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Sample records for diphenylethane 1,2

  1. Spectroscopy of 1,2-DIPHENYLETHANE-(H_{2}O)_{n} (n=1-3) Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gord, Joseph R.; Buchanan, Evan G.; Walsh, Patrick S.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2013-06-01

    1,2-diphenylethane (DPE) is a prototypical flexible bichromophore which forms two conformers in the gas phase having close lying S_{1} and S_{2} states. Resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectroscopy in the alkyl CH stretch region, 2800-3000 cm^{-1}, was used to assign the two observed isomers to gauche and anti structures having C_{2} and C_{2h} symmetry similar to those in butane. In the present work, the ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy of DPE-(H_{2}O)_{n} (n=1-3) clusters has been studied to understand how the 'solvent' water molecules bind to this molecule with two phenyl rings, and how the solvent binding perturbs the excited state behavior. RIDIR spectra in the OH stretch region (3350-3750 cm^{-1}) show that DPE-(H_{2}O)_{1} adopts a single conformation in which the water molecule bridges the two phenyl rings of the gauche conformer, forming π H-bonds with both rings. DPE-(H_{2}O)_{2} forms two structures, in which a water dimer is bound to either the gauche or anti DPE conformer. In the anti DPE-(H_{2}O)_{2} structure, the water dimer interacts primarily with one phenyl ring, disrupting the symmetry of DPE enough that the S_{1} and S_{2} origins are localized, splitting the origins by approximately 50 cm^{-1}. The development of these cluster structures with additional H_{2}O molecules, and the OH stretch spectra of the clusters in the excited state(s) will also be discussed. E. G. Buchanan, J. C. Dean, T. S. Zwier and E. L. Sibert, III J. Chem. Phys 2013, 138.

  2. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of novel 3-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(diphenylphosphino)-2-((diphenylphosphino)methyl)-3-methylbutanone-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine tungsten dicarbonyl (PyrPMB-W) nanostructure thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hossainy, Ahmed F.; Ibrahim, A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel transition metal complex, 3-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(diphenylphosphino)-2-((diphenylphosphino)methyl)-3-methylbutanone-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine tungsten dicarbonyl (PyrPMB-W) was synthesized and characterized using IR, mass spectra MS (FAB), 1H and 1H{31P} NMR spectra. The thermal evaporation technique was successfully used to deposit highly uniform and good adhesion of PyrPMB-W thin film. The structural properties of PyrPMB-W were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the complex was well polycrystalline and corresponds to space group P21/c with a monoclinic crystal structure. The important absorption parameters such as molar extinction coefficient (εmolar), the oscillator strength (f), and the electric dipole strength (q2) were also calculated. The analysis of the spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient in the intrinsic absorption region reveals a directly allowed transition with a band gap of 1.87 eV. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single oscillator Wemple-Didomenico (WD) model. The single oscillator energy (E0), the dispersion energy (Ed), the high frequency dielectric constant (ε∞), the lattice dielectric constant (εL) and the ratio of the free charge carrier concentration of the effective mass (N/m∗) were estimated. From the optical constant analysis, the optical conductivity, volume and surface energy loss functions were reported. Structural and optical mechanisms were discussed for future applications in nanoscaled optoelectronic devices.

  3. Spectroscopic studies on 2-[2-(4-methylquinolin-2-yl)hydrazono]-1,2-diphenylethanone molecule and its metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleem, H. S.; El-Inany, G. A.; Mousa, M.; Hanafy, F. I.

    2009-11-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of a hydrazone: 2-[2-(4-methylquinolin-2-yl)hydrazono]-1,2-diphenylethanone (BHQ) derived from 2-hydrazino-4-methylquinoline and 1,2-diphenylethan-1,2-dione (benzil) have been studied in various solvents of different polarities. The dependence of the band shift Δ ύ on the solvent parameters viz.D, Z, ET, DN, AN, α, β and π* was discussed. Also, the effect of pH on the free hydrazone and its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes was studied spectrophotometrically in 75% (v/v) dioxane-water in order to determine the dissociation and stability constants. The stoichiometry of the formed complexes was determined by three different methods: Job's, mole ratio and slope ratio which indicate the formation of 1:2, M:L complexes for Co(II) and Cu(II) and 1:1, Ni(II):L. Beer's law is valid in the range 0.32-7.04 μg/mL depending on the type of the metal ion. The use of BHQ as an indicator via a spectrophotometric titration of Cu(II) and Ni(II) with EDTA was efficient.

  4. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  5. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 04 / 067 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,2 - DIBROMOETHANE ( CAS No . 106 - 93 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2004 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been revie

  6. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  7. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  8. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  9. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 006 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF cis - 1,2 - DICHLOROETHYLENE and trans - 1,2 - DICHLOROETHYLENE ( CAS Nos . cis : 156 - 59 - 2 ; trans : 156 - 60 - 5 ; mixture : 540 - 59 - 0 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS )

  10. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 00 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  11. 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Tribromobenzene ; CASRN 615 - 54 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  12. 1,1,2-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 598 - 77 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  13. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 010F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,2,3 - TRICHLOROPROPANE ( CAS No . 96 - 18 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington DC i DISCLAIMER This document ha

  14. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  15. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Trichlorobenzene ; CASRN 120 - 82 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  16. 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Epoxybutane ( EBU ) ; CASRN 106 - 88 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  17. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  18. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  19. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  20. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions are... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  1. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  2. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  3. 11 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.2 Definitions. As defined in the Privacy Act of 1974 and for the purposes of this part, unless otherwise required by the context, the following terms shall...

  4. 45 CFR 1210.1-2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 1210.1-2 Section 1210.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES General § 1210.1-2 Scope. (a) This part applies to all Trainees and...

  5. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 1211.1-2 Section 1211.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  7. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  8. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  9. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  10. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  11. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  12. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  13. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  14. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  15. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  16. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  17. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  18. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  19. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aliens and... alien means an applicant for admission coming or attempting to come into the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien seeking transit through the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien...

  20. Outsmarted by nootropics? An investigation into the thermal degradation of modafinil, modafinic acid, adrafinil, CRL-40,940 and CRL-40,941 in the GC injector: formation of 1,1,2,2-tetraphenylethane and its tetra fluoro analogue.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Geraldine; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Talbot, Brian; O'Brien, John; Hessman, Gary; McLaughlin, Gavin; Twamley, Brendan; Brandt, Simon D

    2016-12-08

    2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide (modafinil) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of narcolepsy. Increasing popularity and off-label use as a cognitive enhancer has resulted in a reputation as an intelligence boosting 'wonder drug'. Common alternatives available from online shops and other retail outlets include 2-[(diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]-N-hydroxyacetamide (adrafinil), 2-{[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]sulfinyl}acetamide (CRL-40,940), 2-{[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]sulfinyl}-N-hydroxyacetamide (CRL-40,941), and N-methyl-4,4-difluoro-modafinil (modafiendz), respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a common tool used in forensic and clinical analysis but there is a potential for inducing analysis-related ambiguities. This study reports on the thermal degradation of modafinil, modafinic acid, adrafinil, CRL-40,940, and CRL-40,941 due to exposure to the heated GC injection port dissolved in a variety of solvents. Key degradation products common to modafinil, modafinic acid, and adrafinil analysis included diphenylmethanol and 1,1,2,2-tetraphenylethane (TPE), the latter of which was verified by its synthesis and characterization by x-ray crystallography. The investigated compounds were also characterized by (1) H and (13) C NMR. Diphenylmethane and thiobenzophenone were also identified in some instances. TPE formation was suggested to involve the generation of a benzhydrylium ion and its reaction with the sulfoxide oxygen of the parent compound to give an oxysulfonium intermediate. Correspondingly, the fluorinated TPE analogue was formed during heat-induced degradation of modafiendz, CRL-40,940 and CRL-40,941, respectively. When a mixture of modafinil (non-fluorinated) and modafiendz (fluorinated) were subjected to GC analysis, 4,4'-(2,2-diphenylethane-1,1-diyl)bis(fluorobenzene) was detected as a third cross reaction product in addition to the two expected TPE analogues. These observations served as a reminder that the seemingly

  1. AC conductivity and relaxation mechanism in (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Susmita; Barik, Subrat Kumar; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have synthesized polycrystalline sample of (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramic by a standard high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Studies of dielectric and electrical properties of the compound have been carried out in a wide range of temperature (RT - 400 °C) and frequency (1kHz - 1MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopic technique. The imaginary vs. real component of the complex impedance plot (Nyquist plot) of the prepared sample exhibits the existence of grain, grain boundary contributions in the complex electrical parameters and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) type behavior like semiconductor. Details study of ac conductivity plot reveals that the material obeys universal Jonscher's power law.

  2. Cloaking spin-(1/2) matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, De-Hone

    2010-06-15

    A physical construct for the cloaking of relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves is proposed. It is shown that when the effective energy and mass of relativistic spin-(1/2) particles moving in an effective vector field in a spherical shell are controlled, their matter waves can be perfectly guided through the shell without any distortion or loss; that is, the construct provides a three-dimensional cloaking shell for relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves. The proposal serves as the basis for some interesting applications such as providing a method to guide the matter waves of spin particles and an ideal setup to exhibit spin-spin interactions as well as perfect quantum interferences of some global effects in spin-(1/2) matter waves.

  3. Cisplatin inhibits MEK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tetsu; Tsigelny, Igor F.; Götz, Andreas W.; Howell, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (cDDP) is known to bind to the CXXC motif of proteins containing a ferrodoxin-like fold but little is known about its ability to interact with other Cu-binding proteins. MEK1/2 has recently been identified as a Cu-dependent enzyme that does not contain a CXXC motif. We found that cDDP bound to and inhibited the activity of recombinant MEK1 with an IC50 of 0.28 μM and MEK1/2 in whole cells with an IC50 of 37.4 μM. The inhibition of MEK1/2 was relieved by both Cu+1 and Cu+2 in a concentration-dependent manner. cDDP did not inhibit the upstream pathways responsible for activating MEK1/2, and did not cause an acute depletion of cellular Cu that could account for the reduction in MEK1/2 activity. cDDP was found to bind MEK1/2 in whole cells and the extent of binding was augmented by supplementary Cu and reduced by Cu chelation. Molecular modeling predicts 3 Cu and cDDP binding sites and quantum chemistry calculations indicate that cDDP would be expected to displace Cu from each of these sites. We conclude that, at clinically relevant concentrations, cDDP binds to and inhibits MEK1/2 and that both the binding and inhibitory activity are related to its interaction with Cu bound to MEK1/2. This may provide the basis for useful interactions of cDDP with other drugs that inhibit MAPK pathway signaling. PMID:26155939

  4. A multicomponent formal [1+2+1+2]-cycloaddition for the synthesis of dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Girling, P Ricardo; Batsanov, Andrei S; Shen, Hong C; Whiting, Andrew

    2012-05-18

    Reaction of methoxyvinylmethylketone with different amines and aldehydes under Lewis-acid catalysed conditions results in a novel, formal, step-wise [1+2+1+2]-cycloaddition to give dihydropyridine products.

  5. Microwave spectrum of 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovas, F. J.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Pate, Brooks H.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matthew T.; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2009-09-01

    The microwave spectrum of the sugar alcohol 1,2-propanediol (CH 3CHOHCH 2OH) has been measured over the frequency range 6.5-25.0 GHz with several pulsed-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometers. Seven conformers of 1,2-propanediol have been assigned and ab initio electronic structure calculations of the 10 lowest energy forms have been calculated. Stark effect measurements were carried out on several of the lowest energy conformers to provide accurate determinations of the dipole moment components and assist in conformer assignment.

  6. 50 CFR 1.2 - Authorized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.2 Authorized representative. Authorized representative means the subordinate... matters. The Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is frequently the authorized representative of...

  7. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.2 Definitions. As used in this... otherwise noted, means the Department of Homeland Security. Director or district director prior to March 1... or after March 1, 2003, pursuant to delegation from the Secretary of Homeland Security or...

  8. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrafluoroethane ; CASRN 811 - 97 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  9. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  10. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 001 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,1,2,2 - TETRACHLOROETHANE ( CAS No . 79 - 34 - 5 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This docu

  11. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  12. Theoretical study of the photo-isomerisation reactions of 1,2-dihydro-1,2-phosphaborine and 1,2-dihydro-1,2-alumazaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming-Der

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of the photochemical isomerisation reactions are investigated theoretically using the model systems, 1,2-dihydro-1,2-phosphaborine (5) and 1,2-dihydro-1,2-alumazaine (6), using the CAS(6,6)/6-311G(d,p) and MP2-CAS-(6,6)/6-311++G(3df,3pd)//CAS(6,6)/6-311G(d,p) methods. For each model reactant, three reaction pathways, which lead to three kinds of photo-isomers, are examined. The structures of the conical intersections, which play a key role in such photo-rearrangements, are determined. The thermal (or dark) reactions of the reactant species are also examined, using the same level of theory, to provide a qualitative explanation of the reaction pathways. These model investigations demonstrate that the preferred reaction route for these two aromatic heterocyclics is as follows: reactant → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct. The theoretical evidences anticipate that after irradiation of 5, the photoproduct yield of the Dewar BP-isomer, 8, should be larger than that of the Dewar BP-isomer, 7, whereas no Dewar BP-isomer 9 can be observed. Moreover, the present theoretical data predict after irradiation of 6, all three Dewar AlN-isomers (10, 11, and 12) and the starting molecule, 6, are produced.

  13. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 630 - 20 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  14. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromo - 3 - chloropropane ( DBCP ) ; CASRN 96 - 12 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessm

  15. Regiospecific synthesis of 3-substituted imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, and imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Xu, Yong-Jiang; Tu, Hongbin

    2003-06-13

    3-Substituted imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, and imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine were obtained regiospecifically in yields of 35-92% in one pot by reaction of 2-aminopyridines or 2-(or 4-)aminopyrimidines, respectively, with 1,2-bis(benzotriazolyl)-1,2-(dialkylamino)ethanes.

  16. 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloro - 1,2,2 - trifluoroethane ( CFC - 113 ) ; CASRN 76 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  17. Spin-1/2 Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, N. D.; Ludlow, A. D.; Barber, Z. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Jiang, Y.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Oates, C. W.

    2009-08-01

    We experimentally investigate an optical clock based on Yb171 (I=1/2) atoms confined in an optical lattice. We have evaluated all known frequency shifts to the clock transition, including a density-dependent collision shift, with a fractional uncertainty of 3.4×10-16, limited principally by uncertainty in the blackbody radiation Stark shift. We measured the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain clock and find the frequency to be 518 295 836 590 865.2(0.7) Hz.

  18. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  19. Continuous transformation of a -1/2 wedge disclination line to a +1/2 one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Jun-Ichi

    2010-04-01

    It is known that, in the order-parameter space S2/Z2 (a typical example being a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal in three dimensions), a -1/2 wedge disclination line and a +1/2 one are topologically equivalent and can thus be transformed continuously into each other. Here we report the realization of this transformation in a simulation of a cholesteric blue phase under an electric field.

  20. 1,2-hydroxypyridonates as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging: TREN-1,2-HOPO.

    PubMed

    Jocher, Christoph J; Moore, Evan G; Xu, Jide; Avedano, Stefano; Botta, Mauro; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2007-10-29

    1,2-Hydroxypyridinones (1,2-HOPO) form very stable lanthanide complexes that may be useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray diffraction of single crystals established that the solid-state structures of the Eu(III) and the previously reported [Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 5452] Gd(III) complex are identical. The recently discovered sensitizing properties of 1,2-HOPO chelates for Eu(III) luminescence [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 10 067] allow for direct measurement of the number of water molecules coordinated to the metal center. Fluorescence measurements of the Eu(III) complex corroborate that, in solution, two water molecules coordinate the lanthanide (q = 2) as proposed from the analysis of NMRD profiles. In addition, fluorescence measurements have verified the anion binding interactions of lanthanide TREN-1,2-HOPO complexes in solution, studied by relaxivity, revealing only very weak oxalate binding (KA = 82.7 +/- 6.5 M-1). Solution thermodynamic studies of the metal complex and free ligand have been carried out using potentiometry, spectrophotometry, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The metal ion selectivity of TREN-1,2-HOPO supports the feasibility of using 1,2-HOPO ligands for selective lanthanide binding [pGd = 19.3 (2), pZn = 15.2 (2), pCa = 8.8 (3)].

  1. 77 FR 30407 - 1,2-Ethanediamine, N

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 1,2-Ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, polymer with 2, 4- diisocyanato-1...-ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, polymer with 2,4-diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene, when used as an inert... residues of 1,2- ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, polymer with 2,4-diisocyanato-1- methylbenzene on...

  2. The 1.2 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A set of test structures was designed using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) test chip assembler and was used to evaluate the first CMOS-bulk foundry runs with feature sizes of 1.2 microns. In addition to the problems associated with the physical scaling of the structures, this geometry provided an additional set of problems, since the design files had to be generated in such a way as to be capable of being processed through p-well, n-well, and twin-well processing lines. This requirement meant that the files containing the geometric design rules as well as the structure design files had to produce process-insensitive designs, a requirement that does not apply to the more mature 3.0-micron CMOS feature size technology. Because of the photolithographic steps required with this feature size, the maximum allowable chip size was 10 x 10 mm, and this chip was divided into 24 project areas, with each area being 1.6 x 1.6 mm in size. The JPL-designed structures occupied 13 out of the 21 allowable project sizes and provided the only test information obtained from these three preliminary runs. The structures were used to successfully evaluate three different manufacturing runs through two separate foundries.

  3. 26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh semi-matte paper, aerial oblique of central Terre Haute with negative inscribed letters (prints on positive as white) along the bottom margin, "(02105-631K-118) (3-10-37. 10:30A) (R-1000) (State Normal College, Terre Haute, Ind.)" This view taken looking east shows the gas building in the near foreground right. On the reverse in red pencil, "Campus Scenes 10" and in black pencil, "1937". Source: Indiana State University Archives. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  4. Electrical properties of Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, K. Amar; Chandra, K. P.; Dubey, K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 was prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase cubic structure having space group Pm3m. AC impedance plots as a function of frequency at different temperatures were used to analyse the electrical behaviour of the sample, which indicated the negative temperature coefficient of resistance character. Complex impedance analysis targeted non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. Frequency dependent ac conductivity data obeyed Jonscher's power law. The apparent activation energy was estimated to be 0.97 eV at 1 kHz.

  5. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  9. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  10. Vibrational analysis of 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and 1,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsend

    1982-02-01

    Liquid-state IR and Raman spectra and solid-state IR spectra have been obtained for 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and l,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane. Carbon-halogen stretching bands are observed in the liquid-state spectrum of the dichloro compound at 751, 725, 624 and 574 cm -1 and at 677, 640, 551 and 507 cm -1 in the liquid-state spectrum of the dibromo compound. Both compounds exist as P CTt HHH and P XT XHH conformations in the liquid, but only the P XT XHH conformer is present for each in the crystalline solid. Further Interpretation of the spectra was aided by normal coordinate calculations.

  11. Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 1,2-Dicyanoalkenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Meina; Kong, Duanyang; Zi, Guofu; Hou, Guohua

    2017-01-06

    A highly efficient enantioselective hydrogenation of 1,2-dicyanoalkenes catalyzed by the complex of rhodium and f-spiroPhos has been developed. A series of 1,2-dicyanoalkenes were successfully hydrogenated to the corresponding chiral 1,2-dicyanoalkanes under mild conditions with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). This methodology provides efficient access to the asymmetric synthesis of chiral diamines.

  12. Acyl migration kinetics of vegetable oil 1,2-diacylglycerols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acyl migration kinetics of long-chain 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) to form 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) over the temperature range of 25 to 80 degrees Celsius were examined using proton NMR spectroscopy. The 1,2-DAG mole fraction of 0.32 at equilibrium was found to be insensitive to temperature...

  13. 43 CFR 3471.1-2 - Land description in lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land description in lease. 3471.1-2 Section 3471.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.1-2 Land description in lease. (a) All...

  14. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2 Section 3430.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title,...

  15. 45 CFR 1216.1-2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1216.1-2 Section 1216.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-2 Applicability of this part. (a)...

  16. 43 CFR § 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Contents. § 2812.1-2 Section § 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  17. Reaction of pyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole with acetylenedicarboxylic ester

    SciTech Connect

    Prostakov, N.S.; Varlamov, A.V.; Shendrik, I.V.; Krapivko, A.P.; Golovtsov, N.I.

    1986-08-01

    Previously unknown polynuclear condensed systems with bridgehead nitrogen atoms have been obtained by treating acetylenedicarboxylic ester with pyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole.

  18. First principles prediction of a morphotropic phase boundary in the Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-(Bi1/2Sr1/2)(Zn1/2Nb1/2)O3 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Valentino R; Henry, Asegun S; Takagi, Shigeyuki M; Singh, David J

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude and direction of polarization within alloys of the tetragonally distorted Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BZT) and the rhombohedrally oriented Bi1/2Sr1/2Zn1/2Nb1/2O3 (BSZN) are explored using density functional theory. For compositions with 50% of BZT, we find that the polarization points mainly along the [001] direction. Conversely, for low concentrations of BZT the polarization is rhombohedrally oriented. Based on these results we propose a phase diagram with a possible monoclinc phase between 25% and 50 % BZT where this material may have a useful piezoelectric response.

  19. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 31V. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    336,1 2- 347 . 1 2-17,4 -371.12-310#t2 2-Mo1, 2- 34411 2 1-SO 2-311.l 2-333,1 2-321, 2-337,1 2-336,2 2-376,4 2-3?1,5 2-368,3 0Wt,1 3 Abk.KP.IL 2-34, T 2 2...34 -r---2-3 M, Io 3 KX kVu 0.&0 2-337,2 2-321.1 2-368,1 2-343.2 2-347,2 2-31 , 1 2-370. 1 2- 186, 1 2-371. 1 3 LCLP 2-3483 2- 347 *4 2-335,3 _ 2-3209 1 2...DIT CINTEIL HUIME WEJ UNITED STATES ARM~Y TRAIIN~G AN~D DOCTRINE COi’JLAifD FORT L1OME, VIRGINIA 23651 ATOP ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .Zo 10- ./8 dte . *u~ -Wil*.h~.,.I ATE

  20. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 44E. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    78.4 2- 64,1 I GLgKP(Ix 2- 62,1 2- 58,1 1 ’ ’. I fMbs WIUf,D LIaT BY 04GE tfTF .PV. 107? PIGE . 1 GE 2- 79,1 I G1M& 2- 32,1 G(1N)EM2- 17,1 2- 137,1 2...0 2 0 n~ 1 . i , - I - I C5MS WIRD LIST BY PIGE 1Yj’© p𔃻L’ 1177 P.GP 6 j 1 EltL 2- 10,1 2- 18,1 2- 12,1 N1 MI IFV 2- 12.1 2- 66 l 2- 57.2 2- 26,1

  1. 43 CFR 3472.1-2 - Special leasing qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special leasing qualifications. 3472.1-2... Lease Qualification Requirements § 3472.1-2 Special leasing qualifications. (a) Each applicant or bidder... compliance with the special leasing qualifications of this subpart. (4)(i) An entity, seeking to qualify...

  2. 43 CFR 3472.1-2 - Special leasing qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special leasing qualifications. 3472.1-2... Lease Qualification Requirements § 3472.1-2 Special leasing qualifications. (a) Each applicant or bidder... compliance with the special leasing qualifications of this subpart. (4)(i) An entity, seeking to qualify...

  3. 43 CFR 3472.1-2 - Special leasing qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special leasing qualifications. 3472.1-2... Lease Qualification Requirements § 3472.1-2 Special leasing qualifications. (a) Each applicant or bidder... compliance with the special leasing qualifications of this subpart. (4)(i) An entity, seeking to qualify...

  4. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mandatory source priorities. 51-1.2 Section 51-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... Mandatory source priorities. (a) The JWOD Act mandates that commodities or services on the Procurement...

  5. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... administered by the National Park Service; (2) The boundaries of lands and waters administered by the...

  6. 43 CFR 3802.1-2 - When not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When not required. 3802.1-2 Section 3802.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... transported without using mechanized earth moving equipment or tracked vehicles....

  7. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2 Section 3430.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... sale of the coal shall exceed the cost of developing the mine and extracting, removing,...

  8. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mandatory source priorities. 51-1.2 Section 51-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL §...

  9. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mandatory source priorities. 51-1.2 Section 51-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL §...

  10. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mandatory source priorities. 51-1.2 Section 51-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL §...

  11. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mandatory source priorities. 51-1.2 Section 51-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL §...

  12. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  13. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  14. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  15. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  16. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  17. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  18. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  19. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  20. Fermions in d = 1 + 2 dimensions from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo-Ruiz, Ma. Georgina; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2006-09-25

    In this work we construct states describing planar electrons ('spin' (1/2) particles with well defined parity) in d = 1 + 2 from first principles and show that they satisfy Dirac equation, which turns out to be the covariant form of the eigenvalue equation for spatial inversion (parity) just like in d = 1 + 3.

  1. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Abbreviations and symbols. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS... indicated airspeed. ICAO means International Civil Aviation Organization. IFR means instrument flight...

  2. 45 CFR 1206.1-2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 1206.1-2 Section 1206.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  3. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal... public land status records. (c) The segregative effect shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of...

  4. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal... public land status records. (c) The segregative effect shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of...

  5. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal... public land status records. (c) The segregative effect shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of...

  6. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal... public land status records. (c) The segregative effect shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of...

  7. 48 CFR 970.2201-1-2 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policies. 970.2201-1-2... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-1-2 Policies. (a... installations; retention by DOE of absolute authority on all questions of security; and DOE review of...

  8. 43 CFR 3472.1-2 - Special leasing qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special leasing qualifications. 3472.1-2... Lease Qualification Requirements § 3472.1-2 Special leasing qualifications. (a) Each applicant or bidder... compliance with the special leasing qualifications of this subpart. (4)(i) An entity, seeking to qualify...

  9. 5 CFR 1.2 - Extent of the competitive service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of the competitive service. 1.2 Section 1.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND... pursuant to statute or by the Office of Personnel Management (hereafter referred to in this subchapter...

  10. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  11. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  12. [L1-2 lumbar disc herniation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Monobe, T; Fujita, T; Nakaue, Y; Nishi, N

    1996-03-01

    A 49-year-old female presented a two-year history of pain in the right thigh and lower back. Neurological examination on admission demonstrated weakness of the right iliopsoas and quadriceps, hypesthesia on the right L1-2 dermatome. Radiological examination including myelography, CT myelography and discography disclosed an L1-2 herniated disc. Sagittal MRI also revealed an L1-2, an L4-5 and L5-S1 protruded disc. A posterior microdiscectomy (Love's method) was performed for the L1-2 disc. A controlateral protruded disc which compressed the L-2 nerve root was identified and partially removed. The postoperative myelography showed residual disc. The patient was free from pain and regained normal sensorimotor function. Love's posterior microdiscectomy has a disadvantage in that the operative field is limited. Careful surgical procedure was needed to avoid injury to nerve roots and the cauda equina in a tight L1-2 lumbar canal.

  13. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  14. X-1-2 with Pilots Robert Champine Herb Hoover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 and two of the NACA pilots that flew the aircraft. The one on the left is Robert Champine with the other being Herbert Hoover. The X-1-2 was also equipped with the 10-percent wing and 8 percent tail, powered with an XLR-11 rocket engine and aircraft made its first powered flight on December 9, 1946 with Chalmers 'Slick' Goodlin at the controls. As with the X-1-1 the X-1-2 continued to investigate transonic/supersonic flight regime. NACA pilot Herbert Hoover became the first civilian to fly Mach 1, March 10, 1948. X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots, when it was retired to be rebuilt as the X-1E.

  15. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties;

  16. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties

  17. 39 CFR 1.2 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (ARTICLE I) § 1.2 Delegation of authority. Except for powers, duties, or obligations specifically vested in the Governors by law, the Board may delegate its authority to the Postmaster General under such...

  18. INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTHNORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  19. SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivonos, Sergey; Nersessian, Armen

    2017-02-01

    Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756, with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1, 2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1, 2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written in terms of the oscillator variables.

  20. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles. PMID:25222918

  1. Skin cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gumaste, P V; Penn, L A; Cymerman, R M; Kirchhoff, T; Polsky, D; McLellan, B

    2015-06-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have an elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. These patients and their clinicians are often concerned about their risk for other cancers, including skin cancer. Research evaluating the association between BRCA1/2 mutations and skin cancer is limited and has produced inconsistent results. Herein, we review the current literature on the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No studies have shown a statistically significant risk of melanoma in BRCA1 families. BRCA2 mutations have been linked to melanoma in large breast and ovarian cancer families, though a statistically significant elevated risk was reported in only one study. Five additional studies have shown some association between BRCA2 mutations and melanoma, while four studies did not find any association. With respect to nonmelanoma skin cancers, studies have produced conflicting results. Given the current state of medical knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to warrant increased skin cancer surveillance of patients with a confirmed BRCA1/2 mutation or a family history of a BRCA1/2 mutation, in the absence of standard risk factors. Nonetheless, suspected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers should be counselled about skin cancer risks and may benefit from yearly full skin examinations.

  2. Word Criticality Analysis MOS: 15D. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    ICASE .2 31 2- 29,2.2-247;1 2-2 ,1;i; Sol 0 1CASTER Z; 77,1 A-~ 49*1 2- 11;1 ICASUALTY . 2-13 217,1 2.lt5;i 2-134,1 j -153,1 1-249,1 ICAICH 2-251,1 I...1 3-. 67,2 3- 69,11 3- 63,11 3- 6206 3- 611 3-:42T13- 50,11 3- 49,& 3- 44.13 3- 24.1 3- 9.3 3- 6,1 3- Sol 3- 4#1 3- 3.3 2 O3.lI 1 -209,1 2-207,1 2...6001 3- host 2-249s1 3- Sol 2-269, 0 2.25001--- 3- 5,1 2-26 ’ i -270,2 I Nf1MFNC L.AT’R rz.k 29681 3- 0,1 3- 42I , - 51,2 11- 55,1 3- ’.spz __A NUM

  3. Microbial production and applications of 1,2-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R K; Anand, Pinki; Saran, Saurabh; Isar, Jasmine; Agarwal, Lata

    2010-03-01

    1,2-Propanediol (propylene glycol) is an existing commodity chemical and can be produced from renewable resources using microbes. By virtue of being a natural product, relevant biochemical pathways can be harnessed into fermentation processes to produce 1,2-propanediol. In the present review, the chemical process and different biological strategies for the production of 1,2-propanediol are reviewed and compared with the potentials and limitations of all processes. For the successful commercial production of this diol, it is necessary to establish the metabolic pathways and production hosts (microorganisms), which are capable of delivering final product with high yields and volumetric productivity. Three pathways which have been recognized for 1,2-propanediol production are discussed here. In the first, de-oxy sugars like fucose and rhamnose are used as the carbon sources, while in the other route, the glycolytic intermediate-dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) is used to produce 1,2-propanediol via the formation of methylglyoxal. A new pathway of 1,2-propanediol production by lactic acid degradation under anoxic conditions and the enzymes involved is also discussed. The production of this diol has gained attention because of their newer applications in industries such as polymers, food, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc. Furthermore, improvement in fermentation technology will permit its uses in other applications. Future prospect in the light of the current research and its potential as a major bulk chemical are discussed.

  4. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1).

  5. Antiferromagnetic Spin Ice Correlations at (1/2,1/2,1/2) in the Ground State of the Pyrochlore Magnet Tb2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, K.; Ross, K. A.; Qiu, Y.; Copley, J. R. D.; Guidi, T.; Bewley, R. I.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.

    2013-03-01

    The ground state of the candidate spin liquid pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7 (TTO) has been long debated. Despite theoretical expectations of magnetic order below 1K based on classical Ising-like Tb spins, muSR and neutron scattering experiments show no long range order down to 50mK. Two theoretical scenarios have been put forward to account for this: the quantum spin ice scenario and a non-magnetic singlet ground state, but no clear consensus has been reached. We present neutron scattering measurements on TTO at 70mK that reveal elastic scattering intensity at (1/2,1/2,1/2) positions in reciprocal space. The corresponding spin configuration can be modeled as a short-range antiferromagnetically ordered spin ice, in which spins obey a variant of the ice rules in each unit cell, and flip directions between adjacent cells. At low temperatures, this elastic scattering is separated from low-lying magnetic inelastic scattering by ~0.05meV. The elastic signal disappears under the application of small magnetic fields and upon elevating temperature. Pinch-point-like elastic diffuse scattering is observed, which together with the elastic spin ice correlations strongly supports the quantum spin ice picture for TTO.

  6. Will 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine-based drugs resist metabolism by cytochrome P450 compound I?

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is a structural and electronic analogue of benzene which is able to occupy benzene-binding pockets in T4 lysozyme and has been proposed as suitable arene-mimicking group for biological and pharmaceutical applications. Its applicability in a biological context requires it to be able to resist modification by xenobiotic-degrading enzymes like the P450 cytochromes. Quantum chemical computations described in this work show that 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is much more prone to modification by these enzymes than benzene, unless steric crowding of the ring prevents it from reaching the active site, or otherwise only allows reaction at the less reactive C4-position. This novel heterocyclic compound is therefore expected to be of limited usefulness as an aryl bioisostere.

  7. Will 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine-based drugs resist metabolism by cytochrome P450 compound I?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is a structural and electronic analogue of benzene which is able to occupy benzene-binding pockets in T4 lysozyme and has been proposed as suitable arene-mimicking group for biological and pharmaceutical applications. Its applicability in a biological context requires it to be able to resist modification by xenobiotic-degrading enzymes like the P450 cytochromes. Quantum chemical computations described in this work show that 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is much more prone to modification by these enzymes than benzene, unless steric crowding of the ring prevents it from reaching the active site, or otherwise only allows reaction at the less reactive C4-position. This novel heterocyclic compound is therefore expected to be of limited usefulness as an aryl bioisostere. PMID:27547588

  8. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  9. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  10. Biodegradation of 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene in Soil and in Liquid Enrichment Culture †

    PubMed Central

    Marinucci, A. C.; Bartha, R.

