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Sample records for dioxide emissions problems

  1. The Problem of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Closed Coal Mine Shafts - The Overview and the Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Paweł; Sułkowski, Józef; Różański, Zenon; Pach, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions are a common problem noticed in every mining area just after mine closures. However, there could be a significant local gas hazard for people with continuous (but variable) emission of these gases into the atmosphere. In the Upper Silesia area, there are 24 shafts left for water pumping purposes and gases can flow through them hydraulically. One of them - Gliwice II shaft - was selected for inspection. Carbon dioxide emission with no methane was detected here. Changes in emission and concentration of carbon dioxide around the shaft was the aim of research carried out. It was stated that a selected shaft can create two kinds of gas problems. The first relates to CO2 emission into the atmosphere. Possible emission of that gas during one minute was estimated at 5,11 kg CO2/min. The second problem refers to the local hazard at the surface. The emission was detected within a radius of 8m from the emission point at the level 1m above the ground. These kinds of matters should be subject to regular gas monitoring and reporting procedures.

  2. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy.

  3. Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success…

  4. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S. J.; Van Aardenne, J.; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert Joseph; Volke, A.; Delgado Arias, S

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5 grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  5. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; van Aardenne, J.; Klimont, Z.; Andres, R.; Volke, A.; Delgado Arias, S.

    2010-06-01

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850-2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  6. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; van Aardenne, J.; Klimont, Z.; Andres, R. J.; Volke, A.; Delgado Arias, S.

    2011-02-01

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850-2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  7. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; van Aardenne, John; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert; Volke, April C.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina

    2011-01-02

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 - 2005. A combination of mass balance and best available inventory data was used in order to achieve the most accurate estimate possible. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties of up to 30% were found. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping.

  8. Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

    2012-07-14

    Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits.

  9. Analyzing Sulfur Dioxide Emissions of Nyamuragira Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, A. L.; Bluth, G. J.; Carn, S. A.

    2002-05-01

    Nyamuragira volcano, located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, is Africa's most active volcano, having erupted 13 times (every 1-3 years) since 1980. The eruption frequency, and the large amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted by this rift volcano, may produce a significant impact on the global sulfur budget. In this project we are attempting to quantify the sulfur dioxide emissions from this volcano over the past 20+ years using satellite data. Since 1978, satellites carrying NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have been orbiting the earth collecting atmospheric data. These instruments use six wavelength bands located within the ultraviolet spectrum to measure solar irradiance and the energy reflected and backscattered by the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Sunlit planetary coverage is provided once per day by TOMS data. The spatial resolution of these satellites varies from 24 km (Earth Probe, 1996-1997, but raised to 39 km from 1997 to present) to 62 km (Meteor-3, 1991-1994). Nimbus-7, the satellite operating for the longest span of time (1978-1993), had a nadir footprint of 50 km. The (instantaneous) mass retrievals of sulfur dioxide cloud masses are derived using several different image processing schemes and net tonnages are calculated using a background correction. Volcanic activity associated with this volcano typically consists of long term (weeks to months), and often continuous, effusive emissions. Work to date has discovered over 120 days in which sulfur dioxide plumes were observed from the 13 eruptions (ranging from a minimum of one day to a maximum of 32 days). Most (82%) of the sulfur dioxide clouds measured are relatively low-level, below 100 kilotonnes (kt); 16% of the emissions are between 100 and 1000 kt, and 1.5% were measured to have more than 1000 kt. Current work is focusing on deriving net emission fluxes, integrating the TOMS instantaneous measurements of relatively continuous emission activity. The eruptive activity

  10. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Joskow, P.L.; Schmalensee, R.; Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have adversely affected its performance. These papers incorrectly assume that trade can only occur at auctions, however. Our empirical analysis of the SO{sub 2} emissions market shows that the auctions have become a small part of a relatively efficient market and that the auction design problems that have attracted the most attention have had no effect on actual market prices.

  11. Regional sulfur dioxide emissions: shall we achieve the goal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.; Shi, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, JY

    2017-01-01

    Although economic growth is slowing down in the new normal period, air pollution is still a very serious problem in China. The 15% binding goal of sulfur dioxide emission reduction from 2016 to 2020, as stipulated in the 13th Five-Year Plan, has been an ambitious target for the Chinese government. This paper studies the synthetic evaluation and forecasting analysis of sulfur dioxide in China by means of a “grey model” approach combined with the grey relational analysis methods, with the panel data of 31 provinces from 2005 to 2015. Grey analysis used to analyse a system with imperfect information, such that a variety of available solutions is reviewed, and the optimal solution is identified. Some encouraging results show that national emissions and a majority of provinces will achieve the target. Over time, the gap of regional differences is rapidly closing. According to the results of grey relational analysis, we find industrial structure and energy consumption have a more significant impact on sulfur dioxide emissions than GDP. Atmospheric treatment investment and environmental protection manpower play a more important role in emissions variation. Based on the findings, we should distinguish different factors and take different measures to protect the environment.

  12. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (measured in Dobson Units) are much higher in the more extensive Nyamuragira cloud, which contained roughly 420 kilotons of sulfur dioxide. Although several factors could affect the size of the observed cloud in each case-such as the delay between the onset of the eruption and the TOMS overpass, and the volume of lava emitted and the lava composition-the TOMS data suggest that the Nyiragongo magma may have been largely degassed before eruption. One possible mechanism by which this could be achieved is the cyclic degassing of magma in the subaerial lava lakes that have been intermittently present in Nyiragongo's summit crater over the past few decades. Images courtesy Simon Cairn, TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland-Baltimore County

  13. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  14. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  15. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  16. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  17. 40 CFR 77.5 - Deduction of allowances to offset excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. 77.5 Section 77.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... excess emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) The Administrator will deduct allowances to offset excess... emissions of sulfur dioxide....

  18. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan.

  19. Can the carbon dioxide problem be resolved

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, J.

    1984-01-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/). This may cause a long-term warming of the atmosphere. Solutions to the CO/sub 2/ problem are particularly difficult because adverse effects will be felt by future generations, but remedial action and sacrifices must be made by present generations. Decisions regarding the problem which affect both the immediate and long-range future must be made deliberately or by default in perhaps only 15 to 20 years, before we are reasonably confident of our knowledge of the problem and before we know whether atmospheric warming will, in fact, occur. Empirical and evaluative data do not seem compelling to decision makers. First, remedial actions require present generations to conserve fossil fuels for the benefit of posterity, and there is no consensus that an ethical obligation to posterity exists. Second, actions must be based upon uncertain projections of future energy use and uncertain scientific knowledge of the carbon cycle and the environment. Third, economic and social factors may preclude resolution of the problem. Fourth, speculation from moral psychology suggests that mankind may be psychologically incapable of caring enough for posterity to make serious sacrifices. Therefore, public policy regarding sacrifice by present generations for the benefit of posterity is not likely to be forthcoming from policy makers or suported by the public. 120 references.

  20. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  1. The role of carbon dioxide in ammonia emission from manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission from manure is a significant loss of fixed N from agricultural systems, and contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Despite the development of numerous mathematical models for predicting ammonia emission, the interactions between carbon dioxide emission, manure pH, a...

  2. Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

    1992-01-01

    Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

  3. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary

  4. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Using the Mole Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Provides an application of quantitative chemistry concepts in the context of motor vehicle emissions. Shows how carbon dioxide emissions from cars may be reduced by up to 25% by reducing motorway speeds from 70-75 mph to 60 mph. (Author/MM)

  5. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  6. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, Gregg

    2010-12-01

    Researchers have recently argued that there is a 'critical climate accounting error' and that we should say 'goodbye to carbon neutral' for bioenergy. Many other analysts have published opionions on the same topic, and the US Environmental Protection Agency posted a specific call for information. The currently burning questions for carbon accounting is how to deal with bioenergy. The questions arises because, unlike for fossil fuels, burning of biomass fuels represents part of a cycle in which combustion releases back to the atmosphere carbon that was earlier removed from the atmosphere by growing plants. In a sustainable system, plants will again remove the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the atmosphere. Conceptually, it is clear that there are no net emissions of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} if biomass is harvested and combusted at the same rate that biomass grows and removes CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. The problem lies in the fact that growth and combustion do not occur at the same time or in the same place, and our accounting system boundaries - spatial and temporal - frequently do not provide full and balanced accounting. When the first comprehensive guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were put together by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, they noted that it has been argued that CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from bioenergy consumption should not be included in a country's official emission inventory because there are no net emissions if the biomass is produced sustainably, and if the biomass is not produced sustainably, the loss of carbon will be captured as part of the accounting for emissions from land-use change. In the same philosophical vein, the Kyoto Protocol provides that emissions or sinks of CO{sub 2} from land-use change and forestry activities be measured as the 'verifiable changes in carbon stocks'. From these has grown the convention that emissions from biomass fuels are generally not

  7. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The United States has a diverse energy landscape that is reflected in differences in state-level emissions profiles. Since 2005, energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions fell in 48 states (including the District of Columbia) and rose in 3 states. EIA's latest analysis of state-level energy-related CO2 emissions includes data in both absolute and per capita terms, including details by fuel and by sector.

  8. Predator-induced reduction of freshwater carbon dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Trisha B.; Hammill, Edd; Greig, Hamish S.; Kratina, Pavel; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Srivastava, Diane S.; Richardson, John S.

    2013-03-01

    Predators can influence the exchange of carbon dioxide between ecosystems and the atmosphere by altering ecosystem processes such as decomposition and primary production, according to food web theory. Empirical knowledge of such an effect in freshwater systems is limited, but it has been suggested that predators in odd-numbered food chains suppress freshwater carbon dioxide emissions, and predators in even-numbered food chains enhance emissions. Here, we report experiments in three-tier food chains in experimental ponds, streams and bromeliads in Canada and Costa Rica in the presence or absence of fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and invertebrate (Hesperoperla pacifica and Mecistogaster modesta) predators. We monitored carbon dioxide fluxes along with prey and primary producer biomass. We found substantially reduced carbon dioxide emissions in the presence of predators in all systems, despite differences in predator type, hydrology, climatic region, ecological zone and level of in situ primary production. We also observed lower amounts of prey biomass and higher amounts of algal and detrital biomass in the presence of predators. We conclude that predators have the potential to markedly influence carbon dioxide dynamics in freshwater systems.

  9. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  10. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  11. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  12. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  13. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  14. 40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section 77.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected... under paragraph (a)(1) of this section for any increase in excess emissions of sulfur dioxide...

  15. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  16. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  17. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  18. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  19. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  20. 40 CFR 77.3 - Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide. 77.3 Section 77.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EXCESS EMISSIONS § 77.3 Offset plans for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide... sulfur dioxide in any calendar year shall be liable to offset the amount of such excess emissions by...

  1. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, Peter A.; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory P.; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert G.; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Durr, Hans H.; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8   petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32  Pg C yr−1 from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr−1 is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  2. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Peter A; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Dürr, Hans; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-11-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8(+0.25)(-0.25)  petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32(+0.52)(-0.26)  Pg C yr(-1) from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr(-1) is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  3. Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1991-08-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.; Price, Lynn

    1992-03-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of ``cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for U.S. buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefitted from energy conservation research and development (R&D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed.

  5. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma Vedula, VSS

    2012-07-01

    The oceans act as a net sink for atmospheric CO2, however, the role of coastal bodies on global CO2 fluxes remains unclear due to lack of data. The estimated absorption of CO2 from the continental shelves, with limited data, is 0.22 to 1.0 PgC/y, and of CO2 emission by estuaries to the atmosphere is 0.27 PgC/y. The estimates from the estuaries suffer from large uncertainties due to large variability and lack of systematic data collection. It is especially true for Southeast Asian estuaries as the biogeochemical cycling of material are different due to high atmospheric temperature, seasonality driven by monsoons, seasonal discharge etc. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge wet and dry periods. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ~300 and 18492 microatm which were within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

  6. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-04-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who - like other scientists - rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005-2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  7. Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts

  8. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450–600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the “dust bowl” era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4–1.0 m if 21st century CO2 concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6–1.9 m for peak CO2 concentrations exceeding ≈1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

  9. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2009-02-10

    The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer.

  10. Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study

    SciTech Connect

    Linyan Sun; Wang, M.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. A new method for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from transportation at fine spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yuqin; Lam, Nina S N; Reams, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Detailed estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial scales are useful to both modelers and decision makers who are faced with the problem of global warming and climate change. Globally, transport related emissions of carbon dioxide are growing. This letter presents a new method based on the volume-preserving principle in the areal interpolation literature to disaggregate transportation-related CO2 emission estimates from the county-level scale to a 1 km(2) grid scale. The proposed volume-preserving interpolation (VPI) method, together with the distance-decay principle, were used to derive emission weights for each grid based on its proximity to highways, roads, railroads, waterways, and airports. The total CO2 emission value summed from the grids within a county is made to be equal to the original county-level estimate, thus enforcing the volume-preserving property. The method was applied to downscale the transportation-related CO2 emission values by county (i.e. parish) for the state of Louisiana into 1 km(2) grids. The results reveal a more realistic spatial pattern of CO2 emission from transportation, which can be used to identify the emission 'hot spots'. Of the four highest transportation-related CO2 emission hotspots in Louisiana, high-emission grids literally covered the entire East Baton Rouge Parish and Orleans Parish, whereas CO2 emission in Jefferson Parish (New Orleans suburb) and Caddo Parish (city of Shreveport) were more unevenly distributed. We argue that the new method is sound in principle, flexible in practice, and the resultant estimates are more accurate than previous gridding approaches.

  12. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Gregg, JS; Losey, London M; Marland, Gregg; Boden, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use, 1751 1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, R. J.; Fielding, D. J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A.; Kumar, N.; Kearney, A. T.

    1999-09-01

    Newly compiled energy statistics allow for an estimation of the complete time series of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel use for the years 1751 to the present. The time series begins with 3×106 metric tonnes carbon (C). This initial flux represents the early stages of the fossil-fuel era. The CO2 flux increased exponentially until World War I. The time series derived here seamlessly joins the modern 1950 to present time series. Total cumulative CO2 emissions through 1949 were 61.0×109 tonnes C from fossil-fuel use, virtually all since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution around 1860. The rate of growth continues to grow during present times, generating debate on the probability of enhanced greenhouse warming. In addition to global totals, national totals and 1° global distributions of the data have been calculated.

  14. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur... sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide...) per hour, and mobile sources. (d) What are the sulfur dioxide limits for sources? (1) Sulfur...

  15. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Consumption in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, J. S.; Robert, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Applying monthly sales and consumption data of coal, petroleum and natural gas, a monthly time series of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption is created for Indonesia. These are then modeled with an autoregressive function to produce a quantitative description of the seasonal distribution and long-term pattern of CO2 emissions. Currently, Indonesia holds the 21st ranked position in total anthropogenic CO2 emissions among countries of the world. The demand for energy in Indonesia has been growing rapidly in recent years as Indonesia attempts to modernize and upgrade the standard of living for its citizens. With such a large population (a quarter of a billion people), the recent increase observed in the per capita energy use equates to a large escalation in total CO2 emissions. However, the economy and political climate is rather turbulent and thus emissions tend to fluctuate wildly. For example, Indonesia's energy consumption dropped substantially during the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. It is likely that the recent tsunami will also significantly impact energy consumption as the hard-hit Aceh region is the largest fuel-producing region of Indonesia. Therefore, Indonesia is a country whose emissions are more unpredictable than most countries that emit comparable levels of CO2. Complicating matters further, data collection practices in Indonesia are less diligent than in other countries with more stable economies. Thus, though CO2 emissions from Indonesia are a particular challenge to model, they are an important component to understanding the total global carbon cycle.

  16. Fuel and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Savings Calculation Methodology for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper provides the EPA Combined Heat and Power Partnership's recommended methodology for calculating fuel and carbon dioxide emissions savings from CHP compared to SHP, which serves as the basis for the EPA's CHP emissions calculator.

  17. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, Robert G.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Stets, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr−1 (95% CI: 5.84 −10.46), averaging 750 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr−1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ∼6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

  18. The carbon dioxide emissions game: Playing the net

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, K.R.; Edmonds, J.A.; Rosenthal, D.H.; Wise, M.

    1993-06-01

    Concern about rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the earth`s atmosphere has led to calls for the United States and other countries to reduce carbon emissions. These concerns resulted in the signing of the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The Framework calls for nations to develop action plans for limiting emissions of carbon and other greenhouse gases. In December 1992, in accordance with the Framework, the US Government released for public comment its National Action Plan for Global Climate Change (US Department of State, 1992). The Action Plan detailed steps for reducing carbon emissions by 93 to 130 million metric tons (MMT) by 2000. Some of the steps included in the Action Plan were reforming regulations, setting energy standards, promoting research and development of new energy technologies, expanding the use of alternative-fueled vehicles, and planting trees to sequester carbon. This paper explores the economic implications of implementing a much larger tree-planting program than the one presented in the Action Plan. Whereas the Action Plan estimated that 5 to 9 MMT of carbon (MMTC) could be sequestered in 2000 (with perhaps threefold increases in sequestration in later years when trees are growing the fastest), the program being considered in this analysis annually sequesters as much as 231 MMTC during its peak years. Our analysis focuses on how much the costs of stabilizing US carbon emissions at 1990 levels are reduced when economic criteria alone determine the number of trees that will be used. Our results show that when the focus is shifted from stabilization of gross emissions to net emissions the cost reductions are dramatic, about 20 to 80 percent depending on the assumed cost of trees. Political and institutional obstacles to the formation of such a cost effective response are explored in the conclusions.

  19. Sulfur dioxide emissions from la soufriere volcano, st. Vincent, west indies.

    PubMed

    Hoff, R M; Gallant, A J

    1980-08-22

    During the steady-state period of activity of La Soufriere Volcano in 1979, the mass emissions of sulfur dioxide into the troposphere amounted to a mean value of 339 +/- 126 metric tons per day. This value is similar to the sulfur dioxide emissions of other Central American volcanoes but less than those measured at Mount Etna, an exceptionally strong volcanic source of sulfur dioxide.

  20. Sulfur dioxide emissions from La Soufriere Volcano, St. Vincent, West Indies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.M.; Gallant, A.J.

    1980-08-22

    During the steady-state period of activity of La Soufriere Volcano in 1979, the mass emissions of sulfur dioxide into the troposphere amounted to a mean value of 339 +- 126 metric tons per day. This value is similar to the sulfur dioxide emissions of other Central American volcanoes but less than those measured at Mount Etna, an exceptionally strong volcanic source of sulfur dioxide.

  1. Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

    2007-08-04

    The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

  2. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  3. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  4. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  5. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  6. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur... emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating within the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  9. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur... emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating within the...

  10. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  11. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  12. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur... emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating within the...

  13. 40 CFR 60.47b - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.47b Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... generating unit and analyzing them for sulfur and heat content according to Method 19 of appendix A of...

  14. 40 CFR 49.129 - Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule for limiting emissions of sulfur... emissions of sulfur dioxide. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section limits the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating within the...

  15. 40 CFR 60.46c - Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... Industrial-Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units § 60.46c Emission monitoring for sulfur dioxide... the inlet to the steam generating unit and analyzed for sulfur content and heat content according...

  16. Carbon dioxide emissions from estuaries of northern and northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Carlos; Araujo, Moacyr

    2014-08-22

    The carbon dioxide flux through the air-water interface of coastal estuarine systems must be quantified to understand the regional balance of carbon and its transport through adjacent coastal regions. We estimated and calculated the emissions of carbon dioxide (FCO₂) and the partial pressure of CO₂ (pCO₂) values in 28 estuarine environments at a variety of spatial scales in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. The results showed a mean FCO₂ (water to air) of 55 ± 45 mmol·m(-2)·d(-1). Additionally, a negative correlation between dissolved oxygen saturation and pCO₂ was observed, indicating a control by biological processes and especially by organic matter degradation. This leads to increased dissolved CO₂ concentration in estuarine waters which results in a pCO₂ that reached 8,638 μatm. Our study suggests that northern and northeastern Brazilian estuaries act as sources of atmospheric CO₂. The range of pCO₂ observed were similar to those found in inner estuaries in other places around the world, with the exception of a few semi-arid estuaries (Köppen climate classification - BSh) in which record low levels of pCO₂ have been detected.

  17. Carbon dioxide emissions from estuaries of northern and northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Carlos; Araujo, Moacyr

    2014-01-01

    The carbon dioxide flux through the air–water interface of coastal estuarine systems must be quantified to understand the regional balance of carbon and its transport through adjacent coastal regions. We estimated and calculated the emissions of carbon dioxide (FCO2) and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) values in 28 estuarine environments at a variety of spatial scales in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. The results showed a mean FCO2 (water to air) of 55 ± 45 mmol·m−2·d−1. Additionally, a negative correlation between dissolved oxygen saturation and pCO2 was observed, indicating a control by biological processes and especially by organic matter degradation. This leads to increased dissolved CO2 concentration in estuarine waters which results in a pCO2 that reached 8,638 μatm. Our study suggests that northern and northeastern Brazilian estuaries act as sources of atmospheric CO2. The range of pCO2 observed were similar to those found in inner estuaries in other places around the world, with the exception of a few semi-arid estuaries (Köppen climate classification – BSh) in which record low levels of pCO2 have been detected. PMID:25145418

  18. Accurate prototype remote sensing of correlated carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emissions at Mt.Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solvejg Dinger, Anna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Butz, André; Fischerkeller, Marie-Constanze; Giudice, Gaetano; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kostinek, Julian; Kuhn, Jonas; Liuzzo, Marco; Lübcke, Peter; Tirpitz, Lukas; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have a direct as well as indirect impact on climate and air quality. Moreover these two gases, and in particular their ratio, are tracers for dynamic processes inside volcanoes. Hence they can give direct information about volcanic activity. Semi-continuous in-situ measurements of CO2 and SO2 have been conducted for only a decade, demonstrating the great potential of such data. More than once it could be shown that the CO2/SO2 ratio increases and then drops before an eruption. However, in-situ measurements are linked with great effort and risk due to the difficult environment, which might also result in sheer impossibility. Remote sensing of volcanic emissions allows for monitoring a volcano's activity from a safe distance to the volcano and thus generally under less difficult ambient conditions. This means in turn less effort and cost, even employing a more cost intense instrument. Further, remote sensing enables sampling of cross sections of the entire plume thus, suffering less from representativeness errors than the in-situ technique. Remote sensing of SO2 is already well developed, whereas the measurement of CO2 is challenged by the high background concentration and therefore required high accuracy in order to measure little concentration enhancements in the volcanic plume. To overcome this challenge, we employed combined direct sunlight spectroscopy for SO2 and CO2. Two spectrometers (a UV-spectrometer for SO2 and a FTIR-spectrometer for CO2) were coupled into the beam of a common sun tracker. The whole setup was installed on a mobile platform, which allowed for sampling plume cross sections in a stop-and-go pattern. Measurements were conducted during a three-week campaign at Mt.Etna, Sicily. We measured enhancements of the averaged CO2 mixing ratio up to 0.5-1 ppm (2.5x1019 molec cm-2 CO2 column enhancement) and SO2 column enhancements up to 4x1018 molec cm-2. CO2 and SO2 emissions showed a

  19. Market-driven emissions from recovery of carbon dioxide gas.

    PubMed

    Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-12-16

    This article uses a market-based allocation method in a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) framework to estimate the environmental emissions created by recovering carbon dioxide (CO2). We find that 1 ton of CO2 recovered as a coproduct of chemicals manufacturing leads to additional greenhouse gas emissions of 147-210 kg CO2 eq , while consuming 160-248 kWh of electricity, 254-480 MJ of heat, and 1836-4027 kg of water. The ranges depend on the initial and final purity of the CO2, particularly because higher purity grades require additional processing steps such as distillation, as well as higher temperature and flow rate of regeneration as needed for activated carbon treatment and desiccant beds. Higher purity also reduces process efficiency due to increased yield losses from regeneration gas and distillation reflux. Mass- and revenue-based allocation methods used in attributional LCA estimate that recovering CO2 leads to 19 and 11 times the global warming impact estimated from a market-based allocation used in consequential LCA.

  20. Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Birgit; Landelius, Tomas; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Machida, Nanako; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2014-07-01

    The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), rather than by microbial respiration during DOC decomposition. Also, it is unknown on larger spatial and temporal scales how photochemical mineralization compares to other C fluxes in the inland water C cycle. We combined field and laboratory data with atmospheric radiative transfer modeling to parameterize a photochemical rate model for each day of the year 2009, for 1086 lakes situated between latitudes from 55°N to 69°N in Sweden. The sunlight-induced production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) averaged 3.8 ± 0.04 g C m-2 yr-1, which is a flux comparable in size to the organic carbon burial in the lake sediments. Countrywide, 151 ± 1 kt C yr-1 was produced by photochemical mineralization, corresponding to about 12% of total annual mean CO2 emissions from Swedish lakes. With a median depth of 3.2 m, the lakes were generally deep enough that incoming, photochemically active photons were absorbed in the water column. This resulted in a linear positive relationship between DIC photoproduction and the incoming photon flux, which corresponds to the absorbed photons. Therefore, the slope of the regression line represents the wavelength- and depth-integrated apparent quantum yield of DIC photoproduction. We used this relationship to obtain a first estimate of DIC photoproduction in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Global DIC photoproduction amounted to 13 and 35 Mt C yr-1 under overcast and clear sky, respectively. Consequently, these directly sunlight-induced CO2 emissions contribute up to about one tenth to the global CO2 emissions from lakes and reservoirs, corroborating that microbial respiration contributes a substantially larger share than formerly thought, and generate annual C fluxes similar in

  1. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  2. Decadal emission estimates of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitric oxide emissions from coal burning in electric power generation plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Moti L; Sharma, Chhemendra; Singh, Richa

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), and nitric oxide (NO) for coal combustion in thermal power plants in India using plant-specific emission factors during the period of 2001/02 to 2009/10. The mass emission factors have been theoretically calculated using the basic principles of combustion under representative prevailing operating conditions in the plants and fuel composition. The results show that from 2001/02 to 2009/10 period, total CO₂ emissions have increased from 324 to 499 Mt/year; SO₂ emissions have increased from 2,519 to 3,840 kt/year; and NO emissions have increased from 948 to 1,539 kt/year from the Indian coal-fired power plants. National average emissions per unit of electricity from the power plants do not show a noticeable improvement during this period. Emission efficiencies for new plants that use improved technology are found to be better than those of old plants. As per these estimates, the national average of CO₂ emissions per unit of electricity varies between 0.91 and 0.95 kg/kWh while SO₂ and NO emissions vary in the range of 6.9 to 7.3 and 2.8 to 2.9 g/kWh, respectively. Yamunagar plant in Haryana state showed the highest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 0.58 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 3.87 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 1.78 g/kWh, while the Faridabad plant has the lowest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 1.5 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 10.56 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 4.85 g/kWh. Emission values at other plants vary between the values of these two plants.

  3. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4330 - What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? 60.4330 Section 60.4330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... sulfur dioxide (SO2)? (a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either... contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If...

  8. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Boden, Thomas A; Breon, F.-M.; Erickson, D; Gregg, J. S.; Jacobson, Andrew; Marland, Gregg; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Raupach, Michael; Rayner, P; Treanton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  9. The causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem-an econometric approach.

    PubMed

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a long-term food security and preventing hunger include a better nutrition through sustainable systems of production, distribution, and consumption. Nonetheless, the quest for an alternative to increasing global food supply to meet the growing demand has led to the use of poor agricultural practices that promote climate change. Given the contribution of the agricultural ecosystem towards greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this study investigated the causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem by employing a data spanning from 1961 to 2012. Evidence from long-run elasticity shows that a 1 % increase in the area of rice paddy harvested will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.49 %, a 1 % increase in biomass-burned crop residues will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.00 %, a 1 % increase in cereal production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.38 %, and a 1 % increase in agricultural machinery will decrease carbon dioxide emissions by 0.09 % in the long run. There was a bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions, cereal production, and biomass-burned crop residues. The Granger causality shows that the agricultural ecosystem in Ghana is sensitive to climate change vulnerability.

  10. TSCA Section 21 Petition Requesting EPA to Regulate Anthropogenic Emissions Carbon Dioxide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This petition requests EPA to promulgate regulations under section 6 of TSCA to protect “public health and the environment from the serious harms associated with anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, including ocean acidification.

  11. New insights into the interactions between carbon dioxide and ammonia emissions during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunbei; Li, Weiguang; Wu, Chuandong; Wang, Ke

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of carbon dioxide in reducing ammonia emissions. Three variations of a composting experiment were conducted in a laboratory-scale reactor, all of which exhibited the three typical composting phases. Approximately 70% of the ammonia emissions occurred within 96-144 h of the thermophilic stage. The maximum rate of change for the carbon dioxide emissions occurred at different times for different carbon source types, mixing rates, and addition times. The rate of change and total concentration of emitted carbon dioxide played a crucial role in ammonia emission due to their relationship to the intensity of ammonia assimilation. The addition of a carbon source that could be utilized by thermophilic microorganisms stimulated ammonia assimilation and thus reduced ammonia emissions. These findings suggested that the addition of a 7:3 mixture of sucrose and straw powder at 108 h is suitable for reducing ammonia emissions.

  12. Prediction on carbon dioxide emissions based on fuzzy rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, Herrini; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    There are several ways to predict air quality, varying from simple regression to models based on artificial intelligence. Most of the conventional methods are not sufficiently able to provide good forecasting performances due to the problems with non-linearity uncertainty and complexity of the data. Artificial intelligence techniques are successfully used in modeling air quality in order to cope with the problems. This paper describes fuzzy inference system (FIS) to predict CO2 emissions in Malaysia. Furthermore, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to compare the prediction performance. Data of five variables: energy use, gross domestic product per capita, population density, combustible renewable and waste and CO2 intensity are employed in this comparative study. The results from the two model proposed are compared and it is clearly shown that the ANFIS outperforms FIS in CO2 prediction.

  13. Chlorine Dioxide Induced Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: MMPI Validity Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This paper discusses Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) data obtained from individuals exposed to chlorine dioxide in the workplace who developed Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome. The paper explores current research on chlorine dioxide exposed persons who were misdiagnosed on the basis of MMPI interpretations. Difficulties…

  14. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION STRATEGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farming practices can have a large impact on the soil carbon cycle and the resulting net emission of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO**2), methane and nitrous oxide. Primary sources of CO**2 emission on dairy farms are soil, plant, and animal respiration with smaller contributions from ...

  15. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  16. A strategic decision-making model considering the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions for sustainable supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shih-Chang; Hung, Shiu-Wan

    2014-01-15

    Incorporating sustainability into supply chain management has become a critical issue driven by pressures from governments, customers, and various stakeholder groups over the past decade. This study proposes a strategic decision-making model considering both the operational costs and social costs caused by the carbon dioxide emissions from operating such a supply chain network for sustainable supply chain management. This model was used to evaluate carbon dioxide emissions and operational costs under different scenarios in an apparel manufacturing supply chain network. The results showed that the higher the social cost rate of carbon dioxide emissions, the lower the amount of the emission of carbon dioxide. The results also suggested that a legislation that forces the enterprises to bear the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from their economic activities is an effective approach to reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

  17. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy, and powertrain technology trends for new personal vehicles in the United States. The ??Trends?? report has been published annually since 1975 and covers all passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and all but the largest pickup trucks and vans. This report does not provide formal compliance values for EPA CO2 emissions standards and NHTSA CAFE standards. The downloadable data are available in PDF or spreadsheet (XLS) formats.

  18. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska during the 1989-1990 eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; McGimsey, R.G.; Gardner, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the gas plume emitted from fumaroles in the summit crater of Redoubt Volcano were started on March 20, 1990 using the COSPEC method. During the latter half of the period of intermittent dome growth and destruction, between March 20 and mid-June 1990, sulfur dioxide emission rates ranged from approximately 1250 to 5850 t/d, rates notably higher than for other convergent-plate boundary volcanoes during periods of active dome growth. Emission rates following the end of dome growth from late June 1990 through May 1991 decreased steadily to less than 75 t/d. The largest mass of sulfur dioxide was released during the period of explosive vent clearing when explosive degassing on December 14-15 injected at least 175,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2 into the atmosphere. Following the explosive eruptions of December 1989, Redoubt Volcano entered a period of intermittent dome growth from late December 1989 to mid-June 1990 during which Redoubt emitted a total mass of SO2 ranging from 572,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes to 680,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes. From mid-June 1990 through May 1991, the volcano was in a state of posteruption degassing into the troposphere, producing approximately 183,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2. We estimate that Redoubt Volcano released a minimum mass of sulfur dioxide of approximately 930,000 tonnes. While COSPEC data were not obtained frequently enough to enable their use in eruption prediction, SO2 emission rates clearly indicated a consistent decline in emission rates between March through October 1990 and a continued low level of emission rates through the first half of 1991. Values from consecutive daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates spanning the March 23, 1990 eruption decreased in the three days prior to eruption. That decrease was coincident with a several-fold increase in the frequency of shallow seismic events, suggesting partial sealing of the magma conduit to gas loss that resulted in

  19. Natural sources of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide emissions from volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, Terrence

    1990-01-01

    Volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide plays an important role in keeping the atmosphere-ocean portion of the carbon geochemical cycle in balance. The atmosphere-ocean carbon deficit requires replenishment of 6??1012 mol CO2/yr, and places an upper limit on the output of carbon dioxide from volcanoes. The CO2 output of the global mid-oceanic ridge system is ca. 0.7??1012 mol/yr, thus supplying only a fraction of the amount needed to balance the carbon deficit. The carbon dioxide flux from subaerial volcanoes is poorly known, but it appears to be at least as large as the mid-oceanic ridge flux. Much (perhaps most) of the CO2 emitted from volcanoes is degassed noneruptively. This mode of degassing may lead to impacts on the environment and biosphere that are fundamentally different in character from those envisioned in published scenarios, which are based on the assumption that CO2 degassing occurs predominantly by eruptive processes. Although the flux of carbon dioxide from volcanoes is poorly constrained at present, it is clearly two orders of magnitude lower than the anthropogenic output of CO2.

  20. Alternative Strategies for Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Bryce I.

    1975-01-01

    Achievement of air quality goals requires careful consideration of alternative control strategies in view of national concerns with energy and the economy. Three strategies which might be used by coal fired steam electric plants to achieve ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide have been compared and the analysis presented. (Author/BT)

  1. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  2. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-11-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who like other scientists rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005 2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  3. Diffuse volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide from Vulcano Island, Italy.

    PubMed

    Baubron, J C; Allard, P; Toutain, J P

    1990-03-01

    RECENT investigations on Mount Etna (Sicily)(1-3) have revealed that volcanoes may release abundant carbon dioxide not only from their active craters, but also from their flanks, as diffuse soil emanations. Here we present analyses of soil gases and air in water wells on Vulcano Island which provide further evidence of such lateral degassing. Nearly pure carbon dioxide, enriched in helium and radon, escapes from the slopes of the Fossa active cone, adding a total output of 30 tonnes per day to the fumarolic crater discharge ( 180 tonnes CO(2) per day). This emanation has similar He/CO(2) and (13)C/(12)C ratios to those of the crater fumaroles (300%ndash;500 degrees C) and therefore a similar volcanic origin. Gases rich in carbon dioxide also escape at sea level along the isthmus between the Fossa and Vulcanello volcanic cones, but their depletion in both He and (13)C suggests a distinct source. Diffuse volcanic gas emanations, once their genetic link with central fumarole degassing has been demonstrated, can be used for continuous volcano monitoring, at safe distances from active craters. Such monitoring has been initiated at Vulcano, where soil and well emanations of nearly pure CO(2) themselves represent a threat to the local population.

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth: a multivariate and causality analysis for Ghana, 1971-2013.

    PubMed

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth in Ghana was investigated from 1971 to 2013 by comparing the vector error correction model (VECM) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). Prior to testing for Granger causality based on VECM, the study tested for unit roots, Johansen's multivariate co-integration and performed a variance decomposition analysis using Cholesky's technique. Evidence from the variance decomposition shows that 21 % of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in energy use, 8 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in GDP, and 6 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in population. There was evidence of bidirectional causality running from energy use to GDP and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy use, carbon dioxide emissions to GDP, carbon dioxide emissions to population, and population to energy use. Evidence from the long-run elasticities shows that a 1 % increase in population in Ghana will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.72 %. There was evidence of short-run equilibrium relationship running from energy use to carbon dioxide emissions and GDP to carbon dioxide emissions. As a policy implication, the addition of renewable energy and clean energy technologies into Ghana's energy mix can help mitigate climate change and its impact in the future.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors D Appendix D to Part 52 Protection of Environment... PLANS (CONTINUED) Pt. 52, App. D Appendix D to Part 52—Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From... sulfur dioxide by the Reference method and record the results on the example sheet shown in Figure...

  6. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, 2007–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Kīlauea Volcano has one of the longest running volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate databases on record. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from Kīlauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Elias and Sutton, 2007, and references within). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2006 are available on the USGS Web site (Elias and others, 1998; Elias and Sutton, 2002; Elias and Sutton, 2007). This report updates the database, documents the changes in data collection and processing methods, and highlights how SO2 emissions have varied with eruptive activity at Kīlauea Volcano for the interval 2007–2010.

  7. Carbon dioxide emission implications if hydrofluorocarbons are regulated: a refrigeration case study.

    PubMed

    Blowers, Paul; Lownsbury, James M

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. is strongly considering regulating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) due to their global climate change forcing effects. A drop-in replacement hydrofluoroether has been evaluated using a gate-to-grave life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for the trade-offs between direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to a current HFC and a historically used refrigerant. The results indicate current regulations being considered may increase global climate change.

  8. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  9. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  10. Fertilizer and tillage management impacts on non-carbon-dioxide greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent efforts have been placed on trying to establish emission estimates for greenhouse gases (GHG) from agricultural soils in the United States. This research was conducted to assess the influence of cropping systems management on nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissio...

  11. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2014

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix — especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States 1998

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    The President issued a directive on April 15, 1999, requiring an annual report summarizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by electricity generation in the United States, including both utilities and nonutilities. In response, this report is jointly submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  13. U.S. sulfur dioxide emission reductions: Shifting factors and a carbon dioxide penalty

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Marilyn Ann; Li, Yufei; Massetti, Emanuele; ...

    2017-01-18

    For more than 20 years, the large-scale application of flue gas desulfurization technology has been a dominant cause of SO2 emission reductions. From 1994–2004, electricity generation from coal increased, but the shift to low-sulfur coal eclipsed this. From 2004–2014, electricity generation from coal decreased, but a shift to higher-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coal overshadowed this. Here, the shift in coal quality has also created a CO2 emissions penalty, representing 2% of the sector’s total emissions in 2014.

  14. Short-term emissions of ammonia and carbon dioxide from cattle urine contaminated tropical grassland microcosm.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Patel, Manoj; Drabar, Reena; Vyas, Manish

    2006-11-01

    The study was designed to understand the emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from a single cattle urination event on a tropical grassland and underline the significance of the emissions in the context of huge animal population grazing on large pasture areas in some countries. Emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were monitored for three weeks from a tropical grassland (dominated by Cynodon dactylon Pers.) microcosm contaminated with cow and buffalo urine. The grassland microcosms were treated with urine (50 and 100 ml of each) only once and irrigated with water once every week. Ammonia was sampled by an automatic sampling system comprising of a vacuum pump, three-way stopcocks and rubber tubing and an impinger containing suitable absorbing solution (H(2)SO(4)), connected to the tubing suitably. The sampled gas, after sucked by the vacuum pump and absorbed in H(2)SO(4), was allowed to enter the closed microcosm again maintaining internal pressure of the microcosm. Carbon dioxide was sampled by absorption in an alkali (NaOH) trap inside the microcosm. Both NH(3) and CO(2) emissions were highly variable temporally and there was no continuous increasing or decreasing emission trend with time. Respectively, 45 and 46% of total NH(3)-N were emitted within first 48 h from 50 and 100 ml cow urine application while the corresponding values for buffalo urine were 34 and 32%. Total NH(3)-N emissions, integrated for sampling days (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 15, 18 and 21st) were 11 and 6% in cow and 8 and 5% in buffalo urine, of the total-N added through 50 and 100 ml urine samples. Carbon dioxide emissions were standardized at 25 degrees C by using a suitable formula which were lower than actual emissions at actual soil temperature (> 25 degrees C). Carbon dioxide emission rates were classified on the basis of soil repiratory classification and classes ranged from moderately low soil activity up to unusually high soil activity, the latter

  15. Binding carbon dioxide in mineral form: A critical step towards a zero-emission coal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have successfully developed the foundation for sequestration of carbon dioxide in mineral form. The purpose of this technology is to maintain the competitiveness of coal energy, even when in the future environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other sequestration methods, this is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, the goal is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. Such a technology will guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth exceeds the most optimistic estimates. The approach differs from all others in that the authors are developing an industrial process that chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  16. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo; Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao; Li, Jun

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  17. Carbon dioxide emission prediction using support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Chairul; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Bayu Nugroho, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the SVM model was proposed for predict expenditure of carbon (CO2) emission. The energy consumption such as electrical energy and burning coal is input variable that affect directly increasing of CO2 emissions were conducted to built the model. Our objective is to monitor the CO2 emission based on the electrical energy and burning coal used from the production process. The data electrical energy and burning coal used were obtained from Alcohol Industry in order to training and testing the models. It divided by cross-validation technique into 90% of training data and 10% of testing data. To find the optimal parameters of SVM model was used the trial and error approach on the experiment by adjusting C parameters and Epsilon. The result shows that the SVM model has an optimal parameter on C parameters 0.1 and 0 Epsilon. To measure the error of the model by using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) with error value as 0.004. The smallest error of the model represents more accurately prediction. As a practice, this paper was contributing for an executive manager in making the effective decision for the business operation were monitoring expenditure of CO2 emission.

  18. Calculation of global carbon dioxide emissions: Review of emission factors and a new approach taking fuel quality into consideration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiete, Michael; Berner, Ulrich; Richter, Otto

    2001-03-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions resulting from fossil fuel consumption play a major role in the current debate on climate change. Carbon dioxide emissions are calculated on the basis of a carbon dioxide emission factor (CEF) for each type of fuel. Published CEFs are reviewed in this paper. It was found that for nearly all CEFs, fuel quality is not adequately taken into account. This is especially true in the case of the CEFs for coal. Published CEFs are often based on generalized assumptions and inexact conversions. In particular, conversions from gross calorific value to net calorific value were examined. A new method for determining CEFs as a function of calorific value (for coal, peat, and natural gas) and specific gravity (for crude oil) is presented that permits CEFs to be calculated for specific fuel qualities. A review of proportions of fossil fuels that remain unoxidized owing to incomplete combustion or inclusion in petrochemical products, etc., (stored carbon) shows that these figures need to be updated and checked for their applicability on a global scale, since they are mostly based on U.S. data.

  19. Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Adam; Blumsack, Seth A; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B; Morgan, M Granger

    2008-05-01

    The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO2 emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO2 emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO2 emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO2 emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO2 emissions that has been shown in earlier workto stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO2 reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale.

  20. Nitrogen dioxide in exhaust emissions from motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenner, Magnus

    NO 2/NO x (v/v) fractions and NO 2 exhaust emission rates were determined for diesel- and gasoline-powered passenger cars and a diesel truck, at several conditions of constant engine load and speed. Vehicles with various kinds of emission control equipment were investigated. Also, integrations of NO 2/NO x percentages during Federal Test Procedure driving cycles were made for six types of passenger car. High (> 30 %) NO 2 fractions were measured for gasoline cars with air injection, and for diesel vehicles. A gasoline car with a 3-way catalyst had low NO x totals with small (< 1 %) NO 2 fractions. A passenger diesel with particle trap yielded surprisingly small (0-2%) NO 2 fractions at moderate speeds. The results have implications for NO 2 concentration in the atmosphere of northern cities during wintertime inversions, in view of the increasing use of air injection systems for passenger cars to meet legal restrictions on vehicle emissions of hydrocarbons and CO.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Reservoirs in the Lower Jordan Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Alshboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed monthly hydrological, meteorological and water quality data from three irrigation and drinking water reservoirs in the lower Jordan River basin and estimated the atmospheric emission rates of CO2. The data were collected between 2006 and 2013 and show that the reservoirs, which differ in size and age, were net sources of CO2. The estimated surface fluxes were comparable in magnitude to those reported for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Highest emission rates were observed for a newly established reservoir, which was initially filled during the sampling period. In the two older reservoirs, CO2 partial pressures and fluxes were significantly decreasing during the observation period, which could be related to simultaneously occurring temporal trends in water residence time and chemical composition of the water. The results indicate a strong influence of water and reservoir management (e.g. water consumption) on CO2 emission rates, which is affected by the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the limited water resources in the study area. The low wind speed and relatively high pH favored chemical enhancement of the CO2 gas exchange at the reservoir surfaces, which caused on average a four-fold enhancement of the fluxes. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty of the estimated fluxes is, besides pH, mainly affected by the poorly resolved wind speed and resulting uncertainty of the chemical enhancement factor. PMID:26588241

  2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Reservoirs in the Lower Jordan Watershed.

    PubMed

    Alshboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed monthly hydrological, meteorological and water quality data from three irrigation and drinking water reservoirs in the lower Jordan River basin and estimated the atmospheric emission rates of CO2. The data were collected between 2006 and 2013 and show that the reservoirs, which differ in size and age, were net sources of CO2. The estimated surface fluxes were comparable in magnitude to those reported for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Highest emission rates were observed for a newly established reservoir, which was initially filled during the sampling period. In the two older reservoirs, CO2 partial pressures and fluxes were significantly decreasing during the observation period, which could be related to simultaneously occurring temporal trends in water residence time and chemical composition of the water. The results indicate a strong influence of water and reservoir management (e.g. water consumption) on CO2 emission rates, which is affected by the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the limited water resources in the study area. The low wind speed and relatively high pH favored chemical enhancement of the CO2 gas exchange at the reservoir surfaces, which caused on average a four-fold enhancement of the fluxes. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty of the estimated fluxes is, besides pH, mainly affected by the poorly resolved wind speed and resulting uncertainty of the chemical enhancement factor.

  3. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    PubMed

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-04-05

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions from Specchio di Venere, Pantelleria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, Mariana P. Jácome; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Taran, Yuri; Vita, Fabio; Pecoraino, Giovanella

    2016-04-01

    We have mapped the diffuse CO2 efflux from the Specchio di Venere Lake area using the accumulation chamber method. We calculated a CO2 emission of 43 ± 5 t day-1 for the area studied, accounting for both diffuse degassing from soil and bubbling through the lake. We also present data on the water composition of Specchio di Venere Lake, the Polla 3 spring, and Liuzza well. On the basis of water chemistry, two physical-chemical processes, evaporation and mineral precipitation of carbonate species, are invoked to explain the CO2 degassing for the lake area.

  5. Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India. Part II—biomass combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Shekar; Venkataraman, Chandra

    A spatially resolved biomass burning data set, and related emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents was constructed for India, for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the INDOEX period (1998-1999). Sources include biofuels (wood, crop waste and dung-cake) and forest fires (accidental, shifting cultivation and controlled burning). Particulate matter (PM) emission factors were compiled from studies of Indian cooking stoves and from literature for open burning. Black carbon (BC) and organic matter (OM) emissions were estimated from these, accounting for combustion temperatures in cooking stoves. Sulphur dioxide emission factors were based on fuel sulphur content and reported literature measurements. Biofuels accounted 93% of total biomass consumption (577 MT yr -1), with forest fires contributing only 7%. The national average biofuel mix was 56 : 21 : 23% of fuelwood, crop waste and dung-cake, respectively. Compared to fossil fuels, biomass combustion was a minor source of SO 2 (7% of total), with higher emissions from dung-cake because of its higher sulphur content. PM 2.5 emissions of 2.04 Tg yr -1 with an "inorganic fraction" of 0.86 Tg yr -1 were estimated. Biomass combustion was the major source of carbonaceous aerosols, accounting 0.25 Tg yr -1 of BC (72% of total) and 0.94 Tg yr -1 of OM (76% of total). Among biomass, fuelwood and crop waste were primary contributors to BC emissions, while dung-cake and forest fires were primary contributors to OM emissions. Northern and the east-coast India had high densities of biomass consumption and related emissions. Measurements of emission factors of SO 2, size resolved aerosols and their chemical constituents for Indian cooking stoves are needed to refine the present estimates.

  6. Urbanization and carbon dioxide emissions in Singapore: evidence from the ARDL approach.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamisu Sadi; Abdul-Rahim, A S; Ribadu, Mohammed Bashir

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to examine empirically the impact of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions in Singapore from 1970 to 2015. The autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach is applied within the analysis. The main finding reveals a negative and significant impact of urbanization on carbon emissions in Singapore, which means that urban development in Singapore is not a barrier to the improvement of environmental quality. Thus, urbanization enhances environmental quality by reducing carbon emissions in the sample country. The result also highlighted that economic growth has a positive and significant impact on carbon emissions, which suggests that economic growth reduces environmental quality through its direct effect of increasing carbon emissions in the country. Despite the high level of urbanization in Singapore, which shows that 100 % of the populace is living in the urban center, it does not lead to more environmental degradation. Hence, urbanization will not be considered an obstacle when initiating policies that will be used to reduce environmental degradation in the country. Policy makers should consider the country's level of economic growth instead of urbanization when formulating policies to reduce environmental degradation, due to its direct impact on increasing carbon dioxide emissions.

  7. Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel.

    PubMed

    Ristovski, Z D; Jayaratne, E R; Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Lim, M

    2005-06-01

    A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds--0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h(-1). Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 10(11) to 10(13) km(-1) and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 microg km(-1) at 40 to about 1000 microg km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km(-1) at 40 km h(-1), falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG.

