consumers. Helix aspersa and Lumbricus terrestris were fed the Cd- and Zn-rich leaves of U. dioica for six and four weeks, respectively. Cadmium and Zn body load increased with increasing metal concentration in the leaves (p < 0.001). Ratios of invertebrate metal concentration to leaf metal concentration were in the range of 1:0.03 to 1:1.4 for Cd and 1:0.2 to 1:2.8 for Zn in H. aspersa and 1:0.002 to 1:3.9 for Cd and 1:0.2 to 1:8.8 for Zn in L. terrestris. Helix aspersa Cd and Zn tissue concentrations (15.5 and 1,220.2 mg/kg, respectively) were approximately threefold those in L. terrestris when both species were fed nettle leaves with concentrations of approximately 23 mg Cd/kg and 3,400 mg Zn/kg. Models demonstrate that L. terrestris Cd tissue concentrations (r2 = 0.74, p < 0.001) and H. aspersa Zn tissue concentrations (r(2) = 0.69, p < 0.001) can be estimated from concentrations of Cd and Zn within the leaves of U. dioica and suggest that reasonably reproducible results can be obtained using these species for ecotoxicological testing.

  12. Characterization of carotenoid profile of Spanish Sanguinos and Verdal prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, spp.) tissues.

    PubMed

    Cano, M P; Gómez-Maqueo, A; García-Cayuela, T; Welti-Chanes, J

    2017-12-15

    Carotenoid profiles of different tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit) of Spanish Sanguinos (red) and Verdal (orange) prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica spp.) have been characterized in detail and quantified for the first time. Carotenoids were determined by HPLC-PDA-MS (APCI(+)), using a reverse phase C30 column. A total of 9 xantophylls and 4 hydrocarbon carotenes were identified. Also, minor amounts of chlorophyll a, a' and b can be observed in Opuntia peel extracts. All carotenoids were found to be present in their free form (no carotenoid esters were detected). The RAE was highest in Opuntia peels, showing values from 19.20 to 16.48µg/100g fresh weigth, for Sanguinos and Verdal Opuntia fruits, respectively. The main carotenoid in Opuntia peel extracts was (all-E)-lutein with 1132.51 and 767.98µg/100g fresh weigth, followed by (all-E)-β-carotene with 200.40 and 173.50µg/100g fresh weigth for Sanguinos and Verdal varieties of Opuntia fruits, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil of pimento (Pimenta dioica (L) Merr.) from Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Padmakumari, K P; Sasidharan, Indu; Sreekumar, M M

    2011-01-01

    The composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil obtained through hydrodistillation of pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr] samples, namely P1 and P2, sourced from Jamaica, were studied. The chemical composition was analysed by GC and GC-MS methods. The antioxidant activities of the oils were evaluated in terms of their free-radical-scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation and superoxide anion ( [image omitted]). Total phenolic content, total reducing power and metal-chelating capacity of the oils were also estimated. Forty-five constituents were identified. The major compound identified was eugenol (74.71%, 73.35%), followed by methyl eugenol (4.08%, 9.54%) and caryophyllene (4.90%, 3.30%). The antioxidant assays showed that the oils possess very high radical scavenging activities (DPPH IC(50) 4.82 ± 0.08, 5.14 ± 0.11 µg mL(-1), ABTS IC(50) 2.27 ± 0.16, 2.94 ± 0.03 µg mL(-1), superoxide IC(50) 17.78 ± 1.31, 20.65 ± 0.82 µg mL(-1)). The metal chelating capacities (IC(50) 83.62 ± 2.10, 101.77 ± 1.01 µg mL(-1)) and reducing power were also very high. The results show that the essential oils possess significant antioxidant activity which is comparable to that of pure eugenol. Therefore the oil can be utilised as a natural antioxidant which gives good flavour as well as health benefits.

  14. The effect of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) seed oil on experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Genc, Zeynep; Yarat, Aysen; Tunali-Akbay, Tugba; Sener, Goksel; Cetinel, Sule; Pisiriciler, Rabia; Caliskan-Ak, Esin; Altıntas, Ayhan; Demirci, Betul

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Urtica dioica, known as stinging nettle, seed oil (UDO) treatment on colonic tissue and blood parameters of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Experimental colitis was induced with 1 mL of TNBS in 40% ethanol by intracolonic administration with a 8-cm-long cannula with rats under ether anesthesia, assigned to a colitis group and a colitis+UDO group. Rats in the control group were given saline at the same volume by intracolonic administration. UDO (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the colitis+UDO group by oral administration throughout a 3-day interval, 5 minutes later than colitis induction. Saline (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the control and colitis groups at the same volume by oral administration. At the end of the experiment macroscopic lesions were scored, and the degree of oxidant damage was evaluated by colonic total protein, sialic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione levels, collagen content, tissue factor activity, and superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities. Colonic tissues were also examined by histological and cytological analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6), lactate dehydrogenase activity, and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were analyzed in blood samples. We found that UDO decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and cholesterol, which were increased in colitis. UDO administration ameliorated the TNBS-induced disturbances in colonic tissue except for MDA. In conclusion, UDO, through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, merits consideration as a potential agent in ameliorating colonic inflammation.

  15. Protective effects of Urtica dioica seed extract in aflatoxicosis: histopathological and biochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Uyar, A; Yener, Z; Dogan, A

    2016-04-01

    The ameliorative potential and antioxidant capacity of an extract of Urtica dioica seeds (UDS) was investigated using histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) content in various tissues of broilers exposed to aflatoxin (AF). A total of 32 broilers were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, UDS extract-treated, AF-treated and AF+UDS extract-treated. Broilers in control and UDS extract-treated groups were fed on a diet without AF. The AF-treated group and AF+UDS extract-treated groups were treated with an estimated 1 mg total AF/kg feed. The AF+UDS extract groups received in addition 30 ml UDS extract/kg diet for 21 d. The AF-treated group had significantly decreased body weight gain when compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis showed a small increase in the concentrations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the AF-treated group compared to that of the control group, whereas concentrations of these enzymes were decreased in the AF+UDS group compared to that of the AF-treated group. Administration of supplementary UDS extract helped restore the AF-induced increase in MDA and reduced the antioxidant system towards normality, particularly in the liver, brain, kidney and heart. Hepatorenal protection by UDS extracts was further supported by the almost normal histology in AF+UDS extract-treated group as compared to the degenerative changes in the AF-treated broilers. It was concluded that UDS extract has a protective hepatorenal effect in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defence systems.

  16. RAPD-PCR and real-time PCR HRM based genetic variation evaluations of Urtica dioica parts, ecotypes and evaluations of morphotypes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uzonur, Irem; Akdeniz, Gamze; Katmer, Zeynep; Ersoy, Seyda Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Urtica dioica is an ethnobotanically and medicinally important Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) plant worldwide and in Turkey; 90 % of herbal CAM applications depend on it in Turkey. It has a wide range of habitats in nearly all continents. It is found in all three phytogeographical regions in Turkey (Euro-Siberian, Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean) with high adaptivity to heterogeneous geographies such as climate, soil types and altitudes. This fact in relation to the assessment of chemical constituents of the plant and combining with further genetic and morphological variation data can assist and enhance the works for the utility and reliability of CAM applications in effect and activity of this plant species. In this work we have made some preliminary experiments with novel approaches to reveal the ecotypes and genetic variation of mighty ecotypes of Urtica dioica from different phytogeographical regions of Turkey (Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean). The ecotypes have heterogeneity in both its parts (leaf, stem, root) as revealed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) using random primers and High-resolution Melt (HRM) analysis using Urtica dioica specific primers and universal chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) primers and morphological traits such as phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of plants' leaf infusions as used in medicinal applications in Turkey. This work will contribute a lot for the development of molecular markers to detect the genetic variation and heterogeneity of Urtica dioica to further relate with expected phenotypes that are most useful and relevant in CAM applications.

  17. Effects of Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract on cell apoptosis and related gene expression in human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-468).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Goldar, S; Shanehbandi, D; Khaze, V; Mohammadnejad, L; Baghbani, E; Baradaran, B

    2016-02-29

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in worldwide, especially in developing countries. Therefore, a large number of anticancer agents with herbal origins have been reported against this deadly disease. This study is the first to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Urtica dioica in MDA-MB-468, human breast adenocarcinoma cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylethiazol-2 yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction and trypan-blue exclusion assay were performed in MDA-MB-468 cells as well as control cell line L929 to analyze the cytotoxic activity of the dichloromethane extract. In addition, Apoptosis induction of Urtica dioica on the MDA-MB-468 cells was assessed using TUNEL (terminal deoxy transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick- end labeling) assay and DNA fragmentation analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that the extract significantly inhibited cell growth and viability without inducing damage to normal control cells. Nuclei Staining in TUNEL and DNA fragments in DNA fragmentation assay and increase in the mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, decrease in the bcl2 and no significant change in the caspase-8 mRNA expression level, showed that the induction of apoptosis was the main mechanism of cell death that induce by Urtica dioica extract. Our results suggest that urtica dioica dichloromethane extract may contain potential bioactive compound(s) for the treatment of breast adenocarcinoma.

  18. Endostyle cell recruitment as a frame of reference for development and growth in the Urochordate Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Troedsson, Christofer; Ganot, Philippe; Bouquet, Jean-Marie; Aksnes, Dag L; Thompson, Eric M

    2007-12-01

    In models of growth and life history, and in molecular and cell biology, there is a need for more accurate frames of reference to characterize developmental progression. In Caenorhabditis elegans, complete fate maps of cell lineage provide such a standard of reference. To be more widely applicable, reference frames should be easier to measure while still providing strong predictive capacity. Towards this aim, we have analyzed growth of the endostyle in the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica at the cellular level, and measured its response to temperature and food availability. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that age of a specific developmental stage in O. dioica can be predicted from the number of endostyle cells and temperature. We show that the endostyle grows by recruiting cells from the posterior tip into the lateral arms of the organ in an anterior-posterior orientation and that the rate of increase in lateral arm endostyle cells is temperature-dependent but unresponsive to nutritional intake. Endostyle cells therefore serve as an accurate and easily measured marker to describe developmental progression. Conceptually, such a method of characterizing developmental progression should help bridge life-history events and molecular mechanisms throughout organismal aging, facilitating cross-disciplinary understanding by providing a common experimental framework.

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21(st) day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant properties, elemental and phenolic contents composition of wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) from Tunceli in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, N C; Turkoglu, S; Ince, O K; Ince, M

    2013-11-03

    Wild nettle (Urtica dioica L.) types were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) to determine their mineral, vitamin, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 37.419 ± 0.380 to 19.182 ± 1.00 mg of GAEs g(-1) of dry nettle. The highest radical scavenging effect was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 33.70 ± 0.849 mg mL(-1). The highest reducing power was observed in the nettles from Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km. Among the various macronutrients estimated in the plant samples, potassium was present in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Kaempferol and resveratrol were not determined in some nettle samples but rutin levels were determined in all samples. Vitamin A concentrations were ranged between 13.64 ± 1.90 and 5.74 ± 1.00 (mg kg(-1) dry weight). These results show that Urtica dioica L. collected from Tunceli in Turkey could be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors.

  1. Sex-specific interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate fungi in the dioecious plant Antennaria dioica (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Vega-Frutis, R; Varga, S; Kytöviita, M-M

    2013-05-01

    Male and female plants of dioecious species often differ in their resource demands and this has been linked to secondary sexual dimorphism, including sex-specific interactions with other organisms such as herbivores and pollinators. However, little is known about the interaction between dioecious plants and fungal root endophytes. Plants may be simultaneously colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate (DS) fungi. While it is well established that AM mutualism involves reciprocal transfer of photosynthates and mineral nutrients between roots of host plants and these fungi, the role of DS fungi remains controversial. Here, we report the temporal and spatial variation in AM and DS fungi in female, male and non-reproductive Antennaria dioica plants in three natural populations in Finland during flowering and after seed production. Females had higher colonisation by AM fungi, but lower colonisation by DS fungi than male and non-reproductive plants. The higher AM colonisation was observed during flowering, and this difference varied among populations. Our results suggest that females and males of A. dioica interact with AM and DS fungi differently and that this relationship is dependent on soil fertility.

  2. Opuntia in México: identifying priority areas for conserving biodiversity in a multi-use landscape.

    PubMed

    Illoldi-Rangel, Patricia; Ciarleglio, Michael; Sheinvar, Leia; Linaje, Miguel; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2012-01-01

    México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness) for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi-criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi-criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one-third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as only a small number of blocks that would be recommended for

  3. Opuntia in México: Identifying Priority Areas for Conserving Biodiversity in a Multi-Use Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Illoldi-Rangel, Patricia; Ciarleglio, Michael; Sheinvar, Leia; Linaje, Miguel; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2012-01-01

    Background México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness) for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi–criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. Methods and Findings Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi–criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one–third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. Conclusions Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as only a small number

  4. Contribution to the characterization of Opuntia spp. juices by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mata, A; Ferreira, J P; Semedo, C; Serra, T; Duarte, C M M; Bronze, M R

    2016-11-01

    Opuntia spp. fruits are considered as health promoting foods due to the diversity of bioactive molecules found in these fruits. The composition in organic acids, flavonols and betalains in the Opuntia ficus-indica juice from a region of Portugal was accomplished for the first time by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source operating in negative and positive mode. The methodology used allowed the detection of 44 compounds, from which 32 were identified. Isorhamnetin derivatives were the dominant flavonol glycosides. A total of 9 betalains including 6 betaxanthins and 3 betacyanin were also detected in the fruit juice samples and indicaxanthin, betanin and isobetanin were the major pigments. Phenolic acid and phenylpyruvic acid derivatives were also identified. To our knowledge, it is the first time derivative compounds from piscidic acid, phenolic compounds and betalains are characterized in cactus pear juice using a single LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method.

  5. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory action of Opuntia elatior Mill fruits.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sanjay P; Sheth, Navin R; Suhagia, Bhanubhai N

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia elatio Mill is a xerophytic plant with potentially active nutrients. It is traditionally appreciated for its pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this plant is insufficient. The present study evaluates the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of prickly pear. Writhing and tail-immersion tests were carried out to evaluate analgesic action, while the carrageenan-induced paw edema and neutrophil adhesion tests were conducted in Albino wistar rats to assess anti-inflammatory action. ED50 values of the fruit juice in writhing, tail immersion, and paw edema test were 0.919, 2.77, and 9.282 ml/kg, respectively. The fruits of Opuntia produced analgesic and anti-inflammatory action in a dose-dependent manner. The results establish the folklore use of prickly pear may be due to the presence of betacyanin and/or other phenolic compounds.

  6. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  7. Phenolic Profiles, Phytchemicals and Mineral Content of Decoction and Infusion of Opuntia ficus-indica Flowers.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Imene; Ennouri, Monia; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ben Amira, Amal; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-12-01

    Opuntia flowers are a natural source of biologically active compounds and they have been used as medicinal plant for a long time. Despite the various uses reported for the decoction and infusion of these flowers, their characterization has been discarded. In this study, the decoction and infusion prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica were analyzed with respect to their content in minerals and phytochemicals in order to evaluate its nutritional characteristics. The obtained data proved that these preparations are a rich source of minerals mainly K and Ca. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed that they have important polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents with the infusion that presented the highest polyphenol levels. LC-MS analyses of decoction and infusion allowed the characterization of 20 phenolic compounds. It is mainly identified by the presence of flavonols glycosides.

  8. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  9. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory action of Opuntia elatior Mill fruits

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sanjay P.; Sheth, Navin R.; Suhagia, Bhanubhai N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Opuntia elatio Mill is a xerophytic plant with potentially active nutrients. It is traditionally appreciated for its pharmacological properties; however, the scientific information on this plant is insufficient. Objective: The present study evaluates the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of prickly pear. Materials and Methods: Writhing and tail-immersion tests were carried out to evaluate analgesic action, while the carrageenan-induced paw edema and neutrophil adhesion tests were conducted in Albino wistar rats to assess anti-inflammatory action. Results: ED50 values of the fruit juice in writhing, tail immersion, and paw edema test were 0.919, 2.77, and 9.282 ml/kg, respectively. The fruits of Opuntia produced analgesic and anti-inflammatory action in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The results establish the folklore use of prickly pear may be due to the presence of betacyanin and/or other phenolic compounds. PMID:26166996

  10. Antihyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Alvarez, Valente B; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of a methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds fed to mice in a hypercholesterolemic diet. Acute toxicity of the methanolic extract was investigated by an established method. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and DPPH, respectively. The total phenolic content of Opuntia joconostle seeds was 47.85 ± 1.29 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The main phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin, rutin, and cafeic acid. Percent inhibition of DPPH⁺ was 49.76 ± 0.49 %. The oral LD₅₀ for the methanolic extract from the Opuntia joconostle seeds was >5,000 mg/kg BW. Mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for six days exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.001) higher plasma lipid levels than mice fed a normal diet. Remarkably, supplementation with methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle at doses of 1, 2, and 5 g/kg body weight significantly (P ≤ 0.001) prevented the increase in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides level, and atherogenic index. Similar concentrations of the HDL cholesterol were observed in both treated and control groups. A significant dose-dependent reduction in lipid levels was noted for treated groups compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. We attribute this result to the seeds' phenolic composition. This methanolic extract has potential to be included in short-term hypercholesterolemia treatment regimens as it exhibits hypolipidemic activity with no apparent toxic manifestations.

  11. Genome Assembly of Schlumbergera Virus X Infecting Prickly Pear (Opuntia cochenillifera) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Márcio Martinello; Lamas, Natalia Silva; Reis, Marcelo Banho A; Arieta-Sosa, Juan Gabriel; Romano, Eduardo; Melo, Fernando Lucas; Ribeiro, Simone Graça

    2015-03-19

    Potexviruses frequently infect plants from the family Cactaceae. We report the complete genome sequence of a new Schlumbergera virus X (SchVX) isolate. The genome has 6,615 nucleotides and shares 94% nucleotide identity with SchVX-K11 from Schlumbergera. This is the first sequence of an isolate of SchVX from the genus Opuntia. Copyright © 2015 Sanches et al.

  12. A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE STEMS OF OPUNTIA VULGARIS

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mitra, Sanmoy

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activity of stems of Opuntia vulgaris Mill had been investigated by estimating degree of non-enzymatic haemoglobin glycosylation measured colorimetrically at 520 urn. It was found that benzene and chloroform extract of O. vulgaris had better antioxidant activity than petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was concentration dependent and comparable to that of D-α- tocopherol (vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), standard antioxidant compounds used. PMID:22247855

  13. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  14. Patterning and morphogenesis of the intricate but stereotyped oikoplastic epidermis of the appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Kanae; Hayashi, Momoko; Onuma, Takeshi A; Nishida, Hiroki

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms for morphogenetic processes that generate complex patterns in a reproducible manner remain elusive. Live imaging provides a powerful tool to record cell behaviors. The appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, is a planktonic tunicate that has a rapid developmental speed, small number of cells (less than 3500 cells in a juvenile), and a transparent body. The trunk epidermis, called the oikoplastic epithelium (OE), has elaborate cellular arrangements showing a complex pattern to secrete so-called "house" made of extracellular components. The OE is characterized by invariant number, size, and shape of the monolayer epithelial cells. Pattern formation is achieved during 5h of larval development without growth of the body, making this a suitable system for live imaging of a two-dimensional (2D) sheet. First, we subdivided the OE and defined several domains by cellular resolution, and systematically gave names to the constituent cells, since there is no variation among individuals. Time-lapse imaging of the epidermal cells revealed region-specific pattern formation processes. Each identified domain served as a compartment into which distribution of descendant cells of founder cells is restricted. Regulation of orientation, timing, and the number of rounds of cell divisions, but not cell death and migration, was a critical mechanism for determination of final cell arrangement and size. In addition, displacement of epithelial sheet plates was observed in the Eisen domain. Stem-cell-like cell divisions, whereby large mother stem cells generate a chain of small daughter cells, were involved in formation of the Nasse region and ventral sensory organ. These are the first examples of this kind of stem-cell-like cell division in deuterostomes. Furthermore, labeling of the left or right blastomere of the two-cell-stage embryo, which roughly gives rise to the left or right side of the body, respectively, revealed that the boundary of the descendant cells does not match with

  15. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Kanter, Mehmet; Oguz, Serhat; Erboga, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury may occur after renal transplantation, thoracoabdominal aortic surgery, and renal artery interventions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica L. (UD), in I/R induced renal injury. A total of 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, UD alone, I/R and I/R + UD; each group contain 8 animals. A rat model of renal I/R injury was induced by 45-min occlusion of the bilateral renal pedicles and 24-h reperfusion. In the UD group, 3 days before I/R, UD (2 ml/kg/day intraperitoneal) was administered by gastric gavage. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and kidney tissues samples were obtained for histopathological investigation in all groups. To date, no more histopathological changes on intestinal I/R injury in rats by UD treatment have been reported. Renal I/R caused severe histopathological injury including tubular damage, atrophy dilatation, loss of brush border and hydropic epithelial cell degenerations, renal corpuscle atrophy, glomerular shrinkage, markedly focal mononuclear cell infiltrations in the kidney. UD treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and significantly lowered tubulointerstitial damage score than the I/R group. The number of PCNA and TUNEL positive cells in the control and UD alone groups was negligible. When kidney sections were PCNA and TUNEL stained, there was a clear increase in the number of positive cells in the I/R group rats in the renal cortical tissues. However, there is a significant reduction in the activity of PCNA and TUNEL in kidney tissue of renal injury induced by renal I/R with UD therapy. Our results suggest that administration of UD attenuates renal I/R injury. These results suggest that UD treatment has a protective effect against renal damage induced by renal I/R. This protective effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit I/R induced renal damage, apoptosis and cell proliferation.

  16. Microscale Mechanism of Age Dependent Wetting Properties of Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia).

    PubMed

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Jordan, Jacob S; Linder, Rubin; Woods, Erik T; Sun, Xiaoda; Kemme, Nicholas; Manning, Kenneth C; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Majure, Lucas C

    2016-09-13

    Cacti thrive in xeric environments through specialized water storage and collection tactics such as a shallow, widespread root system that maximizes rainwater absorption and spines adapted for fog droplet collection. However, in many cacti, the epidermis, not the spines, dominates the exterior surface area. Yet, little attention has been dedicated to studying interactions of the cactus epidermis with water drops. Surprisingly, the epidermis of plants in the genus Opuntia, also known as prickly pear cacti, has water-repelling characteristics. In this work, we report that surface properties of cladodes of 25 taxa of Opuntia grown in an arid Sonoran climate switch from water-repelling to superwetting under water impact over the span of a single season. We show that the old cladode surfaces are not superhydrophilic, but have nearly vanishing receding contact angle. We study water drop interactions with, as well as nano/microscale topology and chemistry of, the new and old cladodes of two Opuntia species and use this information to uncover the microscopic mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We demonstrate that composition of extracted wax and its contact angle do not change significantly with time. Instead, we show that the reported age dependent wetting behavior primarily stems from pinning of the receding contact line along multilayer surface microcracks in the epicuticular wax that expose the underlying highly hydrophilic layers.

  17. Toward understanding the efficacy and mechanism of Opuntia spp. as a natural coagulant for potential application in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sarah M; Fugate, Ezekiel J; Craver, Vinka Oyanedel; Smith, James A; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2008-06-15

    Historically, there is evidence to suggest that communities in the developing world have used plant-based materials as one strategy for purifying drinking water. In this study, the coagulant properties of Opuntia spp., a species of cactus, are quantitatively evaluated for the first time. Opuntia spp. was evaluated for turbidity removal from synthetic water samples, and steps were made toward elucidating the underlying coagulation mechanism. In model turbid water using kaolin clay particles at pH 10, Opuntia spp. reduced turbidity by 98% for a range of initial turbidities. This is similar to the observed coagulation activities previously described for Moringa oleifera, a widely studied natural coagulant. Although it has been reported that Moringa oleifera predominantly operates through charge neutralization, comparison of zeta potential measurements and transmission electron microscopy images of flocs formed by Opuntia spp. suggest that these natural coagulants operate through different mechanisms. It is suggested that Opuntia spp. operates predominantly through a bridging coagulation mechanism. Once optimized, application of these readily available plants as a part of point-of-use water treatment technology may offer a practical, inexpensive, and appropriate solution for producing potable water in some developing communities.

  18. Evaluation of the suspending properties of two local Opuntia spp. mucilages on paracetamol suspension.

    PubMed

    Gebresamuel, Naod; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige

    2013-01-01

    Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The purpose of this study is to develop cheap and effective natural excipient that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The suspending properties of Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia stricta mucilages (family Cactaceae) were evaluated comparatively with that of NaCMC at concentration range of 2-6% (w/v) in Paracetamol suspension. Sedimentation volume (%) (with and without electrolyte), rheology, redispersibility, and dissolution rate of the suspensions were employed as evaluation parameters. The values obtained were used as basis for comparison of the suspending agents. The apparent viscosities of the suspensions in all the suspending agents concentration levels and applied shear rates were in the order of NaCMC>OS>OFI with non-Newtonian flow and accordingly the flow rates of the suspensions were in the order of OFI > OS > NaCMC. The sedimentation volumes (%) of the suspensions in all the suspending agent concentration levels were higher for OS followed by OFI and then NaCMC. The high sedimentation volumes (%) of suspensions, in turn, were accompanied by ease of redispersibility of that order. The effect of electrolyte on sedimentation volume (%) had dual effect. It was only the suspensions that had NaCMC that showed increase in sedimentation volume (%) in all molar NaCl concentration. However, in suspensions that had mucilages of OS and OFI, an initial increase in sediment volumes (%) were accompanied by decrease after 1x10(-3)M and 1x10(-2)M of NaCl, respectively. Dissolution of the suspensions which had mucilages attained the acceptable ranges (> 80% drug release in 30 min) in 5 min. Similarly, except A6 formulations A2, A3, A4 and A5 have attained the limit but the release was not as quick as the previous formulations. Hence, it can be concluded that mucilages of Opuntia spp. (Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia stricta

  19. Exploitation of Opuntia cactus by birds on the Galápagos.

    PubMed

    Grant, B R; Grant, P R

    1981-05-01

    (1) There is a close association between Opuntia helleri (cactus) and Geospiza conirostris (cactus finch) on Isla Genovesa, and between Opuntia echios and Geospiza scandens on Isla Daphne Major. The two finch species consume nectar and pollen, pollinate the obligatorily out-crossing flowers, consume the aril around the seeds, crack the seeds and occasionally disperse them. (2) In the dry season the two finch species open Opuntia flower buds, thereby gaining early access to pollen. But in the process, and at partially open flowers, they snip the style and destroy the stigmas in up to 78% of the flowers. (3) Stigma snipping prevents fertilization of the ovules and the development of seeds which are an important food item later in the year when food supply is likely to limit finch population sizes. Stigma snipping almost ceases in the main part of the wet season, corresponding with an increase in the density of Opuntia flowers and other food types, and a decrease in the proportion of feeding time spent on Opuntia flowers. Stigma snipping neither increased the time flowers remained open nor influenced nectar flow or the number and duration of subsequent visits to flowers by potential pollinators. This last result precludes the possibility that snipping is a means of marking the flower to signal a previous visit to the flower and pollen removal. (4) We conclude that the two finch species snip stigmas to facilitate removal of pollen from the central incurving stamens which are masked by the stigma in a closed or partially open flower. The finches gain a short-term benefit from the removal of stigmas in easy access to pollen and possibly nectar. They potentially suffer in the long term through diminished dry season food supply (seeds), particularly in drought years but we were unable to detect any fitness decrement suffered by the individual finches which do the snipping. (5) An important implication of these results and interpretations is that a behavioral trait which

  20. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.)

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Sinchan; Saha, Soumen; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR) amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp) was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism. PMID:25538949

  1. Identification and validation of a new male sex-specific ISSR marker in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Sinchan; Saha, Soumen; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas Kumar; Ghosh, Parthadeb

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR) amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp) was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.

  2. Effects of water extract of Urtica dioica L. and modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Alp, Esen; Aksu, Muhammet Irfan

    2010-10-01

    Effects of lyophilized Urtica dioica L. water extract (LUWE) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality and shelf life of ground beef were investigated. Ground beef was stored as aerobic control, MAP (80%O(2)+20% CO(2)), MAP+250 ppm LUWE and MAP and 500 ppm LUWE at 2+/-0.5 degrees C for 14 days. MAP and LUWE had significant effects on mesophilic, psychrotrophic and lactic acid bacteria and Pseudomonas counts. Depending on the level of LUWE, Pseudomonas and psychrotrophic counts decreased. Treatment with 500 ppm LUWE+MAP showed the lowest TBARS values compared to other groups during storage. 80% O(2)-MAP increased TBARS values. Treatment had no significant effect on L* and b* values of the exterior of the ground beef, but had significant effects on the color of interior sections.

  3. A scanning proton microprobe study of stinging emergences from the leaf of the common stinging nettle urtica dioica l.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, N. P.; Perry, C. C.; Williams, R. J. P.; Watt, F.; Grime, G. W.

    1988-03-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) combined with the Oxford scanning proton microprobe (SPM) was used to investigate the abundance and spatial distribution of inorganic elements in mineralising stinging emergences from the leaf of the Common Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica L. Elemental maps and point analytical data were collected for emergences at two stages of maturity. In all emergences calcium and silicon were spatially organised and present at high concentration. The inorganic elements K, P, S and Mn were also spatially organised during mineralisation, but at maturity these elements were present only at background levels and then showed no specific localisation. The observed changes in the inorganic content of the emergences are obviously related to the mineralisation processes. The possible biochemical significance of the distribution of the elements is discussed.

  4. Antitumor efficacy and amelioration of oxidative stress by Trichosanthes dioica root against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Prasanna, Angelene; Majumdar, Piyali; Kumar, R B Suresh; Haldar, Pallab K

    2011-09-01

    Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae) is a dioecious climber, traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes. The present study assessed the hydroalcoholic extract of T. dioica root (TDA) for antitumor effect and antioxidant influence against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Twenty four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor (EAC) cells in mice, TDA was administered at 5 and 10 mg/kg body weight daily for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed for estimation of tumor proliferation, hematological, and liver antioxidant parameters viz. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); and the rest were kept alive for assessment of increase in life span. The antitumor effect of TDA was assessed by evaluating tumor weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable and non-viable tumor cell counts, median survival time and percentage increase in life span of EAC bearing mice. TDA exhibited dose dependent and significant (p < 0.001) decrease in tumor weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and extended the life span of EAC bearing hosts. Hematological profiles were significantly (p < 0.001) restored near to normal in TDA treated mice as compared to EAC control. TDA treatment significantly (p < 0.001) modulated the aforesaid liver antioxidant parameters as compared to EAC control. The present study demonstrated that TDA possessed promising antitumor efficacy in mice, plausibly mediated by amelioration of oxidative stress by multiple mechanisms.

  5. Glacial Refugia in Pathogens: European Genetic Structure of Anther Smut Pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica

    PubMed Central

    Vercken, Elodie; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E.; Jonot, Odile; Giraud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two Microbotryum species causing anther smut disease on the plants Silene latifolia and Silene dioica. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on S. latifolia, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species S. latifolia, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on S. dioica also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization

  6. Interrelationships between mycorrhizal symbiosis, soil pH and plant sex modify the performance of Antennaria dioica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Sandra; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2010-05-01

    AM symbiosis is usually beneficial for plants, but the benefits gained may depend on the soil abiotic factors. In dioecious plants, female and male individuals have different resource demands and allocation patterns. As a consequence of these differences, it is logical to assume that female and male plants differ in their relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, although this has rarely been examined. We used a factorial greenhouse experiment to investigate whether female and male plants in the dioecious model species Antennaria dioica have a different relationship with their AM symbionts under two soil pH levels. In particular, we asked: (1) Do the sexes in A. dioica have sex-specific benefits from AM symbiosis? (2) If so, which sex gains the highest benefit? (3) How does soil pH affect the sex - AM fungal relationship? Our results indicate that the sexes responded similarly to AM symbiosis and pH when mycorrhizal benefit was examined as growth and phosphorus accumulation. However, the sexes differed in response to AM symbiosis in terms of survival, as mortality was increased due to AM symbiosis in female plants whilst the opposite effect was detected in males. The plant-AM fungus relationship was significantly affected by soil pH as lowering the soil pH decreased the benefits gained by the plants from the mycorrhizal fungus. Taken together, our findings indicate that AM symbiosis is beneficial for plants depending on the life history trait considered. In addition, interactions between plants and their AM symbionts are modified by soil factors and the sex of the plant.