    1979-01-01

    The biodegradation of radiochemically pure (99%) 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) in soil was investigated. Experimental difficulties posed by the high volatility and slow biodegradation rate of the TCBs were partially overcome by using a specially designed incubation and trapping apparatus. Evolution of 14CO2 from active versus poisoned soil dosed with 50 μg of the individual TCBs per g gave conclusive proof that both isomers are biodegradable. At 20°C, 1,2,4-TCB was mineralized at an approximate rate of 1 nmol/day per 20 g of soil sample, and 1,2,3-TCB was mineralized at one-half to one-third that rate. Mineral fertilizers or cosubstrates failed to increase TCB mineralization rates in soil. Anaerobic conditions had a negative effect on mineralization, and increased temperatures had a positive effect. With increasing 1,2,4-TCB concentrations, 14CO2 evolution exhibited saturation kinetics with an apparent Km of 55.5 nmol per g of soil. Recovery of total radioactivity was good from soil containing high organic matter concentrations. From low-organic-matter soil, some of the radioactivity was recovered only on combustion, and overall recovery was lower. In soil-inoculated liquid culture, the cosubstrates glucose and benzene caused a slight stimulation of 1,2,4-TCB mineralization. Cochromatography of known standards with the extracts of soil pretreated with [14C]TCBs indicated that 3,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol and, to a lesser degree, 2,3-dichlorophenol were present in soils incubated with 1,2,3-TCB. 2,4-, 2,5-, and 3,4-dichlorophenol were present in soils incubated with 1,2,4-TCB. PMID:120698

  11. 1,2-Hydroxypyridonates as Contrast Agents for Magnetic ResonanceImaging: TREN-1,2-HOPO

    SciTech Connect

    Jocher, Christoph J.; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Avedano, Stefano; Botta, Mauro; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-05-08

    1,2-Hydroxypyridinones (1,2-HOPO) form very stable lanthanide complexes that may be useful as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). X-ray diffraction of single crystals established that the solid state structures of the Eu(III) and the previously reported [Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 5452] Gd(III) complex are identical. The recently discovered sensitizing properties of 1,2-HOPO chelates for Eu(III) luminescence allow direct measurement of the number if water molecules in the metal complex. Fluorescence measurements of the Eu(III) complex corroborate that in solution two water molecules coordinate the lanthanide (q = 2) as proposed from the analysis of NMRD profiles. In addition, fluorescence measurements have verified the anion binding interactions of lanthanide TREN-1,2-HOPO complexes in solution, studied by relaxivity, revealing only very weak oxalate binding (K{sub A} = 82.7 {+-} 6.5 M{sup -1}). Solution thermodynamic studies of the metal complex and free ligand have been carried out using potentiometry, spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The metal ion selectivity of TREN-1,2-HOPO supports the feasibility of using 1,2-HOPO ligands for selective lanthanide binding [pGd = 19.3 (2); pZn = 15.2 (2), pCa = 8.8 (3)].

  12. Near infrared rubidium 62P3/2,1/2→62S1/2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Paul J.; Richards, Ryan M.; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2016-09-01

    An optically pumped near infrared rubidium (Rb) pulsed, mirrorless laser has been demonstrated in a heat pipe along both the 62P3/2-62S1/2 transition at 2.73 μm and the 62P1/2-62S1/2 transition at 2.79 μm. The bleached limit, slope efficiency, and maximum laser output energy of the near infrared Rb laser scale linearly with increasing Rb density, contrary to prior results. Previously, a maximum output energy of ~5 nJ had been observed before a rollover occurred in the scaling of output energy with rubidium concentration. In this experiment, the maximum laser output energy observed was ~100 nJ, with no indication of any scaling limitation. A maximum slope efficiency of 1.7×10-4 was observed. A small percentage of the pump photons were absorbed even at the maximum Rb density attainable in the heat pipe, indicating that laser efficiency could be scaled to near the quantum efficiency. Additionally, the hyperfine structure and absorption spectral profile of the 52S1/2-62P1/2 and 52S1/2-62P3/2 (blue) pump transitions were studied using a cw pump source.

  13. Dense Energetic Compounds of C, H, N, and O Atoms. III. 5-(4-Nitro-(1,2, 5)oxadiazolyl)-5H-(1,2,3)triazolo(4,5-c)(1,2,5)oxadiazole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-21

    1,2,5)oxadiazolyl]-5H- [1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-cI[ 1,2,5] oxadiazole by A. Gunasekaran and J. H. Boyer Published in Heteroatom Chem., 1993, accepted...Nitro-(1,2,5)oxadiazolyl]-5H- [1,2,3] triazolo[4,5-c] [1,2,5] oxadiazole Ananthakrishnan Gunasekaran and Joseph H. Boyer* Department of Chemistry...diaminoazofurazan 7 by treat- ment with sodium azide and underwent thermolysis to 5-[4-azido-(1,2,5)oxadiazolyl]-5H- [1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c](1,2,5] oxadiazole 5. The

  14. Medicinal Chemistry Profiling of Monocyclic 1,2-Azaborines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Nettleton, David O; Karki, Rajeshri G; Zécri, Frédéric J; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2017-03-07

    The first examples of biologically active monocyclic 1,2-azaborines have been synthesized and demonstrated to exhibit not only improved in vitro aqueous solubility in comparison with their corresponding carbonaceous analogues, but in the context of a CDK2 inhibitor, also improved biological activity and better in vivo oral bioavailability. This proof-of-concept study establishes the viability of monocyclic 1,2-azaborines as a novel pharmacophore with distinct pharmacological profiles that can help address challenges associated with solubility in drug development research.

  15. A New Class of Jeff = 1 / 2 Mott Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Turan; Haule, Kristjan

    2015-03-01

    We predict a novel class of Jeff=1/2 Mott insulators in a family of Ir and Rh fluoride compounds with the K2GeF6 crystal structure that are previously synthesized, but not characterized extensively. First principles calculations in the level of all electron Density Functional Theory + Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DFT+DMFT) indicate that these compounds have large Mott gaps and some of them exhibit unprecedented proximity to the ideal, SU(2) symmetric Jeff=1/2 limit.

  16. Existence of independent [1, 2]-sets in caterpillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, Eko Budi; Marcelo, Reginaldo M.

    2016-02-01

    Given a graph G, a subset S ⊆ V (G) is an independent [1, 2]-set if no two vertices in S are adjacent and for every vertex ν ∈ V (G)/S, 1 ≤ |N(ν) ∩ S| ≤ 2, that is, every vertex ν ∈ V (G)/S is adjacent to at least one but not more than two vertices in S. In this paper, we discuss the existence of independent [1, 2]-sets in a family of trees called caterpillars.

  17. Redox cycloisomerization approach to 1,2-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Biannic, Berenger

    2015-03-20

    The phosphine-catalyzed synthesis of 1,2-dihydropyridines via an alkyne isomerization/electrocyclization sequence is described. Propargylidenecarbamate substrates were prepared following a one-pot procedure between a terminal alkyne, a benzonitrile, and a chloroformate in the presence of trimethylaluminum. This methodology gives access to a diverse set of 2,6-disubstituted 1,2-dihydropyridines in high yield. The products can be easily converted into substituted piperidines or pyridines, and this methodology was applied to the synthesis of indolizidines.

  18. Antimicrobial studies of some novel quinazolinones fused with [1,2,4]-triazole, [1,2,4]-triazine and [1,2,4,5]-tetrazine rings.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Ashutosh; Nizamuddin

    2009-03-01

    Three series of novel and new fused heterocyclic systems, viz. triazolo[4,3-a]-quinazolin-7-ones (4), [1,2,4,5]-tetrazino[4,3-a]-quinazolin-8-ones (6) and indolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]-triazino[4,3-a]-quinazolin-8-ones (8) have been synthesized from the key intermediate 3-(substituted-phenyl)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4-ones (3). Thus, condensation of (3) with appropriate aromatic acids in the presence of DCC in dichloromethane afforded the fused system (4), while reaction of (3) with isatin in methanol gave the corresponding Schiff base (7) which on cyclodehydration furnished another fused heterocyclic system (8). The intermediate (3) on refluxing with substituted-phenylisothiocyanate gave the substituted-thiosemicarbazide (5), which on oxidative cyclization with bromine in CCl(4) furnished the novel fused system (6). The structures of intermediate and final compounds have been determined by means of IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, as well as demonstrated significant antifungal activity against fungi viz. Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger.

  19. 43 CFR 3802.1-2 - When not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.1-2 When not required. A plan of operations under...

  20. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  1. CMMI (Trademark) Version 1.2, Training Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    exercises, and SEI instructor presentations will be intermixed throughout the week to provide a better balance. TOEFL * requirements will now be...used as part of the registration process. *Test of English as a Foreign Language © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University CMMI v1.2: Training Changes

  2. 15. View of the Main Office (Buildings 1, 2, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of the Main Office (Buildings 1, 2, and 3), U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Glenn Dale, MD, ca. 1950. Facilities and Engineering Branch. Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Building 426. - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  3. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. 1,2,4-Butanetriol: Analysis and Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-08

    ANHYDRIDE ........................41 CLEAVAGE OF CYCLIC ETHERS. .. ....... ......... 43 REFERENCES .. ... .......... .......... ......... 45... NOMENCLATURE .. ... .......... .......... ........ 49 1. iii/jy NSWC TR 82-380 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page I HYDROGENATION OF DIETHYLMALATE IN ETHANOL OVER NIKKI...of acetic acid, acetic anhydride , and sul Uric acid yielded 1,2,4-butanetriol triacetate. Subsequent methanolysis of the acetate produced BT. Wagaman

  5. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers were first synthesized by reacting bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazide with aniline hydrochloride at 250 C in the melt and also by reacting 1,3 or 1,4-bis- (4-hydroxyphenyl)- phenylene- dihydrazide with 2 moles of aniline hydrochloride in the melt. Purification of the di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers was accomplished by recrystallization. Poly (1,2,4-triazoles) (PT) were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions were carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PT of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides.

  6. The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.

    2005-01-01

    The bromination of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and brominating agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.

  7. Design for a Moore No. 1 1/2 lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Rhorer, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    To increase our capability to machine small spherical parts, we are designing an ultraprecision lathe based on a Moore No. 1 1/2 measuring machine. The machine is being designed for single axis cutting, utilizing an accurate rotary table for spherical cuts. This report summarizes the design and presents an error budget analysis for the design.

  8. 1,2-Diphenylethylamines as potential non-stimulant anorectics.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P; Bolt, A G; Mrongovius, R I

    1978-01-01

    A series of 1,2-diphenylethylamines has been synthesized in which the phenyl rings were substituted with Cl, OCH3 or CF3 at various positions and in various combinations. Four N-ethylpiperazino and N-ethylmorpholino compounds were also prepared. When tested in rats, some of the compounds were found to be potent anorectics and none of them stimulated motor activity.

  9. Federal Register: Toxic Substances; 1,2- Dichloropropane; Testing Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA (also Agency) is issuing a final test rule under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances (TSCA) that requires manufacturers and processors of 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP CAS Number 78-87—5) to test this chemical.

  10. Determination of Ethane-1,2-diamine in Inert Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Graeme H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a procedure for determining ethane-1,2-diamine (EN) which is generally applicable for inert or labile complexes or for EN in its salts, although it cannot be used directly with ammonium or coordinated ammonia. It gives results with five percent accuracy or better and requires less than one hour laboratory time. (JN)

  11. Phase transformation induced by electric field and mechanical stress in Mn-doped (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehara, Yoshitaka; Novak, Nikola; Ayrikyan, Azatuhi; Geiger, Philipp T.; Webber, Kyle G.

    2016-11-01

    Electric-field- and stress-induced phase transformations were investigated in polycrystalline 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped (1-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-x(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 (x = 0.1, 0.2). To characterize the effect of electric field and stress on the stability of the ferroelectric and relaxor states, polarization- and current density-electric field curves, as well as the stress-strain response as a function of temperature were characterized. Analogous to the observed electrical behavior, the macroscopic mechanical constitutive behavior showed a closed hysteresis at elevated temperatures, indicating a reversible stress-induced relaxor-to-ferroelectric transformation. The electrical and mechanical measurements were used to construct electric field-temperature and stress-temperature phase diagrams, which show similar characteristics. These data show that a mechanical compressive stress, similarly to an electric field, can induce long-range ferroelectric order in a relaxor ferroelectric.

  12. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  13. Microdomain Structure of Cr-Doped Manganites: Nd 1/2Ca 1/2(Mn,Cr)O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Akihiko; Moritomo, Yutaka; Nishibori, Eiji; Takata, Masaki; Sakata, Makoto; Ohoyama, Kenji; Mori, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Nakamura, Arao

    2000-11-01

    Crystal and magnetic structures of Cr-doped manganites, Nd1/2Ca1/2Mn1-yCryO3 (y=0.00 and 0.03), have been investigated by synchrotron radiation (SR) x-ray powder diffraction as well as neutron powder diffraction measurements.A detailed analysis of the high-resolution x-ray profile has revealed that the Cr-doped compound exhibits broad extra reflections, suggesting the formation of microdomains below the charge-ordering temperature T CO.The origin of the microdomain structure is discussed in terms of the charge separation.

  14. Spin-phonon coupling in Gd(Co1/2Mn1/2)O3 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. X.; Reichlova, H.; Marti, X.; Barbosa, D. A. B.; Lufaso, M. W.; Araujo, B. S.; Ayala, A. P.; Paschoal, C. W. A.

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the temperature-dependent Raman-active phonons and the magnetic properties of Gd(Co1/2Mn1/2)O3 perovskite ceramics in the temperature range from 40 K to 300 K. The samples crystallized in an orthorhombic distorted simple perovskite, whose symmetry belongs to the Pnma space group. The data reveal spin-phonon coupling near the ferromagnetic transition occurring at around 120 K. The correlation of the Raman and magnetization data suggests that the structural order influences the magnitude of the spin-phonon coupling.

  15. Difference in variation of glass transition activation energy between 1,2-propanediamine and 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Variations of the effective activation energy (Eα) throughout the glass transition were determined for 1,2-propanediamine (12PDA) and 1,2-propanediol (12PDO) by applying an isoconversional method to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data. Eα was found to markedly decrease throughout the glass transition of 12PDA, whereas such drastic change in Eα was not observed for 12PDO. Although the two simple liquids are similar in molecular structure and size, their trends in Eα and fragility m throughout the glass transition can be quite different. The significant disparity in the kinetic parameters can be caused by differences in hydrogen-bonding structure between 12PDA and 12PDO.

  16. ABIOTIC DEHALOGENATION OF 1,2-DICHLOROETHANE AND 1,2-DIBROMETHANE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION CONTAINING HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of significant levels of halogenated ali- phatic contaminants in groundwater resources in the U- nited States (1, 2) has spurred a considerable effort to understand the various mechanisms-both microbiological and abiotic-by which these compounds may be trans- formed...

  17. Click chemistry: 1,2,3-triazoles as pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Agalave, Sandip G; Maujan, Suleman R; Pore, Vandana S

    2011-10-04

    The copper(I)-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole-forming reaction between azides and terminal alkynes has become the gold standard of 'click chemistry' due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. Applications of click chemistry are increasingly found in all aspects of drug discovery; they range from lead finding through combinatorial chemistry and target-templated in vitro chemistry, to proteomics and DNA research by using bioconjugation reactions. The triazole products are more than just passive linkers; they readily associate with biological targets, through hydrogen-bonding and dipole interactions. The present review will focus mainly on the recent literature for applications of this reaction in the field of medicinal chemistry, in particular on use of the 1,2,3-triazole moiety as pharmacophore.

  18. 1,2,3-Triazolium-Based Peptoid Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Aliouat, Hafida; Caumes, Cécile; Roy, Olivier; Zouikri, Mohamed; Taillefumier, Claude; Faure, Sophie

    2017-02-22

    The cis-directing effect of the 1,2,3-triazolium-type side chain was studied on dimeric peptoid models with various patterns: αα, αβ, βα and ββ. Low influences of the sequence and of the solvent were observed, the cis conformation of the amide carrying the triazolium ranging from 83 to 94% in proportion. The synthesis of peptoid homooligomers with four or eight pendant 1,2,3-triazolium side chains is described. α-, β- and α,β-peptoids carrying propargyl groups were subjected to CuAAC reaction using alkyl azides, and the resulting triazoles were quaternized providing well-defined multitriazolium platforms. The influence of the counteranion (PF6(-), BF4(-) or I(-)) on the conformation was also studied.

  19. Rapid and efficient synthesis of α(1-2)mannobiosides.

    PubMed

    Reina, José J; Di Maio, Antonio; Ramos-Soriano, Javier; Figueiredo, Rute C; Rojo, Javier

    2016-03-14

    α(1,2)mannobiosides with different substituents at the reducing end have been synthesized by a common strategy using benzoyls as the permanent protecting groups and an acetyl as the orthogonal protecting group at position C2 of the glycosyl acceptor. The new synthetic strategy has been performed remarkably reducing the number of purification steps, the time of synthesis (less than 72 hours) and improving the overall yield at least three times with respect to the best procedure described in the literature at the moment. Additionally, this protecting group strategy is compatible with the presence of azido groups and the use of Cu catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) also called "click chemistry" for conjugating the α(1-2)mannobiosides to different scaffolds for the preparation of mannosyl multivalent systems.

  20. CMMI (Trademark) for Development, Version 1.2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    organization’s training curriculum . CMMI for Development Version 1.2 Organizational Training (OT) 283 Examples of the information provided in the...or external), and skills needed include the following: • Subject-matter experts • Curriculum designers • Instructional designers • Instructors...Martin) • Cattan, Denise (Spirula) • Clouse, Aaron (Raytheon) • Connell , Clifford (Raytheon) • Fisher, Jerry (Aerospace Corporation) • Hertneck

  1. CMMI (Trademark) for Acquisition, Version 1.2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    or established technologies to be applied, such as robotics, composite materials, or artificial intelligence ; and breadth of the functionality...you to align the way you do busines They allow you to address scalability and provide a way to incorpora knowledge of how to do things better. Processes...part by the selections made by the organization to meet its busine objectives. Tying It All Together 38 CMMI for Acquisition Version 1.2 4

  2. Wheeler-Feynman dynamics of spin-1/2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Alstine, Peter; Crater, Horace W.

    1986-02-01

    By combining a supersymmetric description of a spinning particle in an external field with an appropriate modification of the ``adjunct field'' of Wheeler and Feynman, we construct a many-time relativistic dynamics for arbitrary numbers of spin-(1/2) and spinless particles in mutual scalar or vector interaction. Quantization of the slow-motion approximation to the dynamics of two spinning particles reproduces the corresponding field-theoretic (Bethe-Salpeter) dynamics through order α4.

  3. 38. View of DRS 1, 2, and 3 (structure nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View of DRS 1, 2, and 3 (structure nos. 735, 736, and 737) console fault locator for beam power status, radio frequency (RF) and intermediate frequency (IF) fault conditions, RF switches status and TR status. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  4. General synthesis of substituted 1,2-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, David; Cotos, Leandro; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; García-Tellado, Fernando

    2014-11-07

    A general and practical metal-free protocol for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydropyridines with wide structural/functional diversity at the ring and featuring mono, double, or spiro substitution at the sp(3) position is described. The protocol entails a microwave-assisted domino reaction of a propargyl vinyl ether (secondary or tertiary) and a primary amine (aliphatic or aromatic) in toluene or methanol.

  5. The electrical properties and relaxation behavior of AgNb1/2Ta1/2O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K. Ganga; Niranjan, Manish K.; Asthana, Saket

    2017-02-01

    Polycrystalline AgNb1/2Ta1/2O3 powder was prepared by solid state reaction method. Preliminary x-ray diffractogram analysis of some aspects of crystal structure showed that a single phase compound formed exhibiting a monoclinic system. Impedance spectroscopy showed the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The relaxation behavior was studied by fitting electric modulus with Bergman function confirms us the existence of non-Debye type of relaxation the material. The ac conductivity spectrum obeyed Funke's double power law and fitting in results, the hopping parameters n1,n2 were indicating the existence of small and large range polaron hopping in the material. The band gap of the material 3.02 eV measured by using UV visible spectroscopy.

  6. Interplay between intramolecular and intermolecular structures of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira-Esteva, M.; Murugan, N. A.; Pardo, L. C.; Busch, S.; Tamarit, J. Ll.; Pothoczki, Sz.; Cuello, G. J.; Bermejo, F. J.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the interplay between the short-range order of molecules in the liquid phase of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane and the possible molecular conformations, trans and gauche. Two complementary approaches have been used to get a comprehensive picture: analysis of neutron-diffraction data by a Bayesian fit algorithm and a molecular dynamics simulation. The results of both show that the population of trans and gauche conformers in the liquid state can only correspond to the gauche conformer being more stable than the trans conformer. Distinct conformer geometries induce distinct molecular short-range orders around them, suggesting that a deep intra- and intermolecular interaction coupling is energetically favoring one of the conformers by reducing the total molecular free energy.

  7. Microwave dielectric dispersion in a multiferroic Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiestianskas, R.; Peng, W.; Lemée, N.; Karkut, M.; Banys, J.; Holc, J.; Kosec, M.

    2012-03-01

    We present the dielectric dispersion in a Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PFN) thin film grown on (001) SrTiO3 substrate from 20 MHz to 20 GHz in the temperature range of 270 to 340 K. In the radio frequency region, the hopping charge transport and associated polar nanoregion and/or domain-wall motion contribute to the spectrum. In the microwave region, relaxational dispersion was observed with a dielectric contribution of Δɛ ≈ 600 at room temperature having a characteristic frequency (fm)0.4 = 9.8 . (T-T0) Hz, where T0 is 660 K. It is associated with possible mode-softening behavior, related to the onset of polar nanoregions at T0. The dielectric permittivity shows similarities with 1-dimensional Ising model behaviour.

  8. 1-(2’,4’,6’-Trinitrophenyl)imidazoles and -1,2,4-triazoles as Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    triazoles and involved condensation of phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride (30) with dicyandiamide (31) to give 3,5-diamino-l-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole (32) (Reference...the presence of nitro groups on the phenyl ring hinders the condensation of the hydrazine with dicyandiamide , and while the 2’- and 4...8217-nitrophenyldiaminotriazoles (34) and (35) may be prepared, 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine was inert to reaction with dicyandiamide . Furthermore, oxidation of 34

  9. The MAPK MEK1/2-ERK1/2 Pathway and Its Implication in Hepatocyte Cell Cycle Control

    PubMed Central

    Guégan, Jean-Philippe; Frémin, Christophe; Baffet, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Primary cultures of hepatocytes are powerful models in studying the sequence of events that are necessary for cell progression from a G0-like state to S phase. The models mimic the physiological process of hepatic regeneration after liver injury or partial hepatectomy. Many reports suggest that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK1/2 can support hepatocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo and the MEK/ERK cascade acts as an essential element in hepatocyte responses induced by the EGF. Moreover, its disregulation has been associated with the promotion of tumor cell growth of a variety of tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas the strict specificity of action of ERK1 and ERK2 is still debated, the MAPKs may have specific biological functions under certain contexts and according to the differentiation status of the cells, notably hepatocytes. In this paper, we will focus on MEK1/2-ERK1/2 activations and roles in normal rodent hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo after partial hepatectomy and in human hepatocarcinoma cells. The possible specificity of ERK1 and ERK2 in normal and transformed hepatocyte will be discussed in regard to other differentiated and undifferentiated cellular models. PMID:23133759

  10. Targeting the BRCA1/2 tumor suppressors.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Eliot M; Pishvaian, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are classic tumor suppressor genes that exhibit an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with high penetrance. BRCA carriers inherit one mutant BRCA allele and one wild-type allele; and the wild-type allele is invariably deleted or mutated within the tumor. These genes function as caretakers in the maintenance of genomic stability, in part, by participating in homology-directed DNA repair (HDR), an error- free mechanism for the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). PARP1 (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1) is an enzyme that functions in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, where its ability to post-translationally modify histones and DNA damage response proteins is required for repair of single-strand breaks (SSBs). In 2005, it was observed that knockdown of PARP1 or treatment with a small molecule PARP inhibitor was far more toxic to cells with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations than BRCA1/2-competent cells. This observation is an example of "synthetic lethality", a concept whereby two gene mutations combine to cause cell death, when neither mutation alone is lethal. These results spawned the idea to use PARP inhibitors to treat BRCA1/2 mutant cancers. Here, we will review the basic science underlying the discoveries described above, the preclinical research, and the clinical trials designed to exploit the sensitivity of BRCA1/2 mutant tumor cells to PARP inhibitors. We will also describe problems associated with the use of these agents, including development and mechanisms of drug resistance; and we will provide a forward look at new agents and strategies currently under development.

  11. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 13E. Skill Level 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    4ILLIHIMATIM I R 2 IMILLIMtk S 1a.Gswua 6a TR.2 R-TMSFE R TA 2& . L INkS .R 2a6s .I4 -AUO _fm___4 * 4 SMkIIAiN Tali 26 4_ MNUMIA ST N _ -TAN 26 S aftsuS rag...Su.va 3- 15,2 2-3371 2151 21913 01 3 I ~..-....... 0*. 2 MUS WORD LIST by PAGE WTI 6.041 1729 PAGE j 0k 4 ADD ING 3-20 4 31 2 0,1 2- Soot * 4 ^tAIsaL 2

  12. Properties of the Lambda(1670)(1-)/2 resonance.

    PubMed

    Manley, D M; Abaev, V V; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Grosnick, D; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D D; Kulbardis, A A; Kozlenko, N G; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G; Lopatin, I V; Manweiler, R; Marusić, A; McDonald, S; Nefkens, B M K; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D C; Phaisangittisakul, N; Prakhov, S; Price, J W; Ramirez, A F; Sadler, M; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, T D S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M; Strakovsky, I I; Supek, I; Tippens, W B

    2002-01-07

    Recently the Crystal Ball Collaboration measured precise new data for the near-threshold reaction K(-)p-->etaLambda, which is dominated by formation of the Lambda(1670)1 / 2(-). In this Letter, we present results of a unitary, multichannel analysis that incorporates the new Crystal Ball data. For our preferred fit, we obtain mass M = 1673+/-2 MeV, width Gamma = 23+/-6 MeV, and elasticity x = 0.37+/-0.07. This elasticity is significantly larger than previously recognized. Resonance parameters of our preferred fit are in striking agreement with the quark-model predictions of Koniuk and Isgur.

  13. Production of spin-1/2 particles in inhomogeneous cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, A.; Verdaguer, E.

    1992-06-01

    The production of spin-1/2 particles by small gravitational inhomogeneities is discussed by using a perturbative approach based on the evaluation of the scattering matrix. We compute the production of massive and massless particles by linear gravitational inhomogeneities in flat spacetime and the production of massless particles in an expanding universe described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models with small inhomogeneities. As in the case of scalar particles the total pair-creation probability is given in terms of geometric invariants of the spacetime.

  14. Weak value distributions for spin 1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.; Dennis, M. R.; McRoberts, B.; Shukla, P.

    2011-05-01

    The simplest weak measurement is of a component of spin 1/2. For this observable, the probability distributions of the real and imaginary parts of the weak value, and their joint probability distribution, are calculated exactly for pre- and postselected states uniformly distributed over the surface of the Poincaré-Bloch sphere. The superweak probability, that the real part of the weak value lies outside the spectral range, is 1/3. This case, with just two eigenvalues, complements our previous calculation (Berry and Shukla 2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 354024) of the universal form of the weak value probability distribution for an operator with many eigenvalues.

  15. Preparation of crosslinked 1,2,4-oxadiazole polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Shalhoub, I. M.; Kwong, H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    New crosslinked 1,2,4-oxadiazole elastomers were prepared by thermally condensing a monomer having the formula H2N(HON)C-R-Q, wherein Q is a triazine ring-forming group such as nitrile or amidine or a mixture of such group with amidoxime, or a mixture of said monomer with R C(NOH)NH2 sub 2 with R in these formulas standing for a bivalent organic radical. In the monomer charge, the overall proportions of amidoxime groups to triazine ring-forming groups varies depending on the extent of crosslinking desired in the final polymer.

  16. Preparation of perfluorinated 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratzer, R. H.; Paciorek, K. J. L.; Ito, T. I.; Rosser, R. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Fluorinated alkyl or alkylether 1,2,4 oxadiazole compounds are prepared by cyclizing the corresponding alkyl or alkylether imidoyl amidoximes in vacuo or in an inert atmosphere at a temperature within the range of 40 C to 100 C. for a period of 8 to 144 hours in the presence of an acid compound which can accept ammonia to form a salt. The imidoyl amidoximes usable in this process are either polymeric or nonpolymeric. The products, when polymeric, have excellent heat, chemical and solvent resistance.

  17. Role of point defects in bipolar fatigue behavior of Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} modified (Bi{sub 1/2}K{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} relaxor ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nitish Ansell, Troy Y.; Cann, David P.

    2014-04-21

    Lead-free Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}K{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} (BMT-BKT-BNT) ceramics have been shown to exhibit large electromechanical strains under high electric fields along with negligible fatigue under strong electric fields. To investigate the role of point defects on the fatigue characteristics, the composition 5BMT-40BKT-55BNT was doped to incorporate acceptor and donor defects on the A and B sites by adjusting the Bi/Na and Ti/Mg stoichiometries. All samples had pseudo-cubic symmetries based on x-ray diffraction, typical of relaxors. Dielectric measurements showed that the high and low temperature phase transitions were largely unaffected by doping. Acceptor doping resulted in the observation of a typical ferroelectric-like polarization with a remnant polarization and strain hysteresis loops with significant negative strain. Donor-doped compositions exhibited characteristics that were indicative of an ergodic relaxor phase. Fatigue measurements were carried out on all of the compositions. While the A-site acceptor-doped composition showed a small degradation in maximum strain after 10{sup 6} cycles, the other compositions were essentially fatigue free. Impedance measurements were used to identify the important conduction mechanisms in these compositions. As expected, the presence of defects did not strongly influence the fatigue behavior in donor-doped compositions owing to the nature of their reversible field-induced phase transformation. Even for the acceptor-doped compositions, which had stable domains in the absence of an electric field at room temperature, there was negligible degradation in the maximum strain due to fatigue. This suggests that either the defects introduced through stoichiometric variations do not play a prominent role in fatigue in these systems or it is compensated by factors like decrease in coercive field, an increase in ergodicity, symmetry change, or other factors.

  18. Unimolecular HCl and HF elimination reactions of 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-difluoroethane, and 1,2-chlorofluoroethane: assignment of threshold energies.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Juliana R; Solaka, Sarah A; Setser, D W; Holmes, Bert E

    2010-01-21

    The recombination of CH(2)Cl and CH(2)F radicals generates vibrationally excited CH(2)ClCH(2)Cl, CH(2)FCH(2)F, and CH(2)ClCH(2)F molecules with about 90 kcal mol(-1) of energy in a room temperature bath gas. New experimental data for CH(2)ClCH(2)F have been obtained that are combined with previously published studies for C(2)H(4)Cl(2) and C(2)H(4)F(2) to define reliable rate constants of 3.0 x 10(8) (C(2)H(4)F(2)), 2.4 x 10(8) (C(2)H(4)Cl(2)), and 1.9 x 10(8) (CH(2)ClCH(2)F) s(-1) for HCl and HF elimination. The product branching ratio for CH(2)ClCH(2)F is approximately 1. These experimental rate constants are compared to calculated statistical rate constants (RRKM) to assign threshold energies for HF and HCl elimination. The calculated rate constants are based on transition-state models obtained from calculations of electronic structures; the energy levels of the asymmetric, hindered, internal rotation were directly included in the state counting to obtain a more realistic measure for the density of internal states for the molecules. The assigned threshold energies for C(2)H(4)F(2) and C(2)H(4)Cl(2) are both 63 +/- 2 kcal mol(-1). The threshold energies for CH(2)ClCH(2)F are 65 +/- 2 (HCl) and 63 +/- 2 (HF) kcal mol(-1). These threshold energies are 5-7 kcal mol(-1) higher than the corresponding values for C(2)H(5)Cl or C(2)H(5)F, and beta-substitution of F or Cl atoms raises threshold energies for HF or HCl elimination reactions. The treatment presented here for obtaining the densities of states and the entropy of activation from models with asymmetric internal rotations with high barriers can be used to judge the validity of using a symmetric internal-rotor approximation for other cases. Finally, threshold energies for the 1,2-fluorochloroethanes are compared to those of the 1,1-fluorochloroethanes to illustrate substituent effects on the relative energies of the isomeric transition states.

  19. Computational studies of 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayabharathi, J.; Thanikachalam, V.; Jayamoorthy, K.; Venkatesh Perumal, M.

    2012-11-01

    Some 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazole derivatives (1-6) have been synthesized and characterized by mass, 1H, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. XRD analysis was carried out for 1-(4-methylbenzyl)-2-p-tolyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole. Calculated bond lengths, bond angles and thus dihedral angles are found to be slightly higher than that of X-ray diffraction values of its experimental data. The charge distribution has been calculated from the atomic charges by non-linear optical (NLO) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses have been calculated by ab initio method. Since the synthesized 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazole derivatives have the largest μgβ0 value and can be used as potential NLO materials. Analysis of the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) energy surface exploited the region for non-covalent interactions in the molecule. Atom in molecule analysis (AIM) was carried out to show the presence of bond critical points (BCPs).

  20. LBNF 1.2 MW TARGET: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN & FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, Cory F.; Ammigan, K.; Anderson, K.; Hartsell, B.; Hurh, P.; Hylen, J.; Zwaska, R.