  8. High resolution carbon dioxide emission gridded data for China derived from point sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinnan; Cai, Bofeng; Zhang, Lixiao; Cao, Dong; Liu, Lancui; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Zhansheng; Xue, Wenbo

    2014-06-17

    A high spatial resolution carbon dioxide (CO2) emission map of China is proving to be essential for China's carbon cycle research and carbon reduction strategies given the current low quality of CO2 emission data and the inconsistencies in data quality between different regions. Ten km resolution CO2 emission gridded data has been built up for China based on point emission sources and other supporting data. The predominance of emissions from industrial point sources (84% of total emissions) in China supports the use of bottom-up methodology. The resultant emission map is informative and proved to be more spatially accurate than the EDGAR data. Spatial distribution of CO2 emissions in China is highly unbalanced and has positive spatial autocorrelation. The spatial pattern is mainly influenced by key cities and key regions, i.e., the Jing-Jin-Ji region, the Yangtze River delta region, and the Pearl River delta region. The emission map indicated that the supervision of 1% of total land could enable the management of about 70% of emissions in China.

  9. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures.

  10. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

  11. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    PubMed Central

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  12. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-02-25

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

  13. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), this paper presents historical energy-related carbon dioxide emission estimates for energy-intensive sub-sectors and 23 industries. Estimates are based on surveys of more than 15,000 manufacturing plants in 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002. EIA is currently developing its collection of manufacturing data for 2006.

  14. Trade-offs between solar radiation management, carbon dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Naomi; Lenton, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract global warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and carbon dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (‘negative emissions') and solar radiation management (SRM). These relationships are illustrated over a multi-centennial timescale, allowing sufficient time for the carbon-cycle to respond to the anthropogenic perturbation. The anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios (focussing on those from fossil fuel combustion) range from more to less stringent mitigation of emissions and includes the scenario assumed in our previous work on the maximum cooling potential of different geoengineering options. Results are presented in terms of transient atmospheric CO2 concentration and global mean temperature from year 1900 to year 2500. Implementation of solar radiation control strategies requires an understanding of the timing and effect of terminating such an intervention, a so called ‘exit strategy'. The results illustrate a number of considerations regarding exit strategies, including the inherent commitment to either carbon dioxide removal interventions, or the length of time the solar radiation control mechanism must be maintained for. The impacts of the various trade-offs are also discussed in the context of adaptation and adaptive resilience. The results have a bearing on policy and long term planning by illustrating some of the important assumptions regarding implementation of solar radiation management. These include baseline assumptions about emission mitigation efforts, timescale of intervention maintenance and impacts on adaptation.

  15. Analysis of Possibility of Yeast Production Increase at Maintained Carbon Dioxide Emission Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Paweł P.

    2016-12-01

    Main parameters polluting of technological wastewater (dregs from decantation and thicken of the wort) from yeast industry are: nitrogen, potassium and COD. Such wastewater are utilized mostly on agricultural fields. Unfortunately, these fields can only accept a limited amount of wastes. The basic parameter limiting there the amount of wastewater is nitrogen. When capacity of the production is large sewages are often pretreated at an evaporator station. However, due to the fairly high running costs of the evaporator station currently such a solution is applied only to a small amount of wastes (just to meet legal requirements). Replacement of the earth gas with a biomass being supplied to the evaporator station from the agricultural fields will both allow to maintain the carbon dioxide emission level and enable the production growth. Moreover, the biomass growing on the agricultural fields being fertilized with the wastewater coming from the yeast production allows consequently to utilize the greater volume of wastewater. Theoretically, the possible increase in the yeasts production, with maintaining the carbon dioxide emission level, can reach even 70%. Therefore, the solution presented in this paper combines both intensification of the yeasts production and maintaining the carbon dioxide emission level.

  16. Spatial distribution of carbon dioxide absorption and emission in Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea using RS and GIS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Na, Sang-il; Park, Jong-Hwa

    2011-11-01

    Climate change has been an important issue particularly in recent years. Climate change has been reported as a phenomena caused by human activities as identified in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) in 2007, and in order to prevent negative impacts to our planet, conscious efforts to reduce greenhouse gases are necessary worldwide. In addition, Korea's interest in global climate change is growing. In reality, symptoms of global warming on the Korean Peninsula are visible in the air, on the land and in changes patterns to the normal levels and contents of Korea's oceans. Impacts of global warming result in abnormal temperature fluctuation, typhoons, regional flooding and desertification with such extreme and that are arguably more frequent occurrences of natural disasters quickly becoming a general problem for the community as a whole. On the other hand, the development of IT technology and the improvement and use of satellite technology have ensured better access to RS technique and utilization. Due to RS technology is ability to monitor it has become widely used in farming applications, environment prediction and planning and ecology studies and analysis. The purpose of this study is to assess emission and absorption in relation to geographical features and to be better able to deliver environment information to produce a spatial map of carbon dioxide in Chungbuk by using RS and GIS with a focus on carbon dioxide emission and its direct absorption caused by tree growth according to energy consumption.

  17. Gridded uncertainty in fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission maps, a CDIAC example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, Robert J.; Boden, Thomas A.; Higdon, David M.

    2016-12-01

    Due to a current lack of physical measurements at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, all current global maps and distributions of fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions use one or more proxies to distribute those emissions. These proxies and distribution schemes introduce additional uncertainty into these maps. This paper examines the uncertainty associated with the magnitude of gridded FFCO2 emissions. This uncertainty is gridded at the same spatial and temporal scales as the mass magnitude maps. This gridded uncertainty includes uncertainty contributions from the spatial, temporal, proxy, and magnitude components used to create the magnitude map of FFCO2 emissions. Throughout this process, when assumptions had to be made or expert judgment employed, the general tendency in most cases was toward overestimating or increasing the magnitude of uncertainty. The results of the uncertainty analysis reveal a range of 4-190 %, with an average of 120 % (2σ) for populated and FFCO2-emitting grid spaces over annual timescales. This paper also describes a methodological change specific to the creation of the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) FFCO2 emission maps: the change from a temporally fixed population proxy to a temporally varying population proxy.

  18. Gridded uncertainty in fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission maps, a CDIAC example

    DOE PAGES

    Andres, Robert J.; Boden, Thomas A.; Higdon, David M.

    2016-12-05

    Due to a current lack of physical measurements at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, all current global maps and distributions of fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions use one or more proxies to distribute those emissions. These proxies and distribution schemes introduce additional uncertainty into these maps. This paper examines the uncertainty associated with the magnitude of gridded FFCO2 emissions. This uncertainty is gridded at the same spatial and temporal scales as the mass magnitude maps. This gridded uncertainty includes uncertainty contributions from the spatial, temporal, proxy, and magnitude components used to create the magnitude map of FFCO2 emissions. Throughoutmore » this process, when assumptions had to be made or expert judgment employed, the general tendency in most cases was toward overestimating or increasing the magnitude of uncertainty. The results of the uncertainty analysis reveal a range of 4–190 %, with an average of 120 % (2σ) for populated and FFCO2-emitting grid spaces over annual timescales. This paper also describes a methodological change specific to the creation of the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) FFCO2 emission maps: the change from a temporally fixed population proxy to a temporally varying population proxy.« less

  19. Gridded uncertainty in fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission maps, a CDIAC example

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, Robert J.; Boden, Thomas A.; Higdon, David M.

    2016-12-05

    Due to a current lack of physical measurements at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, all current global maps and distributions of fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions use one or more proxies to distribute those emissions. These proxies and distribution schemes introduce additional uncertainty into these maps. This paper examines the uncertainty associated with the magnitude of gridded FFCO2 emissions. This uncertainty is gridded at the same spatial and temporal scales as the mass magnitude maps. This gridded uncertainty includes uncertainty contributions from the spatial, temporal, proxy, and magnitude components used to create the magnitude map of FFCO2 emissions. Throughout this process, when assumptions had to be made or expert judgment employed, the general tendency in most cases was toward overestimating or increasing the magnitude of uncertainty. The results of the uncertainty analysis reveal a range of 4–190 %, with an average of 120 % (2σ) for populated and FFCO2-emitting grid spaces over annual timescales. This paper also describes a methodological change specific to the creation of the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) FFCO2 emission maps: the change from a temporally fixed population proxy to a temporally varying population proxy.

  20. Methane consumption and carbon dioxide emission in tallgrass prairie: Effects of biomass burning and conversion to agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, C.M.; Striegl, R.G. )

    1993-12-01

    Methane and carbon dioxide in the troposphere have increased substantially in recent years. Soils are the largest terrestrial sink of atmospheric methane and an important source of carbon dioxide. Conversion of natural soils systems to other uses can have a significant impact on global methane and carbon dioxide budgets. This study compares the effects of biomass burning and the conversion of prairie to tilled agriculture on the consumption of atmospheric methane and emission of carbon dioxide by soils in a Kansas tall grass prairie. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

  2. Causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission for Malaysia using maximum entropy bootstrap approach.

    PubMed

    Gul, Sehrish; Zou, Xiang; Hassan, Che Hashim; Azam, Muhammad; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in the causal framework, as the direction of causality remains has a significant policy implication for developed and developing countries. The study employed maximum entropy bootstrap (Meboot) approach to examine the causal nexus between energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission using bivariate as well as multivariate framework for Malaysia, over a period of 1975-2013. This is a unified approach without requiring the use of conventional techniques based on asymptotical theory such as testing for possible unit root and cointegration. In addition, it can be applied in the presence of non-stationary of any type including structural breaks without any type of data transformation to achieve stationary. Thus, it provides more reliable and robust inferences which are insensitive to time span as well as lag length used. The empirical results show that there is a unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to carbon emission both in the bivariate model and multivariate framework, while controlling for broad money supply and population density. The results indicate that Malaysia is an energy-dependent country and hence energy is stimulus to carbon emissions.

  3. A modelling on estimation of the carbon dioxide emission from vehicles using logistic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, E. W.; Andry, A.; Afra, F.; Sumarti, N.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the logistic differential equation is used in developing a model on carbon dioxide traces which potentially releases from a particular area. The improvement to a higher scale or scope is straightforward by considering the larger observed data or larger number of the potential CO2 sources. Let G(t) the total amount of the carbon dioxide emission from motorcycles and cars used by the resident of the area. G (t )=P (t )(r1(t )η (t )+r2(t )ξ (t )) where P(t) is the number of the resident of the observed area (population of Bandung Institute of Technology) at year t, r1(t) and r2(t) are the portion of the population who use motorcycles and cars respectively, η(t) and ξ(t) are the approximated total emission of the carbon dioxide from the related vehicles respectively. The number of resident is modeled by the logistic equation so the future number can be estimated. The model is implemented in a campus of Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) at Ganesha street, Indonesia. The results show that the amount of CO2 produced from the transport in Ganesha campus will reach the carrying capacity of the campus in the next 3 years, which will be at around 2.1 billion kilotons of CO2. Therefore, the need of reducing the usage of motorcycles and cars is inevitable in the near future.

  4. A New Data Product: Gridded Uncertainty Maps of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.

    2015-12-01

    Gridded uncertainty maps of fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions are a new data product that is currently in the process of being completed and published. This work is based on the relatively new assessment of the uncertainty associated with the mass of FFCO2 emissions (2014, Tellus B, 66, 23616, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v66.23616). The new data product was created to be paired with the long-used, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), emission year 1751-present, one degree latitude by one degree longitude (1x1) mass of emissions data product (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp/ndp058/ndp058_v2013.html). Now, data users will have FFCO2 emission information that represents both mass and uncertainty, each of which varies in both time and space. The new data product was constructed by examining the individual uncertainties in each of the input data sets to the gridded mass maps and then combining these individual uncertainties into an overall uncertainty for the mass maps. The input data sets include a table of the mass of FFCO2 emissions by country and year, the one degree geographic map of emissions which includes changing borders on an annual time scale and ties the mass of emissions to location, and the one degree population proxy used to distribute the mass of emissions within each country. As the three input data sets are independent of each other, their combination for the overall uncertainty is accomplished by a simple square root of the sum of the squares procedure. The resulting uncertainty data product is gridded at 1x1 and exactly overlays the 1x1 mass emission maps. The default temporal resolution is annual, but a companion product is also available at monthly time scales. The monthly uncertainty product uses the same input data sets, but the mass uncertainty is scaled as described in the monthly mass product description paper (2011, Tellus B, 63:309-327, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2011.00530.x). The gridded uncertainty maps cover emission year

  5. Gridded Uncertainty Maps of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A New Data Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.

    2014-12-01

    With the publication of a new assessment of the uncertainty associated with the mass of fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions (2014, Tellus B, 66, 23616, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v66.23616), it is now possible to extend that work with a gridded map of fossil fuel emission uncertainties. The new data product was created to be paired with the long-used, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), emission year 1751-present, one degree latitude by one degree longitude (1x1) mass of emissions data product (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp/ndp058/ndp058_v2013.html). Now, for the first time, data users will have FFCO2 emission information that represents both mass and uncertainty, each of which varies in both time and space. The new data product was constructed by examining the individual uncertainties in each of the input data sets to the gridded mass maps and then combining these individual uncertainties into an overall uncertainty for the mass maps. The input data sets include a table of the mass of FFCO2 emissions by country and year, the one degree geographic map of emissions which includes changing borders on an annual time scale and ties the mass of emissions to location, and the one degree population proxy used to distribute the mass of emissions within each country. As the three input data sets are independent of each other, their combination for the overall uncertainty is accomplished by a simple square root of the sum of the squares procedure. The resulting uncertainty data product is gridded at 1x1 and exactly overlays the 1x1 mass emission maps. The default temporal resolution is annual, but a companion product is also available at monthly time scales. The monthly uncertainty product uses the same input data sets, but the mass uncertainty is scaled as described in the monthly mass product description paper (2011, Tellus B, 63:309-327, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2011.00530.x). The gridded uncertainty maps cover emission year 1950 to 2010. The start

  6. Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and

  7. Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel.

    PubMed

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and

  8. [Effects of fungicide chlorothalonil on soil nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions].

    PubMed

    Lang, Man; Cai, Zu-cong

    2008-12-01

    A 14 d incubation test at 60% WHC and 25 degrees C was conducted to study the effects of fungicide chlorothalonil at its application rates of 0, 5.5 mg x kg(-1) (field application rate, FR), 110 mg x kg(-1) (20FR) and 220 mg x kg(-1) (40FR) on the nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from acidic, neutral, and alkaline soils. The results indicated that the effects of chlorothalonil on the two gases emissions depended on its application rate and soil type. Comparing with no chlorothalonil application, the chlorothalonil at 20FR and 40FR inhibited the N2O emission from acid soil significantly, while that at FR, 20FR and 40FR stimulated the N2O emission from neutral soil, with the strongest effect at FR. Higher application rates (20FR and 40FR) of chlorothalonil inhibited the N2O emission from alkaline soil at the early stage of incubation, but stimulated it at late incubation stage. Chlorothalonil at FR had no obvious effects on the CO2 emission from test soils, but that at 20FR and 40FR promoted the CO2 emission from acid soil while inhibited it from neutral and alkaline soils significantly.

  9. Area Sulphur Dioxide Emissions over China Extracted from GOME2/MetopA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Zyrichidou, I.; van der A, R.; Ding, Jieying; Hedelt, P.; Valks, P.; Fioletov, V.

    2016-08-01

    As part of EU FP7 Monitoring and Assessment of Regional air quality in China using space Observations, Project Of Long-term sino-european co-Operation, MarcoPolo, project, http://www.marcopolo.eu/, the long trends of atmospheric sulphur dioxide, SO2, have been studied from a spade of satellite instruments and algorithms [Koukouli et al., 2016]. Point sources with negative trends have been identified, pointing to the implementation of air quality technologies, as well as locations with positive trends, pointing to the Chinese economy and industry increasing need for energy.Using mathematical tools, as well as apriori SO2 emission fields used in a renowned regional chemistry transport model, we investigate the possibility of improving the current emission fields by calculating a top-down emission inventory for China based on GOME2/MetopA SO2 measurements.

  10. The sociology of ecologically unequal exchange and carbon dioxide emissions, 1960-2005.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Andrew K

    2012-03-01

    The author engages the sociological theory of ecologically unequal exchange to assess the extent to which levels of per capita anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are a function of the "vertical flow" of exports to high-income nations. Results of cross-national fixed effects panel model estimates indicate that levels of such emissions are positively associated with the vertical flow of exports, and the relationship is much more pronounced for lower-income countries than for high-income countries. Additional findings suggest that the observed relationship for lower-income nations has grown in magnitude through time, indicating that structural associations between high-income and lower-income countries have become increasingly ecologically unequal, at least in the context of greenhouse gas emissions. These results hold, net of various important controls.

  11. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions and Market Effects under the Clean Air Act Acid Rain Program.

    PubMed

    Zipper, Carl E; Gilroy, Leonard

    1998-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) established a national program to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from electricity generation. CAAA90's market-based approach includes trading and banking of Soumissions allowances. We analyzed data describing electric utility SO2 emissions in 1995, the first year of the program's Phase I, and market effects over the 1990-1995 period. Fuel switching and flue-gas desulfurization were the dominant means used in 1995 by targeted generators to reduce emissions to 51% of 1990 levels. Flue-gas desulfur-ization costs, emissions allowance prices, low-sulfur coal prices, and average sulfur contents of coals shipped to electric utilities declined over the 1990-1995 period. Projections indicate that 13-15 million allowances will have been banked during the program's Phase I, which ends in 1999, a quantity expected to last through the first decade of the program's stricter Phase II controls. In 1995, both allowance prices and SO2 emissions were below pre-CAAA90 expectations. The reduction of SO2 emissions beyond pre-CAAA90 expectations, combined with lower-than-expected allowance prices and declining compliance costs, can be viewed as a success for market-based environmental controls.

  12. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

    1999-09-01

    The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of

  13. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  14. Monitoring of carbon dioxide exhaust emissions using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulrooney, Jim; Clifford, John; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Chambers, Paul; Lewis, Elfed

    2007-06-01

    An optical fibre sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide emissions from modern road vehicles and operating in the mid-infrared spectral region is reported. The wavelength range of operation is centred at 4.23 µm and has required a novel implementation of this sensor using low cost and robust components. The sensor is shown to be capable of detecting CO2 to a minimum level of 350 ppm, to be stable over several hours of continuous operation and insensitive to the presence of other species present in the exhaust.

  15. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.V.

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  16. Methane emissions of rice increased by elevated carbon dioxide and temperature.

    PubMed

    Allen, Leon H; Albrecht, Stephan L; Colón-Guasp, Wilfredo; Covell, Stephen A; Baker, Jeffrey T; Pan, Deyun; Boote, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    Methane (CH4) effluxes by paddy-culture rice (Oryza sativa L.) contribute about 16% of the total anthropogenic emissions. Since radiative forcing of CH4 at current atmospheric concentrations is 21 times greater on a per mole basis than that of carbon dioxide (CO2), it is imperative that the impact of global change on rice CH4 emissions be evaluated. Rice (cv. IR72) was planted in sunlit, closed-circulation, controlled-environment chambers in which CH4 efflux densities were measured daily. The CO2 concentration was maintained at either 330 or 660 micromol mol(-1). Air temperatures were controlled to daily maxima and minima of 32/23, 35/26, and 38/29 degrees C at each CO2 treatment. Emissions of CH4 each day were determined during a 4-h period after venting and resealing the chambers at 0800 h. Diurnal CH4 effluxes on 77, 98, and 119 d after planting (DAP) were obtained similarly at 4-h intervals. Emissions over four-plant hills and over flooded bare soil were measured at 53, 63, and 100 DAP. Emissions were negligible before 40 DAP. Thereafter, emissions were observed first in high-CO2, high-temperature treatments and reached a sustained maximum efflux density of about 7 mg m(-2) h(-1) (0.17 g m(-2) d(-1)) near the end of the growing season. Total seasonal CH4 emission was fourfold greater for high-CO2, high-temperature treatments than for the low-CO2, low-temperature treatment, probably due to more root sloughing or exudates, since about sixfold more acetate was found in the soil at 71 DAP. Both rising CO2 and increasing temperatures could lead to a positive feedback on global warming by increasing the emissions of CH4 from rice.

  17. Imaging DOAS detection of primary formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide emissions from petrochemical flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikelnaya, Olga; Flynn, James H.; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen

    2013-08-01

    areas with a high number of petrochemical facilities are often struggling to meet current and future air quality standards. The Houston-Galveston area, for example, continues to be in noncompliance with the U.S. federal air quality standard of ozone, despite significant progress in mitigating air pollution. In recent years, the magnitude and role of primary emissions of ozone-forming chemicals, and in particular formaldehyde, from flares in petrochemical facilities have been discussed as a potential factor contributing to ozone formation. However, no direct observations of flare emissions of formaldehyde have thus far been reported. Here we present observations of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide emissions from petrochemical flares in the Houston-Galveston area during the 2009 Formaldehyde and Olefin from Large Industrial Sources campaign using a new imaging differential optical absorption spectrometer (I-DOAS). Formaldehyde emissions from burning flares were observed directly above the flare stack and ranged from 0.2 to 8.5 kg/h. Unlit flares were found not to emit formaldehyde. SO2 emission rates from a burning acid gas flare ranged between 2 and 4 kg/h. None of the sampled flares coemitted HCHO and SO2. Comparison of the emission fluxes measured by the I-DOAS instrument with those from emission inventories and with fluxes calculated from plumes detected by the long-path DOAS over downtown Houston shows that the flares observed by the I-DOAS were relatively small. While burning flares clearly emit HCHO, a larger observational database is needed to assess the importance of flare emissions for ozone formation.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions across Large Urban Areas in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.; O'Keeffe, D.; Song, Y.; Rao, P.; Huang, J.; Razlivanov, I. N.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion represents the single largest net annual flux of carbon into the atmosphere. Even though urban areas cover only 2% of the earth's surface, they contribute about 70% of global carbon emissions. We aim to conduct a comparative analysis of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions in three large urban areas across different regions in the U.S. based on our spatially-explicit Hestia approach, called the 'Hestia Project'. This research effort is the first to use bottom-up methods to quantify all FFCO2 emissions down to the scale of individual buildings, road segments, and industrial/electricity production facilities on an hourly basis for an entire urban landscape. The Hestia method relies on a large swath of input data such as criteria pollutant emissions reporting, stack monitoring, census data, tax assessor parcel data and traffic monitoring. The urban areas quantified with the Hestia approach include Indianapolis, Salt Lake City, and the Los Angeles Basin (encompassing over 80 cities). A comparative analysis will provide a better understanding of how and why FFCO2 emissions differ across time and space. We examine various factors such as heating/cooling degree days, population, GDP, industrial profile and building age. The study seeks to answer the following questions: 1) How and why do FFCO2 differ across the cities/regions? 2) What drives the different temporal profile of urban emissions? and 3) How do these vary across and within the urban landscape? The results from the study will benefit city planners and other stakeholders in managing urban development and greenhouse gas emissions mitigation.

  19. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    SciTech Connect

    Furimsky, E.

    2008-07-01

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  20. The leverage of demographic dynamics on carbon dioxide emissions: does age structure matter?

    PubMed

    Zagheni, Emilio

    2011-02-01

    This article provides a methodological contribution to the study of the effect of changes in population age structure on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions. First, I propose a generalization of the IPAT equation to a multisector economy with an age-structured population and discuss the insights that can be obtained in the context of stable population theory. Second, I suggest a statistical model of household consumption as a function of household size and age structure to quantitatively evaluate the extent of economies of scale in consumption of energy-intensive goods, and to estimate age-specific profiles of consumption of energy-intensive goods and of CO(2) emissions. Third, I offer an illustration of the methodologies using data for the United States. The analysis shows that per-capita CO(2) emissions increase with age until the individual is in his or her 60s, and then emissions tend to decrease. Holding everything else constant, the expected change in U.S. population age distribution during the next four decades is likely to have a small, but noticeable, positive impact on CO(2) emissions.

  1. Short and Long Term Impacts of Forest Bioenergy Production on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.; Thornton, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    Temperate forest annual net uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere is equivalent to ~16% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in the United States. Mitigation strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of energy including forest biomass. The prospect of forest derived bioenergy has led to implementation of new forest management strategies based on the assumption that they will reduce total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by simultaneously reducing the risk of wildfire and substituting for fossil fuels. The benefit of managing forests for bioenergy substitution of fossil fuels versus potential carbon sequestration by reducing harvest needs to be evaluated. This study uses a combination of Federal Forest Inventory data (FIA), remote sensing, and a coupled carbon-nitrogen ecosystem process model (CLM4-CN) to predict net atmospheric CO2 emissions from forest thinning for bioenergy production in Oregon under varying future management and climate scenarios. We use life-cycle assessment (LCA) incorporating both the forest and forest product sinks and sources of carbon dioxide. Future modeled results are compared with a reduced harvest scenario to determine the potential for increased carbon sequestration in forest biomass. We find that Oregon forests are a current strong sink of 7.5 ± 1.7 Tg C yr-1 or 61 g C m-2 yr-1. (NBP; NEP minus removals from fire and harvest). In the short term, we find that carbon dynamics following harvests for fire prevention and large-scale bioenergy production lead to 2-15% higher emissions over the next 20 years compared to current management, assuming 100% effectiveness of fire prevention. Given the current sink strength, analysis of the forest sector in Oregon demonstrates that increasing harvest levels by all practices above current business-as-usual levels increases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as long as the region's sink persists. In the long-term, we find that projected changes in

  2. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  3. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over

  4. Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions in China: an empirical study using 2006-2010 provincial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Zhan-Ming; Xiao, Hongwei; Yang, Wei; Liu, Danhe; Chen, Bin

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization of China has increased pressure on its environmental and ecological well being. In this study, the temporal and spatial profiles of China's carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed by taking heterogeneities into account based on an integration of the extended stochastic impacts using a geographically and temporally weighted regression model on population, affluence, and technology. Population size, urbanization rate, GDP per capita, energy intensity, industrial structure, energy consumption pattern, energy prices, and economy openness are identified as the key driving factors of regional carbon dioxide emissions and examined through the empirical data for 30 provinces during 2006-2010. The results show the driving factors and their spillover effects have distinct spatial and temporal heterogeneities. Most of the estimated time and space coefficients are consistent with expectation. According to the results of this study, the heterogeneous spatial and temporal effects should be taken into account when designing policies to achieve the goals of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in different regions.

  5. Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions in China: an empirical study using 2006-2010 provincial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Zhan-Ming; Xiao, Hongwei; Yang, Wei; Liu, Danhe; Chen, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The rapid urbanization of China has increased pressure on its environmental and ecological well being. In this study, the temporal and spatial profiles of China's carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed by taking heterogeneities into account based on an integration of the extended stochastic impacts using a geographically and temporally weighted regression model on population, affluence, and technology. Population size, urbanization rate, GDP per capita, energy intensity, industrial structure, energy consumption pattern, energy prices, and economy openness are identified as the key driving factors of regional carbon dioxide emissions and examined through the empirical data for 30 provinces during 2006‒2010. The results show the driving factors and their spillover effects have distinct spatial and temporal heterogeneities. Most of the estimated time and space coefficients are consistent with expectation. According to the results of this study, the heterogeneous spatial and temporal effects should be taken into account when designing policies to achieve the goals of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in different regions.

  6. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and

  7. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from a headwater stream network of interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, John T.; Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2013-01-01

    Boreal ecosystems store significant quantities of organic carbon (C) that may be vulnerable to degradation as a result of a warming climate. Despite their limited coverage on the landscape, streams play a significant role in the processing, gaseous emission, and downstream export of C, and small streams are thought to be particularly important because of their close connection with the surrounding landscape. However, ecosystem carbon studies do not commonly incorporate the role of the aquatic conduit. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations and emissions in a headwater stream network of interior Alaska underlain by permafrost to assess the potential role of stream gas emissions in the regional carbon balance. First-order streams exhibited the greatest variability in fluxes of CO2 and CH4,and the greatest mean pCO2. High-resolution time series of stream pCO2 and discharge at two locations on one first-order stream showed opposing pCO2 responses to storm events, indicating the importance of hydrologic flowpaths connecting CO2-rich soils with surface waters. Repeated longitudinal surveys on the stream showed consistent areas of elevated pCO2 and pCH4, indicative of discrete hydrologic flowpaths delivering soil water and groundwater having varying chemistry. Up-scaled basin estimates of stream gas emissions suggest that streams may contribute significantly to catchment-wide CH4 emissions. Overall, our results indicate that while stream-specific gas emission rates are disproportionately high relative to the terrestrial landscape, both stream surface area and catchment normalized emission rates were lower than those documented for the Yukon River Basin as a whole. This may be due to limitations of C sources and/or C transport to surface waters.

  8. Staggering reductions in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide across Canada in response to legislated transportation emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Holly; Aherne, Julian

    2016-12-01

    It is well established that atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), associated mainly with emissions from transportation and industry, can have adverse effects on both human and ecosystem health. Specifically, atmospheric NO2 plays a role in the formation of ozone, and in acidic and nutrient deposition. As such, international agreements and national legislation, such as the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (SOR/2003-2), and the Federal Agenda on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuel have been put into place to regulate and limit oxidized nitrogen emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the response of ambient air concentrations of NO2 across Canada to emissions regulations. Current NO2 levels across Canada were examined at 137 monitoring sites, and long-term annual and quarterly trends were evaluated for 63 continuous monitoring stations that had at least 10 years of data during the period 1988-2013. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test (Z values) and Sen's slope estimate were used to determine monotonic trends; further changepoint analysis was used to determine periods with significant changes in NO2 air concentration and emissions time-series data. Current annual average NO2 levels in Canada range between 1.16 and 14.96 ppb, with the national average being 8.43 ppb. Provincially, average NO2 ranges between 3.77 and 9.25 ppb, with Ontario and British Columbia having the highest ambient levels of NO2. Long-term tend analysis indicated that the annual average NO2 air concentration decreased significantly at 87% of the stations (55 of 63), and decreased non-significantly at 10% (5 of 63) during the period 1998-2013. Concentrations increased (non-significantly) at only 3% (2 of 63) of the sites. Quarterly long-term trends showed similar results; significant decreases occurred at 84% (January-March), 88% (April-June), 83% (July-September), and 81% (October-December) of the sites. Declines in transportation emissions had the most influence on NO2 air

  9. Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, an Update: 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates from Kilauea Volcano were first measured by Stoiber and Malone (1975) and have been measured on a regular basis since 1979 (Greenland and others, 1985; Casadevall and others, 1987; Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and Sutton, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). Compilations of SO2 emission-rate and wind-vector data from 1979 through 2001 are available on the web. (Elias and others, 1998 and 2002). This report updates the database through 2006, and documents the changes in data collection and processing that have occurred during the interval 2002-2006. During the period covered by this report, Kilauea continued to release SO2 gas predominantly from its summit caldera and east rift zone (ERZ) (Elias and others, 1998; Sutton and others, 2001, Elias and others, 2002, Sutton and others, 2003). These two distinct sources are always measured independently (fig.1). Sulphur Banks is a minor source of SO2 and does not contribute significantly to the total emissions for Kilauea (Stoiber and Malone, 1975). From 1979 until 2003, summit and east rift zone emission rates were derived using vehicle- and tripod- based Correlation Spectrometry (COSPEC) measurements. In late 2003, we began to augment traditional COSPEC measurements with data from one of the new generation of miniature spectrometer systems, the FLYSPEC (Horton and others, 2006; Elias and others, 2006, Williams-Jones and others, 2006).

  10. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide and particulate matter from cage-free layer houses in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xingjun; Zhang, Ruihong; Jiang, Shumei; El-Mashad, Hamed; Xin, Hongwei

    2017-03-01

    Cage-free housing systems have attracted considerable attention in the United States recently as they provide more space and other resources (such as litter area, perches, and nest boxes) for hens and are considered to be more favorable from the standpoint of hen welfare. This study was carried out to quantify emissions of aerial ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from cage-free layer houses in California and compare the values with those for other types of layer houses. Two commercial cage-free houses with 38,000 hens each were monitored from March 1, 2012 to April 1, 2013. Results show that NH3 and CO2 concentrations in the houses were affected by ventilation rate, which was largely influenced by ambient air temperature. The PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in the houses depended on the activity of birds, ventilation rate and relative humidity of the ambient air. The average emission rates of NH3, CO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.29, 89.9, 0.163 and 0.020 g d-1 hen-1, respectively. The NH3 emission rate determined in this study was higher than those of aviary houses. The PM10 and PM2.5 emission rates were higher than those reported for high-rise layer houses.

  11. Emission of Carbon Dioxide and Methane from Duckweed Ponds for Stormwater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jingjing; Zhang, Chiqian; Lin, Chung-Ho; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    This study determined the greenhouse gas emission from two laboratory-scale duckweed ponds for stormwater treatment. The rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from the two duckweed systems was 1472 ± 721 mg/m(2)·d and 626 ± 234 mg/m(2)·d, respectively. After the removal of duckweeds, CO2 emissions decreased to 492 ± 281 mg/m(2)·d and 395 ± 53 mg/m(2)·d, respectively. The higher CO2 emissions in the duckweed systems were attributed to duckweed biomass decay on the pond soil surface. A thin-film model was able to predict the increasing CO2 concentrations in the closed static chamber during 2 weeks of sampling. The initial methane fluxes from the duckweed systems were 299 ± 74 mg/m(2)·d and 180 ± 91 mg/m(2)·d, respectively. After the removal of duckweeds, the flux increased to 559 ± 215 mg/m(2)·d and 328 ± 114 mg/m(2)·d, respectively.

  12. The relationship between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth: Hierarchical structure methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deviren, Seyma Akkaya; Deviren, Bayram

    2016-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has an essential role in the current debate on sustainable development and environmental protection. CO2 emission is also directly linked with use of energy which plays a focal role both for production and consumption in the world economy. Therefore the relationship between the CO2 emission and economic growth has a significant implication for the environmental and economical policies. In this study, within the scope of sociophysics, the topology, taxonomy and relationships among the 33 countries, which have almost the high CO2 emission and economic growth values, are investigated by using the hierarchical structure methods, such as the minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT), over the period of 1970-2010. The average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) is also used to examine the cluster structure more clearly in HTs. According to their proximity, economic ties and economic growth, different clusters of countries are identified from the structural topologies of these trees. We have found that the high income & OECD countries are closely connected to each other and are isolated from the upper middle and lower middle income countries from the MSTs, which are obtained both for the CO2 emission and economic growth. Moreover, the high income & OECD clusters are homogeneous with respect to the economic activities and economic ties of the countries. It is also mentioned that the Group of Seven (G7) countries (CAN, ENG, FRA, GER, ITA, JPN, USA) are connected to each other and these countries are located at the center of the MST for the results of CO2 emission. The same analysis may also successfully apply to the other environmental sources and different countries.

  13. Ten years of satellite observations reveal highly variable sulphur dioxide emissions at Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Brendan; Popp, Christoph; Andrews, Benjamin; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing enables continuous multiyear observations of volcanic activity in remote settings. Anatahan (Mariana Islands) is a remote volcano in the western North Pacific. Available ground-based measurements of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas emissions at Anatahan place it among thelargest volcanic SO2 sources worldwide. These ground-based measurements, however, are restricted to eruptive intervals. Anatahan's activity since 2003 has been dominated temporally by prolonged periods of quiescence. Using 10 years of satellite observations from OMI, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2, we report highly variable SO2 emissions within and between eruptive and quiescent intervals at Anatahan. We find close correspondence between levels of activity reported at the volcano and levels of SO2 emissions detected from space. Eruptive SO2 emission rates have a mean value of ˜6400 t d-1, but frequently are in excess of 20,000 t d-1. Conversely, SO2 emissions during quiescent intervals are below the detection limit of space-based sensors and therefore are not likely to exceed ˜300 t d-1. We show that while Anatahan occupies a quiescent state for 85% of the past 10 years, only ˜15% of total SO2 emissions over this interval occur during quiescence, with the remaining ˜85% released in short duration but intense syn-eruptive degassing. We propose that the integration of multiyear satellite data sets and activity histories are a powerful complement to targeted ground-based campaign measurements in better describing the long-term degassing behavior of remote volcanoes.

  14. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from constructed wetlands receiving anaerobically pretreated sewage.

    PubMed

    de la Varga, D; Ruiz, I; Álvarez, J A; Soto, M

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this research was to determine methane and carbon dioxide emissions from a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) treating anaerobically pre-treated sewage. The CW was constituted of two horizontal flow (free water surface followed by a subsurface) units. A long-term study was carried out as both CW units were monitored for three campaigns in Period 1 (0.9-1.5years after start-up), and four campaigns in Period 2 (4.5-5.8years after start-up). The closed chamber method with collecting surfaces of 1810cm(2) was used. For this system, variability due to position in the transverse section of CW, plant presence or absence and recommended sampling period was determined. Overall methane emissions ranged from 96 to 966mgCH4m(-2) d(-1), depending on several factors as the operation time, the season of the year and the position in the system. Methane emissions increased from 267±188mgCH4m(-2)d(-1) during the second year of operation to 543±161mgCH4m(-2)d(-1) in the sixth year of operation. Methane emissions were related to the age of the CW and the season of the year, being high in spring and becoming lower from spring to winter. Total CO2 emissions ranged mostly from 3500 to 5800mgCO2m(-2)d(-1) during the sixth year of operation, while nitrous oxide emissions were below the detection limit of the method.

  15. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-09-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly temporal distributions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1°×0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and

  16. Sulfur dioxide and primary carbonaceous aerosol emissions in China and India, 1996-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2011-07-01

    China and India are the two largest anthropogenic aerosol generating countries in the world. In this study, we develop a new inventory of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbonaceous aerosol (i.e., black and organic carbon, BC and OC) emissions from these two countries for the period 1996-2010, using a technology-based methodology. Emissions from major anthropogenic sources and open biomass burning are included, and time-dependent trends in activity rates and emission factors are incorporated in the calculation. Year-specific monthly fractions for major sectors and gridded emissions at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° distributed by multiple year-by-year spatial proxies are also developed. In China, the interaction between economic development and environmental protection causes large temporal variations in the emission trends. From 1996 to 2000, emissions of all three species showed a decreasing trend (by 9 %-17 %) due to a slowdown in economic growth, a decline in coal use in non-power sectors, and the implementation of air pollution control measures. With the economic boom after 2000, emissions from China changed dramatically. BC and OC emissions increased by 46 % and 33 % to 1.85 Tg and 4.03 Tg in 2010. SO2 emissions first increased by 61 % to 34.0 Tg in 2006, and then decreased by 9.2 % to 30.8 Tg in 2010 due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment in power plants. Driven by the remarkable energy consumption growth and relatively lax emission controls, emissions from India increased by 70 %, 41 %, and 35 % to 8.81 Tg, 1.02 Tg, and 2.74 Tg in 2010 for SO2, BC, and OC, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations are used to quantify the emission uncertainties. The average 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of SO2, BC, and OC emissions are estimated to be -16 %-17 %, -43 %-93 %, and -43 %-80 % for China, and -15 %-16 %, -41 %-87 %, and -44 %-92 % for India, respectively. Sulfur content, fuel use, and sulfur retention of hard coal and the actual

  17. Continuous reactions in supercritical carbon dioxide: problems, solutions and possible ways forward.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2012-02-21

    This Tutorial Review focuses on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)), and discusses some of the problems that have frustrated its wide use on an industrial scale. It gives some recent examples where strategies have been developed to reduce the energy requirements, including sequential reactions and gas-expanded liquids. It then describes a number of cases where scCO(2) offers real chemical advantages over more conventional solvents, for example by controlled phase separation, tunable selectivity, oxidation and on-line analysis and self-optimisation. Overall, this review indicates where scCO(2) could deliver value in the future.

  18. Impact of free calcium oxide content of fly ash on dust and sulfur dioxide emissions in a lignite-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrios Sotiropoulos; Andreas Georgakopoulos; Nestoras Kolovos

    2005-07-01

    Emitted pollutants from the Agios Dimitrios lignite-fired power plant in northern Greece show a very strong linear correlation with the free calcium oxide content of the lignite ash. Dust (fly ash) emissions are positively correlated to free calcium oxide content, whereas sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions are negatively correlated. As a result, at present, the Agios Dimitrios Power Plant operates very strictly within the legislative limits on atmospheric particulate emission. In the study reported, the factors to be considered in assessing the impact of lignite combustion on the environment are presented and evaluated statistically. The ash appears to have a remarkable SO{sub 2} natural dry scrubbing capability when the free calcium oxide content ranges between 4 and 7%. Precipitator operating problems attributable to high ash resistivity can be overcome by injecting sulfur trioxide to reduce the ash resistivity, with, of course, a probable increase in operating costs. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Quevedo, Roberto; Fernandes, Paulo; Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Silva, Sónia; Cardoso, Nadir; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Padrón, Eleazar; Padilla, Germán; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio; Alfama, Vera

    2015-04-01

    A new eruption started at Fogo volcanic island on November 23, 2014, an active stratovolcano, located in the SW of the Cape Verde Archipelago; rising over 6 km from the 4000m deep seafloor to the Pico do Fogo summit at 2829m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Since settlement in the 15th century, 27 eruptions have been identified through analysis of incomplete written records (Ribeiro, 1960), with average time intervals of 20 yr and average duration of two months. The eruptions were mostly effusive (Hawaiian to Strombolian), with rare occurrences of highly explosive episodes including phreatomagmatic events (Day et al., 1999). This study reports sulphur dioxide (SO2) emission rate variations observed throughout the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde. More than 100 measurements of SO2 emission rate have been carried out in a daily basis by ITER/INVOLCAN/UNICV/OVCV/SNPC research team since November 28, 2014, five days after the eruption onset, by means of a miniDOAS using the traverse method with a car. The daily deviation obtained of the data is around 15%. Estimated SO2 emission rates ranged from 12,476 ± 981 to 492 ± 27 tons/day during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption until January 1, 2015. During this first five days of measurements, the observed SO2 emission rates were high with an average rate of 11,100 tons/day. On December 3, 2014 the SO2 emission rate dropped to values close to 4,000 tons/day, whereas few days later, on December 10, 2014, an increase to values close to 11,000 tons/day was recorded. Since then, SO2 emission rate has shown decrease trend to values close to 1,300 tons/day until December 21, 2014. The average of the observed SO2 emission rate was about 2,000 tons/day from December 21, 2014 to January 1, 2015, without detecting a specific either increasing or decreasing trend of the SO2 emission rate. The objective of this report is to clarify relations between the SO2 emission rate and surface eruptive activity during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption. Day, S. J

  20. US Carbon Dioxide Motor Vehicle Emissions Resolved Hourly at a County and 36x36 km Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D.; Gurney, K. R.

    2006-12-01

    Of the sources of fossil/industrial carbon dioxide emissions, the motor vehicle sector poses a variety of challenges when attempting to generate spatiotemporal emission estimates. In addition to generating explicit space and time estimates of emissions for the United States, understanding the underlying drivers to emissions is a critical component in supporting research on the US carbon budget and carbon cycling studies. We will present new estimates of carbon dioxide emissions generated by motor vehicles for the Continental United States using two different modeling systems developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). One is the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM) combined with the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) and the other is the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT). Both models utilize the MOBILE model to generate emissions from motor vehicles. We will present emission estimates for the United States, highlighting the diurnal, weekly and seasonal cycles of emissions. We will identify some of the key drivers for the spatial and temporal patterns and intercompare the results from the two different modeling systems. Key drivers include vehicle miles traveled, fuel efficiency, fuel used, and traffic patterns. We will present output validation by comparing these spatiotemporally explicit estimates to sectoral totals from independent estimates such as the Edgar database and national sectoral estimates. These results are part of the "Vulcan" project at Purdue University funded under the North American Carbon Program.

  1. Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and carbon dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO2-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the global agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of global agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO2-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility. PMID:20823225

  2. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  3. [Measurement of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from ruminants based on the NDIR technique].

    PubMed

    Ding, Xue-Zhi; Long, Rui-Jun; Mi, Jian-Dui; Guo, Xu-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Methane (CH4) production in the rumen represents a loss of energy for the host animal; in addition, methane eructated by ruminants may contribute to a greenhouse effect or global warming. The dinumal CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from sheep were continuously recorded using the flow-through chamber method. A type new type of non-disperse infrared (NDIR) gas sensors based on pulse IR source was introduced, and by using the high performance pyroelectric IR sensor with built in interference filter and the "single light and two wavelengths" technology, CH4 and CO2 measurement from ruminants was achieved. Animals were given dry oat hay as the basic diet and supplemented concentrate with the ratio of 7 : 3. The results showed that the recovery was 96.7% and 96.2% for CH4 and CO2, respectively. Methane and carbon dioxide output from sheep respectively averaged 15.6 g per day and 184.7 g per day, equivalent to 6.8 and 71.1 kg per animal. Diurnal fluctuations in hourly rates of CH4 and CO2 production in hourly of methane increased during day light to reach a peak at or near sunset and then declined towards sunrise, and consideration was given to the dry matter intake of the animals used in these studies and its possible effects on CH4 production.

  4. Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Philip K; Herrero, Mario

    2010-11-16

    We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and carbon dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO(2)-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the global agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of global agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO(2)-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility.

  5. Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and a K/T boundary greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

    1990-08-01

    A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. Total eruptive and noneruptive CO2 output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 x 10 to the 16th moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years is estimated based on best estimates of the CO2 weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO2 degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO2 on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO2 due to Deccan Traps CO2 emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1 C over several hundred thousand years. It is concluded that the direct climate effects of CO2 emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

  6. Multiple regression analysis in modelling of carbon dioxide emissions by energy consumption use in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keat, Sim Chong; Chun, Beh Boon; San, Lim Hwee; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat

    2015-04-01

    Climate change due to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is one of the most complex challenges threatening our planet. This issue considered as a great and international concern that primary attributed from different fossil fuels. In this paper, regression model is used for analyzing the causal relationship among CO2 emissions based on the energy consumption in Malaysia using time series data for the period of 1980-2010. The equations were developed using regression model based on the eight major sources that contribute to the CO2 emissions such as non energy, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), diesel, kerosene, refinery gas, Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) and Aviation Gasoline (AV Gas), fuel oil and motor petrol. The related data partly used for predict the regression model (1980-2000) and partly used for validate the regression model (2001-2010). The results of the prediction model with the measured data showed a high correlation coefficient (R2=0.9544), indicating the model's accuracy and efficiency. These results are accurate and can be used in early warning of the population to comply with air quality standards.

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and a K/T boundary greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. Total eruptive and noneruptive CO2 output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 x 10 to the 16th moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years is estimated based on best estimates of the CO2 weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO2 degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO2 on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO2 due to Deccan Traps CO2 emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1 C over several hundred thousand years. It is concluded that the direct climate effects of CO2 emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

  8. Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Chen, Yen-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92% of SO₂ (P < 0.01). In the meantime, more than 90% of hydrogen sulfide was removed during the combustion process using un-desulfurized biogas (P < 0.01). Those disappeared hydrogen sulfide may deposit on the surfaces of power generator's engines or burner heads of boilers. Some of them (4.6-9.1% of H₂S) were converted to SO₂ in exhaust gas. Considering the impacts to human health and living environment, it is better to desulfurize biogas before any applications.

  9. Biochar and earthworm effects on soil nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Augustenborg, Cara A; Hepp, Simone; Kammann, Claudia; Hagan, David; Schmidt, Olaf; Müller, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Biochar is the product of pyrolysis produced from feedstock of biological origin. Due to its aromatic structure and long residence time, biochar may enable long-term carbon sequestration. At the same time, biochar has the potential to improve soil fertility and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. However, the effect of biochar application on GHG fluxes from soil must be investigated before recommendations for field-scale biochar application can be made. A laboratory experiment was designed to measure carbon dioxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from two Irish soils with the addition of two different biochars, along with endogeic (soil-feeding) earthworms and ammonium sulfate, to assist in the overall evaluation of biochar as a GHG-mitigation tool. A significant reduction in NO emissions was observed from both low and high organic matter soils when biochars were applied at rates of 4% (w/w). Earthworms significantly increased NO fluxes in low and high organic matter soils more than 12.6-fold and 7.8-fold, respectively. The large increase in soil NO emissions in the presence of earthworms was significantly reduced by the addition of both biochars. biochar reduced the large earthworm emissions by 91 and 95% in the low organic matter soil and by 56 and 61% in the high organic matter soil (with and without N fertilization), respectively. With peanut hull biochar, the earthworm emissions reduction was 80 and 70% in the low organic matter soil, and only 20 and 10% in the high organic matter soil (with and without N fertilization), respectively. In high organic matter soil, both biochars reduced CO efflux in the absence of earthworms. However, soil CO efflux increased when peanut hull biochar was applied in the presence of earthworms. This study demonstrated that biochar can potentially reduce earthworm-enhanced soil NO and CO emissions. Hence, biochar application combined with endogeic earthworm activity did not reveal unknown risks for GHG emissions

  10. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Bogota - Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. A.; Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Néstor Y. Rojas, N. Y.