  7. Influence of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on vegetative growth in the dioecious plant Urtica dioica

    PubMed Central

    Oñate, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous, dioecious perennial that is widely distributed around the world, reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is characterized by rapid growth. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on the growth of leaves and shoots. Methods Growth rates of apical shoots, together with foliar levels of phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, absicisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) and other indicators of leaf physiology (water contents, photosynthetic pigments, α-tocopherol and Fv/Fm ratios) were measured in juvenile and mature plants, with a distinction made between reproductive and non-reproductive shoots in both males and females. Vegetative growth rates were not only evaluated in field-grown plants, but also in cuttings obtained from these plants. All measurements were performed during an active vegetative growth phase in autumn, a few months after mature plants reproduced during spring and summer. Key Results Vegetative growth rates in mature plants were drastically reduced compared with juvenile ones (48 % and 78 % for number of leaves and leaf biomass produced per day, respectively), which was associated with a loss of photosynthetic pigments (up to 24 % and 48 % for chlorophylls and carotenoids, respectively) and increases of α-tocopherol (up to 2·7-fold), while endogenous levels of phytohormones did not differ between mature and juvenile plants. Reductions in vegetative growth were particularly evident in reproductive shoots of mature plants, and occurred similarly in both males and females. Conclusions It is concluded that (a) plant maturity reduces vegetative growth in U. dioica, (b) effects of plant maturity are evident both in reproductive and non-reproductive shoots, but particularly in the former, and (c) these changes occur similarly in both male and female plants. PMID:19633309

  8. Influence of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on vegetative growth in the dioecious plant Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Oñate, Marta; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2009-10-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a herbaceous, dioecious perennial that is widely distributed around the world, reproduces both sexually and asexually, and is characterized by rapid growth. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant maturity, shoot reproduction and sex on the growth of leaves and shoots. Growth rates of apical shoots, together with foliar levels of phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, absicisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid) and other indicators of leaf physiology (water contents, photosynthetic pigments, alpha-tocopherol and F(v)/F(m) ratios) were measured in juvenile and mature plants, with a distinction made between reproductive and non-reproductive shoots in both males and females. Vegetative growth rates were not only evaluated in field-grown plants, but also in cuttings obtained from these plants. All measurements were performed during an active vegetative growth phase in autumn, a few months after mature plants reproduced during spring and summer. Vegetative growth rates in mature plants were drastically reduced compared with juvenile ones (48 % and 78 % for number of leaves and leaf biomass produced per day, respectively), which was associated with a loss of photosynthetic pigments (up to 24 % and 48 % for chlorophylls and carotenoids, respectively) and increases of alpha-tocopherol (up to 2.7-fold), while endogenous levels of phytohormones did not differ between mature and juvenile plants. Reductions in vegetative growth were particularly evident in reproductive shoots of mature plants, and occurred similarly in both males and females. It is concluded that (a) plant maturity reduces vegetative growth in U. dioica, (b) effects of plant maturity are evident both in reproductive and non-reproductive shoots, but particularly in the former, and (c) these changes occur similarly in both male and female plants.

  9. Differential larval settlement responses of Porites astreoides and Acropora palmata in the presence of the green alga Halimeda opuntia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, K.; Sneed, J. M.; Paul, V. J.

    2016-06-01

    Settlement is critical to maintaining coral cover on reefs, yet interspecific responses of coral planulae to common benthic macroalgae are not well characterized. Larval survival and settlement of two Caribbean reef-building corals, the broadcast-spawner Acropora palmata and the planulae-brooder Porites astreoides, were quantified following exposure to plastic algae controls and the green macroalga Halimeda opuntia. Survival and settlement rates were not significantly affected by the presence of H. opuntia in either species. However, ~10 % of P. astreoides larvae settled on the surface of the macroalga, whereas larvae of A. palmata did not. It is unlikely that corals that settle on macroalgae will survive post-settlement; therefore, H. opuntia may reduce the number of P. astreoides and other non-discriminatory larvae that survive to adulthood. Our results suggest that the presence of macroalgae on impacted reefs can have unexpected repercussions for coral recruitment and highlight discrepancies in settlement specificity between corals with distinct life history strategies.

  10. Sex-related differences in photoinhibition, photo-oxidative stress and photoprotection in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) exposed to drought and nutrient deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simancas, Bárbara; Juvany, Marta; Cotado, Alba; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-03-01

    Dimorphic plant species can show distinct nutrient needs due to sex-related differences in nutrient allocation to reproductive structures, which can potentially affect their sensitivity to photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress. Here, we investigated sex-related differences in the extent of photo-oxidative stress in male and female individuals of U. dioica exposed to a combination of severe drought and nutrient starvation. Male and female individuals of U. dioica subject to severe drought stress were exposed to various levels of nutrient availability. First, a set of plants grown under field conditions and exposed to summer drought was used to test the effects of nutrient supply (given as NPK fertilizer). Secondly, the effects of various phosphate concentrations in the nutrient solution were tested in drought-stressed potted plants. The Fv/Fm ratio (maximum efficiency of PSII photochemistry), photoprotection capacity (levels of carotenoids, including the xanthophyll cycle, and vitamins C and E), and the extent of lipid peroxidation (hydroperoxide levels) were measured. Results showed that an application of the NPK fertilizer to the soil had a positive effect on drought-stressed plants, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation in both males and females. P deficiency led to residual photoinhibition, as indicated by significant reductions in the Fv/Fm ratio, and enhanced lipid peroxidation in females, but not in males. We conclude that (i) increased nutrient availability in the soil can alleviate photo-oxidative stress in drought-stressed U. dioica plants, and (ii) U. dioica plants show sexual secondary dimorphism in terms of photoinhibition and photo-oxidative stress, but this is only apparent when stress infringed on plants is very severe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibition and in vivo antioxidant potential of Momordica dioica seeds in streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, P Sailaja; Mohan, G Krishna

    2017-09-01

    Momordica dioica Roxb. Commonly known as "Kakora" in Telugu, is used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of M. dioica seeds (MEMD) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity of the MEMD was done by spectrophotometric method. Diabetes was induced by STZ (45 mg/kg; i.p), MEMD (100 & 200 mg/kg; b.wt) and standard drug metformin (50 mg/kg; b.wt) were administered to the diabetic rats. Blood glucose was estimated on the 11th day and the level of MDA, SOD and CAT was estimated in the liver tissue homogenate after the 15 days of experimental period. MEMD showed significant inhibition of alpha amylase activity and the IC50 was found to be 48 μg/ml. Oral administration of MEMD significantly reduced blood glucose level (P < 0.05), diminished the MDA level and refurbished depleted antioxidant enzymes and Insulin level to normalcy. These findings revealed that M. dioica seeds possess antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti lipid peroxidative activity and thus mitigate STZ-induced oxidative damage.

  12. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter.

    PubMed

    Viktorova, Jitka; Jandova, Zuzana; Madlenakova, Michaela; Prouzova, Petra; Bartunek, Vilem; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Musilova, Lucie; Macek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal) content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd) had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought.

  13. A sex-linked SCAR marker in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), a dioecious species with XY sex-determination and homomorphic sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Oyama, R K; Volz, S M; Renner, S S

    2009-01-01

    Genetic crosses between the dioecious Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae) and the monoecious B. alba in 1903 provided the first clear evidence for Mendelian inheritance of dioecy and made B. dioica the first organism for which XY sex-determination was experimentally proven. Applying molecular tools to this system, we developed a sex-linked sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for B. dioica and sequenced it for individuals representing the full geographic range of the species from Scotland to North Africa. For comparison, we also sequenced this marker for representatives of the dioecious B. cretica, B. multiflora and B. syriaca, and monoecious B. alba. In no case did any individual, male or female, yield more than two haplotypes. In northern Europe, we found strong linkage between our marker and sex, with all Y-sequences being identical to each other. In southern Europe, however, the linkage between our marker and sex was weak, with recombination detected within both the X- and the Y-homologues. Population genetic analyses suggest that the SCAR marker experienced different evolutionary pressures in northern and southern Europe. These findings fit with phylogenetic evidence that the XY system in Bryonia is labile and suggest that the genus may be a good system in which to study the early steps of sex chromosome evolution.

  14. Native Phytoremediation Potential of Urtica dioica for Removal of PCBs and Heavy Metals Can Be Improved by Genetic Manipulations Using Constitutive CaMV 35S Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Viktorova, Jitka; Jandova, Zuzana; Madlenakova, Michaela; Prouzova, Petra; Bartunek, Vilem; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Musilova, Lucie; Macek, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Although stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) has been shown to reduce HM (heavy metal) content in soil, its wider phytoremediation potential has been neglected. Urtica dioica was cultivated in soils contaminated with HMs or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). After four months, up to 33% of the less chlorinated biphenyls and 8% of HMs (Zn, Pb, Cd) had been removed. Bacteria were isolated from the plant tissue, with the endophytic bacteria Bacillus shackletonii and Streptomyces badius shown to have the most significant effect. These bacteria demonstrated not only benefits for plant growth, but also extreme tolerance to As, Zn and Pb. Despite these results, the native phytoremediation potential of nettles could be improved by biotechnologies. Transient expression was used to investigate the functionality of the most common constitutive promoter, CaMV 35S in Urtica dioica. This showed the expression of the CUP and bphC transgenes. Collectively, our findings suggest that remediation by stinging nettle could have a much wider range of applications than previously thought. PMID:27930707

  15. A study on possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination biomonitor in the area of phosphogypsum stockpile.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Grzegorz; Boryło, Alicja; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a possible use of Urtica dioica (common nettle) plant as a biomonitor of polonium (210)Po and lead (210)Pb contamination near phosphogypsum stacks by determining concentrations of these radionuclides in samples collected from the area of phosphogypsum stockpile in Wiślinka (northern Poland). The (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in roots depended on their concentrations in soils. Bioconcentration factor values from soil to root of the plant did not depend on (210)Po and (210)Pb contents in soils that leads to the conclusion that different polonium and lead species have different affinities to U. dioica plants. The main sources of both analyzed radionuclides in green parts of plants are wet and dry air deposition and transportation from soil. The values of (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratio indicate natural origin of these radioisotopes in analyzed plants. (210)Po and (210)Pb concentration in U. dioica roots is negatively weakly correlated with distance from phosphogypsum stockpile.

  16. Autonomous Biological Control of Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactyliiopidae) in a Prickly Pear Plantation With Ecological Management.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rodríguez, J A; González-Machorro, E; Villegas González, A A; Rodríguez Ramírez, M L; Mejía Lara, F

    2016-04-07

    It is broadly known that the conservation of biological diversity in agricultural ecosystems contributes to pest control. This process was studied in a prickly pear plantation (Opuntia megacanthaandOpuntia ficus-indica) located in central Mexico. No insecticides have been used on this plantation since 2000, and local farmers believe that the presence of different species of insects limits the growth of the wild cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiaeCockerell), which is one of the main pests in this crop. From August 2012 to November 2013, we estimated the number of cochineal per stem in the plantation and determined its spatial distribution pattern. In order to identify signs of population regulation, we obtained histograms of the frequency distribution of the size of the clusters and determined if distribution is adjusted to a power function (power law). We identified the cochineal predators and determined the correlation in their abundances. The greater abundance of cochineal occurred between summer and autumn while the minimum value was recorded in spring. The frequency distribution of the cochineal clusters had a high level of adjustment to a power function, suggesting the presence of population regulation processes. Six species that prey on cochineal were identified.Laetilia coccidivoraandHyperaspis trifurcatawere the most active and their abundance was significantly correlated with the abundance of cochineal. We found that the probability of extinction of these insects in a cladode increases with its density, since the density and predator activity also increased. It is likely that, under these conditions, the cochineal have established an autonomous control.

  17. A new model for the calcification of the green macro-alga Halimeda opuntia (Lamouroux)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wizemann, André; Meyer, Friedrich W.; Westphal, Hildegard

    2014-12-01

    Halimeda opuntia is a cosmopolitan marine calcifying green alga in shallow tropical marine environments. Besides Halimeda's contribution to a diverse habitat, the alga is an important sediment producer. Fallen calcareous segments of Halimeda spp. are a major component of carbonate sediments in many tropical settings and play an important role in reef framework development and carbonate platform buildup. Consequently the calcification of H. opuntia accounts for large portions of the carbonate budget in tropical shallow marine ecosystems. Earlier studies investigating the calcification processes of Halimeda spp. have tended to focus on the microstructure or the physiology of the alga, thus overlooking the interaction of physiological and abiotic processes behind the formation of the skeleton. By analyzing microstructural skeletal features of Halimeda segments with the aid of scanning electron microscopy and relating their occurrence to known physiological processes, we have been able to identify the initiation of calcification within an organic matrix and demonstrate that biologically induced cementation is an important process in calcification. For the first time, we propose a model for the calcification of Halimeda spp. that considers both the alga's physiology and the carbon chemistry of the seawater with respect to the development of different skeletal features. The presence of an organic matrix and earlier detected external carbonic anhydrase activity suggest that Halimeda spp. exhibit biotic precipitation of calcium carbonate, as many other species of marine organisms do. On the other hand, it is the formation of micro-anhedral carbonate through the alga's metabolism that leads to a cementation of living segments. Precisely, this process allows H. opuntia to contribute substantial amounts of carbonate sediments to tropical shallow seas.

  18. Seed anatomy and water uptake in relation to seed dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Segovia, A; Márquez-Guzmán, J; Sánchez-Coronado, M E; Gamboa de Buen, A; Baskin, J M; Baskin, C C

    2007-04-01

    There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with 'hard' seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum-micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae.

  19. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  20. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica

    PubMed Central

    PIMIENTA-BARRIOS, EULOGIO; ZAÑUDO-HERNANDEZ, JULIA; ROSAS-ESPINOZA, VERONICA C.; VALENZUELA-TAPIA, AMARANTA; NOBEL, PARK S.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  1. Young daughter cladodes affect CO2 uptake by mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Pimienta-Barrios, Eulogio; Zañudo-Hernandez, Julia; Rosas-Espinoza, Veronica C; Valenzuela-Tapia, Amaranta; Nobel, Park S

    2005-01-01

    Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM.

  2. Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Han, Y N; Choo, Y; Lee, Y C; Moon, Y I; Kim, S D; Choi, J W

    2001-02-01

    Three varieties of methyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were isolated from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino through in vitro bioassay-guided isolation for the inhibition on monoamine oxidase(MAO). The IC50 values for MAO-B of 1-monomethyl citrate, 1,3-dimethyl citrate, trimethyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were 0.19, 0.23, 0.61 and 0.25 mM, respectively. However, on MAO-A, their inhibitions showed only marginal activity.

  3. Characterization of laser-treated Opuntia using FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejías Díaz, K. D.; Flores Reyes, T.; Ponce Cabrera, L.; Domínguez Sánchez, M.; Arronte García, M.; de Posada Piñán, E.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the characterization of Opuntia samples whose thorns were removed by laser pulses. The characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In this study we performed a comparative analysis of samples before and after treatment by using a Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm with an energy variable of up to 0.9 J. It was determined that no significant morphological or compositional changes had taken place in the cactus epidermis due to the laser treatment.

  4. Hypotensive activity, toxicology and histopathology of opuntioside-I and methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Rubeena; Ahmad, Mohammad; Azmat, Aisha; Ahmad, Syed Iqbal; Faizi, Zareen; Abidi, Lubna; Faizi, Shaheen

    2005-10-01

    Methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii cladodes and its pure compound alpha-pyrone glycoside, opuntioside-I showed potent hypotensive activity in normotensive rats. Both the extract and opuntioside-I showed comparable effect of 44-54% fall in Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MABP) at the dose of 10 mg/kg. No mortality was observed in rats even at the doses of 1000 mg/kg/d and 900 mg/kg/d per oral of extract and opuntioside-I respectively. However, histopathology revealed adverse effects of high doses on liver and spleen of the experimental animals.

  5. Analysis of the community structure of yeasts associated with the decaying stems of cactus. II.Opuntia species.

    PubMed

    Starmer, W T; Phaff, H J

    1983-10-01

    A survey was made of yeast species associated with the decaying pads of 3 prickly pear cacti (Opuntia phaeacantha, O. ficus-indica, andO. lindheimeri) in Arizona and Texas. Yeast communities from 12 localities were compared among localities, amongOpuntia species, and with previous data on yeast communities associated with columnar cacti. The results indicate thatOpuntia necroses contain relatively more yeast species with broader physiological abilities in their communities than columnar necroses. It is argued that differences in chemistry of the opuntias and columnar forms in concert with the insect vectors specific for these cacti account for the differences in yeast community structure. It is further hypothesized that the differences in yeast community structure have been important in the evolution and maintenance of species diversity forDrosophila species which live in the decaying stems or cladodes of various cacti. Most of the yeast community evolution in the cacti is postulated to have proceeded by evolution in situ and not by additions and replacements from outside of the system.

  6. Comparative analyses of total phenols, antioxidant activity, and flavonol glycoside profile of cladode flours from different varieties of Opuntia spp.

    PubMed

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Gutierrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2011-07-13

    The phenolic, flavonoid, and antioxidant contents of methanol extracts of nine samples of Mexican cactus ( Opuntia spp.) cladodes processed into flours were studied. Opuntia undulata contained the highest amount of phenols [905.08 ± 64.51 μg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g]. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the cladode flour extracts indicated that Opuntia robusta var. Gavia [738.8 ± 89.9 μmol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g] contained the highest antioxidant capacity. ORAC values significantly correlated to total phenols but not to flavonoid contents and were comparable to cranberries and blackberries. Glycosidic forms of isorhamnetin and kaempferol were identified via high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS), with isorhamnetin being the most abundant flavonol in all samples, except for Opuntia lindheimeri . The effectiveness of acid hydrolysis varied among species because of the different flavonol profiles. For some varieties, the triglycosidic forms were partially acid-hydrolyzed, giving an increase in the content of diglycosides. Optimization of hydrolysis for each species is required to estimate the total amount of each flavonol.

  7. Ant predation on an invasive herbivore: Can an extrafloral nectar-producing plant provide associational resistance to Opuntia individuals?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The legume Chamaecrista fasciculata attracts ants to its extrafloral nectar (EFN) which can lead to reduced herbivory and increased fecundity for the plant. In Florida, Opuntia stricta and O. humifusa, hosts of the invasive moth Cactoblastis cactorum, are often found growing in close association wit...

  8. Rearing a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes: Preliminary comparisons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study compared several biological parameters of native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, reared on an artificial versus the natural diet of Opuntia spp. cladodes. Results suggest that the current artificial diet developed for mass rearing C. cactorum can provide nutritional value for the rear...

  9. Growing Opuntia (cactus) and Brassica species for the long-term remediation of selenium-contaminated soil under field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identifying alternative crops for planting in Se-containing agricultural soils of western central California will depend upon the plants’ ability to tolerate high salt and boron (B) conditions. Multi-year field studies were conducted on Se-laden soils with different cactus clones (Opuntia-ficus indi...

  10. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  11. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of a highly thermostable lectin from Trichosanthes dioica and comparison with other Trichosanthes lectins

    SciTech Connect

    Dharkar, Poorva D.; Anuradha, P.; Gaikwad, Sushama M.; Suresh, C. G.

    2006-03-01

    A lectin from Trichosanthes dioica seeds has been purified and crystallized using 25%(w/v) PEG 2K MME, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 50 µl 0.5%(w/v) n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside as thick needles belonging to hexagonal space group P6{sub 4}. A lectin from Trichosanthes dioica seeds has been purified and crystallized using 25%(w/v) PEG 2K MME, 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 50 µl 0.5%(w/v) n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside as thick needles belonging to hexagonal space group P6{sub 4}. Unit-cell parameters were a = b = 167.54, c = 77.42 Å. The crystals diffracted to a Bragg spacing of 2.8 Å. Both the structures of abrin-a and T. kirilowii lectin could be used as a model in structure determination using the molecular-replacement method; however, T. kirilowii lectin coordinates gave better values of reliability and correlation parameters. The thermal, chemical and pH stability of this lectin have also been studied. When heated, its haemagglutination activity remained unaffected up to 363 K. Other stability studies show that 4 M guanidinium hydrochloride (Gdn–HCl) initiates unfolding and that the protein is completely unfolded at 6 M Gdn–HCl. Treatment with urea resulted in a total loss of activity at higher concentrations of denaturant with no major structural changes. The protein remained stable over a wide pH range, from pH 6 to pH 12, except for partial unfolding at extremely alkaline pH. The role of disulfide bonds in the protein stability was found to be insignificant. Rayleigh light-scattering studies showed no molecular aggregation in any of the extreme treated conditions. The unusual stability of this lectin resembles that of type II ribosome-inactivating proteins (type II RIPs), which is also supported by structure determination. The structural features observed in a preliminary electron-density map were compared with the other two available Trichosanthes lectin structures.

  12. Antioxidant, antibacterial and in vivo dermal wound healing effects of Opuntia flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Imene; Bardaa, Sana; Mzid, Massara; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Rebaii, Tarak; Attia, Hamadi; Ennouri, Monia

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica flowers are used for various medicinal purposes. The aims of the present investigation were to evaluate biological properties of O. ficus-indica flowers extracts and to investigate its antioxidant and antibacterial activities and its ability to enhance wound healing. The wound healing activity of the mucilaginous and methanol extracts of O. ficus-indica flowers were assessed using excision wound model in rats. After thirteen days of treatment by both extracts, a beneficial effect on cutaneous repair was observed as assessed by the acceleration of wound contraction and remodeling phases. Histopathological studies of the granulation tissue indicated that the derma is properly arranged with the Opuntia flowers extract, compared with the control group. The mucilage extract was more effective than the methanol extract, but both showed significant results compared with the control. Such investigation was supported by the efficiency of the methanolic and mucilage extract as antimicrobial and antioxidant. Indeed, the extracts showed a potential antioxidant activity determined by different test systems, namely DPPH radicals scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching assay and metal chelating activity and exhibited significant antibacterial activity against almost all tested bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Are fungi important for breaking seed dormancy in desert species? Experimental evidence in Opuntia streptacantha (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Delgado-Sánchez, P; Ortega-Amaro, M A; Jiménez-Bremont, J F; Flores, J

    2011-01-01

    Seeds of Opuntia spp. have physiological dormancy; they need a period of after-ripening to break dormancy, and the embryos have low growth potential. We evaluated the combined effects of seed age and presence of fungi on the testa on germination of Opuntia streptacantha, an abundant species in the Chihuahuan Desert (Mexico), assuming that older seeds have broken seed dormancy and fungi can reduce mechanical resistance to germination. In a preliminary experiment, we found no germination of 9-year-old (1998) and freshly collected (2007) seeds. However, we obtained 67% and 27% germination from 9-year-old and fresh non-sterilized seeds, respectively, and found fungi growing on the testa of all germinated seeds. Two fungal strains were isolated and identified using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis: Penicillium chrysogenum and Phoma sp. In a second experiment, we inoculated seeds with strains of P. chrysogenum and Phoma sp., as well as Trichoderma koningii and binucleate Rhizoctonia (Gto17S2), to evaluate their ability to break seed dormancy. Seeds inoculated with P. chrysogenum, Phoma sp. and T. koningii had higher germination than controls for both seed ages, but germination was higher in older seeds. Scanning electron microscopy showed that these fungi eroded the funiculus, reducing its resistance. Binucleate Rhizoctonia did not lead to germination and controls had almost no germination. Our results strongly indicate that fungi are involved in breaking seed dormancy of O. streptacantha, and that the effect of fungi on seeds is species-specific.

  14. Diversity of unavailable polysaccharides and dietary fiber in domesticated nopalito and cactus pear fruit (Opuntia spp.).

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Trejo, Carlos; Arroyo-Peña, V Baruch; Sánchez Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz; Balois Morales, Rosendo

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify mucilages, pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose of nopalitos (edible, as vegetable, young cladodes of flat-stemmed spiny cacti) of most consumed Mexican cultivars, and sweet and acid cactus pear fruits of Opuntia spp. The hypothesis is that, regardless of their unavailable polysaccharides diversity, nopalitos and cactus pear fruits are rich sources of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Twelve cultivars of Opuntia spp. were used. Nopalitos had a significant variation in structural polysaccharides among the cultivars: mucilages (from 3.8 to 8.6% dry matter (DM)) averaged near a half of pectins content (from 6.1 to 14.2% DM) and tightly bound hemicelluloses (from 2.2 to 4.7% DM), which were the less abundant polysaccharides, amounted 50% of the loosely bound hemicelluloses (from 4.3 to 10.7% DM). Acid fruits (or 'xoconostle') had significantly higher unavailable polysaccharides content than sweet fruit, and contain similar proportions than nopalitos. Unavailable polysaccharides represent a high proportion of dry tissues of nopalitos and cactus pear fruits, composition of both of these soluble and insoluble polysaccharides (total dietary fiber) widely vary among cultivars without an evident pattern. Nopalitos and cactus pear fruit can be considered an excellent source of dietary fiber.

  15. Hematinic effect of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. on phenylhydrazine-induced anemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Sanjay P; Sheth, Navin R; Suhagia, Bhanubhai N

    2015-01-01

    The fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. are known as prickly pear and folkloric use as hematinic, anti-inflammatory and antiasthmatic action. Previously, the fruit juice of prickly pear was evaluated in reversed anemia induced by HgCl2 in a dose dependant manner and present study revealed about its effect in acute hemolytic anemia. To evaluate the hematinic activity of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. The hematinic activity of an orally administered fruit juice was studied on phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced anemic rats. The hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb) content, red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), and reticulocyte count were analyzed as indices of anemia. PHZ altered the hematological parameters by hemolysis characterized by a decrease in Hb content, total RBC counts and PCV (P < 0.001) on day 3. The Hb content (g%) was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at day 7 in 10 and 15 ml/kg fruit juice treated rats, which was a good improvement compared to the standard. The speedy and progressive recovery of anemic rats responding to treatment of the O. elatior Mill. fruits may be due to increased erythropoiesis and/or antioxidant property of betacyanin.

  16. Hematinic effect of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. on phenylhydrazine-induced anemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sanjay P.; Sheth, Navin R.; Suhagia, Bhanubhai N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. are known as prickly pear and folkloric use as hematinic, anti-inflammatory and antiasthmatic action. Previously, the fruit juice of prickly pear was evaluated in reversed anemia induced by HgCl2 in a dose dependant manner and present study revealed about its effect in acute hemolytic anemia. Aim: To evaluate the hematinic activity of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill. Materials and Methods: The hematinic activity of an orally administered fruit juice was studied on phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced anemic rats. The hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb) content, red blood cell (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), and reticulocyte count were analyzed as indices of anemia. Results: PHZ altered the hematological parameters by hemolysis characterized by a decrease in Hb content, total RBC counts and PCV (P < 0.001) on day 3. The Hb content (g%) was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at day 7 in 10 and 15 ml/kg fruit juice treated rats, which was a good improvement compared to the standard. Conclusion: The speedy and progressive recovery of anemic rats responding to treatment of the O. elatior Mill. fruits may be due to increased erythropoiesis and/or antioxidant property of betacyanin. PMID:27011725

  17. Effects of seasonal changes in the Midwest on Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in Opuntia humifusa Raf.

    PubMed

    Koch, K E; Kennedy, R A

    1980-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) activity and growth characteristics of Opuntia humifusa Raf. were examined under midwest climatic conditions. Twenty-four hour studies were done at monthly intervals for two years, with diurnal changes in transpiration, gas exchange, and titratable acidity monitored under natural conditions. CAM activity was observed only from April to September, but occurred regardless of changes in temperature or precipitation. The maximum rate of dark CO2 uptake occurred in May, while greatest acid fluctuations coincided with flowering, new growth, and high tissue water content in June. In spite of conditions favorable for CAM, acidification and rate of dark CO2 assimilation decreased progressively through September as stem water content dropped and shoot production ceased. No CAM was evident during sub-zero winter months and tissue water content decreased to only 65% (Ψ<-20 bars). Winter survival of plants in test plots was found to be affected by the amount of water received the preceding growing season; the driest group showing the lowest mortality rate.Although spring and autumn were considered periods likely to exhibit CAM, it was not observed during those months just prior to or immediately following winter (Oct. and March). Acid fluctuations were minimal with CO2 being taken up during the day and released at night, indicating some degree of flexibility in the CAM activity of Opuntia humifusa.

  18. Purification and neuroprotective effects of polysaccharides from Opuntia Milpa Alta in cultured cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Zhao, Bo; Huang, Xiaolan; Zhan, Jinjin; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Mei; Guo, Lianjun

    2011-11-01

    Opuntia is a traditional plant from China with medicinal applications. In this experiment, polysaccharides from Opuntia Milpa Alta (MAPs) were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) method and result showed that MAPs contained mannose (6.37%), rhamnose (14.94%), xylose (1.99%), arabinose (24.07%), galactose (38.25%), ribose (2.63%) and glucose (11.48%). The neuroprotective effects of MAPs were evaluated at the mechanistic level in vitro models of cerebral ischemic injury. In vitro oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) model, MAPs (0.5 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml) effectively increased cell viability by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, inhibited cell cytotoxicity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, reduced neuronal cell death, suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)), and reduced extracellular glutamate level. Therefore, MAPs might prevent intracellular calcium overload and decreased glutamate excitotoxicity, both of which can cause neuronal injury and death in vitro models of cerebral ischemic injury.

  19. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. Objective: To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). Materials and Methods: The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Results: Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. Conclusions: OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. SUMMARY Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). PMID:28839374

  1. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol-n-butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n-butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-Px. OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  2. Biogenic debris from the pelagic tunicate, Oikopleura dioica, and its role in the vertical transport of a transuranium element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsky, Gabriel; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Fowler, Scott W.

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation and retention of 241Am by the pelagic tunicate Oikopleura dioica were examined using laboratory cultures and radiotracer methodology. Animals (i.e., trunks and tails) and discarded empty houses accumulated Am from seawater, giving volume/volume concentration factors of 59±8 and 10±1, respectively. The half-time for retention of Am in empty labelled houses transferred to non-contaminated seawater was 29 h; the retention half-time of Am in houses discarded by larvaceans feeding on Am-labelled diatoms was 219 h; the half-time of Am in fecal pellets produced by animals feeding on a monospecific diet of diatoms was 134 h, and 247 h for fecal pellets from animals fed a mixed diet. Approximately 30% of filtered cells remained in houses after the houses were discarded. Sinking rates of discarded houses and fecal pellets were found to vary with temperature and size, ranging from 26-157 m day -1 (house) and from 25-166 m day -1 (fecal pellets). The ubiquity and abundance of appendicularians, together with their prodigious production of houses (e.g., 10±2 houses day -1 at 17°C for each experimental animal) point to their potential significance in the vertical transport of Am, and probably other reactive metals, to intermediate depths in the ocean.

  3. A preliminary report on the genetic variation in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S; Biswas, A; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Ghosh, P D

    2014-06-01

    Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an economically important cucurbit and is extensively propagated through vegetative means, viz vine and root cuttings. As the accessions are poorly characterized it is important at the beginning of a breeding programme to discriminate among available genotypes to establish the level of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of 10 pointed gourd races, referred to as accessions was evaluated. DNA profiling was generated using 10 sequence independent RAPD markers. A total of 58 scorable loci were observed out of which 18 (31.03%) loci were considered polymorphic. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, Shannon's index, percent polymorphism, Nei's gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC)] for RAPD along with UPGMA clustering based on Jaccard's coefficient were estimated. The UPGMA dendogram constructed based on RAPD analysis in 10 pointed gourd accessions were found to be grouped in a single cluster and may represent members of one heterotic group. RAPD analysis showed promise as an effective tool in estimating genetic polymorphism in different accessions of pointed gourd.