    2015-06-29

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a modified design based on the NuMI low energy target that is reconfigured to accommodate beam operation at 1.2 MW. Achieving this power with a graphite target material and ancillary systems originally rated for 400 kW requires several design changes and R&D efforts related to material bonding and electrical isolation. Target cooling, structural design, and fabrication techniques must address higher stresses and heat loads that will be present during 1.2 MW operation, as the assembly will be subject to cyclic loads and thermal expansion. Mitigations must be balanced against compromises in neutrino yield. Beam monitoring and subsystem instrumentation will be updated and added to ensure confidence in target positioning and monitoring. Remote connection to the target hall support structure must provide for the eventual upgrade to a 2.4 MW target design, without producing excessive radioactive waste or unreasonable exposure to technicians during reconfiguration. Current designs and assembly layouts will be presented, in addition to current findings on processes and possibilities for prototype and final assembly fabrication.

  1. SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE VERTICAL MIGRATION OFDINOFLAGELLATES (1) (2).

    PubMed

    Eppley, R W; Holm-Harisen, O; Strickland, J D

    1968-12-01

    The technique of measuring chlorophyll concentration in vivo by fluorometric analysis has been adapted to studying the diurnal migration of dino-flagellates in the sea and also in a deep tank (3 m in diameter by 10 m deep). The downward migration of Ceratium furca was followed during a bloom off the California coast. The main band of cells migrated from the upper 2 m to a depth of 5 m about 2 hr after sunset, and was dispersed between 5 and 16 m 4.5 hr after sunset. Cultures of Gonyaulax polyedra and Cachonina niei both migrated to the surface of the deep lank during illumination and migrated downward during darkness at a rate of 1-2 mjhr. The downward migration was observed to begin before the light was turned off, indicating that migration is correlated with a cellular periodicity which is to some extent independent of the light regime. Further evidence for such a periodicity was afforded by observations that C. niei start to migrate up in the water column before start of the light period. Nitrogen-limited cells of G. polyedra showed no diurnal migration, but within 1 day after addition of a nitrogen source they recovered their full migratory ability. Cells of C. niei, however, continued to migrate during 5 days of N-starvation, although they did not concentrate in the upper 1/2 m as did the control cells.

  2. Atropisomerism in 1-(2-adamantyl)naphthalene Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veljković, Jelena; Antol, Ivana; Basarić, Nikola; Smrečki, Vilko; Molčanov, Krešimir; Müller, Norbert; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata

    2013-08-01

    Two new adamantylnaphthalene derivatives 1-(2-hydroxy-2-adamantyl)-4-methoxynaphthalene (5) and 1-(2-hydroxy-2-adamantyl)-5-methoxynaphthalene (6) were synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. In addition, 5 was characterized by single crystal X-ray structural analysis and DFT calculations. For both derivatives, 5 and 6, dynamic NMR of diastereotopic spins revealed atropisomerism due to hindered rotation around the C-C bond between the adamantyl and the naphthyl moieties, giving rise to intermediate conformational exchange on the NMR timescale at room temperature. Upon decrease of the temperature to 223 K the existence of two enantiomerically related conformers in slow exchange was observed. The free energy of activation for the conformer exchange calculated using the coalescence temperature method amounts to 56.4 ± 0.3 kJ mol-1 for both derivatives. The experimental findings are corroborated by DFT calculations. The calculated NMR chemical shifts and the energy of activation for the conformer exchange are in excellent agreement with the measured values.

  3. Propellant Containing 3, 6bis(1h-1,2,3,4-Tetrazol-5-Ylamino)-1,2,4,5- Tetrazine Or Salt Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren

    2003-12-02

    The compound 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine and its salts are provided together with a propellant composition including an oxidizer, a binder and 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine or its salts.

  4. Emissions in potassium vapour under 4S{sub 1/2}-7S{sub 1/2} two-photon nsec excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Pentaris, D.; Chatzikyriakos, G.; Armyras, A.; Efthimiopoulos, T.

    2010-11-10

    The two-photon excitation of 4S{sub 1/2}-7S{sub 1/2} transition of potassium atoms is studied. Several coherent emissions and processes are possible, such as parametric four-wave (PFWM), parametric six-wave (PSWM) mixing and competition with the stimulated hyper Raman (SHRS) and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The radiations at the transitions 6P{sub 3/2,1/2}-4S{sub 1/2}, 6S{sub 1/2}-4P{sub 3/2,1/2} and 5P{sub 3/2,1/2}-4S{sub 1/2} are emitted only in the forward direction (indicating a parametric process), while the radiation at the transition 4P{sub 3/2,1/2}-4S{sub 1/2} is emitted in the forward and in the backward direction, indicating an ASE process.

  5. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 57H. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    CATIIEE C -3-12,6 3-- 10. C 3 - 13,4 - -I CALlIt0 1- 96,1 3- S,1 1- 96,1 1 97T1 I’) I LHIAFING 3- 5, 1 1.- 2Ct .,1 3-205,1 1- 93,1 I- 66,1 I CHIN 3-169,Z 3...1- 16,1 1- 1.5 34- I3,5 1- 61t.1 3 ".1 q 70. 3 71.l .11 F4NDL(R ŗ- 20,1 I tD R 3-I79i1 I 3-177,1 -%- 17F. 3-17501 -172i2 IZ�,1 -170.1 1-169i1 I

  6. Asymptotically Lifshitz spacetimes with universal horizons in (1 +2 ) dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sayandeb; Bhattacharyya, Jishnu; Mattingly, David; Roberson, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Hořava gravity theory possesses global Lifshitz space as a solution and has been conjectured to provide a natural framework for Lifshitz holography. We derive the conditions on the two-derivative Hořava gravity Lagrangian that are necessary for static, asymptotically Lifshitz spacetimes with flat transverse dimensions to contain a universal horizon, which plays a similar thermodynamic role as the Killing horizon in general relativity. Specializing to z =2 in 1 +2 dimensions, we then numerically construct such regular solutions over the whole spacetime. We calculate the mass for these solutions and show that, unlike the asymptotically anti-de Sitter case, the first law applied to the universal horizon is straightforwardly compatible with a thermodynamic interpretation.

  7. Vibronic Coupling in a Flexible Bichromophore: 1,2-DIPHENOXYETHANE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Evan G.; Zwier, Timothy S.; Plusquellic, David F.

    2012-06-01

    Investigations of isolated flexible bichromophores through single conformation spectrocopy have provided tremendous insights into the intrinsic properties of close lying, vibronically coupled electronic states. However, the S2 origin is often elusive, requiring a gambit of experimental techniques aided by high level calculations to pin down its location and the excitonic splitting. Here, we expand our studies on flexible bichromophores to 1,2-diphenoxyethane (C6H5-O-CH2-CH2-O-C6H5, DPOE). Ultraviolet hole-burning identified two confomrers present in the supersonic jet expansion with C2h and C2 symmetry. Both experimental and computational results suggest a small excitonic splitting of no more than a few cm-1. The vibrationally and rotationally resolved spectra of DPOE conformational isomers will be discussed with regard to the vibronic coupling and excitonic splitting. Finally, the perturbation to the DPOE excited states due to a single water molecule will be discussed.

  8. Word Frequency Analysis MOS: 41C Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    PLU"$ IPL ;APOINT I PIIETER 1 POOP PVSITIJ, PUSITIONEO I POST . I POTENTIOMETER 4,~, PISC1SIUN Pi pR?10 11 PRISM I PI’(;JE( T*,f PPllPFR iPIJPLICA...CHIAPTER - -.- - --.--- A ACH. 11 ELRr’, 11 GUNFNROS It ITE it PRISM IL SUPP.1PT It THAT it THfItI 10 ACCESS 1) OUT Inl CIACLC .- if) FOLLCMING to- 10...IITRUPTER I INT’l ; LlAll I LEVEL ING 2 LIFT 2 L IGHT% Z LlfJ 5 % 7 1’AJJR 2 tit - SFR IES 2 MULTIMETEP .1 -lJ ;l A11 03/A 10 4 1 - 2 M!Il .2 wiIl - 2

  9. Elastic Behavior of Y-1-2-3/SILVER Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, S.; Reddy, R. Ravinder; Reddy, P. Venugopal; Mulay, V. N.

    A series of Y-1-2-3/Ag high Tc superconducting composites have been prepared using the sol-gel method by sintering at three different sintering temperatures, viz. 910°C, 945°C, and 975°C. After the usual characterization by XRD, electrical resistance, bulk density, and porosity measurements, the longitudinal (V1) and shear wave (Vs) velocities were measured by the pulse transmission technique. Using the experimental data, several elasticity parameters such as Young's modulus (E), rigidity modulus (G), etc. were evaluated. The variation of elastic constants with dopant concentration has been explained in terms of the binding forces between various atoms of the superconductor. A linear relationship between the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) and the Debye temperature (θD) has also been obtained.

  10. Magnetoelectric Behavior from S =1 /2 Asymmetric Square Cupolas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Kenta; Miyake, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Akaki, Mitsuru; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Sera, Masakazu; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoelectric properties are studied by a combined experimental and theoretical study of a quasi-two-dimensional material composed of square cupolas, Ba(TiO )Cu4(PO4 ) 4 . The magnetization is measured up to the field above the saturation, and several anomalies are observed depending on the field directions. We propose a S =1 /2 spin model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, which reproduces the full magnetization curves well. Elaborating the phase diagram of the model, we show that the anomalies are explained by magnetoelectric phase transitions. Our theory also accounts for the scaling of the dielectric anomaly observed in the experiments. The results elucidate the crucial role of the in-plane component of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, which is induced by the noncoplanar buckling of a square cupola. We also predict a "hidden" phase and another magnetoelectric response, both of which appear in a nonzero magnetic field.

  11. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 13B. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    I T-( 1 2 TRP . KSI - ’ 1LS JC7 4 f %A i J’.l.’ 4 ’T T 1 7A’,"ISS’’N ,JCF 64 -rV: 2~tN -!. :7 I T~ -, .TATICSi 1 ~~(.G .HLIOT9 ~~ 2, j ’V INTC LTK3...S26v6 2I’ 2 P~ jcjAT2r3 ’ 2 P,...12 R~ C42 F!AJN 3 :KV1S j i L Q2 S!EC)- . 2 P1E FZCA 2 1. E𔃻 A L 2 o-, O cs 2T I :W _ 2 F’r ’’ * - ’ :’LT 2 PFLSL a2

  12. The 1,2,4-oxadiazole elastomers. [heat resistant polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Shalhoub, I. M.; Kwong, H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Crosslinked 1,2,4-oxadiazole elastomers were prepared either by thermally condensing a monomer having the formula HwN(HON)C-R-Q, wherein Q is a triazine ring forming group such as nitrile or amidine, or by a mixture of said monomer with RC(NOH)NH22, with R in these formulas standing for a bivalent organic radical containing fluorine, hydrogen, or trifluoromethyl. In the monomer charge, the overall proportions of amidoxime groups to triazine ring forming groups varies depending on the extent of crosslinking desired in the final polymer. The heat and chemical resistant elastomers disclosed can serve, for instance, as adhesives, caulking compounds, channel sealants, fuel tank liners.

  13. NASA budget growth 1-2% in fiscal 1993?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    1992-04-01

    Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.) presented departing NASA Administrator Richard Truly with a sobering question at a March 25 hearing of the Senate Appropriations VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies subcommittee. Mikulski told Truly that if the so-called budget “firewalls” don't come down so that defense money can be shifted to domestic spending, her subcommittee's budget allocation will not be sufficient to fund President Bush's requests for NASA. The question she posed to Truly was, if the firewalls do not come down, “Do you believe the best appropriations strategy would be to go to a continuing resolution until March of next year … or recommend trying to squeeze the existing requirements into a growth rate of 1-2% and cut programs based on your priorities?” A continuing resolution would mean continuation of funding at current levels.

  14. Structural transitions in Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 under pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Kojima, Seiji; ...

    2015-12-01

    Here, Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and first-principles calculations were employed to investigate the behavior of disordered Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PIN) under pressure up to 50 GPa. The experiments were performed at room temperature while ab-initio calculations were carried out at 0 K. Raman spectra for disordered PIN show broad bands but a peak near the 380 cm-1 increases its intensity with pressure. The linewidth of the band at 550 cm-1 also increases with pressure, while two of the Raman peaks merge above 6 GPa. Above 16 GPa, we observe additional splitting of the band at 50 cm-1. The pressure evolution of themore » diffraction patterns for PIN shows obvious splitting for Bragg peaks above 16 GPa; the results indicate a possible lowering symmetry transition. We identified that the transition at 0.5 GPa is from pseudo-cubic to orthorhombic (Pbam), the transitions at 16 GPa are isostructure transitions due to changes in linear compressibility and octahedral titling, and the transition at 30 GPa is from orthorhombic to monoclinic. First-principles calculations results indicated that ground state is Pbam with antiferrodisdortion consistent with experiment.« less

  15. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 1,2-Benzothiazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chandani; Bassin, Jatinder P; Scott, Mark; Flye, Jenna; Hunter, Ann P; Martin, Lee; Goyal, Madhu

    2016-06-30

    A number of 1,2-benzothiazines have been synthesized in a three-step process. Nine chalcones 1-9 bearing methyl, fluoro, chloro and bromo substituents were chlorosulfonated with chlorosulfonic acid to generate the chalcone sulfonyl chlorides 10-18. These were converted to the dibromo compounds 19-27 through reaction with bromine in glacial acetic acid. Compounds 19-27 were reacted with ammonia, methylamine, ethylamine, aniline and benzylamine to generate a library of 45 1,2-benzothiazines 28-72. Compounds 28-72 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using broth microdilution techniques against two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhimurium). The results demonstrated that none of the compounds showed any activity against Gram-negative bacteria P. vulgaris and S. typhimurium; however, compounds 31, 33, 38, 43, 45, 50, 53, 55, 58, 60, 63 and 68 showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcous aureus. The range of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 25-600 µg/mL, though some of the MIC and MBC concentrations were high, indicating weak activity. Structure activity relationship studies revealed that the compounds with a hydrogen atom or an ethyl group on the nitrogen of the thiazine ring exerted antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The results also showed that the compounds where the benzene ring of the benzoyl moiety contained a methyl group or a chlorine or bromine atom in the para position showed higher antimicrobial activity. Similar influences were identified where either a bromine or chlorine atom was in the meta position.

  16. Summary of Salient Findings of "Natural Attenuation of the Lead Scavengers 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) at Motor Fuel Release Sites and Implications for Risk Management"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tetra-ethyl lead was widely used in leaded automobile gasoline from 1923 until 1987 (See Figure 1). To prevent lead deposits from fouling the engine, 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were added to the gasoline to act as lead scavengers. These compounds r...

  17. Natural Attenuation of the Lead Scavengers 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB) and 1.2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) at Motor Fuel Release Sites and Implications for Risk Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lead scavengers 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were included along with lead in conventional leaded gasoline used for automobiles in the US prior to 1988. Old spills of leaded gasoline from underground storage tank systems (USTs) at gasoline service...

  18. Damped soft phonons and diffuse scattering in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Iida, H.; Hirota, K.; Ohwada, K.; Noguchi, Y.; Miyayama, M.

    2013-02-01

    Neutron-scattering studies of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 (BNT) have been performed to elucidate the microscopic mechanism of the broad maximum in the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant at Tm˜600 K and the reduction in the piezoelectric properties above the depolarization temperature, 460˜480 K. We observed diffuse scattering near the Γ point below 700 K, which competes with the superlattice peak at the M point of the tetragonal phase but coexists with the superlattice peak at the R point of the rhombohedral phase. The diffuse scattering shows an anisotropic Q shape extending along the <100> direction transverse to the scattering vector Q, which is explained by atomic shifts bridging the tetragonal and rhombohedral structures. We propose that the broad maximum in the dielectric constant is associated with a diffusive first-order transition between the competing tetragonal and rhombohedral phases. In addition, we found that the diffuse scattering is reduced for single crystals grown under high oxygen pressure, which suggests an analogy with the central peak in hydrogen-reduced SrTiO3. Inelastic neutron scattering near the Γ point reveals a heavily overdamped soft mode similar to those reported in lead-based relaxors, the “waterfall” feature. Moreover, a damped soft transverse acoustic mode is observed for the <100> direction as the anisotropic diffuse scattering, indicating phase instabilities with the same origin as that of the diffuse scattering. The recovery of the soft mode is observed near the depolarization temperature, which coincides with the disappearance of the superlattice peak at the M point. These results indicate that the depolarization and the waterfall feature originate in the dynamic nature of ferroelectric clusters in the coexisting tetragonal/rhombohedral phase.

  19. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 54E. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

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  20. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  1. Burning Heptane Droplets in 1/2 Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 11, 1997. This round of experiments burned heptane droplets in 1/2 atmosphere pressure consisting of oxygen and helium. During this mission, scientists have seen for the first time droplets which stop burning due to heat loss by radiation. From these data, the investigators hope to understand the physical and chemical processes that take place in droplet combustion in different environments, including conditions under which the flames extinguish, the chemistry of the combustion reaction, and the production of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and soot particles. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (244KB JPEG, 1350 x 2016 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300173.html.

  2. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 16P. Skill Levels 1 & 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

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  3. Resistance integrons: class 1, 2 and 3 integrons.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Bao, Xuerui; Ji, Lili; Chen, Lei; Liu, Junyan; Miao, Jian; Chen, Dingqiang; Bian, Huawei; Li, Yanmei; Yu, Guangchao

    2015-10-20

    As recently indiscriminate abuse of existing antibiotics in both clinical and veterinary treatment leads to proliferation of antibiotic resistance in microbes and poses a dilemma for the future treatment of such bacterial infection, antimicrobial resistance has been considered to be one of the currently leading concerns in global public health, and reported to widely spread and extended to a large variety of microorganisms. In China, as one of the currently worst areas for antibiotics abuse, the annual prescription of antibiotics, including both clinical and veterinary treatment, has approaching 140 gram per person and been roughly estimated to be 10 times higher than that in the United Kingdom, which is considered to be a potential area for the emergence of "Super Bugs". Based on the integrons surveillance in Guangzhou, China in the past decade, this review thus aimed at summarizing the role of integrons in the perspective of both clinical setting and environment, with the focus on the occurrence and prevalence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons.

  4. RAG1/2 knockout pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiao; Guo, Xiaogang; Fan, Nana; Song, Jun; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Quanmei; Yi, Xiaoling; Schambach, Axel; Frampton, Jon; Esteban, Miguel A; Yang, Dongshan; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-08-01

    Pigs share many physiological, biochemical, and anatomical similarities with humans and have emerged as valuable large animal models for biomedical research. Considering the advantages in immune system resemblance, suitable size, and longevity for clinical practical and monitoring purpose, SCID pigs bearing dysfunctional RAG could serve as important experimental tools for regenerative medicine, allograft and xenograft transplantation, and reconstitution experiments related to the immune system. In this study, we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of RAG1 and RAG2 knockout pigs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were genetically engineered using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and then used to provide donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 27 live cloned piglets; among these piglets, 9 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG1, 3 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG2, and 10 were targeted with a monoallelic mutation in RAG2. Piglets with biallelic mutations in either RAG1 or RAG2 exhibited hypoplasia of immune organs, failed to perform V(D)J rearrangement, and lost mature B and T cells. These immunodeficient RAG1/2 knockout pigs are promising tools for biomedical and translational research.

  5. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 36C. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    3 L-2-51 J 25 .- 2S2 1 - 23 J2 L2-34 J FA 1 J--35 J3 L2-30 j’-’! I 52-3? J 1. 1 2- 5 . ,z-?C aF: I~~~~ J21j .- 9 F41.Z-97 J L2-gs SF24 4L: 53 1 312513...179 S 1.3-ISISJ 1 .- 13 J 1.1-3 S F54 t j3-122 J L3-153 J j-;4 j1.3-135 j t j3-1 S5 1 0.-136 SF24 J U5-~ 51411 5 - 5 5L-194 .$14 I j3-1= 5 J U.-196...LORI3 COLN?4 11c 4 S l-25 RlING 25 Sll Z- 5 V.- :.. 1~ ’ZTO - 24 P..R7y 21 TILK 23 )~l 22 jP.CFEqENCE J 22 3 EDO J 22 PtITERY 72 CF- F 22 0O4 J 22 SEC

  6. Enzymatic remediated biodegradation of propylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, M.; Geelhaar, L.; Speedie, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Two bacterial species, Enterobacter agglomerans and Bacillus thuringiensis/cereus, which were selected from nitroglycerin (GTN) contaminated soil, have previously been shown to have denitrating ability on nitroglycerin. This abstract presents the investigation of the cell free extracts from both microorganisms for the degradation of another nitrate ester contaminant; propylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate (PGDN). This compound has been previously considered resistant to the biodegradation. In order to probe the pathway, the whole process was monitored by using [1-{sup 14}C]-PGDN as substrate and the intermediates were identified by HPLC and TLC chromatography. Long term biodegradation experiments have shown that the enzymes in the cytoplasm fraction of Bacillus thuringiensis/cereus and the membrane fraction of Enterobacter agglomerans convert PGDN successively into propylene glycol 1-mononitrate (1-PGMN) and propylene glycol 2-mononitrate (2-PGMN), and finally, propylene glycol. The capacity to achieve sequential and complete degradation of PGDN implies that it follows a similar mechanism to that observed in the GTN degradation. Cofactor requirements for PGDN breakdown have been studied, it was found that no dissociable, dialyzable cofactors are required.

  7. Orientational relaxations in solid (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, P.; Mitsari, E.; Romanini, M.; Serra, P.; Tamarit, J. Ll.; Zuriaga, M.; Macovez, R.

    2016-04-01

    We employ dielectric spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the dipolar dynamics in the orientationally disordered solid phase of (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane. Three distinct orientational dynamics are observed as separate dielectric loss features, all characterized by a simply activated temperature dependence. The slower process, associated to a glassy transition at 156 ± 1 K, corresponds to a cooperative motion by which each molecule rotates by 180° around the molecular symmetry axis through an intermediate state in which the symmetry axis is oriented roughly orthogonally to the initial and final states. Of the other two dipolar relaxations, the intermediate one is the Johari-Goldstein precursor relaxation of the cooperative dynamics, while the fastest process corresponds to an orientational fluctuation of single molecules into a higher-energy orientation. The Kirkwood correlation factor of the cooperative relaxation is of the order of one tenth, indicating that the molecular dipoles maintain on average a strong antiparallel alignment during their collective motion. These findings show that the combination of dielectric spectroscopy and molecular simulations allows studying in great detail the orientational dynamics in molecular solids.

  8. Microwave Spectroscopy of Seven Conformers of 1,2-PROPANEDIOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Pate, Brooks H.; Lovas, F. J.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Remijan, A. J.

    2009-06-01

    Previously, two conformations of 1,2-propanediol have been identified by microwave spectroscopy by Caminati. Here we report the assignment of five additional conformers, two from work on a Balle-Flygare type cavity FTMW spectrometer at NIST, operating between 8 and 26 GHz, and three from a deep average scan on the chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer at the University of Virginia, operating between 6.5 and 18.5 GHz. All seven of the assigned conformers contain an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the two hydroxyl groups. Stark effect measurements have been performed on the cavity FTMW spectrometer to determine the dipole moments of the three lowest energy conformers. Relative abundances of the conformers have also been determined from the CP-FTMW spectrum. A subsequent interstellar search toward Sgr B2(N) yielded negative results with an upper limit to the total column density that is less than those of glycolaldehyde and ethylene glycol. W.Caminati, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 86 (1981) 193-201.

  9. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 16B. Skill Levels 1 & 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    COMMAND FORT MONROE, VIRGINIA 23651 - A-9 1916 A., ’F 41 IIL SEQUJENTIAL CATA AGE 4 A’~~s~ ,~.. ~ AG 1C 2 TYPE MEORO By-. S5 ANC ~,(f A ZA’I’L Y elt *4...il #1 1l, 13. 1)1 1.;, IC , !. 1 !*2,t Ict ’. 9201 96,V1 - 95, 9C92 es.* 64. ,. 6z[*4 ’-.’ !9,1 !6,1. T.1 61o 669. 659. -.,1 %, 55, 56p: 45.1 4, 47.2...4 SliEL 57.1 let! 4 S t - Y-S fE P lot 4 SHV-r 2)01 4 ST i.Z. ).h. 4 ’ I.ACI 7t- 4 S)C’ 1s 1 98.gl 7.1 4 sIrf.. E !#I 141.1 UN3.1 4 sc i C,± ict

  10. Blood Vessel Tumorigenesis by 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine Dihydrochloride (Symmetrical)

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Bela; Wilson, Richard B.

    1971-01-01

    Administration of 0.001% 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, symmetrical, in the drinking water of 7-week-old randomly bred Swiss mice for the remainder of their lifetime induced blood vessel tumors and enhanced the incidence of lung neoplasms. Ninety-eight percent of the females and 92% of the males developed vascular lesions, whereas among the controls the incidence was 3% in the females and 1% in the males. In addition, the incidence of lung tumors rose from 12 to 44% in the females and from 10 to 24% in the males, as compared with the controls. The occurrence of the vascular tumors in order of decreasing frequency was as follows: muscle, pararenal, fat, liver, parametrial, paraepididymal tissues, etc. Gross, light and electron microscopic examinations of vascular lesions revealed the characteristic appearance of angiosarcomas. The type and extent of macroscopic and histologic involvements of the various tissues by the tumors are presented. The ultrastructural descriptions of hemorrhagic areas, vascular spaces, neoplastic endothelial cells, their cytoplasms and organelles are illustrated in detail. In conclusion, whereas hydrazine enhanced the development of lung tumors, when the dimethyl group was attached to it at symmetrical positions, it evoked vascular tumors. Thus, the present study provides evidence for the possible relationship between chemical structure and tumor induction at specific organ sites. ImagesFig 10Fig 9Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8 PMID:5133519

  11. Vapor intrusion risk of lead scavengers 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Li, Haiyan; Spiese, Richard; Wilson, John; Yan, Guangxu; Guo, Shaohui

    2016-06-01

    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represented a critical yet still neglected problem at sites impacted by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to simulate the vapor intrusion risk of lead scavengers 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide, EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) under different site conditions. We found that simulated EDB and DCA indoor air concentrations can exceed USEPA screening level (4.7 × 10(-3) μg/m(3) for EDB and 1.1 × 10(-1) μg/m(3) for DCA) if the source concentration is high enough (is still within the concentration range found at leaking UST site). To evaluate the chance that vapor intrusion of EDB might exceed the USEPA screening levels for indoor air, the simulation results were compared to the distribution of EDB at leaking UST sites in the US. If there is no degradation of EDB or only abiotic degradation of EDB, from 15% to 37% of leaking UST sites might exceed the USEPA screening level. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel releases containing EDB and DCA. Based on a thorough literature review, we also compiled previous published data on the EDB and DCA groundwater source concentrations and their degradation rates. These data are valuable in evaluating EDB and DCA vapor intrusion risk. In addition, a set of refined attenuation factors based on site-specific information (e.g., soil types, source depths, and degradation rates) were provided for establishing site-specific screening criteria for EDB and DCA. Overall, this study points out that lead scavengers EDB and DCA may cause vapor intrusion problems. As more field data of EDB and DCA become available, we recommend that USEPA consider including these data in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary.

  12. Experimentally driven atomistic model of 1,2 polybutadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Gkourmpis, Thomas; Mitchell, Geoffrey R.

    2014-02-07

    We present an efficient method of combining wide angle neutron scattering data with detailed atomistic models, allowing us to perform a quantitative and qualitative mapping of the organisation of the chain conformation in both glass and liquid phases. The structural refinement method presented in this work is based on the exploitation of the intrachain features of the diffraction pattern and its intimate linkage with atomistic models by the use of internal coordinates for bond lengths, valence angles, and torsion rotations. Atomic connectivity is defined through these coordinates that are in turn assigned by pre-defined probability distributions, thus allowing for the models in question to be built stochastically. Incremental variation of these coordinates allows for the construction of models that minimise the differences between the observed and calculated structure factors. We present a series of neutron scattering data of 1,2 polybutadiene at the region 120–400 K. Analysis of the experimental data yields bond lengths for Cî—¸C and C î—» C of 1.54 Å and 1.35 Å, respectively. Valence angles of the backbone were found to be at 112° and the torsion distributions are characterised by five rotational states, a three-fold trans-skew± for the backbone and gauche± for the vinyl group. Rotational states of the vinyl group were found to be equally populated, indicating a largely atactic chan. The two backbone torsion angles exhibit different behaviour with respect to temperature of their trans population, with one of them adopting an almost all trans sequence. Consequently, the resulting configuration leads to a rather persistent chain, something indicated by the value of the characteristic ratio extrapolated from the model. We compare our results with theoretical predictions, computer simulations, RIS models and previously reported experimental results.

  13. Crystal structures of Na{sub 1/2}Ln{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (Ln: La, Eu, Tb)

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjan, Rajeev Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Boysen, Hans; Baehtz, Carsten

    2007-03-15

    Neutron powder diffraction studies of Na{sub 1/2}La{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and Na{sub 1/2}Tb{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}, and a synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction study of Na{sub 1/2}Eu{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} have been carried out. Rietveld refinement of the structures confirmed that Na{sub 1/2}Eu{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} and Na{sub 1/2}Tb{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} crystallizes in GdFeO{sub 3} type of structure (space group Pbnm). The ambiguity in the literature regarding the crystal structure of Na{sub 1/2}La{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} has been resolved and the correct space group is found to be R3-bar c. A detailed list of refined structural parameters of these compounds is presented for the first time.

  14. Identification of high-risk Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in lineage I (serotype 1/2a, 1/2c, 3a and 3c) using multiplex PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Using molecular subtyping techniques, Listeria monocytogenes is divided into three major phylogenetic lineages, and a multiplex PCR method can differentiate five L. monocytogenes subgroups: 1/2a-3a, 1/2c-3c, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e, and 4a-4c. In the current study, we conducted genome comparison...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1637 - 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-[2-[[(4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy... Substances § 721.1637 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1- oxy.... (1) The chemical substances 1,2-propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzenesulfonate) (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1637 - 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-[2-[[(4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy... Substances § 721.1637 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1- oxy.... (1) The chemical substances 1,2-propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzenesulfonate) (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10092 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-[[1-[(2-propen-1-yloxy)methyl]undecyl]oxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....-sulfo-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega...-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.- tridecyl...) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10092 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-[[1-[(2-propen-1-yloxy)methyl]undecyl]oxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....-sulfo-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega...-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.- tridecyl...) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10092 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-[[1-[(2-propen-1-yloxy)methyl]undecyl]oxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....-sulfo-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega...-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.- tridecyl...) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10092 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-[[1-[(2-propen-1-yloxy)methyl]undecyl]oxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....-sulfo-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega...-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.- tridecyl...) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10092 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-[[1-[(2-propen-1-yloxy)methyl]undecyl]oxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....-sulfo-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega...-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.- tridecyl...) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-...

  2. Graphical analysis and experimental evaluation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PTRK1|2 and PBMH1|2 promoter region.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Susanne; Hasenbrink, Guido; Hendriksen, Wouter; Van Heusden, Paul; Ludwig, Jost; Klipp, Edda; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella

    2010-01-01

    We designed a simple graphical presentation for the results of a transcription factor (TF) pattern matching analysis. The TF analysis algorithm utilized known sequence signature motifs from several databases. The graphical presentation enabled a quick overview of potential TF binding sites, their frequency and spacing on both DNA strands and thus straight forward identification of promising candidates for further experimental investigations. The developed tool was applied on in total four Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene promoter regions. The selected differentially expressed genes belong to functionally different families and encode duplicate functions, TRK1 and TRK2 as ion transporters and BMH1 and BMH2 as multiple regulators. Output evaluation revealed a number of TFs with promising differences in the promoter regions of each gene pair. Experimental investigations were performed by using corresponding TF yeast mutants for either phenotypic analysis of ion transport mediated growth or expression analysis of BMH1,2 genes. Upon phenotypic testing one TF mutant exhibited severely impaired growth under non-permissive conditions. This TF, Mot3p was identified as of most abundant potential binding sites and distinctive patterns among the TRK promoter regions.

  3. Water Security Toolkit User Manual Version 1.2.

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Hart, David; Hart, William Eugene; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Haxton, Terranna; Murray, Regan; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas; Laird, Carl; Seth, Arpan; Hackebeil, Gabriel; McGee, Shawn; Mann, Angelica

    2014-08-01

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) is a suite of open source software tools that can be used by water utilities to create response strategies to reduce the impact of contamination in a water distribution network . WST includes hydraulic and water quality modeling software , optimizati on methodologies , and visualization tools to identify: (1) sensor locations to detect contamination, (2) locations in the network in which the contamination was introduced, (3) hydrants to remove contaminated water from the distribution system, (4) locations in the network to inject decontamination agents to inactivate, remove, or destroy contaminants, (5) locations in the network to take grab sample s to help identify the source of contamination and (6) valves to close in order to isolate contaminate d areas of the network. This user manual describes the different components of WST , along w ith examples and case studies. License Notice The Water Security Toolkit (WST) v.1.2 Copyright c 2012 Sandia Corporation. Under the terms of Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000, there is a non-exclusive license for use of this work by or on behalf of the U.S. government. This software is distributed under the Revised BSD License (see below). In addition, WST leverages a variety of third-party software packages, which have separate licensing policies: Acro Revised BSD License argparse Python Software Foundation License Boost Boost Software License Coopr Revised BSD License Coverage BSD License Distribute Python Software Foundation License / Zope Public License EPANET Public Domain EPANET-ERD Revised BSD License EPANET-MSX GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.3 gcovr Revised BSD License GRASP AT&T Commercial License for noncommercial use; includes randomsample and sideconstraints executable files LZMA SDK Public Domain nose GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.2.1 ordereddict MIT License pip MIT License PLY BSD License PyEPANET Revised BSD License Pyro MIT License PyUtilib Revised BSD License Py

  4. Synthesis of N1-tritylethane-1,1,2,2-d4-1,2-diamine: a novel mono-protected C-deuterated ethylenediamine synthon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2012-01-01

    A convenient and high-yield synthesis for N1-tritylethane-1,1,2,2-d4-1,2-diamine, a novel mono-protected ethylenediamine-C-d4, is reported. N1-tritylethane-1,1,2,2-d4-1,2-diamine was prepared in three steps from ethylene oxide-d4 in a combined yield in the range 68-76%. Also reported is a synthesis of ethylenediamine-C-d4 in two steps from 1,2-dibromoethane-d4 in a combined yield in the range 61-65%.