    2011-12-01

    As a result of rapid urbanization during the last 60 years, 75% of the Colombian population now lives in cities. Urban areas are net sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute significantly to national GHG emission inventories. The development of scientifically-sound GHG mitigation strategies require accurate GHG source and sink estimations. Disaggregated inventories are effective mitigation decision-making tools. The disaggregation process renders detailed information on the distribution of emissions by transport mode, and the resulting a priori emissions map allows for optimal definition of sites for GHG flux monitoring, either by eddy covariance or inverse modeling techniques. Fossil fuel use in transportation is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bogota. We present estimates of CO2 emissions from road traffic in Bogota using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference method, and a spatial and temporal disaggregation method. Aggregated CO2 emissions from mobile sources were estimated from monthly and annual fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas - CNG) consumption statistics, and estimations of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel use. Although bio-fuel CO2 emissions are considered balanced over annual (or multi-annual) agricultural cycles, we included them since CO2 generated by their combustion would be measurable by a net flux monitoring system. For the disaggregation methodology, we used information on Bogota's road network classification, mean travel speed and trip length for each vehicle category and road type. The CO2 emission factors were taken from recent in-road measurements for gasoline- and CNG-powered vehicles and also estimated from COPERT IV. We estimated emission factors for diesel from surveys on average trip length and fuel consumption. Using IPCC's reference method, we estimate Bogota's total transport-related CO2 emissions for 2008 (reference year) at 4.8 Tg CO2. The disaggregation method estimation is

  11. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity

  12. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  13. Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for

  14. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  15. TRACKING THE EMISSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE BY NATION, SECTOR, AND FUEL TYPE: A TRACE GAS ACCOUNTING SYSTEM (TGAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a new way to estimate an efficient econometric model of global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by nation, sector, and fuel type. Equations for fuel intensity are estimated for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and heat for six sectors: agricultural, indus...

  16. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    PubMed

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  17. A Method for Improving Temporal and Spatial Resolution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Using United States data, a method is developed to estimate the monthly consumption of solid, liquid and gaseous fossil fuels for each state in the union. This technique employs monthly sales data to estimate the relative monthly proportions of the total annual national fossil fuel use. These proportions are then used to estimate the total monthly carbon dioxide emissions for each state. To assess the success of this technique, the results from this method are compared with the data obtained from other independent methods. To determine the temporal success of the method, the resulting national time series is compared to the model produced by Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the current model being developed by T. J. Blasing and C. Broniak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The University of North Dakota (UND) method fits well temporally with the results of the CDIAC and current ORNL research. To determine the success of the spatial component, the individual state results are compared to the annual state totals calculated by ORNL. Using ordinary least squares regression, the annual state totals of this method are plotted against the ORNL data. This allows a direct comparison of estimates in the form of ordered pairs against a one-to-one ideal correspondence line, and allows for easy detection of outliers in the results obtained by this estimation method. Analyzing the residuals of the linear regression model for each type of fuel permits an improved understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of the spatial component of this estimation technique. Spatially, the model is successful when compared to the current ORNL research. The primary advantages of this method are its ease of implementation and universal applicability. In general, this technique compares favorably to more labor-intensive methods that rely on more detailed data. The more detailed data is generally not available for most countries in the world. The methodology used

  18. Inverse transport modeling of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions using large-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Yi; Hoffmann, Lars; Griessbach, Sabine; Rößler, Thomas; Stein, Olaf

    2016-05-01

    An inverse transport modeling approach based on the concepts of sequential importance resampling and parallel computing is presented to reconstruct altitude-resolved time series of volcanic emissions, which often cannot be obtained directly with current measurement techniques. A new inverse modeling and simulation system, which implements the inversion approach with the Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC) is developed to provide reliable transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2). In the inverse modeling system MPTRAC is used to perform two types of simulations, i.e., unit simulations for the reconstruction of volcanic emissions and final forward simulations. Both types of transport simulations are based on wind fields of the ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The reconstruction of altitude-dependent SO2 emission time series is also based on Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) satellite observations. A case study for the eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea, in June 2011, with complex emission patterns, is considered for method validation. Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI) near-real-time imagery data are used to validate the temporal development of the reconstructed emissions. Furthermore, the altitude distributions of the emission time series are compared with top and bottom altitude measurements of aerosol layers obtained by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite instruments. The final forward simulations provide detailed spatial and temporal information on the SO2 distributions of the Nabro eruption. By using the critical success index (CSI), the simulation results are evaluated with the AIRS observations. Compared to the results with an assumption of a constant flux of SO2 emissions, our inversion approach leads to an improvement

  19. Holocene Age Methane and Carbon Dioxide Dominate Northern Alaska Thaw Lake Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, C.; Townsend-Small, A.; Hinkel, K. M.; Xu, X.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes expanding into ice-rich permafrost can rapidly re-introduce large quantities of ancient organic carbon (C) to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2) or the more powerful greenhouse gas methane (CH4). Quantifying the sources of greenhouse gas emissions from arctic lakes will reduce large uncertainties in the magnitude and timing of the C-climate feedback from the Arctic, and thus trajectories of climate change. This work provides the first regional assessment of integrated whole-lake radiocarbon (14C) ages of dissolved CH4 and CO2 as a proxy for C emission sources in northern Alaska. We collected water samples from below ice along two 170 km north-south transects on the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska in April 2012 and 2013. These lakes represent a network monitored by the US-NSF funded project, Circum-Arctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON), http://www.arcticlakes.org/. Dissolved CH4 and CO2 were extracted and analyzed for their 14C content. The presence of winter ice on the surface of lakes obstructs the emission of CH4 and CO2 originating from the perennially thawed sub-lake sediments. The trapped gases are forced to mix, thus measured 14C ages are integrated signatures representing the whole-lake emissions. Dissolved CH4 and CO2 ages do not correlate with latitude, yet seem to be driven by surficial geology. Of nearly 150 14C measurements, below-ice dissolved CH4 is the oldest (around 2145 ± 15 14C YBP) in a lake residing on "peaty, sandy lowland" on the northern ACP near the town of Barrow. Modern CH4 and CO2 dominate emissions from "eolian sandy lowlands" in the interior of the ACP. Across all lakes, dissolved CH4 (avg. 836 14C YBP) is older than dissolved CO2 (avg. 480 14C YBP) by a regional average of ca. 360 14C YBP. Results from this study indicate that decomposing Holocene-age organic material is the primary source of CH4 and CO2 emissions from the Alaskan ACP. This baseline dataset provides the foundation for future regional lake monitoring

  20. Soil carbon dioxide emissions controlled by an extracellular oxidative metabolism identifiable by its isotope signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kéraval, Benoit; Lehours, Anne Catherine; Colombet, Jonathan; Amblard, Christian; Alvarez, Gaël; Fontaine, Sébastien

    2016-11-01

    Soil heterotrophic respiration is a major determinant of the carbon (C) cycle and its interactions with climate. Given the complexity of the respiratory machinery, it is traditionally considered that oxidation of organic C into carbon dioxide (CO2) strictly results from intracellular metabolic processes. Here we show that C mineralization can operate in soils deprived of all observable cellular forms. Moreover, the process responsible for CO2 emissions in sterilized soils induced a strong C isotope fractionation (up to 50 ‰) incompatible with respiration of cellular origin. The supply of 13C glucose in sterilized soil led to the release of 13CO2 suggesting the presence of respiratory-like metabolism (glycolysis, decarboxylation reaction, chain of electron transfer) carried out by soil-stabilized enzymes, and by soil mineral and metal catalysts. These findings indicate that CO2 emissions from soils can have two origins: (1) from the well-known respiration of soil heterotrophic microorganisms and (2) from an extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET) or, at least, catabolism. These two metabolisms should be considered separately when studying effects of environmental factors on the C cycle because the likelihood is that they do not obey the same laws and they respond differently to abiotic factors.

  1. Carbon dioxide emission in relation with irrigation and organic amendments from a sweet corn field.

    PubMed

    Fares, Ali; Bensley, Adam; Bayabil, Haimanote; Awal, Ripendra; Fares, Samira; Valenzuela, Hector; Abbas, Farhat

    2017-03-03

    Soil moisture and organic matter level affects soil respiration and microbial activities, which in turn impact greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation levels (75% [deficit], 100% [full], and 125% [excess] of reference crop evapotranspiration requirements), and organic amendments (OA) type (chicken manure [CM] and bone meal [BM]) and OA application rates (0,168, 336 and 672 kg total N ha(-1)) on (i) soil physical properties (bulk density, organic matter content and soil moisture content) and (ii) soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from a highly weathered tropical Hawai'ian soil. Carbon dioxide readings were consistently taken once or twice a week for the duration of the cropping season. A drip irrigation system was used to apply the appropriate amount of irrigation water to the treatment plots. Treatments were randomly selected and corresponding organic amendments were manually incorporated into the soil. Plots were cultivated with sweet corn (Zea mays 'SS-16'). Soil moisture content within and below the rootzone was monitored using a TDR 300 soil moisture sensor (Spectrum Technologies, Inc., Plainfield, IL, USA) connected with 12 cm long prongs. Soil bulk density and organic matter content were determined at the end of the cropping season. Analysis of variance results revealed that OA type, rate, and their interaction had significant effect on soil CO2 flux (P < 0.05). Among the OA rates, all CM mostly resulted in significantly higher soil CO2 fluxes compared to BM and control treatment (p < 0.05). The two highest rates of BM treatment were not significantly different from the control with regard to soil CO2 flux. In addition, organic amendments affected soil moisture dynamics during the crop growing season and organic matter content measured after the crop harvest. While additional studies are needed to further investigate the effect of irrigation levels on soil CO2 flux, it is recommended that in order to

  2. Analyzing carbon dioxide and methane emissions in California using airborne measurements and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have increased over the past decades and are linked to global temperature increases and climate change. These changes in climate have been suggested to have varying effects, and uncertain consequences, on agriculture, water supply, weather, sea-level rise, the economy, and energy. To counteract the trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs, the state of California has passed the California Global Warming Act of 2006 (AB-32). This requires that by the year 2020, GHG (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) emissions will be reduced to 1990 levels. To quantify GHG fluxes, emission inventories are routinely compiled for the State of California (e.g., CH4 emissions from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) Project). The major sources of CO2 and CH4 in the state of California are: transportation, electricity production, oil and gas extraction, cement plants, agriculture, landfills/waste, livestock, and wetlands. However, uncertainties remain in these emission inventories because many factors contributing to these processes are poorly quantified. To alleviate these uncertainties, a synergistic approach of applying air-borne measurements and chemical transport modeling (CTM) efforts to provide a method of quantifying local and regional GHG emissions will be performed during this study. Additionally, in order to further understand the temporal and spatial distributions of GHG fluxes in California and the impact these species have on regional climate, CTM simulations of daily variations and seasonality of total column CO2 and CH4 will be analyzed. To assess the magnitude and spatial variation of GHG emissions and to identify local 'hot spots', airborne measurements of CH4 and CO2 were made by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in January and February 2013 during the Discover-AQ-CA study. High mixing ratios of GHGs were

  3. In-situ monitoring of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elfed; Clifford, John; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Dooly, Gerard; Zhao, Weizhong; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Ken; Lucas, James; Degner, Martin; Ewald, Hartmut; Lochmann, Steffan; Bramann, Gero; Merlone-Borla, Edoardo; Gili, Flavio

    2011-05-01

    A robust optical fibre based CO2 exhaust gas sensor operating in the mid infrared spectral range is described. It is capable of detecting on board carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from both diesel and petrol engines. The optical fibre sensor is not cross sensitive to other gaseous species in the exhaust such as water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) or oxides of sulphur (SOx).The response of the sensor to carbon dioxide present in the exhaust of Fiat Croma diesel engine are presented.

  4. Current Problems in X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Joseph I.; Williams, David B.; Lyman, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Various problems that limit X-ray analysis in the analytical electron microscope are reviewed. Major emphasis is given to the trade-off between minimum mass fraction and spatial resolution. New developments such as high-brightness electron guns, new X-ray spectrometers and clean high-vacuum analysis conditions will lead to major improvements in the accuracy and detectability limits of X-ray emission spectroscopy.

  5. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gurney, Kevin

    The Vulcan Project is a NASA/DOE funded effort under the North American Carbon Program (NACP) to quantify North American fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at space and time scales much finer than has been achieved in the past. The purpose is to aid in quantification of the North American carbon budget, to support inverse estimation of carbon sources and sinks, and to support the demands posed by higher resolution CO2 observations (in situ and remotely sensed). The detail and scope of the Vulcan CO2 inventory has also made it a valuable tool for policymakers, demographers, social scientists and the public at large. The Vulcan project has achieved the quantification of the 2002 U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the scale of individual factories, powerplants, roadways and neighborhoods on an hourly basis. The entire inventory was built on a common 10 km x 10 km grid to facilitate atmospheric modeling. In addition to improvement in space and time resolution, Vulcan is quantified at the level of fuel type, economic sub-sector, and county/state identification. Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  6. Modeling carbon dioxide emissions reductions for three commercial reference buildings in Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucich, Stephen M.

    In the United States, the buildings sector is responsible for approximately 40% of the national carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. CO2 is created during the generation of heat and electricity, and has been linked to climate change, acid rain, a variety of health threats, surface water depletion, and the destruction of natural habitats. Building energy modeling is a powerful educational tool that building owners, architects, engineers, city planners, and policy makers can use to make informed decisions. The aim of this thesis is to simulate the reduction in CO2 emissions that may be achieved for three commercial buildings located in Salt Lake City, UT. The following two questions were used to guide this process: 1. How much can a building's annual CO2 emissions be reduced through a specific energy efficiency upgrade or policy? 2. How much can a building's annual CO2 emissions be reduced through the addition of a photovoltaic (PV) array? How large should the array be? Building energy simulations were performed with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlus software, commercial reference building models, and TMY3 weather data. The chosen models were a medium office building, a primary school, and a supermarket. Baseline energy consumption data were simulated for each model in order to identify changes that would have a meaningful impact. Modifications to the buildings construction and operation were considered before a PV array was incorporated. These modifications include (1) an improved building envelope, (2) reduced lighting intensity, and (3) modified HVAC temperature set points. The PV array sizing was optimized using a demand matching approach based on the method of least squares. The arrays tilt angle was optimized using the golden section search algorithm. Combined, energy efficiency upgrades and the PV array reduced building CO2 emissions by 58.6, 54.0, and 52.2% for the medium office, primary school, and supermarket, respectively. However, for these models, it was

  7. A mobile sensor network to map carbon dioxide emissions in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joseph K.; Christen, Andreas; Ketler, Rick; Nesic, Zoran

    2017-03-01

    A method for directly measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using a mobile sensor network in cities at fine spatial resolution was developed and tested. First, a compact, mobile system was built using an infrared gas analyzer combined with open-source hardware to control, georeference, and log measurements of CO2 mixing ratios on vehicles (car, bicycles). Second, two measurement campaigns, one in summer and one in winter (heating season) were carried out. Five mobile sensors were deployed within a 1 × 12. 7 km transect across the city of Vancouver, BC, Canada. The sensors were operated for 3.5 h on pre-defined routes to map CO2 mixing ratios at street level, which were then averaged to 100 × 100 m grid cells. The averaged CO2 mixing ratios of all grids in the study area were 417.9 ppm in summer and 442.5 ppm in winter. In both campaigns, mixing ratios were highest in the grid cells of the downtown core and along arterial roads and lowest in parks and well vegetated residential areas. Third, an aerodynamic resistance approach to calculating emissions was used to derive CO2 emissions from the gridded CO2 mixing ratio measurements in conjunction with mixing ratios and fluxes collected from a 28 m tall eddy-covariance tower located within the study area. These measured emissions showed a range of -12 to 226 CO2 ha-1 h-1 in summer and of -14 to 163 kg CO2 ha-1 h-1 in winter, with an average of 35.1 kg CO2 ha-1 h-1 (summer) and 25.9 kg CO2 ha-1 h-1 (winter). Fourth, an independent emissions inventory was developed for the study area using buildings energy simulations from a previous study and routinely available traffic counts. The emissions inventory for the same area averaged to 22.06 kg CO2 ha-1 h-1 (summer) and 28.76 kg CO2 ha-1 h-1 (winter) and was used to compare against the measured emissions from the mobile sensor network. The comparison on a grid-by-grid basis showed linearity between CO2 mixing ratios and the emissions inventory (R2 = 0. 53 in summer and R

  8. Lagrangian transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: Impact of meteorological data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Rößler, T.; Griessbach, S.; Heng, Y.; Stein, O.

    2016-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from strong volcanic eruptions are an important natural cause for climate variations. We applied our new Lagrangian transport model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations to perform simulations for three case studies of volcanic eruption events. The case studies cover the eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile, and Nabro, Eritrea, in May and June 2011. We used SO2 observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS/Aqua) and a backward trajectory approach to initialize the simulations. Besides validation of the new model, the main goal of our study was a comparison of simulations with different meteorological data products. We considered three reanalyses, i.e., ERA-Interim, Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Reanalysis Project as well as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis. Qualitatively, the SO2 distributions from the simulations compare well not only with the AIRS data but also with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding aerosol observations. Transport deviations and the critical success index (CSI) are analyzed to evaluate the simulations quantitatively. During the first 5 or 10 days after the eruptions we found the best performance for the ECMWF analysis (CSI range of 0.25-0.31), followed by ERA-Interim (0.25-0.29), MERRA (0.23-0.27), and NCAR/NCEP (0.21-0.23). High temporal and spatial resolution of the meteorological data does lead to improved performance of Lagrangian transport simulations of volcanic emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  9. Soil carbon dioxide emissions from a rubber plantation on tropical peat.

    PubMed

    Wakhid, Nur; Hirano, Takashi; Okimoto, Yosuke; Nurzakiah, Siti; Nursyamsi, Dedi

    2017-03-01

    Land-use change in tropical peatland potentially results in a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions owing to drainage, which lowers groundwater level (GWL) and consequently enhances oxidative peat decomposition. However, field information on carbon balance is lacking for rubber plantations, which are expanding into Indonesia's peatlands. To assess soil CO2 emissions from an eight-year-old rubber plantation established on peat after compaction, soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly using a closed chamber system from December 2014 to December 2015, in which a strong El Niño event occurred, and consequently GWL lowered deeply. Total soil respiration (SR) and oxidative peat decomposition (PD) were separately quantified by trenching. In addition, peat surface elevation was measured to determine annual subsidence along with GWL. With GWL, SR showed a negative logarithmic relationship (p<0.01), whereas PD showed a strong negative linearity (p<0.001). Using the significant relationships, annual SR and PD were calculated from hourly GWL data to be 3293±1039 and 1408±214gCm(-2)yr(-1) (mean±1 standard deviation), respectively. PD accounted for 43% of SR on an annual basis. SR showed no significant difference between near and far positions from rubber trees (p>0.05). Peat surface elevation varied seasonally in almost parallel with GWL. After correcting for GWL difference, annual total subsidence was determined at 5.64±3.20 and 5.96±0.43cmyr(-1) outside and inside the trenching, respectively. Annual subsidence only through peat oxidation that was calculated from the annual PD, peat bulk density and peat carbon content was 1.50cmyr(-1). As a result, oxidative peat decomposition accounted for 25% of total subsidence (5.96cmyr(-1)) on average on an annual basis. The contribution of peat oxidation was lower than those of previous studies probably because of compaction through land preparation.

  10. Trends and effectiveness of emission control of sulfur dioxide in China: a satellite perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Martin, R. V.; He, K.; Richter, A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Philip, S.; Wang, T.

    2011-12-01

    The combination of two satellite instruments (OMI and SCIAMACHY) provides high quality space-borne measurements for the trend analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO2) column density. An improved product of SO2 retrievals from these two satellites was derived with the consistent local air mass factor (AMF) algorithm which converts the line-of-sight 'slant' columns to vertical columns for the period of 2003-2010. The local AMF was calculated using altitude-dependent scattering weights computed from a radiative transfer model (LIDORT) with state-of-art a priori parameters, weighted by relative vertical SO2 profiles (shape factor) determined locally with a global atmospheric chemical model (GEOS-Chem). The derived vertical columns and modeled vertical SO2 profiles were compared to measurements from aircraft campaigns in China. Trends of the long-term SO2 columns showed discrepancies between different regions in China: SO2 columns increased fast during 2003-2007 and then decreased by ~30% in 2010 in North China Plain; continuous increase of SO2 columns were found in Southwest of China with only a slight decrease in 2008 due to the global economic recession. The trends of SO2 columns were further compared to a unit-based power plant emission inventory to evaluate the effectiveness of power plant SO2 emission reductions related to the wide-spread installations of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices since 2005 in China. The combinations of NO2 and SO2 measurements were used to examine the operation and efficiency of the FGD devices in power plants.

  11. Structural controls on the emission of magmatic carbon dioxide gas, Long Valley Caldera, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucic, Gregor; Stix, John; Wing, Boswell

    2015-04-01

    We present a degassing study of Long Valley Caldera that explores the structural controls upon emissions of magmatic carbon dioxide gas. A total of 223 soil gas samples were collected and analyzed for stable carbon isotopes using a field-portable cavity ring-down spectrometer. This novel technique is flexible, accurate, and provides sampling feedback on a daily basis. Sampling sites included major and minor volcanic centers, regional throughgoing faults, caldera-related structures, zones of elevated seismicity, and zones of past and present hydrothermal activity. The classification of soil gases based on their δ13C and CO2 values reveals a mixing relationship among three end-members: atmospheric, biogenic, and magmatic. Signatures dominated by biogenic contributions (~4 vol %, -24‰) are found on the caldera floor, the interior of the resurgent dome, and areas associated with the Hilton Creek and Hartley Springs fault systems. With the introduction of the magmatic component (~100 vol %, -4.5‰), samples acquire mixing and hydrothermal signatures and are spatially associated with the central caldera and Mammoth Mountain. In particular, they are concentrated along the southern margin of the resurgent dome where the interplay between resurgence-related reverse faulting and a bend in the regional fault system has created a highly permeable fracture network, suitable for the formation of shallow hydrothermal systems. This contrasts with the south moat, where despite elevated seismicity, a thick sedimentary cover has formed an impermeable cap, inhibiting the ascent of fluids and gases to the surface.

  12. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  13. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  14. Global Warming: Predicting OPEC Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Petroleum Consumption Using Neural Network and Hybrid Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Chiroma, Haruna; Abdul-kareem, Sameem; Khan, Abdullah; Nawi, Nazri Mohd.; Gital, Abdulsalam Ya’u; Shuib, Liyana; Abubakar, Adamu I.; Rahman, Muhammad Zubair; Herawan, Tutut

    2015-01-01

    Background Global warming is attracting attention from policy makers due to its impacts such as floods, extreme weather, increases in temperature by 0.7°C, heat waves, storms, etc. These disasters result in loss of human life and billions of dollars in property. Global warming is believed to be caused by the emissions of greenhouse gases due to human activities including the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from petroleum consumption. Limitations of the previous methods of predicting CO2 emissions and lack of work on the prediction of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) CO2 emissions from petroleum consumption have motivated this research. Methods/Findings The OPEC CO2 emissions data were collected from the Energy Information Administration. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) adaptability and performance motivated its choice for this study. To improve effectiveness of the ANN, the cuckoo search algorithm was hybridised with accelerated particle swarm optimisation for training the ANN to build a model for the prediction of OPEC CO2 emissions. The proposed model predicts OPEC CO2 emissions for 3, 6, 9, 12 and 16 years with an improved accuracy and speed over the state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion An accurate prediction of OPEC CO2 emissions can serve as a reference point for propagating the reorganisation of economic development in OPEC member countries with the view of reducing CO2 emissions to Kyoto benchmarks—hence, reducing global warming. The policy implications are discussed in the paper. PMID:26305483

  15. Regional Groundwater Discharge Drives High Carbon Dioxide Emissions from a Lowland Tropical Rainforest Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Dierick, D.; Genereux, D. P.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Osburn, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Field measurements of carbon (C) fluxes are fundamental for understanding global C cycling, and the C source/sink status of ecosystems. In the tropical rainforest at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica, old regional bedrock groundwater (gw) high in dissolved inorganic C discharges into some streams and wetlands with possible impacts on ecosystem C pools and fluxes. We investigated carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) degassing from two streams at La Selva: the Arboleda, where ~1/3 of the streamflow is from regional gw, and the Taconazo, fed exclusively by much younger local gw recharged within the catchment. In two reaches (upper and lower) of the Arboleda and Taconazo streams, emissions were determined from tracer injections. In the lower Arboleda (the only reach receiving regional gw) CO2 fluxes (fCO2) averaged 5.5 mol C per m2 of stream surface per day, ~7.5x higher than the average (0.7 mol C m-2 d-1) from the stream reaches with no regional gw inflow (the Taconazo and upper Arboleda). The regional gw inflow had no measurable effect on CH4 emissions. To further understand the dynamics of enhanced CO2 degassing from the lower Arboleda, we examined spatiotemporal patterns in fCO2 using floating chambers. Both static and drifting chambers revealed high spatial heterogeneity in fCO2 at the scale of 5 to 30 m reaches. Temporal trends were highly localized; in two of three subreaches surveyed repeatedly, fCO2 increased with stream discharge and did not differ between wet and dry seasons, but the third subreach showed the opposite behavior. Results from static and drifting chambers deviated 31% and -36%, respectively, from tracer injection results. CO2 degassing from the Arboleda is a large C flux; when averaged over the watershed area it is similar in magnitude to the net ecosystem exchange measured by eddy covariance. Elevated CO2 emissions from the Arboleda stream are consistent with measurements of higher CO2 concentration in the air above the Arboleda

  16. Experimental studies and physically substantiated model of carbon dioxide emission from the exposed cultural layer of Velikii Novgorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, A. V.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Karelin, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    The results of quantitative assessment and modeling of carbon dioxide emission from urban pedolithosediments (cultural layer) in the central part of Velikii Novgorod are discussed. At the first stages after the exposure of the cultural layer to the surface in archaeological excavations, very high CO2 emission values reaching 10-15 g C/(m2 h) have been determined. These values exceed the normal equilibrium emission from the soil surface by two orders of magnitude. However, they should not be interpreted as indications of the high biological activity of the buried urban sediments. A model based on physical processes shows that the measured emission values can be reliably explained by degassing of the soil water and desorption of gases from the urban sediments. This model suggests the diffusion mechanism of the transfer of carbon dioxide from the cultural layer into the atmosphere; in addition, it includes the equations to describe nonequilibrium interphase interactions (sorption-desorption and dissolution-degassing of CO2) with the first-order kinetics. With the use of statistically reliable data on physical parameters—the effective diffusion coefficient as dependent on the aeration porosity, the effective solubility, the Henry constant for the CO2 sorption, and the kinetic constants of the CO2 desorption and degassing of the soil solution—this model reproduces the experimental data on the dynamics of CO2 emission from the surface of the exposed cultural layer obtained by the static chamber method.

  17. Partitioning carbon dioxide emission and assessing dissolved organic carbon leaching of a drained peatland cultivated with pineapple at Saratok, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim Kim Choo, Liza Nuriati; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna

    2014-01-01

    Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) cultivation on drained peats could affect the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and also the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon dioxide emission needs to be partitioned before deciding on whether cultivated peat is net sink or net source of carbon. Partitioning of CO2 emission into root respiration, microbial respiration, and oxidative peat decomposition was achieved using a lysimeter experiment with three treatments: peat soil cultivated with pineapple, bare peat soil, and bare peat soil fumigated with chloroform. Drainage water leached from cultivated peat and bare peat soil was also analyzed for DOC. On a yearly basis, CO2 emissions were higher under bare peat (218.8 t CO2 ha/yr) than under bare peat treated with chloroform (205 t CO2 ha/yr), and they were the lowest (179.6 t CO2 ha/yr) under cultivated peat. Decreasing CO2 emissions under pineapple were attributed to the positive effects of photosynthesis and soil autotrophic activities. An average 235.7 mg/L loss of DOC under bare peat suggests rapid decline of peat organic carbon through heterotrophic respiration and peat decomposition. Soil CO2 emission depended on moderate temperature fluctuations, but it was not affected by soil moisture.

  18. Emissions of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from dairy cattle housing and manure management systems.

    PubMed

    Leytem, April B; Dungan, Robert S; Bjorneberg, David L; Koehn, Anita C

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations emit trace gases such as ammonia (NH₃), methane (CH₄), carbon dioxide (CO₂), and nitrous oxide (N₂O). The implementation of air quality regulations in livestock-producing states increases the need for accurate on-farm determination of emission rates. The objective of this study was to determine the emission rates of NH₃, CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O from three source areas (open lots, wastewater pond, compost) on a commercial dairy located in southern Idaho. Gas concentrations and wind statistics were measured each month and used with an inverse dispersion model to calculate emission rates. Average emissions per cow per day from the open lots were 0.13 kg NH₃, 0.49 kg CH₄, 28.1 kg CO₂, and 0.01 kg N₂O. Average emissions from the wastewater pond (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 2.0 g NH₃, 103 g CH₄, 637 g CO₂, and 0.49 g N₂O. Average emissions from the compost facility (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 1.6 g NH₃, 13.5 g CH₄, 516 g CO₂, and 0.90 g N₂O. The combined emissions of NH₃, CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O from the lots, wastewater pond and compost averaged 0.15, 1.4, 30.0, and 0.02 kg cow(-1) d(-1), respectively. The open lot areas generated the greatest emissions of NH₃, CO₂, and N₂O, contributing 78, 80, and 57%, respectively, to total farm emissions. Methane emissions were greatest from the lots in the spring (74% of total), after which the wastewater pond became the largest source of emissions (55% of total) for the remainder of the year. Data from this study can be used to develop trace gas emissions factors from open-lot dairies in southern Idaho and potentially other open-lot production systems in similar climatic regions.

  19. Plume Tracker: Interactive mapping of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions with high-performance radiative transfer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Berk, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We describe the development of Plume Tracker, an interactive toolkit for the analysis of multispectral thermal infrared observations of volcanic plumes and clouds. Plume Tracker is the successor to MAP_SO2, and together these flexible and comprehensive tools have enabled investigators to map sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from a number of volcanoes with TIR data from a variety of airborne and satellite instruments. Our objective for the development of Plume Tracker was to improve the computational performance of the retrieval procedures while retaining the accuracy of the retrievals. We have achieved a 300 × improvement in the benchmark performance of the retrieval procedures through the introduction of innovative data binning and signal reconstruction strategies, and improved the accuracy of the retrievals with a new method for evaluating the misfit between model and observed radiance spectra. We evaluated the accuracy of Plume Tracker retrievals with case studies based on MODIS and AIRS data acquired over Sarychev Peak Volcano, and ASTER data acquired over Kilauea and Turrialba Volcanoes. In the Sarychev Peak study, the AIRS-based estimate of total SO2 mass was 40% lower than the MODIS-based estimate. This result was consistent with a 45% reduction in the AIRS-based estimate of plume area relative to the corresponding MODIS-based estimate. In addition, we found that our AIRS-based estimate agreed with an independent estimate, based on a competing retrieval technique, within a margin of ± 20%. In the Kilauea study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates from 21 May 2012 were within ± 50% of concurrent ground-level concentration measurements. In the Turrialba study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates on 21 January 2012 were in exact agreement with SO2 concentrations measured at plume altitude on 1 February 2012.

  20. The potential for control of carbon dioxide emissions from integrated gasification/combined-cycle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.

    1994-06-01

    Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation, a process that reduces CO{sub 2} production through efficient fuel used is amenable to CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents a comparison of energy systems that encompass fuel supply, an IGCC system, CO{sub 2} recovery using commercial technologies, CO{sub 2} transport by pipeline, and land-based sequestering in geological reservoirs. The intent is to evaluate the energy-efficiency impacts of controlling CO{sub 2} in such systems and to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an to equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. The value used for the ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget is 1 kg/kWh CO{sub 2}. The base case for the comparison is a 457-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, preparation, and transportation of the coal and limestone result in a net system electric power production of 454 MW with a 0.835 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate. For comparison, the gasifier output is taken through a water-gas shift to convert CO to CO{sub 2} and then processed in a glycol-based absorber unit to recover CO{sub 2} Prior to the combustion turbine. A 500-km pipeline then transports the CO{sub 2} for geological sequestering. The net electric power production for the system with CO{sub 2} recovery is 381 MW with a 0.156 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate.

  1. Women's status and carbon dioxide emissions: A quantitative cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Ergas, Christina; York, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Global climate change is one of the most severe problems facing societies around the world. Very few assessments of the social forces that influence greenhouse gas emissions have examined gender inequality. Empirical research suggests that women are more likely than men to support environmental protection. Various strands of feminist theory suggest that this is due to women's traditional roles as caregivers, subsistence food producers, water and fuelwood collectors, and reproducers of human life. Other theorists argue that women's status and environmental protection are linked because the exploitation of women and the exploitation of nature are interconnected processes. For these theoretical and empirical reasons, we hypothesize that in societies with greater gender equality there will be relatively lower impacts on the environment, controlling for other factors. We test this hypothesis using quantitative analysis of cross-national data, focusing on the connection between women's political status and CO(2) emissions per capita. We find that CO(2) emissions per capita are lower in nations where women have higher political status, controlling for GDP per capita, urbanization, industrialization, militarization, world-system position, foreign direct investment, the age dependency ratio, and level of democracy. This finding suggests that efforts to improve gender equality around the world may work synergistically with efforts to curtail global climate change and environmental degradation more generally.

  2. Does Historical Urban Density Explain the Variation in Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions Across U.S. Cities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    The shape a city takes can have long-term impacts. The built environment is durable, and urban infrastructure is costly to alter post-construction, so decisions made early in a city's history have a lasting effect. Cities are some of the biggest aggregate sources of CO2 emissions but are also the areas with the lowest per capita emissions. Even though per capita emissions in urban areas are less than their rural counterparts, the variation in emissions across cities is drastic and understanding this variation can improve the way we build and plan cities. Research has been conducted on how density correlates with per capita emissions, but little has been done on how historical growth has influenced emissions. Using historical census data and the Vulcan Project's fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product, I investigate in greater detail whether historical population density in U.S. cities has had a significant impact on future CO2 emissions in the urban area and in the surrounding region. The census data includes all places that have reported a population of over 100,000 people in any decennial census between 1790 and 2000 and the land area the year that the city first crosses that 100,000-population threshold. This data is used to create the historical density measure. The Vulcan CO2 emissions data is broken down by sector. For this project I use the residential, commercial, and transportation (on road and non-road) emissions sectors on a 10x10km grid in 2002. I also control for regional variation in heating and cooling days, current urban density, average house age, median income, and variation in residential heating (gas, electric, fuel oil, and coal) as these are all known correlates of carbon dioxide emissions. Understanding if historical density better explains the variation in per capita carbon dioxide emissions across cities will help urban planners and city governments decide if it is appropriate to regulate growth during the initial boom of a city, a

  3. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    DOE PAGES

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; ...

    2014-09-12

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4more » emissions was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.« less

  4. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north-south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Anthony, K. M. Walter; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

    2014-09-01

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4 emissions was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.

  5. Application of the denitrification-decomposition model to predict carbon dioxide emissions under alternative straw retention methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Can; Chen, Deli; Pan, Jianjun; Lam, Shu Kee

    2013-01-01

    Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45 t C ha(-1) y(-1) and 2.13 t C ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT), daily mean temperature (T mean), and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were significant.

  6. Emission of methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and short‐chain hydrocarbons from vegetation foliage under ultraviolet irradiation

    PubMed Central

    FRASER, WESLEY T.; BLEI, EMANUEL; FRY, STEPHEN C.; NEWMAN, MARK F.; REAY, DAVID S.; SMITH, KEITH A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The original report that plants emit methane (CH 4) under aerobic conditions caused much debate and controversy. Critics questioned experimental techniques, possible mechanisms for CH 4 production and the nature of estimating global emissions. Several studies have now confirmed that aerobic CH 4 emissions can be detected from plant foliage but the extent of the phenomenon in plants and the precise mechanisms and precursors involved remain uncertain. In this study, we investigated the role of environmentally realistic levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in causing the emission of CH 4 and other gases from foliage obtained from a wide variety of plant types. We related our measured emissions to the foliar content of methyl esters and lignin and to the epidermal UV absorbance of the species investigated. Our data demonstrate that the terrestrial vegetation foliage sampled did emit CH 4, with a range in emissions of 0.6–31.8 ng CH 4 g−1 leaf DW h−1, which compares favourably with the original reports of experimental work. In addition to CH 4 emissions, our data show that carbon monoxide, ethene and propane are also emitted under UV stress but we detected no significant emissions of carbon dioxide or ethane. PMID:25443986

  7. Time scales and ratios of climate forcing due to thermal versus carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-06-01

    The Earth warms both when fossil fuel carbon is oxidized to carbon dioxide and when greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide inhibits longwave radiation from escaping to space. Various important time scales and ratios comparing these two climate forcings have not previously been quantified. For example, the global and time-integrated radiative forcing from burning a fossil fuel exceeds the heat released upon combustion within 2 months. Over the long lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere, the cumulative CO2-radiative forcing exceeds the amount of energy released upon combustion by a factor >100,000. For a new power plant, the radiative forcing from the accumulation of released CO2 exceeds the direct thermal emissions in less than half a year. Furthermore, we show that the energy released from the combustion of fossil fuels is now about 1.71% of the radiative forcing from CO2 that has accumulated in the atmosphere as a consequence of historical fossil fuel combustion.

  8. The impact of the 2005 Gulf hurricanes on pollution emissions as inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yasuko; Duncan, Bryan N.; Retscher, Christian; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Celarier, Edward A.; Joiner, Joanna; Boersma, K. Folkert; Veefkind, J. Pepijn

    2010-04-01

    The impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on pollution emissions in the Gulf of Mexico region was investigated using tropospheric column amounts of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the NASA Aura satellite. Around New Orleans and coastal Mississippi, we estimate that Katrina caused a 35% reduction in NO x emissions on average in the three weeks after landfall. Hurricane Rita caused a significant reduction (20%) in NO x emissions associated with power generation and intensive oil refining activities near the Texas/Louisiana border. We also found a 43% decrease by these two storms over the eastern Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf mainly due to the evacuation of and damage to platforms, rigs, and ports associated with oil and natural gas production.

  9. The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Background This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ecological limitations of the often used IPAT (impact = population × affluence × technology) approach. Results Results suggest the weak existence of an environmental Kuznets curve, in which the wealthiest cities are reducing their emissions through increased efficiency. Significant institutional impacts are also found to hold in the predicted directions. Specifically, panel and cross-sectional regressions indicate that membership in the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and non-profit organizational presence have negative effects on industrial carbon dioxide emissions. Conclusion The presence of institutional drivers at the city level provides empirical support for the POETICs rubric, which recasts the ecological framing of the IPAT identity in a more sociological mold. The results also indicate that Japanese civil society has a role to play in carbon mitigation. More refined studies need to take into consideration an expanded set of methods, drivers, and carbon budgets, as applied to a broader range of cases outside of Japan, to more accurately assess how civil society can bridge the issue of scale that separates local level policy concerns from global level climate dynamics. PMID:17005049

  10. Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, M.L.; Evans, William C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Farrar, C.D.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Hausback, B.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source (??13C = -4.5 to -5???, 3He/4He = 4.5 to 6.7 RA) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO2 discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m-2 d-1 at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO2 discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO2 flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30-50 t/d of CO2 are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO2 and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N2/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values

  11. Low contribution of internal metabolism to carbon dioxide emissions along lotic and lentic environments of a Mediterranean fluvial network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gener, Lluís.; Schiller, Daniel; Marcé, Rafael; Arroita, Maite; Casas-Ruiz, Joan Pere; Staehr, Peter Anton; Acuña, Vicenç; Sabater, Sergi; Obrador, Biel

    2016-12-01

    Inland waters are significant sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. CO2 supersaturation and subsequent CO2 emissions from inland waters can be driven by internal metabolism, external inputs of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) derived from the catchment, and other processes (e.g., internal geochemical reactions of calcite precipitation or photochemical mineralization of organic solutes). However, the sensitivity of the magnitude and sources of CO2 emissions to fluvial network hydromorphological alterations is still poorly understood. Here we investigated both the magnitude and sources of CO2 emissions from lotic (i.e., running waters) and lentic (i.e., stagnant waters associated to small dams) waterbodies of a Mediterranean fluvial network by computing segment-scale mass balances of CO2. Our results showed that sources other than internal metabolism sustained most (82%) of the CO2 emissions from the studied fluvial network. The magnitude and sources of CO2 emissions in lotic waterbodies were highly dependent on hydrology, with higher emissions dominated by DIC inputs derived from the catchment during high flows and lower emissions partially fueled by CO2 produced biologically within the river during low flows. In contrast, CO2 emissions in lentic waterbodies were low, relatively stable over the time and the space, and dominated by DIC inputs from the catchment regardless of the different hydrological situations. Overall, our results stress the sensitivity of fluvial networks to human activities and climate change and particularly highlight the role of hydromorphological conditions on modulating the magnitude and sources of CO2 emissions from fluvial networks.

  12. A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment - Eliminating CO2 Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2013-11-05

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the potential of a new process technology to reduce the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission from the production of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) pigment. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most commonly used minerals in the chemical manufacturing industry. It has been commercially processed as a pigment since the early 1900's, and has a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications. TiO{sub 2} pigment is currently produced primarily by the use of the so called chloride process. A key step of the chloride process relies on high temperature carbo-chlorination of TiO{sub 2} bearing raw materials, hence producing large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The new method uses a chemical/metallurgical sequential extraction methodology to produce pigment grade TiO{sub 2} from high-TiO{sub 2} slag. The specific project objectives were to 1) study and prove the scientific validity of the concept, 2) understand the primary chemical reactions and the efficiency of sequential extraction schemes, 3) determine the properties of TiO{sub 2} produced using the technology, and 4) model the energy consumptions and environmental benefits of the technology. These objectives were successfully met and a new process for producing commercial quality TiO{sub 2} pigment was developed and experimentally validated. The process features a unique combination of established metallurgical processes, including alkaline roasting of titania slag followed by leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination. The caustic, acidic, and organic streams in the process will also be regenerated and reused in the process, greatly reducing environmental waste. The purpose and effect of each of these steps in producing purified TiO{sub 2} is detailed in the report. The levels of impurities in our pigment meet the requirements for commercial pigment, and are nearly equivalent to those of two commercial pigments. Solvent extraction with an amine extractant proved to

  13. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north-south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Anthony, K. M. Walter; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

    2015-06-01

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to lakes' physicochemical properties and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included direct ebullition, diffusion, storage flux, and a newly identified ice-bubble storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4 emissions was 2 times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. IBS, ~10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, mixotrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. The relationship between CO2 emissions and geographic parameters was weak, suggesting high variability among sources and sinks that regulate CO2 emissions (e.g., catchment waters, pH equilibrium). Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth, and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing

  14. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    DOE PAGES

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; ...

    2015-06-02

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to lakes' physicochemical properties and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included direct ebullition, diffusion, storage flux, and a newly identified ice-bubble storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lakemore » CH4 emissions was 2 times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. IBS, ~10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, mixotrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. The relationship between CO2 emissions and geographic parameters was weak, suggesting high variability among sources and sinks that regulate CO2 emissions (e.g., catchment waters, pH equilibrium). Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth, and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from

  15. Diurnal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide emission profiles of confined swine grower/finisher rooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan; Predicala, Bernardo; Laguë, Claude

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain diurnal variation profiles of odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rate (OGCER) from confined swine grower/ finisher rooms under three typical weather conditions (warm, mild, and cold weather) in a year. Two grower/ finisher rooms, one with a fully slatted floor and the other with partially slatted floors, were measured for 2 consecutive days under each weather condition. The results revealed that the diurnal OGCER in the room with a fully slatted floor was 9.2-39.4% higher than that with a partially slatted floor; however, no significant differences in the diurnal OGCER were found between these two rooms, except for the NH3 concentrations in August, the NH3 and H2S concentrations and emissions in October, and odor concentrations and emissions in February (p > 0.05). The OGCER variations presented different diurnal patterns as affected by time of day, season, type of floor, ventilation rate, animal growth cycles, in-house manure storage, and weather conditions. Significant diurnal fluctuations in the OGCER (except for the odor concentrations and H2S emissions) were observed in August (p < 0.05); all of the gas emissions in October and the CO2 concentrations and emissions in February also showed significant diurnal variations (p < 0.05). These significant diurnal variations indicated that the OGCER during different periods of a day should be monitored when quantifying OGCER concentrations and emissions; for example, source emission data used in air dispersion modeling to decrease the great incertitude of setback determination using randomly measured data.

  16. Method for reporting in-use vehicle fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from a fast-pass transient inspection.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Steve

    2004-05-01

    A method has been developed that allows reporting of the fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for in-use vehicles from a fast-pass transient (IM240) inspection. The major technical obstacle to reporting CO2 emission rate and fuel consumption is that inspection and maintenance tests do not all use a standardized test duration or test method. The method is able to project full-duration fuel consumption from IM240 tests that actually fast-passed as early as just 30 sec from starting the test. It is based on basic considerations of the work done in driving the inspection cycle, with additional empirical adjustments. The initial application examined the differences between passing and failing inspections, and this did confirm that there are significant differences.

  17. Carbon dioxide emissions from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauhiainen, J.; Hooijer, A.; Page, S. E.

    2011-08-01

    Peat surface CO2 emission, groundwater table depth and peat temperature were monitored for two years along transects in an Acacia plantation on thick tropical peat (>4 m) in Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 2300 emission measurements were taken at 144 locations. The autotrophic root respiration component of the CO2 emission was separated from heterotrophic emissions caused by peat oxidation in three ways: (i) by comparing CO2 emissions within and beyond the tree rooting zone, (ii) by comparing CO2 emissions with and without peat trenching (i.e. cutting any roots remaining in the peat beyond the tree rooting zone), and (iii) by comparing CO2 emissions before and after Acacia tree harvesting. On average, the contribution of root respiration to daytime CO2 emission is 21 % along transects in mature tree stands. At locations 0.5 m from trees this is up to 80 % of the total emissions, but it is negligible at locations more than 1.3 m away. This means that CO2 emission measurements well away from trees are free of any root respiration contribution and thus represent only peat oxidation emission. We find daytime mean annual CO2 emission from peat oxidation alone of 94 t ha-1 yr-1 at a mean water table depth of 0.8 m, and a minimum emission value of 80 t ha-1 yr-1 after correction for the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations, which resulted in a 14.5 % reduction of the daytime emission. There is a positive correlation between mean long-term water table depths and peat oxidation CO2 emission. However, no such relation is found for instantaneous emission/water table depth within transects and it is clear that factors other than water table depth also affect peat oxidation and total CO2 emissions. The increase in the temperature of the surface peat due to plantation development may explain over 50 % of peat oxidation emissions.

  18. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide emissions from explosive volcanism: the 1982-1983 eruptions of Galunggung, Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bluth, G.J.S.; Casadevall, T.J.; Schnetzler, C.C.; Doiron, S.D.; Walter, Louis S.; Krueger, A.J.; Badruddin, M.

    1994-01-01

    Galunggung volcano, Java, awoke from a 63-year quiescence in April 1982, and erupted sporadically through January 1983. During its most violent period from April to October, the Cikasasah Volcano Observatory reported 32 large and 56 moderate to small eruptions. From April 5 through September 19 the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), carried on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite, detected and measured 24 different sulfur dioxide clouds; an estimated 1730 kilotons (kt) of SO2 were outgassed by these explosive eruptions. The trajectories, and rapid dispersion rates, of the SO2 clouds were consistent with injection altitudes below the tropopause. An additional 300 kt of SO2 were estimated to have come from 64 smaller explosive eruptions, based on the detection limit of the TOMS instrument. For the first time, an extended period of volcanic activity was monitored by remote sensing techniques which enabled observations of both the entire SO2 clouds produced by large explosive eruptions (using TOMS), and the relatively lower levels of SO2 emissions during non-explosive outgassing (using the Correlation Spectrometer, or COSPEC). Based on COSPEC measurements from August 1982 to January 1983, and on the relationship between explosive and non-explosive degassing, approximately 400 kt of SO2 were emitted during non-explosive activity. The total sulfur dioxide outgassed from Galunggung volcano from April 1982 to January 1983 is calculated to be 2500 kt (?? 30%) from both explosive and non-explosive activity. While Galunggung added large quantities of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere, its sporadic emissions occurred in relatively small events distributed over several months, and reached relatively low altitudes, and are unlikely to have significantly affected aerosol loading of the stratosphere in 1982 by volcanic activity. ?? 1994.

  19. Carbon dioxide emissions from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauhiainen, J.; Hooijer, A.; Page, S. E.