  4. Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from nettle (Urtica dioica L.) and inhibitory effects of some chemicals on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Güllçin, Ilhami; Küfrevioğlu, O Irfan; Oktay, Münir

    2005-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) was extracted and purified through (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, dialysis, and CM-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and was used for its characterization. The PPO showed activity to catechol, 4-methylcatechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), L-tyrosine, p-cresol, pyrogallol, catechin and trans-cinnamic acid. For each of these eight substrates, optimum conditions such as pH and temperature were determined and L-tyrosine was found to be one of the most suitable substrates. Optimum pH and temperature were found at pH 4.5 and 30 degrees C respectively and Km and Vmax values were 7.90 x 10(-4) M, and 11290 EU/mL for with L-tyrosine as substrate. The inhibitory effect of several inhibitors, L-cysteine chloride, sodium azide, sodium cyanide, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, L-ascorbic acid, glutathione, thiourea, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate, beta-mercaptoethanol and sodium metabisulfite were tested. The most effective was found to be sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate which acted as a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.79 x 10(-9)M. In addition one isoenzyme of PPO was detected by native polacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis.

  5. Dietary kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) flesh inhibits triacylglycerol absorption and lowers the risk for development of fatty liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masao; Ueda, Takatoshi; Nagata, Kazuko; Shiratake, Sawako; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Kawakami, Mitsuo; Ozaki, Yukio; Okubo, Hiroshi; Shirouchi, Bungo; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2011-10-01

    Kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) is a cucurbitaceous vegetable native to India and Bangladesh. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.), a species related to kakrol, has been shown to have pharmacological properties including antidiabetic and antisteatotic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary kakrol on lipid metabolism in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN-76 formula diets containing 3% freeze-dried powders of whole kakrol or bitter gourd for two weeks. Results showed significantly lowered liver cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats fed on both diets. Fecal lipid excretion increased in rats fed the kakrol diet, and lymphatic transport of triacylglycerol and phospholipids decreased in rats fed the kakrol diet after permanent lymph cannulation. Furthermore, n-butanol extract from kakrol caused a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. These results indicate that the mechanisms of action on lipid metabolism in kakrol and bitter gourd are different and that dietary kakrol reduces liver lipids by inhibiting lipid absorption.

  6. Extraction and HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds in leaves, stalks, and textile fibers of Urtica dioica L.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Patrizia; Ieri, Francesca; Vignolini, Pamela; Bacci, Laura; Baronti, Silvia; Romani, Annalisa

    2008-10-08

    In the present study the phenolic composition of leaves, stalks, and textile fiber extracts from Urtica dioica L. is described. Taking into account the increasing demand for textile products made from natural fibers and the necessity to create sustainable "local" processing chains, an Italian project was funded to evaluate the cultivation of nettle fibers in the region of Tuscany. The leaves of two nettle samples, cultivated and wild (C and W), contain large amounts of chlorogenic and 2- O-caffeoylmalic acid, which represent 71.5 and 76.5% of total phenolics, respectively. Flavonoids are the main class in the stalks: 54.4% of total phenolics in C and 31.2% in W samples. Anthocyanins are second in quantitative importance and are present only in nettle stalks: 28.6% of total phenolics in C and 24.4% in W extracts. Characterization of phenolic compounds in nettle extracts is an important result with regard to the biological properties (antioxidant and antiradical) of these metabolites for their possible applications in various industrial activities, such as food/feed, cosmetics, phytomedicine, and textiles.

  7. Dietary Supplementation with Allspice Pimenta dioica Reduces the Occurrence of Streptococcal Disease during First Feeding of Mozambique Tilapia Fry.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ergün, Sebahattin

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Allspice Pimenta dioica as a feed additive was studied for its effects on growth performance and disease resistance in Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (36% crude protein) and isocaloric (18.5 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, or 20 g of allspice/kg of fish feed. In a 50-d feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L) were stocked with 35 fish fry (0.012 g) each. After the feeding trial, fish were exposed to Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that the dietary allspice level of 10 g/kg provided the best growth performance and feed utilization. The greatest survival after pathogen challenge was also obtained from the diet supplemented with allspice at 10 g/kg. Therefore, allspice acts as a growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in Mozambique Tilapia fry and acts an antimicrobial agent to enhance disease resistance during first feeding of fry. These results suggest that allspice can be used as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture. Received October 19, 2012; accepted January 20, 2014.

  8. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-15

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ameliorative influence of Urtica dioica L against cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Özkol, Halil; Musa, Davut; Tuluce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-07-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used cytotoxic agent against cancer, and high doses of CP have been known to cause nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Some reports claim that antioxidants can reduce CP-induced toxicity. This study investigated the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L methanolic extract (UDME) against CP toxicity in Erhlich ascites tumor (EAT)-bearing mice. Levels of serum hepatic enzymes, renal function markers, and oxidant/antioxidant parameters of liver tissue were measured. Mice were inoculated with EAT on day 0 and treated with nothing else for 24 hours. After a single dose of CP administration on day 1, the extract was given at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight daily during 6 days. Almost all doses of UDME performed a significant (P < 0.05) preventive role against CP toxicity by decreasing aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation levels, and myeloperoxidase activity, as well as increasing reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. This suggests that UDME has a protective capacity and antioxidant activity against CP toxicity in EAT-bearing mice, probably by promoting antioxidative defense systems.

  10. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture.

    PubMed

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity.

  11. Chitosan films incorporated with nettle (Urtica Dioica L.) extract-loaded nanoliposomes: II. Antioxidant activity and release properties.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Hadi; Zandi, Mohsen; Beigzadeh, Sara; Haghju, Sara; Mehrnow, Nazila

    2016-07-14

    Chitosan films were loaded with NE nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract (NE) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%w/w in the free or nanoliposomal form to obtain active and nanoactive films, respectively. The antioxidant potential of the films containing NE-loaded nanoliposomes was decreased in comparison of free NE incorporated films. Diffusion of NE to soybean oil was enough to delay the induction of the oxidation of soybean oil stored for 60 days in contact with chitosan based films. Release studies indicated that the release rate of NE in 95% ethanol simulant significantly decreased by the nanoencapsulation of NE. The diffusion coefficient (D) for chitosan films containing 1.5%w/w of free and encapsulated NE at 25 °C was 18.80 and 3.68 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1), respectively. Moreover, the formation of nanoliposomes diminished the increasing effect of temperature on the release rate as when storage temperature increased from 4 °C to 40 °C.

  12. Chitosan films incorporated with nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract-loaded nanoliposomes: I. Physicochemical characterisation and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Haghju, Sara; Beigzadeh, Sara; Almasi, Hadi; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-07-17

    The objective of this study was to characterise and compare physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-based films, containing free or nanoencapsulated nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extract (NE) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% w/w. Nanoliposomes were prepared using soy-lecithin by thin-film hydration and sonication method to generate an average size of 107-136 nm with 70% encapsulation efficiency. The information on FT-IR reflected that some new interaction have occurred between chitosan and nanoliposomes. Despite the increasing yellowness and decreasing whiteness indexes, the nanoliposomes incorporation improved the thermal properties and mechanical stiffness and caused to decrease water vapour permeability (WVP), moisture uptake and water solubility. The possible antimicrobial activity of the films containing NE-loaded nanoliposomes against Staphylococcus aureus was decreased in comparison to free NE-incorporated films, which could be due to the inhibition effect of the encapsulation that prevents the release of NE from the matrix.

  13. [The influence of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts on the activity of catalase in THP1 monocytes/macrophages].

    PubMed

    Wolska, Jolanta; Janda, Katarzyna; Szkyrpan, Sylwia; Gutowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioicd L.) is one of the most valuable plants used in phytotherapy. The herbal raw material is a herb (Urticae herba), leaves (Urticae folium), roots (Urticae radix) and seeds (Urticae semina). This plant is a good source of vitamins, minerals, fibre, protein and biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties. The literature provides limited information about the chemical composition and properties of the seed heads. No papers are available on the effect of extracts of this plant on catalase activity in human cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts on the antioxidant activity of catalase in THP1 macrophages. Two types of extracts: water and alcohol, at two different concentrations, were used in experiments. Nettle was collected in September and October in 2012 in the area of Szczecin. The collected plant material was frozen and lyophilized. After those procedures water and alcohol extracts of nettle were prepared and then added to THP1 cells. The antioxidant activity of catalase was established with the spectrophotometric method. The study showed that both extracts (water and alcohol) significantly increased the antioxidant activity of catalase in THP1 cells. The increase in catalase was directly proportional to the concentration of the added alcohol extract.

  14. In vitro bioaccessibility, transepithelial transport and antioxidant activity of Urtica dioica L. phenolic compounds in nettle based food products.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Gianpiero; Tedeschi, Paola; Meca, Giuseppe; Bertelli, Davide; Mañes, Jordi; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Maietti, Annalisa

    2016-10-12

    Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a well-known plant with a wide historical background use of stems, roots and leaves. Nettle leaves are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, principally 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) and rutin. The aim of this work was to evaluate the bioaccessibility (BAC), the bioavailability (BAV) and the antioxidant activity of nettle phenolic compounds present in foods and supplements. The BAC of nettle phenolics was evaluated with an in vitro dynamic digestion of real food matrices: the type of food matrix and chemical characteristic affected the kinetics of release and solubilization, with the highest BAC after duodenal digestion. A study of duodenal trans epithelial transport evidenced low bioavailability of native forms of 3-CQA, CMA and rutin. Simulation of colonic metabolism confirmed that phenolic compounds are fermented by gut microflora, confirming the need for further investigations on the impact of phenolic compounds at the large intestine level. Photochemiluminescence assay of the simulated digestion fluids demonstrated that ingestion of Urtica based foods contributes to create an antioxidant environment against superoxide anion radicals in the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT).

  15. Antioxidant-Rich Fraction of Urtica dioica Mediated Rescue of Striatal Mito-Oxidative Damage in MPTP-Induced Behavioral, Cellular, and Neurochemical Alterations in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Rohit; Joshi, Bhuwan Chandra; Kalia, Ajudhiya Nath; Prakash, Atish

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) having a complex and multi-factorial neuropathology includes mainly the degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, which is a cumulative effect of depleted endogenous antioxidant enzymes, increased oxidative DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of a potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of parkinsonism. MPTP was administered intranigrally for the induction of PD in male Wistar rats. Behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and different biochemical, cellular, and neurochemical parameters were measured. Intranigrally repeated administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor co-ordination and marked increase of mito-oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in rats. Intranigral MPTP significantly decreases the dopamine and its metabolites with impairment of dopaminergic cell density in rat brain. However, post-treatment with the potent antioxidant fraction of Urtica dioica Linn. (UD) (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) improved the motor function, mito-oxidative defense alteration significantly and dose dependently in MPTP-treated rats. In addition, the potent antioxidant fraction of UD attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-β) and restored the level of dopamine and its metabolites in MPTP-induced PD in rats. Moreover, minocycline (30 mg/kg) with lower dose of UD (20 mg/kg) had significantly potentiated the protective effect of minocycline as compared to its effect with other individual drug-treated groups. In conclusion, Urtica dioica protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing mito-oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and cellular alteration along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results revealed that the antioxidant rich

  16. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  17. Green Synthesis of Ag-Cu Nanoalloys Using Opuntia ficus- indica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha-Rocha, O.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Hernández-Martínez, A. R.; Gámez-Corrales, R.; Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Britto-Hurtado, R.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic Ag/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained by green synthesis using Opuntia ficus- indica plant extract. Two synthesis methods were applied to obtain nanoparticles with core-shell and Janus morphologies by reversing the order of precursors. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed size of 10 nm and 20 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Other small particles with size of up to 2 nm were also observed. Absorption bands attributed to surface plasmon resonance were detected at 440 nm and 500 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory predicted a breathing mode type (BMT) located at low wavenumber due to small, low-energy clusters of (AgCu) n with n = 2 to 9, showing a certain correlation with the experimental one (at 220 cm-1). The dependence of the BMT on the number of atoms constituting the cluster is also studied.

  18. The origins of an important cactus crop, Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae): new molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Griffith, M Patrick

    2004-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica is a long-domesticated cactus crop that is important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. The biogeographic and evolutionary origins of this species have been obscured through ancient and widespread cultivation and naturalization. The origin of O. ficus-indica is investigated through the use of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nrITS DNA sequences. These analyses support the following hypotheses: that O. ficus-indica is a close relative of a group of arborescent, fleshy-fruited prickly pears from central and southern Mexico; that the center of domestication for this species is in central Mexico; and that the taxonomic concept of O. ficus-indica may include clones derived from multiple lineages and therefore be polyphyletic.

  19. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.

  20. Antiinflammatory flavonoids from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. flowers growing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M S; El Tanbouly, N D; Islam, W T; Sleem, A A; El Senousy, A S

    2005-09-01

    Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. (Family Cactaceae), is used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic and antiinflammatory. The antiinflammatory activity of the alcohol extracts of the flowers, fruits and stems was carried out using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model. The analgesic effect of the same extracts was evaluated using electric current as a noxious stimulus. The alcohol extract of the flowers revealed the most potent antiinflammatory effect and a pronounced analgesic action at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract using VLC followed by Sephadex and paper chromatography, afforded three flavonoid glycosides, namely, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-arabinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Their identification was based on physical, chemical and spectroscopic data. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. An arabinogalactan from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Youssef; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Marais, Marie-France; Vignon, Michel R

    2004-04-28

    The cold-water extract from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica fruits was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography. The major fraction, which was purified by size exclusion chromatography, consisted of a polysaccharide composed of galactose and arabinose residues in the ratio 6.3:3.3, with traces of rhamnose, xylose and glucose, but no uronic acid. The results of methylation analysis, supported by (13)C NMR spectroscopy, indicated that this polysaccharide corresponded to an arabinogalactan having a backbone of (1-->4)-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl residues with 39.5% of these units branched at O-3. The side-groups consisted either of single L-arabinofuranosyl units or L-arabinofuranosyl alpha-(1-->5)-linked disaccharides. This polysaccharide is thus an arabinogalactan that can be classified in the type I of the arabinogalactan family.

  2. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  3. Composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pears fruit (Opuntia ficus indica sp.).

    PubMed

    El Kossori, R L; Villaume, C; El Boustani, E; Sauvaire, Y; Méjean, L

    1998-01-01

    The proximate composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated and is reported on a dry weight basis. The most abundant component of the pulp and skin was ethanol-soluble carbohydrates. Pulp contained glucose (35%) and fructose (29%) while the skin contained essentially glucose (21%). Protein content was 5.1% (pulp), 8.3% (skin) and 11.8% (seeds). Starch was found in each of the three parts of the fruit. Pulp fibers were rich in pectin (14.4%), skin and seeds were rich in cellulose (29.1 and 45.1%, respectively). Skin was remarkable for its content of calcium (2.09%) and potassium (3.4%). Prickly pear is a neglected nutritional source which should be more widely used because of its potential nutrient contribution.

  4. Two novel C29-5beta-sterols from the stems of Opuntia dillenii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianqin; Li, Yanfang; Chen, Zhen; Min, Zhida; Lou, Fengchang

    2006-12-01

    Two novel C29-5beta-sterols, opuntisterol [(24R)-24-ethyl-5beta-cholest-9-ene-6beta,12alpha-diol] (1) and opuntisteroside [(24R)-24-ethyl-6beta-[(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-5beta-cholest-9-ene-12alpha-ol] (2), together with nine known compounds, beta-sitosterol (3), taraxerol (4), friedelin (5), methyl linoleate (6), 7-oxositosterol (7), 6beta-hydroxystigmast-4-ene-3-one (8), daucosterol (9), methyl eucomate (10) and eucomic acid (11), were isolated from the stems of Opuntia dillenii collected in Guizhou Province, China. Their structures were elucidated mainly by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 were deduced from comparative 1H NMR data of the (S)- and (R)-methoxyphenyl acetate derivatives. Compounds 6-8, 10 and 11 were isolated from O. dillenii for the first time.

  5. Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw cladode mucilage: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional behavior.

    PubMed

    Kalegowda, Pavithra; Chauhan, Attar Singh; Nanjaraj Urs, Shashirekha Mysore

    2017-02-10

    The yield of mucilage extracted from cladodes of Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw in aqueous medium was 6.2%. The neutral sugar comprised of arabinose (38.80%), galactose (33.00%), rhamnose (15.70%), xylose (5.10%), and glucose (5.10%). The mucilage showed pseudo plastic behavior with good swelling index (20%), water holding capacity (g water/g dry sample; 4±0.10) and micrometric properties. In addition, mucilage presented intrinsic viscosity of 3.7 dL/g with average molecular weight of 1.9×10(3)kDa. The FTIR and NMR spectra of extracted mucilage showed characteristic polysaccharide nature. Further, the mucilage exhibited anti-obesity property through lipase inhibition. These findings could highlight that isolated mucilage could be exploited as an additive in food and pharmaceutical sector.

  6. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    PubMed

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  7. Hydrothermal carbonization of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes: Role of process parameters on hydrochar properties.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Maurizio; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Fiori, Luca

    2017-09-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes are a potential source of solid biofuel from marginal, dry land. Experiments assessed the effects of temperature (180-250°C), reaction time (0.5-3h) and biomass to water ratio (B/W; 0.07-0.30) on chars produced via hydrothermal carbonization. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated that the three process parameters are critically important to hydrochar solid yield, while B/W drives energy yield. Heating value increased together with temperature and reaction time and was maximized at intermediate B/W (0.14-0.20). Microscopy shows evidence of secondary char formed at higher temperatures and B/W ratios. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric data, microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry suggest that calcium oxalate in the raw biomass remains in the hydrochar; at higher temperatures, the mineral decomposes into CO2 and may catalyze char/tar decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2≤n≤9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

  9. Ocean acidification alters the calcareous microstructure of the green macro-alga Halimeda opuntia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wizemann, André; Meyer, Friedrich W.; Hofmann, Laurie C.; Wild, Christian; Westphal, Hildegard

    2015-09-01

    Decreases in seawater pH and carbonate saturation state ( Ω) following the continuous increase in atmospheric CO2 represent a process termed ocean acidification, which is predicted to become a main threat to marine calcifiers in the near future. Segmented, tropical, marine green macro-algae of the genus Halimeda form a calcareous skeleton that involves biotically initiated and induced calcification processes influenced by cell physiology. As Halimeda is an important habitat provider and major carbonate sediment producer in tropical shallow areas, alterations of these processes due to ocean acidification may cause changes in the skeletal microstructure that have major consequences for the alga and its environment, but related knowledge is scarce. This study used scanning electron microscopy to examine changes of the CaCO3 segment microstructure of Halimeda opuntia specimens that had been exposed to artificially elevated seawater pCO2 of ~650 µatm for 45 d. In spite of elevated seawater pCO2, the calcification of needles, located at the former utricle walls, was not reduced as frequent initiation of new needle-shaped crystals was observed. Abundance of the needles was ~22 % µm-2 higher and needle crystal dimensions ~14 % longer. However, those needles were ~42 % thinner compared with the control treatment. Moreover, lifetime cementation of the segments decreased under elevated seawater pCO2 due to a loss in micro-anhedral carbonate as indicated by significantly thinner calcified rims of central utricles (35-173 % compared with the control treatment). Decreased micro-anhedral carbonate suggests that seawater within the inter-utricular space becomes CaCO3 undersaturated ( Ω < 1) during nighttime under conditions of elevated seawater pCO2, thereby favoring CaCO3 dissolution over micro-anhedral carbonate accretion. Less-cemented segments of H. opuntia may impair the environmental success of the alga, its carbonate sediment contribution, and the temporal storage of

  10. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    PubMed

    Alhmedi, A; Haubruge, E; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to

  11. Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica).

    PubMed

    Binaii, Mohammad; Ghiasi, Maryam; Farabi, Seyed Mohammad Vahid; Pourgholam, Reza; Fazli, Hasan; Safari, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Eshagh; Taghavi, Mohammad Javad; Bankehsaz, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different dietary nettle (Urtica dioica) levels on biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in beluga (Huso huso). Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed for 8 weeks with 0%, 3%, 6% and 12% of nettle. The blood samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The use of nettle did not significantly change the mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophils, albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme activity on week 4 and 8. After 4 weeks, the total red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) showed a significant increase in 12% nettle group compared to the 3% nettle and control groups but haemoglobin (Hb) had a significant change in 12% nettle compared to the control. At the same time was not found a significant change in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, respiratory burst activity (RB), total immunoglobulin (Ig) and total protein (TP), triglyceride (Tri) and cholesterol (Chol). After 8 weeks, the fish treated with nettle exhibited significantly increase in neutrophil and Hb levels compared to the control and between treatment groups, 12% nettle group shown the highest Hb while RBC and Hct values significantly rose in fish fed by 12% compared to the control. Supplementing 6% and 12% nettle increased the WBC and MCHC compared to the other groups. The group fed 12% showed a highly significant difference in RB, TP and Ig after 8 weeks. However, Tri and Chol were significantly decreased in the juvenile beluga fed by the 6% and 12% nettle diet compared to the other groups. The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga.

  12. Urtica dioica attenuates ovalbumin-induced inflammation and lipid peroxidation of lung tissues in rat asthma model.

    PubMed

    Zemmouri, Hanene; Sekiou, Omar; Ammar, Sonda; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Messarah, Mahfoud; Boumendjel, Amel

    2017-12-01

    To find bioactive medicinal herbs exerting anti-asthmatic activity, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) leaves (UD), the closest extract to the Algerian traditional use. In this study, we investigated the in vivo anti-asthmatic and antioxidant activities of nettle extract. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I: negative control; group II: Ovalbumin sensitized/challenged rats (positive control); group III: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol; group IV: received UD extract (1.5 g/kg/day) orally along the experimental protocol and sensitized/challenged with ovalbumin. After 25 days, blood and tissue samples were collected for haematological and histopathological analysis, respectively. The oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in the lungs, liver and erythrocytes. Then, correlations between markers of airway inflammation and markers of oxidative stress were explored. UD extract significantly (p < 0.01) inhibited eosinophilia increases in BALF (-60%) and the levels of leucocytes (-32.75%) and lymphocytes (-29.22%) in serum, and effectively suppressed inflammatory cells recruitment in the asthmatic rat model. Besides, the lipid peroxidation generated by allergen administration was significantly (p < 0.05) diminished by UD treatment in lung tissue (-48.58%). The nettle extract was also investigated for the total phenolic content (30.79 ± 0.96 mg gallic acid/g dry extract) and shows DPPH radical scavenging activity with 152.34 ± 0.37 μg/mL IC50 value. The results confirmed that UD administration might be responsible for the protective effects of this extract against airway inflammation.

  13. Evaluation of in-vitro Antioxidant Properties of Hydroalcoholic Solution Extracts Urtica dioica L., Malva neglecta Wallr. and Their Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Güder, Aytaç; Korkmaz, Halil

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic solution extracts of Urtica dioica L. (UD), Malva neglecta Wallr. (MN) plants and their mixture. In this study, flower (UDF), root (UDR), seed (UDS) and leaf (UDL) parts of UD and flower (MNF) and leaf (MNL) parts of MN were used. The antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic extracts and their mixture were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, and metal chelating activity for comparison. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the extracts of both plants were determined as catechin equivalent. The various antioxidant activities were compared to natural and synthetic standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol. According to FTC method, the both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. At the concentration of 100 μg/mL, Hydroalcoholic extracts of UDS, UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, MNL, and UD-MN showed 81.7%, 79.8%, 78.3%, 76.4%, 77.3%, 74.1%, and 80.7%, respectively. Comparable, 100 μg/mL of standard antioxidants BHA, BHT and α-tocopherol exhibited 66.2%, 70.6%, and 50.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, UD-MN showed strong superoxide anion radical scavenging activity comparable with UDR, UDF, UDL, MNF, and MNL. Based on the findings, plants mixture was commonly found to have synergistically higher antioxidant activity. PMID:24250519

  14. Chemical Analysis of Nutritional Content of Prickly Pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at Varied Ages in an Organic Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E.

    2011-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium. PMID:21655119

  15. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical analysis of nutritional content of prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at varied ages in an organic harvest.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2011-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  17. Constituents with radical scavenging effect from Opuntia dillenii: structures of new alpha-pyrones and flavonol glycoside.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yingkun; Chen, Yingjie; Pei, Yupin; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2002-11-01

    The aqueous ethanolic extract from the fresh stems of Opuntia dillenii HAW. showed potent radical scanvenging activity. Three new compounds, opuntioside I, 4-ethoxyl-6-hydroxymethyl-alpha-pyrone, and kaempferol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the extract. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence and the radical scavenging effects of principal constituents were examined.

  18. Effect of hyaluronic acid and polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes on the metabolism of human chondrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Panico, A M; Cardile, V; Garufi, F; Puglia, C; Bonina, F; Ronsisvalle, S

    2007-05-04

    Conventional medications in articular disease are often effective for symptom relief, but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favourable influence on the course of the disease. In this study, we assay the anti-inflammatory/chondroprotective effect of some lyophilised extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes and of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the production of key molecules released during chronic inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human chondrocyte culture, stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Further the antioxidant effect of these extracts was evaluated in vitro employing the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test). All the extracts tested in this study showed an interesting profile in active compounds. Particularly some of these extracts were characterized by polyphenolic and polysaccharidic species. In vitro results pointed out that the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes were able to contrast the harmful effects of IL-1 beta. Our data showed the protective effect of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes in cartilage alteration, which appears greater than that elicited by hyaluronic acid (HA) commonly employed as visco-supplementation in the treatment of joint diseases.

  19. The polysaccharide and low molecular weight components of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes: Structure and skin repairing properties.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Schiraldi, Chiara; D'Agostino, Antonella; Izzo, Elisabetta; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Andrea; Bonina, Francesco; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-02-10

    The Opuntia ficus-indica multiple properties are reflected in the increasing interest of chemists in the identification of its natural components having pharmaceutical and/or cosmetical applications. Here we report the structural elucidation of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage that highlighted the presence of components differing for their chemical nature and the molecular weight distribution. The high molecular weight components were identified as a linear galactan polymer and a highly branched xyloarabinan. The low molecular weight components were identified as lactic acid, D-mannitol, piscidic, eucomic and 2-hydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-butanoic acids. A wound healing assay was performed in order to test the cicatrizing properties of the various components, highlighting the ability of these latter to fasten dermal regeneration using a simplified in vitro cellular model based on a scratched keratinocytes monolayer. The results showed that the whole Opuntia mucilage and the low molecular weight components are active in the wound repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. Methods: The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Results: Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. Conclusion: This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model. PMID:27563424

  2. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  3. The role of the glycan moiety on the structure-function relationships of PD-L1, type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from P. dioica leaves.

    PubMed

    Severino, Valeria; Chambery, Angela; Di Maro, Antimo; Marasco, Daniela; Ruggiero, Alessia; Berisio, Rita; Giansanti, Francesco; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Parente, Augusto

    2010-03-01

    N-glycosylation is one of the major naturally occurring covalent co-translational modifications of proteins in plants, being involved in proteins structure, folding, stability and biological activity. In the present work the influence of carbohydrate moieties on the structure-function relationships of type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) was investigated. To this aim, PD-Ls, RIPs isolated from Phytolacca dioica L. leaves, differing for their glycosylation degree, were used as an experimental system. In particular, comparative structural and biological analyses were performed using native and unglycosylated recombinant PD-L1, the most glycosylated P. dioica RIP isoform. The glycans influence on protein synthesis inhibition and adenine polynucleotide glycosidase activity was investigated. The interaction with adenine, the product of the de-adenylation reaction, was also investigated for native and recombinant PD-L1 by fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, the crystal structure of PD-L1 in complex with adenine was determined. Our data confirm that the absence of glycan moieties did not affect the biological activity in terms of protein synthesis inhibition. However, the removal of carbohydrate chains significantly increased the deadenylation capability, likely as a consequence of the increased accessibility of substrates to the active site pocket. Furthermore, preliminary data on cellular uptake showed that all PD-L isoforms were internalized and, for the first time, that the vesicular distribution within cells could be influenced by the protein glycosylation degree.

  4. Sex and parasites: genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, the biotrophic and plant-castrating anther smut fungus.

    PubMed

    Perlin, Michael H; Amselem, Joelle; Fontanillas, Eric; Toh, Su San; Chen, Zehua; Goldberg, Jonathan; Duplessis, Sebastien; Henrissat, Bernard; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Aguileta, Gabriela; Petit, Elsa; Badouin, Helene; Andrews, Jared; Razeeq, Dominique; Gabaldón, Toni; Quesneville, Hadi; Giraud, Tatiana; Hood, Michael E; Schultz, David J; Cuomo, Christina A

    2015-06-16

    The genus Microbotryum includes plant pathogenic fungi afflicting a wide variety of hosts with anther smut disease. Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae infects Silene latifolia and replaces host pollen with fungal spores, exhibiting biotrophy and necrosis associated with altering plant development. We determined the haploid genome sequence for M. lychnidis-dioicae and analyzed whole transcriptome data from plant infections and other stages of the fungal lifecycle, revealing the inventory and expression level of genes that facilitate pathogenic growth. Compared to related fungi, an expanded number of major facilitator superfamily transporters and secretory lipases were detected; lipase gene expression was found to be altered by exposure to lipid compounds, which signaled a switch to dikaryotic, pathogenic growth. In addition, while enzymes to digest cellulose, xylan, xyloglucan, and highly substituted forms of pectin were absent, along with depletion of peroxidases and superoxide dismutases that protect the fungus from oxidative stress, the repertoire of glycosyltransferases and of enzymes that could manipulate host development has expanded. A total of 14% of the genome was categorized as repetitive sequences. Transposable elements have accumulated in mating-type chromosomal regions and were also associated across the genome with gene clusters of small secreted proteins, which may mediate host interactions. The unique absence of enzyme classes for plant cell wall degradation and maintenance of enzymes that break down components of pollen tubes and flowers provides a striking example of biotrophic host adaptation.

  5. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank.

    PubMed

    Sinnett, Danielle; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum.

  6. The distribution of macronutrients, anti-nutrients and essential elements in nettles, Laportea peduncularis susp. peduncularis (River nettle) and Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle).

    PubMed

    Mahlangeni, Nomfundo T; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-01-01

    Laportea peduncularis and Urtica dioica, which are popularly known as "Nettles" belong to the plant family Urticaceae and are consumed as green vegetables or used for their medicinal benefit in many countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and America. This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooking on the macronutrient, anti-nutrient and elemental composition of L. peduncularis and U. dioica leaves. The results showed a decrease in the crude fat, ash, carbohydrate and vitamin C content with cooking, but an increase in the vitamin E content. The anti-nutrient content (cyanides, phytates and saponins) increased slightly with cooking, while the oxalate content has decreased. The concentration of essential elements in cooked L. peduncularis leaves were found to be in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Co. Both raw and cooked leaves of nettles were found to be rich sources of macronutrients and essential elements and may be used as alternatives to commercially available nutrient supplements. Statistical analyses (principal component analysis and correlations) indicated that certain elements taken up by these plants were from common sources. Both positive and negative relationships between nutrients, anti-nutrients and elements were observed in the plant leaves.

  7. Predicting As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn levels in grasses (Agrostis sp. and Poa sp.) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) applying soil-plant transfer models.