  5. X-1-2 on ramp during ground engine test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    Ground engine test run on the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 airplane at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit service area. Notice the front on the lower part of the aircraft aft of the nose section. The frost forms from the mixture of the propellants (including liquid oxygen) in the internal tanks. This photograph was taken in 1947. The aircraft shown is still painted in its original saffron (orange) paint finish. This was later changed to white, which was more visible against the dark blue sky than saffron turned out to be. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December

  6. Antifungal agents. Part 4: Synthesis and antifungal activities of novel indole[1,2-c]-1,2,4-benzotriazine derivatives against phytopathogenic fungi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Fan, Ling-Ling

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel indole[1,2-c]-1,2,4-benzotriazine derivatives were obtained by a modified Sandmeyer reaction in the presence of tert-butylnitrite (t-BuONO). As compared with hymexazol, a commercially available agricultural fungicide, at the concentration of 50 μg/mL, two indole[1,2-c]-1,2,4-benzotriazines, 5h and 5k, exhibited the more promising and pronounced antifungal activities in vitro against five phytopathogenic fungi. It clearly demonstrated that introduction of appropriate substituents on the indolyl ring of indole[1,2-c]-1,2,4-benzotriazine (5a) would lead to the more potent derivatives.

  7. Frustrated mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising ferrimagnets on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žukovič, M.; Bobák, A.

    2015-05-01

    Mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising ferrimagnets on a triangular lattice with sublattices A, B, and C are studied for two spin-value distributions (SA,SB,SC) =(1 /2 ,1 /2 ,1 ) and (1 /2 ,1 ,1 ) by Monte Carlo simulations. The nonbipartite character of the lattice induces geometrical frustration in both systems, which leads to the critical behavior rather different from their ferromagnetic counterparts. We confirm second-order phase transitions belonging to the standard Ising universality class occurring at higher temperatures, however, in both models these change at tricritical points (TCP) to first-order transitions at lower temperatures. In the model (1 /2 ,1 /2 ,1 ) , TCP occurs on the boundary between paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic (±1 /21 /2 ,∓1 ) phases. The boundary between two ferrimagnetic phases (±1 /21 /2 ,∓1 ) and (±1 /2 ,∓1 /2 ,0 ) at lower temperatures is always first order and it is joined by a line of second-order phase transitions between the paramagnetic and the ferrimagnetic (±1 /2 ,∓1 /2 ,0 ) phases at a critical endpoint. The tricritical behavior is also confirmed in the model (1 /2 ,1 ,1 ) on the boundary between the paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic (0 ,±1 ,∓1 ) phases.

  8. Cyclization and N-iodosuccinimide-induced electrophilic iodocyclization of 3-aza-1,5-enynes to synthesize 1,2-dihydropyridines and 3-iodo-1,2-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiaoyi; Wang, Dongping; Wu, Fan; Li, Xincheng; Wan, Boshun

    2013-04-19

    Metal-free cyclization and N-iodosuccinimide-induced electrophilic iodocyclization of readily available 3-aza-1,5-enynes have been developed. The reactions selectively give 1,2-dihydropyridines and 3-iodo-1,2-dihydropyridines involving an aza-Claisen rearrangement and a 6π-electrocyclization step. Furthermore, the reaction could be carried out in 10 g scale for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydropyridines.

  9. Rapid, Microwave Accelerated Synthesis of [1,2,4]Triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from 4-Acylamino-1,2,4-Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Stesphanie L; Olson, Margaret E; Harki, Daniel A

    2016-09-07

    1,2,4-Triazoles and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are prevalent moieties in pharmaceutical agents, yet fused [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles are surprisingly under-represented for both synthesis and biological application. We report a rapid, two-step synthesis of [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from commercial 4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles that is highlighted by a microwave accelerated intramolecular cyclization to generate the fused ring system. Our efforts to optimize reaction conditions and elucidate reaction mechanism are also described.

  10. Determination of evolutionary relationships of outbreak-associated Listeria monocytogenes strains of serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b by whole-genome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used whole-genome sequencing to determine evolutionary relationships among 20 outbreak-associated clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b. Isolates from 6 of 11 outbreaks fell outside the clonal groups or “epidemic clones” that have been previously associated with outb...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1637 - 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-[2-[[(4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1- oxy]ethoxy]-3-(2-propenyloxy)-4-methylbenzenesulfonate... Substances § 721.1637 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1637 - 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-[2-[[(4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1- oxy]ethoxy]-3-(2-propenyloxy)-4-methylbenzenesulfonate... Substances § 721.1637 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-...

  13. One step conversion of toxic beta-asarone from Acorus calamus into 1-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydroxypropane and asaronaldehyde occurring in Piper clusii.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A K; Joshi, B P; Dogra, R

    2001-01-01

    1-(2,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-1,2-dihydroxypropane (2), a natural phenylpropanoid occurring in Piper clusii, has been synthesized for the first time from toxic beta-asarone (1) of Acorus calamus with osmium tetroxide, while 1 with osmium tetroxide (catalytic amount) in presence of sodium metaperiodate furnished the asaronaldehyde (3) in high yield.

  14. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  15. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  16. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  17. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  18. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types....

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types....

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types....

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types....

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types....

  4. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-2 - Amendment of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amendment of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Amendment of agreement. (a) An agreement entered into by a domestic...

  5. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-2 - Amendment of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amendment of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Amendment of agreement. (a) An agreement entered into by a domestic...

  6. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-2 - Amendment of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amendment of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Amendment of agreement. (a) An agreement entered into by a domestic...

  7. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-2 - Amendment of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amendment of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Amendment of agreement. (a) An agreement entered into by a domestic...

  8. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-2 - Amendment of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Amendment of agreement. (a) An agreement entered into by a domestic...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10366 - Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10366 Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-(PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10366 - Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10366 Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-(PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10366 - Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10366 Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-(PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3248 - Ethane, 1,2,2- trichlorodifluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethane, 1,2,2- trichlorodifluoro-. 721... Substances § 721.3248 Ethane, 1,2,2- trichlorodifluoro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethane, 1,2,2-trichlorodifluoro- (CAS...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3248 - Ethane, 1,2,2- trichlorodifluoro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethane, 1,2,2- trichlorodifluoro-. 721... Substances § 721.3248 Ethane, 1,2,2- trichlorodifluoro-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethane, 1,2,2-trichlorodifluoro- (CAS...

  14. 17 CFR 240.36a1-2 - Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derivatives dealers. 240.36a1-2 Section 240.36a1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 240.36a1-2 Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers. Preliminary Note: OTC derivatives dealers... derivative dealers are subject to special requirements, including limitations on the scope of...

  15. 17 CFR 240.36a1-2 - Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... derivatives dealers. 240.36a1-2 Section 240.36a1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... § 240.36a1-2 Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers. Preliminary Note: OTC derivatives dealers... derivative dealers are subject to special requirements, including limitations on the scope of...

  16. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Ethylene Dibromide and 1,2-Dichloroethane in the Presence of Fuel Hydrocarbons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field evidence from underground storage tank sites where leaded gasoline leaked indicates the lead scavengers 1,2- dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide, or EDB) and 1,2- dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) may be present in groundwater at levels that pose unacceptable risk. These compounds are...

  17. Removal of EDB and 1,2-DCA by Abiotic Reaction with Iron(II) Sulfide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) and 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were used as lead scavengers in leaded motor gasoline in the USA until the late 1980s. Leaded gasoline in contact with ground water should produce concentrations of EDB near 1900 µg/L, and concentrations of 1,2-DCA near 3...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  2. 41 CFR 300-1.2 - What is the purpose of the FTR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the purpose of the FTR? 300-1.2 Section 300-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1-THE FEDERAL TRAVEL REGULATION (FTR) § 300-1.2 What is the purpose of...

  3. Insulin receptor substrate 1/2 (IRS1/2) regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling through blocking autophagic degradation of dishevelled2.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yongtao; Ju, Yanfang; Ren, Fangli; Qiu, Ying; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Tomoeda, Miki; Kishida, Mioka; Wang, Yinyin; Jin, Lian; Su, Fuqin; Wei, Chunhong; Jia, Baoqing; Li, Yi; Chang, Zhijie

    2014-04-18

    Wnt signaling plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Dishevelled (Dvl) is a central node of Wnt signaling. Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs), as a critical component of insulin signaling, are involved in cell proliferation, metabolism, and cancer development. In this study, we report that IRS1/2 promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling by stabilizing Dvl2. We found that IRS1/2 interacts with Dvl2. Overexpression of IRS1/2 increased the protein level of Dvl2 and promoted canonical Wnt signaling, as evidenced by the increased T cell-specific factor 4 transcriptional activity and the up-regulation of expression of CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, two Wnt target genes critical for cell growth, whereas depletion of IRS1/2 reduced the level of Dvl2 and attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Biochemical analyses revealed that IRS1/2 decreased Lys-63-linked ubiquitination of Dvl2 and stabilized Dvl2 protein via suppressing its autophagy-mediated degradation. We further revealed that IRS1/2 blocks autophagy-induced formation of the Dvl2-p62/SQSTM1 complex, resulting in disabled association of Dvl2 to autophagosomes. We demonstrated that IRS1/2 promoted the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell proliferation in response to Wnt stimulation, whereas depletion of Dvl2 impaired the IRS1/2-mediated EMT and cell growth. Our findings revealed that IRS1/2 promotes EMT and cell proliferation through stabilizing Dvl2.

  4. Insulin Receptor Substrate 1/2 (IRS1/2) Regulates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling through Blocking Autophagic Degradation of Dishevelled2*

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yongtao; Ju, Yanfang; Ren, Fangli; Qiu, Ying; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Tomoeda, Miki; Kishida, Mioka; Wang, Yinyin; Jin, Lian; Su, Fuqin; Wei, Chunhong; Jia, Baoqing; Li, Yi; Chang, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Dishevelled (Dvl) is a central node of Wnt signaling. Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs), as a critical component of insulin signaling, are involved in cell proliferation, metabolism, and cancer development. In this study, we report that IRS1/2 promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling by stabilizing Dvl2. We found that IRS1/2 interacts with Dvl2. Overexpression of IRS1/2 increased the protein level of Dvl2 and promoted canonical Wnt signaling, as evidenced by the increased T cell-specific factor 4 transcriptional activity and the up-regulation of expression of CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, two Wnt target genes critical for cell growth, whereas depletion of IRS1/2 reduced the level of Dvl2 and attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Biochemical analyses revealed that IRS1/2 decreased Lys-63-linked ubiquitination of Dvl2 and stabilized Dvl2 protein via suppressing its autophagy-mediated degradation. We further revealed that IRS1/2 blocks autophagy-induced formation of the Dvl2-p62/SQSTM1 complex, resulting in disabled association of Dvl2 to autophagosomes. We demonstrated that IRS1/2 promoted the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell proliferation in response to Wnt stimulation, whereas depletion of Dvl2 impaired the IRS1/2-mediated EMT and cell growth. Our findings revealed that IRS1/2 promotes EMT and cell proliferation through stabilizing Dvl2. PMID:24616100

  5. 7{ital S}{sub {bold 1/2}}{r_arrow}9{ital S}{sub {bold 1/2}} two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium

    SciTech Connect

    Simsarian, J.E.; Shi, W.; Orozco, L.A.; Sprouse, G.D.; Zhao, W.Z.

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the {sup 210}Fr 9{ital S}{sub 1/2} energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7{ital P}{sub 3/2} is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9{ital S}{sub 1/2} state and the 7{ital S}{sub 1/2} ground state to be 25671.021{plus_minus}0.006 cm{sup {minus}1}. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  6. Structural and dielectric properties of A(Fe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} [A = Ba, Sr, Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Alo

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: FTIR spectra of BFT, SFT and CFT at room temperature. Research highlights: {yields} The structural and dielectric properties of BaFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3}, SrFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} and CaFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3}. {yields} Fourier transform infrared spectra show two primary phonon modes of the samples at around 450 cm{sup -1} and 620 cm{sup -1}. {yields} The compounds show significant frequency dispersion in its dielectric properties. {yields} The relaxation mechanism of the samples is modelled by Cole-Cole equation. -- Abstract: The complex perovskite oxide barium iron tantalate (BFT), BaFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3}, strontium iron tantalate (SFT), SrFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} and calcium iron tantalate (CFT), CaFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} are synthesized by a solid-state reaction technique. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data of the samples shows that BFT and SFT crystallize in cubic structure, with lattice parameter a = 4.06 A for BFT and 3.959 A for SFT, whereas CFT crystallizes in orthorhombic structure having lattice parameters a = 5.443 A, b = 5.542 A and c = 7.757 A. Fourier transform infrared spectra show two primary phonon modes of the samples at around 450 cm{sup -1} and 620 cm{sup -1}. The compounds show significant frequency dispersion in its dielectric properties. The complex impedance plane plots of the samples show that the relaxation (conduction) mechanism in these materials is purely a bulk effect arising from the semiconductive grains. The relaxation mechanism of the samples is modelled by Cole-Cole equation. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra are found to follow the power law.

  7. [4+2] Cycloaddition of 2-substituted 1,2-dihydropyridines with nitrosobenzene: asymmetric synthesis of trans-2-substituted 3-amino-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Lemire, Alexandre; Beaudoin, Daniel; Grenon, Michel; Charette, André B

    2005-03-18

    [reaction: see text] A new methodology for the stereoselective synthesis of trans-2-substituted 3-amino-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridines is reported. The preparation of these 3-aminopiperidines is achieved by cycloaddition of nitrosobenzene with 2-substituted 1,2-dihydropyridines followed by chemoselective reduction of the cycloadducts. Enantioenriched 1,2-dihydropyridine derivatives are easily prepared from pyridine and a chiral amide following a previous report from our laboratories. Moreover, the in situ hydrogenation of these cycloadducts over palladium in a solution of hydrogen chloride in methanol led to tetrahydropyrroloimidazoles.

  8. Synthesis of the new ring system bispyrido[4',3':4,5]pyrrolo [1,2-a:1',2'-d]pyrazine and its deaza analogue.

    PubMed

    Parrino, Barbara; Spanò, Virginia; Carbone, Anna; Barraja, Paola; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Montalbano, Alessandra

    2014-08-29

    Derivatives of the new ring systems bispyrido[4',3':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-a:1',2'-d] pyrazine-6,13-dione and its deaza analogue pyrido[4'',3'':4',5']pyrrolo-[1',2':4,5]pyrazino [1,2-a]indole-6,13-dione were conveniently synthesized through a four-step sequence. Symmetrical derivatives of the former ring system were obtained through self condensation. On the other hand, condensation of 6-azaindole carboxylic acid with indole 2-carboxylic acid afforded the deaza analogue ring system. Derivatives of the title ring system were tested by the National Cancer Institute (Bethesda, MD, USA) and four of them exhibited modest activity against MCF7 (a breast cancer cell line) and/or UO-31 (a renal cancer cell line).

  9. Efficient pallado-catalyzed C6-(het)arylation of Imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines under microwave irradiations.

    PubMed

    Pellegatti, Laurent; Vedrenne, Emeline; Leger, Jean-Michel; Jarry, Christian; Routier, Sylvain

    2010-07-12

    A versatile protocol for the preparation of a library of 5,6-(het)bisarylated imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines is described. Target compounds were obtained in fairly good yields, starting from ethoxy-7-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine and a large panel of bromoaryl derivatives, using palladium catalysis under microwave irradiation. Compatibility with various chemical groups and heterocycles was proven. Steric and electronic effects do not have any effect on the efficiency of the reaction. Purifications were performed without any difficulties, and the structure of a final compound was proven by crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  10. Effect of oxygen concentration on the structural and magnetic properties of LaRh1/2Mn1/2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheets, W. C.; Smith, A. E.; Subramanian, M. A.; Prellier, W.

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial LaRh1/2Mn1/2O3 thin films have been grown on (001)-oriented LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The optimized thin film samples are semiconducting and ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature close to 100 K, a coercive field of 1200 Oe, and a saturation magnetization of 1.7μB per formula unit. The surface texture, structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of the LaRh1/2Mn1/2O3 films was examined as a function of the oxygen concentration during deposition. While an elevated oxygen concentration yields thin films with optimal magnetic properties, slightly lower oxygen concentrations result in films with improved texture and crystallinity.

  11. Fluorination of 1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5-trihalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Dickerson, D.R.; Finger, G.C.

    1972-01-01

    Three trifluorobenzenes were prepared by reaction of the corresponding trichlorobenzenes with potassium fluoride or pottassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. Molar yields were 12.8% for 1,2,3-, 8.3% for 1,2,4-, and 56.2% for 1,3,5-. Improved yields of the 1,2,3- (23.9%) and the 1,2,4- (34.0%) trifluorobenzenes were obtained from certain partially fluorinated intermediates. Several chlorofluorobenzene intermediates were obtained in goods yields by careful control of the reaction variables. The instability of the polyfluorobenzenes in the halogen-exchange reaction medium explains, in part, why only limited yields of the polyfluorobenzenes are obtained by using this method. ?? 1972.

  12. Quenching kinetics for the HgBr* (B /sup 2/. sigma. /sub 1/2/) and HgI* (B /sup 2/. sigma. /sub 1/2/, C /sup 2/Pi/sub 1/2/) states

    SciTech Connect

    Roxlo, C.; Mandl, A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the rates of collisional quenching of HgBr* (B /sup 2/..sigma../sub 1/2/) and HgI* (B /sup 2/..sigma../sub 1/2/) by He, Ne, N/sub 2/, Ar, and Xe at densities up to about 2 amagat are reported in this paper. The quenching rates of the HgI* (C /sup 2/Pi/sub 1/2/) state by those gases are also determined and the branching ratio to the B state is found to be unity within experimental error. Additional quenching rates of HgI* (B) by CF/sub 3/I and I/sub 2/ are included.

  13. Antibodies against Manα1,2-Manα1,2-Man oligosaccharide structures recognize envelope glycoproteins from HIV-1 and SIV strains

    PubMed Central

    Luallen, Robert J; Agrawal-Gamse, Caroline; Fu, Hu; Smith, David F; Doms, Robert W; Geng, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Design of an envelope glycoprotein (Env)-based vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is complicated by the large number of N-linked glycans that coat the protein and serve as a barrier to antibody-mediated neutralization. Compared to normal mammalian glycoproteins, high-mannose-type glycans are disproportionately represented on the gp120 subunit of Env. These N-glycans serve as a target for a number of anti-HIV molecules that bind terminal α1,2-linked mannose residues, including lectins and the monoclonal antibody 2G12. We created a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylation mutant, Δmnn1Δmnn4, to expose numerous terminal Manα1,2-Man residues on endogenous hypermannosylated glycoproteins in the yeast cell wall. Immunization of rabbits with whole cells from this mutant induced antibodies that bound to a broad range of Env proteins, including clade A, B, and C of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The gp120 binding activity of these immune sera was due to mannose-specific immunoglobulin, as removal of high-mannose glycans and α1,2-linked mannoses from gp120 abrogated serum binding. Glycan array analysis with purified IgG demonstrated binding mainly to glycans with Manα1,2-Manα1,2-Man trisaccharides. Altogether, these data demonstrate the immunogenicity of exposed polyvalent Manα1,2-Manα1,2-Man structures on the yeast cell wall mannan and their ability to induce antibodies that bind to the HIV Env protein. The yeast strain and sera from this study will be useful tools for determining the type of mannose-specific response that is needed to develop neutralizing antibodies to the glycan shield of HIV. PMID:19920089

  14. Condensed imidazo-1,2,4-azines. 15. Reaction of 1,2-diaminobenzimidazole with 5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran-2,3-dione

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglenko, V.P.; Gnidets, V.P.; Klyuev, N.A.; Povstyanoi, M.V.

    1987-10-01

    The reaction of 1,2-diaminobenzimidazole with 5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran-2,3-dione in acetic acid gave a mixture of 2-benzoylmethyl-1,2,4-triazino (2,3-..cap alpha..)-benzimidazol-4H-3-one and 3-benzoylmethyl-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazol-1H-2-one, the intramolecular cyclization of which gave isomeric 2-phenylfuro-(5,4-e)- and 2-phenylfuro(4,5-e)-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazoles. Only the corresponding furo(4,5-e)-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazole was isolated when the reaction was carried out in sulfuric acid. The IR spectra of KBr pellets of the compounds were recorded with a UR-20 spectrometer. The electronic absorption spectra of solutions in dioxane were obtained with a Specord UV-vis spectrophotometer. The mass spectra were recorded with a Varian MAT-311a spectrometer. The quantum-chemical calculations were made by the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) method with the standard parametrization.

  15. 1,2,5,6-Diepoxyhexane and 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane cross-link duplex DNA at 5'-GNC sequences.

    PubMed

    Yunes, M J; Charnecki, S E; Marden, J J; Millard, J T

    1996-09-01

    The carcinogenicity of epoxide compounds has been attributed to covalent binding to DNA. Whereas monoepoxides form only monoadducts, diepoxides can form both monoadducts and interstrand cross-links. The latter are believed to be the more significant cytotoxic lesions as diepoxides are frequently more carcinogenic and mutagenic than their monoepoxide analogues. We therefore examined the relative DNA interstrand cross-linking capabilities of several diepoxides with respect to chain length, molecular flexibility, reported carcinogenic potential, and DNA sequences targeted. Using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we found that 1,2,5,6-diepoxyhexane and 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane share the 5'-GNC target sequence previously found for 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane [Millard, J.T., and White, M.M. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 2120-2124] and that the efficiency of cross-linking this sequence may reflect carcinogenicity, 1,2,5,6-Diepoxycyclooctane, the biologically inactive rigid analogue of 1,2,5,6-diepoxyhexane, was found to be a poor cross-linker of all DNA sequences examined. Moreover, increasing the diepoxyalkane chain length did not result in enhanced cross-linking ability.

  16. Design and synthesis of novel neuroprotective 1,2-dithiolane/chroman hybrids.

    PubMed

    Koufaki, Maria; Kiziridi, Christina; Alexi, Xanthippi; Alexis, Michael N

    2009-09-01

    Novel 1,2-dithiolane/chroman hybrids bearing heterocyclic rings such as 1,2,4- and 1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1,2,3-triazole and tetrazole were designed and synthesized. The neuroprotective activity of the new analogues was tested against oxidative stress-induced cell death of glutamate-challenged HT22 hippocampal neurons. Our results show that bioisosteric replacement of amide group in 2-position of the chroman moiety, by 1,3,4-oxadiazole did not affect activity. However, analogue 5 bearing the 1,2,4-oxadiazole moiety showed improved neuroprotective activity. The presence of nitrogen heterocycles strongly influences the neuroprotective activity of 5-substituted chroman derivatives, depending on the nature of heterocycle. Replacement of the amide group of the first generation analogues by 1,2,4-oxadiazole or 1,2,3-triazole resulted in significant improvement of the activity against glutamate induced oxidative stress.

  17. Siah1/2 Ubiquitin Ligases in ER Stress Signaling in Melanoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    year will establish novel therapeutic modality for treatment of cancer , focused on melanoma. Major Task 3: Determine the effect of Siah1/2 and ER...demonstrate the importance of these activities to prostate NE lesions/tumors that are known to be the more aggressive form of prostate cancer ...1,902,606 Associate Director: Ronai, Z. 1.2 calendar (10%) Program Leader: Ronai, Z. 1.2 calendar (10%) Cancer Center Support Grant Goals: To provide

  18. BIN1 is Reduced and Cav1.2 Trafficking is Impaired in Human Failing Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ting-Ting; Smyth, James W.; Chu, Kevin Y.; Vogan, Jacob M.; Fong, Tina S.; Jensen, Brian C.; Fang, Kun; Halushka, Marc K.; Russell, Stuart D.; Colecraft, Henry; Hoopes, Charles W.; Ocorr, Karen; Chi, Neil C.; Shaw, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Heart failure is a growing epidemic and a typical aspect of heart failure pathophysiology is altered calcium transients. Normal cardiac calcium transients are initiated by Cav1.2 channels at cardiac T-tubules. BIN1 is a membrane scaffolding protein that causes Cav1.2 to traffic to T-tubules in healthy hearts. The mechanisms of Cav1.2 trafficking in heart failure are not known. Objective To study BIN1 expression and its effect on Cav1.2 trafficking in failing hearts. Methods Intact myocardium and freshly isolated cardiomyocytes from non-failing and end-stage failing human hearts were used to study BIN1 expression and Cav1.2 localization. To confirm Cav1.2 surface expression dependence on BIN1, patch clamp recordings were performed of Cav1.2 current in cell lines with and without trafficking competent BIN1. Also, in adult mouse cardiomyocytes, surface Cav1.2 and calcium transients were studied after shRNA mediated knockdown of BIN1. For a functional readout in intact heart, calcium transients and cardiac contractility were analyzed in a zebrafish model with morpholino mediated knockdown of BIN1. Results BIN1 expression is significantly decreased in failing cardiomyocytes at both mRNA (30% down) and protein (36% down) levels. Peripheral Cav1.2 is reduced 42% by imaging and biochemical T-tubule fraction of Cav1.2 is reduced 68%. Total calcium current is reduced 41% in a cell line expressing non-trafficking BIN1 mutant. In mouse cardiomyocytes, BIN1 knockdown decreases surface Cav1.2 and impairs calcium transients. In zebrafish hearts, BIN1 knockdown causes a 75% reduction in calcium transients and severe ventricular contractile dysfunction. Conclusions The data indicate that BIN1 is significantly reduced in human heart failure, and this reduction impairs Cav1.2 trafficking, calcium transients, and contractility. PMID:22138472

  19. A domino ring-opening/epoxidation of 1,2-dioxines.

    PubMed

    Greatrex, Ben W; Taylor, Dennis K; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2004-04-02

    When allowed to react with alkaline hydrogen peroxide, monocyclic 1,2-dioxines ring-open to their isomeric gamma-hydroxyenone intermediates which are rapidly epoxidized to afford trans-4-hydroxy-2,3-epoxyketones in 21-81% yield. In the case of meso-1,2-dioxines, Co(II) complex catalyzed asymmetric ring-opening of the 1,2-dioxine may be employed to furnish enantioenriched epoxides

  20. Cellular mechanisms and behavioral consequences of Kv1.2 regulation in the rat cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael R; Fuchs, Jason R; Green, John T; Morielli, Anthony D

    2012-01-01

    The potassium channel Kv1.2 alpha-subunit is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) dendrites where its pharmacological inhibition increases excitability (Khavandgar et al., 2005). Kv1.2 is also expressed in cerebellar basket cell (BC) axon terminals (Sheng et al., 1994), where its blockade increases BC inhibition of PCs (Southan and Robertson, 1998a). Secretin receptors are also expressed both in PC dendrites and BC axon terminals (reviewed in (Yuan et al.). The effect of secretin on PC excitability is not yet known, but, like Kv1.2 inhibitors, secretin potently increases inhibitory input to PCs (Yung et al., 2001). This suggests secretin may act in part by suppressing Kv1.2. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a mechanism of Kv1.2 suppression (Nesti et al., 2004). This process can be regulated by protein kinase A (PKA) (Connors et al., 2008). Since secretin receptors activate PKA (Wessels-Reiker et al., 1993), we tested the hypothesis that secretin regulates Kv1.2 trafficking in the cerebellum. Using cell surface protein biotinylation of rat cerebellar slices, we found secretin decreased cell-surface Kv1.2 levels by modulating Kv1.2 endocytic trafficking. This effect was mimicked by activating adenylate cyclase (AC) with forskolin, and was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of AC or PKA. Imaging studies identified the BC axon terminal and Purkinje cell dendrites as loci of AC-dependent Kv1.2 trafficking. The physiological significance of secretin regulated Kv1.2 endocytosis is supported by our finding that infusion into the cerebellar cortex of either the Kv1.2 inhibitor Tityustoxin-Kα, or of the Kv1.2 regulator secretin, significantly enhances acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in rats. PMID:22764231

  1. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.; Wang, Guijun

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  2. Identification and Characterization of 1,2-BN Cyclohexene Using Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukolich, Stephen G.; Sun, Ming; Daly, Adam M.; Ishibashi, Jacob S. A.; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    1,2-BN Cyclohexene was produced from 1,2-BN Cyclohexane through the loss of H_2 and characterized and identified using a pulsed-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. The first microwave spectra for 1,2-10BN Cyclohexene 1,2-11BN Cyclohexene have been measured in the frequency range of 5.5-12.5 GHz, providing accurate rotational constants and nitrogen and boron quadrupole coupling strengths for two isotopologues. High-level ab initio calculations provided rotational constants and quadrupole coupling strengths for the precursor 1,2-BN Cyclohexane (C_4H12BN) and 1,2-BN Cyclohexene(C_4H10BN). Calculated molecular properties for 1,2-BN Cyclohexene are in very good agreement with measured parameters. Calculated parameters for the starting material, 1,2-BN Cyclohexane do not agree with the experimental data. Rotational constants for 1,2-11BN Cyclohexene are A = 4702.058(2) MHz, B = 4360.334(1) MHz and C = 2494.407(1) MHz. The inertial defect is Δ_0 = -20.78 amu-Å^2 clearly indicating a nonplanar structure. These microwave experiments show that heating the initial compound, 1,2-BN Cyclohexane, to 60 C in a 1 atm neon stream results in the loss of H_2 and conversion to 1,2-BN Cyclohexene. This appears to be the first characterization of the 1,2-BN Cyclohexene monomer. Supported by the NSF CHE-1057796 and DOE DE-EE-0005658

  3. Practical Methylation Procedure for (1H)-1,2,4-Triazole (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Francis Group, LLC. 14. ABSTRACT Conversion of (1H)-1,2,4-triazole to its sodium salt with methanolic sodium methoxide is followed by reaction ...From - To) 04-06-2007 Journal Article 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Practical Methylation Procedure for (1H)-1,2,4-Triazole (Postprint...continuous extraction (chloroform/water) with a final short-path distillation under a controlled vacuum to obtain spectroscopically pure 1- methyl -1,2,4

  4. Synthesis and antitumoral evaluation of indole alkaloid analogues containing an hexahydropyrrolo[1',2',3':1,9a,9]imidazo[1,2-a]indole skeleton.

    PubMed

    Ventosa-Andrés, Pilar; González-Vera, Juan A; Valdivielso, Angel M; Teresa García-López, M; Herranz, Rosario

    2008-10-15

    The scope of acid-mediated cyclative additions of electrophiles to tryptophan-derived alpha-amino nitriles for the synthesis of 10b-substituted-1,2,4,5,10b,10c-hexahydropyrrolo[1',2',3':1,9a,9]imidazo[1,2-a]indoles analogues of indole alkaloids has been studied. The results demonstrate the high potential of the methodology for the synthesis of 10b-bromo-derivatives, by bromination with NBS, 10b-allyl-derivatives, by bromo-allyl exchange, and 10b-prenyl-derivatives, by reaction with prenyl bromide in the presence of Mg(NO(3))(2).6H(2)0. Some of the new pyrroloimidazoindole derivatives displayed moderate microM cytotoxicities in human cancer cell lines and at 10 microg/mL inhibited more than 50% EGFR or HIF-1alpha.

  5. Regulation of ERK1/2 activity upon contact inhibition in fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kueppers, Monika; Faust, Dagmar; Linz, Berenike; Dietrich, Cornelia

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Regulation of ERK1/2 activity upon contact inhibition was investigated. {yields} Upstream activation of ERK is attenuated upon contact inhibition. {yields} ERK phosphatases are probably not involved in ERK1/2 dephosphorylation. {yields} Signaling of the EGFR and PDGFR is differentially inhibited upon contact inhibition. -- Abstract: Contact inhibition is a crucial mechanism regulating proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Despite its generally accepted importance for maintaining tissue homeostasis knowledge about the underlying molecular mechanisms of contact inhibition is still scarce. Since the MAPK ERK1/2 plays a pivotal role in the control of proliferation, we investigated regulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation which is downregulated in confluent NIH3T3 cultures. We found a decrease in upstream signaling including phosphorylation of the growth factor receptor adaptor protein ShcA and the MAPK kinase MEK1/2 in confluent compared to exponentially growing cultures whereas involvement of ERK1/2 phosphatases in ERK1/2 inactivation is unlikely. Treatment of confluent, serum-deprived cultures with PDGF-B resulted in similar phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and induction of DNA-synthesis as detected in sparse, serum-deprived cultures. In contrast, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and DNA-synthesis could not be stimulated in confluent, serum-deprived cultures exposed to EGF. Our data indicate that PDGFR- and EGFR signaling are differentially inhibited in confluent cultures of NIH3T3 cells.

  6. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-08-31

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds.

  7. Acute Dermal Toxicity Potential of (E)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-Methyl-1-(2-Methyl-1-Oxo-2-Butenyl) Quinoline (CHR 5) in Rabbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    typical of bacterial infection and the liver lesions were compatible with those caused by Eimeria stiedae , a protozoan parasite that frequently infects...quinoline (CHR 5) IN RABBITS LAWRENCE MULLEN, BS, SP4 MARTHA A. HANES, DVM, CPT VC and PAUL MELLICK, DVM, PhD, LTC VC TOXICOLOGY GROUP, DIVISION OF...I = ඛ 08 22 058 4. Acute Dermal Toxicity Potential of (E)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-6-Methyl- 1-(2-Methyl-l-Oxo-2-Butenyl) Quinoline (CHR5) in Rabbits

  8. A toxological study of 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-1-Pyrazolyl)1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The acute oral LD{sub 30/50} values for 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrazolyl)-1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine BIS(DMP)DHT are greater than 5g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both rats and mice. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show BIS(DMP)SHT to have potential sensitizing effects. Skin application studies on the rabbit demonstrated the material was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in the rabbit eye application studies.