    2012-02-01

    Peat surface CO2 emission, groundwater table depth and peat temperature were monitored for two years along transects in an Acacia plantation on thick tropical peat (>4 m) in Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 2300 emission measurements were taken at 144 locations, over a 2 year period. The autotrophic root respiration component of CO2 emission was separated from heterotrophic emission caused by peat oxidation in three ways: (i) by comparing CO2 emissions within and beyond the tree rooting zone, (ii) by comparing CO2 emissions with and without peat trenching (i.e. cutting any roots remaining in the peat beyond the tree rooting zone), and (iii) by comparing CO2 emissions before and after Acacia tree harvesting. On average, the contribution of autotrophic respiration to daytime CO2 emission was 21% along transects in mature tree stands. At locations 0.5 m from trees this was up to 80% of the total emissions, but it was negligible at locations more than 1.3 m away. This means that CO2 emission measurements well away from trees were free of any autotrophic respiration contribution and thus represent only heterotrophic emissions. We found daytime mean annual CO2 emission from peat oxidation alone of 94 t ha-1 y-1 at a mean water table depth of 0.8 m, and a minimum emission value of 80 t ha-1 y-1 after correction for the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations, which may result in a 14.5% reduction of the daytime emission. There is a positive correlation between mean long-term water table depth and peat oxidation CO2 emission. However, no such relation is found for instantaneous emission/water table depth within transects and it is clear that factors other than water table depth also affect peat oxidation and total CO2 emissions. The increase in the temperature of the surface peat due to plantation establishment may explain over 50% of peat oxidation emissions. Our study sets a standard for greenhouse gas flux studies from tropical peatlands under different forms of

  20. Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Change in Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in the United States: An Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheutlin, Alexander R.; Adar, Sara D.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that increasing levels of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), may influence weight gain and thus may play a role in rising trends in obesity and diabetes. We conducted an ecological study to examine the associations between CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and changes in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States. County-level data on CO2 emissions, prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes, other sociodemographic factors and neighborhood characteristics related to urbanicity, and fine particles (PM2.5) between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vulcan Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Community Survey. Linear mixed effect modeling of 3019 counties for the associations between average CO2 emissions and changes in diabetes and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2008 was performed. The average obesity and diabetes prevalence increased between 2004 and 2008 by 3.65% (SD: 1.88%) and 1.65% (SD: 1.70%), respectively. A marginally significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in obesity prevalence was found with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, indicators of urbanicity and spatial autocorrelation (p-trend=0.06). The association became weaker and nonsignificant with further adjustment for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.17). There was a significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence before controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.05) but the association became null after controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.49), suggesting PM2.5 is a critical confounder in the association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence. This study does not support the hypothesis that CO2 emissions, a leading driver of climate change, may be linked to increasing trends in obesity and diabetes, though there was an indication of possible link between CO2 and obesity. PMID:25108606

  1. Carbon dioxide emissions and change in prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Zheutlin, Alexander R; Adar, Sara D; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that increasing levels of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), may influence weight gain and thus may play a role in rising trends in obesity and diabetes. We conducted an ecological study to examine the associations between CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and changes in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States. County-level data on CO2 emissions, prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes, other sociodemographic factors and neighborhood characteristics related to urbanicity, and fine particles (PM2.5) between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vulcan Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Community Survey. Linear mixed effect modeling of 3019 counties for the associations between average CO2 emissions and changes in diabetes and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2008 was performed. The average obesity and diabetes prevalence increased between 2004 and 2008 by 3.65% (SD: 1.88%) and 1.65% (SD: 1.70%), respectively. A marginally significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in obesity prevalence was found with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, indicators of urbanicity and spatial autocorrelation (p-trend=0.06). The association became weaker and nonsignificant with further adjustment for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.17). There was a significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence before controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.05) but the association became null after controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.49), suggesting that PM2.5 is a critical confounder in the association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence. This study does not support the hypothesis that CO2 emissions, a leading driver of climate change, may be linked to increasing trends in obesity and diabetes, though there was an indication of possible link between CO2 and obesity.

  2. Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission factor from urea during rice cropping season: A case study in Korean paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gil Won; Jeong, Seung Tak; Kim, Gun Yeob; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-08-01

    Fertilization with urea can lead to a loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) that was fixed during the industrial production process. The extent of atmospheric CO2 removal from urea manufacturing was estimated by the Industrial Processes and Product Use sector (IPPU sector). On its basis, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has proposed a value of 0.2 Mg C per Mg urea (available in 2006 revised IPCC guidelines for greenhouse gas inventories), which is the mass fractions of C in urea, as the CO2 emission coefficient from urea for the agricultural sector. Notably, due to the possibility of bicarbonate leaching to waters, all C in urea might not get released as CO2 to the atmosphere. Hence, in order to provide an accurate value of the CO2 emission coefficient from applied urea in the rice ecosystem, the CO2 emission factors were characterized under different levels of 13C-urea applied paddy field in the current study. The total CO2 fluxes and rice grain yields increased significantly with increasing urea application (110-130 kg N ha-1) and thereafter, decreased. However, with increasing 13C-urea application, a significant and proportional increase of the 13CO2sbnd C emissions from 13C-urea was also observed. From the relationships between urea application levels and 13CO2sbnd C fluxes from 13C-urea, the CO2sbnd C emission factor from urea was estimated to range between 0.0143 and 0.0156 Mg C per Mg urea. Thus, the CO2sbnd C emission factor of this study is less than that of the value proposed by IPCC. Therefore, for the first time, we propose to revise the current IPCC guideline value of CO2sbnd C emission factor from urea as 0.0143-0.0156 Mg C per Mg urea for Korean paddy soils.

  3. Effects of manure and cultivation on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions from a corn field under Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Heller, Hadar; Bar-Tal, Asher; Tamir, Guy; Bloom, Paul; Venterea, Rodney T; Chen, Dong; Zhang, Yi; Clapp, C Edward; Fine, Pinchas

    2010-01-01

    The use of organic residues as soil additives is increasing, but, depending on their composition and application methods, these organic amendments can stimulate the emissions of CO(2) and N(2)O. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of management practices in irrigated sweet corn (Zea mays L.) on CO(2) and N(2)O emissions and to relate emissions to environmental factors. In a 3-yr study, corn residues (CR) and pasteurized chicken manure (PCM) were used as soil amendments compared with no residue (NR) under three management practices: shallow tillage (ST) and no tillage (NT) under consecutive corn crops and ST without crop. Tillage significantly increased (P < 0.05) CO(2) and N(2)O fluxes in residue-amended plots and in NR plots. Carbon dioxide and N(2)O fluxes were correlated with soil NH(4) concentrations and with days since tillage and days since seeding. Fluxes of CO(2) were correlated with soil water content, whereas N(2)O fluxes had higher correlation with air temperature. Annual CO(2) emissions were higher with PCM than with CR and NR (9.7, 2.9, and 2.3 Mg C ha(-1), respectively). Fluxes of N(2)O were 34.4, 0.94, and 0.77 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) with PCM, CR, and NR, respectively. Annual amounts of CO(2)-C and N(2)O-N emissions from the PCM treatments were 64 and 3% of the applied C and N, respectively. Regardless of cultivation practices, elevated N(2)O emissions were recorded in the PCM treatment. These emissions could negate some of the beneficial effects of PCM on soil properties.

  4. Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.; Evans, W.C. Kennedy, B.M. Farrar, C.D. Hainsworth, L.J. Hausback, B.

    1998-07-01

    Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source ({delta}thinsp{sup 13}C={minus}4.5 to {minus}5{per_thousand}, {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He=4.5 to 6.7 R{sub A}) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO{sub 2} discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills arc associated with CO{sub 2} concentrations of 30{endash}90{percent} in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 gthinspm{sup {minus}2}thinspd{sup {minus}1} at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO{sub 2} discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO{sub 2} flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30{endash}50 t/d of CO{sub 2} are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with

  5. The Wood-Growth-and-Burial Process (WGBP) Permanent Wood Sequestration to Solve the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, F.; Hasse, U.

    2008-12-01

    Among all global environmental problems there is one which dominates over all others: this is the excessive release of carbon dioxide due to burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas. The only way to achieve a permanent removal of anthropogenic CO2 must make use of photosynthesis since, so-far, no other technology is able to bind the necessary huge amounts of carbon. Therefore, we propose to grow wood on any available areas, and to bury the wood under anaerobic conditions, e.g., in emptied open pits of coal mining, any other available pits, and possibly also in emptied underground mines. At these places the wood will keep for practically unlimited times, undergoing only very slow carbonization reactions. Simple calculations allow concluding that humans could already now scavenge even all the released CO2, but a more realistic goal may be to bind 20, 30, or 60 percent. This is more a political question than a scientific one. General features of the WGBP are: The growth of woods will transform deforested areas and fallow land to some kind of natural vegetation with the accompanying positive side effects of restoring biotopes, improving the water balance and thus also improving the climate. The growth of woods will produce enormous amounts of oxygen and thus it will add to a sound oxygen balance. It will improve the air quality because of the filtering effect of woods. The growth of woods will improve the soil quality because leaves and roots will stay on and in the ground when the wood is harvested. The WGBP will create jobs in areas where there is an urgent demand for these. The WGBP will offer the opportunity to re-cultivate open pit mining areas. The WGBP will offer the possibility to fill underground mines in a way to prevent earth quakes caused by collapsing mine shafts. The WGBP will enable mankind to survive the time span ahead of us in which mankind will still use fossil fuels. The WGBP can be easily financed by societies via very small additional taxes

  6. Relationship between carbon dioxide/methane emissions and the water quality/sediment characteristics of Taiwan's main rivers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chun; Wei, Chia-Bei; Yang, Shang-Shyng; Chang, Tsu-Hua; Pan, Han-Wei; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2007-03-01

    River and sediment have unique carbon dynamics and are important sources of the dominant greenhouse gases (GHG), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). To understand the relationship between CO2/CH4 emissions and water quality/sediment characteristics, we have investigated critical parameters in the river water. Eight parameters of water quality (dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential [ORP], chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5], suspended solid, nitrate [NO3-], NH4+, and bacteria) and four sediment characteristics (total organic carbon [TOC], total nitrogen [T-N], NO3-, and ammonium [NH4+]) were measured in two of the larger rivers in Taiwan, and relevant environmental conditions were recorded. The experimental results indicated that CO2 emissions from the river were mainly affected by BOD5 concentrations and the levels of bacteria. CH4 emissions, on the other hand, were greatly affected by the ORP in the river. The correlation between CO2 emissions and sediment characteristics was insignificant (R2 < 0.3). However, TOC and T-N in the sediment may lead to increases in CH4 emissions into the atmosphere. A deeper analysis of the relationship between the different parameters and GHG emissions by ANOVA and the multiple regression method revealed that CO2 emission (y) was significantly related to bacteria number (x1) and BOD concentration (X2). The regression equation takes the form y = 0.00032x1 + 3.18089x2 + 25.37304. Also, the regression relationship between CH4 emission (y) and ORP (x) in the river can be described as y = -0.825216x + 169.02257. The relationship between CH4 emission and sediment characteristics may be described as y = 5.073962x1(TOC) + 2.871245x2(T-N) - 12.3262. Extra sampling data were collected to examine the feasibility of the developed multiple regression equations. The experimental results suggest that the emissions of such GHGs as CO2 and CH4 from rivers can be predicted using the regression equations developed

  7. Seasonal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide concentrations and emissions from swine grower-finisher rooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan

    2010-04-01

    Seasonal odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], and carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rates (OGCERs) from swine facilities are vital for providing accurate source emissions and reducing the uncertainty of setback distances on the basis of emission data. In this study, a repeated measurement experimental method and a split-block statistical model were used to obtain seasonal OGCER profiles from two types of swine grower-finisher rooms in Saskatchewan, Canada, over a 12-month period. The results indicate that the OGCERs were significantly affected by the sampling month and ambient temperature (P < 0.05), which indicates that monthly OGCERs should be measured and used as representative monthly or seasonal values in air dispersion models to reduce uncertainties in setback calculations. It was also found that the seasonal OGCERs from the rooms with fully slatted floors were 6.3-40.6% higher than those with partially slatted floors. The seasonal OGCERs (except for the NH3 concentrations in October, November, and January; the CO2 concentrations in August; and the CO2 emission rates in December) between these two rooms for each measuring month did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). The measured gas concentrations were generally below the permissible exposure limits (PELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) throughout the year except for the NH3 concentrations in cold weather (December, January, and February).

  8. Developed and developing world contributions to climate system change based on carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Yan, Qing; Chou, Jieming; Yang, Zhiyong; Tian, Di

    2016-05-01

    One of the key issues in international climate negotiations is the formulation of targets for emissions reduction for all countries based on the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities". This formulation depends primarily on the quantitative attribution of the responsibilities of developed and developing countries for historical climate change. Using the Commuity Earth System Model (CESM), we estimate the responsibilities of developed countries and developing countries for climatic change from 1850 to 2005 using their carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide emissions. The results indicate that developed countries contribute approximately 53%-61%, and developing countries approximately 39%-47%, to the increase in global air temperature, upper oceanic warming, sea-ice reduction in the NH, and permafrost degradation. In addition, the spatial heterogeneity of these changes from 1850 to 2005 is primarily attributed to the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in developed countries. Although uncertainties remain in the climate model and the external forcings used, GHG emissions in developed countries are the major contributor to the observed climate system changes in the 20th century.

  9. Emission of methane and carbon dioxide and earthworm survival during composting of pharmaceutical sludge and spent mycelia.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Deepanjan; Patel, Jigisha; Bhatt, Neha; Desai, Priyanka

    2006-03-01

    Emissions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from spent mycelia of the mold Penicilium notatum and sludge from the effluent treatment facility (ETPS) of a pharmaceutical industry were estimated twice during a two-week composting before vermicomposting. These wastes are dumped in landfills or sometimes used in agricultural fields and no reports are available on their greenhouse gas producing potentials. The solid wastes contained appreciable organic carbon and nitrogen while very high Fe, Mn and Zn were found in ETPS only. Pure wastes did not support germination of Vigna radiata L. while mixing soil with ETPS and spent mycelia at the ratios of 12:1 and 14:1 led to 80% and 50% germination, respectively. The wastes were mixed with cowdung at the ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1 for composting. Carbon dioxide emissions were always significantly higher than CH4 emissions from all the treatments due to prevalence of aerobic condition during composting. From some treatments, CH4 emissions increased with time, indicating increasing activity of anaerobic bacteria in the waste mixtures. Methane emissions ranged from 21.6 to 231.7 microg m(-2) day(-1) while CO2 emissions were greater than thousand times at 39.8-894.8 mg m(-2) day(-1). The amount of C emitted as CH4-C and CO2-C from ranged from 0.007% to 0.081% of total C composted. Cowdung emitted highest CH4 followed by spent mycelia and ETPS while ETPS emitted more CO2 than spent mycelia but lesser than cowdung. Global warming potential of emitted CH4 was found to be in the range of 10.6-27.7 mg-CO2-equivalent on a 20-year time horizon. The results suggest that pharmaceutical wastes can be an important source of CH4 and CO2 during composting or any other stockpiling under suitable moisture conditions. The waste mixtures were found not suitable for vermicomposting after two weeks composting and earthworms did not survive long in the mixtures.

  10. Investigating Seasonal Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Methane in Northern California Using Airborne Measurements and Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Xi, X.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Potter, C. S.; Tanaka, T.; Tadic, J.; Loewenstein, M.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have increased over the past decades and are linked to increasing global surface temperatures and climate change. To counteract the trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs, the state of California has passed the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB-32). This requires that by 2020, GHG (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) emissions will be reduced to 1990 levels. Currently, California emits ~500 Tg yr-1 of CO2eq GHGs, with CO2 and CH4 contributing ~90% of the total. To quantify the success of AB-32, GHG emission rates must be more thoroughly quantified in California. Presently, uncertainties remain in the existing "bottom-up" emission inventories in California due to many contributing factors not being fully understood. To help alleviate these uncertainties, we have analyzed airborne GHG measurements and applied inverse modeling techniques to quantify GHG spatiotemporal concentration patterns and "top-down" emission rates. To assess the magnitude/spatial variation of GHGs, and to identify local emission "hot spots", airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 were made by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) in the boundary layer of the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in Jan.-Feb. 2013 and July-Aug. 2014. To quantify/constrain GHG emissions we applied the WRF-STILT model and inverse modeling techniques, in conjunction with AJAX data, to estimate "top-down" SFBA/SJV GHG emission rates. Model simulations utilized source apportioned a priori CO2 and CH4 emission inventories from the Vulcan Project (including NASA Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (NASA-CASA) model CO2 biosphere fluxes) and the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) Project, respectively. Results from the evaluation of a priori and posterior GHG concentrations/emissions in northern California using AJAX data, along with the analysis of CO2 and CH4 concentration spatiotemporal

  11. A multi-scale approach to monitor urban carbon-dioxide emissions in the atmosphere over Vancouver, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, A.; Crawford, B.; Ketler, R.; Lee, J. K.; McKendry, I. G.; Nesic, Z.; Caitlin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of long-lived greenhouse gases in the urban atmosphere are potentially useful to constrain and validate urban emission inventories, or space-borne remote-sensing products. We summarize and compare three different approaches, operating at different scales, that directly or indirectly identify, attribute and quantify emissions (and uptake) of carbon dioxide (CO2) in urban environments. All three approaches are illustrated using in-situ measurements in the atmosphere in and over Vancouver, Canada. Mobile sensing may be a promising way to quantify and map CO2 mixing ratios at fine scales across heterogenous and complex urban environments. We developed a system for monitoring CO2 mixing ratios at street level using a network of mobile CO2 sensors deployable on vehicles and bikes. A total of 5 prototype sensors were built and simultaneously used in a measurement campaign across a range of urban land use types and densities within a short time frame (3 hours). The dataset is used to aid in fine scale emission mapping in combination with simultaneous tower-based flux measurements. Overall, calculated CO2 emissions are realistic when compared against a spatially disaggregated scale emission inventory. The second approach is based on mass flux measurements of CO2 using a tower-based eddy covariance (EC) system. We present a continuous 7-year long dataset of CO2 fluxes measured by EC at the 28m tall flux tower 'Vancouver-Sunset'. We show how this dataset can be combined with turbulent source area models to quantify and partition different emission processes at the neighborhood-scale. The long-term EC measurements are within 10% of a spatially disaggregated scale emission inventory. Thirdly, at the urban scale, we present a dataset of CO2 mixing ratios measured using a tethered balloon system in the urban boundary layer above Vancouver. Using a simple box model, net city-scale CO2 emissions can be determined using measured rate of change of CO2 mixing ratios

  12. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an artificially drained coastal wetland during a flood: Implications for wetland global warming potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatland, J. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.; Duncan, T. M.; Erler, D. V.

    2014-08-01

    Floods frequently produce deoxygenation and acidification in waters of artificially drained coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) wetlands. These conditions are ideal for carbon dioxide and methane production. We investigated CO2 and CH4 dynamics and quantified carbon loss within an artificially drained CASS wetland during and after a flood. We separated the system into wetland soils (inundated soil during flood and exposed soil during post flood period), drain water, and creek water and performed measurements of free CO2 ([CO2*]), CH4, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC), stable carbon isotopes, and radon (222Rn: natural tracer for groundwater discharge) to determine aquatic carbon loss pathways. [CO2*] and CH4 values in the creek reached 721 and 81 μM, respectively, 2 weeks following a flood during a severe deoxygenation phase (dissolved oxygen ~ 0% saturation). CO2 and CH4 emissions from the floodplain to the atmosphere were 17-fold and 170-fold higher during the flooded period compared to the post-flood period, respectively. CO2 emissions accounted for about 90% of total floodplain mass carbon losses during both the flooded and post-flood periods. Assuming a 20 and 100 year global warming potential (GWP) for CH4 of 105 and 27 CO2-equivalents, CH4 emission contributed to 85% and 60% of total floodplain CO2-equivalent emissions, respectively. Stable carbon isotopes (δ13C in dissolved CO2 and CH4) and 222Rn indicated that carbon dynamics within the creek were more likely driven by drainage of surface floodwaters from the CASS wetland rather than groundwater seepage. This study demonstrated that >90% of CO2 and CH4 emissions from the wetland system occurred during the flood period and that the inundated wetland was responsible for ~95% of CO2-equivalent emissions over the floodplain.

  13. Are there biomedical criteria to assess an acute carbon dioxide intoxication by a volcanic emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupfel, Maurice; Le Guern, François

    1989-11-01

    On August 21, 1987, more than 1800 people, thousands of head of cattle and countless wild animals, including birds, were killed by a gas release which occurred during about 4 hours at the lake in the crater Iwi at Nyos in Cameroon; plant life was mostly unaffected. An international inquiry was performed by British, French, Italian, Japanese and U.S. volcanologists and physicians to determine what had been the cause of this disaster. An international conference organised by United Nations Educational Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (U.N.E.S.C.O.), the Cameroon Government and the U.N. Economic Commission for Africa held in Yaoundé March, 1987 concluded: 'that the cause of sudden death was suffocation (asphyxia) in a carbon dioxide atmosphere' The medical findings have been explained by asphyxia caused by carbon dioxide. The presence of other volcanic gases, e.g. hydrogen sulfide, cannot be ruled out' (Sigvaldason, 1989, this issue). This paper reviews what is mainly known about an acute carbon dioxide intoxication in order to disprove or confirm the diagnosis and helps to interpret the field observations and testimonies to provide a basis to discuss the prevention of such an intoxication.

  14. Impact of human activities on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions: a statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abdus Salam; Toshikuni Noguchi

    2005-03-15

    This study aims at identifying significant or influential human activities (i.e. factors) on CO{sub 2} emissions using statistical analyses. The study was conducted for two cases: (i) developed countries and (ii) developing countries. In developed countries, this study identified three influential human activities for CO{sub 2} emissions: (i) combustion of fossil fuels, (ii) population pressure on natural and terrestrial ecosystems, and (iii) land use change. In developing countries, the significant human activities causing an upsurge of CO{sub 2} emissions are: (i) combustion of fossil fuels, (ii) terrestrial ecosystem strength and (iii) land use change. Among these factors, combustion of fossil fuels is the most influential human activity for CO{sub 2} emissions both in developed and developing countries. Regression analysis based on the factor scores indicated that combustion of fossil fuels has significant positive influence on CO{sub 2} emissions in both developed and developing countries. Terrestrial ecosystem strength has a significant negative influence on CO{sub 2} emissions. Land use change and CO{sub 2} emissions are positively related, although regression analysis showed that the influence of land use change on CO{sub 2} emissions was still insignificant. It is anticipated, from the findings of this study, that CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by reducing fossil-fuel consumption and switching to alternative energy sources, preserving exiting forests, planting trees on abandoned and degraded forest lands, or by planting trees by social/agroforestry on agricultural lands.

  15. Carbon dioxide emission factors for U.S. coal by origin and destination.

    PubMed

    Quick, Jeffrey C

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO(2) emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO(2) emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO(2) emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97, 91.97, 88.20, and 98.91 kg CO(2)/GJ(gross), respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO(2) emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO(2) emission factors for U.S. coal.

  16. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  17. Carbon dioxide emission factors for U.S. coal by origin and destination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quick, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO2 emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO2 emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97,91.97,88.20, and 98.91 kg CO2/GJgross, respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO2 emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. Emissions of Water and Carbon Dioxide from Fossil-Fuel Combustion Contribute Directly to Ocean Mass and Volume Increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuce, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The direct, non-climate, contribution of carbon dioxide and water emissions from fossil-fuel (FF) combustion to the volume and mass of the oceans has been omitted from estimates of sea-level rise (SLR) in IPCC reports. Following the method of Gornitz et al. (1997), H2O emissions are estimated using carbon emissions from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, along with typical carbon and hydrogen contents of FF. Historic H2O emissions from 1750 to 2010 amount to 430 ±50 PgH2O, equivalent to 1.2 ±0.2 mmSLR. Sometime in this decade the volume of H2O from historic FF combustion will exceed the volume of Lake Erie (480 km3). CO2 dissolved in the ocean increases the seawater volume by 31-33 mL mol-1 CO2. From 1750 to 2010, 370 ±70 PgCO2 from FF combustion has dissolved in the oceans, causing 0.7 ±0.2 mmSLR. Combined H2O+CO2emissions from FF have therefore added 1.9 ±0.4 mm to sea levels in the Industrial Era. Combustion of FF in 2010 resulted in emissions of 32 PgCO2 and 12 ±1 PgH2O. SLR contributions for that year from FF emissions were 0.033 ±0.005 mm from H2O and 0.011±0.003 mm from dissolved CO2, a total rate of 0.044 ±0.008 mm yr-1. Emissions incorporated in socio-economic models underlying the RCP 8.5 and 2.6 scenarios are used along with concentration-driven CMIP5 Earth System Models results to estimate future sea-level rise from FF combustion. From 2010 to 2100, RCP8.5 and 2.6 models respectively produce 9 ±2 mmSLR and 5 ±1 mmSLR from FF H2O+CO2. For perspective, these amounts are larger than the modelled contributions from loss of glaciers in the Andes. The direct contribution of FF emissions to SLR is small (1-2%) relative to current rates and projected estimates under RCP scenarios up to 2100. The magnitude is similar to SLR estimates from other minor sources such as the melting of floating ice, land-use emissions and produced water from oil operations, none of which are currently included in SLR assessments. As uncertainties in

  19. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF COMMON METHODOLOGY TO CALCULATE CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Taro; Takimoto, Masamichi; Sone, Shinri; Kishida, Hiroyuki; Hanaki, Keisuke; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    Concerning CO2 emissions related to infrastructure development, common calculation methodology has not been certified. Common calculation methodology is necessary to know effective approach toward total CO2 emissions reduction. In this study, we develop a calculation method of CO2 emissions related to infrastructure development and propose it as common methodology. As the first step, we focus our attention on major construction materials, because the manufacturing of construction materials occupies a large part of the total CO2 emissions. The calculation method should satisfy the following requirements: (1) covering all CO2 emissions, (2) based on material quantities, (3) having clear evidence, (4) categorizing materials from perspective of those concerned with infrastructure development, (5) able to reflect site oriented data, and (6) updated annually. The developed method combines the pile-up and the input-output technique to satisfy the requirements above. The major part of CO2 emissions is calculated with material based quantities by applying the pile-up to input of primary material and energy consumption. Complementary use of the input-output, we developed, covers all the domestic activities, includes product developments, fixed capital formations, and the others. An estimation, using official and industry-based statistics for some major construction materials such as cement and aggregate, confirms that the pile-up calculates approximately 90% of CO2 emissions due to the manufacturing activities. The method also enables us to update ordinary CO2 emissions of the construction materials annually.

  1. The last decade of global anthropogenic sulfur dioxide: 2000-2011 emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Klimont, Z.; Smith, Steven J.; Cofala, Janusz

    2013-01-09

    Evolution of global and regional anthropogenic SO2 emissions in the last decade has been estimated through a bottom-up calculation for recent years. After a strong increase in emissions that peaked about 2006, we estimate a declining trend continuing until 2011. However, there is a strong spatial variability with North America and Europe continuing to reduce emissions with an increasing role of Asia and international shipping. China remains a key contributor but the introduction of stricter emission limits followed by an ambitious program of installing flue gas desulfurization on power plants resulted in significant decline in emissions from energy sector and stabilization of Chinese SO2 emissions. Comparable mitigation strategies are not yet present in several other Asian countries and industrial sectors in general, while emissions from international shipping are expected to start declining soon following agreed reduction of sulfur content of fuel oil. Estimated trends in global SO2 emissions are within the range of RCP projections and uncertainty calculated for the year 2005.

  2. Influence of sampling time on carbon dioxide and methane emissions by grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A need to respond to global climate change has focused great attention towards greenhouse gases produced by domestic ruminants and gas emission mitigation. Respiration chambers have long been the preferred method to measure CO2 and CH4 emission by cattle. With quickly advancing technology, automat...

  3. Hydrological controls on nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions across an agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in hydrological controls on soil greenhouse gas emissions could result in important climate change feedbacks. Water table fluctuations into surface soils are “hot moments” of soil CO2 and N2O emissions. Future global change may affect the frequency and magnitude of water table fluctuations...

  4. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2008-03-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2). We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80%-20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. In addition, EA SO2 emissions account for approximately 30%-50% and 10%-20% of North American background sulfate over the western and eastern US, respectively. The contribution of EA sulfate to the western US at the surface is highest in MAM and JJA, but is lowest in DJF. Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 mb in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (mostly H2O2). We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be obtained using either sensitivity or tagging techniques. Our findings suggest that future changes in EA sulfur emissions may cause little change in the sulfate induced health impact over downwind continents but SO2 emission reductions may significantly reduce the sulfate related climate cooling over the North Pacific and the United States.

  5. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Katherine V; Sundquist, Eric T

    2008-08-01

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

  6. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, K.V.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO 2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

  7. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions

    PubMed Central

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R.; Martinez, Andrew S.; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L.; Wingen, Lisa M.; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R.; Gerber, R. Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine–California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs. PMID:26483454

  8. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-03

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs.

  9. Experimental study on the nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter emissions from diesel engine retrofitted with particulate oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei; Yu, Linxiao; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Xin

    2014-02-15

    A particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) was employed to perform experiments on the engine test bench to evaluate the effects on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engine. The engine exhaust was sampled from both upstream and downstream of the POC. The results showed that the POC increased the ratios of NO2/NOx significantly in the middle and high loads, the ratio of NO2/nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased 4.5 times on average under all experiment modes with the POC. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used to study the particle number-weighted size distributions and the abnormal particle emissions with the POC. The results indicated that the average reduction rate of particle number (PN) was 61% in the operating range of the diesel engine. At the engine speed of 1,400 r/min, the reduction rates of PN tended to decrease with the larger particle size. In the long time run under the steady mode (520 Nm, 1,200 r/min), abnormal particle emissions after the POC happened seven times in the first hour, and the average PN concentration of these abnormal emission peaks was much higher than that in normal state. The particle emissions of peaks 1-5 equaled the particles emitted downstream of the POC in normal state for 1.9h in number concentration, and for 3.6h in mass concentration. The PN concentrations tended to increase over time in 5h under the steady engine mode and the increase of the PN in the size range of 6.04-14.3 nm was more evident.

  10. Vanadium Dioxide as a Natural Disordered Metamaterial: Perfect Thermal Emission and Large Broadband Negative Differential Thermal Emittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kats, Mikhail A.; Blanchard, Romain; Zhang, Shuyan; Genevet, Patrice; Ko, Changhyun; Ramanathan, Shriram; Capasso, Federico

    2013-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that a thin (approximately 150-nm) film of vanadium dioxide (VO2) deposited on sapphire has an anomalous thermal emittance profile when heated, which arises because of the optical interaction between the film and the substrate when the VO2 is at an intermediate state of its insulator-metal transition (IMT). Within the IMT region, the VO2 film comprises nanoscale islands of the metal and dielectric phases and can thus be viewed as a natural, disordered metamaterial. This structure displays “perfect” blackbodylike thermal emissivity over a narrow wavelength range (approximately 40cm-1), surpassing the emissivity of our black-soot reference. We observe large broadband negative differential thermal emittance over a >10°C range: Upon heating, the VO2-sapphire structure emits less thermal radiation and appears colder on an infrared camera. Our experimental approach allows for a direct measurement and extraction of wavelength- and temperature-dependent thermal emittance. We anticipate that emissivity engineering with thin-film geometries comprising VO2 and other thermochromic materials will find applications in infrared camouflage, thermal regulation, and infrared tagging and labeling.

  11. Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Xu, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

  12. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Arens, Marlene

    2013-01-31

    Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries and accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. The ongoing increase in world steel demand means that this industry’s energy use and CO2 emissions continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on 56 emerging iron and steel industry technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status; we also identify references for more information.

  13. Kinetic temperature and carbon dioxide from broadband infrared limb emission measurements taken from the TIMED/SABER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Xu, Xiaojing

    2009-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA’s Thermosphere Ionosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 μm limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

  14. Inverse problem of the acoustic emission diagnostics of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, O. V.; Gradov, O. M.; Iudin, M. I.

    1988-12-01

    The acoustic emission of an inclusion in an infinite medium is analyzed. For an inclusion of general form, expressions for density and transverse and longitudinal waves in the inclusion material are obtained, as are equations for the inclusion surface. Attention is given to several particular cases of inclusions of simple shape (spherical and ellipsoidal), whose parameters are determined from the spectral characteristics of the acoustic emission signal.

  15. Development of an Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions Inventory in Support of the INTEX-NA Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J.; Choi, Y.; Vay, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-NA) is a major NASA science campaign envisioned to understand the transport and transformation of gases and aerosols on transcontinental and intercontinental scales and their impact on air quality and climate. During the campaign series, high temporal resolution (1 Hz) in situ CO2 data were recorded aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft over sparsely sampled areas of North America and adjacent ocean basins. When coupled with other simultaneous tracer measurements on the DC-8, the in situ CO2 observations provide valuable regional-scale information on carbon sources and sinks. In contrast to the INTEX-NA airborne observations, supporting meteorological data and available modeling tools, the bottom-up U.S. CO2 emissions inventory is not at the same level of sophistication. This is mainly because the traditional focus of monitoring atmospheric CO2 behavior has been directed towards global warming research at both national and international scales rather than at the regional level. To fill the gap between these data scales and improve our understating on fine-scale carbon behavior, we developed a bottom-up modeling inventory in support of INTEX-NA. The Inventory Data Analyzer (IDA) format, which has been widely used for the U.S. EPA's modeling version of the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), was selected as our inventory format so that we can use the emissions processing and air quality modeling tools developed for various scientific and regulatory applications. As a first step, a state-level CO2 emissions inventory was developed using the U.S. EPA's State Tool for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions (i.e. State Inventory Tool, or SIT). We then allocate a state level, database format inventory into a county/point level, IDA format inventory. Subsequently, the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) emissions modeling/processing system was used to create a higher resolution, gridded emissions inventory that can

  16. The effectiveness of net negative carbon dioxide emissions in reversing anthropogenic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarska, Katarzyna B.; Zickfeld, Kirsten

    2015-09-01

    Artificial removal of CO2 from the atmosphere (also referred to as negative emissions) has been proposed as a means to restore the climate system to a desirable state, should the impacts of climate change become ‘dangerous’. Here we explore whether negative emissions are indeed effective in reversing climate change on human timescales, given the potentially counteracting effect of natural carbon sinks and the inertia of the climate system. We designed a range of CO2 emission scenarios, which follow a gradual transition to a zero-carbon energy system and entail implementation of various amounts of net-negative emissions at technologically plausible rates. These scenarios are used to force an Earth System Model of intermediate complexity. Results suggest that while it is possible to revert to a desired level of warming (e.g. 2 °C above pre-industrial) after different levels of overshoot, thermosteric sea level rise is not reversible for at least several centuries, even under assumption of large amounts of negative CO2 emissions. During the net-negative emission phase, artificial CO2 removal is opposed by CO2 outgassing from natural carbon sinks, with the efficiency of CO2 removal—here defined as the drop in atmospheric CO2 per unit negative emission—decreasing with the total amount of negative emissions.

  17. The last decade of global anthropogenic sulfur dioxide: 2000-2011 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimont, Z.; Smith, S. J.; Cofala, J.

    2013-03-01

    The evolution of global and regional anthropogenic SO2 emissions in the last decade has been estimated through a bottom-up calculation. After increasing until about 2006, we estimate a declining trend continuing until 2011. However, there is strong spatial variability, with North America and Europe continuing to reduce emissions, with an increasing role of Asia and international shipping. China remains a key contributor, but the introduction of stricter emission limits followed by an ambitious program of installing flue gas desulfurization on power plants resulted in a significant decline in emissions from the energy sector and stabilization of total Chinese SO2 emissions. Comparable mitigation strategies are not yet present in several other Asian countries and industrial sectors in general, while emissions from international shipping are expected to start declining soon following an international agreement to reduce the sulfur content of fuel oil. The estimated trends in global SO2 emissions are within the range of representative concentration pathway (RCP) projections and the uncertainty previously estimated for the year 2005.

  18. Evaluating the impacts of new walking and cycling infrastructure on carbon dioxide emissions from motorized travel: a controlled longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Walking and cycling is widely assumed to substitute for at least some motorized travel and thereby reduce energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. While the evidence suggests that a supportive built environment may be needed to promote walking and cycling, it is unclear whether and how interventions in the built environment that attract walkers and cyclists may reduce transport CO2 emissions. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the effects of providing new infrastructure for walking and cycling on CO2 emissions from motorised travel. A cohort of 1849 adults completed questionnaires at baseline (2010) and one-year follow-up (2011), before and after the construction of new high-quality routes provided as part of the Sustrans Connect2 programme in three UK municipalities. A second cohort of 1510 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and two-year follow-up (2012). The participants reported their past-week travel behaviour and car characteristics from which CO2 emissions by mode and purpose were derived using methods described previously. A set of exposure measures of proximity to and use of the new routes were derived. Overall transport CO2 emissions decreased slightly over the study period, consistent with a secular trend in the case study regions. As found previously the new infrastructure was well used at one- and two-year follow-up, and was associated with population-level increases in walking, cycling and physical activity at two-year follow-up. However, these effects did not translate into sizeable CO2 effects as neither living near the infrastructure nor using it predicted changes in CO2 emissions from motorised travel, either overall or disaggregated by journey purpose. This lack of a discernible effect on travel CO2 emissions are consistent with an interpretation that some of those living nearer the infrastructure may simply have changed where they walked or cycled, while others may have walked or cycled more but few, if any, may have substituted

  19. Evaluating the impacts of new walking and cycling infrastructure on carbon dioxide emissions from motorized travel: a controlled longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David

    2014-09-01

    Walking and cycling is widely assumed to substitute for at least some motorized travel and thereby reduce energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. While the evidence suggests that a supportive built environment may be needed to promote walking and cycling, it is unclear whether and how interventions in the built environment that attract walkers and cyclists may reduce transport CO2 emissions. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the effects of providing new infrastructure for walking and cycling on CO2 emissions from motorised travel. A cohort of 1849 adults completed questionnaires at baseline (2010) and one-year follow-up (2011), before and after the construction of new high-quality routes provided as part of the Sustrans Connect2 programme in three UK municipalities. A second cohort of 1510 adults completed questionnaires at baseline and two-year follow-up (2012). The participants reported their past-week travel behaviour and car characteristics from which CO2 emissions by mode and purpose were derived using methods described previously. A set of exposure measures of proximity to and use of the new routes were derived. Overall transport CO2 emissions decreased slightly over the study period, consistent with a secular trend in the case study regions. As found previously the new infrastructure was well used at one- and two-year follow-up, and was associated with population-level increases in walking, cycling and physical activity at two-year follow-up. However, these effects did not translate into sizeable CO2 effects as neither living near the infrastructure nor using it predicted changes in CO2 emissions from motorised travel, either overall or disaggregated by journey purpose. This lack of a discernible effect on travel CO2 emissions are consistent with an interpretation that some of those living nearer the infrastructure may simply have changed where they walked or cycled, while others may have walked or cycled more but few, if any, may have substituted

  20. Validating modelled carbon-dioxide emissions against long-term eddy-covariance measurements at the urban neighborhood-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, A.; Coops, N. C.; Crawford, B.; Heyman, E.; Kellett, R.; Liss, K.; Oke, T. R.; Olchovski, I.; Tooke, R.; van der Laan, M.; Voogt, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    It can be expected that integrative greenhouse-gas emission modeling at block or neighborhood-scales becomes an increasingly relevant part of urban planning processes in the future. A particular challenge forms the geographical distribution of emissions and a proper validation of modeled emissions at this fine scale where consumption statistics are often lacking. Direct flux measurements of GHGs using the eddy-covariance (EC) approach could be a valuable approach to validate such fine-scale urban emission inventories. In combination with micrometeorological source-area models, EC measurements provide spatial-temporal information of emissions - at scales where utility or consumption data is not available. A residential neighborhood in Vancouver, BC, Canada is used as a case study to validate modeled carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions against direct eddy-covariance flux measurements. The model is a combination of top-down inventory and bottom-up modelling of individual objects (buildings, vegetation, traffic counts). Carbon is conceptually tracked through quantifying inputs and outputs into the modelled urban neighborhood, as well as storage changes within the neighborhood. The spatial modelling of emissions is conceptually separated into four components - buildings, transportation, human respiration and vegetation/soils. Inputs to the emission model include automated urban object classifications (buildings, trees, land cover) based on LiDAR and optical remote sensing data in combination with census data, assessment data, traffic counts and measured radiation and climate data. Based on those inputs, spatial maps of total annual CO2 emissions (or uptake) are modeled at 50 m resolution for 4 km2. The resulting maps (building, transportation, human respiration and vegetation) are then summed to create a map of integral (net-)emissions. The mapped area overlaps with the source-area of a micrometeorological flux tower location in the center of the study area. Continuous CO2

  1. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990-2004

    SciTech Connect

    West, Tristram O.; Brandt, Craig C; Marland, Gregg; Nelson, Richard G; Hellwinckel, Chad M; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Changes in cropland production and management influence energy consumption and emissions of CO2 from fossil-fuel combustion. A method was developed to calculate on-site and off-site energy and CO2 emissions for cropping practices in the US at the county scale. Energy consumption and emissions occur on-site from the operation of farm machinery and occur off-site from the manufacture and transport of cropland production inputs, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and agricultural lime. Estimates of fossil-fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions for cropping practices enable (a) the monitoring of energy and emissions with changes in land management, and (b) the calculation and balancing of regional and national carbon budgets. Results indicate on-site energy use and total energy use (i.e., the sum of on-site and off-site) on US croplands in 2004 ranged from 1.6-7.9 GJ ha-1 yr-1 and from 5.5-20.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1, respectively. On-site and total CO2 emissions in 2004 ranged from 23-176 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 91-365 kg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. During the period of this analysis (1990-2004), national total energy consumption for crop production ranged from 1204-1297 PJ yr-1 (Petajoule = 1 1015 Joule) with associated total fossil CO2 emissions ranging from 22.0-23.2 Tg C yr-1 (Teragram = 1 1012 gram). The annual proportion of on-site CO2 to total CO2 emissions changed depending on the diversity of crops planted. Adoption of reduced tillage practices in the US from 1990 to 2004 resulted in a net emissions reduction of 2.4 Tg C.

  2. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from cropland production in the United States, 1990-2004.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Richard G; Hellwinckel, Chad M; Brandt, Craig C; West, Tristram O; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G; Marland, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Changes in cropland production and management influence energy consumption and emissions of CO(2) from fossil-fuel combustion. A method was developed to calculate on-site and off-site energy and CO(2) emissions for cropping practices in the United States at the county scale. Energy consumption and emissions occur on-site from the operation of farm machinery and occur off-site from the manufacture and transport of cropland production inputs, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and agricultural lime. Estimates of fossil-fuel consumption and associated CO(2) emissions for cropping practices enable (i) the monitoring of energy and emissions with changes in land management and (ii) the calculation and balancing of regional and national carbon budgets. Results indicate on-site energy use and total energy use (i.e., the sum of on-site and off-site) on U.S. croplands in 2004 ranged from 1.6 to 7.9 GJ ha(-1) yr(-1) and from 5.5 to 20.5 GJ ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. On-site and total CO(2) emissions in 2004 ranged from 23 to 176 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) and from 91 to 365 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. During the period of this analysis (1990-2004), national total energy consumption for crop production ranged from 1204 to 1297 PJ yr(-1) (Petajoule = 1 x 10(15) Joule) with associated total fossil CO(2) emissions ranging from 21.5 to 23.2 Tg C yr(-1) (Teragram = 1 x 10(12) gram). The annual proportion of on-site CO(2) to total CO(2) emissions changed depending on the diversity of crops planted. Adoption of reduced tillage practices in the United States from 1990 to 2004 resulted in a net fossil emissions reduction of 2.4 Tg C.

  3. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio in dairy cow diets on emission of methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia, lactation performance and manure excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein cows housed in a modified tie-stall barn were used to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage to concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and emission of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and manure ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). Eight multiparous cows (means ± standard devi...

  4. Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  5. The self-similar solutions of the problem of carbon dioxide injection into the reservoir saturated with methane and its hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musakaev, N. G.; Khasanov, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper the research of carbon dioxide injection into a porous medium initially saturated with methane and its hydrate was performed. The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a porous media, accompanied by the formation of carbon dioxide hydrate, is presented. The self-similar solutions, for the axisymmetric problem definition, were built. These solutions describe the distribution of the fluid parameters in a reservoir.

  6. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide, trace gases and metals from Mount Erebus, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Philip R.; Meeker, Kimberley; Finnegan, David

    1990-11-01

    SO2 emission rates have been measured annually since 1983 at Mount Erebus, Antarctica by correlation spectrometer (COSPEC V). Following a 4 month period of sustained strombolian activity in late 1984, SO2 emissions declined from 230 Mg/day in 1983 to 25 Mg/day and then slowly increased from 16 Mg/day in 1985 to 51 Mg/day in 1987. Nine sets of filter packs containing particle and (Li-7)OH treated filters were collected in the plume in 1986 and analyzed by neutron activation. Using the COSPEC data and measured element/S ratios on the filters, emission rates have been determined for trace gases and metals. HCl and HF emissions in 1983 are inferred to be about 1200 and 500 Mg/day, respectively. Mt. Erebus has therefore been an important source of halogens to the Antarctic atmosphere and could be responsible for excess Cl found in central Antarctica snow.

  7. Source-receptor relationships between East Asian sulfur dioxide emissions and Northern Hemisphere sulfate concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2008-07-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, using a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2). We conduct a base and five sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over source and downwind regions. We find that from west to east across the North Pacific, EA sulfate contributes approximately 80% 20% of sulfate at the surface, but at least 50% at 500 hPa. Surface sulfate concentrations are dominated by local anthropogenic sources. Of the sulfate produced from sources other than local anthropogenic emissions (defined here as "background" sulfate), EA sources account for approximately 30% 50% (over the Western US) and 10% 20% (over the Eastern US). The surface concentrations of sulfate from EA sources over the Western US are highest in MAM (up to 0.15 μg/m3), and lowest in DJF (less than 0.06 μg/m3). Reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence (represented by the areas where at least 0.1 μg m-3 of sulfate originates from EA) over the North Pacific both at the surface and at 500 hPa in all seasons, but the extent of influence is insensitive to emission increases, particularly in DJF and JJA. We find that EA sulfate concentrations over most downwind regions respond nearly linearly to changes in EA SO2 emissions, but sulfate concentrations over the EA source region increase more slowly than SO2 emissions, particularly at the surface and in winter, due to limited availability of oxidants (in particular of H2O2, which oxidizes SO2 to sulfate in the aqueous phase). We find that similar estimates of the S-R relationship for trans-Pacific transport of EA sulfate would be obtained using either sensitivity (i.e., varying emissions from a region to examine the effects on downwind concentrations

  8. Evaluating the Role of Prices and R&D in Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    of physical capital associated with energy use and to gain experience in using new technologies that emit less car - bon. Firms would have an...countries, such as India and China. If a domestic carbon- 3. An exception to this would be if the net benefits of reducing car - bon emissions were too small...today’s emissions, car - bon pricing would give emitters an incentive to under- take reductions when the cost of doing so would be out- weighed by the

  9. Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ban-Weiss, George A; McLaughlin, John P; Harley, Robert A; Kean, Andrew J; Grosjean, Eric; Grosjean, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Carbonyls can be toxic and highly reactive in the atmosphere. To quantify trends in carbonyl emissions from light-duty (LD) vehicles, measurements were made in a San Francisco Bay area highwaytunnel bore containing essentially all LD vehicles during the summers of 1999, 2001, and 2006. The LD vehicle emission factor for formaldehyde, the most abundant carbonyl, did not change between 1999 and 2001, then decreased by 61 +/- 7% between 2001 and 2006. This reduction was due to fleet turnover and the removal of MTBE from gasoline. Acetaldehyde emissions decreased by 19 +/- 2% between 1999 and 2001 and by the same amount between 2001 and 2006. Absent the increased use of ethanol in gasoline after 2003, acetaldehyde emissions would have further decreased by 2006. Carbonyl emission factors for medium- (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks were measured in 2006 in a separate mixed-traffic bore of the tunnel. Emission factors for diesel trucks were higher than those for LD vehicles for all reported carbonyls. Diesel engine exhaust dominates over gasoline engines as a direct source of carbonyl emissions in California. Carbonyl concentrations were also measured in liquid-gasoline samples and were found to be low (< 20 ppm). The gasoline brands that contained ethanol showed higher concentrations of acetaldehyde in unburned fuel versus gasoline that was formulated without ethanol. Measurements of NO2 showed a yearly rate of decrease for LD vehicle emissions similar to that of total NOx in this study. The observed NO2/NOx ratio was 1.2 +/- 0.3% and 3.7 +/- 0.3% for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively.

  10. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  11. Influence of photoperiod on carbon dioxide and methane emissions from two pilot-scale stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juan P; Ruiz, José L; Peña, Miguel R; Lubberding, Henk; Gijzen, Huub

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO(2), CH(4)) from pilot-scale algal and duckweed-based ponds (ABP and DBP) were measured using the static chamber methodology. Daylight and nocturnal variations of GHG and wastewater characteristics (e.g. chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH) were determined via sampling campaigns during midday (12:30-15:30) and midnight (00:30-03:30) periods. The results showed that under daylight conditions in ABP median emissions were -232 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 9.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and in DBP median emissions were -1,654.5 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 71.4 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. During nocturnal conditions ABP median emissions were 3,949.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 12.7 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and DBP median emissions were 5,116 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 195.2 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Once data measured during daylight were averaged together with nocturnal data the median emissions for ABP were 1,566.8 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 72.1 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), whilst for DBP they were 3,016.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-) and 178.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. These figures suggest that there were significant differences between CO(2) emissions measured during daylight and nocturnal periods (p < 0.05). This shows a sink-like behaviour for both ABP and DBP in the presence of solar light, which indicates the influence of photosynthesis in CO(2) emissions. On the other hand, the fluxes of CH(4) indicated that DBP and ABP behave as net sources of CH(4) during day and night, although higher emissions were observed from DBP. Overall, according to the compound average (daylight and nocturnal emissions) both ABP and DBP systems might be considered as net sources of GHG.

  12. Impact of emissions and +2 °C climate change upon future ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Laura; Lacressonnière, Gwendoline; Gauss, Michael; Engardt, Magnuz; Andersson, Camilla; Josse, Béatrice; Marécal, Virginie; Nyiri, Agnes; Sobolowski, Stefan; Siour, Guillaume; Szopa, Sophie; Vautard, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe between the present day and a future period with a +2 °C global warming relative to the pre-industrial climate was studied using four offline chemistry transport models, each driven by a different climate model. Given the recent outcome of the COP21 negotiations, understanding the implications of climate change around the +2 °C threshold has never been more pressing or relevant. One of the objectives of this study was to show how changes in anthropogenic emissions and +2 °C climate change are expected to affect future air quality, which may have important implications upon human health. It was found that a +2 °C climate change alone was responsible for a modest, and not statistically significant, increase in surface O3 concentrations (of between -0.1-0.8 ppb in the summer averaged over the European domain) compared to the present climate. Two different emission scenarios were used for the future time period in order to provide an estimate of the extent of air pollution reductions that could occur if (a) all currently planned air quality legislation is implemented and (b) all maximum technologically feasible emission reductions are implemented. The results showed that summer O3 could be reduced by between 4 and 5 ppb under a current legislation scenario, with at least 3 ppb of further reductions under the maximum mitigated scenario. Calculations of summer ozone enhancement were used as a metric to analyse the results after having removed background ozone level changes. In conclusion it was found that future air quality on a regional scale will depend upon the implementation of effective emission reduction policy; the positive effects of which should not be hindered by a +2 °C global warming.