    PubMed

    Boshoff, Magdalena; De Jonge, Maarten; Scheifler, Renaud; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this study was to derive regression-based soil-plant models to predict and compare metal(loid) (i.e. As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations in plants (grass Agrostis sp./Poa sp. and nettle Urtica dioica L.) among sites with a wide range of metal pollution and a wide variation in soil properties. Regression models were based on the pseudo total (aqua-regia) and exchangeable (0.01 M CaCl2) soil metal concentrations. Plant metal concentrations were best explained by the pseudo total soil metal concentrations in combination with soil properties. The most important soil property that influenced U. dioica metal concentrations was the clay content, while for grass organic matter (OM) and pH affected the As (OM) and Cu and Zn (pH). In this study multiple linear regression models proved functional in predicting metal accumulation in plants on a regional scale. With the proposed models based on the pseudo total metal concentration, the percentage of variation explained for the metals As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were 0.56%, 0.47%, 0.59%, 0.61%, 0.30% in nettle and 0.46%, 0.38%, 0.27%, 0.50%, 0.28% in grass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative determination of plant phenolics in Urtica dioica extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Orčić, Dejan; Francišković, Marina; Bekvalac, Kristina; Svirčev, Emilija; Beara, Ivana; Lesjak, Marija; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2014-01-15

    A method for quantification of 45 plant phenolics (including benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavonoid aglycones, C- and O-glycosides, coumarins, and lignans) in plant extracts was developed, based on reversed phase HPLC separation of extract components, followed by tandem mass spectrometric detection. The phenolic profile of 80% MeOH extracts of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) herb, root, stem, leaf and inflorescence was obtained by using this method. Twenty-one of the investigated compounds were present at levels above the reliable quantification limit, with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin as the most abundant. The inflorescence extracts were by far the richest in phenolics, with the investigated compounds amounting 2.5-5.1% by weight. As opposed to this, the root extracts were poor in phenolics, with only several acids and derivatives being present in significant amounts. The results obtained by the developed method represent the most detailed U. dioica chemical profile so far. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Urtica dioica leaves modulates hippocampal smoothened-glioma associated oncogene-1 pathway and cognitive dysfunction in chronically stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Mahindroo, Neeraj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced associative memory dysfunction and attempted to explore the possible mechanism. Male Swiss albino mice (25-30g) were divided into six groups, viz. group-I received 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control (CTRL), group II was exposed to CUS (21days) and received vehicle (CUS), group III was subjected to CUS and received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+HYP), group IV received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+HYP); group V was subjected to CUS and received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+UD), group VI received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+UD). CUS significantly induced body weight loss (p<0.05) and associative memory impairment in step down task (p<0.05) as compared to control mice. CUS significantly downregulated Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.01), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.01), TrKB (p<0.01) and MAPK1 (p<0.01) mRNA expression in hippocampus as compared to control mice. CUS significantly increased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.001), and decreased catalase (p<0.001) and total thiol (p<0.01) in plasma resulting in oxidative stress and inflammation. Chronic UD administration significantly reverted CUS mediated body weight loss (p<0.05) and cognitive impairment (p<0.05). UD administration significantly decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.05), and increased the levels of catalase (p<0.01) and total thiol (p<0.05) in plasma. Chronic UD administration significantly upregulated hippocampal Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.001), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.05), TrKB (p<0.05) and MAPK1 (p<0.05) in stressed mice. Further, UD extract did not reverse cyclopamine induced downregulation of Gli1 and Ptch1 mRNA in hippocampal slices. UD modulated Smo-Gli1 pathway in the hippocampus as well as exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. UD extract might prove

  10. Cytogeography of the Humifusa clade of Opuntia s.s. Mill. 1754 (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae, Opuntieae): correlations with pleistocene refugia and morphological traits in a polyploid complex.

    PubMed

    Majure, Lucas C; Judd, Walter S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2012-01-01

    Ploidy has been well studied and used extensively in the genus Opuntia to determine species boundaries, detect evidence of hybridization, and infer evolutionary patterns. We carried out chromosome counts for all members of the Humifusa clade to ascertain whether geographic patterns are associated with differences in ploidy. We then related chromosomal data to observed morphological variability, polyploid formation, and consequently the evolutionary history of the clade. We counted chromosomes of 277 individuals from throughout the ranges of taxa included within the Humifusa clade, with emphasis placed on the widely distributed species, Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf., 1820 s.l. and Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm., 1850 s.l. We also compiled previous counts made for species in the clade along with our new counts to plot geographic distributions of the polyploid and diploid taxa. A phylogeny using nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence data was reconstructed to determine whether ploidal variation is consistent with cladogenesis. We discovered that diploids of the Humifusa clade are restricted to the southeastern United States (U.S.), eastern Texas, and southeastern New Mexico. Polyploid members of the clade, however, are much more widely distributed, occurring as far north as the upper midwestern U.S. (e.g., Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin). Morphological differentiation, although sometimes cryptic, is commonly observed among diploid and polyploid cytotypes, and such morphological distinctions may be useful in diagnosing possible cryptic species. Certain polyploid populations of Opuntia humifusa s.l. and Opuntia macrorhiza s.l., however, exhibit introgressive morphological characters, complicating species delineations. Phylogenetically, the Humifusa clade forms two subclades that are distributed, respectively, in the southeastern U.S. (including all southeastern U.S. diploids, polyploid Opuntia abjecta Small, 1923, and polyploid Opuntia pusilla (Haw.) Haw., 1812) and the southwestern

  11. Cytogeography of the Humifusa clade of Opuntia s.s. Mill. 1754 (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae, Opuntieae): correlations with pleistocene refugia and morphological traits in a polyploid complex

    PubMed Central

    Majure, Lucas C.; Judd, Walter S.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ploidy has been well studied and used extensively in the genus Opuntia to determine species boundaries, detect evidence of hybridization, and infer evolutionary patterns. We carried out chromosome counts for all members of the Humifusa clade to ascertain whether geographic patterns are associated with differences in ploidy. We then related chromosomal data to observed morphological variability, polyploid formation, and consequently the evolutionary history of the clade. We counted chromosomes of 277 individuals from throughout the ranges of taxa included within the Humifusa clade, with emphasis placed on the widely distributed species, Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf., 1820 s.l. and Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm., 1850 s.l. We also compiled previous counts made for species in the clade along with our new counts to plot geographic distributions of the polyploid and diploid taxa. A phylogeny using nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence data was reconstructed to determine whether ploidal variation is consistent with cladogenesis. We discovered that diploids of the Humifusa clade are restricted to the southeastern United States (U.S.), eastern Texas, and southeastern New Mexico. Polyploid members of the clade, however, are much more widely distributed, occurring as far north as the upper midwestern U.S. (e.g., Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin). Morphological differentiation, although sometimes cryptic, is commonly observed among diploid and polyploid cytotypes, and such morphological distinctions may be useful in diagnosing possible cryptic species. Certain polyploid populations of Opuntia humifusa s.l. and Opuntia macrorhiza s.l., however, exhibit introgressive morphological characters, complicating species delineations. Phylogenetically, the Humifusa clade forms two subclades that are distributed, respectively, in the southeastern U.S. (including all southeastern U.S. diploids, polyploid Opuntia abjecta Small, 1923, and polyploid Opuntia pusilla (Haw.) Haw., 1812) and the

  12. Betacyanin and other antioxidants production during growth of Opuntia stricta (Haw.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Castellar, M R; Solano, F; Obón, J M

    2012-12-01

    Mature cactus pears from Opuntia stricta have a dark purple color due to high betacyanin concentration, whose biosynthesis is initiated with the amino acid L-tyrosine as a primary precursor. This study followed the maturation and ripening processes of Opuntia stricta fruits to harvest them at high betacyanin and other antioxidant concentrations. Fruits lasted 9 months for final ripening. Physical and compositional changes at different maturation and ripening stages have been determined. Thus, ripe fruits were around 4.72 ± 0.10 cm length, 2.94 ± 0.05 cm diameter and 22.71 ± 0.20 g weight; moisture and pH were maintained at 87.05 ± 0.19 % and 3.37 ± 0.12, respectively. Purple pigment production started in the ovary of immature fruits four months after anthesis (MAA). Concentration of all analyzed metabolites increased from immature (4 MAA) until ripe (9 MAA) stage. In ripe fruits, reducing sugars were 4.72 ± 0.54 g/100 g ff and total phenols 135.17 ± 0.68 mg gallic acid/100 g ff. Metabolites identified by HPLC were the betacyanins: betanin (60.17 ± 1.08 mg/100 g ff), isobetanin (7.58 ± 0.94 mg/100 g ff) and betanidin (13.48 ± 0.87 mg/100 g ff). Also, L-ascorbic acid (35.03 ± 1.06 mg/100 g ff) and L-tyrosine (4.43 ± 0.73 mg/100 g ff) were determined. Furthermore, the addition of L-tyrosine or L-dopa to fruit pulp of moderately ripe fruits, increased betacyanin concentrations 17 (103.3 ± 3.8 mg/100 g) and 32 % (114.3 ± 4.1 mg/100 g), respectively.

  13. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  14. Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants.

  15. Nematicidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components From Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential Oils Against Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2007-09-01

    Commercial plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and litsea (Litsea cubeba). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 12, 6 and 16 major compounds from ajowan, allspice and litsea oils, respectively. These compounds from three plant essential oils were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode. LC(50) values of geranial, isoeugenol, methyl isoeugenol, eugenol, methyl eugenol and neral against pine wood nematodes were 0.120, 0.200, 0.210, 0.480, 0.517 and 0.525 mg/ml, respectively. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pinewood nematode.

  16. Comparative chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activities of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and Pimenta dioica.

    PubMed

    Padmakumari Amma, K P; Rani, M Priya; Sasidharan, Indu; Sreekumar, M M

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm (tejpat) and Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (pimento) leaves are commonly used for flavouring food and widely used in pharmaceutical preparations because of their hypoglycemic, carminative and stimulant properties. In this study, we compared the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of tejpat and pimento essential oils by employing various in vitro methods. GC and GC-MS analyses were done to find out the chemical composition, and the main constituent identified in tejpat and pimento leaf oils was eugenol. Both the oils showed significant radical scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide radicals with a potent metal chelating activity and were compared with that of standard compound, eugenol. Among the two oils, tejpat oil showed better activity in terms of antioxidative potential.

  17. Nematicidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils and Components From Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Litsea (Litsea cubeba) Essential Oils Against Pine Wood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2007-01-01

    Commercial plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and litsea (Litsea cubeba). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 12, 6 and 16 major compounds from ajowan, allspice and litsea oils, respectively. These compounds from three plant essential oils were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pinewood nematode. LC50 values of geranial, isoeugenol, methyl isoeugenol, eugenol, methyl eugenol and neral against pine wood nematodes were 0.120, 0.200, 0.210, 0.480, 0.517 and 0.525 mg/ml, respectively. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pinewood nematode. PMID:19259498

  18. Effects of catalase on chloroplast arrangement in Opuntia streptacantha chlorenchyma cells under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Arias-Moreno, Diana Marcela; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Maruri-López, Israel; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo

    2017-08-17

    In arid and semiarid regions, low precipitation rates lead to soil salinity problems, which may limit plant establishment, growth, and survival. Herein, we investigated the NaCl stress effect on chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic-pigments, movement and chloroplasts ultrastructure in chlorenchyma cells of Opuntia streptacantha cladodes. Cladodes segments were exposed to salt stress at 0, 100, 200, and 300 mM NaCl for 8, 16, and 24 h. The results showed that salt stress reduced chlorophyll content, F v /F m , ΦPSII, and qP values. Under the highest salt stress treatments, the chloroplasts were densely clumped toward the cell center and thylakoid membranes were notably affected. We analyzed the effect of exogenous catalase in salt-stressed cladode segments during 8, 16, and 24 h. The catalase application to salt-stressed cladodes counteracted the NaCl adverse effects, increasing the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic-pigments, and avoided chloroplast clustering. Our results indicate that salt stress triggered the chloroplast clumping and affected the photosynthesis in O. streptacantha chlorenchyma cells. The exogenous catalase reverted the H2O2 accumulation and clustering of chloroplast, which led to an improvement of the photosynthetic efficiency. These data suggest that H2O2 detoxification by catalase is important to protect the chloroplast, thus conserving the photosynthetic activity in O. streptacantha under stress.

  19. Evaluation of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice hepatoprotective effect upon ethanol toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Mbarki, Sakhria; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rouma, Khémais

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our present study is to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice (PPJ) against ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. Chronic ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w.) during 90 days to Wistar rats, significantly (p < 0.01) increased the liver lipid and protein oxidation, reduced the glutathione content and the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and conversely elevated the liver injury biochemical markers like aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides and caused a severe histopathologic injuries. Conversely pre-treatment of ethanol-fed rats with PPJ (20 and 40 ml/kg b.w., orally), interestingly reduced liver lipid and protein oxidation, histopathologic lesions and inhibited the alterations of antioxidant enzymes and the release of biochemical markers. The hepatoprotective effect of PPJ could be due to their capacity to end free radicals chain reactions or to enhance the endogenous antioxidants activities.

  20. Optimum extraction of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii and evaluation of its antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Chen, Huaguo; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Junzeng

    2013-09-12

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction of crude polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gaw) Haw. A three-level, four-variable Box-Behnken design was employed to obtain the best possible combination of extraction temperature (80-90 °C), extraction time (50-70 min), number of extraction cycle (1-3 times), and ratio of water to raw material (8:1-12:1, v/w) for maximum yield of crude polysaccharide. Besides, the antioxidant capacity of crude polysaccharide was evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that optimized extraction conditions were extraction temperature 85 °C, extraction time 63.7 min, extraction 2 times and ratio of water to raw material 11.14:1. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 27.36 ± 0.21%, which is well in close agreement with the value (27.44%) predicted by RSM model. Pharmacological test showed that O. dillenii crude polysaccharides had a good antioxidant activity.

  1. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar as Biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa Icela; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela Alejandra; Juárez-Santillán, Luis Felipe; Martínez-Ugalde, Ivan; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Lucho-Constantino, Carlos Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the use of a natural adsorbent like nopal (Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar) for removing cadmium from aqueous solutions with low concentrations of this metal. Two treatments were applied to the cladodes: a dehydration to get dehydrated nopal (DHN) and heating up to 90°C to obtain a thermally treated nopal (TN). After examining the effect of various pH values (2-7), the capacity of each biosorbent was examined in batch sorption tests at different dosages (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 mg L(-1)). The results indicated that adsorption of cadmium to biomass of DHN and TN was highly dependent on pH and biosorbent dosage. The best removal of cadmium (53.3%, corresponding to q e of 0.155 mg g(-1)) was obtained at pH 4.0 by using the TN sorbent. Infrared and Raman spectra confirmed that cadmium removal occurred via adsorption to -OH functional groups.

  2. Protective effect of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii Haw. fruits on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Han, Yu-Lu; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yin, Yan-Yan

    2015-06-25

    In this study, a novel water-soluble polysaccharide fraction with molecular weight of 6479.1kDa was isolated from the fruits of Opuntia dillenii Haw., which consisted of rhamnose, xylose, mannose and glucose in the molar ratio of 14.99:1.14:1.00:6.47. The protective effect of O. dillenii Haw. fruits polysaccharide (ODFP) against oxidative damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats was investigated. The results showed that oral administration of ODFP significantly decreased food intake, water intake, urine production, organ weights and blood glucose level, and increased body weight in STZ-induced diabetic rats. ODFP also significantly increased the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT, and decreased malondialdehyde level in serum, liver, kidney, and pancreas in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Moreover, histopathological examination showed that ODFP could markedly improve the structure integrity of pancreatic islet tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that ODFP have hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties and can protect rats from STZ-induced oxidative damage.

  3. Anticancer properties of extracts from Opuntia humifusa against human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Sahng-Wook; Park, Jieun; Oh, Se-Yeong; Lee, Chul-Won; Park, Kun-Young; Kim, Hyunggee; Son, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we found that the total polyphenol and ascorbic acid levels in the fruit of Opuntia humifusa are higher than those in other parts of the plant. We further hypothesized that antioxidants in O. humifusa might affect the growth or survival of cancer cells. Hexane extracts of seeds and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits and stems significantly suppressed the proliferation of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, but did not affect the proliferation of normal human BJ fibroblasts. Additionally, the extracts of O. humifusa induced G1 phase arrest in HeLa cells. The O. humifusa extracts reduced the levels of G1 phase-associated cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), and phosphorylated retinoblastoma proteins. Moreover, p21(WAF1/Cip1) and p53 expression significantly increased after treatment. We examined the effects of ethyl acetate extracts of O. humifusa fruit (OHF) on HeLa cells xenograft tumor growth. OHF treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and this decrease was correlated with decreased Cdk4 and cyclin D1 expression. Furthermore, flavonoids, trans Taxifolin, and dihydrokaempferol, were isolated from OHF. Thus, this extract may be a promising candidate for treating human cervical carcinoma.

  4. Effects of cooking methods on phenolic compounds in xoconostle (Opuntia joconostle).

    PubMed

    Cortez-García, Rosa María; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Zepeda-Vallejo, Luis Gerardo; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2015-03-01

    Xoconostle, the acidic cactus pear fruit of Opuntia joconostle of the Cactaceae family, is the source of several phytochemicals, such as betalain pigments and numerous phenolic compounds. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of four cooking procedures (i.e., boiling, grilling, steaming and microwaving) on the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (measured by ABTS, DPPH, reducing power, and BCBA) of xoconostle. In addition, HPLC-DAD analyses were performed to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. After microwaving and steaming xoconostle, the TPC remained the same that in fresh samples, whereas both grilling and boiling produced a significant, 20% reduction (p ≤ 0.05). Total flavonoids remained unchanged in boiled and grilled xoconostle, but steaming and microwaving increased the flavonoid content by 13 and 20%, respectively. Steaming and microwaving did not produce significant changes in the antioxidant activity of xoconostle, whereas boiling and grilling result in significant decreases. The phenolic acids identified in xoconostle fruits were gallic, vanillic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids; the flavonoids identified were epicatechin, catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol. Based on the results, steaming and microwaving are the most suitable methods for retaining the highest level of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in xoconostle.

  5. Extracts of Opuntia humifusa Fruits Inhibit the Growth of AGS Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Sahng-Wook; Park, Jieun; Park, Kun-Young; Son, Yong-Suk; Han, Hyungchul

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia humifusa (OHF) has been used as a nutraceutical source for the prevention of chronic diseases. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of ethyl acetate extracts of OHF on the proliferation of AGS human gastric cancer cells and the mode of action were investigated. To elucidate the antiproliferative mechanisms of OHF in cancer cells, the expression of genes related to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined with real-time PCR and western blot. The cytotoxic effect of OHF on AGS cells was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to OHF (100 μg/mL) significantly induced (P<0.05) the G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Additionally, the apoptotic cell population was greater (P<0.05) in OHF (200 μg/mL) treated AGS cells when compared to the control. The expression of genes associated with cell cycle progression (Cdk4, Cdk2, and cyclin E) was significantly downregulated (P<0.05) by the OHF treatment. Moreover, the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in OHF treated cells was higher (P<0.05) than in the control. These findings suggest that OHF induces the G1 phase cell cycle arrest and activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in AGS human gastric cancer cells. PMID:27069903

  6. Cytotoxic constituents of Aspergillus terreus from the rhizosphere of Opuntia versicolor of the Sonoran Desert.

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Turbyville, Thomas J; Zhang, Zhongge; Bigelow, Donna; Pierson, Leland S; VanEtten, Hans D; Whitesell, Luke; Canfield, Louise M; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2003-12-01

    A novel cyclopentenedione, asterredione (1), two new terrecyclic acid A derivatives, (+)-5(6)-dihydro-6-methoxyterrecyclic acid A (2) and (+)-5(6)-dihydro-6-hydroxyterrecyclic acid A (3), and five known compounds, (+)-terrecyclic acid A (4), (-)-quadrone (5), betulinan A (6), asterriquinone D (7), and asterriquinone C-1 (8), were isolated from Aspergillus terreus occurring in the rhizosphere of Opuntia versicolor, using bioassay-guided fractionation. Acid-catalyzed reaction of 2 under mild conditions afforded 4, whereas under harsh conditions 2 yielded 5 and (-)-isoquadrone (9). Catalytic hydrogenation and methylation of 4 afforded 5(6)-dihydro-terrecyclic acid A (10) and (+)-terrecyclic acid A methyl ester (11), respectively. The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity in a panel of three sentinel cancer cell lines, NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and SF-268 (CNS glioma), and were found to be moderately active. Cell cycle analysis of 2, 4, and 5 using the NCI-H460 cell line indicated that 4 is capable of disrupting the cell cycle through an apparent arrest to progression at the G(1) and G(2)/M phases in this p53 competent cell line. A pathway for the biosynthetic origin of asterredione (1) from asterriquinone D (7) is proposed.

  7. Impact of cooking process on nutritional composition and antioxidants of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    PubMed

    De Santiago, Elsy; Domínguez-Fernández, Maite; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2018-02-01

    The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0g/100g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio than in soybean oil. Flavonoids accounted for 80% of total (poly)phenolic compounds, being isorhamnetin the most abundant. Heat treatment, particularly griddling and microwaving, increased every flavonoid and phenolic acid up to 3.2-fold higher than in raw samples, and consequently their antioxidant capacity. Even boiling induced losses in total (poly)phenols and antioxidant capacity by leaching into water, the main compounds were maintained. Principal Component Analysis distributed heat treated cactus cladodes according to their distinctive polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:26078966

  9. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar as Biosorbent

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa Icela; Juárez-Santillán, Luis Felipe; Martínez-Ugalde, Ivan; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Lucho-Constantino, Carlos Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the use of a natural adsorbent like nopal (Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar) for removing cadmium from aqueous solutions with low concentrations of this metal. Two treatments were applied to the cladodes: a dehydration to get dehydrated nopal (DHN) and heating up to 90°C to obtain a thermally treated nopal (TN). After examining the effect of various pH values (2–7), the capacity of each biosorbent was examined in batch sorption tests at different dosages (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 mg L−1). The results indicated that adsorption of cadmium to biomass of DHN and TN was highly dependent on pH and biosorbent dosage. The best removal of cadmium (53.3%, corresponding to q e of 0.155 mg g−1) was obtained at pH 4.0 by using the TN sorbent. Infrared and Raman spectra confirmed that cadmium removal occurred via adsorption to –OH functional groups. PMID:26783531

  10. Experimental binding of lead to a low cost on biosorbent: Nopal (Opuntia streptacantha).

    PubMed

    Miretzky, Patricia; Muñoz, Carolina; Carrillo-Chávez, Alejandro

    2008-03-01

    The use of nopal cladodes (Opuntia streptacantha) as raw material for Pb(2+) biosorption was investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine Pb(2+) sorption capacity and the efficiency of the sorption process under different pH, initial Pb(2+) and nopal biomass concentrations. The experimental data showed a good fit to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. The maximum adsorption capacity for Pb(2+) was 0.14 mmol g(-1) with an efficiency higher than 94% (pH 5.0 and 2.5 g L(-1) nopal biomass). The Pb(2+) kinetics were best described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. The rate constant, the initial sorption rate and the equilibrium sorption capacity were determined. The practical implication of this study is the development of an effective and economic technology in which the nopal biomass did not undergo any chemical or physical pretreatment, which added to nopal abundance in Mexico and its low cost makes it a good option for Pb(2+) removal from contaminated waters.

  11. [Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose].

    PubMed

    Frati-Munari, A C; de León, C; Ariza-Andraca, R; Bañales-Ham, M B; López-Ledesma, R; Lozoya, X

    1989-01-01

    To assess if a dehydrated extract of nopal stems retains the effect on glycemia of the entire nopal stems two experiments were performed. A. Six patients with type II diabetes mellitus in fasting condition received 30 capsules containing 10.1 +/- 0.3 g of the extract, and serum glucose levels were measured hourly from 0 to 180 minutes. B. Six healthy volunteers received 30 capsules with the extract followed by 74 g of dextrose orally. Serum glucose measurements were made in a similar fashion. In each experiment a control test with empty capsules was performed. Nopal extract did not reduce fasting glycemia in diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the extract diminished the increase of serum glucose which followed a dextrose load. Peak serum glucose was 20.3 +/- 18.2 mg/dl (X +/- SD) lower in the test with nopal than in the control one (P less than 0.025). Dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) did not show acute hypoglycemic effect, although could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  12. Arabinan-cellulose composite in Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear spines.

    PubMed

    Vignon, M R; Heux, L; Malainine, M-E; Mahrouz, M

    2004-01-02

    The ultrastructure of the spines decorating the cladodes of the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, wide angle X-ray, and solid state 13C NMR analyses. Each spine consisted of a compact parallel arrangement of slender cellulosic fibers (0.4 mm in length and 6-10 microm in diameter) with small lumens. The fibers were disencrusted by alkali and sodium chlorite bleaching, yielding a remarkable arabinan-cellulose (1:1) product. X-ray fiber diagrams of the spines before and after purification confirmed the presence of crystalline cellulose domains with molecular axis parallel to the spine axis. CP-MAS 13C T1 NMR data showed a strong interaction at a nanometric level of a fraction of the arabinan and the cellulose crystalline domains. By sequential hydrothermal extractions, followed by a trifluoroacetic acid treatment, a relatively pure cellulose was isolated while the extracted fibers became fibrillated into slender microfibrils having no more than 4-6 nm diameter. The hydrothermal extract yielded the alpha-L-arabinofuranan consisting of a chain of (1-->5)-linked L-arabinosyl residues with branching either at C-2 or C-3 or at both C-2 and C-3. Taken together, these observations suggest that the bulk of the spine fibers consists of an intimate composite of cellulose microfibrils embedded in an arabinan matrix.

  13. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  14. Structural features of pectic polysaccharides from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Y; Heyraud, A; Mahrouz, M; Vignon, M R

    2004-04-28

    After removal of the mucilage with water at room temperature, pectic polysaccharides were solubilized from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit skin, by sequential extraction with water at 60 degrees C (WSP) and EDTA solution at 60 degrees C (CSP). Polysaccharides with neutral sugar content of 0.48 and 0.36 mol/mol galacturonic acid residue were obtained, respectively, in the WSP and CSP extracts. These pectic polysaccharides were de-esterified and fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, yielding for each extract five fractions, which were thereafter purified by size-exclusion chromatography. Two of these purified fractions were characterized by sugar analysis combined with methylation and reduction-methylation analysis. The study was then supported by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that the water-soluble fraction WSP3 and the EDTA soluble fraction CSP3, consisted of a disaccharide repeating unit -->2)-alpha-l-Rhap-(1-->4)-alpha-d-GalpA-(1--> backbone, with side chains attached to O-4 of the rhamnosyl residues. The side chains contained highly branched alpha-(1-->5)-linked arabinan and short linear beta-(1-->4)-linked galactan.

  15. A dehydrin-dehydrin interaction: the case of SK3 from Opuntia streptacantha

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Sánchez, Itzell E.; Martynowicz, David M.; Rodríguez-Hernández, Aida A.; Pérez-Morales, Maria B.; Graether, Steffen P.; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan F.

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins belongs to a large group of highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins. It is well known that dehydrins are intrinsically disordered plant proteins that accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses; however, the molecular mechanisms by which their functions are carried out are still unclear. We have previously reported that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing an Opuntia streptacantha SK3 dehydrin (OpsDHN1) show enhanced tolerance to freezing stress. Herein, we show using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid system that OpsDHN1 dimerizes. We found that the deletion of regions containing K-segments and the histidine-rich region in the OpsDHN1 protein affects dimer formation. Not surprisingly, in silico protein sequence analysis suggests that OpsDHN1 is an intrinsically disordered protein, an observation that was confirmed by circular dichroism and gel filtration of the recombinantly expressed protein. The addition of zinc triggered the association of recombinantly expressed OpsDHN1 protein, likely through its histidine-rich motif. These data brings new insights about the molecular mechanism of the OpsDHN1 SK3-dehydrin. PMID:25346739

  16. Extraction, stability, and separation of betalains from Opuntia joconostle cv. using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Noe; Jaime-Fonseca, Monica R; San Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Zepeda, L Gerardo

    2013-12-11

    Betalains were extracted and analyzed from Opuntia joconostle (the prickly pear known as xoconostle in Mexico). For the extraction, two solvent systems were used, methanol/water and ethanol/water. A three-variable Box-Behnken statistical design was used for extraction: solvent concentration (0-80%, v/v), temperature (5-30 °C), and treatment time (10-30 min). The extraction and stability of betalains from xoconostle were studied using response surface methodology (RSM). Techniques such as UV-vis, column chromatography, and HPLC were employed for the separation and analysis of the main pigments present in the extracts. Maximum pigment concentration (92 mg/100 g of fruit) was obtained at a temperature of 15 °C and a time of 10 min for methanol/water (20:80), whereas maximum stability of the pigment was observed at pH 5 and a temperature of 25 °C. HPLC chromatograms showed the main betalains of the xoconostle characterized were betalain, betanidin, and isobetalain.

  17. Antidiabetic effect of a newly identified component of Opuntia dillenii polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L Y; Lan, Q J; Huang, Z C; Ouyang, L J; Zeng, F H

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the most effective hypoglycemic component of polysaccharides from Opuntia dillenii Haw. by preliminary screening and to specifically study the antidiabetic effects of O. dillenii polysaccharide (ODP)-Ia in mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Three kinds of ODPs - ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, and ODP-II' - were isolated by using an ultrasonic extraction method and diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sepharose fast-flow column chromatography. The mice were administered ODPs for 3 weeks. Gavage administration of ODP-Ia significantly decreased (P<0.05) their intake of food and water; the fasting levels of blood glucose (BG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), and malondialdehyde (MDA); and the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase). In contrast, it significantly increased (P<0.05) the body weights, hepatic glycogen (HG) levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and the hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in diabetic mice. However, ODP-Ia did not significantly increase insulin levels in the mice with STZ-induced diabetes. We propose that ODP-Ia exerts its antihyperglycemic effect by protecting the liver from peroxidation damage and by maintaining tissue function, thereby improving the sensitivity and response of target cells in diabetic mice to insulin.

  18. Fertility suppression in male albino rats by administration of methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, V K; Gupta, R S

    2012-05-01

    To control growing world population, there is a need for male contraceptive methods that are comparable to female contraceptives, but due to lack of knowledge or investigation, no sufficient safe and effective contraceptives were developed till now. In the present investigation, the effect of 100% methanol extract of Opuntia dillenii phylloclade on reproduction in male rats was studied. A first group (I) received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second group (II) was further divided into treated and recovery groups, and the plant extract at 50 mg kg body weight(-1) was administered orally for 30 days. Biochemical, haematological and histopathological analyses were carried out to reveal the effects on reproductive organs in the male rats. The weights of reproductive organs were recorded. It was found that the number of fertile males, number of inseminated females, number of litters delivered and testosterone levels were reduced significantly. Epididymal sperm count and motility were also significantly decreased. Biochemical parameters support the antifertility activity of O. dillenii i.e. decreases in protein, glycogen content and elevation in cholesterol level. Testes and sperm morphology were altered significantly. Haematological parameters have not shown any significant changes. It is concluded that 100% methanol extract of O. dillenii possesses antifertility effects on male reproduction without change in general physiology.

  19. The normal distribution as appropriate model of developmental instability in Opuntia cacti flowers.

    PubMed

    Helsen, P; Van Dongen, S

    2009-06-01

    Developmental instability (DI) as measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been proposed to reflect fitness and stress. Furthermore, the associated developmental buffering may reduce morphological variation, conceal the expression of genetic variation and as such play an important role in evolutionary biology. However, observed associations between FA and various forms of stress and quality appear very heterogeneous. Presently it is difficult to interpret the biological relevance of this heterogeneity because little is known about the link between FA and the underlying process of DI, casting doubt whether DI can be viewed as an individual property and how closely FA reflects the underlying process of DI. Therefore, studies that explicitly test the validity of assumptions of the proposed theoretical models and estimate between-individual variations in DI are needed. We present data on Opuntia cacti floral traits confirming that the normal distribution can be viewed as an appropriate approximation of the distribution of DI and that the concept of hypothetical repeatability can provide useful insights into the interpretation of patterns in FA as a measure of DI. Furthermore, we detected significant between-individual variation in DI. Measuring petals from several flowers within individual plants allowed making inference of individual DI.