  9. A toxological study of 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-1-Pyrazolyl)1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine

    SciTech Connect

    London, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The acute oral LD[sub 30/50] values for 3,6-BIS(3,5-Dimethyl-1-Pyrazolyl)-1,2-Dihydro-1,2,4,5-Tetrazine BIS(DMP)DHT are greater than 5g/kg. According to classical guidelines, the material would be considered only slightly toxic or practically nontoxic in both rats and mice. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show BIS(DMP)SHT to have potential sensitizing effects. Skin application studies on the rabbit demonstrated the material was cutaneously nonirritating. This material was also nonirritating in the rabbit eye application studies.

  10. Phonon modes of A(Co 1/2Mn 1/2) O 3 ( A=La, Nd, Dy, Ho, Yb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Lewis, R. A.; Wang, X. L.; Dou, S. X.

    2001-09-01

    Phonon energies in cobaltite/manganites A(Co1/2Mn1/2)O3, where A is a lanthanide, have been determined by far-infrared spectroscopy. The phonon energies systematically shift and split and new modes appear as the mass of the lanthanide is increased through the series A=La, Nd, Dy, Ho, Yb. The behavior of the phonon modes correlates with the magnetic properties of this series of compounds, in particular with the appearance of metamagnetism for the compounds with smaller ions on the A site.

  11. L1/2 regularization: a thresholding representation theory and a fast solver.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongben; Chang, Xiangyu; Xu, Fengmin; Zhang, Hai

    2012-07-01

    The special importance of L1/2 regularization has been recognized in recent studies on sparse modeling (particularly on compressed sensing). The L1/2 regularization, however, leads to a nonconvex, nonsmooth, and non-Lipschitz optimization problem that is difficult to solve fast and efficiently. In this paper, through developing a threshoding representation theory for L1/2 regularization, we propose an iterative half thresholding algorithm for fast solution of L1/2 regularization, corresponding to the well-known iterative soft thresholding algorithm for L1 regularization, and the iterative hard thresholding algorithm for L0 regularization. We prove the existence of the resolvent of gradient of ||x||1/2(1/2), calculate its analytic expression, and establish an alternative feature theorem on solutions of L1/2 regularization, based on which a thresholding representation of solutions of L1/2 regularization is derived and an optimal regularization parameter setting rule is formulated. The developed theory provides a successful practice of extension of the well- known Moreau's proximity forward-backward splitting theory to the L1/2 regularization case. We verify the convergence of the iterative half thresholding algorithm and provide a series of experiments to assess performance of the algorithm. The experiments show that the half algorithm is effective, efficient, and can be accepted as a fast solver for L1/2 regularization. With the new algorithm, we conduct a phase diagram study to further demonstrate the superiority of L1/2 regularization over L1 regularization.

  12. BRCA1/2-negative hereditary triple-negative breast cancers exhibit BRCAness.

    PubMed

    Domagala, Pawel; Hybiak, Jolanta; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers are sensitive to poly(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and platinum compounds mainly due to their deficiency in DNA repair via homologous recombination (HR). However, approximately only 15% of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are BRCA1/2-associated. TNBCs that exhibit BRCAness (a phenotype reflecting impaired HR in BRCA1/2-negative tumors) are also regarded sensitive to PARP inhibitors and platinum compounds. Thus, we hypothesized that hereditary BRCA1/2-negative TNBCs may exhibit BRCAness. To find a subset of hereditary BRCA1/2-negative TNBCs among 360 TNBCs, we first identified a group of 41 hereditary TNBCs by analyzing the family histories of the patients. Next, we tested this group for the presence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations, and finally, we compared the expression levels of 120 genes involved in HR and five other major mechanisms of DNA damage repair between BRCA1/2-associated and BRCA1/2-negative subgroups of hereditary TNBCs using real-time PCR arrays. Approximately 73% of the hereditary TNBCs were BRCA1/2-associated and 27% were BRCA1/2-negative. The expression levels of the analyzed genes showed no significant differences between these two subgroups indicating the BRCAness of the BRCA1/2-negative hereditary TNBCs and thereby distinguishing a novel subset of TNBCs as a potential target for PARP inhibitors or platinum-based therapy. The results show the significance of family history in selecting patients with TNBC for therapies directed at incompetent DNA repair (e.g., PARP inhibitors and/or platinum-based therapies) and indicate that a relatively simple strategy for broadening the target group for these modes of treatment is to identify patients with hereditary TNBCs.

  13. DFT study on energetic tetrazolo-[1,5-b]-1,2,4,5-tetrazine and 1,2,4-triazolo-[4,3-b]-1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Zhu, Weihua; Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Heming

    2010-07-15

    The heats of formation (HOFs) for a series of tetrazolo-[1,5-b]-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (TETZ) and 1,2,4-triazolo-[4,3-b]-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (TTZ) derivatives were studied by using density functional theory. The results show that the substitution of the -N(3) or -N(NO(2))(2) group in the TETZ or TTZ ring extremely enhances its HOF values. For monosubstituted case, attachment of a substituent to position 8 in the TETZ or TTZ ring will increase its energy gaps except for the derivatives with the -NO(2) group. It is also found that the energy gap of TTZ can be tuned by incorporating a substituent into different positions in the parent ring. The substitution of the -NH(2) group in the TETZ ring is favorable for enhancing its thermal stability. For the TTZ ring, different substituted positions and number of the substituent might affect its thermal stability. The calculated detonation properties indicate that incorporating the -NO(2), -NF(2), -ONO(2), or -N(NO(2))(2) group into the TETZ or TTZ ring is very helpful for enhancing its detonation performance. Considered the detonation performance and thermal stability, four derivatives may be regarded as the promising candidates of high-energy density materials (HEDMs).

  14. On the applicability of the molecular-mechanical force field (MM2) scheme to the gauche oxygen effect characteristic of glycol ethers such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane, 1,2-dimethoxypropane and 1,2-dimethoxy-2-methylpropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Akihiro; Tasaki, Kenzabu

    1986-07-01

    MM2 calculations have been carried out for a series of glycol ethers such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), 1,2-dimethoxypropane (DME) and 1,2-dimethoxy-2-methylpropane (DMMP). For DME, in accordance with the results of Baldwin [11], the observed energy of the gauche state ( Eσ = -0.5 kcal mol -1) for the OCCO bond is found to be approximately reproduced by the calculation when the dipole—dipole interaction term is suppressed by adopting a relatively large dielectric constant (ɛ eff = 7.5). With the same value of ɛ eff, the gauche energy of DMMP is calculated to be Eψ = —0.9 kcal mol -1, which is at variance with the observed value of 0.5 kcal mol -1. In DMP, the two gauche forms around the OCCO bond are non-equivalent, and the stability of the conformers varies in the order gα &>; t &>; gß. These experimental observations were not produced by the calculation. The MM2 program failed, in the state of the art, to provide an adequate explanation for the gauche oxygen effect observed in the aboved-mentioned glycol ethers as well as in there polymer analogs. It is pointed out that inclusion of an empirical correction term in the torsional potential for the individual rotational states offers a simple amendment which serves for practical purposes.

  15. [Research of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives. XXX. Synthesis and properties of (imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acid derivatives].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, V A; Tolpygin, I E; Spasov, A A; Serdiuk, T S; Sukhov, A G

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl esters of (9-subtituted-imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acids were synthesized. The chemical properties of these esters (hydrolysis, decarboxylation, hydrazinolysis) and biological activity (fungicidal, antimicrobial, antiarrhythmic activity, and also affects on the brain rhythmogenesis) of the prepared compounds were studied.

  16. Preparation of 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole. [1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.Y.

    1985-03-05

    A new high density composition of matter, 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole, has been synthesized using inexpensive, commonly available compounds. This compound has been found to be an explosive, and its use as a propellant is anticipated. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Structural and dielectric studies of lead-free ceramics: Na1/2Y1/2TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Subrat K.; Choudhary, Ram N. P.; Mahapatra, Prasanta K.

    2008-12-01

    The polycrystalline samples of Na1/2Y1/2TiO3 were prepared by the mixed-oxide method. A preliminary X-ray structural analysis was shown to exhibit the formation of a single-phase compound with an orthorhombic structure. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibits well defined grains distributed uniformly through out the sample suggesting the compactness and homogeneity of the sample. Detailed studies of dielectric properties of Na1/2Y1/2TiO3 in a wide frequency range (102 106 Hz) at different temperatures (31 500°C) show a dielectric anomaly at 105°C, which may be related to a ferroelectricparaelectric phase transition as suggested by hysteresis loop at room temperature. An ac conductivity ( σ ac) of the material is mainly governed by the polaron hopping mechanism, which is also influenced by both frequency and temperature. The activation energy was obtained from the plot of temperature with a.c. conductivity.

  18. Structural and dielectric studies of lead-free ceramics: Na1/2Y1/2TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Subrat; Choudhary, Ram; Mahapatra, Prasanta

    2008-12-01

    The polycrystalline samples of Na1/2Y1/2TiO3 were prepared by the mixed-oxide method. A preliminary X-ray structural analysis was shown to exhibit the formation of a single-phase compound with an orthorhombic structure. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibits well defined grains distributed uniformly through out the sample suggesting the compactness and homogeneity of the sample. Detailed studies of dielectric properties of Na1/2Y1/2TiO3 in a wide frequency range (102-106 Hz) at different temperatures (31-500°C) show a dielectric anomaly at 105°C, which may be related to a ferroelectricparaelectric phase transition as suggested by hysteresis loop at room temperature. An ac conductivity (σ ac) of the material is mainly governed by the polaron hopping mechanism, which is also influenced by both frequency and temperature. The activation energy was obtained from the plot of temperature with a.c. conductivity.

  19. Novel syntheses of hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]ĭmidazoles and Octahydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, A R; Qiu, G; He, H Y; Yang, B

    2000-06-16

    1-Phenyl-5-(benzotriazol-1-yl)hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]ĭmidazole (18) and 1-phenyl-5-benzotriazolyloctahydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (27) were readily prepared from succindialdehyde or glutaraldehyde, benzotriazole, and N-phenylethylenediamine. Synthons 18 and 27 reacted with Grignard reagents, allylsilanes, silyl ethers, and triethyl phosphite to produce 1-phenyl-5-substituted-hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]ĭmidazoles 20a-f, 22, 24a,b, and 25 and 1-phenyl-5-substituted-octahydroimidazo[1, 2-a]pyridines 28a-e, 32, 33a,b, and 34 in good to excellent yields. The configurations of 20, 22, 24, and 25 were determined to be cis isomers by NOE experiment, while the configurations and conformations of 28a-e, 32, 33a,b, and 34 were elucidated by (1)H-(1)H COSY and (1)H-(13)C COSY.

  20. Classical ferroelectriclike behavior of highly ordered Pb (S c1 /2N b1 /2)O3 studied by dielectric and Brillouin scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivasubramanian, V.; Subramanian, V.; Kojima, S.

    2016-02-01

    The ferroelectric phase transition behavior in the highly ordered Pb (S c1 /2N b1 /2) O3 has been investigated by the dielectric and Brillouin spectroscopy. The dielectric permittivity ɛr exhibits a sharp maximum without any frequency dispersion at its Curie temperature Tc. In the temperature range far above Tc, it was noted that the dielectric permittivity exhibits a noticeable deviation from the Curie-Weiss law below the characteristic intermediate temperature T*=500 K , which is common to most of the Pb-based oxide perovskite relaxors. Upon cooling, the frequency of the longitudinal acoustic phonon mode exhibits a remarkable softening towards Tc. The relaxation time of the order parameter calculated using the Landau-Khalatnikov approach was determined to be more than one order of magnitude lower than that of the disordered Pb (S c1 /2N b1 /2)O3 and is very close to that observed in the paraelectric phase of the classical ferroelectric, BaTi O3 . The observed dielectric and relaxation features are qualitatively discussed in terms of the difference in the strength of the random electric fields.

  1. Magnetic dimers and trimers in the disordered S =3/2 spin system BaTi1/2Mn1/2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, F. A.; Kaneko, U. F.; Granado, E.; Sichelschmidt, J.; Hölzel, M.; Duque, J. G. S.; Nunes, C. A. J.; Amaral, R. P.; Marques-Ferreira, P.; Lora-Serrano, R.

    2015-06-01

    We report a structural-magnetic investigation by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), neutron diffraction, dc susceptibility (χdc), and electron spin resonance (ESR) of the 12R-type perovskite BaTi1/2Mn1/2O3 . Our structural analysis by neutron diffraction supports the existence of structural trimers with chemically disordered occupancy of Mn4+ and Ti4+ ions, with the valence of the Mn ions confirmed by the XAS measurements. The magnetic properties are explored by combining dc-susceptibility and X -band (9.4 GHz) electron spin resonance, both in the temperature interval of 2 ≤T ≤1000 K. A scenario is presented under which the magnetism is explained by considering magnetic dimers and trimers, with exchange constants Ja/kB=200 (2 ) K and Jb/kB=130 (10 ) K, and orphan spins. Thus, BaTi1/2Mn1/2O3 is proposed as a rare case of an intrinsically disordered S =3/2 spin gap system with a frustrated ground state.

  2. Relationship between surface chemistry and electrochemical behavior of LiNi1/2Mn1/2O2 positive electrode in a lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Nicolas; Martin, Jean-Frédéric; Oliveri, Julie; Soudan, Patrick; Yamada, Atsuo; Kanno, Ryoji; Guyomard, Dominique

    2011-05-01

    The formation and the evolution of lithium-containing species on the surface of grains of a layered 4 V material such as LiNi1/2Mn1/2O2 along the electrochemical cycling have been followed using 7Li MAS NMR, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and XPS. Materials displaying different specific surface areas and stored in different atmospheres have been investigated in order to study the influence of the surface/volume ratio and the influence of the initial surface state, respectively. It is shown that the presence of an initial interphase of Li2CO3 influences the electrochemical behavior of the electrode, emphasizing the importance of the history of the electrode prior cycling. 7Li MAS NMR experiments performed upon cycling indicate the formation of interphase species in reduction and their partial removal in oxidation, indicating the dynamic character of the interphase upon cycling. Combined NMR, EIS and XPS experiments show the strong influence of the electrode/electrolyte interphase evolution on the electrochemical performance. Such results lead us to draw conclusions on the optimal storage conditions of layered 4 V materials for Li-ion batteries such as LiNi1/2Mn1/2O2.

  3. 40 CFR 721.1637 - 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-[2-[[(4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1- oxy]ethoxy]-3-(2-propenyloxy)-4-methylbenzenesulfonate; and 2-propanol, 1- oxy] ethoxy]ethoxy]-3-(2-propenyloxy)-, 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. 721.1637 Section 721.1637 Protection of...

  4. 78 FR 79007 - 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... COMMISSION 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of 1,1,1,2- Tetrafluoroethane, provided for in subheadings 2903.39.20 of the... the Government of China. \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the Commission's Rules...

  5. Synthesis, absolute configuration and conformation of optically active 1,2-homoheptafulvalene.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shunji; Kurita, Mitsuhiro; Kikuchi, Sigeru; Asao, Toyonobu; Ito, Yoshitora; Oda, Masaji; Sotokawa, Hideo; Tajiri, Akio; Morita, Noboru

    2003-02-07

    An optically active 1,2-homoheptafulvalene was successfully synthesized and subjected to spectroscopic investigation. The cycloaddition of the optically active hydrocarbon with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione(PTAD) gave a [4 + 2] cycloadduct and a mixture of [8 + 2] cycloadducts, respectively, which are both optically active.

  6. Characterization of microsomal and cytosolic alpha-1,2-mannosidases from mung bean hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Forsee, W T

    1985-10-01

    Microsomal and cytosolic alpha-mannosidase activities, which hydrolyze alpha-1,2-mannosyl-mannose linkages in the Man5GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide, have been isolated from homogenates of mung bean hypocotyls. The alpha-1,2-mannosidase activities were readily distinguished from previously described aryl alpha-mannosidases by several criteria. They were optimally active in the presence of Ca2+ between pH 5.5 and 6, they were inhibited by Zn2+, and they had essentially no activity with p-nitrophenyl-alpha-mannoside. The microsomal and cytosolic alpha-1,2-mannosidases demonstrated specificity for oligosaccharides with terminal nonreducing alpha-1,2-mannosyl linkages, and they were inhibited by mannosyl-mannose disaccharides, with the inhibition decreasing in the order of alpha-1,2-greater than alpha-1,3-greater than alpha-1,6-mannosyl-mannose. The cytosolic alpha-1,2-mannosidase activity, which was present in the 100,000 g supernatant, was separated from the aryl alpha-mannosidase by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The microsomal alpha-1,2-mannosidase, which was tightly associated with the particulate fraction, was solubilized with Triton X-100 and 0.2 M KCl. The two alpha-1,2-mannosidase activities were readily differentiated by gel-filtration chromatography. The solubilized microsomal enzyme chromatographed in approximately the same position as a Mr 460,000 globular protein whereas the cytosolic enzyme was eluted in a retarded position, indicating a much smaller protein.

  7. 7 CFR 301.1-2 - Criteria for special need requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for special need requests. 301.1-2 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Preemption and Special Need Requests § 301.1-2 Criteria for special need requests. (a) A special need request, as described in §...

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1044 - 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... post signs to clearly indicate all regulated areas. These signs shall bear the legend: DANGER 1,2... legend: DANGER 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane CANCER HAZARD (p) Recordkeeping—(1) Exposure monitoring. (i... laboratory animals and has been determined to constitute an increased risk of cancer in man. 3....

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of cis- & trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene and trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the 45. STEEL FRAMING FOR LOFT, Y&D No. 107723 Scales 1/2' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. STEEL FRAMING FOR LOFT, Y&D No. 107723 Scales 1/2' and 1-1/2' = 1'; July 2, 1929 - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  10. 26 CFR 15.1-2 - Revocation of election to deduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...). An election under section 617(a) may be revoked before the expiration of the last day of the third... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Revocation of election to deduct. 15.1-2 Section....1-2 Revocation of election to deduct. (a) Manner of revoking election. A taxpayer may revoke...

  11. 26 CFR 15.1-2 - Revocation of election to deduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under section 617(a). An election under section 617(a) may be revoked before the expiration of the last... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revocation of election to deduct. 15.1-2... MINING § 15.1-2 Revocation of election to deduct. (a) Manner of revoking election. A taxpayer may...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  17. Quantization of the AdS3 superparticle on OSP (1 | 2) 2 / SL (2 , R)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George

    2017-02-01

    We analyze AdS3 superparticle dynamics on the coset OSP (1 | 2) × OSP (1 | 2) / SL (2 , R). The system is quantized in canonical coordinates obtained by gauge invariant Hamiltonian reduction. The left and right Noether charges of a massive particle are parametrized by coadjoint orbits of a timelike element of osp (1 | 2). Each chiral sector is described by two bosonic and two fermionic canonical coordinates corresponding to a superparticle with superpotential W = q - m / q, where m is the particle mass. Canonical quantization then provides a quantum realization of osp (1 | 2) ⊕ osp (1 | 2). For the massless particle the chiral charges lie on the coadjoint orbit of a nilpotent element of osp (1 | 2) and each of them depends only on one real fermion, which demonstrates the underlying κ-symmetry. These remaining left and right fermionic variables form a canonical pair and the system is described by four bosonic and two fermionic canonical coordinates. Due to conformal invariance of the massless particle, the osp (1 | 2) ⊕ osp (1 | 2) extends to the corresponding superconformal algebra osp (2 | 4). Its 19 charges are given by all real quadratic combinations of the canonical coordinates, which trivializes their quantization.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10292 - Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10292 Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2). (a) Chemical substance...-) hexafluoro-cesium (1:2) (PMN P-11-546; CAS No. 16923-87-8) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10292 - Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10292 Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2). (a) Chemical substance...-) hexafluoro-cesium (1:2) (PMN P-11-546; CAS No. 16923-87-8) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10292 - Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10292 Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2). (a) Chemical substance...-) hexafluoro-cesium (1:2) (PMN P-11-546; CAS No. 16923-87-8) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. Method of purifying a gas stream using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunald; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    A method for separating a target gas from a gaseous mixture using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids is presented. Industrial effluent streams may be cleaned by removing carbon dioxide from the stream by contacting the effluent stream with a 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquid compound.

  3. Pt(II)-catalyzed synthesis of 1,2-dihydropyridines from aziridinyl propargylic esters.

    PubMed

    Motamed, Massoud; Bunnelle, Eric M; Singaram, Surendra W; Sarpong, Richmond

    2007-05-24

    Pt(II)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of aziridinyl propargylic esters affords 1,2-dihydropyridines with regiodefined installation of substituents. A mild conversion of the 1,2-dihydropyridines to the corresponding substituted pyridines as well as chirality retention from the aziridinyl propargylic ester substrates have been demonstrated.

  4. 10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 SCREEN DOOR TO EXTERIOR AND DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO DINING ROOM. HOLE AT BOTTOM LEFT OF 1/2 SCREEN DOOR WAS A CAT DOOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  5. Morphological transformation of C3H/10T1/2 CL8 cells by procarcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Oshiro, Y.; Balwierz, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    In order to increase the sensitivity of the C3H/10T1/2 CL8 (10T1/2) cell transformation system, the chemical exposure period was increased to a total of 6 days (two consecutive 3-day exposures). Using this modified procedure, we transformed 10T1/2 cells with procarcinogens such as aflatoxin B/sub 1/, benz(a)anthracene, and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide which have been negative in the standard 10T1/2 cell transformation assay. However, ..beta..-naphthylamine was inconclusive and 2-acetylaminofluorine was negative in this modified assay system. Results demonstrate that a simple modification of the 10T1/2 cell transformation method can increase the sensitivity to some procarcinogens that require metabolic activation.

  6. Removal of 1,2-dichlorobenzene from water emulsion using adsorbent catalysts and its regeneration.

    PubMed

    Netskina, O V; Tayban, E S; Moiseenko, A P; Komova, O V; Mukha, S A; Simagina, V I

    2015-03-21

    Purification of emulsions of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB) by carbon-based adsorbent catalysts has been studied. The cycle of purification includes: (1) adsorption of 1,2-DCB from the aqueous phase and (II) reductive regeneration by hydrodechlorination of the adsorbed 1,2-DCB by molecular hydrogen in the liquid phase. 1,2-DCB adsorption from aqueous solutions has been found to proceed by the mechanism of volume filling of pores. The rate of hydrodechlorination was shown to correlate with the particle size of the active component: the finer the particles, the higher the activity of the adsorbent catalyst. Pd/FAS with an average Pd particle size of 2.8 nm was found to be the most efficient catalyst.

  7. Inosine strongly enhances proliferation of human C32 melanoma cells through PLC-PKC-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Sofia; Costa, Vera Marisa; Diniz, Carmen; Fresco, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer. The lack of effective pharmacological approaches for this tumour can be related to the incomplete understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in melanoma cell proliferation. Adenosine has growth-promoting and growth inhibitory effects on tumour cells. We aimed to investigate effects of adenosine and its metabolic product, inosine, on human C32 melanoma cells and the signalling pathways involved. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assays were used to evaluate adenosine, adenosine deaminase and inosine effects, in the absence or presence of adenosine receptor (AR), A3 AR and P2Y1 R antagonists and PLC, PKC, MEK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors. ERK1/2 levels were determined using an ELISA kit. Adenosine and inosine levels were quantified using an enzyme-coupled assay. Adenosine caused cell proliferation through AR activation. Adenosine deaminase increased inosine levels (nanomolar concentrations) on the extracellular space, in a time-dependent manner, inducing proliferation through A3 AR activation. Micromolar concentrations of inosine enhanced proliferation through A3 AR activation, causing an increase in ERK1/2 levels, and P2Y1 R activation via ENT-dependent mechanisms. We propose the simultaneous activation of PLC-PKC-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways as the main mechanism responsible for the proliferative effect elicited by inosine and its significant role in melanoma cancer progression.

  8. Results of a 90-day toxicity study on 1,2,3- and 1,1,2-trichloropropane administered via the drinking water.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, D C; Chu, I; Secours, V E; Coté, M G; Plaa, G L; Valli, V E

    1985-12-01

    Trichloropropanes have been identified as environmental contaminants in sediments of the Great Lakes region of North America. Since these chemicals had the potential to find their way into drinking water, a 90-day feeding study was carried out in order to determine their subchronic toxicity. Groups of 10 male and 10 female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were supplied drinking water ad libitum, containing 1,2,3- or 1,1,2-trichloropropane at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L for 13 weeks. Emulphor (0.5%) was used to solubilize the chemicals. At the end of the study, the animals were killed and examined for gross and microscopic changes. Heart, liver, brain, kidney and spleen were excised and weighed. Blood was collected and subjected to a comprehensive hematological analysis. Serum was collected and profiled for changes in 12 biochemical parameters and a portion of liver was used to determined mixed function oxidase activity. Although three animals died during the study, their deaths could not be related to treatment. Decreased growth rate was observed in both sexes of the group receiving 1000 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. There was an increase in liver, kidney and brain weights (relative to body weight) in rats of both sexes fed 1000 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Fatty livers were observed in some of the treated animals but a clear dose-relationship was not evident. An elevation in serum cholesterol was observed in female rats fed the highest dose of 1,2,3-trichloropropane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Sites and Functional Consequence of Alkylphenol Anesthetic Binding to Kv1.2 Channels.

    PubMed

    Bu, Weiming; Liang, Qiansheng; Zhi, Lianteng; Maciunas, Lina; Loll, Patrick J; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2017-02-15

    Inhalational general anesthetics, such as sevoflurane and isoflurane, modulate a subset of brain Kv1 potassium channels. However, the Kv1.2 channel is resistant to propofol, a commonly used intravenous alkylphenol anesthetic. We hypothesize that propofol binds to a presumed pocket involving the channel's S4-S5 linker, but functional transduction is poor and, therefore, propofol efficacy is low. To test this hypothesis, we used a photoactive propofol analog (meta-aziPropofol = AziPm) to directly probe binding and electrophysiological and mutational analyses in Xenopus oocytes to probe function. We find that AziPm photolabels L321 in the S4-S5 linker of both the wild-type Kv1.2 and a mutant Kv1.2 (G329 T) with a novel gating phenotype. Furthermore, whereas propofol does not significantly modulate Kv1.2 WT but robustly potentiates Kv1.2 G329T, AziPm inhibits Kv1.2 WT and also potentiates Kv1.2 G329T. Kv1.2 modulation by AziPm was abolished by two mutations that decreased hydrophobicity at L321 (L321A and L321F), confirming the specific significance of the S4-S5 linker in the mechanism of general anesthetic modulation. Since AziPm binds to Kv1.2 G329T and shares the propofol ability to potentiate this mutant, the parent propofol likely also binds to the Kv1.2 channel. However, binding and alkylphenol-induced transduction are seemingly sensitive to the conformation of the S4-S5 linker site (altered by G329T) and subtle differences in the chemical structures of propofol and AziPm. Overall, the results are consistent with a mechanism of general anesthetic modulation that depends on the complementarity of necessary ligand binding and permissive ion channel conformations that dictate modulation and efficacy.

  10. 1,2-Dichloroethane impairs glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of NIH Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Xu, Dandan; Fan, Qiming; Rong, Weifeng; Zheng, Jiewei; Gao, Chen; Li, Guoliang; Zeng, Ni; Guo, Tao; Zeng, Lihai; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Chen; Cai, Li; Tang, Shangqing; Deng, Xinlei; Yin, Xiao; Huang, Manqi; Lu, Fengrong; Hu, Qiansheng; Chen, Wen; Huang, Zhenlie; Wang, Qing

    2017-04-01

    Excessive exposure to 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCE), a chlorinated organic toxicant, can lead to liver dysfunction. To fully explore the mechanism of 1,2-DCE-induced hepatic abnormalities, 30 male National Institutes of Health (NIH) Swiss mice were exposed to 0, 350, or 700mg/m(3) of 1,2-DCE, via inhalation, 6h/day for 28days. Increased liver/body weight ratios, as well as serum AST and serum ALT activity were observed in the 350 and 700mg/m(3) 1,2-DCE exposure group mice, compared with the control group mice. In addition, decreased body weights were observed in mice exposed to 700mg/m(3) 1,2-DCE, compared with control mice. Exposure to 350 and 700mg/m(3) 1,2-DCE also led to significant accumulation of hepatic glycogen, free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides, elevation of blood triglyceride and FFA levels, and decreases in blood glucose levels. Results from microarray analysis indicated that the decreases in glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC) and liver glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL) expression, mediated by the activation of AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt1), might be responsible for the hepatic glycogen accumulation and steatosis. Further in vitro study demonstrated that 2-chloroacetic acid (1,2-DCE metabolite), rather than 1,2-DCE, up-regulated Akt1 phosphorylation and suppressed G6PC and PYGL expression, resulting in hepatocellular glycogen accumulation. These results suggest that hepatic glucose and lipid homeostasis are impaired by 1,2-DCE exposure via down-regulation of PYGL and G6PC expression, which may be primarily mediated by the 2-chloroacetic acid-activated Akt1 pathway.

  11. Comment on “Impedance spectroscopy study and ground state electronic properties of In(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 (Physica B 406 (2011) 1081-1087)” and related works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belik, Alexei A.

    2012-09-01

    In this comment, we demonstrated that some reports about synthesis and properties of double In-based perovskites, In(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3, In(Ni1/2Zr1/2)O3, and In(Co1/2Ti1/2)O3, are incorrect. Mixtures of different known oxides were investigated instead of the claimed new compounds. We also tried to prepare In(Ni1/2Zr1/2)O3, In(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3, and In(Zn1/2Mn1/2)O3 using a high-pressure method (at 6 GPa and 1580 K) and found that these compounds are not formed. Only in the In2O3-NiO-MnO2 system, a new perovskite phase is formed using the high-pressure preparation method.

  12. Synthesis, Properties and Stereochemistry of 2-Halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes.

    PubMed

    Kolodiazhna, Anastasy O; Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I

    2016-10-17

    Results of research into four-membered 2-halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetane phosphorus(V)-heterocycles are presented. The preparation of 2-halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes by reaction of P-haloylides with carbonyl compounds is described. The mechanism of asynchronous [2+2]-сycloaddition of ylides to aldehydes was proposed on the base of low-temperature NMR investigations. 2-Halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes were isolated as individual compounds and their structures were confirmed by ¹Н-, (13)C-, (19)F- and (31)Р-NMR spectra. These compounds are convenient reagents for preparing of various organic and organophosphorus compounds hardly available by other methods. Chemical and physical properties of the 2-halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes are reviewed. The 2-chloro-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes, rearrange with formation of 2-chloroalkyl-phosphonates or convert into trans-phosphorylated alkenes depending on the substituents at the α-carbon atom. Prospective synthetic applications of 2-halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes are analyzed. The 2-halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes may be easily converted to various alkenylphosphonates: allyl- or vinylphosphonates, phosphorus ketenes, thioketenes, ketenimines.

  13. Adsorption structure, thermal reaction and initial pathways of 1,2-benzyne on Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jong-Liang; Lin, Yi-Shiue; Lin, Bo-Chiuan; Liao, Yuan-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Shang-Wei; Jhuang, Jyun-Yi; Lee, Yarong; Lin, Jiing-Chyuan

    2016-10-01

    1,2-C6H4I2 is used as precursor to generate 1,2-C6H4 (ortho-C6H4) on Cu(100). The reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) confirms the vertical adsorption geometry of 1,2-C6H4 on Cu(100), which agrees with that predicted theoretically. H2 evolving between 620 K and 870 K is the only reaction product detected from the 1,2-C6H4 decomposition in temperature-programmed reaction/desorption (TPR/D). Our calculations indicate that the 1,2-C6H4 primarily undergoes C3-H bond scission, forming 1,2,3-C6H3, with distorted C6 ring, and H atom on the surface without ring rupture (C1-C2 bond dissociation) prior to H loss. Furthermore, isomerization of the 1,2-C6H4, if it does occur, may proceed via dehydrogenation-hydrogenation, instead of H-shift.

  14. Absolute Stereochemistry of 1,2-Diols from Lipids of Thermomicrobia.

    PubMed

    Lagutin, Kirill; Wong, Herbert; Vyssotski, Mikhail; MacKenzie, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    1,2-Diol based phospholipids are a well-known feature of bacteria from the class Thermomicrobia. Since these bacteria contain only lipids with an alkyldiol-1-phosphate backbone instead of sn-glycero-3-phosphate, it is important to elucidate the stereochemistry of the 1,2-diols. We have studied the absolute stereochemistry of long-chain 1,2-diols isolated from Thermorudis pharmacophila (formerly known as Thermomicrobia sp. WKT50.2) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using α-methoxyphenylacetic acid (MPA). Low-temperature (-60 °C) NMR of bis-(R)-MPA ester showed (R) stereochemistry of the 1,2-diols. This is the first report concerning the stereochemistry of natural 1,2-diols, which replace the glyceride moiety in phospholipids. The (R) stereochemistry of the diols is expected as it is the same configuration as for the common bacterial lipid backbone-sn-glycero-3-phosphate. This is the first application of low-temperature NMR of a single MPA derivative for assignment of stereochemistry of natural 1,2-diols. The results were confirmed by the comparison of NMR data with bis-(R)-MPA ester of (R) and rac-1,2-octanediol.