  13. Source-Receptor Relationships for East Asian Sulfur Dioxide Emissions and Northern Hemisphere Sulfate Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2007-12-01

    We analyze the effect of varying East Asian (EA) sulfur emissions on sulfate concentrations in the northern hemisphere based on a global coupled oxidant-aerosol model (MOZART-2) driven with NCEP reanalysis meteorology for 1991. We conduct a base and several sensitivity simulations, in which sulfur emissions from each continent are tagged, to establish the source-receptor (S-R) relationship between EA sulfur emissions and sulfate concentrations over the source and downwind regions. We find that reducing EA SO2 emissions will significantly decrease the spatial extent of the EA sulfate influence over the North Pacific, but raising EA SO2 emissions will not significantly increase the spatial extent of influence. We define a linearity index and find the S-R relationship between EA SO2 emissions and EA sulfate concentrations to be nearly linear over most downwind regions, but to be non-linear over the EA source region, particularly at the surface and in winter. In addition, we find that besides the direct transport of EA sulfate to North America (NA) and Europe (EU), the indirect response of locally-produced NA or EU sulfate to changes in EA SO2 emissions is negative (i.e., offsetting the direct effect) in winter, spring and fall, but becomes positive in summer. In summer the indirect response is as important as direct transport of EA sulfate over the southeastern U.S. and southern EU. This summertime positive indirect effect largely results from induced changes in H2O2 oxidant concentrations over these regions.

  14. Diffusive emission of methane and carbon dioxide from two hydropower reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, A A; Santos, M A; Xavier, V L; Bezerra, C S; Silva, C R O; Amorim, M A; Rodrigues, R P; Rogerio, J P

    2015-05-01

    The role of greenhouse gas emissions from freshwater reservoirs and their contribution to increase greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere is currently under discussion in many parts of the world. We studied CO2 and CH4 diffusive fluxes from two large neotropical hydropower reservoirs with different climate conditions. We used floating closed-chambers to estimate diffusive fluxes of these gaseous species. Sampling campaigns showed that the reservoirs studied were sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, the CH4 emissions ranged from 0.530 to 396.96 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and CO2 emissions ranged from -1,738.33 to 11,166.61 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and in Três Marias Reservoir the CH4 fluxes ranged 0.720 to 2,578.03 mg.m(-2).d(-1) and CO2 emission ranged from -3,037.80 to 11,516.64 to mg.m(-2).d(-1). There were no statistically significant differences of CH4 fluxes between the reservoirs, but CO2 fluxes from the two reservoirs studied were significantly different. The CO2 emissions measured over the periods studied in Serra da Mesa showed some seasonality with distinctions between the wet and dry transition season. In Três Marias Reservoir the CO2 fluxes showed no seasonal variability. In both reservoirs, CH4 emissions showed a tendency to increase during the study periods but this was not statistically significant. These results contributed to increase knowledge about the magnitude of CO2 and CH4 emission in hydroelectric reservoirs, however due to natural variability of the data future sampling campaigns will be needed to better elucidate the seasonal influences on the fluxes of greenhouse gases.

  15. Using DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery to estimate carbon dioxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desheng, B.; Letu, H.; Bao, Y.; Naizhuo, Z.; Hara, M.; Nishio, F.

    2012-12-01

    This study highlighted a method for estimating CO2 emission from electric power plants using the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) stable light image product for 1999. CO2 emissions from power plants account for a high percentage of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumptions. Thermal power plants generate the electricity by burning fossil fuels, so they emit CO2 directly. In many Asian countries such as China, Japan, India, and South Korea, the amounts of electric power generated by thermal power accounts over 58% in the total amount of electric power in 1999. So far, figures of the CO2 emission were obtained mainly by traditional statistical methods. Moreover, the statistical data were summarized as administrative regions, so it is difficult to examine the spatial distribution of non-administrative division. In some countries the reliability of such CO2 emission data is relatively low. However, satellite remote sensing can observe the earth surface without limitation of administrative regions. Thus, it is important to estimate CO2 using satellite remote sensing. In this study, we estimated the CO2 emission by fossil fuel consumption from electric power plant using stable light image of the DMSP/OLS satellite data for 1999 after correction for saturation effect in Japan. Digital number (DN) values of the stable light images in center areas of cities are saturated due to the large nighttime light intensities and characteristics of the OLS satellite sensors. To more accurately estimate the CO2 emission using the stable light images, a saturation correction method was developed by using the DMSP radiance calibration image, which does not include any saturation pixels. A regression equation was developed by the relationship between DN values of non-saturated pixels in the stable light image and those in the radiance calibration image. And, regression equation was used to adjust the DNs of the radiance calibration image

  16. Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss.

    PubMed

    Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N; Jardine, Sunny L

    2012-09-04

    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5' grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO(2). Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs.

  17. Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss

    PubMed Central

    Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N.; Jardine, Sunny L.

    2012-01-01

    Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5′ grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO2. Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

  18. Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

    1992-01-01

    A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

  19. Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

    1992-01-01

    A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

  20. Use of videoconferencing in Wales to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, travel costs and time.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Delyth; Tranter, Glynis; Axford, Alan T

    2009-01-01

    In September 2005 a telemedicine service was started to assist multidisciplinary teams in Wales to improve cancer services. In October 2006 and October 2007 users of videoconferencing equipment at one site completed questionnaires. During October 2006 a total of 18,000 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 1696 kg of CO(2) emission. During October 2007 a total of 20,800 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 2590 kg of CO(2) emission. We estimate that 48 trees would take a year to absorb that quantity of CO(2). The results of the surveys show that exploiting telemedicine makes better use of staff time, reduces the time spent travelling and assists in reducing climate change by limiting the emissions of CO(2).

  1. Correlation of white female breast cancer incidence trends with nitrogen dioxide emission levels and motor vehicle density patterns.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fan; Bina, William F

    2012-02-01

    The long-term trend of female breast cancer incidence rates in the United States and some European countries demonstrates a similar pattern: an increasing trend in the last century followed by a declining trend in this century. The well-known risk factors cannot explain this trend. We compared the breast cancer incidence trends obtained from SEER data with the trend of nitrogen dioxides (NOx) emission and monitoring data as well as motor vehicle density data. The upward followed by downward trend of NOx is similar to the breast cancer incidence trend but with an offset of 20 years earlier. Motor vehicles are the major source of NOx emissions. The geographic distribution of motor vehicles density in 1970 in the observed US counties is positively correlated with breast cancer incidence rates (R(2) 0.8418, the correlation coefficient = 0.9175) in 1980-1995. Because both the time trend and geographic pattern are associated with breast cancer incidence rates, further studies on the relationship between breast cancer and air pollution are needed.

  2. Emission rates of sulfur dioxide, trace gases and metals from Mount Erebus, Antartica

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, P.R.; Meeker, K. ); Finnegan, D. )

    1990-11-01

    SO{sub 2} emission rates have been measured annually since 1983 at Mount Erebus, Antarctica by correlation spectrometer (COSPEC V). Following a 4 month period of sustained strombolian activity in late 1984, SO{sub 2} emissions declined from 230 Mg/day in 1983 to 25 Mg/day and then slowly increased from 16 Mg/day in 1985 to 51 Mg/day in 1987. Nine sets of filter packs containing partcle and {sup 7}LiOH treated filters were collected in the plume in 1986 and analyzed by neutron activation. Using the COSPEC data and measured element/S ratios on the filters, emission rates have been determined for trace gases and metals. The authors infer HCl and HF emissions in 1983 to be about 1200 and 500 Mg/day, respectively. Mt Erebus has therefore been an important source of halogens to the Anarctic atmosphere and could be responsible for excess Cl found in Central Antarctica snow.

  3. Soil carbon dioxide emissions in response to precipitation frequency in the Loess Plateau, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precipitation events can induce episodic CO2 emissions, so called the “Birch Effect”, but how precipitation frequency influences the mechanisms responsible for this effect in dryland cropping systems is not well known. We evaluated the effect of three precipitation frequencies (5-, 10-, and 20-d int...

  4. A preliminary survey of household and personal carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Tricia; Gray, N F

    2009-02-01

    A model specifically designed for Ireland was used to measure CO(2)e emissions (CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O) from Irish households for the first time. A total of 103 Irish households with occupancy rates varying between 1 and 6 (mean 2.9) were surveyed. The average annual household emission was found to be 16.55 t CO(2)e y(-1), which is equivalent to an average personal emission of 5.70 t CO(2)e Ca(-1) y(-1) comprising 42.2% related to home energy use, 35.1% to transport, 20.6% to air travel and other fuel intensive leisure activities, and just 2.1% associated with household waste disposal. Air travel accounts for an average personal emission of 1.152 t CO(2)e Ca(-1) y(-1), although this is highest in single and two person households at 1.693 and 2.227 t CO(2)e Ca(-1) y(-1) respectively. Household energy consumption becomes more efficient when occupancy rate increases. The most energy efficient homes in the survey were terraced with a natural gas heating systems. The least efficient were detached house with oil fuelled heating system.

  5. Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, The

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportation and distributed generation markets.

  6. Atmospheric emissions of nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide from different nitrogen fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Sistani, K R; Jn-Baptiste, M; Lovanh, N; Cook, K L

    2011-01-01

    Alternative N fertilizers that produce low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soil are needed to reduce the impacts of agricultural practices on global warming potential (GWP). We quantified and compared growing season fluxes of NO, CH, and CO resulting from applications of different N fertilizer sources, urea (U), urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN), ammonium nitrate (NHNO), poultry litter, and commercially available, enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers as follows: polymer-coated urea (ESN), SuperU, UAN + AgrotainPlus, and poultry litter + AgrotainPlus in a no-till corn ( L.) production system. Greenhouse gas fluxes were measured during two growing seasons using static, vented chambers. The ESN delayed the NO flux peak by 3 to 4 wk compared with other N sources. No significant differences were observed in NO emissions among the enhanced-efficiency and traditional inorganic N sources, except for ESN in 2009. Cumulative growing season NO emission from poultry litter was significantly greater than from inorganic N sources. The NO loss (2-yr average) as a percentage of N applied ranged from 0.69% for SuperU to 4.5% for poultry litter. The CH-C and CO-C emissions were impacted by environmental factors, such as temperature and moisture, more than the N source. There was no significant difference in corn yield among all N sources in both years. Site specifics and climate conditions may be responsible for the differences among the results of this study and some of the previously published studies. Our results demonstrate that N fertilizer source and climate conditions need consideration when selecting N sources to reduce GHG emissions.

  7. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; Zimmerman, Patrick R.; Harper, Michael T.; Hristova, Rada A.; Zimmerman, R. Scott; Branco, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but with variable accuracy). The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas method is commonly used to measure enteric CH4 production by animal scientists and more recently, application of an Automated Head-Chamber System (AHCS) (GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD), which is the focus of this experiment, has been growing. AHCS is an automated system to monitor CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mass fluxes from the breath of ruminant animals. In a typical AHCS operation, small quantities of baiting feed are dispensed to individual animals to lure them to AHCS multiple times daily. As the animal visits AHCS, a fan system pulls air past the animal’s muzzle into an intake manifold, and through an air collection pipe where continuous airflow rates are measured. A sub-sample of air is pumped out of the pipe into non-dispersive infra-red sensors for continuous measurement of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Field comparisons of AHCS to respiration chambers or SF6 have demonstrated that AHCS produces repeatable and accurate CH4 emission results, provided that animal visits to AHCS are sufficient so emission estimates are representative of the diurnal rhythm of rumen gas production. Here, we demonstrate the use of AHCS to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes from dairy cows given a control diet or a diet supplemented with technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid. PMID:26383886

  8. The Use of an Automated System (GreenFeed) to Monitor Enteric Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Ruminant Animals.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Alexander N; Oh, Joonpyo; Giallongo, Fabio; Frederick, Tyler; Weeks, Holley; Zimmerman, Patrick R; Harper, Michael T; Hristova, Rada A; Zimmerman, R Scott; Branco, Antonio F

    2015-09-07

    Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration chambers, which are highly accurate, but with limited applicability) to various indirect methods (sniffers, laser technology, which are practical, but with variable accuracy). The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas method is commonly used to measure enteric CH4 production by animal scientists and more recently, application of an Automated Head-Chamber System (AHCS) (GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD), which is the focus of this experiment, has been growing. AHCS is an automated system to monitor CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) mass fluxes from the breath of ruminant animals. In a typical AHCS operation, small quantities of baiting feed are dispensed to individual animals to lure them to AHCS multiple times daily. As the animal visits AHCS, a fan system pulls air past the animal's muzzle into an intake manifold, and through an air collection pipe where continuous airflow rates are measured. A sub-sample of air is pumped out of the pipe into non-dispersive infra-red sensors for continuous measurement of CH4 and CO2 concentrations. Field comparisons of AHCS to respiration chambers or SF6 have demonstrated that AHCS produces repeatable and accurate CH4 emission results, provided that animal visits to AHCS are sufficient so emission estimates are representative of the diurnal rhythm of rumen gas production. Here, we demonstrate the use of AHCS to measure CO2 and CH4 fluxes from dairy cows given a control diet or a diet supplemented with technical-grade cashew nut shell liquid.

  9. Sourcing methane and carbon dioxide emissions from a small city: Influence of natural gas leakage and combustion.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel D; Ingraffea, Anthony R; Sparks, Jed P

    2016-11-01

    Natural gas leakage and combustion are major sources of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), respectively; however, our understanding of emissions from cities is limited. We mapped distribution pipeline leakage using a mobile CH4 detection system, and continuously monitored atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations and carbon isotopes (δ(13)C-CO2 and δ(13)C-CH4) for one-year above Ithaca, New York. Pipeline leakage rates were low (<0.39 leaks mile(-1)), likely due to the small extent of cast iron and bare steel within the distribution pipeline system (2.6%). Our atmospheric monitoring demonstrated that the isotopic composition of locally emitted CO2 approached the δ(13)C range of natural gas combustion in winter, correlating to natural gas power generation patterns at Cornell's Combined Heat and Power Plant located 600 m southeast of the monitoring site. Atmospheric CH4 plumes were primarily of natural gas origin, were observed intermittently throughout the year, and were most frequent in winter and spring. No correlations between the timing of atmospheric natural gas CH4 plumes and Cornell Plant gas use patterns could be drawn. However, elevated CH4 and CO2 concentrations were observed coincident with high winds from the southeast, and the plant is the only major emission source in that wind sector. Our results demonstrate pipeline leakage rates are low in cities with a low extent of leak prone pipe, and natural gas power facilities may be an important source of urban and suburban emissions.

  10. Developing the aquatic-coupled reservoir model to simulate carbon dioxide emission from a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Roulet, N. T.; Strachan, I. B.; Tremblay, A.

    2013-12-01

    We developed a process-based biogeochemical reservoir model, called AF-DNDC (Aquatic-coupled Forest-DNDC), to project carbon (C) flux from water surface of a recently created hydro-electric reservoir that flooded a boreal landscape. The basis of the reservoir model is Forest-DNDC, a biogeochemical model for C and nitrogen cycling in forests and wetlands. AF-DNDC was developed by coupling a lake C model to a flooded version of Forest-DNDC. AF-DNDC includes the C cycling through the aquatic carbon pools, such as DIC (dissolved inorganic C), DOC (dissolved organic C), and planktonic community as well as C exchange between air, water, and sediment. AF-DNDC was used to examine the net change in carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange between the surface and the atmosphere over the first seven years post flooding of the Eastmain-1 reservoir in northern Quebec. With present day climate and environmental conditions, simulated daily CO2 emissions from the flooded forest averaged 1.69 g C m-2 d-1 (range 0 to 20.49), and from the flooded peatland averaged 0.87 g C m-2 d-1 (range 0 to 6.86). Simulated CO2 emissions decreased with the age of reservoir. They were larger than eddy-covariance measured CO2 fluxes from the water surface over flooded forests, but compared well to the eddy-covariance fluxes during the open-water period. The simulated emissions were significantly correlated with the measured fluxes from the flooded forest (r2 = 0.33; p < 0.01) and flooded peatland (r2 = 0.41; p < 0.01). The patterns over the year were similar. AF-DNDC is suitable for use to assess the major changes in CO2 exchange due to the creation of reservoirs in boreal regions.

  11. Potential carbon emissions dominated by carbon dioxide from thawed permafrost soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schädel, Christina; Bader, Martin K.-F.; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Biasi, Christina; Bracho, Rosvel; Čapek, Petr; De Baets, Sarah; Diáková, Kateřina; Ernakovich, Jessica; Estop-Aragones, Cristian; Graham, David E.; Hartley, Iain P.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Kane, Evan S.; Knoblauch, Christian; Lupascu, Massimo; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Natali, Susan M.; Norby, Richard J.; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Šantrůčková, Hana; Shaver, Gaius; Sloan, Victoria L.; Treat, Claire C.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Wickland, Kimberly P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing temperatures in northern high latitudes are causing permafrost to thaw, making large amounts of previously frozen organic matter vulnerable to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also creates a fragmented landscape of drier and wetter soil conditions that determine the amount and form (carbon dioxide (CO2), or methane (CH4)) of carbon (C) released to the atmosphere. The rate and form of C release control the magnitude of the permafrost C feedback, so their relative contribution with a warming climate remains unclear. We quantified the effect of increasing temperature and changes from aerobic to anaerobic soil conditions using 25 soil incubation studies from the permafrost zone. Here we show, using two separate meta-analyses, that a 10 °C increase in incubation temperature increased C release by a factor of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8 to 2.2). Under aerobic incubation conditions, soils released 3.4 (95% CI, 2.2 to 5.2) times more C than under anaerobic conditions. Even when accounting for the higher heat trapping capacity of CH4, soils released 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4) times more C under aerobic conditions. These results imply that permafrost ecosystems thawing under aerobic conditions and releasing CO2 will strengthen the permafrost C feedback more than waterlogged systems releasing CO2 and CH4 for a given amount of C.

  12. Potential carbon emissions dominated by carbon dioxide from thawed permafrost soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädel, Christina; Bader, Martin K.-F.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Biasi, Christina; Bracho, Rosvel; Čapek, Petr; de Baets, Sarah; Diáková, Kateřina; Ernakovich, Jessica; Estop-Aragones, Cristian; Graham, David E.; Hartley, Iain P.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Kane, Evan; Knoblauch, Christian; Lupascu, Massimo; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Natali, Susan M.; Norby, Richard J.; O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Šantrůčková, Hana; Shaver, Gaius; Sloan, Victoria L.; Treat, Claire C.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Wickland, Kimberly P.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing temperatures in northern high latitudes are causing permafrost to thaw, making large amounts of previously frozen organic matter vulnerable to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also creates a fragmented landscape of drier and wetter soil conditions that determine the amount and form (carbon dioxide (CO2), or methane (CH4)) of carbon (C) released to the atmosphere. The rate and form of C release control the magnitude of the permafrost C feedback, so their relative contribution with a warming climate remains unclear. We quantified the effect of increasing temperature and changes from aerobic to anaerobic soil conditions using 25 soil incubation studies from the permafrost zone. Here we show, using two separate meta-analyses, that a 10 °C increase in incubation temperature increased C release by a factor of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8 to 2.2). Under aerobic incubation conditions, soils released 3.4 (95% CI, 2.2 to 5.2) times more C than under anaerobic conditions. Even when accounting for the higher heat trapping capacity of CH4, soils released 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4) times more C under aerobic conditions. These results imply that permafrost ecosystems thawing under aerobic conditions and releasing CO2 will strengthen the permafrost C feedback more than waterlogged systems releasing CO2 and CH4 for a given amount of C.

  13. Potential carbon emissions dominated by carbon dioxide from thawed permafrost soils

    DOE PAGES

    Schadel, Christina; Bader, Martin K. F.; Schuur, Edward; ...

    2016-01-01

    Increasing temperatures in northern high latitudes are causing permafrost to thaw, making large amounts of previously frozen organic matter vulnerable to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also creates a fragmented landscape of drier and wetter soil conditions that determine the amount and form (carbon dioxide (CO2), or methane (CH4)) of carbon (C) released to the atmosphere. The rate and form of C release control the magnitude of the permafrost C feedback, so their relative contribution with a warming climate remains unclear. We quantified the effect of increasing temperature and changes from aerobic to anaerobic soil conditions using 25 soil incubation studiesmore » from the permafrost zone. Here we show, using two separate meta-analyses, that a 10 C increase in incubation temperature increased C release by a factor of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8 to 2.2). Under aerobic incubation conditions, soils released 3.4 (95% CI, 2.2 to 5.2) times more C than under anaerobic conditions. Even when accounting for the higher heat trapping capacity of CH4, soils released 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4) times more C under aerobic conditions. These results imply that permafrost ecosystems thawing under aerobic conditions and releasing CO2 will strengthen the permafrost C feedback more than waterlogged systemsreleasingCO2 andCH4 for a given amount of C.« less

  14. Potential carbon emissions dominated by carbon dioxide from thawed permafrost soils

    SciTech Connect

    Schadel, Christina; Bader, Martin K. F.; Schuur, Edward; Biasi, Christina; Bracho, Rosvel; Capek, Petr; De-Baets, Sarah; Diakova, Katerina; Ernakovich, Jessica G; Estop-Aragones, Cristian; Graham, David E; Hartley, Iain P; Iversen, Colleen M; Kane, Evan; Knoblauch, Christian; Lupascu, Massimo; Martikainen, Pertti; Natali, Susan M; Norby, Richard J; O'Donnell, Jon; Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Santruckova, Hana; Shaver, Gaius; Sloan, Victoria L; Treat, Claire; Turetsky, M. R.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Wickland, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Increasing temperatures in northern high latitudes are causing permafrost to thaw, making large amounts of previously frozen organic matter vulnerable to microbial decomposition. Permafrost thaw also creates a fragmented landscape of drier and wetter soil conditions that determine the amount and form (carbon dioxide (CO2), or methane (CH4)) of carbon (C) released to the atmosphere. The rate and form of C release control the magnitude of the permafrost C feedback, so their relative contribution with a warming climate remains unclear. We quantified the effect of increasing temperature and changes from aerobic to anaerobic soil conditions using 25 soil incubation studies from the permafrost zone. Here we show, using two separate meta-analyses, that a 10 C increase in incubation temperature increased C release by a factor of 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8 to 2.2). Under aerobic incubation conditions, soils released 3.4 (95% CI, 2.2 to 5.2) times more C than under anaerobic conditions. Even when accounting for the higher heat trapping capacity of CH4, soils released 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4) times more C under aerobic conditions. These results imply that permafrost ecosystems thawing under aerobic conditions and releasing CO2 will strengthen the permafrost C feedback more than waterlogged systemsreleasingCO2 andCH4 for a given amount of C.

  15. Vegetation sensitivity to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in a topographically complex region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffenbaugh, N.S.; Sloan, L.C.; Snyder, M.A.; Bell, J.L.; Kaplan, J.; Shafer, S.L.; Bartlein, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may affect vegetation distribution both directly through changes in photosynthesis and water-use efficiency, and indirectly through CO2-induced climate change. Using an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) driven by a regional climate model (RegCM2.5), we tested the sensitivity of vegetation in the western United States, a topographically complex region, to the direct, indirect, and combined effects of doubled preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Those sensitivities were quantified using the kappa statistic. Simulated vegetation in the western United States was sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, with woody biome types replacing less woody types throughout the domain. The simulated vegetation was also sensitive to climatic effects, particularly at high elevations, due to both warming throughout the domain and decreased precipitation in key mountain regions such as the Sierra Nevada of California and the Cascade and Blue Mountains of Oregon. Significantly, when the direct effects of CO2 on vegetation were tested in combination with the indirect effects of CO2-induced climate change, new vegetation patterns were created that were not seen in either of the individual cases. This result indicates that climatic and nonclimatic effects must be considered in tandem when assessing the potential impacts of elevated CO2 levels.

  16. Effects of High Carbon Dioxide Soil-Gas Concentrations and Emission Rates From Mammoth Mountain, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, C. D.; Evans, W. C.

    2006-12-01

    High concentrations (90 vol %) of carbon dioxide (CO2) are present in shallow soils, and CO2 is emitted to the atmosphere at high rates (1,000 g/d/m2), in several locations around Mammoth Mountain. The CO2 emissions have been diffuse and at ambient temperature. CO2 in the soil has killed most of the coniferous forest in five areas totaling 35 ha around the north, west, and south sides of the mountain at altitudes between 2,600 and 3,000 m. Part of the CO2 has dissolved in ground water, causing acidic conditions and severely corroding steel casings in several wells. The high CO2 emission rates are implicated in the deaths of four people in the past eight years. During winter, a large quantity of CO2 is sequestered in the snow pack on parts of the mountain, posing potential dangers for winter recreation. One U.S. Forest Service campground has been closed and safety plans have been implemented by the local ski resort. Mammoth Mountain is a dormant Quaternary volcanic center, but overlies an area that has been affected by periods of magmatic unrest during the past two decades. Hypocenters of long-period earthquakes indicate that basaltic intrusions reach depths as shallow as 20 to 15 km, from which CO2 has exsolved during decompression and (or) crystallization of these intrusions. CO2 moves to the land surface along fracture zones associated with faults and possibly geologic contacts. The magmatic source of CO2 is confirmed by ¦Ä13C = -3 to -5 PDB, a lack of 14C, and 3He/4He = 4 to 5 R/RA. The present-day high CO2 soil-gas concentrations and emission rates were first documented in 1994; however, anecdotal information and low 14C in post-1989 tree rings suggest that an abrupt increase in both concentrations and emission rates probably began in 1990, following a 6-month period of seismic swarm activity beneath the mountain. Emissions in an area on the south flank of the mountain have been the focus of CO2 monitoring and have shown no indications of abatement between

  17. Airborne detection of diffuse carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    1999-01-01

    We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at ~2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at ~3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels ~1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of ~250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at approximately 2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at approximately 3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels approximately 1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of approximately 250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.

  18. Atmospheric dispersion of natural carbon dioxide emissions on Vulcano Island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granieri, D.; Carapezza, M. L.; Barberi, F.; Ranaldi, M.; Ricci, T.; Tarchini, L.

    2014-07-01

    La Fossa quiescent volcano and its surrounding area on the Island of Vulcano (Italy) are characterized by intensive, persistent degassing through both fumaroles and diffuse soil emissions. Periodic degassing crises occur, with marked increase in temperature and steam and gas output (mostly CO2) from crater fumaroles and in CO2 soil diffuse emission from the crater area as well as from the volcano flanks and base. The gas hazard of the most inhabited part of the island, Vulcano Porto, was investigated by simulating the CO2 dispersion in the atmosphere under different wind conditions. The DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) code, an Eulerian model based on advection-diffusion equations, was used together with the mass-consistent Diagnostic Wind Model. Numerical simulations were validated by measurements of air CO2 concentration inside the village and along the crater's rim by means of a Soil CO2 Automatic Station and a Tunable Diode Laser device. The results show that in the village of Vulcano Porto, the CO2 air concentration is mostly due to local soil degassing, while the contribution from the crater gas emission is negligible at the breathing height for humans and always remains well below the lowest indoor CO2 concentration threshold recommended by the health authorities (1000 ppm). Outdoor excess CO2 maxima up to 200 ppm above local background CO2 air concentration are estimated in the center of the village and up to 100 ppm in other zones. However, in some ground excavations or in basements the health code threshold can be exceeded. In the crater area, because of the combined effect of fumaroles and diffuse soil emissions, CO2 air concentrations can reach 5000-7000 ppm in low-wind conditions and pose a health hazard for visitors.

  19. A review on economic emission dispatch problems using quantum computational intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Fahad Parvez; Vasant, Pandian; Kallimani, Vish; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.

    2016-11-01

    Economic emission dispatch (EED) problems are one of the most crucial problems in power systems. Growing energy demand, limitation of natural resources and global warming make this topic into the center of discussion and research. This paper reviews the use of Quantum Computational Intelligence (QCI) in solving Economic Emission Dispatch problems. QCI techniques like Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO) algorithm are discussed here. This paper will encourage the researcher to use more QCI based algorithm to get better optimal result for solving EED problems.

  20. Emission of carbon dioxide influenced by different water levels from soil incubated organic residues.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M B; Puteh, A B

    2013-01-01

    We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO₂-C (265.45 mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120 days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO₂-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO₂-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO₂-C. Maximum CO₂-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO₂-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO₂-C (158.23 mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO₂-C (349.91 mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO₂-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003 g d⁻¹) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon.

  1. Historical carbon dioxide emissions caused by land-use changes are possibly larger than assumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneth, A.; Sitch, S.; Pongratz, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Bayer, A. D.; Bondeau, A.; Calle, L.; Chini, L. P.; Gasser, T.; Fader, M.; Friedlingstein, P.; Kato, E.; Li, W.; Lindeskog, M.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Robertson, E.; Viovy, N.; Yue, C.; Zaehle, S.

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change and CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated because processes such as tree harvesting and land clearing from shifting cultivation have not been considered. As the overall terrestrial sink is constrained, a larger net flux as a result of land-use change implies that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is also larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future. Consequently, reforestation projects and efforts to avoid further deforestation could represent important mitigation pathways, with co-benefits for biodiversity. It is unclear whether a larger land carbon sink can be reconciled with our current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. Our possible underestimation of the historical residual terrestrial carbon sink adds further uncertainty to our capacity to predict the future of terrestrial carbon uptake and losses.

  2. Soil carbon dioxide emissions from the Mojave desert: Isotopic evidence for a carbonate source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soper, Fiona M.; McCalley, Carmody K.; Sparks, Kimberlee; Sparks, Jed P.

    2017-01-01

    Arid soils represent a substantial carbonate pool and may participate in surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange via a diel cycle of carbonate dissolution and exsolution. We used a Keeling plot approach to determine the substrate δ13C of CO2 emitted from carbonate-dominated soils in the Mojave desert and found evidence for a nonrespiratory source that increased with surface temperature. In dry soils at 25-30°C, the CO2 substrate had δ13C values of -19.4 ± 4.2‰, indicative of respiration of organic material (soil organic matter = -23.1 ± 0.8‰). CO2 flux increased with temperature; maximum fluxes occurred above 60°C, where δ13CO2 substrate (-7.2‰ ± 2.8‰) approached soil carbonate values (0.2 ± 0.2‰). In wet soils, CO2 emissions were not temperature dependent, and δ13CO2 substrate was lower in vegetated soils with higher flux rates, higher organic C content, and potential root respiration. These data provide the first direct evidence of CO2 emissions from alkaline desert soils derived from an abiotic source and that diurnal emission patterns are strongly driven by surface temperature.

  3. Emission of Carbon Dioxide Influenced by Different Water Levels from Soil Incubated Organic Residues

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. B.; Puteh, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO2-C (265.45 mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120 days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO2-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO2-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO2-C. Maximum CO2-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO2-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO2-C (158.23 mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO2-C (349.91 mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO2-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003 g d−1) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon. PMID:24163626

  4. Glucosinolate breakdown products as insect fumigants and their effect on carbon dioxide emission of insects

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Rong; Peterson, Chris J; Coats, Joel R

    2002-01-01

    Background Glucosinolate breakdown products are volatile, therefore good candidates for insect fumigants. However, although they are insecticidal, the mode of action of such natural products is not clear. We studied the insecticidal effect of these compounds as fumigants, and monitored the production of carbon dioxide by the insects as a probe to the understanding of their mode of action. Results The fumigation 24-h LC50 against the house fly (Musca domestica L.) of allyl thiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate, allyl cyanide, and l-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene was 0.1, 0.13, 3.66, and 6.2 μg cm-3, respectively; they were 0.55, 1.57, 2.8, and > 19.60 μg cm-3, respectively, against the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius). The fumigation toxicity of some of the glucosinolate products was very close to or better than that of the commercial insect fumigants such as chloropicrin (LC50: 0.08 and 1.3 μg cm-3 against M. domestica and R. dominica, respectively) and dichlorovos (LC50: < 0.02 and 0.29 μg cm-3 against M. domestica and R. dominica, respectively) in our laboratory tests. Significantly increased CO2 expiration was found in insects exposed to the vapor of allyl isothiocyanate, allyl thiocyanate and allyl isocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate was also found to increase the CO2 expiration of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Conclusions Glucosinolate breakdown products have potential as biodegradable and safe insect fumigants. They may act on the insect respiratory system in their mode of action. PMID:11914158

  5. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Alaskan volcanoes quantified using an ultraviolet SO_{2} camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Christoph; Werner, Cynthia; Kelly, Peter; Brewer, Ian; Ketner, Dane; Paskievitch, John; Power, John

    2016-04-01

    Alaskan volcanoes are difficult targets for direct gas measurements as they are extremely remote and their peaks are mostly covered in ice and snow throughout the year. This makes access extremely difficult. In 2015, we were able to make use of an ultraviolet SO2 camera to quantify the SO2 emissions from Augustine Volcano, Redoubt Volcano, Mount Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcano in the Aleutian Arc. An airborne gas survey performed at Augustine Volcano in April 2015 found that the SO2 emission rate from the summit area was below 10 tonnes per day (t/d). SO2 camera measurements were performed two months later (June 2015) from a snow-free area just 100 meters from the fumarole on the south side of Augustine's summit dome to maximize camera sensitivity. Though the visible appearance of the plume emanating from the fumarole was opaque, the SO2 emissions were only slightly above the 40 ppmṡm detection limit of the SO2 camera. Still, SO2 could be detected and compared to coincident MultiGAS measurements of SO2, CO2 and H2S. At Redoubt Volcano, SO2 camera measurements were conducted on 13 June 2015 from a location 2 km to the north of the final 72x106 m3 dome extruded during the 2009 eruption. Imagery was collected of the plume visibly emanating from the top of the dome. Preliminary evaluation of the imagery and comparison with a coincident, helicopter-based DOAS survey showed that SO2 emission rates had dropped below 100 t/d (down from 180 t/d measured in April 2014). Mount Cleveland and Shishaldin Volcano were visited in August 2015 as part of an NSF-funded ship-based research expedition in the Central Aleutian Arc. At Mount Cleveland, inclement weather prohibited the collection of a lengthy time-series of SO2 camera imagery, but the limited data that was collected shows an emission rate of several hundred t/d. At Shishaldin, several hours of continuous imagery was acquired from a location 5 km east of the summit vent. The time series shows an SO2 emission rate of

  6. ARCSECOND RESOLUTION MAPPING OF SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE OF VY CANIS MAJORIS

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Roger R.; Moullet, Arielle; Patel, Nimesh A.; Biersteker, John; Derose, Kimberly L.; Young, Kenneth H.

    2012-02-10

    We report Submillimeter Array observations of SO{sub 2} emission in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, with an angular resolution of Almost-Equal-To 1''. SO{sub 2} emission appears in three distinct outflow regions surrounding the central continuum peak emission that is spatially unresolved. No bipolar structure is noted in the sources. A fourth source of SO{sub 2} is identified as a spherical wind centered at the systemic velocity. We estimate the SO{sub 2} column density and rotational temperature assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) as well as perform non-LTE radiative transfer analysis using RADEX. Column densities of SO{sub 2} are found to be {approx}10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} in the outflows and in the spherical wind. Comparison with existing maps of the two parent species OH and SO shows the SO{sub 2} distribution to be consistent with that of OH. The abundance ratio f{sub SO{sub 2}}/f{sub SO} is greater than unity for all radii larger than 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. SO{sub 2} is distributed in fragmented clumps compared to SO, PN, and SiS molecules. These observations lend support to specific models of circumstellar chemistry that predict f{sub SO{sub 2}}/f{sub SO}>1 and may suggest the role of localized effects such as shocks in the production of SO{sub 2} in the CSE.

  7. Variation in sulfur dioxide emissions related to earth tides, Halemaumau crater, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, Charles B.; Stoiber, Richard E.; Malinconico, Lawrence L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Variation in SO2 emissions from Halemaumau crater, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii is analyzed using a set of techniques known as exploratory data analysis. SO2 flux was monitored using a correlation spectrometer. A total of 302 measurements were made on 73 days over a 90-day period. The mean flux was 171 t/d with a standard deviation of 52 t/d. A significant increase in flux occurs during increased seismic activity beneath the caldera. SO2 flux prior to this change varies in a systematic way and may be related to variation in the tidal modulation envelope.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Kill Zones Around the Resurgent Dome, Long Valley Caldera, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W. C.; Farrar, C. D.; Howle, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    An episode of seismic unrest beneath the resurgent dome at Long Valley caldera (LVC) in eastern California began in 1980 and is associated with approximately 80 cm of cumulative uplift on parts of the dome since that time. Studies of hydrologic and geochemical parameters can be useful in determining the source of uplift; and of particular relevance here, studies of diffuse soil degassing and temperature have been used to examine relations between gas emissions, uplift, and energy release. We present results from an eighteen-month investigation of soil temperature, soil-gas chemistry and CO2 efflux from fourteen discrete areas of vegetation kill that have appeared inside the caldera over the past two decades. Compared with the tree-kill around Mammoth Mountain on the southwest rim of the caldera, dead zones we studied around the resurgent dome are small. Individually the areas cover between 800 and 36,000 m2. All of the areas have some sites with elevated CO2 flux and elevated soil temperature. \\delta 13C values of CO2 from sites in eight of the studied areas are between -5.7 and -3.9\\permil, and are within the range of magmatic CO2. Results from the flux measurements indicate that on average total CO2 emissions from four of the areas sum about 10 tonnes per day. The other vegetation kill areas currently have only a few sites that exhibit anomalous soil temperatures and CO2 flux, and CO2 emissions from these areas are typically less than 0.3 of a tonne per day. The chemical composition of gas emissions from thermal ground in kill zones located 1.5 to 2 km northwest of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant demonstrate a connection between some of the dead areas and perturbations related to geothermal fluid production. These results and estimates of thermal output from two of the high flux grids are used to evaluate the premise that the gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to magmatic intrusion beneath the resurgent dome.

  9. Measurements of soil carbon dioxide emissions from two maize agroecosystems at harvest under different tillage conditions.

    PubMed

    Giacomo, Gerosa; Angelo, Finco; Fabio, Boschetti; Stefano, Brenna; Riccardo, Marzuoli

    2014-01-01

    In this study a comparison of the soil CO2 fluxes emitted from two maize (Zea mays L.) fields with the same soil type was performed. Each field was treated with a different tillage technique: conventional tillage (30 cm depth ploughing) and no-tillage. Measurements were performed in the Po Valley (Italy) from September to October 2012, covering both pre- and postharvesting conditions, by means of two identical systems based on automatic static soil chambers. Main results show that no-tillage technique caused higher CO2 emissions than conventional tillage (on average 2.78 and 0.79 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), resp.). This result is likely due to decomposition of the organic litter left on the ground of the no-tillage site and thus to an increased microbial and invertebrate respiration. On the other hand, fuel consumption of conventional tillage technique is greater than no-tillage consumptions. For these reasons this result cannot be taken as general. More investigations are needed to take into account all the emissions related to the field management cycle.

  10. Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future.

  11. [Progress in microalgae culture system for biodiesel combined with reducing carbon dioxide emission].

    PubMed

    Su, Hongyang; Zhou, Xuefei; Xia, Xuefen; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Yalei

    2011-09-01

    Wastewater resources, CO2 emission reduction and microalgae biodiesel are considered as current frontier fields of energy and environmental researches. In this paper, we reviewed the progress in system of microalgae culture for biodiesel production by wastewater and stack gas. Multiple factors including microalgal species, nutrition, culture methods and photobioreactor, which were crucial to the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, were discussed in detail. A valuable culture system of microalgae for biodiesel production or other high value products combined with the treatment of wastewater by microalgae was put forward through the optimizations of algal species and culture technology. The culture system coupled with the treatment of wastewater, the reduction of CO2 emission with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production will reduce the production cost of microalgal biofuel production and the treatment cost of wastewater simultaneously. Therefore, it would be a promising technology with important environmental value, social value and economic value to combine the treatment of wastewater with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production.

  12. The abatement strategies assessment model—ASAM: Applications to reductions of sulphur dioxide emissions across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ApSimon, H. M.; Warren, R. F.; Wilson, J. J. N.

    In May 1991 the 34 nations of the UN ECE region agreed that strategies for the abatement of SO 2 and NO x should be designed in the most cost-effective way, and that the concept of critical loads should serve as a guideline to formulate these strategies where science has provided the necessary information. The ASAM model has been developed in this context, as a computer tool to aid in guiding policy through investigation of the effectiveness of potential abatement strategies in Europe. In evaluating the environmental consequences, it takes into account the geographical distribution of emissions and the patterns of atmospheric transport and deposition; with the introduction of costs of reducing the different emissions, it provides a stepwise optimized approach to attaining specified target loads or critical loads for deposition across Europe, subject to flexible constraints in different countries. This paper describes the ASAM model, and work undertaken to establish the robustness of the model with regard to the assumptions made and uncertainties in the data used; and explores a range of scenarios currently being addressed.

  13. Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel N; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO(2) emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future.

  14. Emissions of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from uncompressed and pelletized biomass fuel burning in typical household stoves in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Tong, Yindong; Shen, Guofeng; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Xuejun

    2012-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) impact climate change and human health. The uncertainties in emissions inventories of CO2 and CO are primarily due to the large variation in measured emissions factors (EFs), especially to the lack of EFs from developing countries. China's goals of reducing CO2 emissions require a maximum utilization of biomass fuels. Pelletized biomass fuels are well suited for the residential biomass market, providing possibilities of more automated and optimized systems with higher modified combustion efficiency (MCE) and less products from incomplete combustion. However, EFs of CO2 and CO from pellet biomass fuels are seldom reported, and a comparison to conventional uncompressed biomass fuels has never been conducted. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to experimentally determine the CO2 and CO EFs from uncompressed biomass (i.e., firewood and crop residues) and biomass pellets (i.e., pine wood pellet and corn straw pellet) under real residential applications and to compare the influences of fuel properties and combustion conditions on CO2 and CO emissions from the two types of biomass fuels. For the uncompressed biomass examples, the CO2 and CO EFs were 1649.4 ± 35.2 g kg-1 and 47.8 ± 8.9 g kg-1, respectively, for firewood and 1503.2 ± 148.5 g kg-1 and 52.0 ± 14.2 g kg-1, respectively, for crop residues. For the pellet biomass fuel examples, the CO2 and CO EFs were 1708.0 ± 3.8 g kg-1 and 4.4 ± 2.4 g kg-1, respectively, for pellet pine and 1552.1 ± 16.3 g kg-1 and 17.9 ± 10.2 g kg-1, respectively, for pellet corn. In rural China areas during 2007, firewood and crop residue burning produced 721.7 and 23.4 million tons of CO2 and CO, respectively.

  15. The effect of regional groundwater on carbon dioxide and methane emissions from a lowland rainforest stream in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviedo-Vargas, Diana; Genereux, David P.; Dierick, Diego; Oberbauer, Steven F.

    2015-12-01

    In the tropical rainforest at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica, regional bedrock groundwater high in dissolved carbon discharges into some streams and wetlands, with the potential for multiple cascading effects on ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes. We investigated carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) degassing from two streams at La Selva: the Arboleda, where approximately one third of the streamflow is from regional groundwater, and the Taconazo, fed exclusively by local groundwater recharged within the catchment. The regional groundwater inflow to the Arboleda had no measurable effect on stream gas exchange velocity, dissolved CH4 concentration, or CH4 emissions but significantly increased stream CO2 concentration and degassing. CO2 evasion from the reach of the Arboleda receiving regional groundwater (lower Arboleda) averaged 5.5 mol C m-2 d-1, ~7.5 times higher than the average (0.7 mol C m-2 d-1) from the stream reaches with no regional groundwater inflow (the Taconazo and upper Arboleda). Carbon emissions from both streams were dominated by CO2; CH4 accounted for only 0.06-1.70% of the total (average of both streams: 5 × 10-3 mol C m-2 d-1). Annual stream degassing fluxes normalized by watershed area were 48 and 299 g C m-2 for the Taconazo and Arboleda, respectively. CO2 degassing from the Arboleda is a significant carbon flux, similar in magnitude to the average net ecosystem exchange estimated by eddy covariance. Examining the effects of catchment connections to underlying hydrogeological systems can help avoid overestimation of ecosystem respiration and advance our understanding of carbon source/sink status and overall terrestrial ecosystem carbon budgets.

  16. Risk of Asthmatic Episodes in Children Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide Stack Emissions from a Refinery Point Source in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smargiassi, Audrey; Kosatsky, Tom; Hicks, John; Plante, Céline; Armstrong, Ben; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goudreau, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the respiratory effects of short-term exposures to petroleum refinery emissions in young children. This study is an extension of an ecologic study that found an increased rate of hospitalizations for respiratory conditions among children living near petroleum refineries in Montreal (Canada). Methods We used a time-stratified case–crossover design to assess the risk of asthma episodes in relation to short-term variations in sulfur dioxide levels among children 2–4 years of age living within 0.5–7.5 km of the refinery stacks. Health data used to measure asthma episodes included emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions from 1996 to 2004. We estimated daily levels of SO2 at the residence of children using a) two fixed-site SO2 monitors located near the refineries and b) the AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model) atmospheric dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios associated with an increase in the interquartile range of daily SO2 mean and peak exposures (31.2 ppb for AERMOD peaks). We adjusted for temperature, relative humidity, and regional/urban background air pollutant levels. Results The risks of asthma ED visits and hospitalizations were more pronounced for same-day (lag 0) SO2 peak levels than for mean levels on the same day, or for other lags: the adjusted odds ratios estimated for same-day SO2 peak levels from AERMOD were 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00–1.22] and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.82), over the interquartile range, for ED visits and hospital admissions, respectively. Conclusions Short-term episodes of increased SO2 exposures from refinery stack emissions were associated with a higher number of asthma episodes in nearby children. PMID:19440507

  17. Carbon dioxide emissions from Tucuruí reservoir (Amazon biome): New findings based on three-dimensional ecological model simulations.

    PubMed

    Curtarelli, Marcelo Pedroso; Ogashawara, Igor; de Araújo, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Lorenzzetti, João Antônio; Leão, Joaquim Antônio Dionísio; Alcântara, Enner; Stech, José Luiz

    2016-05-01

    We used a three-dimensional model to assess the dynamics of diffusive carbon dioxide flux (F(CO2)) from a hydroelectric reservoir located at Amazon rainforest. Our results showed that for the studied periods (2013 summer/wet and winter/dry seasons) the surface averaged F(CO2) presented similar behaviors, with regular emissions peaks. The mean daily surface averaged F(CO2) showed no significant difference between the seasons (p>0.01), with values around -1338mg Cm-2day-1 (summer/wet) and -1395mg Cm-2day-1 (winter/dry). At diel scale, the F(CO2) was large during the night and morning and low during the afternoon in both seasons. Regarding its spatial distribution, the F(CO2) showed to be more heterogeneous during the summer/wet than during the winter/dry season. The highest F(CO2) were observed at transition zone (-300mg Cm-2h-1) during summer and at littoral zone (-55mg Cm-2h-1) during the winter. The total CO2 emitted by the reservoir along 2013 year was estimated to be 1.1Tg C year-1. By extrapolating our results we found that the total carbon emitted by all Amazonian reservoirs can be around 7Tg C year-1, which is 22% lower than the previous published estimate. This significant difference should not be neglected in the carbon inventories since the carbon emission is a key factor when comparing the environmental impacts of different sources of electricity generation and can influences decision makers in the selection of the more appropriate source of electricity and, in case of hydroelectricity, the geographical position of the reservoirs.

  18. The impact of future carbon dioxide emission reduction targets on U.S. electric sector water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Colin MacKay

    The U.S. electric sector's reliance on water makes it vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on water resources. Here we analyze how constraints on U.S. energy system carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions could affect water withdrawal and consumption in the U.S. electric sector through 2055. We use simulations of the EPA's U.S. 9-region (EPAUS9r) MARKAL least-cost optimization energy systems model with updated water use factors for electricity generating technologies. Model results suggest CO2 constraints could force the retirement of old power plants and drive increased use of low water-use renewable and nuclear power as well as natural gas CCS plants with more advanced cooling systems. These changes in electric sector technology mix reduce water withdrawal in all scenarios but increase water consumption in aggressive scenarios. Decreased electric sector water withdrawal would likely reduce electric sector vulnerability to climate change, but the rise in consumption could increase competition with other users.

  19. Rapid carbon mineralization for permanent disposal of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Juerg M.; Stute, Martin; Snæbjörnsdottir, Sandra Ó.; Oelkers, Eric H.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.; Aradottir, Edda S.; Sigfusson, Bergur; Gunnarsson, Ingvi; Sigurdardottir, Holmfridur; Gunnlaugsson, Einar; Axelsson, Gudni; Alfredsson, Helgi A.; Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Mesfin, Kiflom; Taya, Diana Fernandez de la Reguera; Hall, Jennifer; Dideriksen, Knud; Broecker, Wallace S.