  20. Opuntia humifusa supplementation increased bone density by regulating parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin in male growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Junyong; Park, Jinho; Choi, Seong Hee; Igawa, Shoji; Song, Youngju

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) supplementation on bone density and related hormone secretion in growing male rats. Sixteen six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups; control diet group (CG, n = 8), and experimental diet group (EG, n = 8). The rats in the CG were given a control diet and those in the EG were given 5% O. humifusa added to the control diet for eight weeks. The serum OC level of the EG was significantly higher than that of the CG, and the serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level of EG was significantly lower than that of the CG. In addition, the femoral and tibial BMD of the EG were significantly higher values than those of the CG, and the tibial BMC of the EG was significantly higher than that of the CG. These results suggest that O. humifusa supplementation has a positive effect on bone density by suppressing PTH and increasing the OC level in growing male rats.

  1. Opuntia humifusa partitioned extracts inhibit the growth of U87MG human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Sahng-Wook; Park, Jieun; Son, Yong-Suk

    2010-09-01

    Opuntia humifusa, a member of the Cactaceae family widely distributed in the southern regions of the Korean peninsula, has potential bioactive functions and medicinal benefits. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexane, ethyl acetate extracts and water partitioned fraction of O. humifusa on proliferation, G1 arrest and apoptosis in U87MG human glioblastoma cells. Glioblastoma cellular proliferation was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, and the effects of O. humifusa partitioned extracts on cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results revealed that when U87MG cells were treated with hexane extracts and water partitioned fraction of O. humifusa, the number of viable cells decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, water partitioned fractions of O. humifusa induced G1 arrest and non-apoptotic cell death as well as significant increases in ROS production in U87MG cells. In conclusion, water partitioned fractions of O. humifusa induce G1 arrest and inhibit U87MG human glioblastoma cell proliferation.

  2. Extracts of Opuntia humifusa Fruits Inhibit the Growth of AGS Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Sahng-Wook; Park, Jieun; Park, Kun-Young; Son, Yong-Suk; Han, Hyungchul

    2016-03-01

    Opuntia humifusa (OHF) has been used as a nutraceutical source for the prevention of chronic diseases. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of ethyl acetate extracts of OHF on the proliferation of AGS human gastric cancer cells and the mode of action were investigated. To elucidate the antiproliferative mechanisms of OHF in cancer cells, the expression of genes related to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined with real-time PCR and western blot. The cytotoxic effect of OHF on AGS cells was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to OHF (100 μg/mL) significantly induced (P<0.05) the G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Additionally, the apoptotic cell population was greater (P<0.05) in OHF (200 μg/mL) treated AGS cells when compared to the control. The expression of genes associated with cell cycle progression (Cdk4, Cdk2, and cyclin E) was significantly downregulated (P<0.05) by the OHF treatment. Moreover, the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in OHF treated cells was higher (P<0.05) than in the control. These findings suggest that OHF induces the G1 phase cell cycle arrest and activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

  3. Seasonal Patterns of Acid Metabolism and Gas Exchange in Opuntia basilaris1

    PubMed Central

    Szarek, Stan R.; Ting, Irwin P.

    1974-01-01

    Acid metabolism and gas exchange studies were conducted in situ on the cactus Opuntia basilaris Engelm. and Bigel. A pattern of significant seasonal variation was evident. The pattern was controlled by rainfall, which significantly influenced plant water potentials, total gas transfer resistances, and nocturnal organic acid synthesis. In winter and early spring, when plant water stress was mild, stomatal and mesophyll resistances remained low, permitting enhanced nocturnal assimilation of 14CO2. The day/night accumulation of acidity was large during these seasons. In summer and fall, plant water stress was moderate, although soil water stress was severe. The nocturnal assimilation of 14CO2 was very low during these seasons, even in stems with open stomata, indicating large mesophyll resistances restricting exogenous gas incorporation. The day/night accumulation of acidity was reduced, and a low level of acid metabolism persisted throughout this period. The rapid response to a midsummer rainfall emphasizes the importance of plant water potential as a parameter controlling over-all metabolic activity. The seasonal variations of acid metabolism and gas exchange significantly influenced the efficiency of water use and carbon dioxide assimilation. Periods of maximal efficiency followed rainfall throughout the course of the year. PMID:16658842

  4. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp(AP-BL)) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp(AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp(AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo. PMID:28829356

  5. Bioactivity and chemical characterization of Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. seed oil: potential food and pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; Barreira, João C M; Adouni, Khawla; Mhadhebi, Lamia; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Snoussi, Mejdi; Majdoub, Hatem; Flamini, Guido; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Achour, Lotfi

    2017-08-01

    In the food industry, there is a continuous search for ingredients that might provide advantageous properties to food products, either considering their nutritional value or bioactivity, as well as flavouring and technological aspects. Crude oils are good examples of this type of ingredient, especially if obtained from nonconventional sources. Accordingly, the Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. seed oil (OMSO) was chemically characterized and evaluated for different in vitro and in vivo bioactivities. OMSO presented physicochemical characteristics appropriate to be considered as an edible oil, namely low acidity value, stability to oxidation (high peroxide value and low K232 and K270 values), and high contents of unsaturated fatty acids (as shown by the iodine value) and saponifiable matter. Furthermore, this natural oil, owing to its rich phytochemical profile, showed relevant antioxidant activity (especially in lipid peroxidation inhibition assays), α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity against human tumour cell lines, antibacterial (mainly against Gram positive species) and antifungal properties, as well as anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Furthermore, OMSO did not show any sign of acute toxicity on animals, highlighting its possible use in different applications, considering that this natural product is not expected to induce the adverse effects typically associated with synthetic bioactive agents (e.g., ampicillin, amphotericin B, or lysine acetylsalicilate).

  6. Depolymerization of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica: Antioxidant and antiglycated activities.

    PubMed

    Chaouch, Mohamed Aymen; Hafsa, Jawhar; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Majdoub, Hatem

    2015-08-01

    The extraction, purification and degradation of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiglycated activities in vitro were investigated. The optimization of the extraction showed that extraction by ultrasound at 40 °C presented the best carbohydrates yield. The degradation of the extracted polysaccharides was achieved by free radical depolymerization with H2O2 in the presence of copper(II) acetate for various reaction times. Sugar contents were determined by colorimetric assays. The macromolecular characteristics of the different isolated and degraded carbohydrates were carried by size exclusion chromatography (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI). These experiments showed that all samples are polysaccharides, which are probably pectins and that molecular weight (Mw) has decreased from 6,800,000 to 14,000 g/mol after 3 h of depolymerization without changing the structure. Preliminary antioxidant and antiglycated tests indicated that degraded polysaccharides for 2 and 3 h showed even better antioxidant and antiglycated activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction, characterization and gelling behavior enhancement of pectins from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Lefsih, Khalef; Delattre, Cédric; Pierre, Guillaume; Michaud, Philippe; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Dahmoune, Farid; Madani, Khodir

    2016-01-01

    Total Pectins Fraction (TPF) was extracted at room temperature from dried cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica. TPF is constituted of three pectic fractions WSP, CSP and ASP, which are made up of 66.6%, 44.3% and 81.1% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, respectively. The antioxidant ability of TPF increased with the concentration increasing. It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90% and chelated 90% of ferrous ions at 5 g/L. FTIR study was carried out. Strong characteristic absorption peaks at 1,618 cm(-1) assigned to the vibration of COO(-) group of galacturonic acid. In the fingerprint region, we noticed three well-defined peaks at 1054, 1085, and 1,154 cm(-1) characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. TPF are non-gelling pectins. The co-crosslinking of TPF with carrageenan was carried out and the gelling behavior was successfully improved. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel was obtained with 82% of TPF and 18% of carrageenan (w/w). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation.

  9. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos; Allen, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  11. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of isorhamnetin glycosides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  12. Opuntia humifusa Supplementation Increased Bone Density by Regulating Parathyroid Hormone and Osteocalcin in Male Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Junyong; Park, Jinho; Choi, Seong Hee; Igawa, Shoji; Song, Youngju

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) supplementation on bone density and related hormone secretion in growing male rats. Sixteen six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups; control diet group (CG, n = 8), and experimental diet group (EG, n = 8). The rats in the CG were given a control diet and those in the EG were given 5% O. humifusa added to the control diet for eight weeks. The serum OC level of the EG was significantly higher than that of the CG, and the serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level of EG was significantly lower than that of the CG. In addition, the femoral and tibial BMD of the EG were significantly higher values than those of the CG, and the tibial BMC of the EG was significantly higher than that of the CG. These results suggest that O. humifusa supplementation has a positive effect on bone density by suppressing PTH and increasing the OC level in growing male rats. PMID:22837661

  13. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp(AP-BL)) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp(AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp(AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  14. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    PubMed

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  15. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    PubMed Central

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient. PMID:25821823

  16. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pectin from Opuntia ficus indica: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Lefsih, Khalef; Giacomazza, Daniela; Dahmoune, Farid; Mangione, Maria Rosalia; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Rosa; Costa, Maria Assunta; Guarrasi, Valeria; Madani, Khodir

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of water-soluble pectin (WSP) from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes was performed using Response Surface Methodology. The effect of extraction time (X1), microwave power (X2), pH (X3) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X4) on the extraction yield was examined. The optimum conditions of MAE were as follows: X1=2.15min; X2=517W; X3=2.26 and X4=2g/30.6mL. The maximum obtained yield of pectin extraction was 12.57%. Total carbohydrate content of WSP is about 95.5% including 34.4% of Galacturonic acid. Pectin-related proteins represent only the 0.66% of WSP mass. HPSEC and light scattering analyses reveal that WSP is mostly constituted of high molecular pectin and FTIR measurements show that the microwave treatment does not alter the chemical structure of WSP, in which Galacturonic acid content and yield are 34.4% and 4.33%, respectively. Overall, application of MAE can give rise to high quality pectin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction and characterization of three polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.

    PubMed

    Bayar, Nadia; Kriaa, Mouna; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-11-01

    The chemical extraction and the characterization of polysaccharides from mucilage (MC), pectin (PC) and total pectic mucilage fraction (TFC) of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activities was investigated. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups corresponding to polysaccharides. Uronic acid and the total sugar contents of PC were higher than those of TFC and MC whereas ash content of MC was considerably more important. In addition, the findings showed that all the samples had little protein content and low average molecular weight compared to the results mentioned in literature. Furthermore, MC reached not only the highest water (WHC) and oil holding (OHC) capacities (7.81g/g and 1.34g/g, respectively) but also the highest antioxidant properties (DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities, β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity and reducing power). However, PC had the strongest emulsifying and foaming properties. As for TFC, it had low WHC, OHC and emulsifying properties whereas it had higher foaming properties than MC and greater antioxidant properties compared to PC. These outcomes can encourage the use of PC as a surfactant and MC and TFC as natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Gopi, D; Kanimozhi, K; Kavitha, L

    2015-04-15

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of 5 α-reductase and aromatase by PHL-00801 (Prostatonin®), a combination of PY102 (Pygeum africanum) and UR102 (Urtica dioica) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, R W; Mark, M; Soldati, F

    1996-09-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate a possible effect of the extracts PY102 of Pygeum africanum (Hook), and UR 102 of Urtica dioica L. as well as their combination PHL-00801 (Prostatonin®) on the enzymes 5 α-reductase (5 α-RE) and aromatase (AR): Inhibition of 5 α-RE: Pygeum africanum extract PY 102, and Urtica dioica extract UR 102, inhibited the 5 α-RE activity in a concentration dependent manner. Whereas UR102 extract was only able to influence the enzyme activity at high concentrations (≥ 12mg/ml) and its ED(50) being calculated as 14.7mg/ml, the PY102 extract showed a much higher activity starting with low concentrations (0.1 mg/ml) its ED(50) being calculated as 0.78 mg/ml. When compared with the effects of UR 102, the combination of both extracts, PHL-00801 (Prostatonin®), led to a similar inhibition of the enzyme (ED(50) 14.15 mg/ml). Inhibition of AR: The PY 102 extract showed a concentration dependent and strong activity (ED(50) = 0.98 mg/ml). The activity of the UR 102 extract was also concentration dependent (ED(50) = 3.58 mg/ml). The combination of both extracts, PHL-00801 (Prostatonin®) showed a synergistic action and significantly (p = 0.05) increased the AR-inhibitory activity in concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/ml (ED(50) 0.24 mg/ml). These observations are an explanation for the beneficial effects of PHL-00801 (Prostatonin®) observed in the clinical studies on BPH.

  2. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Obanda, Diana N; Zhao, Peng; Richard, Allison J; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s) are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT) on adipocytes. We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid) induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined. As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation. In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial.

  3. Urtica dioica Extract Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis and Related Gene Expression of Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali; Mansoori, Behzad; Baradaran, Pooneh Chokhachi; Khaze, Vahid; Aghapour, Mahyar; Farhadi, Mehrdad; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-04-21

    Currently, because the prevalence of breast cancer and its consequent mortality has increased enormously in the female population, a number of studies have been designed to identify natural products with special antitumor properties. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of Urtica dioica on triggering apoptosis and diminishing growth, size, and weight of the tumor in an allograft model of BALB/c mice. In the present study, a BALB/c mouse model of breast cancer (4T1) was used. After emergence of tumor, 2 groups of mice received the extract, 1 group at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 1 group at a dose of 20 mg/kg, by intraperitoneal injection for 28 days. During the test and after removal of the tumor mass, the size and weight of the tumor were measured. To assess the induction of apoptosis in the cancer cells, the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling) assay was performed. The Ki-67 test was used to evaluate tumor proliferation. The results showed that the tumor size in the mice treated with the extract decreased significantly. The weight of the tumor mass in the treated mice after resection was less than that in the control group. The TUNEL assay findings revealed that apoptosis occurred in the treated group. The Ki-67 test findings also demonstrated that administration of the extract suppressed the growth of tumor cells. These results suggest that U. dioica extract can decrease the growth of breast tumors and induce apoptosis in tumor cells; thus, it might represent an ideal therapeutic tool for breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Attenuates FFA Induced Ceramide Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes in an Adiponectin Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Obanda, Diana N.; Zhao, Peng; Richard, Allison J.; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Excess dietary lipids result in the accumulation of lipid metabolites including ceramides that can attenuate insulin signaling. There is evidence that a botanical extract of Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) improves insulin action, yet the precise mechanism(s) are not known. Hence, we examined the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UT) on adipocytes. Research Design We investigated the effects of an ethanolic extract of UT on free fatty acid (palmitic acid) induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated Akt serine phosphorylation and modulation of ceramidase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were exposed to excess FFAs in the presence or absence of UT. Effects on adiponectin expression, ceramidase expression, ceramidase activity, ceramide accumulation and insulin signaling were determined. Results As expected, FFAs reduced adiponectin expression and increased the expression of ceramidase enzymes but not their activity. FFA also induced the accumulation of ceramides and reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in adipocytes. The effects of FFA were partially reversed by UT. UT enhanced adiponectin expression and ceramidase activity in the presence of excess FFAs. UT abated ceramide accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity via enhanced Akt phosphorylation. A siRNA knockdown of adiponectin expression prevented UT from exerting positive effects on ceramidase activity but not Akt phosphorylation. Conclusions In adipocytes, the ability of UT to antagonize the negative effects of FFA by modulating ceramidase activity and ceramide accumulation is dependent on the presence of adiponectin. However, the ability of UT to enhance Akt phosphorylation is independent of adiponectin expression. These studies demonstrate direct effects of UT on adipocytes and suggest this botanical extract is metabolically beneficial. PMID:26939068

  5. First record of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Opuntia ficus-indica in Milpa Alta, Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Pérez, Martín; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Brailovsky, Harry; Ramírez-Alarcón, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a species of Hesperolabops has become a problem as a pest of nopalitos, Opuntia ficus-indica, in Milpa Alta, in the south of Mexico City, which is the most important production region of this vegetable in the country. A survey of Hesperolabops in Milpa Alta has resulted in the first report of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter. This occurrence should be monitored and considered in future studies in order to avoid misidentification of Hesperolabops spp. Kirkaldy native populations there, and to avoid the confusion of the damage that may be caused on O. ficus-indica.

  6. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A total of 108 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the gen...

  7. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. Methods The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. Key results PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Conclusions Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of

  8. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species.

  9. Freezing tolerance and water relations of Opuntia fragilis from Canada and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Loik, M.E.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1993-09-01

    To investigate the influence of winter climate on freezing tolerance at the population level, minimum January air temperatures in the field and cold acclimation determined in the laboratory were compared for Opuntia fragilis. Populations occurred at 20 locations as far north as 56[degrees]46' N latitude and at elevations up to 3029 m in Canada and the United States, most of which experience extreme freezing temperatures each winter. Low-temperature responses and water relations of stems were examined in the laboratory at day/night air temperatures of 25[degrees]/15[degrees]C and 14 d after the plants were shifted to a 5[degrees]/[minus]5[degrees]C temperature cycle. Cold acclimation averaged 17[degrees]C and freezing tolerance averaged [minus]29[degrees]C for the 20 populations following a shift to low day/night air temperatures, indicating that O. fragilis has the greatest cold acclimation ability and the greatest freezing tolerance reported for any cactus. Moreover, freezing tolerance and cold acclimation were both positively correlated (r[sup 2] [congruent] 0.7) with the minimum temperatures at the 20 locations. Plants lost water during low-temperature acclimation, leading to 30% decreases in cladode and chlorenchyma thickness; the decrease in water content was greater for the five warmest populations than for the five coldest ones. Over the same period, the average osmotic pressure of the chlorenchyma increased from 1.42 to 1.64 MPa, and the relative water content (RWC) decreased from 0.58 to 0.49, but the average osmotic pressure of saturated chlorenchyma was unchanged, indicating no net change in solute content during acclimation. Although the role of water relations in freezing tolerance is unclear, the substantial freezing tolerance and cold acclimation ability of O. fragilis leads to its distribution into regions of Canada and the United States that experience minimum temperatures below [minus]40[degrees]C during the winter. 47 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Biomechanics and anatomy of cladode junctions for two Opuntia (Cactaceae) species and their hybrid.

    PubMed

    Bobich, E G; Nobel, P S

    2001-03-01

    Hybridization between the introduced arborescent Opuntia ficus-indica and the native shrubby O. littoralis has led to populations, referred to as O. "occidentalis," which form thickets that can dominate hillsides of chaparral and that can survive fires. Because the thickets apparently develop via vegetative reproduction, O. "occidentalis" was hypothesized to have a greater ability than its parent species to reproduce vegetatively due to weaker cladode junctions. Of the three taxa, the junctions for O. "occidentalis" had the least amount of wood, despite having cladode masses and junction cross-sectional areas similar to those of O. littoralis. The cladodes of O. "occidentalis" resisted deflection about their junctions the least and their junctions required the least amount of applied mass and the smallest bending moment to fail mechanically. The junction wood for all three taxa consisted mostly of parenchyma, with lesser amounts of cells with thickened secondary cell walls, indicating that some junction strength depended on hydrostatic pressure, especially for terminal junctions. Libriform fibers, which contribute to support and resist bending moments, were about 80% less frequent in the sub-subterminal junctions of O. "occidentalis" than in O. ficus-indica and O. littoralis. Vascular tracheids, which probably reduced shear among cells in the wood, were 90% less frequent in the terminal and sub-subterminal junction wood of O. "occidentalis" compared to O. littoralis. Thus wood characteristics can account for the weaker junctions of O. "occidentalis" compared to those of O. ficus-indica and O. littoralis, which apparently increases the ability of the hybrid to reproduce vegetatively.

  11. Chemical and physical defense traits in two sexual forms of Opuntia robusta in Central Eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; León Solano, Héctor Javier; Solache Rámos, Lupita Tzenyatze; Mendoza Reyes, Citlalli Hypatia; Oro Cerro, María del Carmen; Mariezcurrena Berasain, María Dolores; Rivas Manzano, Irma Victoria; Manjarrez, Javier; Villareal Benitez, José Luis; Czarnoleski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic plants provide an excellent opportunity for examining the differences in the extent of their defense against herbivores because they exhibit sex-related differences in reproductive investment. Such differences enable comparison of the sex with high reproduction expenses with the sex that expends less. The more costly sex is usually also better defended against herbivores. Generally, females are considered more valuable than hermaphrodites in terms of fitness; however, hermaphrodites are more valuable if they can produce seed by autonomous selfing, provided that the inbreeding depression is low and pollen is limited. We studied a gynodioecious population of Opuntia robusta from Central-Eastern Mexico, which has been reported to be trioecious, dioecious, or hermaphrodite, and addressed the following questions: 1) Is the hermaphrodite's reproductive output higher than the female's, and are hermaphrodites thus better defended? 2) Are plant tissues differentially defended? 3) Do trade-offs exist among different physical defense traits? and 4) among physical and chemical defense traits? We found that 1) hermaphrodites had a higher seed output and more spines per areola than females and that their spines contained less moisture. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained more total phenolic compounds (TPCs) than female ones. In addition, 2) hermaphrodite reproductive cladodes bore more spines than female cladodes, and 3) and 4) we found a negative relationship between spine number per areola and areola number per cladode and a positive relationship between spine number per areola per plant and TPC concentration per plant. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained a higher concentration of TPCs than female cladodes, and parental cladodes contained fewer TPCs than both reproductive and empty cladodes.

  12. Ameliorative effect of Opuntia ficus indica juice on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice (OFIj) on reversing oxidative damages induced by chronic ethanol intake in rat erythrocytes. OFIj was firstly analyzed with HPLC for phenolic and flavonoids content. Secondly, 40 adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups and treated for 90 days as follows: control (C), ethanol-only 3 g/kg body weight (b.w) (E), low dose of OFIj 2 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Ldj+E), high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Hdj+E), and only a high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100g b.w (Hdj). HPLC analysis indicated high concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OFIj. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Changes in the erythrocyte's antioxidant ability were accompanied by enhanced oxidative modification of lipids (increase of malondialdeyde level) and proteins (increase in carbonyl groups). Interestingly, pre-administration of either 2 ml/100 g b.w or 4 ml/100 g b.w of OFIj to ethanol-intoxicated rats significantly reversed decreases in enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants parameters in erythrocytes. Also, the administration of OFIj significantly protected lipids and proteins against ethanol-induced oxidative modifications in rat erythrocytes. The beneficial effect of OFIj can result from the inhibition of ethanol-induced free radicals chain reactions in rat erythrocytes or from the enhancement of the endogenous antioxidants activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Water Relations, Diurnal Acidity Changes, and Productivity of a Cultivated Cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica1

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Edmundo; Badilla, Ignacio; Nobel, Park S.

    1983-01-01

    Physiological responses of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) were studied on a commercial plantation in central Chile. Young cladodes (flattened stems) and flower buds exhibited daytime stomatal opening, whereas mature cladodes and fruit exhibited the nocturnal stomatal opening characteristic of CAM plants. Severe water stress suppressed the nocturnal stomatal opening by mature cladodes, but their high water vapor conductance occurring near dawn was not affected. Nocturnal acidity increases were not as sensitive to water stress as was the nocturnal stomatal opening. The magnitude of the nocturnal acidity increases depended on the total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), being 90% PAR-saturated at 27 moles per square meter per day for a mean nighttime air temperature of 5°C and at 20 moles per square meter per day for 18°C. Inasmuch as the PAR received on unshaded vertical surfaces averaged about 21 moles per square meter per day, nocturnal acidity increases by the cladodes were on the verge of being PAR-limited in the field. The net assimilation rate, which was positive throughout the year, annually averaged 3.4 grams per square meter per day for 1.0- and 2.0-year-old plants. Plants that were 5.4 years old had 7.2 square meters of cladode surface area (both sides) and an annual dry weight productivity of 13 megagrams (metric tons) per hectare per year when their ground cover was 32%. This substantial productivity for a CAM plant was accompanied by the highest nocturnal acidity increase so far observed in the field, 0.78 mole H+ per square meter. PMID:16663084

  14. Changes in Osmotic Pressure and Mucilage during Low-Temperature Acclimation of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, G; Nobel, P S

    1991-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism plant cultivated for its fruits and cladodes, was used to examine chemical and physiological events accompanying low-temperature acclimation. Changes in osmotic pressure, water content, low molecular weight solutes, and extracellular mucilage were monitored in the photosynthetic chlorenchyma and the water-storage parenchyma when plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30/20 degrees C were shifted to 10/0 degrees C. An increase in osmotic pressure of 0.13 megapascal occurred after 13 days at 10/0 degrees C. Synthesis of glucose, fructose, and glycerol accounted for most of the observed increase in osmotic pressure during the low-temperature acclimation. Extracellular mucilage and the relative apoplastic water content increased by 24 and 10%, respectively, during exposure to low temperatures. These increases apparently favor the extracellular nucleation of ice closer to the equilibrium freezing temperature for plants at 10/0 degrees C, which could make the cellular dehydration more gradual and less damaging. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies helped elucidate the cellular processes during ice formation, such as those revealed by changes in the relaxation times of two water fractions in the chlorenchyma. The latter results suggested a restricted mobility of intracellular water and an increased mobility of extracellular water for plants at 10/0 degrees C compared with those at 30/20 degrees C. Increased mobility of extracellular water could facilitate extracellular ice growth and thus delay the potentially lethal intracellular freezing during low-temperature acclimation.

  15. Cactus cladodes (Opuntia humifusa) extract minimizes the effects of UV irradiation on keratinocytes and hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungmi; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Hong, Yang Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-12-01

    Cactus cladodes [Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. (Cactaceae)] is one of the cactus genera, which has long been used as a folk medicine for skin disorders. This study investigated the skincare potential of cactus cladodes extract (OHE), including its ability to regulate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced hyaluronic acid (HA) production. Gene expression levels of hyaluronic acid synthases (HASs) and hyaluronidase (HYAL) were measured in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells with OHE treatment (10, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The HA content was analyzed in hairless mice (SKH-1, male, 6 weeks old) treated with OHE for 10 weeks by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistological staining were performed to examine epidermal thickness and levels of CD44 and hyaluronic acid-binding protein (HABP). HA synthases (HAS,1 HAS2, HAS3) mRNA levels were increased by 1.9-, 2.2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, with OHE treatment (100 μg/mL), while UVB-induced increase of hyaluronidase mRNA significantly decreased by 35%. HA content in animal was decreased from 42.9 to 27.1 ng/mL by OHE treatment. HAS mRNA levels were decreased by 39%, but HYAL mRNA was increased by 50% in OHE group. CD44 and HABP levels, which were greatly increased by UVB-irradiation, were reduced by 64 and 60%, respectively. Epidermal thickness, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and erythema formation was also decreased by 45 (45.7 to 24.2 μm), 48 (48.8 to 25 g/h/m(2)) and 33%, respectively. OHE protects skin from UVB-induced skin degeneration in HaCaT cells and hairless mice.

  16. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of Opuntia humifusa stem

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Park, Chul Min; Choi, Jong Won; Rhyu, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). Materials and Methods: The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular permeability and carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema tests in rats. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect was also measured using macrophage-like LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results: OHS extract inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing (p<0.0001), and delayed the reaction time of mice to the hot plate-induced thermal stimulation (p<0.0001) and tail flick tests (p<0.05). OHS extract attenuated the carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema in rats (p<0.001). Similarly, OHS extract significantly decreased Evans blue concentration in acetic acid induced vascular permeability test (p<0.0001), revealing its strong anti-inflammatory effect. Finally, among four different fractions of OHS extract, n-butanol fraction strongly decreased NO production (p<0.0001) and iNOS expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the methanolic extract of O. humifusa stem can be used to develop a therapeutic or supportive drug and/or functional food against pain and inflammation related diseases. PMID:28884086

  17. Radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Opuntia humifusa Raf.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Kil-Soo; Song, Jae-Chan; Kim, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hui-Min; Sung, Hye-Jin; Park, Hwa-Jin; Song, Yong-Beom; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Opuntia humifusa Raf. (O. humifusa Raf.) is a member of the Cactaceae family. To determine the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of this herb, various solvent fractions (methanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water) prepared from the leaves of cacti were tested using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical) and xanthine oxidase assays, and nitric oxide (NO)-producing macrophage cells. We found that O. humifusa Raf. displayed potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, all solvent fractions, except for the water layer, showed potent scavenging effects. The scavenging effect of the ethyl acetate fraction was higher than that of the other fractions, with IC50 values of 3.6 and 48.2 microg mL(-1). According to activity-guided fractionation, one of the active radical scavenging principles in the ethyl acetate fraction was found to be quercetin. In contrast, only two fractions (chloroform and ethyl acetate) significantly suppressed nitric oxide production from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions significantly blocked the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) from the RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. Moreover, ethyl acetate fractions significantly blocked the expression of IL-1beta from the RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. Therefore, the results suggested that O. humifusa Raf. may modulate radical-induced toxicity via both direct scavenging activity and the inhibition of reactive species generation, and the modulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Finally, O. humifusa Raf. may be useful as a functional food or drug against reactive species-mediated disease.

  18. Opuntia humifusa stems lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Sahng-Wook; Park, Jieun; Son, Yong-Suk

    2011-06-01

    The Opuntia humifusa stem (OHSt) contains high levels of antioxidants including vitamin C, flavonoids, and polyphenols that may prove beneficial in treating diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that intake of the OHSt regulates blood glucose levels and hypolipidemic responses in rats with diabetes mellitus induced by injection of streptozotocin. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were assigned to 5 groups: normal control, rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM), DM treated with OHSt 150 mg/kg per day, DM treated with OHSt 250 mg/kg per day, and DM treated with OHSt 500 mg/kg per day. Powdered OHSt was suspended in distilled water and administered orally through the sonde once daily. After 7 weeks of treatment, the fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels of the OHSt groups were significantly lower when compared with the DM group (P < .05). Treatment with the OHSt also resulted in a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .05). Decreases in both total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were accompanied by a significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .05). Furthermore, levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly lower in the OHSt groups than in the DM group (P < .05). In addition, a significant increase in relative beta cell volume of pancreas was observed in rats treated with 500 mg/kg of OHSt when compared with the untreated DM rats (P < .05). The overall results suggest that the OHSt possesses potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of Opuntia humifusa stem.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Park, Chul Min; Choi, Jong Won; Rhyu, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular permeability and carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema tests in rats. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect was also measured using macrophage-like LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. OHS extract inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing (p<0.0001), and delayed the reaction time of mice to the hot plate-induced thermal stimulation (p<0.0001) and tail flick tests (p<0.05). OHS extract attenuated the carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema in rats (p<0.001). Similarly, OHS extract significantly decreased Evans blue concentration in acetic acid induced vascular permeability test (p<0.0001), revealing its strong anti-inflammatory effect. Finally, among four different fractions of OHS extract, n-butanol fraction strongly decreased NO production (p<0.0001) and iNOS expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Our results suggest that the methanolic extract of O. humifusa stem can be used to develop a therapeutic or supportive drug and/or functional food against pain and inflammation related diseases.