  15. Foxp1/2/4 regulate endochondral ossification as a suppresser complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haixia; Zhou, Wenrong; Yao, Zhengju; Wan, Yong; Cao, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Zhao, Jianzhi; Li, Hanjun; Zhou, Rujiang; Li, Baojie; Wei, Gang; Zhang, Zhenlin; French, Catherine A.; Dekker, Joseph D.; Yang, Yingzi; Fisher, Simon E.; lucker, Haley O.; Guo, Xizhi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoblast induction and differentiation in developing long bones is dynamically controlled by the opposing action of transcriptional activators and repressors. In contrast to the long list of activators that have been discovered over past decades, the network of repressors is not well-defined. Here we identify the expression of Foxp1/2/4 proteins, comprised of Forkhead-box (Fox) transcription factors of the Foxp subfamily, in both perichondrial skeletal progenitors and proliferating chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Mice carrying loss-of-function and gain-of-function Foxp mutations had gross defects in appendicular skeleton formation. At the cellular level, over-expression of Foxp1/2/4 in chondroctyes abrogated osteoblast formation and chondrocyte hypertrophy. Conversely, single or compound deficiency of Foxp1/2/4 in skeletal progenitors or chondrocytes resulted in premature osteoblast differentiation in the perichondrium, coupled with impaired proliferation, survival, and hypertrophy of chondrocytes in the growth plate. Foxp1/2/4 and Runx2 proteins interacted in vitro and in vivo, and Foxp1/2/4 repressed Runx2 transactivation function in heterologous cells. This study establishes Foxp1/2/4 proteins as coordinators of osteogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing long bones and suggests that a novel transcriptional repressor network involving Foxp1/2/4 may regulate Runx2 during endochondral ossification. PMID:25527076

  16. ERK1/2-mediated Schwann cell proliferation in the regenerating sciatic nerve by treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Seo, Tae Beom; Oh, Myung-Jin; You, Byoung-Gun; Kwon, Ku-Birm; Chang, In-Ae; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Yong; Namgung, Uk

    2009-10-01

    Proliferation of Schwann cells in the injured peripheral nerve supports axonal regeneration, and physical training in experimental animals has been shown to promote nerve regeneration. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity can mediate neuronal responses to lesion signals, but its role in non-neuronal cells in the injured area is largely unknown. Here we report that treadmill training (TMT) facilitates axonal regeneration via the upregulation of phospho-ERK1/2 protein levels in Schwann cells in the injured sciatic nerve. Low-intensity, but not high-intensity, TMT increased neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons and potentiated Schwann cell proliferation. TMT elevated levels of GAP-43 mRNA and protein, and phospho-ERK1/2 protein in the injured sciatic nerves. TMT also enhanced phospho-c-Jun protein levels in the injured nerve. In-vivo administration of the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 eliminated phospho-c-Jun, suggesting ERK1/2 phosphorylation of the c-Jun protein. PD98059 treatment decreased levels of BrdU-labeled proliferating Schwann cells in the distal portion of the injured nerve, and delayed the axonal regrowth that was promoted by TMT. The present data suggest that increased ERK1/2 activity in Schwann cells may play an important role in TMT-mediated enhancement of axonal regeneration in the injured peripheral nerve.

  17. Exposure to 1,2-Propanediol Impacts Early Development of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Induces Hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Massarsky, Andrey; Abdel, Ayham; Glazer, Lilah; Levin, Edward D; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2017-03-07

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing as an alternative to tobacco burning cigarettes; however, their safety remains to be fully determined. The long-term effects of e-cigarettes are unknown, including the effects of maternal e-cigarette use on pre- and postnatal development. Additional research on the safety of e-cigarettes is needed. Especially useful would be information from high- and moderate-throughput economic model systems. This study investigates the effects of 1,2-propanediol, which was identified as the main component of e-cigarette liquid, on early development of zebrafish (an in vivo high-throughput model system that was recently proposed for the study of tobacco cigarette and e-cigarette toxicity). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1.25% or 2.5% 1,2-propanediol from 6 to 72 h post-fertilization (hpf). We show that exposure to 1,2-propanediol did not significantly affect mortality. Hatching success was significantly lower in 2.5% 1,2-propanediol-exposed embryos at 48 hpf, but at 72 hpf no significant differences were noted. Moreover, exposure to 1,2-propanediol reduced growth and increased the incidence of string heart, pericardial edema, and yolk sac edema. Most importantly, developmental exposure to 1.25% 1,2-propanediol caused hyperactive swimming behavior in larvae. This study demonstrates that 1,2-propanediol has adverse impacts on early development in zebrafish.

  18. Infrared Spectra of the 10-μm Bands of 1,2-Difluoroethane and 1,1,2-Trifluoroethane: Vibrationally Mediated Torsional Tunneling in 1,1,2-Trifluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Stephen C.; Miller, C. Cameron; Philips, Laura A.; Andrews, A. M.; Fraser, G. T.; Pate, B. H.; Xu, Li-Hong

    1995-12-01

    The 3-MHz-resolution infrared spectra of the 10-μm bands of thegaucheconformer of 1,2-difluoroethane (HFC152) and theC1-symmetry conformer of 1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HFC143) have been measured using a molecular-beam electric-resonance optothermal spectrometer with a tunable microwave-sideband CO2laser source. For 1,2-difluoroethane, two bands have been studied, the ν17B-symmetry C-F stretch at 1077.3 cm-1and the ν13B-symmetry CH2rock at 896.6 cm-1. Both bands are well fit to a asymmetric-rotor Hamiltonian to better than 0.5 MHz. The ν13band is effectively unperturbed, while the ν17band is weakly perturbed, as shown by the large change in centrifugal distortion constants from the ground state values. Two bands have also been studied for 1,1,2-trifluoroethane, the ν11symmetric CF2stretch at 1077.2 cm-1and the ν13C-C stretch at 905.1 cm-1. One of the two bands, ν11, is unperturbed and fit to near the experimental precision. The ν13vibration, on the other hand, is weakly perturbed by an interaction with a nearby state. This perturbation leads to a doubling or splitting of the lines, due to a perturbation-induced lifting of the degeneracy of the symmetric and antisymmetric tunneling states associated with tunneling between the two equivalentC1forms. For theJ,Kastates studied, the splittings are as large as 37 MHz. Combining this observation with published low-resolution far-infrared measurements of torsional sequence-band and hot-band frequencies and calculations from an empirical torsional potential allows us to identify the perturbing state as ν17+ 6ν18. Here, ν17is the CF2twist and ν18is the torsion. The matrix element responsible for this interaction exchanges eight vibrational quanta!

  19. Local structural distortion and electrical transport properties of Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinlong; Yang, Liuxiang; Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Wenge; Hong, Xinguo; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite-structure materials generally exhibit local structural distortions that are distinct from long-range, average crystal structure. The characterization of such distortion is critical to understanding the structural and physical properties of materials. In this work, we combined Pair Distribution Function (PDF) technique with Raman spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurement to study Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure. PDF analysis reveals strong local structural distortion at ambient conditions. As pressure increases, the local structure distortions are substantially suppressed and eventually vanish around 4 GPa, leading to concurrent changes in the electronic band structure and anomalies in the electrical resistivity. Consistent with PDF analysis, Raman spectroscopy data suggest that the local structure changes to a higher ordered state at pressures above 4 GPa. PMID:26671171

  20. KKN molecule state with I=1/2 and J{sup P}=1/2{sup +} studied with a three-body calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Jido, Daisuke; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2008-09-15

    A KKN system with I=1/2 and J{sup P}=1/2{sup +} is investigated with nonrelativistic three-body calculations by using effective KN,KK, and KN interactions. The KN interaction describes the {lambda}(1405) as a KN molecule, and the KK interaction is adjusted to give f{sub 0}(980) and a{sub 0}(980) states as KK molecules. The present investigation suggests that a bound KKN state can be formed below the KKN threshold (1930 MeV) with a 90{approx}100 MeV width of three-hadron decays, which are dominated by KKN{yields}K{pi}{sigma} and {pi}{eta}N. The KKN state is found to be a weakly bound hadron molecular state with a size larger than an {alpha} particle because of the repulsive KN interactions.

  1. Energy storage property in lead free gd doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zannen, Moneim; Lahmar, Abdelilah; Khemakhem, Hamadi; El Marssi, Mimoun

    2016-11-01

    The Effect of Gadolinium ion incorporation on structure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) ceramic was investigated. X-ray diffraction allowed the identification of a pure phase isostructural to NBT. Dielectric measurements showed more pronounced anomalies in the range of depolarization temperature when Gd was added. Antiferroelectric-like behavior with a double pinched hysteresis loop was observed versus temperature in the doped phase. The energy-storage density (W) was calculated using the P-E loops data and was found to vary from 0.45 J cm-3 at room temperature to 0.85 J cm-3 at 413 K, which is promising for energy storage application.

  2. Diastereoselective Synthesis of (+/-)-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-propanediol. A Discovery-Based Grignard Reaction Suitable for a Large Organic Lab Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaccio, James A.; Bravo, Roxana P.; Drahus, Antoinette L.; Biggins, John B.; Concepcion, Rosalyn V.; Cabrera, David

    2001-04-01

    We have developed an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment that probes the diastereoselectivity of the reaction between a Grignard reagent and a common, inexpensive a-chiral ketone. Students isolate a single diastereomer of (+/-)-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-propanediol by treatment of (+/-)-benzoin with MeMgI. Since the mp ranges of the two possible diol diastereomers differ by 10 °C, the reaction's diastereoselectivity can be established by mp determination alone, and it can be rationalized by the preferential addition of MeMgI to the least sterically hindered face of the carbonyl group in a rigid, five-membered cyclic intermediate (the "Cram chelate model"). This experiment is an interesting alternative to traditional Grignard experiments, is operationally straightforward and easily performed in large lab courses, and introduces students to p-facial discrimination by having them establish the stereochemical course of kinetically controlled nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl.

  3. Conglomerate formative precursor of chiral drug timolol: 3-(4-Morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yloxy)-propane-1,2-diol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredikhin, Alexander A.; Zakharychev, Dmitry V.; Fayzullin, Robert R.; Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.

    2015-05-01

    Solid state properties of 3-(4-N-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yloxy)-propane-1,2-diol 3, the synthetic precursor of popular drug timolol, have been investigated. The original solubility test, the data of X-ray diffraction and DSC methods indicate that the compound is prone to spontaneous resolution. Diol 3 crystallizing from both enantiopure or racemic feed material forms "guaifenesin-like" crystal packing in which the classic H-bonded bilayers, framed in both sides by hydrophobic molecular fragments, act as the basic supramolecular motif. The main chain conformation of the molecules in the crystals of diol 3 differs from that in the guaifenesin crystals, and this fact changes the absolute configuration of spiral columns formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonds in crystals of 3 as compared with guaifenesin crystals.

  4. Local structural distortion and electrical transport properties of Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Jinlong; Yang, Liuxiang; Wang, Hsiu -Wen; ...

    2015-12-16

    Perovskite-structure materials generally exhibit local structural distortions that are distinct from long-range, average crystal structure. The characterization of such distortion is critical to understanding the structural and physical properties of materials. In this work, we combined Pair Distribution Function (PDF) technique with Raman spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurement to study Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure. PDF analysis reveals strong local structural distortion at ambient conditions. As pressure increases, the local structure distortions are substantially suppressed and eventually vanish around 4 GPa, leading to concurrent changes in the electronic band structure and anomalies in the electrical resistivity. We find, consistent withmore » PDF analysis, Raman spectroscopy data suggest that the local structure changes to a higher ordered state at pressures above 4 GPa.« less

  5. Factor analysis of the WISC-R (Spanish version) at 11 age levels between 6 1/2 and 16 1/2 years.

    PubMed

    Gass, C S; Demsky, Y I; Martin, P C

    1998-01-01

    The Spanish version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R, Wechsler, 1974)-the Escala de Inteligencia para Niños-Revision (EIWN-R, Wechsler, 1982)-has a potentially important role in the assessment of Hispanic children. However, little is known regarding its psychometric characteristics. This study used the normative data from the EIWN-R standardization sample (N = 532 Cuban Americans) to examine its factorial composition and general comparability with the WISC-R. Within each of the 11 age groups (ages 6 1/2 to 16 1/2), the correlation matrix of raw scores was subjected to a principal components analysis and varimax rotation. The results supported a 2-factor solution across age groups roughly corresponding with Wechsler's verbal and performance dimensions. The existence of a meaningful third factor, which has empirical support in the WISC-R literature, failed to emerge for the EIWN-R.

  6. Hexaaqua­cobalt(II) 4,4′-(1,2-dihy­droxy­ethane-1,2-di­yl)dibenzoate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ping; Ma, Dan; Chen, Zhan-qing

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(H2O)6](C16H12O6)·H2O, is composed of one 4,4′-(1,2-dihy­droxy­ethane-1,2-di­yl)dibenzoate anion lying on an inversion center, one [Co(H2O)6]2+ dicationic complex and a solvent water mol­ecule located on mirror planes. In the crystal, a chain is constructed via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the carboxyl­ate and hydroxyl groups of the organic anion; the chains are further connected into a three-dimensional framework by additional O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the [Co(H2O)6]2+ cations, solvent water mol­ecules and the anions. PMID:21587455

  7. Design and synthesis of new imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine and imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives with antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Garamvölgyi, Rita; Dobos, Judit; Sipos, Anna; Boros, Sándor; Illyés, Eszter; Baska, Ferenc; Kékesi, László; Szabadkai, István; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Kéri, György; Őrfi, László

    2016-01-27

    Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer and it is generally associated with poor prognosis in patients with late-stage disease. Due to the increasing occurrence of melanoma, there is a need for the development of novel therapies. A new series of diarylamide and diarylurea derivatives containing imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine or imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine scaffold was designed and synthesized to investigate their in vitro efficacy against the A375P human melanoma cell line. We found several compounds expressing submicromolar IC50 values against the A375P cells, from which 15d, 17e, 18c, 18h, 18i demonstrated the highest potencies with IC50 below 0.06 μM.

  8. Click approach to the discovery of 1,2,3-triazolylsalicylamides as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Doohee; Park, Yunjeong; Yoon, Jieun; Aman, Waqar; Hah, Jung-Mi; Ryu, Jae-Sang

    2014-09-01

    A series of 1,2,3-triazolylsalicylamide derivatives has been developed from the antiproliferative agent 7 and was evaluated for their Aurora kinase inhibitory activity. The novel 1,2,3-triazolylsalicylamide scaffold could be readily assembled by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, allowing rapid access to the structurally diverse analogues. The synthesized 1,2,3-triazolylsalicylamide derivatives revealed a significant Aurora kinase inhibitory activity. In particular, 8g inhibited Aurora A with IC50 values of 0.37μM. The critical role of phenolic -OH in the binding was confirmed by a molecular modeling study.

  9. On the origin of the gauche effect. A quantum chemical study of 1,2-difluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engkvist, O.; Karlström, G.; Widmark, P.-O.

    1997-01-01

    The conformational equilibrium of 1,2-difluoroethane has been investigated using ab initio quantum chemical calculations at the SCF, MP2 and CCSD(T) levels, with ANO basis sets. The relative stability of the gauche-conformation of 1,2-difluoroethane is found to be a consequence of the nodal structure of the singly occupied orbital in the CFH 2 radical. It is also shown that the nodal structure of the singly occupied orbitals in the CFH biradical can explain the stability of the cis conformation of 1,2-difluoroethene.

  10. Design and synthesis of 1,2-dithiolane derivatives and evaluation of their neuroprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Koufaki, Maria; Kiziridi, Christina; Nikoloudaki, Faidra; Alexis, Michael N

    2007-08-01

    We designed and synthesized new analogues containing 1,2-dithiolane-3-alkyl and protected or free catechol moieties connected through heteroaromatic rings such as triazole, 1,2,4-oxadiazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, tetrazole or thiazole in order to explore the influence of the bioisosteric replacement of the amide group on the neuroprotective activity of the lipoic acid/dopamine conjugate. Evaluation of the activity of the new compounds, using glutamate-challenged hippocampal HT22 cells, showed that incorporation of heteroaromatic rings in the alkyl-1,2-dithiolane moieties in conjunction with another antioxidant, in this case catechol, may result in strong neuroprotective activity.

  11. 1-(2-Thienyl)-2-phenylethylamines as potential non-stimulant anorectics.

    PubMed

    Mrongovius, R I; Ghosh, P; Bolt, A G; Ternai, B

    1981-01-01

    A series of 1-(2-thienyl)-2-phenylethylamines was synthesized and tested for anorectic and motor activity effects in rats. Phenyl ring substituents included Cl, Br, F, CF3, CH3, OCH3, and NO2; amino group substituents included alkyl, benzyl and acetyl groups. About half of the compounds produced significant anorexia; only one of these active anorectics increased motor activity. The three most potent non-stimulant anorectics were: 1-(2-thienyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylamine, its N-isopropyl analogue, and N-isopropyl-1-(2-thienyl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethylamine.

  12. Violation of local realism by a system with N spin-(1/2) particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiao-Hua; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2003-09-01

    Recently, it was found that Mermin's inequalities may not always be optimal for the refutation of a local realistic description [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 210402 (2002)]. To complete this work, we derive an inequality for the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type pure state for a system with N spin-(1/2) particles and the violation of the inequality can be shown for all the non product pure states. Mermin's inequality for a system of N spin-(1/2) particles and Gisin's theorem for a system of two spin-(1/2) particles are both included in our inequality.

  13. Erk1/2 inhibit synaptic vesicle exocytosis through L type calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Jaichandar; Morozov, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    L type calcium channels play only a minor role in basal neurotransmitter release in brain neurons, but contribute significantly after induction of plasticity. Very little is known about mechanisms that enable L type calcium channel participation in neurotransmitter release. Here, using mouse primary cortical neurons, we found that inhibition of Erk1/2 enhanced synaptic vesicle exocytosis by increasing calcium influx through L type calcium channels. Furthermore, inhibition of Erk1/2 increased the surface fraction of these channels. These findings indicate a novel inhibitory effect of Erk1/2 on synaptic transmission through L type calcium channels. PMID:21430174

  14. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Wang, G.

    2000-03-21

    This application describes a process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  15. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones: Discovery of dicloromezotiaz as a lepidoptera insecticide acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors(1,2).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenming; Holyoke, Caleb W; Barry, James; Cordova, Daniel; Leighty, Robert M; Tong, My-Hanh T; Hughes, Kenneth A; Lahm, George P; Pahutski, Thomas F; Xu, Ming; Briddell, Twyla A; McCann, Stephen F; Henry, Yewande T; Chen, Yuzhong

    2017-02-15

    A novel class of mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones has been discovered with exceptional insecticidal activity controlling a number of insect species. In this communication, we report the part of the optimization program that led to the identification of dicloromezotiaz as a potent insecticide to control a broad range of lepidoptera. Our efforts in discovery, synthesis, structure-activity relationship elucidation, and biological activity evaluation are also presented.

  16. Magnetoelectric effect in antiferromagnetic multiferroic Pb (F e1 /2N b1 /2)O3 and its solid solutions with PbTi O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguta, V. V.; Stephanovich, V. A.; Raevski, I. P.; Raevskaya, S. I.; Titov, V. V.; Smotrakov, V. G.; Eremkin, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Antiferromagnets (AFMs) are presently considered as promising materials for applications in spintronics and random access memories due to the robustness of information stored in the AFM state against perturbing magnetic fields. In this respect, AFM multiferroics may be attractive alternatives for conventional AFMs as the coupling of magnetism with ferroelectricity (magnetoelectric effect) offers an elegant possibility of electric-field control and switching of AFM domains. Here we report the results of comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigations of the quadratic magnetoelectric (ME) effect in single crystals and highly resistive ceramics of Pb (F e1 /2N b1 /2)O3 (PFN) and (1 -x ) Pb (F e1 /2N b1 /2) O3-x PbTi O3(PFN -x PT ) . We are interested primarily in the temperature range of the multiferroic phase, T <150 K , where the ME coupling coefficient is extremely large (as compared to the well-known multiferroic BiFe O3 ) and shows sign reversal at the paramagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic phase transition. Moreover, we observe strong ME response nonlinearity in the AFM phase in the magnetic fields of only a few kOe. To describe the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the above unusual features of the ME effect in PFN and PFN-x PT , we use a simple phenomenological Landau approach which explains experimental data surprisingly well. Our ME measurements demonstrate that the electric field of only 20-25 kV/cm is able to switch the AFM domains and align them with ferroelectric ones even in PFN ceramic samples.

  17. Anti-adipogenic effect of epiberberine is mediated by regulation of the Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 and AMPKα/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Ji-Hye; Ali, Md Yousof; Jung, Hee Jin; Min, Byung-Sun; Choi, Ran Joo; Kim, Gun-Do; Jung, Hyun Ah

    2015-12-01

    It has been reported that alkaloids derived from Coptis chinensis exert anti-adipogenic activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by downregulating peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α). However, the signaling-based mechanism of the inhibitory role of epiberberine in the early stages of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation is uncharacterized. Here, we show that epiberberine had inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation and significantly decreased lipid accumulation by downregulating an adipocyte-specific transcription factor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Furthermore, we observed that epiberberine markedly suppressed the differentiation-mediated phosphorylation of components of both the Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MEK1)/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AMP-activated protein kinase-α1 (AMPKα)/Akt pathways. In addition, gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) was significantly inhibited by treatment with epiberberine during adipogenesis. These results indicate that the anti-adipogenic mechanism of epiberberine is associated with inhibition of phosphorylation of Raf/MEK1/ERK1/2 and AMPKα/Akt, followed by downregulation of the major transcription factors of adipogenesis, such as PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and SREBP-1, and FAS. Taken together, this study suggests that the anti-adipogenic effect of epiberberine is mediated by downregulation of the Raf/MEK1/ERK1/2 and AMPKα/Akt pathways during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, the anti-adipogenic effects of epiberberine were not accompanied by modulation of β-catenin.

  18. Tsg101 Interacts with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 VP1/2 and Is a Substrate of VP1/2 Ubiquitin-Specific Protease Domain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Caduco, Martina; Comin, Alessandra; Toffoletto, Marta; Munegato, Denis; Sartori, Elena; Celestino, Michele; Salata, Cristiano; Parolin, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitination/deubiquitination of key factors represent crucial steps in the biogenesis of multivesicular body (MVB) and sorting of transmembrane proteins. We and others previously demonstrated that MVB is involved in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) envelopment and budding. Here, we report that the HSV-1 large tegument protein, VP1/2, interacts with and regulates the ubiquitination of Tsg101, a cellular protein essential in MVB formation, thus identifying the first cellular substrate of a herpesviral deubiquitinating enzyme. PMID:23077308

  19. E7449: A dual inhibitor of PARP1/2 and tankyrase1/2 inhibits growth of DNA repair deficient tumors and antagonizes Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiayi; Chang, Paul; Kolber-Simonds, Donna; Ackermann, Karen; Twine, Natalie C.; Shie, Jue-Lon; Miu, Jingzang Tao; Huang, Kuan-Chun; Moniz, George A.; Nomoto, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase1 (PARP1) impairs DNA damage repair, and early generation PARP1/2 inhibitors (olaparib, niraparib, etc.) have demonstrated clinical proof of concept for cancer treatment. Here, we describe the development of the novel PARP inhibitor E7449, a potent PARP1/2 inhibitor that also inhibits PARP5a/5b, otherwise known as tankyrase1 and 2 (TNKS1 and 2), important regulators of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. E7449 inhibits PARP enzymatic activity and additionally traps PARP1 onto damaged DNA; a mechanism previously shown to augment cytotoxicity. Cells deficient in DNA repair pathways beyond homologous recombination were sensitive to E7449 treatment. Chemotherapy was potentiated by E7449 and single agent had significant antitumor activity in BRCA-deficient xenografts. Additionally, E7449 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon cancer cell lines, likely through TNKS inhibition. Consistent with this possibility, E7449 stabilized axin and TNKS proteins resulting in β-catenin de-stabilization and significantly altered expression of Wnt target genes. Notably, hair growth mediated by Wnt signaling was inhibited by E7449. A pharmacodynamic effect of E7449 on Wnt target genes was observed in tumors, although E7449 lacked single agent antitumor activity in vivo, a finding typical for selective TNKS inhibitors. E7449 antitumor activity was increased through combination with MEK inhibition. Particularly noteworthy was the lack of toxicity, most significantly the lack of intestinal toxicity reported for other TNKS inhibitors. E7449 represents a novel dual PARP1/2 and TNKS1/2 inhibitor which has the advantage of targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling addicted tumors. E7449 is currently in early clinical development. PMID:26513298

  20. The sphingolipid long-chain base-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway regulates eisosome assembly and turnover.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangzuo; Gruhler, Albrecht; Liu, Ying; Jensen, Ole N; Dickson, Robert C

    2008-04-18

    Eisosomes are recently described fungal structures that play roles in the organization of the plasma membrane and endocytosis. Their major protein components are Pil1 and Lsp1, and previous studies showed that these proteins are phosphorylated by the sphingolipid long-chain base-activated Pkh1 and Pkh2 protein kinases in vitro. We show that Pkh1 and Pkh2 phosphorylate Pil1 and Lsp1 in vivo to produce species B, and that heat stress, which activates Pkh1 and Pkh2, generates a more highly phosphorylated species, C. Cells with low Pkh activity lack species B and C and contain abnormally organized eisosomes. To verify that Pil1 phosphorylation is essential for correct eisosome organization, phosphorylated serine and threonine residues were identified and changed to alanines. A variant Pil1 protein lacking five phosphorylation sites did not form eisosomes during log phase growth, indicating that phosphorylation is critical for eisosome organization. We also found that eisosomes are dynamic structures and disassemble when the Ypk protein kinases, which are activated by the sphingolipid-Pkh signaling pathway, are inactivated or when the sphingolipid signal is pharmacologically blocked with myriocin. We conclude that eisosome formation and turnover are regulated by the sphingolipid-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway. These data and previous data showing that endocytosis is regulated by the sphingolipid-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway suggest that Pkh1 and -2 respond to changes in membrane sphingolipids and transmit this information to eisosomes via Pil1 phosphorylation. Eisosomes then control endocytosis to align the composition and function of the plasma membrane to match demand.

  1. Synthesis optimisation and characterisation of the organic-inorganic layered materials ZnS(m-xylylenediamine)1/2 and ZnS(p-xylylenediamine)1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luberda-Durnaś, K.; Guillén, A. González; Łasocha, W.

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic layered materials of the type ZnS(amine)1/2, where amine=m-xylylenediamine (MXDA) or p-xylylenediamine (PXDA), were synthesised using a simple solvothermal method. Since the samples crystallised in the form of very fine powder, X-ray powder diffraction techniques were used for structural characterisation. The crystal structure studies, involving direct methods, show that both compounds crystallised in the orthorhombic crystal system, but in different space groups: ZnS(MXDA)1/2 in non-centrosymmetric Ccm21, ZnS(PXDA)1/2 in centrosymmetric Pcab. The obtained materials are built according to similar orders: semiconducting monolayers with the formula ZnS, parallel to the (010) plane, are separated by diamines. The organic and inorganic fragments are connected by covalent bonds between metal atoms of the layers and nitrogen atoms of the amino groups. The optical properties of the hybrid materials differ from those of their bulk counterpart. In both compounds a blue-shift of about 0.8 or 0.9 eV was observed with reference to the bulk phase of ZnS.

  2. Cytotoxicity and bioactivation mechanism of benzyl 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl sulfide and benzyl 1,2,3,4,4-pentachlorobuta-1,3-dienyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Veltman, J.C.; Dekant, W.; Guengerich, F.P.; Anders, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolism and cytotoxicity of benzyl 1,2,3,4,4-pentachlorobuta-1,3-dienyl sulfide (1) and benzyl 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl sulfide (2) were studied as an alternative test of the hypothesis that the toxicity of the cysteine S-conjugates S-(pentachlorobutadienyl)-L-cysteine and S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine is associated with their metabolism to unstable thiols; the expectation was that the benzyl sulfides 1 and 2 would undergo cytochrome P-450 dependent benzylic hydroxylation and that the intermediate hemimercaptals would eliminate unstable, cytotoxic thiols. This expectation was realized: 1 and 2 were cytotoxic in isolated rat hepatocytes. The cytotoxicity of 1 was greater in hepatocytes from phenobarbital-treated rats compared with control rats and in male then in female rats and was inhibited by carbon monoxide and 2-(N,N-diethylamino)ethyl 2,2-diphenylvalerate HCl (SKF 525-A). Benzyl sulfides 1 and 2 were metabolized to benzaldehyde by rat hepatic microsomal fractions and by a purified, reconstituted cytochrome P-450/sub PB-B/ system. Benzaldehyde was not cytotoxic. These results provide support for the hypothesis that benzyl sulfides 1 and 2 and the corresponding cysteine S-conjugates yield unstable thiols, which may give rise to acylating agents or to stable, but toxic, terminal products that are responsible for the cytotoxic effects of benzyl sulfides and cysteine S-conjugates.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Cis-& Trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  4. The influence of oxygen on the surface chemistry of 1,2-propanediol on Pd(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Rhea M.; Medlin, J. Will

    2014-01-01

    The surface chemistry of 1,2-propanediol (PDO) has been studied on oxygen precovered Pd(111) using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Adsorbed 1,2-propanedioxy (-OCH(CH3)CH2O-) forms from the activation of the O-H bonds. When the concentration of O(a) is large compared to 1,2-propanedioxy, no H2 is produced and the dialkoxide reacts to form H2O, CO through decarbonylation, and CO2 through decarboxylation. Unreacted oxygen also desorbs as O2 at high temperature. Conversely, when the concentration of O(a) is small relative to 1,2-propanedioxy, the dialkoxide reacts to form decomposition products (H2, CO), oxidation products (H2O, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, formaldehyde) and deoxygenation products (ethylene, propylene). Co-adsorbed oxygen increases the overall coverage of PDO that can undergo decomposition, which in turn strongly influences decomposition activation barriers and products.

  5. Novel fermentation: the production of R(-)-1,2-propanediol and acetol by Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.C.; Cooney, C.L.

    1986-07-01

    Three strains of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum were found that produce R(-)-1,2-propanediol from a variety of sugars, including D-glucose and D-xylose. The fermentation of glucose by strain HG-8 (ATCC 31960) gave 7.9 g/l of R(-)-1,2-propanediol with a best yield of 0.27 g/g glucose and an enantiomeric excess of greater than 99%. Acetol accumulated to 1.47 g/l. Product formation was not affected by phosphate concentrations up to 113 mM. A possible pathway to these products involves a variation of the methylglyoxal bypass. Methylglyoxal is reduced to acetol, which is further reduced to %(-)-1,2-propanediol. This fermentation provides a unique route to R(-)-1,2-propanediol and acetol from inexpensive, readily available substrates.

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  7. A highly selective, organocatalytic route to chiral dihydro-1,2-oxazines.

    PubMed

    Kumarn, Sirirat; Shaw, David M; Longbottom, Deborah A; Ley, Steven V

    2005-09-15

    [reaction: see text] The organocatalyzed asymmetric synthesis of chiral dihydro-1,2-oxazines from achiral starting materials proceeds in moderate to excellent yields and excellent enantioselectivity. This sequential reaction gives the desired products in a single pot.

  8. Neutron/gamma coupled library generation and gamma transport calculation with KARMA 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, S. G.; Kim, K. S.; Cho, J. Y.; Lee, K. H.

    2012-07-01

    KAERI has developed a lattice transport calculation code KARMA and its multi-group cross section library generation system. Recently, the multi-group cross section library generation system has included a gamma cross section generation capability and KARMA also has been improved to include a gamma transport calculation module. This paper addresses the multi-group gamma cross section generation capability for the KARMA 1.2 code and the preliminary test results of the KARMA 1.2 gamma transport calculations. The gamma transport calculation with KARMA 1.2 gives the gamma flux, gamma smeared power, and gamma energy deposition distributions. The results of the KARMA gamma calculations were compared with those of HELIOS and they showed that KARMA 1.2 gives reasonable gamma transport calculation results. (authors)

  9. Microwave spectroscopic observation of a Wigner solid within the ν =1 /2 fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatke, A. T.; Liu, Yang; Engel, L. W.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the microwave spectra of a wide quantum well for Landau level fillings, ν , just below 1/2, under conditions where the ν =1 /2 fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is present. One resonance in the spectra exhibits intensity variations with ν in striking agreement with that expected for a pinning mode of a Wigner solid of quasiholes of this FQHE state. This resonance is also quite sensitive to asymmetrization of the growth-direction charge distribution in the quantum well by gate bias. Another resonance in the spectra is associated with a different bilayer Wigner solid that also exists at much lower ν than the 1/2 FQHE, and that appears to coexist with the 1/2 quasihole solid.

  10. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  11. Microwave Spectrum and Molecular Structure of the ARGON-CIS-1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Mark D.; Leung, Helen O.; Nelson, Craig J.; Yoon, Leonard H.

    2016-06-01

    The non-planar molecular structure of the complex formed between the argon atom and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene is determined via analysis of its microwave spectrum. Spectra of the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopologues are observed in natural abundance and the nuclear quadrupole splitting due to the two chlorine nuclei is fully resolved. In addition, the complete quadrupole coupling tensor for the cis-1,2-dichloroethylene molecule, including the single non-zero off-diagonal element, has been determined. Unlike the argon-cis-1,2-difluoroethylene and the argon-vinyl chloride complexes, tunneling between the two equivalent non-planar configurations of argon-cis-1,2-dichloroethylene is not observed.

  12. Fused 1,2,3-Dithiazoles: Convenient Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Lidia S; Baranovsky, Ilia V; Irtegova, Irina G; Bagryanskaya, Irina Y; Shundrin, Leonid A; Zibarev, Andrey V; Rakitin, Oleg A

    2016-05-06

    A new general protocol for synthesis of fused 1,2,3-dithiazoles by the reaction of cyclic oximes with S₂Cl₂ and pyridine in acetonitrile has been developed. The target 1,2,3-dithiazoles fused with various carbocycles, such as indene, naphthalenone, cyclohexadienone, cyclopentadiene, and benzoannulene, were selectively obtained in low to high yields. In most cases, the hetero ring-closure was accompanied by chlorination of the carbocyclic moieties. With naphthalenone derivatives, a novel dithiazole rearrangement (15→13) featuring unexpected movement of the dithiazole ring from α- to β-position, with respect to keto group, was discovered. Molecular structure of 4-chloro-5H-naphtho[1,2-d][1,2,3]dithiazol-5-one 13 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical properties of 13 were studied by cyclic voltammetry and a complex behavior was observed, most likely including hydrodechlorination at a low potential.