    2016-06-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) provides a solution toward decarbonization of the global economy. The success of this solution depends on the ability to safely and permanently store CO2. This study demonstrates for the first time the permanent disposal of CO2 as environmentally benign carbonate minerals in basaltic rocks. We find that over 95% of the CO2 injected into the CarbFix site in Iceland was mineralized to carbonate minerals in less than 2 years. This result contrasts with the common view that the immobilization of CO2 as carbonate minerals within geologic reservoirs takes several hundreds to thousands of years. Our results, therefore, demonstrate that the safe long-term storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions through mineralization can be far faster than previously postulated.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  1. Air plasma gasification of RDF as a prospective method for reduction of carbon dioxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratsev, A. N.; Kumkova, I. I.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Popov, V. E.; Shtengel', S. V.; Ufimtsev, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    Waste disposal dumps are one of sources of carbonic gas penetration in the atmosphere. The waste is treated into RDF (refuse-derived fuel) and used in boilers for electric power or heat generation for decrease in carbonic gas emissions in the atmosphere. In industry power stations on the basis of the combined cycle have the highest efficiency of burning. The paper deals with the application of an air-plasma gasifier using the down draft scheme of RDF transformation into synthesis gas, which afterwards can be used in the combined cycle. Results of calculations of the process characteristics for various RDF compositions are presented. The advantage of the plasma method in comparison with autothermal one is shown. Experimental data are shown.

  2. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  3. Rapid carbon mineralization for permanent disposal of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Matter, Juerg M; Stute, Martin; Snæbjörnsdottir, Sandra Ó; Oelkers, Eric H; Gislason, Sigurdur R; Aradottir, Edda S; Sigfusson, Bergur; Gunnarsson, Ingvi; Sigurdardottir, Holmfridur; Gunnlaugsson, Einar; Axelsson, Gudni; Alfredsson, Helgi A; Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Mesfin, Kiflom; Fernandez de la Reguera Taya, Diana; Hall, Jennifer; Dideriksen, Knud; Broecker, Wallace S

    2016-06-10

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) provides a solution toward decarbonization of the global economy. The success of this solution depends on the ability to safely and permanently store CO2 This study demonstrates for the first time the permanent disposal of CO2 as environmentally benign carbonate minerals in basaltic rocks. We find that over 95% of the CO2 injected into the CarbFix site in Iceland was mineralized to carbonate minerals in less than 2 years. This result contrasts with the common view that the immobilization of CO2 as carbonate minerals within geologic reservoirs takes several hundreds to thousands of years. Our results, therefore, demonstrate that the safe long-term storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions through mineralization can be far faster than previously postulated.

  4. A compilation of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emission-rate data from Cook Inlet volcanoes (Redoubt, Spurr, Iliamna, and Augustine), Alaska during the period from 1990 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doukas, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Airborne sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas sampling of the Cook Inlet volcanoes (Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) began in 1986 when several measurements were carried out at Augustine volcano during the eruption of 1986 (Rose and others, 1988). More systematic monitoring for SO2 began in March 1990 and for carbon dioxide (CO2) began in June, 1990 at Redoubt Volcano (Brantley, 1990 and Casadevall and others, 1994) and continues to the present. This report contains all of the available daily SO2 and CO2 emission rates determined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 1990 through July 1994. Intermittent measurements (four to six month intervals) at Augustine and Iliamna began in 1990 and continues to the present. Intermittent measurements began at Mt. Spurr volcano in 1991, and were continued at more regular intervals from June, 1992 through the 1992 eruption at the Crater Peak vent to the present.

  5. A comprehensive carbon dioxide analysis system for estimating CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, A.; Parazoo, N.; Lokupitiya, R. S.; Baker, D. F.

    2010-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions due to combustion of fossil fuel can be estimated from observations of variations in atmospheric trace gases in time and space. Quantitative interpretation of these variations requires accounting for stronger changes due to other processes such as ecosystem metabolism, biomass burning, and air-sea gas exchange that operate on global scales. We have developed and tested an analysis system for assimilation of CO2 variations measured by a combination of sampling, in-situ, and remotely-sensed observations. The system combines existing models of CO2 exchanges due to hourly photosynthesis and respiration, daily air-sea gas exchange, biomass burning, fossil fuel emissions, and atmospheric transport. This comprehensive system allows direct comparison to the observed record of both in-situ and remotely sensed atmospheric CO2 at hourly timescales. By design, we decompose surface fluxes of CO2 into the atmosphere into “fast processes” that are well-understood and modeled using mechanistic algorithms, and more slowly-varying fluxes due to land use change, incorrect specification of decomposing carbon pools, and other persistent biases in the forward component models. These slowly varying components are then estimated from atmospheric obervations by the Maximum Likelihood Ensembe Filter, a data assimilation framework. The system is operated on a 0.5° x 0.67° grid, providing global mesoscale coverage, and has good skill at replicating diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal variations over vegetated land surfaces. It is driven by meteorological output from the NASA Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System. Surface weather from the system drives calculations of terrestrial ecosystem metabolism (radiation, precipitation, humidity, temperature) and air-sea gas exchange (wind), with other input data coming from satellite data products.

  6. Discussion paper on wholesale ratemaking considerations for sulfur dioxide emissions allowance trading

    SciTech Connect

    Wessler, E.

    1993-07-01

    The acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created an allowance trading program for SO{sub 2} emissions from electric utility power plants. Theoretically, the trading program will provide utilities the flexibility to control their SO{sub 2} emissions at minimum aggregate societal costs. The trading program is a significant change from command-and-control environmental policies. A continuing concern is whether the market-oriented trading program is compatible with the pervasive rate regulation of the electric utility industry. Economists accept traditional rate regulation policies tend to provide incentives for utilities to minimize risks, rather than costs. To the extent that this is true, the allowance trading experiment is not likely to be successful. A number of commenters have described proposals for alternative regulatory policies to provide utilities with appropriate incentives for cost-minimization. These proposals focus on utility incentives at a {open_quotes}macro{close_quotes} level This paper has a {open_quotes}micro{close_quotes} level focus. It examines options for ratemaking that may also influence utility incentives for cost-minimization to provide a structured discussion of the different types of transactions that involve allowances. Emphasis is on the implications of allowance trading on ratemaking for wholesale power sales. Some of the same considerations that apply to wholesale ratemaking may also apply to retail ratemaking. Four generic types of allowance transactions are examined: Type 1: Unbundled Allowance Sales, Type 2: Wholesale Power Sales, Type 3: Pooling Arrangements, and Type 4: Holding Company Transactions. Each of these four generic allowance transactions is assessed along two 3 dimensions: jurisdictional issues and wholesale ratemaking considerations.

  7. Emission rate, isotopic composition and origin(s) of magmatic carbon dioxide at Merapi volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, P.

    2012-12-01

    Merapi volcano, located on a ~25 thick continental-type arc crust in central Java, is one of the most active arc volcanoes worldwide, where high temperature summit degassing and extrusion of basic andesite lava domes have persisted for several centuries at least. Carbon dioxide is the main anhydrous component of emitted magmatic gases [1,2] and is released at a time-averaged rate of ~500 tons/day from both high-temperature (900-600°C) gas venting [3] and soil degassing in the summit area [4]. Its δ13C averages -4.0±0.2 ‰ at the extruding lava dome and at all other degassing sites [1-4], thus evidencing its overall magmatic derivation. However, its ultimate origin is still debated. Merapi lavas indeed contain abundant calc-silicate (skarn-type) xenoliths and Ca-rich xenocrysts [5-7] which demonstrates shallow magma interactions with carbonate sediments present in the basement and renders plausible a crustal contribution to the magmatic CO2 output [1,6,7]. Here I outline a number of geochemical constraints which suggest that such a shallow crustal contribution may be of second order with respect to a deep slab carbon contribution: (i) The CO2/3He ratio of Merapi magmatic gases (5 times higher than the average MORB ratio), combined with the δ13C for MORB-type upper mantle carbon (-7 to -4‰), implies that the volcanic CO2 contains 80% of non-mantle carbon with maximum δ13C of -3.25‰. This is much lower than the potential δ13C of metamorphic CO2 generated from local carbonate sediments (-2.2 to +1.4‰; [1,8]); (ii) The δ13C of Merapi volcanic CO2 has remained remarkably constant over 30 years of standard eruptive activity, implying steady conditions of genesis and transfer from depth to the surface. This discards a permanent influence of likely variable magma-carbonate interactions. Instead, such interactions could well be responsible of one single 'anomalous' transient δ13C value (-2.4‰) measured just after a nearby tectonic earthquake in 2006 [8]; and

  8. Societal Consequences of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Impacts to Well Being of Reduced Fossil Fuel Dependence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebill-Prather, Rose Louise

    The threat of global warming raises important questions about ways human activities are altering the biophysical environment. The burning of fossil fuels by modern societies is a principal contributor to greenhouse gases implicated in climate change. Furthermore, there is growing concern about how global environmental changes anticipated due to global warming may impact the long-term sustainability of all societies. The threat of global warming challenges scientists and policy makers to further our understanding of relationships among fossil fuel consumption and CO_2, emissions on the one hand, and economic and social well-being on the other. This challenge is especially germane to the industrialized countries, for they are the largest consumers of fossil fuels. This study comprises a multiwave panel design focused on the period 1950-1985 for twenty-three highly industrialized nations. A trend analysis showed that CO _2 emissions diverged along three separate patterns after 1970, grouping countries into one of the three patterns, while measures of societal well -being continued on their historical trajectories. Numerous comparisons made via a path analysis showed that the amount of fossil fuel consumed had a continued positive impact on economic well-being. At the same time overall fossil fuel consumption had a declining and sometimes negligible direct effect on various dimensions of social well-being over the time period. On the general welfare and modern life-style dimensions, the positive impact of economic well-being overshadowed the impact of fossil fuel consumption. Both fossil fuel consumption and economic well-being had a declining negative influence on health and safety and an insignificant effect on life stress. The structure of energy use, reflected in gross land mass, appeared to have an important influence on fossil fuel consumption, with greater geographical dispersion leading to greater fossil fuel consumption. However while the structure of energy

  9. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Diffuse Carbon Dioxide Emission From Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, I.; Melián, G.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.; Strauch, W.

    2002-12-01

    Cerro Negro is a basaltic cinder cone that has erupted 22 times since its birth in 1850. It is part of a group of four young cinder cones NW of Las Pilas volcano. Cerro Negro's most recent activity was on 5 August 1999 when erupted ash clouds at heights of about 7 km. In December 1999, three months after the eruption, a surface flux survey was carried out at Cerro Negro. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from 0.5 to 35,000 gm-2d-1 and the total diffuse CO2 output was estimated about 2,800 td-1. Soil temperature reached values above 300°C on the NE flank of the volcano (Salazar et al., 2001). The goal of this study is to evaluate how diffuse CO2 degassing rate at Cerro Negro changes through its eruptive cycle and improve its volcano monitoring program. From Febraury 26 to March 11, 2002, a new diffuse CO2 degassing survey was carried out at Cerro Negro. Sampling distribution was similar to the 1999 survey covering an area of (0.6 Km2). Diffuse CO2 emission rates for the 2002 survey showed a wide range of values from 0.3 to 26,500 gm-2d-1. Most of the study area showed soil CO2 efflux values above 110 gm-2d-1, and the highest CO2 efflux rate was observed in the Northeastern sector of the crater. Soil temperature was also recorded during the survey, and the highest value was observed in the NE flank reaching temperatures up to 450°C. The total diffuse CO2 output for the 2002 survey was estimated about 280 td-1, which is one order of magnitude lower than the estimated for the 1999 survey. This significant temporal variation on diffuse CO2 emission rate seems to be clearly related to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. If we consider that the statistically eruptive cycle for Cerro Negro is less than a decade, it is obvious that the December 1999 survey was performed within its post-eruptive period, while the recent 2002 survey was carried out two years and a half after the most recent eruption of Cerro Negro, within its inter-eruptive period. These results suggest that

  10. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters in India - implications for large scale greenhouse gas balances.

    PubMed

    Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Bastviken, David

    2014-11-01

    Inland waters were recently recognized to be important sources of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the atmosphere, and including inland water emissions in large scale greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets may potentially offset the estimated carbon sink in many areas. However, the lack of GHG flux measurements and well-defined inland water areas for extrapolation, make the magnitude of the potential offset unclear. This study presents coordinated flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 in multiple lakes, ponds, rivers, open wells, reservoirs, springs, and canals in India. All these inland water types, representative of common aquatic ecosystems in India, emitted substantial amounts of CH4 and a major fraction also emitted CO2 . The total CH4 flux (including ebullition and diffusion) from all the 45 systems ranged from 0.01 to 52.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) , with a mean of 7.8 ± 12.7 (mean ± 1 SD) mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean surface water CH4 concentration was 3.8 ± 14.5 μm (range 0.03-92.1 μm). The CO2 fluxes ranged from -28.2 to 262.4 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) and the mean flux was 51.9 ± 71.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean partial pressure of CO2 was 2927 ± 3269 μatm (range: 400-11 467 μatm). Conservative extrapolation to whole India, considering the specific area of the different water types studied, yielded average emissions of 2.1 Tg CH4  yr(-1) and 22.0 Tg CO2  yr(-1) from India's inland waters. When expressed as CO2 equivalents, this amounts to 75 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) (53-98 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) ; ± 1 SD), with CH4 contributing 71%. Hence, average inland water GHG emissions, which were not previously considered, correspond to 42% (30-55%) of the estimated land carbon sink of India. Thereby this study illustrates the importance of considering inland water GHG exchange in large scale assessments.

  11. Quantifying UK emissions of carbon dioxide using an integrative measurement strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzi, S.; Palmer, P.

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) programme is to quantify the magnitude and uncertainty of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from the UK. GAUGE builds on the tall tower network established by the UK Government to estimate fluxes from England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The GAUGE measurement programme includes two additional tall tower sites (one in North Yorkshire and one downwind of London); regular measurements of CO2 and CH4 isotopologues; instrumentation installed on a ferry that travels daily along the eastern coast of the UK from Scotland to Belgium; a research aircraft that has been deployed on a campaign basis; and a high-density network over East Anglia that is primarily focused on the agricultural sector. We have also included satellite observations from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) through ongoing activities within the UK National Centre for Earth Observation. In this presentation, we will present new CO2 flux estimates for the UK inferred from GAUGE measurements using a nested, high-resolution (25 km) version of the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model and an ensemble Kalman filter. We will present our current best estimate for CO2 fluxes and a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of individual GAUGE data sources to spatially resolve CO2 flux estimates over the UK. We will also discuss how flux estimates inferred from the different models used within GAUGE can help to assess the role of transport model error and to determine an ensemble CO2 flux estimate for the UK.

  12. Quantifying carbon dioxide and methane emissions and carbon dynamics from flooded boreal forest soil.

    PubMed

    Oelbermann, Maren; Schiff, Sherry L

    2008-01-01

    The boreal forest is subject to natural and anthropogenic disturbances, but the production of greenhouse gases as a result of flooding for hydroelectric power generation has received little attention. It was hypothesized that flooded soil would result in greater CO(2) and CH(4) emissions and carbon (C) fractionation compared with non-flooded soil. To evaluate this hypothesis, soil C and nitrogen (N) dynamics, CO(2) and CH(4) mean production rates, and (13)C fractionation in laboratory incubations at 14 and 21 degrees C under non-flooded and flooded conditions and its effect on labile and recalcitrant C sources were determined. A ferro-humic Podzol was collected at three different sites at the Experimental Lakes Area, Canada, with a high (19,834 g C m(-2)), medium (18,066 g C m(-2)), and low (11,060 g C m(-2)) soil organic C (SOC) stock. Soil organic C and total N stocks (g m(-2)) and concentrations (g kg(-1)) were significantly different (p < 0.05) among soil horizons within each of the three sites. Stable isotope analysis showed a significant enrichment in delta(13)C and delta(15)N with depth and an enrichment in delta(13)C and delta(15)N with decreasing SOC and N concentration. The mean CO(2) and CH(4) production rates were greatest in soil horizons with the highest SOC stock and were significantly higher at 21 degrees C and in flooded treatments. The delta(13)C of the evolved CO(2) (delta(13)C-CO(2)) became significantly enriched with time during decomposition, and the greatest degree of fractionation occurred in the organic Litter, Fungal, and Humic forest soil horizons and in soil with a high SOC stock compared with the mineral horizon and soil with a lower SOC stock. The delta(13)C-CO(2) was significantly depleted in flooded treatments compared with non-flooded treatments.

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions through oxidative peat decomposition on a burnt tropical peatland.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Kusin, Kitso; Limin, Suwido; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-02-01

    In Southeast Asia, a huge amount of peat has accumulated under swamp forests over millennia. Fires have been widely used for land clearing after timber extraction, thus land conversion and land management with logging and drainage are strongly associated with fire activity. During recent El Niño years, tropical peatlands have been severely fire-affected and peatland fires enlarged. To investigate the impact of peat fires on the regional and global carbon balances, it is crucial to assess not only direct carbon emissions through peat combustion but also oxidative peat decomposition after fires. However, there is little information on the carbon dynamics of tropical peat damaged by fires. Therefore, we continuously measured soil CO2 efflux [peat respiration (RP)] through oxidative peat decomposition using six automated chambers on a burnt peat area, from which about 0.7 m of the upper peat had been lost during two fires, in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The RP showed a clear seasonal variation with higher values in the dry season. The RP increased logarithmically as groundwater level (GWL) lowered. Temperature sensitivity or Q10 of RP decreased as GWL lowered, mainly because the vertical distribution of RP would shift downward with the expansion of an unsaturated soil zone. Although soil temperature at the burnt open area was higher than that in a near peat swamp forest, model simulation suggests that the effect of temperature rise on RP is small. Annual gap-filled RP was 382 ± 82 (the mean ± 1 SD of six chambers) and 362 ± 74 gC m(-2)  yr(-1) during 2004-2005 and during 2005-2006 years, respectively. Simulated RP showed a significant negative relationship with GWL on an annual basis, which suggests that every GWL lowering by 0.1 m causes additional RP of 89 gC m(-2)  yr(-1) . The RP accounted for 21-24% of ecosystem respiration on an annual basis.

  14. Investigation of carbon dioxide emission in China by primary component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Liu, Lian; Guo, Hang; Liu, Guo-Dong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2014-02-15

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions (COEs) stemming from fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing and their affecting factors. Eight affecting factors, namely, Population (P), Urban Population (UP); the Output Values of Primary Industry (PIOV), Secondary Industry (SIOV), and Tertiary Industry (TIOV); and the Proportions of Primary Industry's Output Value (PPIOV), Secondary Industry's Output Value (PSIOV), and Tertiary Industry's Output Value (PTIOV), are chosen. PCA is employed to eliminate the multicollinearity of the affecting factors. Two principal components, which can explain 92.86% of the variance of the eight affecting factors, are chosen as variables in the regression analysis. Ordinary least square regression is used to estimate multiple linear regression models, in which COEs and the principal components serve as dependent and independent variables, respectively. The results are given in the following. (1) Theoretically, the carbon intensities of PIOV, SIOV, and TIOV are 2573.4693, 552.7036, and 606.0791 kt per one billion $, respectively. The incomplete statistical data, the different statistical standards, and the ideology of self sufficiency and peasantry appear to show that the carbon intensity of PIOV is higher than those of SIOV and TIOV in China. (2) PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV influence the fluctuations of COE. The parameters of PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV are -2706946.7564, 2557300.5450, and 3924767.9807 kt, respectively. As the economic structure of China is strongly tied to technology level, the period when PIOV plays the leading position is characterized by lagging technology and economic developing. Thus, the influence of PPIOV has a negative value. As the increase of PSIOV and PTIOV is always followed by technological innovation and economic development, PSIOV and PTIOV have the opposite influence. (3) The carbon intensities of P and UP are 1.1029 and 1.7862 kt per thousand people

  15. Tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on dryland soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Jabro, Jalal D; Caesar-Tonthat, Thecan

    2010-01-01

    Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO(2) emissions and to increase C sequestration. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combinations and N fertilization on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) and soil surface CO(2) flux and C content (0- to 120-cm depth) in a Williams loam from May to October, 2006 to 2008, in eastern Montana. Treatments were no-tilled continuous malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) (NTCB), no-tilled malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) (NTB-P), no-tilled malt barley-fallow (NTB-F), and conventional-tilled malt barley-fallow (CTB-F), each with 0 and 80 kg N ha(-1). Measurements were made both in Phase I (malt barley in NTCB, pea in NTB-P, and fallow in NTB-F and CTB-F) and Phase II (malt barley in all sequences) of each cropping sequence in every year. Crop biomass varied among years, was greater in the barley than in the pea phase of the NTB-P treatment, and greater in NTCB and NTB-P than in NTB-F and CTB-F in 2 out of 3 yr. Similarly, biomass was greater with 80 than with 0 kg N ha(-1) in 1 out of 3 yr. Soil CO(2) flux increased from 8 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in early May to 239 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in mid-June as temperature increased and then declined to 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in September-October. Fluxes peaked immediately following substantial precipitation (>10 mm), especially in NTCB and NTB-P. Cumulative CO(2) flux from May to October was greater in 2006 and 2007 than in 2008, greater in cropping than in fallow phases, and greater in NTCB than in NTB-F. Tillage did not influence crop biomass and CO(2) flux but N fertilization had a variable effect on the flux in 2008. Similarly, soil total C content was not influenced by treatments. Annual cropping increased CO(2) flux compared with crop-fallow probably by increasing crop residue returns to soils and root and rhizosphere respiration. Inclusion of peas in the rotation with malt barley in the no-till system, which have been known to reduce N fertilization rates and

  16. Warming of subarctic tundra increases emissions of all three important greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E; Marushchak, Maija E; Lind, Saara E; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina

    2016-11-14

    Rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic might cause a greater release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. To study the effect of warming on GHG dynamics, we deployed open-top chambers in a subarctic tundra site in Northeast European Russia. We determined carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes as well as the concentration of those gases, inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the soil profile. Studied tundra surfaces ranged from mineral to organic soils and from vegetated to unvegetated areas. As a result of air warming, the seasonal GHG budget of the vegetated tundra surfaces shifted from a GHG sink of -300 to -198 g CO2 -eq m(-2) to a source of 105 to 144 g CO2 -eq m(-2) . At bare peat surfaces, we observed increased release of all three GHGs. While the positive warming response was dominated by CO2 , we provide here the first in situ evidence of increasing N2 O emissions from tundra soils with warming. Warming promoted N2 O release not only from bare peat, previously identified as a strong N2 O source, but also from the abundant, vegetated peat surfaces that do not emit N2 O under present climate. At these surfaces, elevated temperatures had an adverse effect on plant growth, resulting in lower plant N uptake and, consequently, better N availability for soil microbes. Although the warming was limited to the soil surface and did not alter thaw depth, it increased concentrations of DOC, CO2, and CH4 in the soil down to the permafrost table. This can be attributed to downward DOC leaching, fueling microbial activity at depth. Taken together, our results emphasize the tight linkages between plant and soil processes, and different soil layers, which need to be taken into account when predicting the climate change feedback of the Arctic.

  17. Emission factors and characteristics of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and particulate matter at two high-rise layer hen houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ji-Qin; Liu, Shule; Diehl, Claude A.; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Bogan, Bill W.; Chen, Lide; Chai, Lilong; Wang, Kaiying; Heber, Albert J.

    2017-04-01

    Air pollutants emitted from confined animal buildings can cause environmental pollution and ecological damage. Long-term (>6 months) and continuous (or high frequency) monitoring that can reveal seasonal and diurnal variations is needed to obtain emission factors and characteristics about these pollutants. A two-year continuous monitoring of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matter (PM10) emissions from two 218,000-hen high-rise layer houses (H-A and H-B) in Indiana, USA was conducted from June 2007 to May 2009. Gaseous pollutant concentrations were measured with two gas analyzers and PM10 concentrations were measured with three Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances. The operation and performance of ventilation fans were continuously monitored with multiple methods. Only the emission rates calculated with valid data days (days with more than 18 h, or 75%, of valid data) are reported in this paper. The two-house and two-year mean ± standard deviation emissions per day per hen for NH3, H2S, CO2, and PM10 were 1.08 ± 0.42 g, 1.37 ± 0.83 mg, 76.7 ± 14.6 g, and 20.6 ± 22.5 mg, respectively. Seasonal emission variations were demonstrated for NH3 and CO2, but not evident for H2S and PM10. Ammonia and CO2 emissions were higher in winter than in summer. Significant daily mean emission variations were observed for all four pollutants between the two houses (P < 0.05), and between the two years from the same house (P < 0.01) except for CO2 at one house. Carbon dioxide originated from manure decomposition was >9% of that from bird respiration. Emissions of CO2 during molting were about 80% of those during normal egg production days. Emissions of H2S were not a major concern due to their very low quantities. Emissions of PM10 were more variable than other pollutants. However, not all of the emission statistics are explainable.

  18. The relationship between national-level carbon dioxide emissions and population size: an assessment of regional and temporal variation, 1960-2005.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Andrew K; Clark, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the regional and temporal differences in the statistical relationship between national-level carbon dioxide emissions and national-level population size. The authors analyze panel data from 1960 to 2005 for a diverse sample of nations, and employ descriptive statistics and rigorous panel regression modeling techniques. Initial descriptive analyses indicate that all regions experienced overall increases in carbon emissions and population size during the 45-year period of investigation, but with notable differences. For carbon emissions, the sample of countries in Asia experienced the largest percent increase, followed by countries in Latin America, Africa, and lastly the sample of relatively affluent countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania combined. For population size, the sample of countries in Africa experienced the largest percent increase, followed countries in Latin America, Asia, and the combined sample of countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania. Findings for two-way fixed effects panel regression elasticity models of national-level carbon emissions indicate that the estimated elasticity coefficient for population size is much smaller for nations in Africa than for nations in other regions of the world. Regarding potential temporal changes, from 1960 to 2005 the estimated elasticity coefficient for population size decreased by 25% for the sample of Africa countries, 14% for the sample of Asia countries, 6.5% for the sample of Latin America countries, but remained the same in size for the sample of countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania. Overall, while population size continues to be the primary driver of total national-level anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, the findings for this study highlight the need for future research and policies to recognize that the actual impacts of population size on national-level carbon emissions differ across both time and region.

  19. Spatiotemporal comparison of highly-resolved emissions and concentrations of carbon dioxide and criteria pollutants in Salt Lake City, Utah for health and policy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Gurney, K. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Fasoli, B.; Bares, R.; o'Keefe, D.; Song, T.; Huang, J.; Horel, J.; Crosman, E.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the need for robust highly-resolved emissions and concentration data required for planning purposes and policy development aimed at managing pollutant sources. Adverse health effects resulting from urban pollution exposure are dependent on proximity to emission sources and atmospheric mixing, necessitating models with high spatial and temporal resolution. As urban emission sources co-emit carbon dioxide (CO2) and criteria pollutants (CAPs), efforts to reduce specific pollutants would synergistically reduce others. We present emissions inventories and modeled concentrations for CO2 and CAPs: carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), and sulfur oxides (SOx) for Salt Lake County, Utah. We compare the resulting concentrations against stationary and mobile measurement data and present a systematic quantification of uncertainties. The emissions inventory for CO2 is based on the Hestia emissions data inventory that resolves emissions at an hourly, building and road link resolution as well as hourly gridded emissions with a 0.002o x 0.002o spatial resolution. Two methods for deriving criteria pollutant emission inventories were compared. One was constructed using methods similar to Hestia but downscales total emissions based on the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The other used Emission Modeling Clearinghouse spatial and temporal surrogates to downscale the NEI data from annual and county-level resolution to hourly and 0.002o x 0.002o grid cells. The gridded emissions from both criteria pollutant methods were compared against the Hestia CO2 gridded data to characterize spatial similarities and differences between them. Correlations were calculated at multiple scales of aggregation. The CALPUFF dispersion model was used to transport emissions and estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002o resolution. The resulting concentrations were spatially compared in the same manner

  20. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

    1994-10-01

    This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

  1. 5 f -Shell correlation effects in dioxides of light actinides studied by O 1s x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modin, A.; Suzuki, M.-T.; Vegelius, J.; Yun, Y.; Shuh, D. K.; Werme, L.; Nordgren, J.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Butorin, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopic data are reported for the O 1s region of a single crystal of UO2, a polycrystalline NpO2 sample, and a single crystal of PuO2. The experimental data are interpreted using first-principles correlated-electron calculations within the framework of the density functional theory with added Coulomb U interaction (DFT+U). A detailed analysis regarding the origin of different structures in the x-ray emission and x-ray absorption spectra is given and the effect of varying the intra-atomic Coulomb interaction-U for the 5 f electrons is investigated. Our data indicate that O 1s x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies can, in combination with DFT+U calculations, successfully be used to study 5 f -shell Coulomb correlation effects in dioxides of light actinides. The values for the Coulomb U parameter in these dioxides are derived to be in the range of 4-5 eV.

  2. Adapting sustainable low-carbon techologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Peter Shyr-Jye

    1997-09-01

    The scientific community is deeply concerned about the effect of greenhouse-gases (GHGs) on global climate change. A major climate shift can result in tragic destruction to our world. Carbon dioxide (COsb2) emissions from coal-fired power plants are major anthropogenic sources that contribute to potential global warming. The People's Republic of China, with its rapidly growing economy and heavy dependence on coal-fired power plants for electricity, faces increasingly serious environmental challenges. This research project seeks to develop viable methodologies for reducing the potential global warming effects and serious air pollution arising from excessive coal burning. China serves as a case study for this research project. Major resolution strategies are developed through intensive literature reviews to identify sustainable technologies that can minimize adverse environmental impacts while meeting China's economic needs. The research thereby contributes technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. The research also integrates modern power generation technologies with China's current and future energy requirements. With these objectives in mind, this project examines how China's environmental issues are related to China's power generation methods. This study then makes strategic recommendations that emphasize low-carbon technologies as sustainable energy generating options to be implemented in China. These low-carbon technologies consist of three options: (1) using cleaner fuels converted from China's plentiful domestic coal resources; (2) applying high-efficiency gas turbine systems for power generation; and (3) integrating coal gasification processes with energy saving combined cycle gas turbine systems. Each method can perform independently, but a combined strategy can achieve the greatest COsb2 reductions. To minimize economic impacts caused by technological changes, this study also addresses additional alternatives that can be implemented in

  3. A Multiple Period Problem in Distributed Energy Management Systems Considering CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muroda, Yuki; Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Mori, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Takaya

    Consider a special district (group) which is composed of multiple companies (agents), and where each agent responds to an energy demand and has a CO2 emission allowance imposed. A distributed energy management system (DEMS) optimizes energy consumption of a group through energy trading in the group. In this paper, we extended the energy distribution decision and optimal planning problem in DEMSs from a single period problem to a multiple periods one. The extension enabled us to consider more realistic constraints such as demand patterns, the start-up cost, and minimum running/outage times of equipment. At first, we extended the market-oriented programming (MOP) method for deciding energy distribution to the multiple periods problem. The bidding strategy of each agent is formulated by a 0-1 mixed non-linear programming problem. Secondly, we proposed decomposing the problem into a set of single period problems in order to solve it faster. In order to decompose the problem, we proposed a CO2 emission allowance distribution method, called an EP method. We confirmed that the proposed method was able to produce solutions whose group costs were close to lower-bound group costs by computational experiments. In addition, we verified that reduction in computational time was achieved without losing the quality of solutions by using the EP method.

  4. Evidence That Light, Carbon Dioxide, and Oxygen Dependencies of Leaf Isoprene Emission Are Driven by Energy Status in Hybrid Aspen1

    PubMed Central

    Rasulov, Bahtijor; Hüve, Katja; Välbe, Mikk; Laisk, Agu; Niinemets, Ülo

    2009-01-01

    Leaf isoprene emission scales positively with light intensity, is inhibited by high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and may be enhanced or inhibited by low oxygen (O2) concentrations, but the mechanisms of environmental regulation of isoprene emission are still not fully understood. Emission controls by isoprene synthase, availability of carbon intermediates, or energetic cofactors have been suggested previously. In this study, we asked whether the short-term (tens of minutes) environmental control of isoprene synthesis results from alterations in the immediate isoprene precursor dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMADP) pool size, and to what extent DMADP concentrations are affected by the supply of carbon and energetic metabolites. A novel in vivo method based on postillumination isoprene release was employed to measure the pool size of DMADP simultaneously with the rates of isoprene emission and net assimilation at different light intensities and CO2 and O2 concentrations. Both net assimilation and isoprene emission rates increased hyperbolically with light intensity. The photosynthetic response to CO2 concentration was also hyperbolic, while the CO2 response curve of isoprene emission exhibited a maximum at close to CO2 compensation point. Low O2 positively affected both net assimilation and isoprene emission. In all cases, the variation in isoprene emission was matched with changes in DMADP pool size. The results of these experiments suggest that DMADP pool size controls the response of isoprene emission to light intensity and to CO2 and O2 concentrations and that the pool size is determined by the level of energetic metabolites generated in photosynthesis. PMID:19587097

  5. The Modified Rayleigh-Benard Convection Problem and its Application to Permafrost Methane Emission Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudakov, Ivan; Vakulenko, Sergey

    2015-11-01

    The original Rayleigh-Benard convection is a standard example of the system where the critical transitions occur with changing of a control parameter. We will discuss the modified Rayleigh-Benard convection problem which includes the radiative effects as well as the specific gas sources on a surface. Such formulation of this problem leads to identification a new kind of nonlinear phenomenon, besides the well-known Benard cells. Modeling of methane emissions from permafrost into the atmosphere drives to difficult problems, involving the Navier-Stokes equations. Taking into account the modified Rayleigh-Benard convection problem, we will discuss a new approach which makes the problem of a climate catastrophe in the result of a greenhouse effect more tractable and allows us to describe catastrophic transitions in the atmosphere induced by permafrost greenhouse gas sources.

  6. Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration.

    PubMed

    Dai, X R; Blanes-Vidal, V

    2013-01-30

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swine slurry acidification and acidification-aeration treatments on ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions during slurry treatment and subsequent undisturbed storage. The study was conducted in an experimental setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH = 6.0, pH = 5.8 and pH = 5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared to emissions during storage of non-acidified slurry. The reduction were 50%, 62% and 77% when pH was reduce to 6.0, 5.8 and 5.5, respectively. However, it had no significant effect on average CO(2) and H(2)S emissions during storage of slurry after acidification. Aeration of the slurry for 30 min had no effect on average NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S emissions both during the process and from stored slurry after venting treatments. During aeration treatment, the NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S release pattern observed was related to the liquid turbulence caused by the gas bubbles rather than to biological oxidation processes in this study.

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions and the overshoot ratio change resulting from the implementation of 2nd Energy Master Plan in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The direction of the energy policies of the country is important in the projection of environmental impacts of the country. The greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of the energy sector in South Korea is very huge, about 600 MtCO2e in 2011. Also the carbon footprint due to the energy consumption contributes to the ecological footprint is also large, more than 60%. Based on the official plans (the national greenhouse gases emission reduction target for 2030 (GHG target for 2030) and the 2nd Energy Master Plan (2nd EMP)), several scenarios were proposed and the sensitivity of the GHG emission amount and 'overshoot ratio' which is the ratio of ecological footprint to biocapacity were estimated. It was found that to meet the GHG target for 2030 the ratio of non-emission energy for power generation should be over 71% which would be very difficult. We also found that the overshoot ratio would increase from 5.9 in 2009 to 7.6 in 2035. Thus, additional efforts are required to reduce the environmental burdens in addition to optimize the power mix configuration. One example is the conversion efficiency in power generation. If the conversion efficiency in power generation rises up 50% from the current level, 40%, the energy demand and resultant carbon dioxide emissions would decrease about 10%. Also the influence on the environment through changes in consumption behavior, for example, the diet choice is expected to be meaningful.

  8. Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised to increase motorised travel and/or CO2 emissions, both because heavier people may use motorised travel more and because heavier people may choose larger and less fuel-efficient cars. These hypothesised associations have not been examined empirically, however, nor has previous research examined associations with other health characteristics. Our aim was therefore to examine how and why weight status, health, and physical activity are associated with transport CO2 emissions. Methods 3463 adults completed questionnaires in the baseline iConnect survey at three study sites in the UK, reporting their health, weight, height and past-week physical activity. Seven-day recall instruments were used to assess travel behaviour and, together with data on car characteristics, were used to estimate CO2 emissions. We used path analysis to examine the extent to which active travel, motorised travel and car engine size explained associations between health characteristics and CO2 emissions. Results CO2 emissions were higher in overweight or obese participants (multivariable standardized probit coefficients 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25 for overweight vs. normal weight; 0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28 for obese vs. normal weight). Lower active travel and, particularly for obesity, larger car engine size explained 19-31% of this effect, but most of the effect was directly explained by greater distance travelled by motor vehicles. Walking for recreation and leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher motorised travel distance and therefore higher CO2 emissions, while active travel was associated with lower CO2 emissions. Poor health and illness were not independently associated with CO2 emissions. Conclusions Establishing the direction of causality

  9. Highly-resolved Modeling of Emissions and Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Fine Particulate Matter in Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate, high-resolution data on air pollutant emissions and concentrations are needed to understand human exposures and for both policy and pollutant management purposes. An important step in this process is also quantification of uncertainties. We present a spatially explicit and highly resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah, and trace gas concentration estimates for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particles (PM2.5) within Salt Lake City. We assess the validity of this approach by comparing measured concentrations against simulated values derived from combining the emissions inventory with an atmospheric model. The emissions inventory for the criteria pollutants was constructed using the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The spatial and temporal allocation methods from the Emission Modeling Clearinghouse data set are used to downscale the NEI data from annual to hourly scales and from county-level to 500 m x 500 m resolution. Onroad mobile source emissions were estimated by combining a bottom-up emissions calculation approach for large roadway links with a top-down spatial allocation approach for other roadways. Vehicle activity data for road links were derived from automatic traffic responder data. The emissions inventory for CO2 was obtained from the Hestia emissions data product at an hourly, building, facility, and road link resolution. The AERMOD and CALPUFF dispersion models were used to transport emissions and estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly temporal and 500 m x 500 m spatial resolution. Modeled results were compared against measurements from a mobile lab equipped with trace gas measurement equipment traveling on pre-determined routes in the Salt Lake City area. The comparison between both approaches to concentration estimation highlights spatial locations and hours of high variability/uncertainty. Results presented here will inform understanding of variability and

  10. Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-06-01

    The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

  11. Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-06-01

    The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

  12. Associations between immune function in yearling beef cattle and airborne emissions of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and VOCs from oil and natural gas facilities.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Daniel G; Waldner, Cheryl L; Wickstrom, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Researchers assessed the associations between airborne emissions from oil and gas field facilities and the structure and function of the immune system of yearling beef cattle in 27 herds during spring 2002. They evaluated the immune systems of these animals by enumerating B lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte subtypes (CD4, CD8, gammadelta, and WC1) in peripheral circulation and by measuring systemic antibody production in response to vaccination. Researchers prospectively measured exposure to sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by using air-quality data from passive monitors installed in pastures and wintering areas. They estimated the mean exposure of each animal over the 6-month period before the start of sample collection. The researchers used mixed models, which adjusted for clustering by herd and accounted for known risk factors, to examine potential associations between exposure to airborne sulfur dioxide, VOCs (measured as concentrations of benzene and toluene) and hydrogen sulfide, as well as proximity to emission sources (well-site density), and the immune system outcomes. Increasing exposure to VOCs measured as toluene was associated with significant CD4 T lymphocytopenia. The number of CD4 T lymphocytes was 30% lower in cattle exposed to VOCs measured as toluene in the highest quartile (> 0.823 microg/m3) than in cattle exposed in the lowest quartile (< 0.406 microg/m3).

  13. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement system data and reference method test data concentrations. If the bases are not consistent, apply... Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors 1. Definitions. 1.1Concentration Measurement System. The total....2Span. The value of sulfur dioxide concentration at which the measurement system is set to produce...

  14. Carbon dioxide emissions in fallow periods of a corn-soybean rotation: eddy-covariance versus chamber methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes at terrestrial surface are typically quantified using eddy-covariance (EC) or chamber (Ch) techniques; however, long-term comparisons of the two techniques are not available. This study was conducted to assess the agreement between EC and Ch techniques when measuring CO2 ...

  15. Coherent Cherenkov radio emission and problems of ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray and neutrino detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarev, V. A.

    2006-08-01

    This review is concerned with prospects for employment of coherent Cherenkov radio emission for detecting ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Reasons for interest in and problems of studying the ultrahigh-energy particles are summarized. A history of the development of a radio-wave method and its main merits are recalled. Current experiments and proposals based on this method are briefly discussed with emphasize on the most recent Lunar Orbital Radio Detector (LORD) proposal.

  16. A case study of the relative effects of power plant nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emission reductions on atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Seigneur, Christian; Bronson, Rochelle; Chen, Shu-Yun; Karamchandani, Prakash; Walters, Justin T; Jansen, John J; Brandmeyer, Jo Ellen; Knipping, Eladio M

    2010-03-01

    The contrasting effects of point source nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) air emission reductions on regional atmospheric nitrogen deposition are analyzed for the case study of a coal-fired power plant in the southeastern United States. The effect of potential emission reductions at the plant on nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and its watershed on the Florida-Alabama border is simulated using the three-dimensional Eulerian Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. A method to quantify the relative and individual effects of NOx versus SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition using air quality modeling results obtained from the simultaneous application of NOx and SO2 emission controls is presented and discussed using the results from CMAQ simulations conducted with NOx-only and SO2-only emission reductions; the method applies only to cases in which ambient inorganic nitrate is present mostly in the gas phase; that is, in the form of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3). In such instances, the individual effects of NOx and SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition can be approximated by the effects of combined NOx + SO2 controls on the deposition of NOy, (the sum of oxidized nitrogen species) and reduced nitrogen species (NHx), respectively. The benefit of controls at the plant in terms of the decrease in nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and watershed is less than 6% of the overall benefit due to regional Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) controls.

  17. Carbon dioxide emissions as affected by alternative long-term irrigation and tillage management practices in the lower Mississippi River Valley.

    PubMed

    Smith, S F; Brye, K R

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring the sustainability of cultivated soils is an ever-increasing priority for producers in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV). As groundwater sources become depleted and environmental regulations become more strict, producers will look to alternative management practices that will ensure the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of their production systems. This study was conducted to assess the long-term (>7 years) effects of irrigation (i.e., irrigated and dryland production) and tillage (conventional and no-tillage) on estimated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil respiration during two soybean (Glycine max L.) growing seasons from a wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.-) soybean, double-cropped production system in the LMRV region of eastern Arkansas. Soil surface CO2 fluxes were measured approximately every two weeks during two soybean growing seasons. Estimated season-long CO2 emissions were unaffected by irrigation in 2011 (P > 0.05); however, during the unusually dry 2012 growing season, season-long CO2 emissions were 87.6% greater (P = 0.044) under irrigated (21.9 Mg CO2 ha(-1)) than under dryland management (11.7 Mg CO2 ha(-1)). Contrary to what was expected, there was no interactive effect of irrigation and tillage on estimated season-long CO2 emissions. Understanding how long-term agricultural management practices affect soil respiration can help improve policies for soil and environmental sustainability.

  18. Volcanic Eruption Detection by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Instruments: a 22-Year Record of Sulfur Dioxide and Ash Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Bluth, G. J.; Schaefer, S. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Watson, I. M.; Datta, S.

    2002-05-01

    Since their first deployment in November 1978, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have provided a unique, robust and near-continuous record of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash emissions from active volcanoes worldwide. Data from the four TOMS satellites that have flown to date (Nimbus-7, Meteor-3, ADEOS and Earth Probe) have been incorporated into a TOMS volcanic emissions database that presently covers 22 years of SO2 and ash emissions, representing one of the longest satellite-derived records of volcanic activity in existence. At the beginning of 2002, this database comprised 194 individual eruptive events produced during 100 eruptions from 60 volcanoes, resulting in a total of 666 days of volcanic cloud observations by TOMS. Regular eruptions of the African volcano Nyamuragira (DR Congo) since 1978, accompanied by copious SO2 production (Guth et al., 2002), have alone contributed approximately 20% of the days on which clouds were observed. Indonesian volcanoes have produced over 30% of detected eruptive events, due largely to frequent explosive activity at Galunggung, Soputan and Colo during the 1980s. The latest SO2 retrieval results from Earth Probe (EP) TOMS document a period (1996-2001) lacking large explosive eruptions, and also dominated by SO2 emission from 4 eruptions of Nyamuragira. EP TOMS has detected the SO2 and ash produced during 39 eruptive events from 15 volcanoes to date, with volcanic clouds observed on 128 days. Data from EP TOMS have recently begun to degrade, and its erstwhile successor (QuikTOMS) failed to achieve orbit in 2001. New SO2 algorithms are currently being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which will continue the TOMS record of UV remote sensing of volcanic emissions from 2004. OMI will offer SO2 detection limits up to 50 times lower than TOMS and comparable to COSPEC, offering the prospect of regular space-based measurement of passive degassing. Reference: A.L. Guth, G.J.S. Bluth & S.A. Carn

  19. Spatio-temporal patterns of stream methane and carbon dioxide emissions in a hemiboreal catchment in Southwest Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Wallin, Marcus B.; Klemedtsson, Leif; Bastviken, David

    2017-01-01

    Global stream and river greenhouse gas emissions seem to be as large as the oceanic C uptake. However, stream and river emissions are uncertain until both spatial and temporal variability have been quantified. Here we investigated in detail the stream CH4 and CO2 emissions within a hemiboreal catchment in Southwest Sweden primarily covered by coniferous forest. Gas transfer velocities (k600), CH4 and CO2 concentrations were measured with multiple methods. Our data supported modelling approaches accounting for various stream slopes, water velocities and discharge. The results revealed large but partially predictable spatio-temporal variabilities in k600, dissolved gas concentrations, and emissions. The variability in CO2 emission was best explained by the variability in k, while dissolved CH4 concentrations explained most of the variability in CH4 emission, having implications for future measurements. There were disproportionately large emissions from high slope stream reaches including waterfalls, and from high discharge events. In the catchment, stream reaches with low slope and time periods of moderate discharge dominated (90% of area and 69% of time). Measurements in these stream areas and time periods only accounted for <36% of the total estimated emissions. Hence, not accounting for local or episodic high emissions can lead to substantially underestimated emissions.

  20. Spatio-temporal patterns of stream methane and carbon dioxide emissions in a hemiboreal catchment in Southwest Sweden.

    PubMed

    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Wallin, Marcus B; Klemedtsson, Leif; Bastviken, David

    2017-01-03

    Global stream and river greenhouse gas emissions seem to be as large as the oceanic C uptake. However, stream and river emissions are uncertain until both spatial and temporal variability have been quantified. Here we investigated in detail the stream CH4 and CO2 emissions within a hemiboreal catchment in Southwest Sweden primarily covered by coniferous forest. Gas transfer velocities (k600), CH4 and CO2 concentrations were measured with multiple methods. Our data supported modelling approaches accounting for various stream slopes, water velocities and discharge. The results revealed large but partially predictable spatio-temporal variabilities in k600, dissolved gas concentrations, and emissions. The variability in CO2 emission was best explained by the variability in k, while dissolved CH4 concentrations explained most of the variability in CH4 emission, having implications for future measurements. There were disproportionately large emissions from high slope stream reaches including waterfalls, and from high discharge events. In the catchment, stream reaches with low slope and time periods of moderate discharge dominated (90% of area and 69% of time). Measurements in these stream areas and time periods only accounted for <36% of the total estimated emissions. Hence, not accounting for local or episodic high emissions can lead to substantially underestimated emissions.

  1. Spatio-temporal patterns of stream methane and carbon dioxide emissions in a hemiboreal catchment in Southwest Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Wallin, Marcus B.; Klemedtsson, Leif; Bastviken, David

    2017-01-01

    Global stream and river greenhouse gas emissions seem to be as large as the oceanic C uptake. However, stream and river emissions are uncertain until both spatial and temporal variability have been quantified. Here we investigated in detail the stream CH4 and CO2 emissions within a hemiboreal catchment in Southwest Sweden primarily covered by coniferous forest. Gas transfer velocities (k600), CH4 and CO2 concentrations were measured with multiple methods. Our data supported modelling approaches accounting for various stream slopes, water velocities and discharge. The results revealed large but partially predictable spatio-temporal variabilities in k600, dissolved gas concentrations, and emissions. The variability in CO2 emission was best explained by the variability in k, while dissolved CH4 concentrations explained most of the variability in CH4 emission, having implications for future measurements. There were disproportionately large emissions from high slope stream reaches including waterfalls, and from high discharge events. In the catchment, stream reaches with low slope and time periods of moderate discharge dominated (90% of area and 69% of time). Measurements in these stream areas and time periods only accounted for <36% of the total estimated emissions. Hence, not accounting for local or episodic high emissions can lead to substantially underestimated emissions. PMID:28045092

  2. Effect of irrigation, nitrogen application, and a nitrification inhibitor on nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard.