  20. Chemical and Physical Defense Traits in Two Sexual Forms of Opuntia robusta in Central Eastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; León Solano, Héctor Javier; Solache Rámos, Lupita Tzenyatze; Mendoza Reyes, Citlalli Hypatia; Oro Cerro, María del Carmen; Mariezcurrena Berasain, María Dolores; Rivas Manzano, Irma Victoria; Manjarrez, Javier; Villareal Benitez, José Luis; Czarnoleski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic plants provide an excellent opportunity for examining the differences in the extent of their defense against herbivores because they exhibit sex-related differences in reproductive investment. Such differences enable comparison of the sex with high reproduction expenses with the sex that expends less. The more costly sex is usually also better defended against herbivores. Generally, females are considered more valuable than hermaphrodites in terms of fitness; however, hermaphrodites are more valuable if they can produce seed by autonomous selfing, provided that the inbreeding depression is low and pollen is limited. We studied a gynodioecious population of Opuntia robusta from Central-Eastern Mexico, which has been reported to be trioecious, dioecious, or hermaphrodite, and addressed the following questions: 1) Is the hermaphrodite's reproductive output higher than the female's, and are hermaphrodites thus better defended? 2) Are plant tissues differentially defended? 3) Do trade-offs exist among different physical defense traits? and 4) among physical and chemical defense traits? We found that 1) hermaphrodites had a higher seed output and more spines per areola than females and that their spines contained less moisture. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained more total phenolic compounds (TPCs) than female ones. In addition, 2) hermaphrodite reproductive cladodes bore more spines than female cladodes, and 3) and 4) we found a negative relationship between spine number per areola and areola number per cladode and a positive relationship between spine number per areola per plant and TPC concentration per plant. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained a higher concentration of TPCs than female cladodes, and parental cladodes contained fewer TPCs than both reproductive and empty cladodes. PMID:24599143

  1. Antioxidant properties and chemical characterization of Spanish Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. cladodes and fruits.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2017-08-21

    Recent studies have demonstrated that consumption of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. has an important positive health benefit, mainly due to antioxidant properties, which justifies this research. This study examined antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar profile, total phenolic, and physicochemical characteristics of six O. ficus-indica cultivars growing in the Spanish Mediterranean. It should be noted that, in this study, both cladodes (young and adult) and fruits (peel and pulp) were analyzed. The antioxidant activity (2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods) was higher in fruit peel than in cladodes. The young cladodes presented an important antioxidant activity by the ferric-reducing ability of plasma method as well as a higher total phenolic content (18.90 g gallic acid equivalent per kilogram). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detector analysis revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose, which the values were higher in pulp fruits. HPLC with refractive index detector analysis showed that citric, malic, and succinic acids were the main organic acids in all cultivars, with a significant higher content in old cladodes. These investigations valorize O. ficus-indica fruits in comparison with cladodes. In general, this plant can be considered as an ingredient for the production of health-promoting food, highlighting mainly in the antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content found in young cladodes and peel fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Application of Opuntia ficus-indica in bioremediation of wastewaters. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-15

    Heavy metal ion, pesticide and dye wastewaters cause severe ecological contamination with conventional treatment methods proving inadequate, unsuccessful or expensive to apply. Several biomaterials have recently been explored for the biosorption and biocoagulation-flocculation of pollutants from wastewaters. In the past 10 years, there has been an extensive research output on the use of biological materials such as agricultural wastes, chitosan, Moringa Oleifera, Eichhornia crassipes, bacteria, algae, Cactus plants etc. in environmental remediation. The present paper reviews the scattered information about the green technology involving Opuntia ficus-indica derived biomaterials in wastewater decontamination. Its characterization, physicochemical compositions, its application in biosorption and flocculation of dyes, pesticides and metallic species focussing on equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic properties are reviewed. The main results obtained in the depollution of a variety of contaminated wastewaters using cladodes, fruit pulp and peels mucilage and electrolytes show very high and promising pollutant maximum sorption capacities and removal percentages in the range -125.4-1000 mg/g and 0.31-2251.56 mg/g for the biosorption of dyes and metallic species respectively and removal % ranges of 50-98.7%, 11-93.62% and 17-100% for turbidity, chemical oxygen demand and heavy metals respectively by coagulation-flocculation process. The biomaterials proved to be efficient in pollutant removal that there is need to explore the scaling up of the study from the laboratory scale to community pilot plants and eventually to industrial levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Opuntia ficus indica on symptoms of the alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Jeff; McPherson, Steve; Odden, Michelle C; Shlipak, Michael G

    2004-06-28

    The severity of the alcohol hangover may be related to inflammation induced by impurities in the alcohol beverage and byproducts of alcohol metabolism. An extract of the Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) plant diminishes the inflammatory response to stressful stimuli. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 64 healthy, young adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive OFI (1600 IU) and identical placebo, given 5 hours before alcohol consumption. During 4 hours, subjects consumed up to 1.75 g of alcohol per kilogram of body weight. Hangover severity (9 symptoms) and overall well-being were assessed on a scale (0-6), and blood and urine samples were obtained the following morning. Two weeks later, the study protocol was repeated with OFI and placebo reversed. Fifty-five subjects completed both the OFI and placebo arms of the study. Three of the 9 symptoms-nausea, dry mouth, and anorexia-were significantly reduced by OFI (all P<.05). Overall, the symptom index was reduced by 2.7 points on average (95% confidence interval, -0.2 to 5.5; P =.07), and the risk of a severe hangover (>/=18 points) was reduced by half (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.88; P =.02). C-reactive protein levels were strongly associated with hangover severity; the mean symptom index was 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.1; P =.007) higher in subjects with morning C-reactive protein levels greater than 1.0 mg/L. In addition, C-reactive protein levels were 40% higher after subjects consumed placebo compared with OFI. The symptoms of the alcohol hangover are largely due to the activation of inflammation. An extract of the OFI plant has a moderate effect on reducing hangover symptoms, apparently by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators.

  4. Effect of fungi and light on seed germination of three Opuntia species from semiarid lands of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Guerrero-González, María de la Luz; Flores, Joel

    2013-09-01

    Fungal attack under light reduces mechanical resistance of the testa of Opuntia seeds, making it easier for the embryo to emerge. However, the effect of fungi on Opuntia seed germination in darkness is unknown. We evaluated the combined effects of light and inoculation with Phoma medicaginis, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningii, and Penicillium chrysogenum on germination of O. streptacantha, O. leucotricha, and O. robusta seeds, from central Mexico. We also evaluated the combined effects of seed age (2-, 3-, and 12-year-old seeds) and presence of fungi on the testa on O. streptacantha germination. All fungal species eroded the funicular envelope and promoted seed germination for O. leucotricha and O. streptacantha, but did more so in light than in darkness. For the latter species, younger seeds inoculated with fungi had lower germination than older ones. For O. robusta, we found that seeds inoculated with P. medicaginis and T. harzianum had similar germination in light and in darkness. Our results strongly indicate that deterioration of the testa by fungi is higher in light than in darkness.

  5. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Power, Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Betacyanins of the Peel and Pulp of Three Tunisian Opuntia Forms

    PubMed Central

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila K.; Guyot, Sylvain; Sotin, Hélène; Ayadi, Malika T.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta have been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica, while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulp, and the thornless variety has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg·g−1; thornless: 77.03 μg·g−1) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg·g−1). PMID:26787622

  6. Hydrolytic activity and ultrastructural changes in fruit skins from two prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) varieties during storage.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-López, Armando; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Cárabez-Trejo, Alfonso; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2002-03-13

    The activity of four cell wall hydrolases, pectinmethylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), cellulase, and beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal), was measured in fruit skins of two prickly pear varieties, Naranjona and Charola, during storage at 18 degrees C and 85-95% relative humidity (RH). In Naranjona (Opuntia ficus indica), of short postharvest life (ca. 2 weeks), PG, cellulase, and beta-Gal increased their activity more than twice, whereas PME activity tended to increase only slightly during storage. In Charola (Opuntia sp.), of long postharvest life (ca. 2 months), only beta-Gal increased its activity (77%), showing a high PG activity from the beginning of storage. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed middle lamella dissolution at the end of storage for both varieties. Naranjona showed a higher cell wall enzymatic activity than Charola, in agreement with their storability differences. Our results suggest that PG and cellulase in Naranjona and PG and beta-Gal in Charola are the main enzymes responsible for cell wall hydrolytic and ultrastructural changes in skins of stored prickly pears.

  7. The evolutionary history of Drosophila buzzatii. XXXIII. Are Opuntia hosts a selective factor for the inversion polymorphism?

    PubMed

    Fanara, J J; Hasson, E; Rodríguez, C; Santos, M; Fontdevila, A

    1996-11-01

    Previous work has shown fitness differences among chromosomal arrangements by means of selection component analysis in two Drosophila buzzatii natural populations, one of which is native to Argentina and the other a colonized population from Carboneras, Spain. Founder effects or niche shifts were proposed to explain the differences observed in the pattern of pleiotropic effects of inversions on fitness components. In this paper, we address the possible role of niche shifts by determining whether differential attraction to, oviposition on, or utilization of the rotting cladodes of two different Opuntia species (O. quimilo and O. ficus-indica) occurred among individuals carrying different second chromosome karyotypes in a natural Argentinian population. Through the analysis of more than 2500 individuals comprising five different life cycle stages associated with the necroses of these two cactus species, we found that the distributions of inversion frequencies in samples of adult flies, third instar larvae and emerging adults collected on both Opuntia species were not significantly different. Likewise, no evidence of differential oviposition was observed. These findings suggest that niche shifts cannot, solely, account for the changes observed in the Carboneras population. In addition, the selection component analysis did not reveal any significant relationship between chromosomal arrangements and the fitness components tested. These results suggest either that fitness differences might be too small to be detected or that the assumptions of the model concerning the mode of selection may not be tenable in the studied population.

  8. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Power, Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Betacyanins of the Peel and Pulp of Three Tunisian Opuntia Forms.

    PubMed

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila K; Guyot, Sylvain; Sotin, Hélène; Ayadi, Malika T

    2013-04-19

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta have been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica, while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulp, and the thornless variety has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg·g(-1); thornless: 77.03 μg·g(-1)) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg·g(-1)).

  9. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among Tunisian cactus species (Opuntia) as revealed by random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Bendhifi Zarroug, M; Baraket, G; Zourgui, L; Souid, S; Salhi Hannachi, A

    2015-02-13

    Opuntia ficus indica is one of the most economically important species in the Cactaceae family. Increased interest in this crop stems from its potential contribution to agricultural diversification, application in the exploitation of marginal lands, and utility as additional income sources for farmers. In Tunisia, O. ficus indica has been affected by drastic genetic erosion resulting from biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, it is imperative to identify and preserve this germplasm. In this study, we focused on the use of random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms to assess genetic diversity among 25 representatives of Tunisian Opuntia species maintained in the collection of the National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia. Seventy-two DNA markers were screened to discriminate accessions using 16 successful primer combinations. The high percentage of polymorphic band (100%), the resolving power value (5.68), the polymorphic information content (0.94), and the marker index (7.2) demonstrated the efficiency of the primers tested. Therefore, appropriate cluster analysis used in this study illustrated a divergence among the cultivars studied and exhibited continuous variation that occurred independently of geographic origin. O. ficus indica accessions did not cluster separately from the other cactus pear species, indicating that their current taxonomical classifications are not well aligned with their genetic variability or locality of origin.

  10. Functional characterization of an acidic SK(3) dehydrin isolated from an Opuntia streptacantha cDNA library.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Alfaro, A E; Rodríguez-Kessler, M; Pérez-Morales, M B; Delgado-Sánchez, P; Cuevas-Velazquez, C L; Gómez-Anduro, G; Jiménez-Bremont, J F

    2012-03-01

    Cactus pears are succulent plants of the Cactaceae family adapted to extremely arid, hot and cold environments, making them excellent models for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying abiotic stress tolerance. Herein, we report a directional cDNA library from 12-month-old cladodes of Opuntia streptacantha plants subjected to abiotic stresses. A total of 442 clones were sequenced, representing 329 cactus pear unigenes, classified into eleven functional categories. The most abundant EST (unigen 33) was characterized under abiotic stress. This cDNA of 905 bp encodes a SK(3)-type acidic dehydrin of 248 amino acids. The OpsDHN1 gene contains an intron inserted within the sequence encoding the S-motif. qRT-PCR analysis shows that the OpsDHN1 transcript is specifically accumulated in response to cold stress, and induced by abscisic acid. Over-expression of the OpsDHN1 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to enhanced tolerance to freezing treatment, suggesting that OpsDHN1 participates in freezing stress responsiveness. Generation of the first EST collection for the characterization of cactus pear genes constitutes a useful platform for the understanding of molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in Opuntia and other CAM plants.

  11. Comparative study of antioxidant power, polyphenols, flavonoids and betacyanins of peel and pulp of three Tunisian Opuntia forms.

    PubMed

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Trabelsi Ayadi, Malika

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta has been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The Total Phenolic Compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulps and the thornless has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg g(-1); thornless: 77.03 μg g(-1)) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg g(-1)).

  12. Effects of Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuexin; Liu, Zhiming; Yang, Zhiping; Bao, Pengyun; Zhang, Congyao; Ding, Jianfeng

    2014-07-01

    The effects of a diet containing Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on growth and digestive enzyme activity were estimated in juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Groups of sea cucumbers were fed diets containing H. opuntiae C21 at 0 (control), 104, 105, and 106 CFU (colony-forming units)/g feed. Results showed that after 45 d the specific growth rate (SGR) of sea cucumbers fed a C21-supplemented diet at 10 4 CFU/g feed was significantly higher than that of the control ( P < 0.05). Intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by C21 administration at 104 and 105 CFU/g feed compared with the control ( P < 0.05). After feeding for 23-42 d, C21 was demonstrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to be present in the intestine of sea cucumbers. In addition, after feeding the C21-supplemented diets for 15 d, the sea cucumbers were switched to an unsupplemented diet and C21 was confirmed to be capable of colonizing the intestine for at least 31 d after cessation of feeding. In conclusion, C21 was shown to successfully colonize the intestine of juvenile A. japonicus via dietary supplementation, and improve growth and digestive enzyme activity.

  13. The ecology of the yeast flora in necroticOpuntia cacti and of associatedDrosophila in Australia.

    PubMed

    Barker, J S; East, P D; Phaff, H J; Miranda, M

    1984-12-01

    A survey was made of the yeast communities isolated from necrotic tissue of 4 species of prickly-pear cacti (Opuntia stricta, O. tomentosa, O. monacantha, andO. streptacantha) which have colonized in Australia. Yeast communities were sampled from a number of localities and at different times. Cactus specific yeasts accounted for 80% of the total isolates, and the 3 most common species contributed 63% of the total. Comparisons of the species compositions of the yeast communities indicated that the differences among communities were greater betweenOpuntia species than between different localities within a single cactus species, and also that differences between years were greater than average differences between localities within years. Multivariate statistical tests of association between yeast community and physical features of rots indicated that temperature, pH, and age of rot all exerted some influence on the structure of the yeast community. Similar analyses involvingDrosophila species inhabiting these cactus rots suggested the existence of complex associations betweenDrosophila community, yeast community, and physical and chemical attributes of the cactus necroses.

  14. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.

  15. Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica flowers maceration on quality and on heat stability of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Imène; BenAmira, Amal; Khemakem, Ibtihel; Attia, Hamadi; Ennouri, Monia

    2017-05-01

    This study was focused on the evaluation of the quality and the oxidative stability of olive oil added with Opuntia ficus-indica flowers. Two different amounts of O. ficus-indica flowers were considered 5 and 15% (w/w). The olive oils were evaluated towards their quality, fatty acids profile, total phenol contents and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry. The oxidative stability was also monitored by employing the Rancimat and the oven test based on accelerating the oxidation process during storage. The addition of O. ficus-indica flowers induced an increase in free acidity values and a variation in fatty acids profile of olive oils but values remained under the limits required for an extra-virgin olive oil. The obtained olive oils were nutritionally enriched due to the increase in their phenols content. The oxidative stability was generally improved, mainly in olive oil enriched with 5% Opuntia ficus-indica flowers. These findings proved that this enriched olive oil could be considered as a product with a greater added value.

  16. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia and peroxynitrite scavenging activity by Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Tae Hee; Jin, Changbae; Kwak, Wie-Jong; Han, Chang-Kyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2006-09-01

    Activated microglia by neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation overproduce nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. The toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the reaction product of NO and superoxide anion further contributes to oxidative neurotoxicity. A butanol fraction obtained from 50% ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten (Cactaceae) stem (SK OFB901) and its hydrolysis product (SK OFB901H) inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC50 15.9, 4.2 microg/mL, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at higher than 30 microg/mL as observed by western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. They also inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. Moreover, they showed strong activity of peroxynitrite scavenging in a cell free bioassay system. These results imply that Opuntia ficus indica may have neuroprotective activity through the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells and peroxynitrite scavenging activity. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Associating Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica and Pinus pinaster. Safety and efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Prospective study on 320 patients].

    PubMed

    Pavone, C; Abbadessa, D; Tarantino, M L; Oxenius, I; Laganà, A; Lupo, A; Rinella, M

    2010-01-01

    Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) has been employed for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) for several years. Its mechanism of action is believed to be due to antiandrogenic, antiproliferative and antinflammatory properties. An association of Serenoa with the nettle "Urtica dioica" showing antiproliferative activity and the pine "Pinus pinaster" derivative, showing antinflammatory action, has been proposed in recent years. Such an action is hoped to act not only by reducing LUTS but also by preventing the development of prostate cancer. During the years 2007 and 2008, 320 patients suffering from LUTS were treated with an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Urtica dioica 120 mg and Pinus pinaster 5 mg, named IPBTRE. This treatment was administered to all patients for a minimal duration of 30 days to a maximum of a year, either alone or in association with antibiotics or alpha-blockers, if needed. Outcome analysis was based on evaluation of symptoms, prostate volume and maximum flow rate (Qmax). From a careful analysis of the data collected in our database, the following observations can be made: ages varied between 19 and 78 years. The patients were affected by BPH in 46% of cases, chronic prostatitis syndrome in 43%, chronic genital-pelvic pain in 7% and other conditions in 4%, the absolute numbers being 147, 138, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. No untoward side effect was reported in any case. Variations in symptom score could be fully evaluated only in 80 of 320 patients (25%), of whom 68 (85%) reported a significant benefit, with special reference to an improvement of pain, urgency, strangury and nocturia. Data on variations in prostate volume, as measured by digital rectal examination, were available in 84 (26.5%) patients. No significant change was observed. Qmax after treatment was measured in 83 (26%) patients. It did not show significant changes from the initial values. The association tested in our study appeared to be safe and well

  18. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  19. [Therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Opuntia dillenii Haw on atherosclerosis of rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-chun; Qi, Zhan-peng; Liu, Zhen-zhong; Li, Tao; Cui, Hong-xia; Wang, Bao-qing; Chi, Na

    2015-04-01

    The research aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of Opuntia dillenii Haw polysaccharide (OPS) on atherosclerosis of rats. First atherosclerotic rat models were established by high-fat and high-calcium diet. Thirty days later, the rats were treated with low dosage of OPS (0.2 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) or high dosage of OPS (0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) by intraperitoneal injection for 60 days continuously. At the end of treatment, thoracic aorta rings were prepared and vasorelaxation of rat thoracic aorta in different experiment groups were determined by using 620M multi wire myograph system in vitro. Blood and livers of rats were collected. Then plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) of rats were separately determined using whole automatic biochemical analyzer; protein level of hepatic apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and that of hepatic diglyceride acyltransferase (Dgat1) were measured by Western Blot technique. Results showed that the ability of rat thoracic aorta to relax decreased markedly in the model group compared with that in the normal group, and significant differences existed in vasorelaxation ratios induced by different concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (Carb) between these two groups (P < 0.01). After OPS treatment, the ability of rat thoracic aorta to relax improved markedly, the vasorelaxation ratios induced by Carb at 5 and 10 μmol x L(-1) were respectively 0.34 ± 0.08 and 0.62 ± 0.15 in the group treated with low dosage of OPS, while the ratios induced by Carb at 1 and 5 μmol x L(-1) were respectively 0.54 ± 0.08 and 0.98 ± 0.02 in the group treated with high dosage of OPS, which were all significantly different with those in the model group (P < 0.01). Plasma contents of TC, TG and LDL reduced significantly by the treatments both with low and high dosages of OPS compared with those in the model group (P < 0.01). Protein level of hepatic ApoB and that of hepatic Dgat1

  20. Opuntia dillenii cladode: Opuntiol and opuntioside attenuated cytokines and eicosanoids mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Faheema; Naqvi, Sabira; Abidi, Lubna; Faizi, Shaheen; Lubna; Avesi, Lubna; Mirza, Talat; Farooq, Ahsana Dar

    2016-04-22

    Opuntia dillenii Haw (Nagphana) traditionally used against inflammation. The present study addressed the anti-inflammatory activity of O. dillenii derived methanol extract, fractions and pure compounds and their underlying mechanism of action. O. dillenii cladode methanol extract was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) furnishing two main fractions viz (T-1 and -2) leading to isolation of opuntiol (aglycone) and opuntioside (O-glucoside), respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity of extract, fractions, pure compounds and reference drugs were evaluated using: (1) arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema accompanied by histological studies of mice ear sections and phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-induced mice paw edema. (2) Carrageenan and glycogen-induced peritonitis in rodents. In parallel levels of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined via HPLC and fluoroemetrically using 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) dye, respectively. Additionally, levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukins IL-1β and -6 were measured by ELISA assay. O. dillenii methanol extract, fractions and pure compounds reduced AA and TPA-induced ear punch weight in a dose dependent fashion. The corresponding IC50 values obtained also suppressed inflammatory features observed histologically. Furthermore, paw edema and peritonitis were also attenuated. Similar to indomethacin and diclofenac sodium, opuntioside reduced PGE2 levels of inflamed ear which was comparatively 1.3× better than opuntiol. However, opuntiol was more potent in reducing LTB4 levels in rat neutrophils with an IC50 value of 19±3.3μΜ, while opuntioside was ineffective. Opuntiol also effectively suppressed ROS (37%) and cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-1β and -6) by ~50% and comparable to dexamethasone. O. dillenii cladodes possess anti-inflammatory properties via inhibition of arachidonic acid

  1. Cactus (Opuntia humifusa) water extract ameliorates loperamide-induced constipation in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Hee; Park, Kyungmi; Kim, Eun Young; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-01-17

    Korean cactus Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) is rich in pectin, phenols, flavonoids, and minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. Some Koreans drink Cheonnyuncho juice prepared by grinding Cheonnyuncho with water. Cheonnyuncho is well known for its functional properties and antioxidant effects, but its effect on constipation has not been sufficiently studied. Loperamide (2 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to induce constipation in rats. The animals were divided into four groups: a normal group (NOR), constipation control group (CON), and two constipation groups receiving the Cheonnyuncho extract (CE) at two different concentrations in drinking water, 3% (L-CE group) and 6% (H-CE group), for 25 days. The fecal pellet numbers of NOR and L-CE were significantly increased from 35.67 ± 2.09 (CON) to 50.60 ± 1.38 and 46.50 ± 2.91 after loperamide treatment, respectively (p < 0.05). The water content of fecal excretions was significantly enhanced in only the L-CE group (33.05 ± 0.49%) compared to control (23.38 ± 1.26%) (p < 0.05) after loperamide treatment. The oral intake of CE (L-CE and H-CE groups) significantly increased levels of the intestinal transit ratio (45.25 ± 1.86% and 41.05 ± 2.47%, respectively) compared to the CON group (32.15 ± 2.05%) (p < 0.05). Treatment with the low concentration of CE significantly increased fecal levels of acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids, as well as the total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration. Histological analyses revealed that the thickness of the distal colon also increased in the CE-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Constipation decreased when CE was fed to the rats. In particular, the fecal pellet number and water content, as well as histological parameters such as distal colon thickness, improved. The CE treatment also increased the fecal SCFA content. These results show that the extract of Cheonnyuncho (O. humifusa) alleviated the

  2. Forming a tough shell via an intracellular matrix and cellular junctions in the tail epidermis of Oikopleura dioica (Chordata: Tunicata: Appendicularia).

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Keisuke; Nishino, Atsuo; Hirose, Euichi

    2011-08-01

    A postanal tail is a major synapomorphy of the phylum Chordata, which is composed of three subphyla: Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Tunicata (Urochordata). Among tunicates, appendicularians are the only group that retains the tail in the adult, and the adult tail functions in locomotion and feeding in combination with a cellulose-based house structure. Given the phylogenetic position of tunicates, the appendicularian adult tail may possess ancestral features of the chordate tail. We assess the ultrastructural development of the tail epidermis of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica. The epidermis of the larval tail is enclosed by the larval envelope, which is a thin sheet similar to the outer tunic layer of ascidian larvae. The epidermis of the adult tail seems to bear no tunic-like cellulosic integuments, and the tail fin is a simple folding of the epidermis. Every epidermal cell, except for the triangular cells at the edge of the tail fin, has a conspicuous matrix layer of fibrous content in the apical cytoplasm without enclosing membranes. The epidermis of the larval tail does not have a fibrous matrix layer, suggesting the production of the layer during larval development and metamorphosis. Zonulae adhaerentes firmly bind the epidermal cells of the adult tail to one another, and the dense microfilaments lining the cell borders constitute a mechanical support for the cell membranes. The intracellular matrix, cell junctions, and cytoskeletons probably make the tail epidermis a tough, flexible shell supporting the active beating of the oikopleuran adult tail.

  3. Forming a tough shell via an intracellular matrix and cellular junctions in the tail epidermis of Oikopleura dioica (Chordata: Tunicata: Appendicularia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Keisuke; Nishino, Atsuo; Hirose, Euichi

    2011-08-01

    A postanal tail is a major synapomorphy of the phylum Chordata, which is composed of three subphyla: Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Tunicata (Urochordata). Among tunicates, appendicularians are the only group that retains the tail in the adult, and the adult tail functions in locomotion and feeding in combination with a cellulose-based house structure. Given the phylogenetic position of tunicates, the appendicularian adult tail may possess ancestral features of the chordate tail. We assess the ultrastructural development of the tail epidermis of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica. The epidermis of the larval tail is enclosed by the larval envelope, which is a thin sheet similar to the outer tunic layer of ascidian larvae. The epidermis of the adult tail seems to bear no tunic-like cellulosic integuments, and the tail fin is a simple folding of the epidermis. Every epidermal cell, except for the triangular cells at the edge of the tail fin, has a conspicuous matrix layer of fibrous content in the apical cytoplasm without enclosing membranes. The epidermis of the larval tail does not have a fibrous matrix layer, suggesting the production of the layer during larval development and metamorphosis. Zonulae adhaerentes firmly bind the epidermal cells of the adult tail to one another, and the dense microfilaments lining the cell borders constitute a mechanical support for the cell membranes. The intracellular matrix, cell junctions, and cytoskeletons probably make the tail epidermis a tough, flexible shell supporting the active beating of the oikopleuran adult tail.

  4. An extract of Urtica dioica L. mitigates obesity induced insulin resistance in mice skeletal muscle via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A).

    PubMed

    Obanda, Diana N; Ribnicky, David; Yu, Yongmei; Stephens, Jacqueline; Cefalu, William T

    2016-02-26

    The leaf extract of Urtica dioica L. (UT) has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but definitive studies on efficacy and mechanism of action are lacking. We investigated the effects of UT on obesity- induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with UT. Body weight, body composition, plasma glucose and plasma insulin were monitored. Skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) was analyzed for insulin sensitivity, ceramide accumulation and the post translational modification and activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A is activated by ceramides and dephosphorylates Akt. C2C12 myotubes exposed to excess free fatty acids with or without UT were also evaluated for insulin signaling and modulation of PP2A. The HFD induced insulin resistance, increased fasting plasma glucose, enhanced ceramide accumulation and PP2A activity in skeletal muscle. Supplementation with UT improved plasma glucose homeostasis and enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity without affecting body weight and body composition. In myotubes, UT attenuated the ability of FFAs to induce insulin resistance and PP2A hyperactivity without affecting ceramide accumulation and PP2A expression. UT decreased PP2A activity through posttranslational modification that was accompanied by a reduction in Akt dephosphorylation.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  6. Expression of heavy metal tolerance in pollen and implications for gametophytic selection. [The plants used were clones of Silene dioica and Mimulus guttatus

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in both sporophytic and microgametophytic phases of the angiosperm life cycle. Thus, selection in one phase could modify gene frequency in both phases. An attempt was made to investigate microgametophytic selection in response to toxic concentrations of heavy metals and the effect of this selection upon the resultant sporophyte generation. The plants used were clones of a zinc-tolerant Silene dioica, closely related nontolerant S. alba, and copper tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Mimulus guttatus. First, the expression of metal tolerance in pollen was established by in vitro pollen germination and tube growth, and was found to be associated with the tolerance of the pollen source. Second, to test the extent to which the parallel expression of metal tolerance was determined by the gametophytic genotype, tolerant but segregating clones were grown with and without added metals. Finally, selection was applied during pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization. In Silene, neither the tolerance of the pollen nor the metal content of the styles affected pollen tube growth rate. In Mimulus, pollen from the nontolerant source grew faster, but the metal content of the floral tissue had no significant effect on pollen tube growth rate, and only slightly reduced the fertilization ability of pollen from the nontolerant clone.

  7. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the effects of Urtica dioica and swimming activity on diabetic factors and pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Ranjbari, Abbas; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Yusof, Ashril; Halim Mokhtar, Abdul; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Tarverdizadeh, Bahman; Farzadinia, Parviz; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Dehghan, Firouzeh

    2016-03-15

    Urtica dioica (UD) has been identified as a traditional herbal medicine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of UD extract and swimming activity on diabetic parameters through in vivo and in vitro experiments. Adult WKY male rats were randomly distributed in nine groups: intact control, diabetic control, diabetic + 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, diabetic + 100 mg/kg Metformin, diabetic + swimming, diabetic + swimming 625 mg/kg, 1.25 g/kg UD, and diabetic +100 mg/kg Metformin + swimming. The hearts of the animals were punctured, and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The entire pancreas was exposed for histologic examination. The effect of UD on insulin secretion by RIN-5F cells in 6.25 or 12.5 mM glucose dose was examined. Glucose uptake by cultured L6 myotubes was determined. The serum glucose concentration decreased, the insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity significantly increased in treated groups. These changes were more pronounced in the group that received UD extract and swimming training. Regeneration and less beta cell damage of Langerhans islets were observed in the treated groups. UD treatment increased insulin secretion in the RIN-5F cells and glucose uptake in the L6 myotubes cells. Swimming exercises accompanied by consuming UD aqueous extracts effectively improved diabetic parameters, repaired pancreatic tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetics in vivo, and increased glucose uptake or insulin in UD-treated cells in vitro.

  8. Salix transect of Europe: variation in ploidy and genome size in willow-associated common nettle, Urtica dioica L. sens. lat., from Greece to arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Cronk, Quentin; Hidalgo, Oriane; Pellicer, Jaume; Percy, Diana; Leitch, Ilia J

    2016-01-01

    The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic Norway (primarily conducted to examine the diversity of Salix and Salix-associated insects). Using flow cytometry to measure genome size, our sample of 29 plants reveals 5 diploids and 24 tetraploids. Two diploids were found in SE Europe (Bulgaria and Romania) and three diploids in S. Finland. More detailed cytotype surveys in these regions are suggested. The tetraploid genome size (2C value) varied between accessions from 2.36 to 2.59 pg. The diploids varied from 1.31 to 1.35 pg per 2C nucleus, equivalent to a haploid genome size of c. 650 Mbp. Within the tetraploids, we find that the most northerly samples (from N. Finland and arctic Norway) have a generally higher genome size. This is possibly indicative of a distinct population in this region.

  9. Salix transect of Europe: variation in ploidy and genome size in willow-associated common nettle, Urtica dioica L. sens. lat., from Greece to arctic Norway

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Oriane; Pellicer, Jaume; Percy, Diana; Leitch, Ilia J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. New information We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic Norway (primarily conducted to examine the diversity of Salix and Salix-associated insects). Using flow cytometry to measure genome size, our sample of 29 plants reveals 5 diploids and 24 tetraploids. Two diploids were found in SE Europe (Bulgaria and Romania) and three diploids in S. Finland. More detailed cytotype surveys in these regions are suggested. The tetraploid genome size (2C value) varied between accessions from 2.36 to 2.59 pg. The diploids varied from 1.31 to 1.35 pg per 2C nucleus, equivalent to a haploid genome size of c. 650 Mbp. Within the tetraploids, we find that the most northerly samples (from N. Finland and arctic Norway) have a generally higher genome size. This is possibly indicative of a distinct population in this region. PMID:27932918

  10. Improved glycemic control in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus taking Urtica dioica leaf extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kianbakht, Saeed; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Dabaghian, Fataneh Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) needing insulin therapy is common. Most conventional anti-hyperglycemic drugs have limited efficacies and significant side effects, so that better anti-hyperglycemic agents are needed. Urtica dioica L. (nettle) leaves have insulin secretagogue, PPARgamma agonistic, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Moreover, nettle leaves are used in traditional medicine as an anti-hyperglycemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. Thus, efficacy and safety of nettle in the treatment of patients with advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus needing insulin were studied. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the effects of taking nettle leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 hours for 3 months) combined with the conventional oral anti-hyperglycemic drugs on the blood levels of fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), creatinine and liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 46 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 46). At the endpoint, the extract lowered the blood levels of fasting glucose, 2 hours postprandial glucose, and HbA1c significantly (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p = 0.006, respectively) without any significant effects on the other parameters (p > 0.05) compared with placebo. Nettle may safely improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients needing insulin therapy.