  13. Federal Register notice: Testing Requirement; Final Test Standards and Reporting Requirements; 1,2-Dichloropropane

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final rule under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that requires manufacturers and processors of 1,2-dichioropropane (DCP: CAS Number 78—87—5) to conduct tests.

  14. Mi-1.2 Transcripts Accumulate Ubiquitously in Resistant Lycopersicon esculentum

    PubMed Central

    de Ilarduya, Oscar Martinez; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2001-01-01

    The tomato Mi-1.2 gene confers resistance against both root-knot nematodes and the potato aphid. Plants are resistant to nematodes early in root development. However, plants as old as 4 weeks are susceptible to aphid infestation. We monitored Mi-1.2 expression at the transcriptional level in resistant (Mi/Mi) and susceptible (mi/mi) tomato cultivars by means of RT-PCR. Mi-1.2 transcripts accumulated in seeds, roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and green fruits of uninfected 10-week-old resistant plants but were not expressed in the same organs from similar-age susceptible plants. Mi-1.2 RNAs in roots and leaves can be detected very early in development, and levels of transcripts do not change after either root-knot nematode or aphid attack. PMID:19266006

  15. Mass Spectra of Some Perfluoroalkyl and Perfluoroalkylether Substituted 1,2,4-Oxadiazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, Kazimiera J. L.; Nakahara, James H.; Kratzer, Reinhold H.; Rosser, Robert W.

    1977-01-01

    Electron impact fragmentation patterns were obtained for 1,4-bis[(5-perfluoro-n-heptyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazolyl- benzene, its perfluoroalkylether substituted analogue, 3,5-bis(perfluoroalkyl)-, 3,5-bis(perfluoroalkylether)- and 3-perfluoroalkylether-5-perfluoroalkyl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles. In the compounds containing the phenylene group the molecular ion constituted the base peak; the main process was the breakdown of the oxadiazole ring with concurrent liberation of the perfluoroalkyl or perfluoroalkylether nitrile molecule; cleavage of the fluorinated chain ot to the oxadiazole ring was found to take place to a considerable degree. In the perfluorinated 1,2,4-oxadiazoles cleavage beta to the oxadiazole ring occurred preferentially; fragmentation of the ring itself took place to a limited degree only. The 3-perfluoroalkylether-5-perfluoroalkyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole appeared to undergo the primary beta-cleavage exclusively at the perfluoroalkylether sidechain.

  16. Respiration of Microbiota-Derived 1,2-propanediol Drives Salmonella Expansion during Colitis.

    PubMed

    Faber, Franziska; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Spiga, Luisella; Byndloss, Mariana X; Litvak, Yael; Lawhon, Sara; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine. 1,2-propanediol-utilization did not confer a benefit in germ-free mice, but the pdu genes conferred a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium in mice mono-associated with Bacteroides fragilis or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Collectively, our data suggest that intestinal inflammation enables S. Typhimurium to sidestep nutritional competition by respiring a microbiota-derived fermentation product.

  17. Respiration of Microbiota-Derived 1,2-propanediol Drives Salmonella Expansion during Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Franziska; Spiga, Luisella; Byndloss, Mariana X.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; Winter, Sebastian E.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine. 1,2-propanediol-utilization did not confer a benefit in germ-free mice, but the pdu genes conferred a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium in mice mono-associated with Bacteroides fragilis or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Collectively, our data suggest that intestinal inflammation enables S. Typhimurium to sidestep nutritional competition by respiring a microbiota-derived fermentation product. PMID:28056091

  18. Morphological and Biochemical Effects of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine and 1-Methylhydrazine in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hawks, A.; Hicks, R. M.; Holsman, J. W.; Magee, P. N.

    1974-01-01

    Single toxic doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced mild centrilobular necrosis of the liver in rats and mice. Ultrastructural studies showed hepatic nuclear changes including nucleolar microsegregation and changes in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. 1-Methylhydrazine caused little morphological change in the liver. Tumours of the colon and kidney and also massive cystic hyperplasia of the liver were found in some of the rats and tumours of the anal margin and kidney in some of the mice, following single doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Incorporation of amino acids into rat liver proteins was inhibited by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, which also caused disaggregation of hepatic polysomes. No effects on hepatic protein synthesis by 1,1-dimethylhydrazine or 1-methylhydrazine were observed. Similarities between the effects of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, cycasin and dimethylnitrosamine are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4469195

  19. Dark soliton solutions of Klein-Gordon-Zakharov equation in (1+2) dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiray, Seyma Tuluce; Bulut, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    This study base on dark soliton solutions of Klein-Gordon-Zakharov (KGZ) equation in (1+2) dimensions. The generalized Kudryashov method (GKM) which is one of the analytical methods has been handled for finding exact solutions of KGZ equation in (1+2) dimensions. By using this method, dark soliton solutions of this equation have been obtained. Also, by using Mathematica Release 9, some graphical simulations were done to see the behavior of these solutions.

  20. Candida albicans-Derived β-1,2-Linked Mannooligosaccharides Induce Desensitization of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jouault, Thierry; Fradin, Chantal; Trinel, Pierre-André; Poulain, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Candida albicans β-1,2-oligomannosides stimulate macrophage tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but not NO release. This stimulation desensitized macrophages by altering β-1,2-oligomannoside-dependent TNF-α production and lipopolysaccharide-dependent TNF-α and NO secretion. Desensitization was not related to tyrosine phosphorylation signal transduction but was transferred by culture supernatants in which arachidonic acid derivatives were evidenced. PMID:10639473

  1. Magnetic phenomena at and near nu = 1 / 2 and 1 / 4: theory, experiment, and interpretation

    PubMed

    Shankar

    2000-04-24

    I show that the Hamiltonian theory of composite fermions is capable of yielding a unified description in fair agreement with recent experiments on polarization P and relaxation rate 1/T1 in quantum Hall states at filling nu = p/(2ps+1), at and near nu = 1 / 2 and 1 / 4 ( s = 1,2) at zero and nonzero temperatures. I show how rotational invariance and two dimensionality can make the underlying interacting theory behave like a free one in a limited context.

  2. Enhancing Natural Attenuation through Bioaugmentation with Aerobic Bacteria that Degrade cis-1,2-Dichloroethene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    cDCE cis-1,2-dichloroethene cfu colony forming units CMO cyclohexanone monooxygenase DCA 1,2-dichloroethane DNA deoxyribonucleic acid...of JS666) and (2) cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CMO) (based on the cyclohexanone monooxygenase gene of JS666). Additionally, a putative universal (UNI...molecular probes (one based on the isocitrate lyase gene and one based on the cyclohexanone monooygenase gene). In addition, JS666 activity and

  3. C-Glucopyranosyl-1,2,4-triazoles As New Potent Inhibitors of Glycogen Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors are considered as potential antidiabetic agents. 3-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl)-5-substituted-1,2,4-triazoles were prepared by acylation of O-perbenzoylated N1-tosyl-C-β-d-glucopyranosyl formamidrazone and subsequent removal of the protecting groups. The best inhibitor was 3-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)-1,2,4-triazole (Ki = 0.41 μM against rabbit muscle glycogen phosphorylase b). PMID:24900719

  4. High prevalence of preinvasive lesions adjacent to BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Arun, Banu; Vogel, Kristen J; Lopez, Adriana; Hernandez, Mike; Atchley, Deann; Broglio, Kristine R; Amos, Christopher I; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kuerer, Henry; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Albarracin, Constance T

    2009-02-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer by 43% to 84%. It was originally postulated that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers develop more rapidly than sporadic cancers and may lack preinvasive lesions. More recent studies have found preinvasive lesions in prophylactic mastectomy specimens from mutation carriers; however, there is little information on the presence of preinvasive lesions in tissue adjacent to breast cancers. Our aim is to investigate the role of preinvasive lesions in BRCA-associated breast carcinogenesis. We retrospectively compared BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers for the prevalence of preinvasive lesions [ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ, and atypical lobular hyperplasia] in tissue adjacent to invasive breast cancers. Pathology was reviewed for 73 BRCA1/2-associated tumors from patients with breast cancer. We selected 146 patients with mutation-negative breast cancer as age-matched controls. Among the BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers, 59% had at least one associated preinvasive lesion compared with 75% of controls. Preinvasive lesions were more prevalent in BRCA2 mutation carriers than in BRCA1 mutation carriers (70% versus 52%, respectively). The most common preinvasive lesion in both groups was DCIS; 56% of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and 71% of the sporadic breast cancers had adjacent intraductal disease, respectively. Preinvasive lesions, most notably DCIS, are common in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers. These findings suggest that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers progress through the same intermediate steps as sporadic breast cancers, and that DCIS should be considered as a part of the BRCA1/2 tumor spectrum.

  5. High Prevalence of Pre-invasive Lesions Adjacent to BRCA1/2-Associated Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Banu; Vogel, Kristen J.; Lopez, Adriana; Hernandez, Mike; Atchley, Deann; Broglio, Kristine R.; Amos, Christopher I.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kuerer, Henry; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Albarracin, Constance T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer to 43%-84%. It was originally postulated that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers develop more rapidly than sporadic cancers and may lack pre-invasive lesions. More recent studies have found pre-invasive lesions in prophylactic mastectomy specimens from mutation carriers; however, there is little information on the presence of pre-invasive lesions in tissue adjacent to breast cancers. Our aim is to investigate the role of pre-invasive lesions in BRCA-associated breast carcinogenesis. Methods We retrospectively compared BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers for the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions (ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS], lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], and atypical lobular hyperplasia [ALH]) in tissue adjacent to invasive breast cancers. Results Pathology was reviewed for 73 BRCA1/2-associated tumors from breast cancer patients. We selected 146 mutation-negative breast cancer patients as age-matched controls. Of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers, 59% had at least one associated pre-invasive lesion compared with 75% of controls. Pre-invasive lesions were more prevalent in BRCA2 mutation carriers than in BRCA1 mutation carriers (70% vs. 52%, respectively). The most common pre-invasive lesion in both groups was DCIS; 56% of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and 71% of the sporadic breast cancers had adjacent intraductal disease, respectively. Conclusions Pre-invasive lesions, most notably DCIS, are common in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers. These findings suggest that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers progress through the same intermediate steps as sporadic breast cancers, and that DCIS should be considered as a part of the BRCA1/2 tumor spectrum. PMID:19174581

  6. Adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagonal cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Moumita; Ghosh, Asim Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Exact analytic expressions of eigenvalues of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagon in the presence of uniform magnetic field have been obtained. Magnetization process, nature of isentrops and properties of magneto caloric effect in terms of adiabatic demagnetization have been investigated. Theoretical results have been used to study the magneto caloric effect of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagonal compound Cu3WO6.

  7. Assessment of the developmental toxicity and placental transfer of 1,2-diethylbenzene in rats.

    PubMed

    Saillenfait, A M; Payan, J P; Langonné, I; Gallissot, F; Sabaté, J P; Beydon, D; Fabry, J P

    1999-11-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 1,2-diethylbenzene (1,2-DEB) by gavage on gestational days (GD) 6 through 20 at dose levels of 0 (corn oil), 5, 15, 25 or 35 mg/kg. The dams were euthanized on GD21 and the offspring were weighed and examined for external, visceral and skeletal alterations. Maternal toxicity, indicated by significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption, was observed at doses of 15 mg/kg and above. Developmental toxicity, expressed as significantly reduced foetal body weights, was seen at doses of 15 mg/kg and higher. There was no evidence of embryolethal or teratogenic effects at any dose tested. The placental transfer of 1,2-DEB was examined after a single oral dose of 25 mg [14C]1,2-DEB/kg on GD18. Maternal and foetal tissues were collected at intervals from 1 to 48 hours. Placental and foetal tissues accounted for less than 0.35% of the administered dose. Levels of radiocarbon in foetuses were lower than those in maternal plasma and placenta at all time points. Analysis performed at 1, 2 and 4 hours indicated that ethyl acetate extractable (acidic) metabolites were predominant in the maternal plasma while n-hexane extractable (neutral) compounds represented the major part of radioactivity in the placenta and foetus. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that 1,2-DEB causes mild foetotoxicity at maternal toxic doses and that the exposure of the developing rat foetus to 1,2-DEB and/or metabolites after maternal administration of 1,2-DEB in late gestation is small.

  8. 1,2-Azaborine, the BN derivative of ortho-benzyne

    PubMed Central

    Edel, Klara; Brough, Sarah; Lamm, Ashley N.; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The BN analogue of ortho-benzyne, 1,2-azaborine, is generated by flash vacuum pyroylsis, trapped under cryogenic conditions, and studied by direct spectroscopic techniques. The parent BN-aryne spontaneously binds N2 and CO2, demonstrating its highly reactive nature. The interaction with N2 is photochemically reversible. The CO2 adduct of 1,2-azaborine is a cyclic lactam that undergoes photocleavage thus resulting in overall CO2 splitting. PMID:26095444

  9. Photo-and Electro-Switchable 1/2D Diffractive Structures Exploiting Soft-Matter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    again, a linear red-shift is observed, which clearly confirms that the behavior reported in Figure 4a is due to a photo - thermal mechanism; furthermore...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0022 Photo -and Electro-Switchable 1/2D Diffractive Structures Exploiting Soft-Matter Luciano De Sio...TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 14 November 2011 – 13 November 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photo -and Electro-Switchable 1/2D

  10. Thermal rearrangements in 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The work described was carried out to study the thermal rearrangements of two unsaturated diene polymers - 1,2-poly(cis-1,4-hexadiene) (CHD) and 1,2-poly(trans-1.4-hexadiene) (THD). It is shown that both CHD and THD have a predominatly 1,8 diene structure and seem to cyclize mainly by the (2 + 2) thermal cycloaddition of double bonds, and to a small extent also by sigmatropic rearrangement with hydrogen shift.

  11. A New Family of Ionic Liquids 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-Triazolium Nitrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Greg; Kaplan, Greg; Hall, Leslie; Hawkins, Tommy; Larue, Joann

    2004-01-01

    A new class of ionic liquids based upon 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrates (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, 2-propeny1, and n-butyl) have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational spectra, multinuclear NMR, elemental analysis, and DSC studies. A single crystal x-ray study was carried out for 1-amino-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrate and the details will be presented.

  12. Evaluation of the Toxicokinetic Study of 1,2-Propanediol Dinitrate (PGDN) in the Dog.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    JAFAMRL-TR-82-27 EVALUATION OF THE TOXICOKINETIC STUDY OF 1,2- PROPANEDIOL DINMITATE (PGDN) IN THE DOG P. K NEWTON J. A. MA CE WAN p- HV.R NOTm...Rltoo COVERED EVALUATION OF TIlE TOXICOKIXETIC STUDY OF 1,2- PROPANEDIOL DINITRATE (PGDN) IN TIlE Technical Report DOG 1 PERFORMNG OIG REPORT NUMAER...l,2- Propanediol Dinitrate ilypotension PGDN Tachycardia Toxicokinetics Dog *.ilethemoglobin Bolus injections of PGDN, an organic dinitrate, were made

  13. 1,2-Azaborine: The Boron-Nitrogen Derivative of ortho-Benzyne.

    PubMed

    Edel, Klara; Brough, Sarah A; Lamm, Ashley N; Liu, Shih-Yuan; Bettinger, Holger F

    2015-06-26

    The BN analogue of ortho-benzyne, 1,2-azaborine, is generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis, trapped under cryogenic conditions, and studied by direct spectroscopic techniques. The parent BN aryne spontaneously binds N2 and CO2, thus demonstrating its highly reactive nature. The interaction with N2 is photochemically reversible. The CO2 adduct of 1,2-azaborine is a cyclic carbamate which undergoes photocleavage, thus resulting in overall CO2 splitting.

  14. Absorption spectrum, mass spectrometric properties, and electronic structure of 1,2-benzoquinone.

    PubMed

    Albarran, Guadalupe; Boggess, William; Rassolov, Vitaly; Schuler, Robert H

    2010-07-22

    Absorption spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric properties of 1,2-benzoquinone, prepared in aqueous solution by the hexachloroiridate(IV) oxidation of catechol and isolated by HPLC, are reported. Its absorption spectrum has a broad moderately intense band in the near UV with an extinction coefficient of 1370 M(-1)cm(-1) at its 389 nm maximum. The oscillator strength of this band contrasts with those of the order-of-magnitude stronger approximately 250 nm bands of most 1,4-benzoquinones. Gaussian analysis of its absorption spectrum indicates that it also has modestly intense higher energy bands in the 250-320 nm region. In atmospheric pressure mass spectrometric studies 1,2-benzoquinone exhibits very strong positive and negative mass 109 signals that result from the addition of protons and hydride ions in APCI and ESI ion sources. It is suggested that the hydride adduct is formed as the result of the highly polar character of ortho-quinone. On energetic collision the hydride adduct loses an H atom to produce the 1,2-benzosemiquinone radical anion. The present studies also show that atmospheric pressure mass spectral patterns observed for catechol are dominated by signals of 1,2-benzoquinone resulting from oxidation of catechol in the ion sources. Computational studies of the electronic structures of 1,2-benzoquinone, its proton and hydride ion adducts, and 1,2-benzosemiquinone radical anion are reported. These computational studies show that the structures of the proton and hydride adducts are similar and indicate that the hydride adduct is the proton adduct of a doubly negatively charged 1,2-benzoquinone. The contrast between the properties of 1,2- and 1,4-benzoquinone provides the basis for considerations on the effects of conjugation in aromatic systems.

  15. Synthesis of Pyrido[1,2-a]indole Malonates and Amines through Aryne Annulation

    PubMed Central

    Rogness, Donald C.; Markina, Nataliya A.; Waldo, Jesse P.; Larock, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrido[1,2-a]indoles are known as medicinally and pharmaceutically important compounds, but there is a lack of efficient methods for their synthesis. We report a convenient and efficient route to these privileged structures starting from easily accessible 2-substituted pyridines and aryne precursors. A small library of compounds has been synthesized utilizing the developed method, affording variously substituted pyrido[1,2-a]indoles in moderate to good yields. PMID:22356459

  16. Defining the role of TORC1/2 in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Maiso, Patricia; Liu, Yi; Morgan, Brittany; Azab, Abdel Kareem; Ren, Pingda; Martin, Michel B.; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Yang; Sacco, Antonio; Ngo, Hai; Azab, Feda; Quang, Phong; Rodig, Scott J.; Lin, Charles P.; Roccaro, Aldo M.; Rommel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a downstream serine/threonine kinase of the PI3K/Akt pathway that integrates signals from the tumor microenvironment to regulate multiple cellular processes. Rapamycin and its analogs have not shown significant activity in multiple myeloma (MM), likely because of the lack of inhibition of TORC2. In the present study, we investigated the baseline activity of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway TORC1/2 in MM cell lines with different genetic abnormalities. TORC1/2 knock-down led to significant inhibition of the proliferation of MM cells, even in the presence of BM stromal cells. We also tested INK128, a dual TORC1/2 inhibitor, as a new therapeutic agent against these MM cell lines. We showed that dual TORC1/2 inhibition is much more active than TORC1 inhibition alone (rapamycin), even in the presence of cytokines or stromal cells. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that p-4EBP1 and p-Akt inhibition could be predictive markers of TORC2 inhibition in MM cell lines. Dual TORC1/2 inhibition showed better inhibition of adhesion to BM microenvironmental cells and inhibition of homing in vivo. These studies form the basis for further clinical testing of TORC1/2 inhibitors in MM. PMID:22045983

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Ti-55Ni-1.2Co High Stiffness Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Norwich, Dennis W.; Ehrlinspiel, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of high stiffness nominal Ti-55Ni-1.2Co (wt.%) shape memory alloys (SMAs) was systematically investigated in the present study including straight wires, wire-formed stents, and laser-cut stents. It was found that the corrosion behavior of Ti-55Ni-1.2Co alloys is comparable with those of binary NiTiNol counterparts, which is attributed to the small alloying amount of cobalt. Additionally, the corrosion resistance of high stiffness Ti-55Ni-1.2Co SMAs is independent of the stent-forming method. To explore the galvanic corrosion susceptibility between Ti-55Ni-1.2Co and binary NiTiNol alloys, a NiTiNol sleeve was laser welded to the Ti-55Ni-1.2Co stent. Interestingly, there is no galvanic corrosion observed in this NiTiCo-NiTiNol component, even after immersion of the component in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 37 °C for three months. This study will shed some light on the industrial applications of high stiffness Ti-55Ni-1.2Co shape memory alloys.

  18. CacyBP/SIP binds ERK1/2 and affects transcriptional activity of Elk-1.

    PubMed

    Kilanczyk, Ewa; Filipek, Slawomir; Jastrzebska, Beata; Filipek, Anna

    2009-02-27

    In this work we showed for the first time that mouse CacyBP/SIP interacts with extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). We also established that a calcium binding protein, S100A6, competes for this interaction. Moreover, the E217K mutant of CacyBP/SIP does not bind significantly to ERK1/2 although it retains the ability to interact with S100A6. Molecular modeling shows that the E217K mutation in the 189-219 CacyBP/SIP fragment markedly changes its electrostatic potential, suggesting that the binding with ERK1/2 might have an electrostatic character. We also demonstrate that CacyBP/SIP-ERK1/2 interaction inhibits phosphorylation of the Elk-1 transcription factor in vitro and in the nuclear fraction of NB2a cells. Altogether, our data suggest that the binding of CacyBP/SIP with ERK1/2 might regulate Elk-1 phosphorylation/transcriptional activity and that S100A6 might further modulate this effect via Ca(2+)-dependent interaction with CacyBP/SIP and competition with ERK1/2.

  19. Fluorescent property of 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and pyrimidines are important organic fluorophores which have been investigated as biomarkers and photochemical sensors. The effect on the luminescent property by substituents in the heterocycle and phenyl rings, have been studied as well. In this investigation, series of 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and pyrimidines were synthesized and evaluated in relation to fluorescence emission, based upon the hypothesis that the hydroxymethyl group may act as an enhancer of fluorescence intensity. Results Compounds of both series emitted light in organic solvents dilutions as well as in acidic and alkaline media. Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy determined that both fused heterocycles fluoresced more intensely than the parent unsubstituted imidazo[1,2-a]azine fluorophore. In particular, 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines fluoresced more intensely than 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, the latter emitting blue light at longer wavelengths, whereas the former emitted purple light. Conclusion It was concluded that in most cases the hydroxymethyl moiety did act as an enhancer of the fluorescence intensity, however, a comparison made with the fluorescence emitted by 2-aryl imidazo[1,2-a]azines revealed that in some cases the hydroxymethyl substituent decreased the fluorescence intensity. PMID:22871219

  20. CacyBP/SIP binds ERK1/2 and affects transcriptional activity of Elk-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kilanczyk, Ewa; Filipek, Slawomir; Jastrzebska, Beata; Filipek, Anna

    2009-02-27

    In this work we showed for the first time that mouse CacyBP/SIP interacts with extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). We also established that a calcium binding protein, S100A6, competes for this interaction. Moreover, the E217K mutant of CacyBP/SIP does not bind significantly to ERK1/2 although it retains the ability to interact with S100A6. Molecular modeling shows that the E217K mutation in the 189-219 CacyBP/SIP fragment markedly changes its electrostatic potential, suggesting that the binding with ERK1/2 might have an electrostatic character. We also demonstrate that CacyBP/SIP-ERK1/2 interaction inhibits phosphorylation of the Elk-1 transcription factor in vitro and in the nuclear fraction of NB2a cells. Altogether, our data suggest that the binding of CacyBP/SIP with ERK1/2 might regulate Elk-1 phosphorylation/transcriptional activity and that S100A6 might further modulate this effect via Ca{sup 2+}-dependent interaction with CacyBP/SIP and competition with ERK1/2.

  1. Insulin activates Erk1/2 signaling in the dorsal vagal complex to inhibit glucose production.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Beatrice M; Yang, Clair S; Tang, Christine; Lam, Tony K T

    2012-10-03

    Insulin activates PI3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT to regulate glucose homeostasis in the peripheral tissues and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of rodents. We report that insulin infusion into the MBH or dorsal vagal complex (DVC) activated insulin receptors. The same dose of insulin that activated MBH PI3K/AKT did not in the DVC. DVC insulin instead activated Erk1/2 and lowered glucose production in rats and mice. Molecular and chemical inhibition of DVC Erk1/2 negated, while activation of DVC Erk1/2 recapitulated, the effects of DVC insulin. Circulating insulin failed to inhibit glucose production when DVC Erk1/2 was inhibited in normal rodents, while DVC insulin action was disrupted in high-fat-fed rodents. Activation of DVC ATP-sensitive potassium channels was necessary for insulin-Erk1/2 and sufficient to inhibit glucose production in normal and high-fat-fed rodents. DVC is a site of insulin action where insulin triggers Erk1/2 signaling to inhibit glucose production and of insulin resistance in high-fat feeding.

  2. Strain-Promoted Reaction of 1,2,4-Triazines with Bicyclononynes

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Katherine A; Valette, Nathalie M; Webb, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Strain-promoted inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder cycloaddition (SPIEDAC) reactions between 1,2,4,5-tetrazines and strained dienophiles, such as bicyclononynes, are among the fastest bioorthogonal reactions. However, the synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrazines is complex and can involve volatile reagents. 1,2,4-Triazines also undergo cycloaddition reactions with acyclic and unstrained dienophiles at elevated temperatures, but their reaction with strained alkynes has not been described. We postulated that 1,2,4-triazines would react with strained alkynes at low temperatures and therefore provide an alternative to the tetrazine cycloaddition reaction for use in in vitro or in vivo labelling experiments. We describe the synthesis of a 1,2,4-triazin-3-ylalanine derivative fully compatible with the fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) strategy for peptide synthesis and demonstrate its reaction with strained bicyclononynes at 37 °C with rates comparable to the reaction of azides with the same substrates. The synthetic route to triazinylalanine is readily adaptable to late-stage functionalization of other probe molecules, and the 1,2,4-triazine-SPIEDAC therefore has potential as an alternative to tetrazine cycloaddition for applications in cellular and biochemical studies. PMID:26275391

  3. Regulation of fucose and 1,2-propanediol utilization by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Staib, Lena; Fuchs, Thilo M

    2015-01-01

    After ingestion, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) encounters a densely populated, competitive environment in the gastrointestinal tract. To escape nutrient limitation caused by the intestinal microbiota, this pathogen has acquired specific metabolic traits to use compounds that are not metabolized by the commensal bacteria. For example, the utilization of 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD), a product of the fermentation of L-fucose, which is present in foods of herbal origin and is also a terminal sugar of gut mucins. Under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of tetrathionate, 1,2-PD can serve as an energy source for S. Typhimurium. Comprehensive database analysis revealed that the 1,2-PD and fucose utilization operons are present in all S. enterica serovars sequenced thus far. The operon, consisting of 21 genes, is expressed as a single polycistronic mRNA. As demonstrated here, 1,2-PD was formed and further used when S. Typhimurium strain 14028 was grown with L-fucose, and the gene fucA encoding L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase was required for this growth. Using promoter fusions, we monitored the expression of the propanediol utilization operon that was induced at very low concentrations of 1,2-PD and was inhibited by the presence of D-glucose.

  4. Kinetics of heavy metal inhibition of 1,2-dichloroethane biodegradation in co-contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Arjoon, Ashmita; Olaniran, Ademola Olufolahan; Pillay, Balakrishna

    2015-03-01

    Sites co-contaminated with heavy metals and 1,2-DCA may pose a greater challenge for bioremediation, as the heavy metals could inhibit the activities of microbes involved in biodegradation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to quantitatively assess the effects of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead) on 1,2-DCA biodegradation in co-contaminated water. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and concentrations of the heavy metals that caused half-life doubling (HLDs) of 1,2-DCA as well as the degradation rate coefficient (k(1)) and half-life (t(½)) of 1,2-DCA were measured and used to predict the toxicity of the heavy metals in the water microcosms. An increase in heavy metal concentration resulted in a progressive increase in the t(½) and relative t(½) and a decrease in k(1). The MICs and HLDs of the heavy metals were found to vary, depending on the heavy metals type. In addition, the presence of heavy metals was shown to inhibit 1,2-DCA biodegradation in a dose-dependent manner, with the following order of decreasing inhibitory effect: Hg(2+)  > As(3+)  > Cd(2+)  > Pb(2+). Findings from this study have significant implications for the development of bioremediation strategies for effective degradation of 1,2-DCA and other related compounds in wastewater co-contaminated with heavy metals.

  5. ERF1_2 -- Enhanced River Reach File 2.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Jacqueline V.; Brakebill, John W.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2003-01-01

    The digital segmented network based on watershed boundaries, ERF1_2, includes enhancements to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's River Reach File 1 (RF1) (USEPA, 1996; DeWald and others, 1985) to support national and regional-scale surface water-quality modeling. Alexander and others (1999) developed ERF1, which assessed the hydrologic integrity of the digital reach traces and calculated the mean water time-of-travel in river reaches and reservoirs. ERF1_2 serves as the foundation for SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions (of nutrient transport) on Watershed) modeling. Within the context of a Geographic Information System, SPARROW estimates the proportion of watersheds in the conterminous U.S. with outflow concentrations of several nutrients, including total nitrogen and total phosphorus, (Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., and Alexander, R.B., 1997). This version of the network expands on ERF1 (Version 1.2; Alexander, et al., 1999) and includes the incremental and total drainage area derived from 1-kilometer (km) elevation data for North America. Previous estimates of the water time-of-travel were recomputed for reaches with water-quality monitoring sites that included two reaches. The mean flow and velocity estimates for these split reaches are based on previous estimation methods (Alexander et al., 1999) and are unchanged in ERF1_2. Drainage area calculations provide data used to estimate the contribution of a given nutrient to the outflow. Data estimates depend on the accuracy of node connectivity. Reaches split at water-quality or pesticide-monitoring sites indicate the source point for estimating the contribution and transport of nutrients and their loads throughout the watersheds. The ERF1_2 coverage extends the earlier drainage area founded on the 1-kilometer data for North America (Verdin, 1996; Verdin and Jenson, 1996). A 1-kilometer raster grid of ERF1_2 projected to Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area, NAD 27 Datum (Snyder, 1987), was merged with the

  6. Metabolism of 1-fluoro-1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane, and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane.

    PubMed

    Yin, H; Jones, J P; Anders, M W

    1995-03-01

    1-Fluoro-1,1,2-trichloroethane (HCFC-131a), 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-132b), and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane (HCFC-133a) were chosen as models for comparative metabolism studies on 1,1,1,2-tetrahaloethanes, which are under consideration as replacements for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Male Fischer 344 rats were given 10 mmol/kg ip HCFC-131a or HCFC-132b or exposed by inhalation to 1% HCFC-133a for 2 h. Urine collected in the first 24 h after exposure was analyzed by 19F NMR and GC/MS and with a fluoride-selective ion electrode for the formation of fluorine-containing metabolites. Metabolites of HCFC-131a included 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide, 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl sulfate, dichlorofluoroacetic acid, and inorganic fluoride. Metabolites of HCFC-132b were characterized as 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethyl glucuronide, 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethyl sulfate, chlorodifluoroacetic acid, chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde hydrate, chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct, and inorganic fluoride. HCFC-133a was metabolized to 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl glucuronide, trifluoroacetic acid, trifluoroacetaldehyde hydrate, trifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct, inorganic fluoride, and a minor, unidentified metabolite. With HCFC-131a and HCFC-132b, glucuronide conjugates of 2,2,2-trihaloethanols were the major urinary metabolites, whereas with HCFC-133a, a trifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct was the major urinary metabolite. Analysis of metabolite distribution in vivo indicated that aldehydic metabolites increased as fluorine substitution increased in the order HCFC-131a < HCFC-132b < HCFC-133a. With NADPH-fortified rat liver microsomes, HCFC-133a and HCFC-132b were biotransformed to trifluoroacetaldehyde and chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde, respectively, whereas HCFC-131a was converted to dichlorofluoroacetic acid. No covalently bound metabolites were detected by 19F NMR spectroscopy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Modification of Ovarian Cancer Risk by BRCA1/2 Interacting Genes in a Multicenter Cohort of BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Mitra, Nandita; Domchek, Susan M.; Wan, Fei; Chuai, Shannon; Friebel, Tara M.; Panossian, Saarene; Spurdle, Amanda; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; kConFab; Singer, Christian F.; Pfeiler, Georg; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Lynch, Henry T.; Garber, Judy E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Couch, Fergus; Narod, Steven A.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tung, Nadine; Blum, Joanne L.; Greenberg, Roger; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Daly, Mary B.