    PubMed

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Arbonés, A; Rufat, J

    2015-12-15

    Drip irrigation combined with nitrogen (N) fertigation is applied in order to save water and improve nutrient efficiency. Nitrification inhibitors reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) associated with the application of N fertiliser through fertigation (0 and 50kgNha(-1)), and 50kgNha(-1)+nitrification inhibitor in a high tree density Arbequina olive orchard. Spanish Arbequina is the most suited variety for super intensive olive groves. This system allows reducing production costs and increases crop yield. Moreover its oil has excellent sensorial features. Subsurface drip irrigation markedly reduced N2O and N2O+N2 emissions compared with surface drip irrigation. Fertiliser application significantly increased N2O+N2, but not N2O emissions. Denitrification was the main source of N2O. The N2O losses (calculated as emission factor) ranging from -0.03 to 0.14% of the N applied, were lower than the IPCC (2007) values. The N2O+N2 losses were the largest, equivalent to 1.80% of the N applied, from the 50kgNha(-1)+drip irrigation treatment which resulted in water filled pore space >60% most of the time (high moisture). Nitrogen fertilisation significantly reduced CO2 emissions in 2011, but only for the subsurface drip irrigation strategies in 2012. The olive orchard acted as a net CH4 sink for all the treatments. Applying a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), the cumulative N2O and N2O+N2 emissions were significantly reduced with respect to the control. The DMPP also inhibited CO2 emissions and significantly increased CH4 oxidation. Considering global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity, cumulative N2O emissions and oil production, it can be concluded that applying DMPP with 50kgNha(-1)+drip irrigation treatment was the best option combining productivity with keeping greenhouse gas emissions under control.

  3. An inversion analysis of carbon dioxide emission from airborne sampling of the 2013 Yosemite Rim Fire and its relationship with combustion phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Johnson, M. S.; Wang, W.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Tanaka, T.; Dean-Day, J. M.; Bui, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Fires from biomass burning are responsible for emitting large quantities of trace gases (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO)) and particulate matter, which are of great importance for air quality, climate forcing and biogeochemical cycles. On average wildfires emit about 290 Tg CO2 per year in the United States, equivalent to 4-6% of annual anthropogenic emissions. Characterization of wildfire emissions is crucial for understanding the atmospheric trace gas budget and variability, and the quality of these characterizations depends on accurate gas concentration measurements associated with fuel type, meteorological conditions and fire combustion phase. The 2013 Yosemite Rim Fire was sampled by the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmopsheric eXperiment (AJAX) during two fire burning stages: intensive burning phase on August 29 and smoldering phase on September 10. The AJAX trace gas measurements (CO2, CH4 and ozone (O3)) provide a unique opportunity to conduct an inverse analysis of the fire emissions of key trace gases and linkage with the dynamic nature of wildfires. This study proposes to use a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian atmospheric transport model, WRF-STILT, along with estimates of fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric CO2 background, and the latest wildfire emission inventories, to determine the contribution of the Rim Fire to atmospheric CO2. WRF-STILT is used to establish the source-receptor relationship of CO2 under different model configurations in order to bracket the transport model uncertainty. Observationally constrained CO2 emission rates will be obtained by improving the model fit to flight measurements, and the associated uncertainties with a priori and model errors will be evaluated. The model/measurement data setup and initial results of this study will be presented.

  4. Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: Daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We quantified the seasonal variability of CH4, CO2, and N2O emissions from fresh refuse and daily, intermediate, and final cover materials at two California landfills. Fresh refuse fluxes (g m-2 d-1) averaged CH4 0.053[+/-0.03], CO2 135[+/-117], and N2O 0.063[+/-0.059]. Average CH4 emissions across ...

  5. Carbon dioxide emissions in conventional and no-till corn production systems under different fertilizer management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices such as tillage and fertilizer application methods affect soil emissions of greenhouse gases which impacts agricultural contributions of greenhouse gases. It is important to develop and evaluate strategies for reducing soil emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon diox...

  6. Methane emissions among individual dairy cows during milking quantified by eructation peaks or ratio with carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bell, M J; Saunders, N; Wilcox, R H; Homer, E M; Goodman, J R; Craigon, J; Garnsworthy, P C

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to compare methods for examining measurements of CH₄ and CO₂ emissions of dairy cows during milking and to assess repeatability and variation of CH₄ emissions among individual dairy cows. Measurements of CH₄ and CO₂ emissions from 36 cows were collected in 3 consecutive feeding periods. In the first period, cows were fed a commercial partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 69% forage. In the second and third periods, the same 36 cows were fed a high-forage PMR ration containing 75% forage, with either a high grass silage or high maize silage content. Emissions of CH₄ during each milking were examined using 2 methods. First, peaks in CH₄ concentration due to eructations during milking were quantified. Second, ratios of CH₄ and CO₂ average concentrations during milking were calculated. A linear mixed model was used to assess differences between PMR. Variation in CH₄ emissions was observed among cows after adjusting for effects of lactation number, week of lactation, diet, individual cow, and feeding period, with coefficients of variation estimated from variance components ranging from 11 to 14% across diets and methods of quantifying emissions. No significant difference was detected between the 3 PMR in CH₄ emissions estimated by either method. Emissions of CH₄ calculated from eructation peaks or as CH₄ to CO₂ ratio were positively associated with forage dry matter intake. Ranking of cows according to CH₄ emissions on different diets was correlated for both methods, although rank correlations and repeatability were greater for CH₄ concentration from eructation peaks than for CH₄-to-CO₂ ratio. We conclude that quantifying enteric CH₄ emissions either using eructation peaks in concentration or as CH₄-to-CO₂ ratio can provide highly repeatable phenotypes for ranking cows on CH₄ output.

  7. Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion; Mota, Leonardo; Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi; Miklos, Andras

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  8. Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  9. What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribbia, John Luke

    This research investigates the consequence of a crucial and not yet fully explored problem: the reluctance of the United States to sign and ratify international agreements, like Kyoto, that aim to mitigate climate change and its underlying social and ecological impacts. This unwillingness has inspired local governments, mayors, metropolitan area governance consortia, state governments, and governors to take on the climate challenge without the directive of the federal government. Local areas of the U.S. are experiencing climate-change-related impacts such as receding beach lines due to sea level rise and intense storms, fresh water shortages, and extreme weather events. As a result, researchers have begun to explore the human dimensions of climate change through an inquiry in: among many other topics, the vulnerability of local areas to the impacts of climate change and the forces shaping local areas' contribution to climate change. This study addresses the latter issue using the STIRPAT framework - a reformulated version of the I=(P)(A)(T) formulation that relates environmental impacts (I) to population growth (P), affluence (A), and technology (T). I address three questions that have thus far been poorly answered in prior research: "across the U.S., do local areas differ in the extent of their contribution to climate change?", "what are the causes of variation in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across local areas?" and "which social theories best explain the causes of variation in energy use and CO2 emissions across local areas?" To make strides in answering these questions and contribute to the understanding of local level drivers of energy consumption and emissions, this research analyzes the causes of variation in: energy use and CO2 emissions in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in chapter 4, the change in energy consumption between 2000 and 2005 for these metropolitan areas in chapter 5, and CO2 emissions in all U.S. counties in chapter 6

  10. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (Class... minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems, as appropriate, and...

  13. New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Gazala; Venkataraman, Chandra; Shrivastava, Manish; Banerjee, Rangan; Stehr, J. W.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2004-09-01

    The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy surveys, prompted the current work, which develops a new methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking. This is based on food consumption statistics, and the specific energy for food cooking. Estimated biofuel consumption in India was 379 (247-584) Tg yr-1. New information on the user population of different biofuels was compiled at a state level, to derive the biofuel mix, which varied regionally and was 74:16:10%, respectively, of fuelwood, dung cake and crop waste, at a national level. Importantly, the uncertainty in biofuel use from quantitative error assessment using the new methodology is around 50%, giving a narrower bound than in previous works. From this new activity data and currently used black carbon emission factors, the black carbon (BC) emissions from biofuel combustion were estimated as 220 (65-760) Gg yr-1. The largest BC emissions were from fuelwood (75%), with lower contributions from dung cake (16%) and crop waste (9%). The uncertainty of 245% in the BC emissions estimate is now governed by the large spread in BC emission factors from biofuel combustion (122%), implying the need for reducing this uncertainty through measurements. Emission factors of SO2 from combustion of biofuels widely used in India were measured, and ranged 0.03-0.08 g kg-1 from combustion of two wood species, 0.05-0.20 g kg-1 from 10 crop waste types, and 0.88 g kg-1 from dung cake, significantly lower than currently used emission factors for wood and crop waste. Estimated SO2 emissions from biofuels of 75 (36-160) Gg yr-1 were about a factor of 3 lower than that in recent studies, with a large contribution from dung cake (73%), followed by fuelwood (21%) and crop waste (6%).

  14. Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma, USA J.P.S. Neel USDA ARS, El Reno, OK A reduction in enteric CH4 production in ruminants is associated with improved production effic...

  15. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  16. Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions in mountain forest and meadow ecosystems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junjun; Peng, Changhui; Zhu, Qiuan; Xue, Wei; Shen, Yan; Yang, Yanzheng; Shi, Guohua; Shi, Shengwei; Wang, Meng

    2016-10-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted at three temperature levels (8, 18 and 28 °C) to quantify the response of soil CO2 and N2O emissions to temperature in three ecosystems (pine forest, oak forest, and meadow) located in the Qinling Mountains of China, which are considered to be susceptible to disturbance and climate changes, especially global warming. The soil CO2 emission rates increased with temperature and decreased with soil depth; they were the highest in the oak forest (broadleaf forest) and were lower in the pine forest (coniferous forest) and the meadow ecosystem. However, there was no significant difference in the soil N2O emission rates among the three ecosystems. The temperature sensitivity of CO2 and N2O was higher in the forest than in the meadow ecosystem. The Q10 values (temperature sensitivity coefficient) for CO2 and N2O were 1.07-2.25 and 0.82-1.22, respectively, for the three ecosystems. There was also evidence that the CO2 and N2O emission rates were positively correlated. The soil characteristics exhibited different effects on CO2 and N2O emissions among different ecosystems at the three temperature levels. Moreover, the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and nitrate (NO3-) were important factors for CO2 emissions, whereas the soil ammonium (NH4+) and pH were the major controllers of N2O emissions. Unexpectedly, our results indicated that CO2 emissions are more sensitive to increasing temperature than N2O, noting the different feedback of CO2 and N2O emissions to global warming in this region. The different responses of greenhouse gas emissions in different forest types and a meadow ecosystem suggest that it is critical to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the complex mountain forest and meadow ecosystem in the transitional climate zone under global warming. Our research results provide new insight and advanced understanding of the variations in major greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and N2O

  17. Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kīlauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A.; Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.; Doukas, M.P.

    2002-01-01

     We report a CO2 emission rate of 8500 metric tons per day (t d−1) for the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, several times larger than previous estimates. It is based on three sets of measurements over 4 years of synchronous SO2 emission rates and volcanic CO2/SO2concentration ratios for the summit correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) traverse. Volcanic CO2/SO2 for the traverse is representative of the global ratio for summit emissions. The summit CO2 emission rate is nearly constant, despite large temporal variations in summit CO2/SO2 and SO2 emission rates. Summit CO2 emissions comprise most of Kīlauea's total CO2 output (∼9000 t d−1). The bulk CO2 content of primary magma determined from CO2emission and magma supply rate data is ∼0.70 wt %. Most of the CO2 is present as exsolved vapor at summit reservoir depths, making the primary magma strongly buoyant. Turbulent mixing with resident reservoir magma, however, prevents frequent eruptions of buoyant primary magma in the summit region. CO2 emissions confirm that the magma supply enters the edifice through the summit reservoir. A persistent several hundred parts per million CO2 anomaly arises from the entry of magma into the summit reservoir beneath a square kilometer area east of Halemaumau pit crater. Since most of the CO2 in primary magma is degassed in the summit, the summit CO2 emission rate is an effective proxy for the magma supply rate. Both scrubbing of SO2 and solubility controls on CO2and S in basaltic melt cause high CO2/SO2 in summit emissions and spatially uncorrelated distributions of CO2 and SO2 in the summit plume.

  18. Active and uncontrolled asthma among children exposed to air stack emissions of sulphur dioxide from petroleum refineries in Montreal, Quebec: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Deger, Leylâ; Plante, Céline; Jacques, Louis; Goudreau, Sophie; Perron, Stéphane; Hicks, John; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little attention has been devoted to the effects on children’s respiratory health of exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air from local industrial emissions. Most studies on the effects of SO2 have assessed its impact as part of the regional ambient air pollutant mix. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exposure to stack emissions of SO2 from petroleum refineries located in Montreal’s (Quebec) east-end industrial complex and the prevalence of active asthma and poor asthma control among children living nearby. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study used data from a respiratory health survey of Montreal children six months to 12 years of age conducted in 2006. Of 7964 eligible households that completed the survey, 842 children between six months and 12 years of age lived in an area impacted by refinery emissions. Ambient SO2 exposure levels were estimated using dispersion modelling. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the association between yearly school and residential SO2 exposure estimates and asthma outcomes. Adjustments were made for child’s age, sex, parental history of atopy and tobacco smoke exposure at home. RESULTS: The adjusted PR for the association between active asthma and SO2 levels was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.39) per interquartile range increase in modelled annual SO2. The effect on poor asthma control was greater (PR=1.39 per interquartile range increase in modelled SO2 [95% CI 1.00 to 1.94]). CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study suggest a relationship between exposure to refinery stack emissions of SO2 and the prevalence of active and poor asthma control in children who live and attend school in proximity to refineries. PMID:22536578

  19. Estimation of sulphur dioxide emission rate from a power plant based on the remote sensing measurement with an imaging-DOAS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Jihyo; Kim, Young J.; Baek, Jongho; Lee, Hanlim

    2016-10-01

    Major anthropogenic sources of sulphur dioxide in the troposphere include point sources such as power plants and combustion-derived industrial sources. Spatially resolved remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases is desirable for better estimation and validation of emission from those sources. It has been reported that Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (I-DOAS) technique can provide the spatially resolved two-dimensional distribution measurement of atmospheric trace gases. This study presents the results of I-DOAS observations of SO2 from a large power plant. The stack plume from the Taean coal-fired power plant was remotely sensed with an I-DOAS instrument. The slant column density (SCD) of SO2 was derived by data analysis of the absorption spectra of the scattered sunlight measured by an I-DOAS over the power plant stacks. Two-dimensional distribution of SO2 SCD was obtained over the viewing window of the I-DOAS instrument. The measured SCDs were converted to mixing ratios in order to estimate the rate of SO2 emission from each stack. The maximum mixing ratio of SO2 was measured to be 28.1 ppm with a SCD value of 4.15×1017 molecules/cm2. Based on the exit velocity of the plume from the stack, the emission rate of SO2 was estimated to be 22.54 g/s. Remote sensing of SO2 with an I-DOAS instrument can be very useful for independent estimation and validation of the emission rates from major point sources as well as area sources.

  20. 3,4-Dimethylpyrazol phosphate effect on nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, ammonia, and carbon dioxide emissions from grasslands.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2006-01-01

    Intensively managed grasslands are potentially a large source of NH3, N2O, and NO emissions because of the large input of nitrogen (N) in fertilizers. Addition of nitrification inhibitors (NI) to fertilizers maintains soil N in ammonium form. Consequently, N2O and NO losses are less likely to occur and the potential for N utilization is increased, and NH3 volatilization may be increased. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazol phosphate (DMPP) on NH3, N2O, NO, and CO2 emissions following the application of 97 kg N ha(-1) as ammonium sulfate nitrate (ASN) and 97 kg NH4+ -N ha(-1) as cattle slurry to a mixed clover-ryegrass sward in the Basque Country (northern Spain). After slurry application, 16.0 and 0.7% of the NH4+ -N applied was lost in the form of N2O and NO, respectively. The application of DMPP induced a decrease of 29 and 25% in N2O and NO emissions, respectively. After ASN application 4.6 and 2.8% of the N applied was lost as N2O and NO, respectively. The application of DMPP with ASN (as ENTEC 26; COMPO, Münster, Germany) unexpectedly did not significantly reduce N2O emissions, but induced a decrease of 44% in NO emissions. The amount of NH4+ -N lost in the form of NH3 following slurry and slurry + DMPP applications was 7.8 and 11.0%, respectively, the increase induced by DMPP not being statistically significant. Levels of CO2 emissions were unaffected in all cases by the use of DMPP. We conclude that DMPP is an efficient nitrification inhibitor to be used to reduce N2O and NO emissions from grasslands.

  1. The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in industrialized countries: an end-use analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Unander, F.; Monahan, P.; Golove, W.

    1996-08-01

    There has been much attention drawn to plans for reductions or restraint in future C02 emissions, yet little analysis of the recent history of those emissions by end use or economic activity. Understanding the components of C02 emissions, particularly those related to combustion of fossil fuels, is important for judging the likely success of plans for dealing with future emissions. Knowing how fuel switching, changes in economic activity and its structure, or changes in energy-use efficiency affected emissions in the past, we can better judge both the realism of national proposals to restrain future emissions and the outcome as well. This study presents a first step in that analysis. The organization of this paper is as follows. We present a brief background and summarize previous work analyzing changes in energy use using the factorial method. We then describe our data sources and method. We then present a series of summary results, including a comparison of C02 emissions in 1991 by end use or sector. We show both aggregate change and change broken down by factor, highlighting briefly the main components of change. We then present detailed results, sector by sector. Next we highlight recent trends. Finally, we integrate our results, discussing -the most important factors driving change - evolution in economic structure, changes in energy intensities, and shifts in the fuel mix. We discuss briefly some of the likely causes of these changes - long- term technological changes, effects of rising incomes, the impact of overall changes in energy prices, as well as changes in the relative prices of energy forms.

  2. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide via zero emissions--an alternative way to a stable global environment. Part 2: a practical zero-emissions scenario.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Taroh; Maruyama, Koki; Tsutsui, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Following Part 1, a comparison of CO(2)-emissions pathways between "zero-emissions stabilization (Z-stabilization)" and traditional stabilization is made under more realistic conditions that take into account the radiative forcings of other greenhouse gases and aerosols with the constraint that the temperature rise must not exceed 2 °C above the preindustrial level. It is shown that the findings in Part 1 on the merits of Z-stabilization hold under the more realistic conditions. The results clarify the scientific basis of the policy claim of 50% reduction of the world CO(2) emissions by 2050. Since the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration and temperature occur only temporarily in Z-stabilization pathways, we may slightly relax the upper limit of the temperature rise. We can then search for a scenario with larger emissions in the 21st century; such a scenario may have potential for practical application. It is suggested that in this Z-stabilization pathway, larger emissions in the near future may be important from a socioeconomic viewpoint.

  3. Total sulfur dioxide emissions and pre-eruption vapor-saturated magma at Mount St. Helens, 1980-88

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A.

    1994-12-15

    SO{sub 2} from explosive volcanism can cause significant climatic and atmospheric impacts, but the source of the sulfur is controversial. TOMS, COSPEC, and ash leachate data for Mount St. Helens from the time of the climactic eruption on 18 May 1980 to the final stages of non-explosive degassing in 1988 give a total SO{sub 2} emission of 2 Mt. COSPEC data show a sharp drop in emission rate that was apparently controlled by a decreasing rate of magma supply. A total SO{sub 2} emission of only 0.08 Mt is estimated from melt inclusion data and the conventional assumption that the main sulfur source was pre-eruption melt; commonly invoked sources of {open_quotes}excess sulfur{close_quotes} (anhydrite decomposition, basaltic magma, and degassing of non-erupted magma) are unlikely in this case. Thus melt inclusions may significantly underestimate SO{sub 2} emissions and impacts of explosive volcanism on climate and the atmosphere. Measured CO{sub 2} emissions, together with the H{sub 2}O content of melt inclusions and experimental solubility data, indicate the Mount St. Helens dacite was vapor-saturated at depth prior to ascent and suggest that a vapor phase was the main source of sulfur for the 2-Mt of SO{sub 2}. A vapor source is consistent with experimental studies on the Mount St. Helens dacite and removes the need for a much debated shallow magma body. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) fine particle capture and BVOC emissions of Betula pendula and Betula pubescens at different wind speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Janne V.; Leskinen, Jari T. T.; Holopainen, Toini; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Pasanen, Pertti; Kivimäenpää, Minna

    2017-03-01

    Trees are known to affect air quality by capturing a remarkable amount of particles from the atmosphere. However, the significance of trees in removing very fine particles (diameter less than 0.5 μm) is not well understood. We determined particle capture efficiency (Cp) of two birch species: Betula pendula and Betula pubescens by using inert titanium dioxide fine particles (TiO2, geometric mean diameter 0.270 μm) at three wind speeds (1, 3 and 6 ms-1) in a wind tunnel. Capture efficiencies were determined by measuring densities of TiO2 particles on leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the particle intake into an inner structure of leaves was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of fine particle exposure and wind speed on emission rates of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were measured. Particles were captured (Cp) equally efficiently on foliage of B. pendula (0.0026 ± 0.0005) % and B. pubescens (0.0025 ± 0.0006) %. Increasing wind speed significantly decreased Cp. Increasing wind speed increased deposition velocity (Vg) on B. pendula but not on B. pubescens. Particles were deposited more efficiently on the underside of B. pendula leaves, whereas deposition was similar on the upper and under sides of B. pubescens leaves. TiO2 particles were found inside three of five B. pendula leaves exposed to particles at a wind speed of 1 ms-1 indicating that particles can penetrate into the plant structure. Emission rates of several mono-, homo- and sesquiterpenes were highest at a wind speed of 3 ms-1 in B. pendula. In B. pubescens, emission rates of a few monoterpenes and nonanal decreased linearly with wind speed, but emission rates of sesquiterpenes were lowest at 3 ms-1 and increased at 6 ms-1. Emission rates of a few green leaf volatile compounds increased with increasing wind speed in both species. The results of this study suggest that the surface structure of trees is less important for capturing particles with

  5. Source attribution of fossil-fuel emissions at the urban scale using stable isotopologues of carbon-dioxide (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, A.; Ketler, R.; Nesic, Z.; Roth, M.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2013-12-01

    Can atmospheric measurements be used to constrain estimates of sector-specific CO2 emissions at the urban scale? In a pilot-study in the Vancouver Metropolitan Region, BC, Canada, we explored the potential of using time-series of the stable carbon isotope composition of CO2 in the urban atmosphere to identify and separate fossil-fuel (FF) emission sources. For extended periods in winter, spring and summer of 2012/13, total CO2 concentration, δ13C and δ18O in CO2 was measured in the urban atmosphere over the Vancouver Metropolitan Region using a tunable diode laser absorption system (TGA 200, Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT, USA). The system continuously sampled outdoor air and was calibrated against NOAA standard gases with a precision of 0.1 per mil and 0.4 per mil for δ13C and δ18O in CO2, respectively. Time series are analyzed in combination with meteorological data (mixed layer height, wind direction). Data conditionally sampled for selected wind direction was used to determine intercepts using Keeling-plots, assuming that the urban boundary layer is well mixed and the two dominant FF sources are natural gas and gasoline. Source attributions based on those atmospheric measurements are compared to the Community Energy and Emissions Inventory (CEEI) for Metro Vancouver 2010 which is based on an fuel-consumption and bottom-up modeling approach and distributed using traffic counts, utility data and building energy modeling on a monthly scale. The emission source attribution using isotopologues is promising, in particular given that the measurements are made at a single site - likely because the Vancouver Metropolitan Region is an isolated urbanized region commonly experiencing background-air inflow from the Pacific. In January, the isotopologue approach proposes that 53% of the CO2 emissions in the urban boundary layer originate from natural gas, the primary fuel for home heating, which matches relatively well the distributed CEEI data for the same month (58

  6. Modeling the Relationship between Transportation-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Hybrid-Online Courses at a Large Urban University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Matthew; Cordero, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between hybrid classes (where a per cent of the class meetings are online) and transportation-related CO[subscript 2] emissions at a commuter campus similar to San José State University (SJSU). Design/methodology/approach: A computer model was developed to calculate the number of trips to…

  7. Changes in the carbon dioxide emission from soils in the course of postagrogenic succession in the Chernozems forest-steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelin, D. V.; Lyuri, D. I.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Lunin, V. N.; Kudikov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The CO2 emission from soils in the course of the long-term postagrogenic succession on Calcic Chernozems under meadow-steppe vegetation was studied. Seasonal dynamics of the emission at different stages of the restoration of natural vegetation and long-term changes in the main pools of carbon in the soils and phytomass were examined. These data were used to create a regression model of the CO2 emission on the basis of data on the soil water content and temperature with a temporal resolution of 3 h. The results were compared with an analogous study of the postagrogenic succession on sandy Agropodzols of southern taiga. It was found that the long-term pattern of the CO2 emission has a bimodal character. The first maximum corresponds to the early stages of the succession (2-8 years) and is ensured by a sharp intensification of respiration in the organomineral soil horizons under the impact of plant species typical of these stages, active growth of their underground parts, and, probably, activation of microbiota in the rhizosphere. The second maximum of the emission is observed at the final stages of the succession and is mainly ensured by the increasing pool of steppe litter. A decrease in the soil temperature because of the thermal insulation of the soil surface by the accumulating litter and organic substances in the topsoil horizons leads to a temporary decrease in the emission intensity at the middle stages of the succession, when the litter pool is still not vary large. The restoration of the initial level of the CO2 emission typical of the natural cenoses is achieved in about 80-100 years after the abandoning of the cultivated fields, i.e., considerably faster than that in the southern taiga zone (150-170 years). The results of modeling suggest that this is caused by the considerable accumulation of steppe litter, organic substances, and phytomass in the topsoil horizons rather than by the somewhat increased heat supply owing to longer duration of vegetation

  8. MAMAP - a new spectrometer system for column-averaged methane and carbon dioxide observations from aircraft: retrieval algorithm and first inversions for point source emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krings, T.; Gerilowski, K.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Tretner, A.; Erzinger, J.; Heinze, D.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

    2011-04-01

    MAMAP is an airborne passive remote sensing instrument designed for measuring columns of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The MAMAP instrument consists of two optical grating spectrometers: One in the short wave infrared band (SWIR) at 1590-1690 nm to measure CO2 and CH4 absorptions and another one in the near infrared (NIR) at 757-768 nm to measure O2 absorptions for reference purposes. MAMAP can be operated in both nadir and zenith geometry during the flight. Mounted on an airplane MAMAP can effectively survey areas on regional to local scales with a ground pixel resolution of about 29 m × 33 m for a typical aircraft altitude of 1250 m and a velocity of 200 km h-1. The retrieval precision of the measured column relative to background is typically ≲ 1% (1σ). MAMAP can be used to close the gap between satellite data exhibiting global coverage but with a rather coarse resolution on the one hand and highly accurate in situ measurements with sparse coverage on the other hand. In July 2007 test flights were performed over two coal-fired powerplants operated by Vattenfall Europe Generation AG: Jänschwalde (27.4 Mt CO2 yr-1) and Schwarze Pumpe (11.9 Mt CO2 yr-1), about 100 km southeast of Berlin, Germany. By using two different inversion approaches, one based on an optimal estimation scheme to fit Gaussian plume models from multiple sources to the data, and another using a simple Gaussian integral method, the emission rates can be determined and compared with emissions as stated by Vattenfall Europe. An extensive error analysis for the retrieval's dry column results (XCO2 and XCH4) and for the two inversion methods has been performed. Both methods - the Gaussian plume model fit and the Gaussian integral method - are capable of delivering reliable estimates for strong point source emission rates, given appropriate flight patterns and detailed knowledge of wind conditions.

  9. Transient Earth system responses to cumulative carbon dioxide emissions: linearities, uncertainties, and probabilities in an observation-constrained model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.

    2016-02-01

    Information on the relationship between cumulative fossil CO2 emissions and multiple climate targets is essential to design emission mitigation and climate adaptation strategies. In this study, the transient response of a climate or environmental variable per trillion tonnes of CO2 emissions, termed TRE, is quantified for a set of impact-relevant climate variables and from a large set of multi-forcing scenarios extended to year 2300 towards stabilization. An ˜ 1000-member ensemble of the Bern3D-LPJ carbon-climate model is applied and model outcomes are constrained by 26 physical and biogeochemical observational data sets in a Bayesian, Monte Carlo-type framework. Uncertainties in TRE estimates include both scenario uncertainty and model response uncertainty. Cumulative fossil emissions of 1000 Gt C result in a global mean surface air temperature change of 1.9 °C (68 % confidence interval (c.i.): 1.3 to 2.7 °C), a decrease in surface ocean pH of 0.19 (0.18 to 0.22), and a steric sea level rise of 20 cm (13 to 27 cm until 2300). Linearity between cumulative emissions and transient response is high for pH and reasonably high for surface air and sea surface temperatures, but less pronounced for changes in Atlantic meridional overturning, Southern Ocean and tropical surface water saturation with respect to biogenic structures of calcium carbonate, and carbon stocks in soils. The constrained model ensemble is also applied to determine the response to a pulse-like emission and in idealized CO2-only simulations. The transient climate response is constrained, primarily by long-term ocean heat observations, to 1.7 °C (68 % c.i.: 1.3 to 2.2 °C) and the equilibrium climate sensitivity to 2.9 °C (2.0 to 4.2 °C). This is consistent with results by CMIP5 models but inconsistent with recent studies that relied on short-term air temperature data affected by natural climate variability.

  10. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOEpatents

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  11. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOEpatents

    Moloy, Kenneth G.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  12. Relating summer ambient particulate sulfur, sulfur dioxide, and light scattering to gaseous tracer emissions from the MOHAVE Power Project.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, V A; Farber, R J

    2000-05-01

    Project MOHAVE was initiated in 1992 to examine the role of emissions from the 1580 MW coal-fired MOHAVE Power Project (MPP) on haze at the Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP), located about 130 km north-north-east of the power plant. Statistical relationships were analyzed between summertime ambient concentrations of a gaseous perfluorocarbon tracer released from MPP and ambient SO2, particulate sulfur, and light scattering to evaluate whether MPP's emissions could be transported to the GCNP and then impact haze levels there. Spatial analyses indicated that particulate sulfur levels were strongly correlated across the monitoring network, regardless of whether the monitoring stations were upwind or downwind of MPP. This indicates that particulate sulfur levels in this region were influenced by distant regional emission sources. A significant particulate sulfur contribution from a point source such as MPP would result in a non-uniform pattern downwind. There was no suggestion of this in the data. Furthermore, correlations between the MPP tracer and ambient particulate sulfur and light scattering at locations in the park were virtually zero for averaging times ranging from 24 hr to 1 hr. Hour-by-hour MPP tracer levels and light scattering were individually examined, and still no positive correlations were detected. Finally, agreement between tracer and particulate sulfur did not improve as a function of meteorological regime, implying that, even during cloudy monsoon days when more rapid conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfur would be expected, there was no evidence for downwind particulate sulfur impacts. Despite the fact that MPP was a large source of SO2 and tracer, neither time series nor correlation analyses were able to detect any meaningful relationship between MPP's SO2 and tracer emission "signals" to particulate sulfur or light scattering.

  13. Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils.

    PubMed

    Bogner, Jean E; Spokas, Kurt A; Chanton, Jeffrey P

    2011-01-01

    Compared with natural ecosystems and managed agricultural systems, engineered landfills represent a highly managed soil system for which there has been no systematic quantification of emissions from coexisting daily, intermediate, and final cover materials. We quantified the seasonal variability of CH, CO, and NO emissions from fresh refuse (no cover) and daily, intermediate, and final cover materials at northern and southern California landfill sites with engineered gas extraction systems. Fresh refuse fluxes (g m d [± SD]) averaged CH 0.053 (± 0.03), CO 135 (± 117), and NO 0.063 (± 0.059). Average CH emissions across all cover types and wet/dry seasons ranged over more than four orders of magnitude (<0.01-100 g m d) with most cover types, including both final covers, averaging <0.1 g m d with 10 to 40% of surface areas characterized by negative fluxes (uptake of atmospheric CH). The northern California intermediate cover (50 cm) had the highest CH fluxes. For both the intermediate (50-100 cm) and final (>200 cm) cover materials, below which methanogenesis was well established, the variability in gaseous fluxes was attributable to cover thickness, texture, density, and seasonally variable soil moisture and temperature at suboptimal conditions for CH oxidation. Thin daily covers (30 cm local soil) and fresh refuse generally had the highest CO and NO fluxes, indicating rapid onset of aerobic and semi-aerobic processes in recently buried refuse, with rates similar to soil ecosystems and windrow composting of organic waste. This study has emphasized the need for more systematic field quantification of seasonal emissions from multiple types of engineered covers.

  14. Optical Emission Studies of Copper Plasma Induced Using Infrared Transversely Excited Atmospheric (IR TEA) Carbon Dioxide Laser Pulses.

    PubMed

    Momcilovic, Milos; Kuzmanovic, Miroslav; Rankovic, Dragan; Ciganovic, Jovan; Stoiljkovic, Milovan; Savovic, Jelena; Trtica, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Spatially resolved, time-integrated optical emission spectroscopy was applied for investigation of copper plasma produced by a nanosecond infrared (IR) transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser, operating at 10.6 μm. The effect of surrounding air pressure, in the pressure range 0.1 to 1013 mbar, on plasma formation and its characteristics was investigated. A linear dependence of intensity threshold for plasma formation on logarithm of air pressure was found. Lowering of the air pressure reduces the extent of gas breakdown, enabling better laser-target coupling and thus increases ablation. Optimum air pressure for target plasma formation was 0.1 mbar. Under that pressure, the induced plasma consisted of two clearly distinguished and spatially separated regions. The maximum intensity of emission, with sharp and well-resolved spectral lines and negligibly low background emission, was obtained from a plasma zone 8 mm from the target surface. The estimated excitation temperature in this zone was around 7000 K. The favorable signal to background ratio obtained in this plasma region indicates possible analytical application of TEA CO2 laser produced copper plasma. Detection limits of trace elements present in the Cu sample were on the order of 10 ppm (parts per million). Time-resolved measurements of spatially selected plasma zones were used to find a correlation between the observed spatial position and time delay.

  15. Electrode Build-Up of Reducible Metal Composites toward Achievable Electrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghwa; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-02-19

    At the beginning of the 21st century, our world is faced with a global-warming problem due to the continuous increase in carbon dioxide emission, and thus, the development of novel experimental techniques is needed. The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide into high-value organic compounds could be of vital importance to solve this issue. The biggest challenge has always been to develop an electrocatalyst that is chemically active and structurally stable. Herein, previous studies, recent approaches, and current points of view on the electrode structure of metal oxide composites for the advanced electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide are reviewed.

  16. Carbon dioxide emissions from semi-arid soils amended with biochar alone or combined with mineral and organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Fernández, José M; Nieto, M Aurora; López-de-Sá, Esther G; Gascó, Gabriel; Méndez, Ana; Plaza, César

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid soils cover a significant area of Earth's land surface and typically contain large amounts of inorganic C. Determining the effects of biochar additions on CO2 emissions from semi-arid soils is therefore essential for evaluating the potential of biochar as a climate change mitigation strategy. Here, we measured the CO2 that evolved from semi-arid calcareous soils amended with biochar at rates of 0 and 20tha(-1) in a full factorial combination with three different fertilizers (mineral fertilizer, municipal solid waste compost, and sewage sludge) applied at four rates (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, and 225kg potentially available Nha(-1)) during 182 days of aerobic incubation. A double exponential model, which describes cumulative CO2 emissions from two active soil C compartments with different turnover rates (one relatively stable and the other more labile), was found to fit very well all the experimental datasets. In general, the organic fertilizers increased the size and decomposition rate of the stable and labile soil C pools. In contrast, biochar addition had no effects on any of the double exponential model parameters and did not interact with the effects ascribed to the type and rate of fertilizer. After 182 days of incubation, soil organic and microbial biomass C contents tended to increase with increasing the application rates of organic fertilizer, especially of compost, whereas increasing the rate of mineral fertilizer tended to suppress microbial biomass. Biochar was found to increase both organic and inorganic C contents in soil and not to interact with the effects of type and rate of fertilizer on C fractions. As a whole, our results suggest that the use of biochar as enhancer of semi-arid soils, either alone or combined with mineral and organic fertilizers, is unlikely to increase abiotic and biotic soil CO2 emissions.

  17. Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Risch, Anita C; Wirthner, Sven; Busse, Matt D; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Schütz, Martin

    2010-11-01

    Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO(2) year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their

  18. Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios.

    PubMed

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4

  19. Experimental assessment of the contribution of plant root respiration to the emission of carbon dioxide from the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevdokimov, I. V.; Larionova, A. A.; Schmitt, M.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V. O.; Bahn, M.

    2010-12-01

    The contributions of root and microbial respiration to the total emission of CO2 from the surface of gray forest and soddy-podzolic soils were compared under laboratory and field conditions for the purpose of optimizing the field version of the substrate-induced respiration method. The magnification coefficients of respiration upon the addition of saccharose ( k mic) were first determined under conditions maximally similar to the natural conditions. For this purpose, soil cleared from roots was put into nylon nets with a mesh size of 40 μm to prevent the penetration of roots into the nets. The nets with soil were left in the field for 7-10 days for the compaction of soil and the stabilization of microbial activity under natural conditions. Then, the values of k mic were determined in the root-free soil under field conditions or in the laboratory at the same temperature and water content. The contribution of root respiration as determined by the laboratory version of the substrate-induced respiration method (7-36%) was lower compared to two field versions of the method (27-60%). Root respiration varied in the range of 24-60% of the total CO2 emission from the soil surface in meadow ecosystems and in the range of 7-56% in forest ecosystems depending on the method and soil type.

  20. Comparison of life cycle carbon dioxide emissions and embodied energy in four renewable electricity generation technologies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rule, Bridget M; Worth, Zeb J; Boyle, Carol A

    2009-08-15

    In order to make the best choice between renewable energy technologies, it is important to be able to compare these technologies on the basis of their sustainability, which may include a variety of social, environmental, and economic indicators. This study examined the comparative sustainability of four renewable electricity technologies in terms of their life cycle CO2 emissions and embodied energy, from construction to decommissioning and including maintenance (periodic component replacement plus machinery use), using life cycle analysis. The models developed were based on case studies of power plants in New Zealand, comprising geothermal, large-scale hydroelectric, tidal (a proposed scheme), and wind-farm electricity generation. The comparative results showed that tidal power generation was associated with 1.8 g of CO2/kWh, wind with 3.0 g of CO2/kWh, hydroelectric with 4.6 g of CO2/kWh, and geothermal with 5.6 g of CO2/kWh (not including fugitive emissions), and that tidal power generation was associated with 42.3 kJ/kWh, wind with 70.2 kJ/kWh, hydroelectric with 55.0 kJ/kWh, and geothermal with 94.6 kJ/kWh. Other environmental indicators, as well as social and economic indicators, should be applied to gain a complete picture of the technologies studied.

  1. Historical changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in the eutrophied Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gypens, N.; Borges, A. V.; Lancelot, C.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities after the Second World War have severely increased river nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] loads to European coastal areas. The resulting N: P: Si imbalance (compared to phytoplankton requirements) stimulated in the Southern North Sea the growth of Phaeocystis colonies modifying the functioning of the ecosystem and, therefore, the carbon but also the biogenic sulphur cycles. Phaeocystis is a significant producer of DMSP (dimethylsulphide propionate), the precursor of DMS. When emitted to the atmosphere the DMS has a cooling effect on the climate contrarily to the CO2 greenhouse gas. Since the late 1990's specific nutrient reduction policies have however considerably reduced P loads while N is maintained. In this application we explore, with a mathematical tool, the effects of changing N and P loads on air-sea CO2 exchanges and DMS marine emissions. The chosen model is the MIRO-CO2-DMS, a complex biogeochemical model describing carbon, biogenic sulphur and nutrient cycles in the marine domain. Model simulations are performed for the contemporary period since 1950, using real forcing fields for sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric CO2 and RIVERSTRAHLER model simulations for river carbon and nutrient loads. Results are discussing the importance of human activities and river inputs of carbon and nutrients on the eutrophication of coastal areas, their ability to absorb atmospheric CO2 and the importance of DMS emissions associated with phytoplankton blooms, especially Phaeocystis.

  2. Initial report on methane and carbon dioxide emission dynamics from sub-Antarctic freshwater ecosystems: A seasonal study of a lake and a reservoir.

    PubMed

    Gerardo-Nieto, Oscar; Astorga-España, María Soledad; Mansilla, Andrés; Thalasso, Frederic

    2017-03-22

    The sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion is a part of the world where ecosystems have been understudied and where the CH4 cycling and emissions in lakes has not ever been reported. To fill that knowledge gap, a lake and a reservoir located at 53°S were selected and studied during three campaigns equally distributed over one year. Among the parameters measured were CH4 and CO2 emissions, as well their dissolved concentrations in the water column, which were determined with high spatial resolution. No ebullition was observed and the CH4 flux ranged from 0.0094 to 4.47mmolm(-2)d(-1) while the CO2 flux ranged from -22.95 to 35.68mmolm(-2)d(-1). Dissolved CH4 concentrations varied over more than four orders of magnitude (0.025-128.75μmolL(-1)), and the dissolved carbon dioxide ranged from below the detection limit of our method (i.e., 0.15μmolL(-1)) to 379.09μmolL(-1). The high spatial resolution of the methods used enabled the construction of bathymetric maps, surface contour maps of CH4 and CO2 fluxes, and transect contour maps of dissolved oxygen, temperature, and dissolved greenhouse gases. Overall, both lakes were net greenhouse gas producers and were not significantly different from temperate lakes located at a similar northern latitudes (53°N), except that ebullition was never observed in the studied sub-Antarctic lakes.

  3. The impacts of future climate and carbon dioxide changes on the average and variability of US maize yields under two emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Daniel W.; Sheffield, Justin; Lobell, David B.

    2015-04-01

    The United States is the largest producer of maize in the world, a crop for which demand continues to rise rapidly. Past studies have projected that climate change will negatively impact mean maize yields in this region, while at the same time increasing yield variability. However, some have questioned the accuracy of these projections because they are often based on indirect measures of soil moisture, have failed to explicitly capture the potential interactions between temperature and soil moisture availability, and often omit the beneficial effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on transpiration efficiency. Here we use a new detailed dataset on field-level yields in Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois, along with fine-resolution daily weather data and moisture reconstructions, to evaluate the combined effects of moisture and heat on maize yields in the region. Projected climate change scenarios over this region from a suite of CMIP5 models are then used to assess future impacts and the differences between two contrasting emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). We show that (i) statistical models which explicitly account for interactions between heat and moisture, which have not been represented in previous empirical models, lead to significant model improvement and significantly higher projected yield variability under warming and drying trends than when accounting for each factor independently; (ii) inclusion of the benefits of elevated CO2 significantly reduces impacts, particularly for yield variability; and (iii) net damages from climate change and CO2 become larger for the higher emission scenario in the latter half of the 21st century, and significantly so by the end of century.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Futuristic Emission Scenario of Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide over an Urban Area of Eastern India Using GIS and Coupled AERMOD–WRF Model

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sharadia; Gupta, Srimanta; Sibanda, Precious; Chakraborty, Arun

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the spatio-temporal variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during June 2013 to May 2015 and its futuristic emission scenario over an urban area (Durgapur) of eastern India. The concentration of ambient NO2 shows seasonal as well as site specific characteristics. The site with high vehicular density (Muchipara) shows highest NO2 concentration followed by industrial site (DVC- DTPS Colony) and the residential site (B Zone), respectively. The seasonal variation of ambient NO2 over the study area is portrayed by means of Geographical Information System based Digital Elevation Model. Out of the total urban area under consideration (114.982 km2), the concentration of NO2 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) permissible limit over an area of 5.000 km2, 0.786 km2 and 0.653 km2 in post monsoon, winter and pre monsoon, respectively. Wind rose diagrams, correlation and regression analyses show that meteorology plays a crucial role in dilution and dispersion of NO2 near the earth’s surface. Principal component analysis identifies vehicular source as the major source of NO2 in all the seasons over the urban region. Coupled AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD)–Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for predicting the concentration of NO2. Comparison of the observed and simulated data shows that the model overestimates the concentration of NO2 in all the seasons (except winter). The results show that coupled AERMOD–WRF model can overcome the unavailability of hourly surface as well as upper air meteorological data required for predicting the pollutant concentration, but improvement of emission inventory along with better understanding of the sinks and sources of ambient NO2 is essential for capturing the more realistic scenario. PMID:28141866

  5. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Futuristic Emission Scenario of Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide over an Urban Area of Eastern India Using GIS and Coupled AERMOD-WRF Model.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sharadia; Gupta, Srimanta; Sibanda, Precious; Chakraborty, Arun

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the spatio-temporal variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during June 2013 to May 2015 and its futuristic emission scenario over an urban area (Durgapur) of eastern India. The concentration of ambient NO2 shows seasonal as well as site specific characteristics. The site with high vehicular density (Muchipara) shows highest NO2 concentration followed by industrial site (DVC- DTPS Colony) and the residential site (B Zone), respectively. The seasonal variation of ambient NO2 over the study area is portrayed by means of Geographical Information System based Digital Elevation Model. Out of the total urban area under consideration (114.982 km2), the concentration of NO2 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) permissible limit over an area of 5.000 km2, 0.786 km2 and 0.653 km2 in post monsoon, winter and pre monsoon, respectively. Wind rose diagrams, correlation and regression analyses show that meteorology plays a crucial role in dilution and dispersion of NO2 near the earth's surface. Principal component analysis identifies vehicular source as the major source of NO2 in all the seasons over the urban region. Coupled AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD)-Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for predicting the concentration of NO2. Comparison of the observed and simulated data shows that the model overestimates the concentration of NO2 in all the seasons (except winter). The results show that coupled AERMOD-WRF model can overcome the unavailability of hourly surface as well as upper air meteorological data required for predicting the pollutant concentration, but improvement of emission inventory along with better understanding of the sinks and sources of ambient NO2 is essential for capturing the more realistic scenario.

  6. Carbon dioxide emissions from vegetation-kill zones around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera, eastern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Howle, James F.; Farrar, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera California was performed to evaluate the premise that gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to renewed intrusion of magma. Some kill sites are long-lived features and others have developed in the past few years. Total anomalous CO2 emissions from the thirteen areas average around 8.7 t per day; but the majority of the emissions come from four sites west of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. Geochemical analyses of the soil-gases from locations west and east of the plant revealed the presence of isobutane related to plant operations. The δ13C values of diffuse CO2 range from − 5.7‰ to − 3.4‰, similar to values previously reported for CO2 from hot springs and thermal wells around Long Valley.At many of the vegetation-kill sites soil temperatures reach boiling at depths ≤ 20 cm. Soil temperature/depth profiles at two of the high-emissions areas indicate that the conductive thermal gradient in the center of the areas is around 320 °C m− 1. We estimate total heat loss from the two areas to be about 6.1 and 2.3 MW. Given current thinking on the rate of hydrothermal fluid flow across the caldera and using the CO2 concentration in the thermal fluids, the heat and CO2 loss from the kill areas is easily provided by the shallow hydrothermal system, which is sourced to the west of the resurgent dome. We find no evidence that the development of new areas of vegetation kill across the resurgent dome are related to new input of magma or magmatic fluids from beneath the resurgent dome. Our findings indicate that the areas have developed as a response to changes in the shallow hydrologic system. Some of the changes are likely related to fluid production at the power plant, but at distal sites the changes are more likely related to seismicity and uplift of the dome.

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions from vegetation-kill zones around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera, eastern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Howle, James F.; Farrar, Christopher D.

    2006-04-01

    A survey of diffuse CO 2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera California was performed to evaluate the premise that gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to renewed intrusion of magma. Some kill sites are long-lived features and others have developed in the past few years. Total anomalous CO 2 emissions from the thirteen areas average around 8.7 t per day; but the majority of the emissions come from four sites west of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. Geochemical analyses of the soil-gases from locations west and east of the plant revealed the presence of isobutane related to plant operations. The δ13C values of diffuse CO 2 range from - 5.7‰ to - 3.4‰, similar to values previously reported for CO 2 from hot springs and thermal wells around Long Valley. At many of the vegetation-kill sites soil temperatures reach boiling at depths ≤ 20 cm. Soil temperature/depth profiles at two of the high-emissions areas indicate that the conductive thermal gradient in the center of the areas is around 320 °C m - 1 . We estimate total heat loss from the two areas to be about 6.1 and 2.3 MW. Given current thinking on the rate of hydrothermal fluid flow across the caldera and using the CO 2 concentration in the thermal fluids, the heat and CO 2 loss from the kill areas is easily provided by the shallow hydrothermal system, which is sourced to the west of the resurgent dome. We find no evidence that the development of new areas of vegetation kill across the resurgent dome are related to new input of magma or magmatic fluids from beneath the resurgent dome. Our findings indicate that the areas have developed as a response to changes in the shallow hydrologic system. Some of the changes are likely related to fluid production at the power plant, but at distal sites the changes are more likely related to seismicity and uplift of the dome.

  8. The coupling of glycolysis and the Rubisco-based pathway through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to achieve low carbon dioxide emission fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Han; Ou-Yang, Fan-Yu; Yang, Cheng-Han; Li, Si-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Rubisco-based engineered Escherichia coli, containing two heterologous enzymes of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoribulokinase (PrkA), has been shown to be capable of the in situ recycling of carbon dioxide (CO2) during glycolysis. Two alternative approaches have been proposed to further enhance the carbon flow from glycolysis to a Rubisco-based pathway through the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (NOPPP). The first is achieved by elevating the expression of transketolase I (TktA) and the second by blocking the native oxidation-decarboxylation reaction of E. coli by deleting the zwf gene from the chromosome (designated as JB/pTA and MZB, respectively). Decreases in the CO2 yield and the CO2 evolution per unit mole of ethanol production by at least 81% and 40% are observed. It is demonstrated in this study that the production of one mole of ethanol using E. coli strain MZB, the upper limit of CO2 emission is 0.052mol.

  9. Changing Arctic Ecosystems: Updated forecast: Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions required to improve polar bear outlook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakley, Karen L.; Atwood, Todd C.; Mugel, Douglas N.; Rode, Karyn D.; Whalen, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to the loss of snow and ice, which increases the amount of solar energy absorbed by the region. The most visible consequence has been the rapid decline in sea ice over the last 3 decades-a decline projected to bring long ice-free summers if greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are not significantly reduced. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) depends on sea ice over the biologically productive continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean as a platform for hunting seals. In 2008, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the polar bear as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) due to the threat posed by sea ice loss. The polar bear was the first species to be listed due to forecasted population declines from climate change.