  11. An extract of Urtica dioica L. mitigates obesity induced insulin resistance in mice skeletal muscle via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)

    PubMed Central

    Obanda, Diana N.; Ribnicky, David; Yu, Yongmei; Stephens, Jacqueline; Cefalu, William T.

    2016-01-01

    The leaf extract of Urtica dioica L. (UT) has been reported to improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but definitive studies on efficacy and mechanism of action are lacking. We investigated the effects of UT on obesity- induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with UT. Body weight, body composition, plasma glucose and plasma insulin were monitored. Skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) was analyzed for insulin sensitivity, ceramide accumulation and the post translational modification and activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). PP2A is activated by ceramides and dephosphorylates Akt. C2C12 myotubes exposed to excess free fatty acids with or without UT were also evaluated for insulin signaling and modulation of PP2A. The HFD induced insulin resistance, increased fasting plasma glucose, enhanced ceramide accumulation and PP2A activity in skeletal muscle. Supplementation with UT improved plasma glucose homeostasis and enhanced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity without affecting body weight and body composition. In myotubes, UT attenuated the ability of FFAs to induce insulin resistance and PP2A hyperactivity without affecting ceramide accumulation and PP2A expression. UT decreased PP2A activity through posttranslational modification that was accompanied by a reduction in Akt dephosphorylation. PMID:26916435

  12. Water relations of cacti during desiccation: distribution of water in tissues. [Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Opuntia basilaris

    SciTech Connect

    Barcikowski, W.; Nobel, P.S.

    1984-03-01

    Three species of cacti survived an average stem water loss of 81%. Fractional water loss was greater from water-storage tissue than from the chlorenchyma, as documented at the cellular level by determining changes in cell volume and at the tissue level by determining relative water content of chlorenchyma and storage tissues. For Carnegiea gigantea and Ferocactus acanthodes, this differential loss of water resulted from a decrease in the moles of solute per cell for storage tissue; hence, less water was retained at a given osmotic pressure than for the chlorenchyma. Opuntia basilaris lost less water from the chlorenchyma during drought because of a greater initial osmotic pressure in the chlorenchyma than in the storage tissue. Greater retention of water in the chlorenchyma would result in less disruption of photosynthetic activity in these cacti during drought.

  13. Bioactivity, proximate, mineral and volatile profiles along the flowering stages of Opuntia microdasys (Lehm.): defining potential applications.

    PubMed

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; Barreira, João C M; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Flamini, Guido; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Achour, Lotfi

    2016-03-01

    Opuntia spp. flowers have been traditionally used for medical purposes, mostly because of their diversity in bioactive molecules with health promoting properties. The proximate, mineral and volatile compound profiles, together with the cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties were characterized in O. microdasys flowers at different maturity stages, revealing several statistically significant differences. O. microdasys stood out mainly for its high contents of dietary fiber, potassium and camphor, and its high activities against HCT15 cells, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium funiculosum. The vegetative stage showed the highest cytotoxic and antifungal activities, whilst the full flowering stage was particularly active against bacterial species. The complete dataset has been classified by principal component analysis, achieving clearly identifiable groups for each flowering stage, elucidating also the most distinctive features, and comprehensively profiling each of the assayed stages. The results might be useful to define the best flowering stage considering practical application purposes.

  14. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    PubMed

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-09-17

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  15. Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill): anatomy, physiology and chemical composition with emphasis on its biofunctional properties.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Aguilar, Rosa Isela; Bosquez-Molina, Elsa; Bautista-Baños, Silvia; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando

    2017-06-20

    Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) is native to Mesoamerica and marketed in different forms such as fresh, frozen or pre-cooked. Worldwide, this vegetable is recognized for its pharmaceutical actions, including its antioxidant, diuretic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties, as well as their antiviral and antispermatogenic effects. However, not all of these properties have been associated with its chemical composition; therefore, this review aims to present and integrate information available on the physiology and anatomy of cactus stem and its chemical composition, focusing on some of the many factors that determine its biofunctionality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    PubMed

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  17. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on the increment of the production of gastric mucus in rats treated with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. cladodes.

    PubMed

    Galati, E M; Pergolizzi, S; Miceli, N; Monforte, M T; Tripodo, M M

    2002-12-01

    Opuntia ficus indica cladodes are used in traditional medicine of many countries for their cicatrisant activity. The major components of cladodes are carbohydrate-containing polymers, which consist of a mixture of mucilage and pectin. In this paper we studied the cytoprotective effects of cladodes on experimental ethanol-induced ulcer in rat. The O. ficus indica cladodes administration gives rise to cytoprotection phenomena by breaking up the epithelial cells and stimulating an increase in mucus production. When O. ficus indica cladodes are administered as a preventive therapy, keep the gastric mucosa under normal condition by preventing mucus dissolution caused by ethanol and favouring mucus production. An increase of mucus production is also observed during the course of the curative treatment. The treatment with O. ficus indica cladodes provokes an increase in the number of secretory cells. Probably, the gastric fibroblasts are involved in the antiulcer activity.

  19. Chemical characterization and biological effects of Sicilian Opuntia ficus indica (L.) mill. Fruit juice: antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Galati, Enza Maria; Mondello, Maria Rita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Giacomo; Miceli, Natalizia; Pergolizzi, Simona; Taviano, Maria Fernanda

    2003-08-13

    The juice of whole fruits of Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) was investigated, and the contents of ascorbic acid, total polyphenols, and flavonoids were determined. In the juice, ferulic acid was the chief derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and the mean concentration of total phenolic compounds was 746 microg/mL. The flavonoid fraction, analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, consisted of rutin and isorhamnetin derivatives. The juice showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH(*) test, probably due to the phenolic compounds that are effective radical scavengers. The preventive administration of the juice inhibited the ulcerogenic activity of ethanol in rat. Light microscopy observations showed an increase in mucus production and the restoration of the normal mucosal architecture. The juice is nutritionally interesting, and its dietary intake could provide protection against oxidative damage.

  20. Genetic divergence between Mexican Opuntia accessions inferred by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Samah, S; Valadez-Moctezuma, E; Peláez-Luna, K S; Morales-Manzano, S; Meza-Carrera, P; Cid-Contreras, R C

    2016-06-03

    Molecular methods are powerful tools in characterizing and determining relationships between plants. The aim of this study was to study genetic divergence between 103 accessions of Mexican Opuntia. To accomplish this, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of three chloroplast intergenic spacers (atpB-rbcL, trnL-trnF, and psbA-trnH), one chloroplast gene (ycf1), two nuclear genes (ppc and PhyC), and one mitochondrial gene (cox3) was conducted. The amplified products from all the samples had very similar molecular sizes, and there were only very small differences between the undigested PCR amplicons for all regions, with the exception of ppc. We obtained 5850 bp from the seven regions, and 136 fragments were detected with eight enzymes, 37 of which (27.2%) were polymorphic. We found that 40% of the fragments from the chloroplast regions were polymorphic, 9.8% of the bands detected in the nuclear genes were polymorphic, and 20% of the bands in the mitochondrial locus were polymorphic. trnL-trnF and psbA-trnH were the most variable regions. The Nei and Li/Dice distance was very short, and ranged from 0 to 0.12; indeed, 77 of the 103 genotypes had the same genetic profile. All the xoconostle accessions (acidic fruits) were grouped together without being separated from three genotypes of prickly pear (sweet fruits). We assume that the genetic divergence between prickly pears and xoconostles is very low, and question the number of Opuntia species currently considered in Mexico.

  1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of a flavonoid-rich concentrate recovered from Opuntia ficus-indica juice.

    PubMed

    Matias, A; Nunes, S L; Poejo, J; Mecha, E; Serra, A T; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Bronze, M R; Duarte, C M M

    2014-12-01

    In this work, Opuntia ficus indica juice was explored as a potential source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredients towards intestinal inflammation. An adsorption separation process was used to produce a natural flavonoid-rich concentrate (FRC) from Opuntia ficus-indica juice. The FRC effect (co- or pre-incubation) on induced-oxidative stress and induced-inflammation was evaluated in human Caco-2 cells. The main constituents identified and present in the extract are flavonoids (namely isorhamnetins and their derivatives such as isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnose-rutinoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside) and phenolic acids (such as ferulic, piscidic and eucomic acids). Our results showed that co-incubation of FRC with the stress-inducer attenuates radicals production in a much more significant manner than pre-incubation. These results suggest that FRC compounds which cannot pass the cell membrane freely (isorhamnetin derivatives) have an ability to inhibit the formation of H2O2-induced radicals in the surrounding environment of intestinal epithelial cells. The capacity of FRC (co-incubation) for suppressing (at the extracellular level) free radicals chain initiation or propagation reaction was probably related with a more pronounced reduction in protein oxidation. A similar response was observed in the inflammatory state, where a marked decrease in IL-8 secretion and blocked degradation of IκBα was achieved for FRC co-incubation. Simultaneously, treatment with FRC significantly reduces NO and TNF-α expression and modulates apparent permeability in Caco-2 cells. In these cases, no significant differences were found between pre- and co-incubation treatments suggesting that bioavailable phenolics, such as ferulic, eucomic and piscidic acids and isorhamnetin, act at the intracellular environment.

  2. Lignans from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds protect rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) seeds against ethanol-treated primary rat hepatocytes yielded six lignan compounds. Among the isolates, furofuran lignans 4-6, significantly protected rat hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, preserving antioxidative defense enzyme activities, and maintaining the glutathione content. Moreover, 4 dose-dependently induced the heme oxygenase-1 expression in HepG2 cells.

  3. Ex-vivo in-vitro inhibition of lipopolysaccharide stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta secretion in human whole blood by extractum urticae dioicae foliorum.

    PubMed

    Obertreis, B; Ruttkowski, T; Teucher, T; Behnke, B; Schmitz, H

    1996-04-01

    An extract of Urtica dioica folium (IDS 23, Rheuma-Hek), monographed positively for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases and with known effects in partial inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in vitro, was investigated with respect to effects of the extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human whole blood of healthy volunteers. In the assay system used, LPS stimulated human whole blood showed a straight increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) secretion reaching maximum concentrations within 24 h following a plateau and slight decrease up to 65 h, respectively. The concentrations of these cytokines was strongly positively correlated with the number of monocytes/macrophages of each volunteer. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta concentration after LPS stimulation was significantly reduced by simultaneously given IDS 23 in a strictly dose dependent manner. At time 24 h these cytokine concentrations were reduced by 50.8% and 99.7%, respectively, using the highest test IDS 23 assay concentration of 5 mg/ml (p < 0.001). After 65 h the corresponding inhibition was 38.9% and 99.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). On the other hand IDS 23 showed no inhibition but stimulated IL-6 secretion in absence of LPS alone. Simultaneously given LPS and IDS 23 resulted in no further increase. In contrast to described effects on arachidonic acid cascade in vitro, tested Urtica dioica phenol carbon acid derivates and flavonoides such as caffeic malic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and rutin did not influence LPS stimulated TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 secretion in tested concentrations up to 5 x 10(-5) mol/l. These further findings on the pharmacological mechanism of action of Urticae dioica folia may explain the positive effects of this extract in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

  4. Complex processing of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia sp.) by free-ranging long-tailed macaques: preliminary analysis for hierarchical organisation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Amanda W Y; Luncz, Lydia; Haslam, Michael; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Gumert, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Complex food-processing techniques by gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans have allowed comparisons of complex hierarchical cognition between great apes and humans. Here, we analyse preliminary observations of free-ranging long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) (n = 3) in Thailand processing Opuntia sp. cactus fruits. From our observations, we suggest that there is potential to extend the analyses of hierarchical cognition to Old World monkeys. We found that the macaques used six behavioural sequences to obtain Opuntia fruits, remove irritant hairs from the skin of the fruits, and break open, and consume the fruits, each a unique combination of 17 action elements. Removing irritant hairs involved abrading fruits on a sand or rock substrate, and washing fruit in water. The behavioural sequences that macaques use to process Opuntia potentially show features of hierarchical organisation described in the leaf-processing behaviours of great apes. Our observations highlight the need for closer study of complex food-processing behaviour in monkeys to better understand the organisational capacities involved.

  5. The influence of historical geneflow, bathymetry and distribution patterns on the population genetics of morphologically diverse Galápagos' Opuntia echios.

    PubMed

    Helsen, P; Verdyck, P; Van Dongen, S

    2011-03-01

    Throughout history, remote archipelagos have repeatedly been designated natural laboratories to study evolutionary processes. The extensive, geographically structured, morphological variation within Galápagos' Opuntia cacti has been presumed to be another example of how such processes shape diversity. However, recent genetic studies on speciation and potential effects of plasticity within this system failed to confirm earlier classification and hypothesized radiation on both global and single island levels. Detailed population genetic information, however, is crucial in conserving these semi-arid ecosystem keystone species. In this article, we re-evaluate the genetics of Opuntia echios inhabiting one of the most taxon rich places on the archipelago: Santa Cruz and its surrounding satellite islands, using microsatellite data. Our analysis revealed high genetic variability within all sampled locations, providing little support for the hypothesis of clonal reproduction. Inter-island gene flow patterns appear to be largely influenced by bathymetry and sea levels during last ice ages. Although O. echios from Seymour Norte are morphologically recognized as being a separate taxon, Daphné Major's cacti are the most differentiated. In addition, we found a potential barrier for gene flow along the ring-like distribution of Opuntias at the western side of Santa Cruz, suggesting potential links with geology.

  6. Effects of a triplex mixture of Peganum harmala, Rhus coriaria, and Urtica dioica aqueous extracts on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Abedi Gaballu, Fereydoon; Abedi Gaballu, Yousef; Moazenzade Khyavy, Omid; Mardomi, Alireza; Ghahremanzadeh, Kazem; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Mamandy, Himan

    2015-08-01

    Several therapeutic effects such as antioxidant and blood glucose-lowering activities have been reported for Peganum harmala L (Zygophyllaceae) (PH) seeds, Rhus coriaria L (Anacardiaceae) (RC) fruits, and Urtica dioica L (Urticaceae) (UD) leaves. This study investigates the effects of a triplex mixture (1:1:1) of these medicinal plants on metabolic and histological parameters in diabetic rats. Aqueous extracts of PH, RC and UD were administered as either monotherapy or in combination at a final dose of 200 mg/kg to alloxan-induced diabetic rats by daily gavage. Biochemical parameters including blood glucose, liver function-related enzymes, lipid profile, and creatinine were estimated by spectrophotometric methods. Tissues from the liver and kidney stained with hematoxylin/eosin were histologically examined. The results obtained from the exposure groups were compared to either healthy or diabetic control groups. Compared with the diabetic control rats, all aqueous extracts (ED50 = 11.5 ± 2.57 mg/ml) led to significant decreases in the levels of ALP (1.39-2.23-fold, p < 0.05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (1.79-3.26-fold, p < 0.05), and blood glucose (1.27-4.16-fold, p < 0.05). The serum concentrations of TG was decreased only by treatment with UD and triplex mixture (1.25- and 1.20-fold, respectively, p < 0.05). Among the studied parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), LDL-C, TG, and creatinine recovered to healthy control levels after 4 weeks of treatment with the extract mixture. This study showed that PH, RC, and UD extracts, especially their combination, had significant antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, and liver and renal damage recovering effects.

  7. Polyphenol-rich extract of Pimenta dioica berries (Allspice) kills breast cancer cells by autophagy and delays growth of triple negative breast cancer in athymic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Patil, Bhimu S.; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from edible plants have limited efficacy in treating advanced cancers, but they have potential to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in a combined treatment. An aqueous extract of berries of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) shows promise as one such candidate for combination therapy or chemoprevention. An aqueous extract of Allspice (AAE) was tested against human breast cancer (BrCa) cells in vitro and in vivo. AAE reduced the viability and clonogenic growth of several types of BrCa cells (IC50 ≤ 100 μg/ml) with limited toxicity in non-tumorigenic, quiescent cells (IC50 >200 μg/ml). AAE induced cytotoxicity in BrCa was inconsistent with apoptosis, but was associated with increased levels of autophagy markers LC3B and LC3B-positive puncta. Silencing the expression of autophagy related genes (ATGs) prevented AAE-induced cell death. Further, AAE caused inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling, and showed enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with rapamycin, a chemotherapy drug and an inhibitor of mTOR signaling. Oral administration (gavage) of AAE into athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB231 tumors inhibited tumor growth slightly but not significantly (mean decrease ~ 14%, p ≥ 0.20) if mice were gavaged post-tumor implant. Tumor growth showed a significant delay (38%) in tumor palpability and growth rate (time to reach tumor volume ≥ 1,000 mm3) when mice were pre-dosed with AAE for two weeks. Analysis of tumor tissues showed increased levels of LC3B in AAE treated tumors, indicating elevated autophagic tumor cell death in vivo in treated mice. These results demonstrate antitumor and chemo-preventive activity of AAE against BrCa and potential for adjuvant to mTOR inhibition. PMID:25945840

  8. Polyphenol-rich extract of Pimenta dioica berries (Allspice) kills breast cancer cells by autophagy and delays growth of triple negative breast cancer in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimu S; Lokeshwar, Bal L

    2015-06-30

    Bioactive compounds from edible plants have limited efficacy in treating advanced cancers, but they have potential to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in a combined treatment. An aqueous extract of berries of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) shows promise as one such candidate for combination therapy or chemoprevention. An aqueous extract of Allspice (AAE) was tested against human breast cancer (BrCa) cells in vitro and in vivo. AAE reduced the viability and clonogenic growth of several types of BrCa cells (IC50 ≤ 100 μg/ml) with limited toxicity in non-tumorigenic, quiescent cells (IC50 >200 μg/ml). AAE induced cytotoxicity in BrCa was inconsistent with apoptosis, but was associated with increased levels of autophagy markers LC3B and LC3B-positive puncta. Silencing the expression of autophagy related genes (ATGs) prevented AAE-induced cell death. Further, AAE caused inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling, and showed enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with rapamycin, a chemotherapy drug and an inhibitor of mTOR signaling. Oral administration (gavage) of AAE into athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB231 tumors inhibited tumor growth slightly but not significantly (mean decrease ~ 14%, p ≥ 0.20) if mice were gavaged post-tumor implant. Tumor growth showed a significant delay (38%) in tumor palpability and growth rate (time to reach tumor volume ≥ 1,000 mm3) when mice were pre-dosed with AAE for two weeks. Analysis of tumor tissues showed increased levels of LC3B in AAE treated tumors, indicating elevated autophagic tumor cell death in vivo in treated mice. These results demonstrate antitumor and chemo-preventive activity of AAE against BrCa and potential for adjuvant to mTOR inhibition.

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  10. Physicochemical characterization of nopal pads (Opuntia ficus indica) and dry vacuum nopal powders as a function of the maturation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Garcia, M E; de Lira, C; Hernández-Becerra, E; Cornejo-Villegas, M A; Palacios-Fonseca, A J; Rojas-Molina, I; Reynoso, R; Quintero, L C; Del-Real, A; Zepeda, T A; Muñoz-Torres, C

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents the physicochemical and nutrimental characterization of fresh nopal (Opuntia ficus indica, Redonda variety) and nopal powder produced at different stages of development. Nopal powder was obtained by dry vacuum technique using 10(2) Torr and low temperature (40 degrees C). The results showed that the nutrimental and mineral composition of nopal changes as a function of the maturation as follow: The ash content increases from 18.41 for nopalitos (60 g of weight) to 23.24% (nopal pads 200 g); calcium content increases from 1.52 to 3.72%, while phosphorous exhibits an opposite trend: 0.43 to 0.27%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was determined by X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy and quantified by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Calcium oxalate decreases from 7.95 to 3.47 mg/g and the Ca/P ratio varies from 3.6 to 11. The soluble fibre decreases from 25.22 to 14.91%, while insoluble fibre increases from 29.87 to 41.65%. These results suggest that nopal could be an important source of minerals within the diets of people in Mexico and the rest of Latin America.

  11. Influence of photoperiod on growth for three desert CAM species. [Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, Opuntia ficus-indica

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S. )

    1989-03-01

    Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, and Opuntia ficus-indica were maintained in environmental growth chambers under a constant total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for 1 yr to investigate the effects of photoperiod on growth of these Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. As the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h, growth increased 33% for A. deserti, 81% for F. acanthodes, and 50% for O. ficus-indica. Such increases were explained based on PAR saturation of the C{sub 3} photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle utilized by CAM plants during the daytime. In particular, the highest instantaneous PAR occurred for the shortest photoperiod and led to less growth for the same total daily PAR. Also, the total daily net CO{sub 2} uptake which occurred primarily at night, increased 53% as the photoperiod was increased from 6 to 18 h for O. ficus-indica, even though the accompanying night length decreased. The only other observed morphological effect was the sevenfold increase in the number of new cladodes initiated as the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h for O. ficus-indica. The influence of photoperiod on the daily pattern of net CO{sub 2} uptake and lack of effect of drought on plant survival under long photoperiods for O. ficus-indica differ from previous reports on this and other CAM species.

  12. Activities of carboxylating enzymes in the CAM species Opuntia ficus-indica grown under current and elevated CO2 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Israel, A A; Nobel, P S

    1994-06-01

    Responses of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were determined along with net CO2 uptake rates for the Crassulacean acid metabolism species Opuntia ficus-indica growing in open-top chambers. During the spring 13 months after planting, total daily net CO2 uptake of basal and first-order daughter cladodes was 28% higher at 720 than at 360 μl CO2 l(-1). The enhancement, caused mainly by higher CO2 assimilation during the early part of the night, was also observed during late summer (5 months after planting) and the following winter. The activities of Rubisco and PEPCase measured in vitro were both lower at the elevated CO2 concentration, particularly under the more favorable growth conditions in the spring and late summer. Enzyme activity in second-order daughter cladodes increased with cladode age, becoming maximal at 6 to 10 days. The effect ofelevated CO2 on Rubisco and PEPCase activity declined with decreasing irradiance, especially for Rubisco. Throughout the 13-month observation period, O. ficus-indica thus showed increased CO2 uptake when the atmospheric CO2 concentration was doubled despite lower activities of both carboxylating enzymes.

  13. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 gene confers salt and osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Xoconostle Pears (Opuntia matudae) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Laboratory Medium

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Saeed A.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of xoconostle pears (Opuntia matudae) against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Xoconostle pears were sliced, blended, and centrifuged. The supernatant was then filtered using a 0.45 μm filter to obtain direct extract. Direct extract of xoconostle pears was tested against four strains of E. coli O157:H7 in brain heart infusion (BHI) laboratory medium using growth over time and agar well diffusion assays. Our results showed that direct extract of xoconostle pears had a significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect at 4, 6, and 8% (v/v) concentrations and complete inhibitory effect at 10% (v/v) during 8 h of incubation at 37°C. Minimum inhibitory volume (MIV) was 400 μL mL−1 (v/v) and minimum lethal volume (MLV) was 650 μL mL−1 (v/v). The inhibitory effect of xoconostle pears found to be concentration dependent and not strain dependent. Thus, xoconostle pears extract has the potential to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and could provide a natural means of controlling pathogenic contamination, thereby mitigating food safety risks. PMID:22934117

  15. Isolation and structure of D-xylans from pericarp seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Youssef; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Vignon, Michel R

    2002-09-27

    Xylans were isolated from the pericarp of prickly pear seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) by alkaline extraction, fractionated by precipitation and purified. Six fractions were obtained and characterized by sugar analysis and NMR spectroscopy. They were assumed to be (4-O-methyl-D-glucurono)-D-xylans, with 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid groups linked at C-2 of a (1-->4)-beta-D-xylan. The sugar composition and the 1H and 13C NMR spectra showed that their chemical structures were very similar, but with different proportions of D-Xyl and 4-O-Me-D-GlcA. Our results showed that, on average, the water soluble xylans have one nonreducing terminal residue of 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid for every 11 to 14 xylose units, whereas in the water non-soluble xylans, xylose units can varied from 18 to 65 residues for one nonreducing terminal residue of 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid.

  16. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and in vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity of nine prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) juices.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Santoscoy, R A; Gutierrez-Uribe, J A; Serna-Saldívar, S O

    2009-06-01

    Juices of nine prickly pears (Opuntia spp.) were characterized in terms of color, acidity, sugar content, phenolics, flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant activity and tested in vitro against four cancer cell lines. The juices had pH s, acidities and sugar ranging from 4.27 to 5.46, 0.03 to 0.27% and 8 to 14.7 degrees Brix, respectively. Juices also varied in color from white to purple and contained total phenolics, flavonoids, betaxanthins, betacyanins and antioxidant capacity ranging from 22 to 226 microg gallic acid eq/g, 95 to 374 microg quercetin eq/g, 3 to 189 microg/g, 1.6 to 300 microg/g and 17 to 25 micromoles Trolox eq./mL, respectively. Among the cancer lines tested, viability of prostate and colon cells were the most affected. Moradillo contained the highest flavonoids and diminished both prostate and colon cancer cell viability without affecting mammary or hepatic cancer cells. Rastrero reduced the growth of the four cancer cell lines without affecting normal fibroblast viability. The research shows intervarietal differences among prickly pears in terms of juice properties and phytochemicals that could prevent oxidative stress and cancer.

  17. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  19. Dietary feeding of Opuntia humifusa inhibits UVB radiation-induced carcinogenesis by reducing inflammation and proliferation in hairless mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Su-Gil; Park, Young-Seok; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2013-01-01

    It has been validated that ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced both squamous and basal cell carcinomas, as a tumor initiator and promoter. Opuntia humifusa is a member of the Cactaceae family which has been demonstrated in our previous study to have a chemopreventive effect in 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced skin carcinogenesis models. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the protective effects of O. humifusa against photocarcinogenesis. O. humifusa was administrated to mice as a dietary feeding, following exposure to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm(2)) twice a week of 30 weeks for skin tumor development in hairless mice. Dietary O. humifusa inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration of leukocytes, level of myeloperoxidase and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in UVB exposed skin. Also, O. humifusa significantly inhibited both protein and mRNA expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 compared to the non-O. humifusa treated group. Collectively, these results suggest that O. humifusa could inhibit photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin and that protective effect is associated with the inhibition of not only UVB-induced inflammatory responses involving COX-2, iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines, but also the down-regulation of UVB-induced cellular proliferation. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  20. Antioxidant potential and its relationship with polyphenol content and degree of polymerization in Opuntia elatior Mill. fruits

    PubMed Central

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sontakke, Varsha A.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opuntia elatior Mill. (Nagaphani) fruits are traditionally recommended as an expectorant, remedy for whooping cough, asthma, gonorrhea, ulcers, tumors, in the treatment of diarrhea and syphilis. Many of these diseases are allied with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Thus, current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants of plant origin. Aim: To evaluate antioxidant potential of hydro-alcoholic extract of the O. elatior fruits (HAOE) and its fractions. Materials and Methods: Using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, total polyphenolic, flavonoid (FA), flavanone (FO) contents and degree of polymerization in relation with its antioxidant activity were examined. Results: The experimental data indicated that the HAOE, ethyl acetate (EAOE) and butanol (BFOE) soluble fractions have shown significant antioxidant activity. The highest polyphenolic, FA, FO contents and degree of polymerization were found in EAOE. The scavenging potential was in the order of Ascorbic Acid > EAOE > BFOE > HAOE > BIOE, where ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. The increased antioxidant potential of EAOE and BFOE fractions over HAOE extract may be attributed to the purification achieved by fractionation of the extract which in turn resulted in an increase in the degree of polymerization and segregation of secondary metabolites. Conclusion: The fruit of O. elatior can be used as the best alternative for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26195906

  1. Activity of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antigenotoxic of the aqueous flower extracts of Opuntia microdasys Lem.Pfeiff.

    PubMed

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; El Bok, Safia; Refifa, Taoufik; Adouni, Khaoula; Khemiss, Fethia; Mosbah, Habib; Ben-Attia, Mossadok; Flamini, Guido; Achour, Lotfi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic and the anti-inflammatory activity of Opuntia microdasys at post flowering stage, F3 (OMF3) in rat and, in other hand, its antigenotoxic effects by the Allium cepa test. OMF3 extracts were screened for activity of analgesic and anti-inflammatory using, respectively, the acetic acid writhing test in mice and the carrageenan-induced paw oedema assay in rats. The antigenotoxic has been evaluated by A. cepa test. OMF3 extracts showed a higher analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity at 100 mg/kg (72.03% and 70.11%) as determined by the tests of acetic acid-induced writhing and carrageenan-induced oedema, respectively. Furthermore, the OMF3 aqueous extracts have a preventive antimutagenic potential, at lower concentration (EC50 ≈ 60 μg/ml), against H2 O2 -mediated DNA damage in A. cepa root meristem cells with an efficient restoration of the mitotic index in comparison with controls. Based on this study, the flower of O. microdasys at post flowering stage may be use as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic agents. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  4. Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

  5. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.

  6. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative evaluation of two different Opuntia ficus-indica extracts for blood sugar lowering effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Butterweck, Veronika; Semlin, Lydia; Feistel, Bjoern; Pischel, Ivo; Bauer, Katrin; Verspohl, Eugen J

    2011-03-01

    Stems of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (OFI) are traditionally used in Mexico to treat diabetes mellitus. Less research data are available for combinations of stem and fruit preparations. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract prepared from the cladodes and a proprietary stem/fruit skin-blend (stem/fruit skin ratio 75/25) of OFI on blood glucose and plasma insulin in normal rats. A dose finding study with the traditional cladode OFI extract revealed that maximum effects on blood glucose and insulin were observed after oral administration in a dose range of 6-176 mg/kg. The proprietary OFI blend significantly lowered blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test to a similar extent (p < 0.05 vs control) as the traditional aqueous cladode extract when administered in a dose of 6 mg/kg. In contrast to the aqueous extract, the proprietary blend significantly increased basal plasma insulin levels (p < 0.01 vs control) indicating a direct action on pancreatic beta cells. The results suggest that both OFI extracts exert hypoglycemic activities in rats in doses as low as 6 mg/kg but that the effects of the proprietary stem/fruit blend were more pronounced in our model. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Verde, Gabriella; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2011-09-01

    The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the "scozzolatura" practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to 10 orders were collected in May-June, while only five species of Hymenoptera Apoidea were collected in July. The quality of fruits arising from the second bloom showed that Hymenoptera alone were able to guarantee effective pollination. To verify the role of insects in pollination in 1996 (during only the second bloom), and in 1997 and 2009 (during both blooms), 60 single flowers were marked during each bloom; 30 of them covered with paper sleeves (which prevented natural pollination), while the others were not covered. After withering, fruits produced by marked flowers were analyzed in laboratory: in all years and blooms, the total number of seeds, the number of developed seeds, and the weight and the percentage of pulp were significantly lower for covered flowers than for non-covered flowers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that native insects effectively carry out the pollination of cactus pear flowers.

  9. Bioactives in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) stems possess potent antioxidant and pro-apoptotic activities through COX-2 involvement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhee; Soh, Soon Yil; Shin, Juha; Cho, Chi-Woung; Choi, Young Hee; Nam, Sang-Yong

    2015-10-01

    Bioactives extracted from cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) stems were investigated for their chemopreventive activities using human cancer cells in vitro. The bioactives present in crude extracts were detected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among all the extracts, such as hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH), and MeOH:water (80:20), the MeOH extract had the highest amount of polyphenolic compounds and the acetone extract exhibited the most potent effect at scavenging the 2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(•+) ) radical. In addition, most of the extracts, with the exception of hexane, exhibited significant cytotoxicity in human SW480 colon and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Overall, the SW480 cells were more sensitive than the MCF7 cells to the cytotoxic effect of the O. ficus-indica extracts (OFEs). Cell death by OFE treatment caused significant inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in both SW480 and MCF7 cell lines. However, degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was significantly increased by OFE only in the MCF7 cells, thereby inducing apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the health-benefit roles, including anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative activities as well as pro-apoptotic effects, of bioactive compounds in OFEs, suggesting a chemopreventive role in human cancer cells. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Evaluation of the Biological Activity of Opuntia ficus indica as a Tissue- and Estrogen Receptor Subtype-Selective Modulator.

    PubMed

    An, Byoung Ha; Jeong, Hyesoo; Zhou, Wenmei; Liu, Xiyuan; Kim, Soolin; Jang, Chang Young; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Sohn, Johann; Park, Hye-Jin; Sung, Na-Hye; Hong, Cheol Yi; Chang, Minsun

    2016-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) with potential for use in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to relieve peri/postmenopausal symptoms. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the SERM properties of the extract of Korean-grown Opuntia ficus-indica (KOFI). The KOFI extract induced estrogen response element (ERE)-driven transcription in breast and endometrial cancer cell lines and the expression of endogenous estrogen-responsive genes in breast cancer cells. The flavonoid content of different KOFI preparations affected ERE-luciferase activities, implying that the flavonoid composition likely mediated the estrogenic activities in cells. Oral administration of KOFI decreased the weight gain and levels of both serum glucose and triglyceride in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Finally, KOFI had an inhibitory effect on the 17β-estradiol-induced proliferation of the endometrial epithelium in OVX rats. Our data demonstrate that KOFI exhibited SERM activity with no uterotrophic side effects. Therefore, KOFI alone or in combination with other botanical supplements, vitamins, or minerals may be an effective and safe alternative active ingredient to HRTs, for the management of postmenopausal symptoms. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    PubMed

    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G

    2015-03-30

    The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilized l-arabinose and d-galactose more completely than C. utilis, its biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus-indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  13. Textile dyes removal from aqueous solution using Opuntia ficus-indica fruit waste as adsorbent and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Cid, A A; Velázquez-Ugalde, I; Herrera-González, A M; García-Serrano, J

    2013-11-30

    For this research, three different adsorbents, one untreated and two chemically activated, were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit waste. By the construction of adsorption isotherms, its adsorption capabilities and the viability of its use in the removal of textile basic and direct type dyes were determined. It was found that the adsorbent with the most adsorption capacity for basic dyes was the one activated with NaClO, and, for direct dyes, it was the one activated with NaOH. Langmuir and Freundlich equations isotherms were applied for the analysis of the experimental data. It was found that the Freundlich model best described the adsorption behavior. The adsorption capacity was improved when the pH of the dye solution had an acid value. The specific surface area of the adsorbents was calculated by means of methylene blue adsorption at 298 K to stay within a range between 348 and 643 m(2) g(-1). The FTIR spectroscopic characterization technique, the SEM, the point of zero charge, and the elemental analysis show the chemical and physical characteristics of the studied adsorbents, which confirm the adsorption results obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus

    PubMed Central

    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. RESULTS Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilized l-arabinose and d-galactose more completely than C. utilis, its biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. CONCLUSIONS This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus-indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25371280

  15. The use of a natural coagulant (Opuntia ficus-indica) in the removal for organic materials of textile effluents.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Ambrosio, Elizangela; de Almeida, Cibele Andrade; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoli; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; Garcia, Juliana Carla

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the activity of the coagulant extracted from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) in the process of coagulation/flocculation of textile effluents. Preliminary tests of a kaolinite suspension achieved maximum turbidity removal of 95 % using an NaCl extraction solution. Optimization assays were conducted with actual effluents using the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken experimental design. The responses of the variables FeCl3, dosage, cactus dosage, and pH in the removal of COD and turbidity from both effluents were investigated. The optimum conditions determined for jeans washing laundry effluent were the following: FeCl3 160 mg L(-1), cactus dosage 2.60 mg L(-1), and pH 5.0. For the fabric dyeing effluent, the optimum conditions were the following: FeCl3 640 mg L(-1), cactus dosage 160 mg L(-1), and pH 6.0. Investigation of the effects of the storage time and temperature of the cactus O. ficus-indica showed that coagulation efficiency was not significantly affected for storage at room temperature for up to 4 days.

  16. Traceability of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller by ICP-MS multi-element profile and chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Mottese, Antonio Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Vadalà, Rossella; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Rando, Rossana; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-02

    Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller fruits, particularly 'Ficodindia dell'Etna' of Biancavilla (POD), 'Fico d'india tradizionale di Roccapalumba' with protected brand and samples from an experimental field in Pezzolo (Sicily) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in order to determine the multi-element profile. A multivariate chemometric approach, specifically principal component analysis (PCA), was applied to individuate how mineral elements may represent a marker of geographic origin, which would be useful for traceability. PCA has allowed us to verify that the geographical origin of prickly pear fruits is significantly influenced by trace element content, and the results found in Biancavilla PDO samples were linked to the geological composition of this volcanic areas. It was observed that two principal components accounted for 72.03% of the total variance in the data and, in more detail, PC1 explains 45.51% and PC2 26.52%, respectively. This study demonstrated that PCA is an integrated tool for the traceability of food products and, at the same time, a useful method of authentication of typical local fruits such as prickly pear. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Lead bioaccumulation in Opuntia ficus-indica following foliar or root exposure to lead-bearing apatite.

    PubMed

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Aigouy, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    The contamination of edible leafy vegetables by atmospheric heavy metal-bearing particles is a major issue in environmental toxicology. In this study, the uptake of lead by cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi), traditionally used in Mexican cuisine and in livestock fodder, is investigated after a 4-months exposure of either cladodes or roots to synthetic Pb-fluorapatite particles. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the quantitative analysis of Pb levels, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) for the examination of the cladode surface and fate of particles, and Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) measurements for elemental mapping of Pb in cladodes, were used. The results evidence that foliar contamination may be a major pathway for the transfer of Pb within Ofi cladodes. The stomata, areoles, and cuticle of cladode surface, play an obvious role in the retention and the incorporation of lead-bearing apatite, thus revealing the hazard of eating contaminated cladodes. The possibility of using series of successive cladodes for biomonitoring the atmospheric pollution in arid and semi-arid regions is also rapidly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 Gene Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions. PMID:22949853

  19. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Vest, Zachary G.; Li, Joseph K.-K.; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 µg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 hours before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p<0.001), but did not significantly reduce virus lung titers. All virus-infected mice receiving UDA treatments were also significantly protected against weight loss (p<0.001). UDA also effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for inhibition of virus

  20. Inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in a lethal SARS-CoV BALB/c mouse model by stinging nettle lectin, Urtica dioica agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Kumaki, Yohichi; Wandersee, Miles K; Smith, Aaron J; Zhou, Yanchen; Simmons, Graham; Nelson, Nathan M; Bailey, Kevin W; Vest, Zachary G; Li, Joseph K-K; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Smee, Donald F; Barnard, Dale L

    2011-04-01

    Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) is a small plant monomeric lectin, 8.7 kDa in size, with an N-acetylglucosamine specificity that inhibits viruses from Nidovirales in vitro. In the current study, we first examined the efficacy of UDA on the replication of different SARS-CoV strains in Vero 76 cells. UDA inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner and reduced virus yields of the Urbani strain by 90% at 1.1 ± 0.4 μg/ml in Vero 76 cells. Then, UDA was tested for efficacy in a lethal SARS-CoV-infected BALB/c mouse model. BALB/c mice were infected with two LD50 (575 PFU) of virus for 4 h before the mice were treated intraperitoneally with UDA at 20, 10, 5 or 0 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Treatment with UDA at 5 mg/kg significantly protected the mice against a lethal infection with mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (p < 0.001), but did not significantly reduce virus lung titers. All virus-infected mice receiving UDA treatments were also significantly protected against weight loss (p < 0.001). UDA also effectively reduced lung pathology scores. At day 6 after virus exposure, all groups of mice receiving UDA had much lower lung weights than did the placebo-treated mice. Thus, our data suggest that UDA treatment of SARS infection in mice leads to a substantial therapeutic effect that protects mice against death and weight loss. Furthermore, the mode of action of UDA in vitro was further investigated using live SARS-CoV Urbani strain virus and retroviral particles pseudotyped with SARS-CoV spike (S). UDA specifically inhibited the replication of live SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus when added just before, but not after, adsorption. These data suggested that UDA likely inhibits SARS-CoV infection by targeting early stages of the replication cycle, namely, adsorption or penetration. In addition, we demonstrated that UDA neutralizes the virus infectivity, presumably by binding to the SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein. Finally, the target molecule for the inhibition of virus

  1. A Rosa canina - Urtica dioica - Harpagophytum procumbens/zeyheri Combination Significantly Reduces Gonarthritis Symptoms in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Moré, Margret; Gruenwald, Joerg; Pohl, Ute; Uebelhack, Ralf

    2017-06-14

    The special formulation MA212 (Rosaxan) is composed of rosehip (Rosa canina L.) puree/juice concentrate, nettle (Urtica dioica L.) leaf extract, and devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex Meisn. or Harpagophytum zeyheri Decne.) root extract and also supplies vitamin D. It is a food for special medical purposes ([EU] No 609/2013) for the dietary management of pain in patients with gonarthritis.This 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-design study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of MA212 versus placebo in patients with gonarthritis.A 3D-HPLC-fingerprint (3-dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography fingerprint) of MA212 demonstrated the presence of its herbal ingredients. Ninety-two randomized patients consumed 40 mL of MA212 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 44) daily. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), quality-of-life scores at 0, 6, and 12 weeks, and analgesic consumption were documented. Statistically, the initial WOMAC subscores/scores did not differ between groups. During the study, their means significantly improved in both groups. The mean pre-post change of the WOMAC pain score (primary endpoint) was 29.87 in the MA212 group and 10.23 in the placebo group. The group difference demonstrated a significant superiority in favor of MA212 (pU < 0.001; pt < 0.001). Group comparisons of all WOMAC subscores/scores at 6 and 12 weeks reached same significances. Compared to placebo, both physical and mental quality of life significantly improved with MA212. There was a trend towards reduced analgesics consumption with MA212, compared to placebo. In the final efficacy evaluation, physicians (pChi < 0.001) and patients (pChi < 0.001) rated MA212 superior to placebo. MA212 was well tolerated.This study demonstrates excellent efficacy for MA212 in gonarthritis patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Candida caseinolytica sp. nov., a new species of yeast occurring in necrotic tissue of Opuntia and Stenocereus species in the southwestern United States and Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Phaff, H J; Starmer, W T; Lachance, M A; Ganter, P F

    1994-10-01

    We describe Candida caseinolytica, a new yeast species which occurs in rotting tissues of opuntias and other cacti in the North American Sonoran Desert and a few other localities. This small-celled, slowly growing yeast does not ferment any sugar and assimilates a limited number of carbon compounds, including 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids. It exhibits strong extracellular proteolytic activity on casein at pH 6.5, but gelatin is not hydrolyzed or is only weakly hydrolyzed by a few strains. The type strain of C. caseinolytica is strain UCD-FST 83-438.3 (= ATCC 90546 = CBS 7781).

  3. Betanin, isolated from fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill attenuates renal fibrosis in diabetic rats through regulating oxidative stress and TGF-β pathway.

    PubMed

    Sutariya, Brijesh; Saraf, Madhusudan

    2017-02-23

    The fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill are being used traditionally in different disease condition like diabetes, obesity, asthma, inflammatory disorders, and anemia. Betanin, a compound isolated from fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill has potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent study from our lab indicated the protective effect of betanin against high glucose induced rat renal epithelial cell fibrosis and matrix accumulation, major features of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However the molecular mechanism of betanin in DN has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-fibrotic mechanisms of betanin against streptozotocin (STZ) induced DN. Betanin was isolated from fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill (Cactaceae) and structure was elucidated using spectroscopy (UV, IR, 1H-NMR and mass). STZ was injected intraperitoneally with single dose of 50mg/kg for diabetes induction. In order to develop DN the animals were left in diabetes condition without any treatment during the following 4 weeks. Betanin (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day) and lisinopril (5mg/kg/day, reference compound) were orally administered for 8 weeks after the induction of DN. Renal function, blood glucose, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and antioxidant enzyme activities in the kidney tissue were measured. Kidney tissue samples were used for glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and morphometric studies. The expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), type IV collagen, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and E-cadherin in kidney tissue were evaluated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. Betanin was successfully isolated from fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill (Cactaceae) and purified by column chromatography. The results showed that betanin attenuated diabetic kidney injury by significantly inhibiting proteinuria, blood glucose, serum creatinine and BUN levels and restored

  4. Fumigant antitermitic activity of plant essential oils and components from Ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), Allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), Geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and Litsea ( Litsea cubeba ) oils against Japanese termite ( Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Chang-Hoon; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2009-08-12

    Plant essential oils from 26 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with source, exposure time, and concentration. Among the essential oils tested, strong insecticidal activity was observed with the essential oils of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), allspice ( Pimenta dioica ), caraway ( Carum carvi ), dill ( Anethum graveolens ), geranium ( Pelargonium graveolens ), and litsea ( Litsea cubeba ). The composition of six essential oils was identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The compounds thus identified were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied in a dose-dependent manner for each compound. Phenol compounds exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity among the test compounds; furthermore, alcohol and aldehyde groups were more toxic than hydrocarbons. The essential oils and compounds described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite control.

  5. Rheological Flow Behavior of Structural Polysaccharides from Edible Tender Cladodes of Wild, Semidomesticated and Cultivated 'Nopal' (Opuntia) of Mexican Highlands.

    PubMed

    López-Palacios, C; Peña-Valdivia, C B; Rodríguez-Hernández, A I; Reyes-Agüero, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g(-1) dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g(-1) dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pas(n)) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos.

  6. Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Butera, Daniela; Tesoriere, Luisa; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Bongiorno, Antonino; Allegra, Mario; Pintaudi, Anna Maria; Kohen, Rohn; Livrea, Maria A

    2002-11-06

    Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) produce yellow, red, and white fruits, due to the combination of two betalain pigments, the purple-red betanin and the yellow-orange indicaxanthin. The betalain distribution in the three cultivars and the antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from edible pulp were investigated. In addition, the reducing capacity of purified betanin and indicaxanthin was measured. According to a spectrophotometric analysis, the yellow cultivar exhibited the highest amount of betalains, followed by the red and white ones. Indicaxanthin accounted for about 99% of betalains in the white fruit, while the ratio of betanin to indicaxanthin varied from 1:8 (w:w) in the yellow fruit to 2:1 (w:w) in the red one. Polyphenol pigments were negligible components only in the red fruit. When measured as 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) equivalents per gram of pulp, the methanolic fruit extracts showed a marked antioxidant activity. Vitamin C did not account for more than 40% of the measured activity. In addition, the extracts dose-dependently inhibited the organic hydroperoxide-stimulated red cell membrane lipid oxidation, as well as the metal-dependent and -independent low-density lipoprotein oxidation. The extract from the white fruit showed the highest protection in all models of lipid oxidation. Purified betanin and indicaxanthin were more effective than Trolox at scavenging the [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt cation radical. Cyclic voltammetric measurements show two anodic waves for betanin and indicaxanthin, and differential pulse voltammetry shows three anodic waves for betanin, with calculated peak potentials of 404, 616, and 998 mV, and two anodic waves for indicaxanthin, with peak potentials of 611 and 895 mV. Betanin underwent complex formation through chelation with Cu(2+), whereas indicaxanthin was not modified. These findings suggest that the above

  7. Chemical characterization of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) and perspectives for the storage of its juice.

    PubMed

    Gurrieri, S; Miceli, L; Lanza, C M; Tomaselli, F; Bonomo, R P; Rizzarelli, E

    2000-11-01

    In this work, Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) were partially characterized from a chemical point of view, and the possibility of long-term storage of their juice was investigated. The acidity of the prickly pear juice turned out to be very low (0.02%) and the pH very high (6.4-6.5) if compared with values found in other common fruit juices. In the perspective of processing and storage conditions according to Italian law, the acidity has been corrected by adding the proper amount of tartaric and/or phosphoric acid. The sugar content (mainly glucose and fructose) is very high (11-12%), and also L-ascorbic acid is present in considerable amount (31-38 mg/100 g). Among the transition metals, a high content of manganese(II) (1.7-2.9 ppm) and good amounts of iron(III) (0.6-1.2 ppm) and zinc(II) (0.3-0.4 ppm) were found. In particular, such ions appear to be present mainly in the thick skin of the fruit or "trapped" inside the pulp. Pectin methylesterase (PME) seems to be present in very small amount and/or is not highly active. Furthermore, PME activity decreases considerably after the necessary adjustment of the pH and the thermal treatment requested for long-term storage. After approximately 2 months, none of the juices prepared was affected by noticeable sedimentation of the pulp. Finally, different samples of prickly pear juice were sensorially analyzed, employing descriptors such as color, aroma, viscosity, acidity, sweetness, and off-flavors. The results obtained can be considered very satisfactory, and the juice has been widely appreciated when compared with other products commonly available on the market such as pear and peach juices.

  8. Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 1. Influence of a seed oil supplemented diet on rats.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Attia, Hamadi

    2006-08-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) is native to Tunisia and the fruit is consumed exclusively as fresh fruit. The seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids but the nutritive value of the oil is unknown. The objective of our research was to determine the fatty acid content of cactus pear seed oil and to evaluate the effect of an oil supplemented diet on rats. The main fatty acids of prickly pear seed oil were C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 with an exceptional level of linoleic acid, up to 700 g kg(-1), and a total content of unsaturated fatty acids of 884.8 g kg(-1). Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during the nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noted for the oil enriched diet. The results indicated a significant decrease in serum glucose concentration (22%) over the control group. However, an increase in the concentration of glycogen was noted in liver and muscle. Blood cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased in the treated group. High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration remained unaltered during the treatment. These findings support the nutritional value of cactus pear as a natural source of edible oil containing essential fatty acids and reinforce the possibility of cactus pear as a new crop for Tunisia especially in semi-arid regions, where conventional crops are difficult to establish.

  9. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a functional ingredient: bioactive compounds profile and their effect on antioxidant quality of bread.

    PubMed

    Msaddak, Lotfi; Abdelhedi, Ola; Kridene, Amani; Rateb, Mostafa; Belbahri, Lassaâd; Ammar, Emna; Nasri, Moncef; Zouari, Nacim

    2017-02-07

    In the context of a balanced diet, the antioxidant-rich food consumption is a preventive way of many degenerative diseases. Consequently, improving the nutraceutical quality of traditional foods such as bakery products is an interesting approach. Considering the present consumer's demand, cladodes from prickly pear that were traditionally used as a valuable food as well as in folk medicine for the treatment of several chronic diseases were investigated for their use in bread production to improve its functionality. Bioactive substances were determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-HRESIMS) analysis. Dough rheological properties were characterized by alveographic measurements. Bread antioxidant quality was evaluated by total phenolics content, DPPH• radical-scavenging, metal (Fe(2+)) chelating and Fe(3+) reducing power determinations. LC-HRESIMS analysis of the cladodes extract allowed the identification of 9 flavonoids, 2 phenolics, 1 alkaloid and 1 terpenoid compounds. Cladodes powder enrichment induced important modifications on the dough rheological parameters in terms of the extensibility (L) and deformation energy (W) decrease. Moreover, cladodes powder addition to bread resulted in a decrease in both crust and crumb colour parameters (L*, a* and b*). A 5% supplementation resulted in an increase of the bread yield and bread specific volume by 8.9 and 25%, respectively. Interestingly, Bread containing cladodes powder showed enhanced total phenolics content and antioxidant potential as compared to the control. Substitution of wheat flour by the cladodes powder at 5% level was optimal for improving the total phenolics content and the antioxidant potential of bread without having any negative effect on its sensory acceptability. Cladodes from Opuntia ficus-indica could be considered as a potential health-promoting functional ingredient in bakery products.

  10. The effect of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica in a mouse model of diet induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Torres, Nimbe; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Noriega, Lilia G; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Leal-Díaz, Ana M; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Márquez-Mota, Claudia; Ordaz, Guillermo; Chavez-Santoscoy, Rocío A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-03-01

    A diet rich in polyphenols can ameliorate some metabolic alterations associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a plant rich in isorhamnetin glycosides and is highly consumed in Mexico. The purpose of this research was to determine the metabolic effect of an OFI extract on a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and in isolated pancreatic islets. OFI extract was added to a high fat (HF) diet at a low (0.3%) or high (0.6%) dose and administered to C57BL/6 mice for 12 weeks. Mice fed the HF diet supplemented with the OFI extract gained less body weight and exhibited significantly lower circulating total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to those fed the HF diet alone. The HF-OFI diet fed mice presented lower glucose and insulin concentration than the HF diet fed mice. However, the HF-OFI diet fed mice tended to have higher insulin concentration than control mice. The OFI extract stimulated insulin secretion in vitro, associated with increased glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA content. Furthermore, the OFI extract improved glucose tolerance, and additionally increased energy expenditure. These metabolic improvements were associated with reduced adipocyte size, increased hepatic IRS1 tyr-608 and S6 K thr-389 phosphorylation. OFI isorhamnetin glycosides also diminished the hepatic lipid content associated with reduced mRNA expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and lipogenic enzymes and increased mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation. Overall, the OFI extract prevented the development of metabolic abnormalities associated with diet-induced obesity.

  11. Protective effects of Opuntia ficus-indica extract on ram sperm quality, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage.

    PubMed

    Allai, Larbi; Druart, Xavier; Öztürk, Mehmet; BenMoula, Anass; Nasser, Boubker; El Amiri, Bouchra

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenolic composition of the acetone extract from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes (ACTEX) and its effects on ram semen variables, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage at 5°C for up to 72h in skim milk and Tris egg yolk extenders. Semen samples from five rams were pooled extended with Tris-egg yolk (TEY) or skim milk (SM) extenders containing ACTEX (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%) at a final concentration of 0.8×10(9) sperm/ml and stored for up to 72h at 5°C. The sperm variables were evaluated at different time periods (8, 24, 48 and 72h). Sperm total motility and viability were superior in TEY than in SM whereas the progressive motility, membrane integrity, abnormality and spontaneous lipid peroxidation were greater in SM compared to TEY (P<0.05). The results also indicated that the inclusion of 1% ACTEX in the SM or TEY extender increased the sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, and decreased the abnormality, lipids peroxidation up to 72h in storage compared to control group. Similarly, even at 72h of storage, 1% ACTEX can efficiently decrease the negative effects of liquid storage on sperm DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). In conclusion, SM and TEY supplemented with 1% of ACTEX can improve the quality of ram semen. Further studies are required to identify the active components in ACTEX involved in its effect on ram sperm preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p < .05). Furthermore, a higher serum insulin concentration was noted after OFI intake at baseline and at t₃₀ (p < .05). In OGTT(EX), blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p < .05). However, insulin values and AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  13. Sperm DNA fragmentation induced by cryopreservation: new insights and effect of a natural extract from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Meamar, Mehrdad; Zribi, Nassira; Cambi, Marta; Tamburrino, Lara; Marchiani, Sara; Filimberti, Erminio; Fino, Maria Grazia; Biggeri, Annibale; Menezo, Yves; Forti, Gianni; Baldi, Elisabetta; Muratori, Monica

    2012-08-01

    To analyze the effect of cryopreservation on sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in two cytometric sperm populations, PI(brighter) and PI(dimmer), and to test the effects of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) extracts, which contain antioxidants and flavanoids, and of resveratrol on cryopreservation of human semen. In vitro prospective study. Institutional study. Twenty-one normozoospermic men undergoing semen analysis for couple infertility. Cryopreservation using the routine method in the presence of OFI extracts or resveratrol. Measurement of SDF by TUNEL/PI flow cytometric method to evaluate sperm motility (by automated motion analysis, CASA system) and viability (by eosin/nigrosin staining) in the two populations of sperm PI(br) and PI(dim). Cryopreservation induced an increase of SDF only in the PI(br) sperm population. The increase was negatively dependent on the basal values of SDF in the same population. Addition of OFI extracts and resveratrol to the cryopreservation medium slightly but statistically significantly reduced SDF in the PI(br) population without affecting the deleterious effect of cryopreservation on sperm motion parameters or viability. The increase of SDF in the PI(br) population, which is unrelated to semen quality, suggests that caution must be taken in using cryopreserved semen, as morphologically normal and motile sperm may be damaged. The addition of substances with multifunctional properties such as OFI extracts to cryopreservation medium is only slightly effective in preventing the dramatic effects on SDF. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in Osmotic Pressure and Mucilage during Low-Temperature Acclimation of Opuntia ficus-indica 1

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Guillermo; Nobel, Park S.

    1991-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism plant cultivated for its fruits and cladodes, was used to examine chemical and physiological events accompanying low-temperature acclimation. Changes in osmotic pressure, water content, low molecular weight solutes, and extracellular mucilage were monitored in the photosynthetic chlorenchyma and the water-storage parenchyma when plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30/20°C were shifted to 10/0°C. An increase in osmotic pressure of 0.13 megapascal occurred after 13 days at 10/0°C. Synthesis of glucose, fructose, and glycerol accounted for most of the observed increase in osmotic pressure during the low-temperature acclimation. Extracellular mucilage and the relative apoplastic water content increased by 24 and 10%, respectively, during exposure to low temperatures. These increases apparently favor the extracellular nucleation of ice closer to the equilibrium freezing temperature for plants at 10/0°C, which could make the cellular dehydration more gradual and less damaging. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies helped elucidate the cellular processes during ice formation, such as those revealed by changes in the relaxation times of two water fractions in the chlorenchyma. The latter results suggested a restricted mobility of intracellular water and an increased mobility of extracellular water for plants at 10/0°C compared with those at 30/20°C. Increased mobility of extracellular water could facilitate extracellular ice growth and thus delay the potentially lethal intracellular freezing during low-temperature acclimation. PMID:16668536

  15. Serenoa repens associated with Urtica dioica (ProstaMEV) and curcumin and quercitin (FlogMEV) extracts are able to improve the efficacy of prulifloxacin in bacterial prostatitis patients: results from a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tommaso; Mazzoli, Sandra; Bechi, Adriano; Addonisio, Patrizia; Mondaini, Nicola; Pagliai, Roberto Castricchi; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2009-06-01

    We report the results of a prospective randomised study to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica (ProstaMEV), quercitin and curcumin (FlogMEV) extracts associated with prulifloxacin in patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). From a whole population of 284 patients, 143 patients affected by CBP [National Institutes of Health (NIH) class II prostatitis] were enrolled. All patients received prulifloxacin 600 mg daily for 14 days, in accordance with antibiogram results. Patients were split into two groups: Group A received prulifloxacin associated with ProstaMEV and FlogMEV; Group B received only antibiotic therapy. Microbiological and clinical efficacies were tested by two follow-up visits at 1 month and 6 months, respectively. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI) and International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaires. Group A comprised 106 patients and Group B comprised 37 patients. One month after treatment, 89.6% of patients who had received prulifloxacin associated with ProstaMEV and FlogMEV did not report any symptoms related to CBP, whilst only 27% of patients who received antibiotic therapy alone were recurrence-free (P < 0.0001). Significant differences were found between groups in terms of symptoms and QoL (P < 0.0001 for both). Six months after treatment, no patients in Group A had recurrence of disease whilst two patients in Group B did. Questionnaire results demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups (all P < 0.001). The association of S. repens, U. dioica (ProstaMEV), quercitin and curcumin (FlogMEV) extracts is able to improve the clinical efficacy of prulifloxacin in patients affected by CBP.

  16. The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noé, Aguilar Cristóbal

    2013-06-01

    To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries.

  17. The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noé, Aguilar Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Objective To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. Methods The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. Results It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. Conclusions It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries. PMID:23730555

  18. Physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of fruits xoconostle (Opuntia matudae) pears from Central-México Region.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H; Morales-Montelongo, Ana L; Mondragón-Jacobo, Candelario; Herrera-Hernández, Guadalupe; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia

    2010-08-01

    Xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeño (Opuntia matudae) has attracted domestic and international industry attention; however, variations of composition from xoconostle structures have not been evaluated. Industries discard the pulp (endocarp) and peel (pericarp) as wastes and utilize the skin (mesocarp), which is the edible portion. The physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of structures from xoconostle pear from 3 major sites of production in Mexico were assessed. Skin yield ranged from 58% to 64% and was higher to that of peel (22% to 24%) and pulp (12% to 18%) yields. pH, degrees Brix, and acidity were similar among xoconostle structures. Total fiber showed by peel (18.23% to 20.37%) was 2-fold higher than that of skin. Protein and ether extract were higher in xoconostle pulp compared to that showed by peel and skin. Iron content of xoconostle peel (6 to 9.6 mg/100 g, DWB) was higher to that of skin and pulp and prickly pear pulp. Soluble phenols of peel (840 to 863 mg GAE/100 g, DWB) were almost similar to that of skin (919 to 986 mg GAE/100 g, dry weigh basis); meanwhile, ascorbic acid concentration of skin was 2-fold higher compared to that of peel. The phenolic fraction of xoconostle structures consisted of gallic, vanillic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids; catechin, epicatechin, and vanillin were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-didoe array detection (HPLC-DAD). Xoconostle peel showed higher antioxidant activity (TEAC) compared to that of skin (2-fold) and pulp (6-fold) of commonly consumed fruits and vegetables. The potential of xoconostle peel and pulp for the production of feed or food is promissory. Practical Application: Outstanding nutritional and functional properties of xoconostle cv. Cuaresmeño fruits are demonstrated. Increased consumption could contribute positively to improve the diet of rural and urban consumers. The high fiber, mineral, and antioxidant components of xoconostle peel and pulp suggest that these

  19. Additive insulinogenic action of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin extract and leucine after exercise in healthy males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral intake of a specific extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin (OpunDia™) (OFI) has been shown to increase serum insulin concentration while reducing blood glucose level for a given amount of glucose ingestion after an endurance exercise bout in healthy young volunteers. However, it is unknown whether OFI-induced insulin stimulation after exercise is of the same magnitude than the stimulation by other insulinogenic agents like leucine as well as whether OFI can interact with those agents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: 1) to compare the degree of insulin stimulation by OFI with the effect of leucine administration; 2) to determine whether OFI and leucine have an additive action on insulin stimulation post-exercise. Methods Eleven subjects participated in a randomized double-blind cross-over study involving four experimental sessions. In each session the subjects successively underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 30-min cycling bout at ~70% VO2max. At t0 and t60 during the OGTT, subjects ingested 75 g glucose and capsules containing either 1) a placebo; 2) 1000 mg OFI; 3) 3 g leucine; 4) 1000 mg OFI + 3 g leucine. Blood samples were collected before and at 30-min intervals during the OGTT for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. Results Whereas no effect of leucine was measured, OFI reduced blood glucose at t90 by ~7% and the area under the glucose curve by ~15% and increased serum insulin concentration at t90 by ~35% compared to placebo (P<0.05). From t60 to the end of the OGTT, serum insulin concentration was higher in OFI+leucine than in placebo which resulted in a higher area under the insulin curve (+40%, P<0.05). Conclusion Carbohydrate-induced insulin stimulation post-exercise can be further increased by the combination of OFI with leucine. OFI and leucine could be interesting ingredients to include together in recovery drinks to resynthesize muscle glycogen faster post

  20. Effect of pH and temperature on the thermostability of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) yellow-orange pigments.

    PubM