  10. Photoacoustic study of ethylene emission and respiration rate of carbon dioxide from insulin germinated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista-Filho, M.; Corrêa, S. F.; da Silva, L. B.; Xavier-Filho, J.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique was used to study ethylene and CO2 respiration emission rates from germinating bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) seeds. The concentration of ethylene was measured at 10P(12) and 10P(14) lines of the CO2 laser with the PA cell in the intracavity configuration. On the other hand, the respiration rate of CO2 was deduced (precision 1 ppm) from the concentration data measured by the commercial PA analyser operating in the infrared range. The objective of this study was to obtain better understanding of insulin signalling in the germinating seeds. The experiments were performed with seeds imbibed either in water or in aqueous solution of insulin (0,9 μg.mL-1 H2O).

  11. Plant factory: A new method for reducing carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Liu, Tong; Ma, Jianshe

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, climate change has become a focus issue all over the world. Many scientific studies have confirmed the relationship between the emission of greenhouse gas such as carbon dioxide and global climate change. Reducing the emission of greenhouse gas is an effective way to solve the problem of climate change. This paper presents a new method for reducing carbon emissions: using the photosynthesis of plants to achieve carbon fixation in plant factory. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, we built a closed artificial light plant factory adopting LED lighting to conduct the experiment of carbon dioxide enrichment. The results shows that the production of the plants increased by 20%-25% and the plants fixed a considerable amount of carbon dioxide by increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the environment to 1000 ppm.

  12. Multi-scale Measurements and Modeling to Verify and Attribute Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Four Corners Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M. K.; Love, S. P.; Henderson, B. G.; Lee, S.; Costigan, K. R.; Reisner, J.; Flowers, B. A.; Chylek, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Four Corners region of New Mexico contains two large coal-fired power plants with real-time in-stack CO2 and pollutant monitors, in a semi-arid region with a feeble natural carbon cycle, making it an ideal site to evaluate remote sensing top-down verification methods. LANL has developed a test-bed site that includes a high-resolution solar tracking Fourier Transform Spectrometer (Bruker 125 HR) to monitor column abundance of greenhouse gases and pollutants (CO2, CH4, N2O and CO), and in situ cavity ring-down (CRDS, Picarro) and standard EPA sensors that measure CO2, CH4, CO, NOx, SO2 and particulates. We also have deployed a meteorological station, a ceilometer to measure boundary layer heights and an AERONET system to measure aerosol optical depths. We have been making continuous measurements since 11 March 2011. Our system's retrievals were validated against airborne in situ vertical gas profiles measured by NCAR's HIPPO system on 7 June 2011. We report observed power-plant signals, their diurnal cycles, and how they depend on local meteorology. Typically, the total-column FTS data show 2 to 8 ppm increases in CO2 when a power-plant plume is blowing towards our site, while the in situ CRDS sensor measures increases of 10 to 50 ppm. In situ CH4 measurements reveal large nocturnal increases of 4-5 ppm that could be from extensive gas and coal mining activities in the region. In contrast, in situ CO2 increases at night are small, likely because the power plant stacks are higher than the nocturnal boundary layer. Furthermore, our site sampled long range transport of pollutants from the Wallow fire that we distinguish from power plant emissions. To analyze our observations, we have developed a customized ultra-high-resolution plume model (HIGRAD) and coupled it with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) in the Four Corners area. Hourly real-time emissions are taken from EPA's in-stack monitors and other spatio-temporally resolved

  13. Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne.

    PubMed

    Allen, Myles R; Frame, David J; Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Chris D; Lowe, Jason A; Meinshausen, Malte; Meinshausen, Nicolai

    2009-04-30

    Global efforts to mitigate climate change are guided by projections of future temperatures. But the eventual equilibrium global mean temperature associated with a given stabilization level of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations remains uncertain, complicating the setting of stabilization targets to avoid potentially dangerous levels of global warming. Similar problems apply to the carbon cycle: observations currently provide only a weak constraint on the response to future emissions. Here we use ensemble simulations of simple climate-carbon-cycle models constrained by observations and projections from more comprehensive models to simulate the temperature response to a broad range of carbon dioxide emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission is better constrained than the warming response to a stabilization scenario. Furthermore, the relationship between cumulative emissions and peak warming is remarkably insensitive to the emission pathway (timing of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide are likely to be more robust to scientific uncertainty than emission-rate or concentration targets. Total anthropogenic emissions of one trillion tonnes of carbon (3.67 trillion tonnes of CO(2)), about half of which has already been emitted since industrialization began, results in a most likely peak carbon-dioxide-induced warming of 2 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures, with a 5-95% confidence interval of 1.3-3.9 degrees C.

  14. C balance, carbon dioxide emissions and global warming potentials in LCA-modelling of waste management systems.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Thomas H; Gentil, Emmanuel; Boldrin, Alessio; Larsen, Anna W; Weidema, Bo P; Hauschild, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Global warming potential (GWP) is an important impact category in life-cycle-assessment modelling of waste management systems. However, accounting of biogenic CO(2) emissions and sequestered biogenic carbon in landfills and in soils, amended with compost, is carried out in different ways in reported studies. A simplified model of carbon flows is presented for the waste management system and the surrounding industries, represented by the pulp and paper manufacturing industry, the forestry industry and the energy industry. The model calculated the load of C to the atmosphere, under ideal conditions, for 14 different waste management scenarios under a range of system boundary conditions and a constant consumption of C-product (here assumed to be paper) and energy production within the combined system. Five sets of criteria for assigning GWP indices to waste management systems were applied to the same 14 scenarios and tested for their ability to rank the waste management alternatives reflecting the resulting CO(2) load to the atmosphere. Two complete criteria sets were identified yielding fully consistent results; one set considers biogenic CO(2) as neutral, the other one did not. The results showed that criteria for assigning global warming contributions are partly linked to the system boundary conditions. While the boundary to the paper industry and the energy industry usually is specified in LCA studies, the boundary to the forestry industry and the interaction between forestry and the energy industry should also be specified and accounted for.

  15. Carbon dioxide diffuse emission and thermal energy release from hydrothermal systems at Copahue-Caviahue Volcanic Complex (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Cardellini, Carlo; Lamberti, María Clara; Agusto, Mariano; Caselli, Alberto; Liccioli, Caterina; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Tassi, Franco; Vaselli, Orlando; Caliro, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The north-western sector of Caviahue caldera (Argentina), close to the active volcanic system of Copahue, is characterized by the presence of several hydrothermal sites that host numerous fumarolic emissions, anomalous soil diffuse degassing of CO2 and hot soils. In March 2014, measurements of soil CO2 fluxes in 5 of these sites (namely, Las Máquinas, Las Maquinitas I, Las Maquinitas II, Anfiteatro, and Termas de Copahue) allowed an estimation that ~ 165 t of deeply derived CO2 is daily released. The gas source is likely related to a relatively shallow geothermal reservoir containing a single vapor phase as also suggested by both the geochemical data from the 3 deep wells drilled in the 1980s and gas geoindicators applied to the fumarolic discharges. Gas equilibria within the H-C-O gas system indicate the presence of a large, probably unique, single phase vapor zone at 200-210 °C feeding the hydrothermal manifestations of Las Máquinas, Las Maquinitas I and II and Termas de Copahue. A natural thermal release of 107 MW was computed by using CO2 as a tracer of the original vapor phase. The magmatic signature of the incondensable fumarolic gases, the wide expanse of the hydrothermal areas and the remarkable high amount of gas and heat released by fluid expulsion seem to be compatible with an active magmatic intrusion beneath this portion of the Caviahue caldera.

  16. Probing Volcanic Eruption Clouds With the Airs Spectrometer on Aqua: A New Tool for Quantifying Sulfur Dioxide and Ash Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Y.; Strow, L. L.; Carn, S.; Machado, S. D.; Hannon, S.

    2003-12-01

    Since its launch on EOS/Aqua in May 2002, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) has successfully detected SO2 and ash clouds emitted during a number of volcanic eruptions. Detection of SO2 is achieved using the strong infrared absorption band of the gas centered around 7.3 μ m. For upper tropospheric volcanic clouds, preliminary AIRS SO2 retrievals performed using a version of the AIRS radiative transfer algorithm that includes variable SO2 indicate good agreement with SO2 amounts detected by the ultraviolet Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) where coincident data are available. However, the higher spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of AIRS provides much improved coverage of volcanic emissions at lower altitudes, such as the October 2002 eruption of Mt.Etna (Italy). AIRS retrievals of SO2 and ash optical depths and effective particle radii in volcanic clouds from several eruptions will be presented, including Etna, Ruang (Indonesia, September 2002), Reventador (Ecuador, November 2002), Anatahan (Mariana Islands, May 2003) and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat, July 2003). These examples demonstrate the potential of AIRS data to improve measurements of volcanic SO2 and ash loading following eruptions, and to refine our understanding of volcanic cloud composition,structure and evolution.

  17. MAMAP - a new spectrometer system for column-averaged methane and carbon dioxide observations from aircraft: retrieval algorithm and first inversions for point source emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krings, T.; Gerilowski, K.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Tretner, A.; Erzinger, J.; Heinze, D.; Pflüger, U.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

    2011-09-01

    MAMAP is an airborne passive remote sensing instrument designed to measure the dry columns of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The MAMAP instrument comprises two optical grating spectrometers: the first observing in the short wave infrared band (SWIR) at 1590-1690 nm to measure CO2 and CH4 absorptions, and the second in the near infrared (NIR) at 757-768 nm to measure O2 absorptions for reference/normalisation purposes. MAMAP can be operated in both nadir and zenith geometry during the flight. Mounted on an aeroplane, MAMAP surveys areas on regional to local scales with a ground pixel resolution of approximately 29 m × 33 m for a typical aircraft altitude of 1250 m and a velocity of 200 km h-1. The retrieval precision of the measured column relative to background is typically ≲ 1% (1σ). MAMAP measurements are valuable to close the gap between satellite data, having global coverage but with a rather coarse resolution, on the one hand, and highly accurate in situ measurements with sparse coverage on the other hand. In July 2007, test flights were performed over two coal-fired power plants operated by Vattenfall Europe Generation AG: Jänschwalde (27.4 Mt CO2 yr-1) and Schwarze Pumpe (11.9 Mt CO2 yr-1), about 100 km southeast of Berlin, Germany. By using two different inversion approaches, one based on an optimal estimation scheme to fit Gaussian plume models from multiple sources to the data, and another using a simple Gaussian integral method, the emission rates can be determined and compared with emissions reported by Vattenfall Europe. An extensive error analysis for the retrieval's dry column results (XCO2 and XCH4) and for the two inversion methods has been performed. Both methods - the Gaussian plume model fit and the Gaussian integral method - are capable of deriving estimates for strong point source emission rates that are within ±10% of the reported values, given appropriate flight patterns and detailed knowledge of wind conditions.

  18. 40 CFR 1068.535 - How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can I do a voluntary recall for emission-related problems? 1068.535 Section 1068.535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... section applies only if you learn that your family does not meet the requirements of this chapter and...

  19. Methane and carbon dioxide emission in a two-phase olive oil mill sludge windrow pile during composting.

    PubMed

    Manios, Thrassyvoulos; Maniadakis, Konstantinos; Boutzakis, Panagiotis; Naziridis, Yiannis; Lasaridi, Katia; Markakis, George; Stentiford, Edward I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to make some preliminary evaluations on CO(2) and CH(4) emissions during composting of two-phase olive oil mill sludge (OOMS). OOMS, olive tree leaves (OTL) and shredded olive tree branches (OTB) were used as feedstock for Pile I and Pile II with a 1:1:1 and 1:1:2v/v ratio, respectively. Each pile was originally 1.2m high, 2.0m wide and approximately 15.0m long. Four 500 ml volume glass funnels were inverted and introduced in each pile, two in the core (buried 50-60 cm from the surface) and two near the surface under a thin 10-15 cm layer of the mixture. Thin (0.5 cm diameter) plastic, 80 cm long tubes were connected to the funnels. A mobile gas analyser (GA2000) was used to measure the composition (by volume) of O2, CO2 and CH4 on a daily basis. The funnels were removed prior to each turning and reinserted afterwards. From each pair of funnels (core and surface) of both piles, one was kept closed between samplings. Two way ANOVA was used to test differences between piles and among the tubes. Post hoc Tukey tests were also used to further investigate these differences. There was a significant difference (at p<0.001) in the two piles for all three gases. The average concentrations of O2, CO2 and CH4 in Pile I, from all four funnels was 16.86%, 3.89% and 0.25%, respectively, where for Pile II the average values were 18.07%, 2.38% and 0.04%, respectively. The presence of OOMS in larger amounts in Pile I (resulting in more intense decomposing phenomena), and the larger particle size of OTB in Pile II (resulting in increasing porosity) are the probable causes of these significant differences. Samples from open funnels presented lower, but not significantly lower, O2 composition (higher for CO2 and CH4) in comparison with closed funnels in both depths and both piles. Not significant were also the different mean gas compositions between core and surface funnels in the same pile.

  20. UV and IR measurements of sulphur dioxide emissions during and after the 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Isla C.; Whitty, Rachel C. W.; Pfeffer, Melissa A.; Thomas, Helen; Galle, Bo; Calder, Eliza; Arellano, Santiago; Prata, Fred; Pumphrey, Hugh C.

    2016-04-01

    A basaltic fissure eruption of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland, occurred from 31st August 2014 until 28th February 2015. This flood basalt eruption produced 1.6 km3 of lava and emitted sulphur dioxide (SO2) from the vents at rates of up to 3800 kg/s forming an eruption plume that could easily be detected from space. SO2 was also released by the cooling lava flows forming a low level haze. SO2 emissions were monitored using multiple techniques including scanning differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS), mobile DOAS traverses, and a NicAIR II infrared camera. UV DOAS data have been processed to distinguish the SO2 released by the degassing lava field as it cooled, both during and after the eruption. Initial results show that during February, the final month of the eruption, the lava field released about 3 kg/s of SO2. The lava field continued to emit detectable levels of SO2 at lower quantities in March, following the end of the eruption. Brightness temperature differences using 8.62 and 10.87 μm channels on the IR camera have been processed to calculate the column amounts of SO2 within the eruption plume. SO2 path lengths of over 700 ppm-m have been retrieved in November. This has been achieved despite the challenges of high H2O concentrations in the plume and high gas concentrations above the lava field. Poor meteorological conditions often resulted in a lack of clear sky within the images causing difficulties constraining background SO2 levels.

  1. Open path measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor under foggy conditions - technical problems, approaches and effects on flux measurements and budget calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Madany, T.; Griessbaum, F.; Maneke, F.; Chu, H.-S.; Wu, C.-C.; Chang, S. C.; Hsia, Y.-J.; Juang, J.-Y.; Klemm, O.

    2010-07-01

    To estimate carbon dioxide or water vapor fluxes with the Eddy Covariance method high quality data sets are necessary. Under foggy conditions this is challenging, because open path measurements are influenced by the water droplets that cross the measurement path as well as deposit on the windows of the optical path. For the LI-7500 the deposition of droplets on the window results in an intensity reduction of the infrared beam. To keep the strength of the infrared beam under these conditions, the energy is increased. A measure for the increased energy is given by the AGC value (Automatic Gain Control). Up to a AGC threshold value of 70 % the data from the LI-7500 is assumed to be of good quality (personal communication with LICOR). Due to fog deposition on the windows, the AGC value rises above 70 % and stays there until the fog disappears and the water on the windows evaporates. To gain better data quality during foggy conditions, a blower system was developed that blows the deposited water droplets off the window. The system is triggered if the AGC value rises above 70 %. Then a pneumatic jack will lift the blower system towards the LI-7500 and the water-droplets get blown off with compressed air. After the AGC value drops below 70 %, the pneumatic jack will move back to the idle position. Using this technique showed that not only the fog droplets on the window causing significant problems to the measurement, but also the fog droplets inside the measurement path. Under conditions of very dense fog the measured values of carbon dioxide can get unrealistically high, and for water vapor, negative values can be observed even if the AGC value is below 70 %. The negative values can be explained by the scatter of the infrared beam on the fog droplets. It is assumed, that different types of fog droplet spectra are causing the various error patterns observed. For high quality flux measurements, not only the AGC threshold value of 70 % is important, but also the fluctuation

  2. Geographic patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring on a one degree by one degree grid cell basis: 1950 to 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brenkert, A.L.; Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Fung, I. |; Matthews, E. |

    1997-03-01

    Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO{sub 2} emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional and national annual estimates for 1950 through 1992 were published previously. Those national, annual CO{sub 2} emission estimates were based on statistics on fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty. The national annual estimates were combined with gridded one-degree data on political units and 1984 human populations to create the new gridded CO{sub 2} emission data sets. The same population distribution was used for each of the years as proxy for the emission distribution within each country. The implied assumption for that procedure was that per capita energy use and fuel mix is uniform over a political unit. The consequence of this first-order procedure is that the spatial changes observed over time are solely due to changes in national energy consumption and nation-based fuel mix. Increases in emissions over time are apparent for most areas.

  3. 40 CFR 60.1245 - Am I exempt from any appendix B or appendix F requirements to evaluate continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... your sulfur dioxide continuous emission monitoring system require you to also evaluate your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system. Therefore, your oxygen (or carbon dioxide... appendix F requirements to evaluate continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1245 Section...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems,...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems,...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1245 - Am I exempt from any appendix B or appendix F requirements to evaluate continuous emission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... your sulfur dioxide continuous emission monitoring system require you to also evaluate your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system. Therefore, your oxygen (or carbon dioxide... appendix F requirements to evaluate continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.1245 Section...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide... to 60 minutes) using your oxygen (or carbon dioxide) continuous emission monitoring system, your sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, or carbon monoxide continuous emission monitoring systems,...

  8. CHP Energy and Emissions Savings Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Download the CHP Emissions Calculator, a tool that calculates the difference between the anticipated carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions from a CHP system to those of a separate heat and power system.

  9. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where you monitor sulfur dioxide and...

  10. Space-time dynamics of carbon and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Kosmach, D. A.; Nishino, S.

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to improve understanding of carbon cycling in the Buor-Khaya Bay (BKB) and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea by studying the inter-annual, seasonal, and meso-scale variability of carbon and related hydrological and biogeochemical parameters in the water, as well as factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Here we present data sets obtained on summer cruises and winter expeditions during 12 yr of investigation. Based on data analysis, we suggest that in the heterotrophic BKB area, input of terrestrially borne organic carbon (OC) varies seasonally and inter-annually and is largely determined by rates of coastal erosion and river discharge. Two different BKB sedimentation regimes were revealed: Type 1 (erosion accumulation) and Type 2 (accumulation). A Type 1 sedimentation regime occurs more often and is believed to be the quantitatively most important mechanism for suspended particular matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) delivery to the BKB. The mean SPM concentration observed in the BKB under a Type 1 regime was one order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration of SPM (~ 20 mg L-1) observed along the Lena River stream in summer 2003. Loadings of the BKB water column with particulate material vary by more than a factor of two between the two regimes. Higher partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), higher concentrations of nutrients, and lower levels of oxygen saturation were observed in the bottom water near the eroded coasts, implying that coastal erosion and subsequent oxidation of eroded organic matter (OM) rather than the Lena River serves as the predominant source of nutrients to the BKB. Atmospheric CO2 fluxes from the sea surface in the BKB vary from 1 to 95 mmol m-2 day-1 and are determined by specific features of hydrology and wind conditions, which change spatially, seasonally, and inter-annually. Mean values of CO2 emission from the shallow Laptev Sea were similar in September 1999 and 2005 (7.2 and 7.8 mmol m-2 day-1

  11. Multiwavelength Observations of AGN Jets: Untangling the Coupled Problems of Emission Mechanism and Jet Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Avachat, Sayali S.; Clautice, Devon; Georganopoulos, Markos; Meyer, Eileen; Cara, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of X-ray and optical emission from large numbers of AGN jets is one of the key legacies of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope. Several dozen optical and X-ray emitting jets are now known, most of which are seen in both bands as well as in the radio, where they were first discovered. Jets carry prodigious amounts of energy and mass out from the nuclear regions out to tens to hundreds of kiloparsecs distant from the central black hole, depositing it into the host galaxy and cluster. Interpreting their multiwavelength emissions has not been easy: while in most jets, the optical and radio emission in many objects is believed to emerge via the synchrotron process, due to its characteristic spectral shape and high radio polarization, the X-ray emission has been a tougher nut to crack. In less powerful, FR I jets, such as M87, the X-ray emission is believed to be synchrotron emission from the highest energy electrons, requiring in situ particle acceleration due to the short radiative lifetimes of the particles. However, in FR II and quasar jets, a variety of emission mechanisms are possible. Until the last few years, the leading interpretation had been inverse-Comptonization of Cosmic Microwave Background photons (the IC/CMB mechanism). This requires the jet to be relativistic out to hundreds of kiloparsecs from the nucleus, and requires an electron spectrum that extends to very low Lorentz factors. However, that now appears less likely, due to observed high optical polarizations in jets where the optical and X-ray emission appears to lie on the same spectral component, as well as limits derived from Fermi observations in the GeV gamma-rays. It now appears more likely that the X-rays must arise as synchrotron emission from a second, high energy electron population. With this revelation, we must tackle anew the coupling between jet structure and emission mechanisms. Multiwavelength imaging and polarimetry can give us clues to the

  12. Control of Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  13. Emission scenarios: Explaining differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Gokul; Edmonds, James

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emission scenarios rely on a number of assumptions about how societies will develop in the future, creating uncertainty in projections. Now, research reveals the sensitivity of emission estimates to some of these assumptions.

  14. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... also install continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide and oxygen (or carbon......

  15. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... also install continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide and oxygen (or carbon......

  16. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... also install continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide and oxygen (or carbon......

  17. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... also install continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide and oxygen (or carbon......

  18. On the problems of stability and durability of field-emission current sources for electrovacuum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakunin, Alexander N.; Aban'shin, Nikolay P.; Akchurin, Garif G.; Akchurin, Georgy G.; Avetisyan, Yuri A.

    2016-03-01

    The results of the practical implementation of the concept of field-emission current source with high average current density of 0.1-0.3 A-cm-2 are shown. The durability of cathode samples at a level of 6000 hours is achieved under conditions of technical vacuum. A phenomenological model is suggested that describes the tunneling of both equilibrium and nonequilibrium electrons in a vacuum from the zone of concentration of electrostatic field. Conditions are discussed as the resulting increase in the emission current due to the connection mechanism of the photoelectric effect is thermodynamically favorable, that is not accompanied by an undesirable increase in the temperature of the local emission zone. It is shown that to ensure stability and durability of the cathode is also important to limit the concentration of equilibrium carriers using composite structures «DLC film on Mo substrate." This helps to reduce the criticality of the CVC. A possible alternative is to use a restrictive resistance in the cathode. However, this increases the heat losses and thus decreases assembly efficiency. The results of experimental studies of the structure showing the saturation of photoemission current component with an increase in operating voltage. This fact suggests the existence of an effective mechanism for control of emission at constant operating voltage. This is fundamentally important for the stabilization of field emission cathode, providing a reliability and durability. The single-photon processes and the small thickness DLC films (15-20 nm) provide high-speed process of control.

  19. Practical modeling approaches for geological storage of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Celia, Michael A; Nordbotten, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The relentless increase of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the associated concerns about climate change have motivated new ideas about carbon-constrained energy production. One technological approach to control carbon dioxide emissions is carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The underlying idea of CCS is to capture the carbon before it emitted to the atmosphere and store it somewhere other than the atmosphere. Currently, the most attractive option for large-scale storage is in deep geological formations, including deep saline aquifers. Many physical and chemical processes can affect the fate of the injected CO2, with the overall mathematical description of the complete system becoming very complex. Our approach to the problem has been to reduce complexity as much as possible, so that we can focus on the few truly important questions about the injected CO2, most of which involve leakage out of the injection formation. Toward this end, we have established a set of simplifying assumptions that allow us to derive simplified models, which can be solved numerically or, for the most simplified cases, analytically. These simplified models allow calculation of solutions to large-scale injection and leakage problems in ways that traditional multicomponent multiphase simulators cannot. Such simplified models provide important tools for system analysis, screening calculations, and overall risk-assessment calculations. We believe this is a practical and important approach to model geological storage of carbon dioxide. It also serves as an example of how complex systems can be simplified while retaining the essential physics of the problem.

  20. Mercury emissions and coal-fired power plants: Understanding the problems and identifying solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Electric utility emissions contribute to an array of air quality concerns, most notably ground-level ozone, acid deposition, global warming, and fine particulate pollution. More recently, electric utility emissions of air toxics such as mercury have been linked to serious ecological health effects, especially in fish-eating birds. Another issue that is gaining attention is that of eutrophication in marine waters from nitrogen oxide emissions. Coal-fired power plants warrant special consideration, particularly in regards to mercury. Coal-fired power plants currently represent over 30% of controllable anthropogenic emissions in the US and are expected to emit nearly half of all anthropogenic emissions in the US by 2010. However, because the human health threshold for mercury is not known with certainty and mercury control technologies such as activated carbon injection are extremely expensive, mercury emissions from electric utilities have not been addressed in the US through either regulation or voluntary initiatives. The Center is beginning to evaluate the viability of no- or low-regrets measures that may be more consistent with the current state of the science on human and ecological health effects. The Center is also looking at options to reduce eutophication. Specifically, the Center has: hosted a workshop to assess the viability of low-cost mercury control options for electric utilities, developed a proposal to undertake a mercury banking initiative, worked to reduce compliance costs associated with multiple and conflicting regulations, and investigated the potential benefits and workability of NOx trading between air and water sources These activities are described in greater detail in the Center`s paper.

  1. Electromagnetic Emission from Long-lived Binary Neutron Star Merger Remnants. I. Formulation of the Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Daniel M.; Ciolfi, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Binary neutron star (BNS) mergers are the leading model to explain the phenomenology of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Recent observations of long-lasting X-ray afterglows of SGRBs challenge standard paradigms and indicate that in a large fraction of events a long-lived neutron star (NS) may be formed rather than a black hole. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these afterglows is necessary in order to address the open questions concerning the nature of SGRB central engines. However, recent theoretical progress has been hampered by the fact that the timescales of interest for the afterglow emission are inaccessible to numerical relativity simulations. Here we present a detailed model to bridge the gap between numerical simulations of the merger process and the relevant timescales for the afterglows, assuming that the merger results in a long-lived NS. This model is formulated in terms of a set of coupled differential equations that follow the evolution of the post-merger system and predict its electromagnetic (EM) emission in a self-consistent way, starting from initial data that can be extracted from BNS merger simulations. The model presented here also allows us to search for suitable EM counterparts for multimessenger astronomy, which is expected to become reality within the next few years thanks to ground-based GW detectors such as advanced LIGO and Virgo. This paper discusses the formulation and implementation of the model. In a companion paper, we employ this model to predict the EM emission from ∼ {10}-2 to ∼ {10}7 {{s}} after a BNS merger and discuss the implications in the context of SGRBs and multimessenger astronomy.

  2. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  3. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  4. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  5. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial... carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up...

  6. Nitrogen dioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrogen dioxide ; CASRN 10102 - 44 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  7. Chlorine dioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 00 / 007 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND CHLORITE ( CAS Nos . 10049 - 04 - 4 and 7758 - 19 - 2 ) In Support of Summary Information on the ( IRIS ) Integrated Risk Information System September 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This docu

  8. Self-Organized Criticality and Phase Problem in Magnetoaocustic Emission Burst in Ferromagnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ferromagnets, pure iron and steel with varying geometry and microstructural properties, were prepared for the present study of magnetoacoustic emission (MAE). The purpose was to separate the effects of structural property variations from changes caused by differences in the sample geometry. The position and shape of the leading MAE sub-burst and its variation among the samples are explained by magnetic anisotropy and the results of numerical simulations which utilized the concept of self-organized criticality (SOC). The amplitude and duration of the second sub-burst, which previously was thought to occur as a result of a complicated interaction between non-180 deg domain walls and lattice defects, can easily be explained by the results of our simulation.

  9. Problems Associated with Statistical Pattern Recognition of Acoustic Emission Signals in a Compact Tension Fatigue Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, Yolanda L.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) data were acquired during fatigue testing of an aluminum 2024-T4 compact tension specimen using a commercially available AE system. AE signals from crack extension were identified and separated from noise spikes, signals that reflected from the specimen edges, and signals that saturated the instrumentation. A commercially available software package was used to train a statistical pattern recognition system to classify the signals. The software trained a network to recognize signals with a 91-percent accuracy when compared with the researcher's interpretation of the data. Reasons for the discrepancies are examined and it is postulated that additional preprocessing of the AE data to focus on the extensional wave mode and eliminate other effects before training the pattern recognition system will result in increased accuracy.

  10. Effects of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Levels on Auditory Sensitivity and Frequency Tuning as Measured by the Stimulus Frequency Otoacoustic Emission Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-14

    carbon dioxide in bodily tissues) when breathing 100% oxygen using closed - circuit underwater breathing apparatus. With closed - circuit rebreathing diving...the expiration is mixed with the 100% oxygen mix from the closed - circuit system. A diver’s prolonged exposure to high oxygen levels can result in...for oxygen toxicity since they commonly breathe 100% oxygen under pressure. They are also at risk for hypercapnia if the closed - circuit filtering

  11. Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H.; Wendt, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

  12. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... part 60. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... part 60. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... part 60. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15175 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring system for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... part 60. (c) You must monitor the oxygen (or carbon dioxide) concentration at each location where...

  16. Estimation of carbon dioxide emissions per urban center link unit using data collected by the Advanced Traffic Information System in Daejeon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, B. Y.; Jung, H. J.; Bae, S. H.; Choi, C. U.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 emissions on roads in urban centers substantially affect global warming. It is important to quantify CO2 emissions in terms of the link unit in order to reduce these emissions on the roads. Therefore, in this study, we utilized real-time traffic data and attempted to develop a methodology for estimating CO2 emissions per link unit. Because of the recent development of the vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication technology, data from probe vehicles (PVs) can be collected and speed per link unit can be calculated. Among the existing emission calculation methodologies, mesoscale modeling, which is a representative modeling measurement technique, requires speed and traffic data per link unit. As it is not feasible to install fixed detectors at every link for traffic data collection, in this study, we developed a model for traffic volume estimation by utilizing the number of PVs that can be additionally collected when the PV data are collected. Multiple linear regression and an artificial neural network (ANN) were used for estimating the traffic volume. The independent variables and input data for each model are the number of PVs, travel time index (TTI), the number of lanes, and time slots. The result from the traffic volume estimate model shows that the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the ANN is 18.67%, thus proving that it is more effective. The ANN-based traffic volume estimation served as the basis for the calculation of emissions per link unit. The daily average emissions for Daejeon, where this study was based, were 2210.19 ton/day. By vehicle type, passenger cars accounted for 71.28% of the total emissions. By road, Gyeryongro emitted 125.48 ton/day, accounting for 5.68% of the total emission, the highest percentage of all roads. In terms of emissions per kilometer, Hanbatdaero had the highest emission volume, with 7.26 ton/day/km on average. This study proves that real-time traffic data allow an emissions estimate in terms of the link unit

  17. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions from a rice-wheat rotation as affected by crop residue incorporation and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianwen; Huang, Yao; Zong, Lianggang; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Yuesi

    2004-10-01

    Field measurements were made from June 2001 to May 2002 to evaluate the effect of crop residue application and temperature on CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions within an entire rice-wheat rotation season. Rapeseed cake and wheat straw were incorporated into the soil at a rate of 2.25 t hm-2 when the rice crop was transplanted in June 2001. Compared with the control, the incorporation of rapeseed cake enhanced the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O in the rice-growing season by 12.3%, 252.3%, and 17.5%, respectively, while no further effect was held on the emissions of CO2 and N2O in the following wheatgrowing season. The incorporation of wheat straw enhanced the emissions of CO2 and CH4 by 7.1% and 249.6%, respectively, but reduced the N2O emission by 18.8% in the rice-growing season. Significant reductions of 17.8% for the CO2 and of 12.9% for the N2O emission were observed in the following wheatgrowing season. A positive correlation existed between the emissions of N2O and CO2 ( R 2 = 0.445, n = 73, p < 0.001) from the rice-growing season when N2O was emitted. A trade-off relationship between the emissions of CH4 and N2O was found in the rice-growing season. The CH4 emission was significantly correlated with the CO2 emission for the period from rice transplantation to field drainage, but not for the entire rice-growing season. In addition, air temperature was found to regulate the CO2 emissions from the non-waterlogged period over the entire rice-wheat rotation season and the N2O emissions from the nonwaterlogged period of the rice-growing season, which can be quantitatively described by an exponential function. The temperature coefficient ( Q 10) was then evaluated to be 2.3±0.2 for the CO2 emission and 3.9±0.4 for the N2O emission, respectively.

  18. A statistical approach for isolating fossil fuel emissions in atmospheric inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; Ray, Jaideep; Shiga, Yoichi P.

    2016-10-27

    We study independent verification and quantification of fossil fuel (FF) emissions that constitutes a considerable scientific challenge. By coupling atmospheric observations of CO2 with models of atmospheric transport, inverse models offer the possibility of overcoming this challenge. However, disaggregating the biospheric and FF flux components of terrestrial fluxes from CO2 concentration measurements has proven to be difficult, due to observational and modeling limitations. In this study, we propose a statistical inverse modeling scheme for disaggregating winter time fluxes on the basis of their unique error covariances and covariates, where these covariances and covariates are representative of the underlying processes affecting FF and biospheric fluxes. The application of the method is demonstrated with one synthetic and two real data prototypical inversions by using in situ CO2 measurements over North America. Also, inversions are performed only for the month of January, as predominance of biospheric CO2 signal relative to FF CO2 signal and observational limitations preclude disaggregation of the fluxes in other months. The quality of disaggregation is assessed primarily through examination of a posteriori covariance between disaggregated FF and biospheric fluxes at regional scales. Findings indicate that the proposed method is able to robustly disaggregate fluxes regionally at monthly temporal resolution with a posteriori cross covariance lower than 0.15 µmol m-2 s-1 between FF and biospheric fluxes. Error covariance models and covariates based on temporally varying FF inventory data provide a more robust disaggregation over static proxies (e.g., nightlight intensity and population density). However, the synthetic data case study shows that disaggregation is possible even in absence of detailed temporally varying FF inventory data.

  19. A statistical approach for isolating fossil fuel emissions in atmospheric inverse problems

    DOE PAGES

    Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; Ray, Jaideep; ...

    2016-10-27

    We study independent verification and quantification of fossil fuel (FF) emissions that constitutes a considerable scientific challenge. By coupling atmospheric observations of CO2 with models of atmospheric transport, inverse models offer the possibility of overcoming this challenge. However, disaggregating the biospheric and FF flux components of terrestrial fluxes from CO2 concentration measurements has proven to be difficult, due to observational and modeling limitations. In this study, we propose a statistical inverse modeling scheme for disaggregating winter time fluxes on the basis of their unique error covariances and covariates, where these covariances and covariates are representative of the underlying processes affectingmore » FF and biospheric fluxes. The application of the method is demonstrated with one synthetic and two real data prototypical inversions by using in situ CO2 measurements over North America. Also, inversions are performed only for the month of January, as predominance of biospheric CO2 signal relative to FF CO2 signal and observational limitations preclude disaggregation of the fluxes in other months. The quality of disaggregation is assessed primarily through examination of a posteriori covariance between disaggregated FF and biospheric fluxes at regional scales. Findings indicate that the proposed method is able to robustly disaggregate fluxes regionally at monthly temporal resolution with a posteriori cross covariance lower than 0.15 µmol m-2 s-1 between FF and biospheric fluxes. Error covariance models and covariates based on temporally varying FF inventory data provide a more robust disaggregation over static proxies (e.g., nightlight intensity and population density). However, the synthetic data case study shows that disaggregation is possible even in absence of detailed temporally varying FF inventory data.« less

  20. A statistical approach for isolating fossil fuel emissions in atmospheric inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; Ray, Jaideep; Shiga, Yoichi P.

    2016-10-01

    Independent verification and quantification of fossil fuel (FF) emissions constitutes a considerable scientific challenge. By coupling atmospheric observations of CO2 with models of atmospheric transport, inverse models offer the possibility of overcoming this challenge. However, disaggregating the biospheric and FF flux components of terrestrial fluxes from CO2 concentration measurements has proven to be difficult, due to observational and modeling limitations. In this study, we propose a statistical inverse modeling scheme for disaggregating winter time fluxes on the basis of their unique error covariances and covariates, where these covariances and covariates are representative of the underlying processes affecting FF and biospheric fluxes. The application of the method is demonstrated with one synthetic and two real data prototypical inversions by using in situ CO2 measurements over North America. Inversions are performed only for the month of January, as predominance of biospheric CO2 signal relative to FF CO2 signal and observational limitations preclude disaggregation of the fluxes in other months. The quality of disaggregation is assessed primarily through examination of a posteriori covariance between disaggregated FF and biospheric fluxes at regional scales. Findings indicate that the proposed method is able to robustly disaggregate fluxes regionally at monthly temporal resolution with a posteriori cross covariance lower than 0.15 µmol m-2 s-1 between FF and biospheric fluxes. Error covariance models and covariates based on temporally varying FF inventory data provide a more robust disaggregation over static proxies (e.g., nightlight intensity and population density). However, the synthetic data case study shows that disaggregation is possible even in absence of detailed temporally varying FF inventory data.

  1. Clean Air Markets - Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about monitoring mass sulfur dioxide and mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide emission rate, and heat input by units affected by the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Interstate Rule.

  2. 40 CFR Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides guidance on the requirements of 40 CFR Part 75 through a series of questions and answers that can be used by units to monitor mass sulfur dioxide emissions, mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide rate and heat input.

  3. A new approach for monthly updates of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from space: Application to China and implications for air quality forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Henze, Daven K.; Wang, Yuxuan; Qu, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    SO2 emissions, the largest source of anthropogenic aerosols, can respond rapidly to economic and policy driven changes. However, bottom-up SO2 inventories have inherent limitations owing to 24-48 months latency and lack of month-to-month variation in emissions (especially in developing countries). This study develops a new approach that integrates Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) SO2 satellite measurements and GEOS-Chem adjoint model simulations to constrain monthly anthropogenic SO2 emissions. The approach's effectiveness is demonstrated for 14 months in East Asia; resultant posterior emissions not only capture a 20% SO2 emission reduction in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games but also improve agreement between modeled and in situ surface measurements. Further analysis reveals that posterior emissions estimates, compared to the prior, lead to significant improvements in forecasting monthly surface and columnar SO2. With the pending availability of geostationary measurements of tropospheric composition, we show that it may soon be possible to rapidly constrain SO2 emissions and associated air quality predictions at fine spatiotemporal scales.

  4. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  5. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  6. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60... paragraph (c)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in...

  7. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  8. 40 CFR 60.45b - Compliance and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and procedures for sulfur dioxide. 60.45b Section 60.45b Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and performance test methods and procedures for sulfur dioxide. (a) The SO2 emission standards in § 60...)(2) of this section; and (ii) Sulfur dioxide emissions (Es) are considered to be in compliance...

  9. SO2 from episode 48A eruption, Hawaii: Sulfur dioxide emissions from the episode 48A East Rift Zone eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andres, R.J.; Kyle, P.R.; Stokes, J.B.; Rose, William I.

    1989-01-01

    An SO2 flux of 1170??400 (1??) tonnes per day was measured with a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) in October and November 1986 from the continuous, nonfountaining, basaltic East Rift Zone eruption (episode 48A) of Kilauea volcano. This flux is 5-27 times less than those of highfountaining episodes, 3-5 times greater than those of contemporaneous summit emissions or interphase Pu'u O'o emissions, and 1.3-2 times the emissions from Pu'u O'o alone during 48A. Calculations based on the SO2 emission rate resulted in a magma supply rate of 0.44 million m3 per day and a 0.042 wt% sulfur loss from the magma upon eruption. Both of these calculated parameters agree with determinations made previously by other methods. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  10. The "Business-As-Usual" growth of global primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions - historical trends and near-term forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-09-01

    We analyse the global primary energy use and total CO2 emissions time series since 1850 and show that their relative growth rates appear to exhibit periodicity with a fundamental timescale of ~60 years and with significant harmonic behaviour. Quantifying the inertia inherent in these dynamics allows forecasting of future "business as usual" energy needs and their associated CO2 emissions. Our best estimates for 2020 are 800 EJ yr-1 for global energy use and 14 Gt yr-1 for global CO2 emissions, with both being above almost all other published forecasts. This suggests the energy and total CO2 emissions landscape in 2020 may be significantly more challenging than currently envisaged.

  11. Up/Down trend in the MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth and its relationship to the Sulfur Dioxide Emission Changes in China during 2000 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; Yumimoto, K.; Irie, H.; Osada, K.; Ogata, K.; Fukushima, H.; Wang, Z.; Ohara, T.

    2011-08-01

    Anthropogenic SO2 emissions increased alongside economic development in China at a rate of 12.7 % yr-1 from 2000 to 2005. However, under new Chinese government policy, SO2 emissions declined by 3.9 % yr-1 between 2005 and 2009. Between 2000 and 2010, we found that the variability in the fine-mode (submicron) aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the oceans adjacent to East Asia increased by 4-8 % yr-1 to a peak around 2005-2006 and subsequently decreased by 4-7 % yr-1, based on observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra satellite and simulations by a chemical transport model. This trend is consistent with ground-based observations of the number-size distribution of aerosol particles at a mountainous background observation site in central Japan. These fluctuations in SO2 emission intensity and AOD are thought to reflect the widespread installation of fuel-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in China because aerosol sulfate is a major determinant of the AOD in East Asia. Using a chemical transport model, we confirmed that the above-mentioned fluctuation in AOD is mainly caused by changes in SO2 emission rather than by varying meteorological conditions in East Asia. High correlation was also found between satellite-retrieved SO2 vertical column density and bottom-up SO2 emissions, both of which were also consistent with observed AOD trends. We proposed a simplified approach for evaluating changes in SO2 emissions in China, combining the use of modeled sensitivity coefficients that describe the variation of AOD with changes in SO2 emissions and satellite retrieval. Satellite measurements of the AOD above Sea of Japan marked the 4.1 % yr-1 declining between 2007 and 2010, and this correspond to the SO2 emissions from China decreased by ~9 % yr-1 between the same period.

  12. Monoterpene emissions from needles of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) grown under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Tani, Akira

    2017-01-01

    We measured monoterpene emissions from needles of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) to evaluate the response of monoterpene emission rates and their composition to elevated CO2 (600 μmol mol-1) and O3 (60 nmol mol-1) conditions. The dominant monoterpenes were α-pinene and β-pinene. The emission rate of total monoterpenes significantly decreased under elevated CO2 conditions (P < 0.05). The ratio of carbon emission in the form of monoterpenes to photosynthetically fixed carbon also significantly decreased under elevated CO2 conditions. By contrast, elevated O3 did not significantly affect the emission rate of total monoterpenes. The ratios of α-pinene/β-pinene, limonene/β-pinene, and myrcene/β-pinene were all significantly decreased by O3 exposure (P < 0.05). High reactivity of α-pinene, limonene, and myrcene when combining with O3 may be able to mitigate oxidative damage inside the larch needles. No significant combined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on individual or total monoterpene emissions were detected.

  13. 78 FR 70007 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Restriction of Emission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... of Emission of Sulfur Compounds and Emissions Banking and Trading AGENCY: Environmental Protection... rule ``Restriction of Emission of Sulfur Compounds'' will remove redundant sulfur dioxide standards...

  14. Influence of Solar-Geomagnetic Disturbances on SABER Measurements of 4.3 Micrometer Emission and the Retrieval of Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Picard, Richard H.; Evans, David S.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Xu, Xiaojing; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    Thermospheric infrared radiance at 4.3 micrometers is susceptible to the influence of solar-geomagnetic disturbances. Ionization processes followed by ion-neutral chemical reactions lead to vibrationally excited NO(+) (i.e., NO(+)(v)) and subsequent 4.3 micrometer emission in the ionospheric E-region. Large enhancements of nighttime 4.3 m emission were observed by the TIMED/SABER instrument during the April 2002 and October-November 2003 solar storms. Global measurements of infrared 4.3 micrometer emission provide an excellent proxy to observe the nighttime E-region response to auroral dosing and to conduct a detailed study of E-region ion-neutral chemistry and energy transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, we find that photoionization processes followed by ion-neutral reactions during quiescent, daytime conditions increase the NO(+) concentration enough to introduce biases in the TIMED/SABER operational processing of kinetic temperature and CO2 data, with the largest effect at summer solstice. In this paper, we discuss solar storm enhancements of 4.3 micrometer emission observed from SABER and assess the impact of NO(+)(v) 4.3 micrometer emission on quiescent, daytime retrievals of Tk/CO2 from the SABER instrument.

  15. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide via zero emissions—An alternative way to a stable global environment. Part 2: A practical zero-emissions scenario

    PubMed Central

    MATSUNO, Taroh; MARUYAMA, Koki; TSUTSUI, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Following Part 1, a comparison of CO2-emissions pathways between “zero-emissions stabilization (Z-stabilization)” and traditional stabilization is made under more realistic conditions that take into account the radiative forcings of other greenhouse gases and aerosols with the constraint that the temperature rise must not exceed 2 ℃ above the preindustrial level. It is shown that the findings in Part 1 on the merits of Z-stabilization hold under the more realistic conditions. The results clarify the scientific basis of the policy claim of 50% reduction of the world CO2 emissions by 2050. Since the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration and temperature occur only temporarily in Z-stabilization pathways, we may slightly relax the upper limit of the temperature rise. We can then search for a scenario with larger emissions in the 21st century; such a scenario may have potential for practical application. It is suggested that in this Z-stabilization pathway, larger emissions in the near future may be important from a socioeconomic viewpoint. PMID:22850728

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  17. Policy applications of a highly resolved spatial and temporal onroad carbon dioxide emissions data product for the U.S.: Analyses and their implications for mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Lebrun, Daniel

    Onroad CO2 emissions were analyzed as part of overall GHG emissions, but those studies have suffered from one or more of these five shortcomings: 1) the spatial resolution was coarse, usually encompassing a region, or the entire U.S.; 2) the temporal resolution was coarse (annual or monthly); 3) the study region was limited, usually a metropolitan planning organization (MPO) or state; 4) fuel sales were used as a proxy to quantify fuel consumption instead of focusing on travel; 5) the spatial heterogeneity of fleet and road network composition was not considered and instead national averages are used. Normalized vehicle-type state-level spatial biases range from 2.6% to 8.1%, while the road type classification biases range from -6.3% to 16.8%. These biases are found to cause errors in reduction estimates as large as ±60%, corresponding to ±0.2 MtC, for a national-average emissions mitigation strategy focused on a 10% emissions reduction from a single vehicle class. Temporal analysis shows distinct emissions seasonality that is particularly visible in the northernmost latitudes, demonstrating peak-to-peak deviations from the annual mean of up to 50%. The hourly structure shows peak-to-peak deviation from a weekly average of up to 200% for heavy-duty (HD) vehicles and 140% for light-duty (LD) vehicles. The present study focuses on reduction of travel and fuel economy improvements by putting forth several mitigation scenarios aimed at reducing VMT and increasing vehicle fuel efficiency. It was found that the most effective independent reduction strategies are those that increase fuel efficiency by extending standards proposed by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) or reduction of fuel consumption due to price increases. These two strategies show cumulative emissions reductions of approximately 11% and 12%, respectively, from a business as usual (BAU) approach over the 2000-2050 period. The U.S. onroad transportation sector is long overdue a comprehensive study

  18. Interannual variation in the fine-mode MODIS aerosol optical depth and its relationship to the changes in sulfur dioxide emissions in China between 2000 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; Yumimoto, K.; Irie, H.; Osada, K.; Ogata, K.; Fukushima, H.; Wang, Z.; Ohara, T.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic SO2 emissions increased alongside economic development in China at a rate of 12.7% yr-1 from 2000 to 2005. However, under new Chinese government policy, SO2 emissions declined by 3.9% yr-1 between 2005 and 2009. Between 2000 and 2010, we found that the variability in the fine-mode (submicron) aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the oceans adjacent to East Asia increased by 3-8% yr-1 to a peak around 2005-2006 and subsequently decreased by 2-7% yr-1, based on observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra satellite and simulations by a chemical transport model. This trend is consistent with ground-based observations of aerosol particles at a mountainous background observation site in central Japan. These fluctuations in SO2 emission intensity and fine-mode AOD are thought to reflect the widespread installation of fuel-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in China, because aerosol sulfate is a major determinant of the fine-mode AOD in East Asia. Using a chemical transport model, we confirmed that the contribution of particulate sulfate to the fine-mode AOD is more than 70% of the annual mean and that the abovementioned fluctuation in fine-mode AOD is caused mainly by changes in SO2 emission rather than by other factors such as varying meteorological conditions in East Asia. A strong correlation was also found between satellite-retrieved SO2 vertical column density and bottom-up SO2 emissions, both of which were also consistent with observed fine-mode AOD trends. We propose a simplified approach for evaluating changes in SO2 emissions in China, combining the use of modeled sensitivity coefficients that describe the variation of fine-mode AOD with changes in SO2 emissions and satellite retrieval. Satellite measurements of fine-mode AOD above the Sea of Japan marked a 4.1% yr-1 decline between 2007 and 2010, which corresponded to the 9% yr-1 decline in SO2 emissions from China during the same