    2009-01-01

    Inherited BRCA1/2 mutations confer elevated ovarian cancer (OvCa) risk. Knowledge of factors that can improve OvCa risk assessment in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is important because no effective early detection for OvCas exists. A cohort of 1,575 BRCA1 and 856 BRCA2 mutation carriers was used to evaluate SNPs and haplotypes at ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CTIP, MRE11, NBS1, RAD50, RAD51, and TOPBP1 in OvCa risk. In BRCA1 carriers, no associations were observed with ATM, BARD1, CTIP, RAD50, RAD51, or TOPBP1. At BRIP1, an association was observed for one haplotype with a multiple testing corrected p-value (pcorr)=0.012, although no individual haplotype was significant. At MRE11, statistically significant associations were observed for one haplotype (pcorr=0.007). At NBS1, we observed a pcorr=0.024 for haplotypes. In BRCA2 carriers, no associations were observed with CTIP, NBS1, RAD50, or TOPBP1. Rare haplotypes at ATM (pcorr=0.044) and BARD1 (pcorr=0.012) were associated with OvCa risk. At BRIP1, two common haplotypes were significantly associated with OvCa risk (pcorr=0.011). At MRE11, we observed a significant haplotype association (pcorr=0.012), and at RAD51, one common haplotype was significantly associated with OvCa risk (pcorr=0.026). Variants in genes that interact biologically with BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 may be associated with modified OvCa risk in women who carry BRCA1/2 mutations. PMID:19584272

  8. (1RS,2RS,3RS)-1,2-Dimeth­oxy-3-methyl-2-phenyl-1-(2-thien­yl)cyclo­propane

    PubMed Central

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Suero, Marcos G.; García-Granda, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H18O2S, a new cis-1,2-dimethoxy­cyclo­propane, the two meth­oxy groups are in a cis configuration and in trans positions with respect to the H atom and the phenyl and thienyl rings on the cyclo­propyl group. The mol­ecular packing is dominated by weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions, allowing the formation of zigzag chains propagating parallel to the c axis. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 86.12 (8)°. PMID:21582532

  9. Structural and Mechanistic Analyses of TSC1/2 and Rheb 1/2 - Mediated Regulation of the mTOR Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Richards , D. P.; Canadien, V.; Lalev, A .; Mena, F.; Wong, P.; Starostine, A .; Canete, M. M.; Vlasblom, J.; Wu, S.; Orsi, C.; Collins, S. R.; Chandran... Calvin K. Yip,1 Kazuyoshi Murata,3,7 Thomas Walz,1,2 David M. Sabatini,3,4,5,6 and Seong A . Kang3,4,* 1Department of Cell Biology 2Howard Hughes...notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not

  10. Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among native and immigrant pregnant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Aguilera, Antonio; Caballero, Estrella; Toro, Carlos; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez-Calviño, Juan J; Tuset, Concepción; Gómez-Hernando, César; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Ramos, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan C; Benito, Rafael; Trigo, Matilde; García-Campello, Marta; Calderón, Enrique; Garcia, Juan; Rodríguez, Carmen; Soriano, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    HTLV-1=2 antenatal screening is not mandatory in European countries. The rapid increase in immigrants coming from areas endemic for HTLV-1 infection has compelled a review of this policy in Spain. From February 2006 to December 2007, a cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women attended at 10 different Spanish hospitals. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to test serum HTLV-1=2 antibodies; reactive samples were further confirmed by Western blot and=or polymerase chain reaction. A total of 20,518 pregnant women were examined, of whom 18,266 (89%) were native Spaniards. Overall, 946 (4.6%) of the immigrants came from HTLV-1 endemic areas (mainly Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa). Four samples were EIA seroreactive for HTLV-1=2, two of them in women infected with HTLV-1 coming from endemic areas. The other two women were infected with HTLV-2; one was an immigrant from Bolivia and another was a native Spaniard who admitted prior injection drug use and was HIV-1 positive. The overall HTLV-1=2 seroprevalence was 0.19 per 1000 (95% CI: 0.05-0.49=1000). For HTLV-1, the seroprevalence was 2.11 per 1000 (95% CI: 0.26-7.62=1000) in pregnant women from endemic areas. The seroprevalence of HTLV-1=2 infection is below 0.02% among pregnant women in Spain, and therefore universal screening for HTLV-1=2 infection in antenatal clinics is not warranted. However, HTLV-1=2 screening could be considered in pregnant women coming from endemic areas, in whom the rate of infection is nearly 1000-fold higher than in native Spaniards and are the only group infected with the more pathogenic HTLV-1.

  11. Celecoxib alleviates oxaliplatin-induced hyperalgesia through inhibition of spinal ERK1/2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongping; Wang, Qinghua; Shi, Danni; Yao, Dongbo; Zhang, Lei; Xiong, Junping; Xu, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    Numerous pieces of evidence have revealed that oxaliplatin (OXA) evokes mechanical and cold hypersensitivity. However, the mechanism underlying these bothersome side effects needs to be further investigated. It is well known that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) signaling play crucial roles in several pain states. Our previous data showed that Akt2 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) participated in the regulation of OXA-induced neuropathic pain. But it is still unclear whether spinal ERK1/2 signaling is involved in the regulation of OXA-induced hyperalgesia, and the linkage between COX-2 and ERK1/2 signaling in mediating OXA-induced hyperalgesia also remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the possible mechanism of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, in OXA-induced neuropathic pain. Our results show that single dose of OXA (12 mg/kg) significantly attenuated both the tail withdrawal latency (TWL) and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) at days 4 after the OXA treatment. Administration of celecoxib (30 mg/kg/day) for 4 and 6 days inhibited the decrease in TWL and MWT, and each was significantly higher than that of the OXA+vehicle group and was equivalent to that of the vehicles group. OXA increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (pERK1/2) protein in the lumbar 4-5 (L4-5) spinal cord dorsal horn neurons. Administration of celecoxib for 7 days suppressed the increase in expression of COX-2 and pERK1/2 induced by OXA. Our findings suggested that COX-2 and ERK1/2 signaling in spinal cord contributed to the OXA-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:27821910

  12. Striction-Coupled Magnetoresistance in Perovskite-type Manganese Oxides (Nd,Sm)_1/2Sr_1/2MnO_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, H.; Tomioka, Y.; Moritomo, Y.; Asamitsu, A.; Tokura, Y.

    1996-03-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) of more than three orders of magnitude, which is strongly coupled to lattice striction, has been observed under a relatively low magnetic field (e.g., 0.4 T at 115 K) for a single crystal of perovskite-type manganese oxide with finely controlled ionic radii of the A-sites, (Nd,Sm)_1/2Sr_1/2MnO_3. The colossal MR phenomena are viewed as a first-order insulator-to-metal phase transition induced by a magnetic field, which accompanies a metamagnetic (antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic) transition as well as a lattice-structural change. Clear hystereses as well as switching-like changes of magnetization, striction, and resistivity are observed in increasing and decreasing magnetic field at temperatures (113-160K) near above the Curie temperature. In this temperature region, the ferromagnetic double exchange interaction seems to be suppressed by localization of carriers and/or antiferromagnetic interaction. We speculate that this antiferromagnetic interaction is relevant to a charge-ordering instability, the real space ordering of doped holes, observed in many of the similar manganese oxides. This work was supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan.

  13. Naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-5,6-diones: Synthesis, enzymatic reduction and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Šarlauskas, Jonas; Pečiukaitytė-Alksnė, Milda; Misevičienė, Lina; Marozienė, Audronė; Polmickaitė, Evelina; Staniulytė, Zita; Čėnas, Narimantas; Anusevičius, Žilvinas

    2016-01-15

    Naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-5,6-diones (NPDOs), a new type of N-heterocycle-fused o-quinones, have been synthesized. They have been found to be efficient electron-accepting substrates of NADPH-dependent single-electron-transferring P-450R and two-electron transferring NQO1, generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant decrease in NADPH, which is consistent with redox-cycling. The reactivity of NPDOs toward P-450R (in terms of kcat/Km) varied in the range of 10(6)-10(7)M(-1)s(-1), while their reduction by NQO1 proceeded much faster, approaching the diffusion control limit (kcat/Km∼10(8)-10(9)M(-1)s(-1)). NPDOs exhibited relatively high cytotoxic activity against human lung carcinoma (A-549) and breast tumor (MCF-7) cell lines (LC50=0.1-8.3μM), while promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) were less sensitive to NPDOs (LC50⩾10μM). 3-Nitro-substituted NPDO (11) revealed the highest potency against both A-549 and MCF-7 cell lines, with LC50 of 0.12±0.03μM and 0.28±0.08μM, respectively. Dicoumarol partly suppressed the activity of the compounds against A-594 and MCF-7 cell lines, suggesting that their cytotoxic action might be partially influenced by NQO1-mediated bioreductive activation.

  14. Crystal Growth and Electrical Properties of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Material (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Yasuharu; Harada, Kouichi; Yamashita, Yohachi

    2001-09-01

    Single crystals of lead-free piezoelectric material x(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-yBaTiO3 (NBBT 100x/100y) have been successfully grown by the flux method and the Bridgman method. Using the flux method, crystals having an edge length of 2-8 mm were obtained using Bi2O3 flux with cooling from 1350°C to 800°C at a rate of 3.5°C/h. Using the Bridgman method, comparatively good crystal of 15 mm diameter and 50 mm length was obtained using Bi2O3 flux with the Pt crucible driven down through the heat zone at a speed of 1.0 mm/h. The resulting crystals showed single-phase perovskite structure. Inductively charged plasma (ICP) chemical analysis revealed that the composition of the pulverized powder of these crystals is NBBT 97/3, which is slightly different from the charged composition of NBBT 94/6. One of the single crystals grown by the Bridgman method showed a dielectric constant of 1230 at room temperature and a dielectric constant peak at 313°C.

  15. Structural transitions in Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Kojima, Seiji; Yasuda, Naohiko; Prosandeev, Sergey; Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-12-01

    Here, Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and first-principles calculations were employed to investigate the behavior of disordered Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PIN) under pressure up to 50 GPa. The experiments were performed at room temperature while ab-initio calculations were carried out at 0 K. Raman spectra for disordered PIN show broad bands but a peak near the 380 cm-1 increases its intensity with pressure. The linewidth of the band at 550 cm-1 also increases with pressure, while two of the Raman peaks merge above 6 GPa. Above 16 GPa, we observe additional splitting of the band at 50 cm-1. The pressure evolution of the diffraction patterns for PIN shows obvious splitting for Bragg peaks above 16 GPa; the results indicate a possible lowering symmetry transition. We identified that the transition at 0.5 GPa is from pseudo-cubic to orthorhombic (Pbam), the transitions at 16 GPa are isostructure transitions due to changes in linear compressibility and octahedral titling, and the transition at 30 GPa is from orthorhombic to monoclinic. First-principles calculations results indicated that ground state is Pbam with antiferrodisdortion consistent with experiment.

  16. HY5 regulates Nitrite Reductase 1 (NIR1) and Ammonium Transporter1;2 (AMT1;2) in Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lifen; Zhang, Hongcheng; Zhang, Huiyong; Deng, Xing Wang; Wei, Ning

    2016-01-01

    HY5 (Long Hypocotyles 5) is a key transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana that has a pivotal role in seedling development. Soil nitrogen is an essential macronutrient, and its uptake, assimilation and metabolism are influenced by nutrient availability and by lights. To understand the role of HY5 in nitrogen assimilation pathways, we examined the phenotype as well as the expression of selected nitrogen assimilation-related genes in hy5 mutant grown under various nitrogen limiting and nitrogen sufficient conditions, or different light conditions. We report that HY5 positively regulates nitrite reductase gene NIR1 and negatively regulates the ammonium transporter gene AMT1;2 under all nitrogen and light conditions tested, while it affects several other genes in a nitrogen supply-dependent manner. HY5 is not required for light induction of NIR1, AMT1;2 and NIA genes, but it is necessary for high level expression of NIR1 and NIA under optimal nutrient and light conditions. In addition, nitrogen deficiency exacerbates the abnormal root system of hy5. Together, our results suggest that HY5 exhibits the growth-promoting activity only when sufficient nutrients, including lights, are provided, and that HY5 has a complex involvement in nitrogen acquisition and metabolism in Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:26259199

  17. Stability of AB{prime}{sub 1/2}B{double{underscore}prime}{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} mixed perovskite proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhide, S.V.; Virkar, A.V.

    1999-12-01

    Several mixed perovskites of the type A{sub 2}B{prime}B{double{underscore}prime}O{sub 6} (AB{prime}{sub 1/2}B{double{underscore}prime}{sub 1/2}O{sub 3}), where A is Ba{sup +2} and B{prime} and B{double{underscore}prime} are trivalent and pentavalent ions, respectively, were synthesized by calcining requisite mixtures of BaCO{sub 3}, B{prime}{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and B{double{underscore}prime}{sub 2}O{sub 5} in air. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of the perovskite phase in each of the samples synthesized. The as-calcined powders were boiled in water to examine their stabilities in water. All mixed perovskites were found to be stable. By contrast, BaCeO{sub 3} and BaPrO{sub 3} decomposed when boiled in water while BaZrO{sub 3} was found to be stable. Madelung energies of simple and mixed perovskites were computed. The higher stability of mixed perovskites compared to simple perovskites of the type ABO{sub 3}, such as BaCeO{sub 3} and BaPrO{sub 3}, where B is a tetravalent ion, was rationalized on the basis of lower Madelung energies of mixed perovskites.

  18. Structural transitions in Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O 3 under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Kojima, Seiji; Yasuda, Naohiko; Prosandeev, Sergey; Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-12-01

    Room-temperature Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction measurements together with first-principles calculations were employed to investigate the behavior of disordered Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PIN) under pressure up to 50GPa. Raman spectra show broad bands but a peak near the 380cm-1 increases its intensity with pressure. The linewidth of the band at 550cm-1 also increases with pressure, while two of the Raman peaks merge above 6GPa. Above 16GPa, we observe additional splitting of the band at 50cm-1. The pressure evolution of the diffraction patterns for PIN shows obvious Bragg peaks splitting above 16GPa; consistent with a symmetry lowering transition. The transition at 0.5GPa is identified as a pseudo-cubic to orthorhombic (Pbam) structural change whereas the transition at 16GPa is isostructure and associated with changes in linear compressibility and octahedral titling, and the transition at 30GPa is associated to an orthorhombic to monoclinic change. First-principles calculations indicate that the Pbam structure is ground state with antiferrodisdortion consistent with experiment.

  19. Studies of Thermal, Impedance and Magnetic Properties of (Bi1/2Na1/2)(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 Multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Suhel; Barik, Subrat Kumar

    2017-02-01

    A polycrystalline sample of (Bi1/2Na1/2)(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 was synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Calcination temperature and thermal stability of the material were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a phase transformation from rhombohedral to orthorhombic due to Na and W co-doping in BFO. Electrical properties of the material were measured in a wide temperature range of 30-450°C, at different frequencies (100 Hz-1 MHz). Dielectric study revealed that the prepared material had a Neel temperature at 325°C. Direct current conductivity was found to obey the Arrhenius relationship. The value of activation energy was found to be 0.67 eV for the grain (175-450°C) and 0.94 eV for the grain boundary (200-450°C). The enhanced magnetic property of the synthesized material was evaluated from the magnetization-magnetic field loop study.

  20. Octahedral tilt transitions in the relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kai-Christian Gröting, Melanie; Albe, Karsten

    2015-07-15

    The kinetics of octahedral tilt transitions in the lead-free relaxor material sodium bismuth titanate Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) is investigated by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory. Energy barriers for transitions between tetragonal, rhombohedral and orthorhombic tilts in cation configurations with [001]- and [111]-order on the A-sites are determined by nudged elastic band calculations. By tilting entire layers of octahedra simultaneously we find that the activation energy is lower for structures with 001-order compared to such with 111-order. The energetic coupling between differently tilted layers is, however, negligibly small. By introducing a single octahedral defect we create local tilt disorder and find that the deformation energy of the neighboring octahedra is less in a rhombohedral than in a tetragonal structure. By successively increasing the size of clusters of orthorhombic defects in a rhombohedral matrix with 001-order, we determine a critical cluster size of about 40 Å . Thus groups of about ten octahedra can be considered as nuclei for polar nanoregions, which are the cause of the experimentally observed relaxor behavior of NBT. - Graphical abstract: Nine orthorhombic oxygen octahedral tilt defects in a rhombohedral tilt configuration. - Highlights: • Chemical order influences energy barriers of octahedral tilt transitions. • The octahedral deformation energy is lower in rhombohedral phases. • Tilt defect clusters are more likely in rhombohedral structures. • Tilt defect clusters can act as nuclei for polar nanoregions.

  1. Chemical pressure induced change in multiferroicity of Bi1+2xGd2x/2Fe1-2xO3 bulk ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S. K.; Sahu, D. R.; Rout, P. P.; Das, S. K.; Pradhan, A. K.; Srinivasu, V. V.; Roul, B. K.

    2017-04-01

    We have optimized Gd ion substitution in BiFeO3 (BFO) and observed prominently change in structural, electrical and magnetic behavior of Bi1+2xGd2x/2Fe1-2xO3 ceramics synthesized through slow step sintering schedule. It is observed that with the increase in concentration of Gd (x=0.1), original structure of BFO is transformed from rhombohedral R3c space group to orthorhombic Pn21a space group. Surprisingly, unit cell volume is drastically contracted (35% for x=0.2) and the sintered specimen showed enhanced room temperature ferromagnetic behavior although the original BFO is normally G-type antiferromagnetic in nature at 643 K. It is expected that intrinsic chemical pressure within the bulk body built by the substitution of Gd in presence of excess bismuth greatly supported through unidirectional movement of electrical dipole moment with in each individual domain as a result of which suppression of leakage current with enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric hysteresis is observed.

  2. P2-type Nax[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth’s crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g-1. Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na2/3[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2, that delivers 190 mAh g-1 of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe3+/Fe4+ redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature.

  3. Design and Construction of a Non-Natural Malate to 1,2,4-Butanetriol Pathway Creates Possibility to Produce 1,2,4-Butanetriol from Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinghua; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin; Zhang, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    1,2,4-butanetriol (BT) is an important bulk chemical mainly used for producing the superior energetic plasticizer (1,2,4-butanetriol trinitrate) in propellant and explosive formulations. BT is commercially produced by chemical synthesis from petroleum-based feedstocks; until recently a costly biosynthetic route from xylose or arabinose was reported. Here we designed a novel biosynthetic pathway for BT from malate, for the purpose of using glucose as an alternative and cheaper substrate in future. This biosynthetic pathway was achieved through six sequential enzymatic reactions. Following tests of several combinations of enzymes for the pathway, five enzymes including malate thiokinase, succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase and bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase were finally chosen. All enzyme genes were expressed on two compatible plasmids in E. coli, and their functions verified separately. Following assembly of two functional modules, BT was detected in the fermentation broth upon addition of malate, proving BT can be biosynthesized from malate. Furthermore, BT was detected in the fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, suggesting that such novel BT biosynthetic pathway has created the possibility for the production of BT from the cheaper substrate glucose. PMID:25008973

  4. Dynamical mechanism of phase transitions in A-site ferroelectric relaxor (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guochu; Danilkin, Sergey; Zhang, Haiwu; Imperia, Paolo; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2014-10-01

    The dynamical phase transition mechanism of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 (NBT) was studied using inelastic neutron scattering. Softening was observed of multiple phonon modes in the phase transition sequence of NBT. As usual, the softening of the zone center transverse optical modes Δ5 and Σ3 was observed in the (200) and (220) zones, showing the Ti vibration instabilities in TiO6 octahedra for both cubic-tetragonal (C-T) and tetragonal-rhombohedral (T-R) phase transitions. In these two phase transitions, however, Ti4+ has different preferential displacement directions. Surprisingly, the longitudinal optic mode also softens significantly toward the zone center in the range of the transition temperature, indicating the Na+/Bi3+ vibration instability against TiO6 octahedra during the T-R phase transition. Strong inelastic diffuse scattering shows up near M(1.5, 0.5, 0) and R(1.5, 1.5, 0.5) in the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases, respectively, indicating the condensations of the M3 and R25 optic modes for the corresponding transitions. This reveals the different rotation instabilities of TiO6 in the corresponding transition temperature range. Bottleneck or waterfall features were observed in the dispersion curves at certain temperatures but did not show close correlations to the formation of polar nanoregions. Additional instabilities could be the origin of the complexity of phase transitions and crystallographic structures in NBT.

  5. Anisotropic phonon coupling in the relaxor ferroelectric (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 near its high-temperature phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ling; Toulouse, Jean; Luo, Haosu; Tian, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The lead free relaxor Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) undergoes a structural cubic-to-tetragonal transition near 800 K which is caused by the cooperative rotations of O6 octahedra. These rotations are also accompanied by the displacements of the cations and the formation of the polar nanodomains (PNDs) that are responsible for the characteristic dielectric dispersion of relaxor ferroelectrics. Because of their intrinsic properties, spontaneous polarization, and lack of inversion symmetry, these PNDs are also piezoelectric and can mediate an interaction between polarization and strain or couple the optic and acoustic phonons. Because PNDs introduce a local tetragonal symmetry, the phonon coupling they mediate is found to be anisotropic. In this paper we present inelastic neutron scattering results on coupled transverse acoustic (TA) and transverse optic (TO) phonons in the [110] and [001] directions and across the cubic-tetragonal phase transition at TC˜800 K. The phonon spectra are analyzed using a mode coupling model. In the [110] direction, as in other relaxors and some ferroelectric perovskites, a precipitous drop of the TO phonon into the TA branch or "waterfall" is observed at a certain qwf˜0.14 r.l.u. In the [001] direction, the highly overdamped line shape can be fitted with closely positioned bare mode energies which are largely overlapping along the dispersion curves. Two competing lattice coupling mechanism are proposed to explain these observations.

  6. Reconciling Local Structure Disorder and the Relaxor State in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3

    PubMed Central

    Groszewicz, Pedro B.; Gröting, Melanie; Breitzke, Hergen; Jo, Wook; Albe, Karsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics are key functional materials indispensable for the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric transducers. Currently there are strong efforts to develop novel environmentally benign lead-free relaxor materials. The structural origins of the relaxor state and the role of composition modifications in these lead-free materials are still not well understood. In the present contribution, the solid-solution (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-xBT), a prototypic lead-free relaxor is studied by the combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT). For the first time it is shown that the peculiar composition dependence of the EFG distribution width (ΔQISwidth) correlates strongly to the dispersion in dielectric permittivity, a fingerprint of the relaxor state. Significant disorder is found in the local structure of BNT-xBT, as indicated by the analysis of the electric field gradient (EFG) in 23Na 3QMAS NMR spectra. Aided by DFT calculations, this disorder is attributed to a continuous unimodal distribution of octahedral tilting. These results contrast strongly to the previously proposed coexistence of two octahedral tilt systems in BNT-xBT. Based on these results, we propose that considerable octahedral tilt disorder may be a general feature of these oxides and essential for their relaxor properties. PMID:27545094

  7. Precise measurement of the Stark shift within the 5P1/2 -->6S1/2 transition in 115In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, A. T.; Ranjit, G.; Majumder, P. K.

    2011-05-01

    We are pursuing a series of precise atomic structure measurements in Group IIIA elements--currently thallium and indium--designed to test recent ab initio theoretical calculations in these systems. In indium, a two-step, two-color vapor cell hyperfine spectroscopy experiment was recently completed in our laboratory. Previously, an atomic beam system in conjunction with a thallium oven source and high-voltage field plates was used to complete a precise scalar polarizability measurement in thallium. In our current work, we have designed a new indium atomic beam source, and are pursuing a precision measurement of the indium atomic polarizability within the 410 nm 5P 1/2 --> 6S1/2 transition. The new source is capable of reaching 1100 °C and contains a series of parallel effusive slits to produce a dense, collimated beam of indium. We intersect the laser transversely with the atomic beam in the presence of a precisely calibrated electric field of 30 kV/cm. Frequency modulation of the laser, and simultaneous piezoelectric modulation of the atomic beam allows a dual-frequency lock-in detection scheme. This produces a zero-background atomic absorption spectrum of high signal-to-noise ratio. Our goal is to achieve a polarizability measurement at the 1% level of accuracy or better, which will provide a stringent new test of the atomic theory calculations.

  8. Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of Ba(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3-BiFeO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manotham, S.; Butnoi, P.; Jaita, P.; Pinitsoontorn, S.; Sweatman, D.; Eitssayeam, S.; Pengpat, K.; Rujijanagul, G.

    2016-11-01

    The properties of (1- x)Ba(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3- xBiFeO3 [(1- x)BFT- xBFO] ( x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) ceramics have been investigated. (1- x)BFT- xBFO powders were synthesized by a modified two-step calcination technique, and ceramics were fabricated by a conventional technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the modified ceramics exhibited a mixture of BFT cubic phase and BFO rhombohedral phase. The peaks shift increased with increasing BFO content to a maximum value for the composition with x = 0.5. The overall shift of the XRD patterns indicated distortion of the unit cell, which may be due to ions from BFO entering the BFT lattice. BFO additive promoted grain growth, while the maximum density of the studied ceramics was observed for the x = 0.1 composition. The modified ceramics presented enhanced thermal and frequency stability of the dielectric constant. BFO additive also reduced the loss tangent for the system. Improvement of the magnetic behavior was observed after adding BFO. Furthermore, all the ceramics, including pure BFT (a nonmagnetic phase at room temperature), presented a magnetocapacitance effect, which can be related to magnetoresistance along with Maxwell-Wagner polarization effects.

  9. Dielectric Relaxation In Complex Perovskite Sm(Ni{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nishant; Prasad, S.; Sinha, T. P.

    2011-11-22

    The complex perovskite oxide Samarium nickel titenate, Sm(Ni{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}(SNT) is synthesized by a solid-state reaction technique. The X-ray diffraction of the sample at room temperature shows a monoclinic phase. The scanning micrograph of the sample shows the average grain size{approx_equal}0.6{mu}m The field dependence of dielectric response and the loss tangent of the sample are measured in a frequency range from 100Hz to 1MHz and in a temperature range from 313 K to 673 K. An analysis of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity with frequency is performed, assuming a distribution of relaxation times as confirmed by Cole-Cole plots. The frequency dependent electrical data are analyzed in the framework of conductivity formalism. The frequency dependent conductivity data are fitted to the universal power law. All these formalisms provided for qualitative similarities in the relaxation times.

  10. Site engineering in chemical solution deposited Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 thin films using Mn acceptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chao; Yang, Changhong; Geng, Fangjuan; Lv, Panpan; Yao, Qian

    2016-02-01

    A series of Mn doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) thin films with dopant concentrations from 0 to 4 at% (NBTMn x , x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04) were fabricated on the indium tin oxide/glass substrates by chemical solution deposition. The effects of Mn doping content on crystalline, ferroelectric and dielectric properties were investigated. All thin films exhibit phase-pure polycrystalline perovskite structures. For the insulating measurement, at low electric field, space charge limited conduction or a grain boundary limited behavior is responsible for the leakage behavior of NBTMn x thin films, whereas at the high electric field, the dominant mechanism is changed to the interface-limited Fowler-Nordheim tunneling except NBTMn0.04. The leakage current density is reduced by more than three orders of magnitude in NBTMn0.02 compared with that of NBT thin film. Also, the enhanced ferroelectric properties of NBTMn0.02 thin film can be observed in polarization-electric filed hysteresis loop with P r of 38 μC cm-2, which is consistent with the result of the normalized capacitance-voltage curve. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor of NBTMn0.02 thin film are 501 and 0.04, respectively at 100 kHz. These electrical property improvements are attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancy-induced leakage current.

  11. Preparation and dielectric properties of the lead-free BaFe1/2Nb1/2O3 ceramics obtained from mechanically triggered powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Dariusz; Niemiec, Przemysław; Szafraniak-Wiza, Izabela; Adamczyk, Małgorzata; Skulski, Ryszard

    2015-10-01

    In the paper the influence of mechanical activation of the powder on the final dielectric properties lead-free Ba(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 (BFN) ceramic was examined. The BFN ceramics were obtained by 3-steps route. Firstly, the substrates were pre-homogenized in a planetary ball mill. Than, the powder was activated in vibratory mill (the shaker type SPEX 8000 Mixer Mill) for different duration between 25 h and 100 h. The influence of the milling time on the BFN powder was monitored by X-ray diffraction. The diffraction data confirmed that the milling process of the starting components is accompanied by partial synthesis of the BFN materials. The longer of the high-energy milling duration the powders results in increasing the amount of amorphous/nanocrystalline content. The mechanically activated materials were sintered in order to obtain the ceramic samples. During this temperature treatment the final crystallisation of the powder appeared what was confirmed by XRD studies. The performed dielectric measurements have revealed the reduction of the dielectric loss of the BFN ceramics compared to materials obtained by classic methods.

  12. Multielectronic conduction in La1-xSrxGa1/2Mn1/2O3-δ as solid oxide fuel cell cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, E.; Hashimoto, Y.; Kurumada, M.; Munakata, F.

    2003-08-01

    Four-probe dc conductivities, capacitances, and thermopower have been measured in the temperature range of 80-1123 K for La1-xSrxGa1/2Mn1/2O3-δ, which is a desirable cathode material for lanthanum-gallate electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells. The dc conductivities in the specimens (0.1⩽x⩽0.3) are insensitive to x but the thermopower is very sensitive to x, although the x=0 specimen exhibits a somewhat different conduction behavior. At T<300 K, a relaxation process has shown in dielectric loss factor with the activation energy higher than that for dc conduction in every specimen. These results at T<300 K have been numerically analyzed within the framework of the multielectronic conduction consisting of the polaronic conduction of Mn 3d eg holes created by Sr doping, the band conduction of O 2p holes and the hopping conduction of Mn 3d eg electrons, where the O 2p holes and Mn 3d eg electrons are created by thermal excitation of electrons from O 2p bands to Mn 3d eg narrow bands. At T>500 K, the band conduction dominates the electronic transports. The ionic conduction due to O2- migration seems difficult to contribute directly to the dc conduction even at high temperature.

  13. FGF2 Stimulates COUP-TFII Expression via the MEK1/2 Pathway to Inhibit Osteoblast Differentiation in C3H10T1/2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Nam; Kim, Jung-Woo; Oh, Sin-Hye; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates many key biological processes, including organ development and cell fate determination. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFII have been studied extensively, little is known about what regulates its gene expression, especially the role of inducible extracellular factors in triggering it. Here we report that COUP-TFII expression is regulated specifically by fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which mediates activation of the MEK1/2 pathway in mesenchymal lineage C3H10T1/2 cells. Although FGF2 treatment increased cell proliferation, the induction of COUP-TFII expression was dispensable. Instead, FGF2-primed cells in which COUP-TFII expression was induced showed a low potential for osteoblast differentiation, as evidenced by decreases in alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic marker gene expression. Reducing COUP-TFII by U0126 or siRNA against COUP-TFII prevented the anti-osteogenic effect of FGF2, indicating that COUP-TFII plays a key role in the FGF2-mediated determination of osteoblast differentiation capability. This report is the first to suggest that FGF2 is an extracellular inducer of COUP-TFII expression and may suppress the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal cells by inducing COUP-TFII expression prior to the onset of osteogenic differentiation. PMID:27404388

  14. 1,2,4-Diazaphospholide complexes of barium: mechanism of formation and crystallographic characterization.

    PubMed

    Pi, Chengfu; Wan, Li; Liu, Weiping; Pan, Zaifu; Wu, Haoyu; Wang, Yunhua; Zheng, Wenjun; Weng, Linhong; Chen, Zhenxia; Wu, Limin

    2009-04-06

    A number of barium 1,2,4-diazaphospholide (dp(-)) complexes have been prepared by protonolysis of barium bis[bis(trimethylsilyl)]amide (Ba[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2)(THF)(2)) and the corresponding 1,2,4-diazaphospholes. The bis(3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-diazaphospholide)-tetrakis(tetrahydrofuran)barium [eta(2)(N,N)-3,5-Ph(2)dp)(2)Ba(THF)(4)] (1) and bis(3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-diazaphospholide)-tetrakis(dimethylsulfoxide)barium [eta(2)(N,N)-3,5-Ph(2)dp)(2)Ba(DMSO)(4)] (2) were prepared by the reactions of Ba[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2)(THF)(2) and 3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-diazaphosphole (H[3,5-Ph(2)dp]) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), respectively, while the bis(3,5-disubstituted-1,2,4-diazaphospholide)-(18-crown-6) barium complexes [trans-eta(2)(N,N)-dp)(2)Ba(18-crown-6)] (3), [cis-eta(2)(N,N)-tBu(2)dp)(2)Ba(18-crown-6)] (4), [trans-eta(2)(N,N)-tBu(2)dp)(2)Ba(18-crown-6)] (5), [cis-eta(2)(N,N)-Ph(2)dp)(2)Ba(18-crown-6)] (6), and [trans-eta(2)(N,N)-Ph(2)dp)(2)Ba(18-crown-6)] (7) were synthesized by the reaction of Ba[N(SiMe(3))(2)](2)(THF)(2) and the corresponding 1,2,4-diazaphospholes in the presence of 18-crown-6 in THF or DMSO. Complexes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7 have been structurally characterized. Complex 4 is the first structurally characterized barium complex in which the two organic ligands are located on the same side of 18-crown-6 (cis conformation). The (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectra suggested a partial dissociation of the barium 1,2,4-diazaphospholides 2, 4, and 7 into the corresponding ion associated complexes in solutions.

  15. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues.

    PubMed

    Subashini, R; Bharathi, A; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC(50) values of 25.02 mg/L (r(2)=0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r(2)=0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  16. Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to 1,2-Propanediol Over Clay Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Jung, Jae-Sun; Yang, Eun-Hyeok; Lee, Kwan-Young; Moon, Dong Ju

    2015-11-01

    1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) is one of the promising product among the valuable products derived from glycerol and it can be obtained by the catalytic hydrogenolysis of glycerol. Copper-supported clay-based catalysts were prepared with different pore sizes using various ratios of kaolin, Mg, and Al by coprecipitation and applied in the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-PDO. In recent research, variations of pore volume and pore size could affect the diffusion of reagents within the catalyst due to the collision between reagents or pore wall and reagents. It changes selectivities of each product in hydrogenolysis of glycerol reaction. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were analyzed by XRD, N2 physisorption, TPR, CO2-TPD, SEM, and a mercury porosimeter. The Cu/TALCITE 4 catalyst showed 98% 1,2-PDO selectivity with 65% glycerol conversion under the optimized condition of 190 degrees C, 25 bar, and 20 wt% glycerol aqueous solution. It was found that the basic strength and meso-macro pore structure of the catalysts play an important role in glycerol conversion and 1,2-PDO selectivity.

  17. Temporal gradients in shear stimulate osteoblastic proliferation via ERK1/2 and retinoblastoma protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Guang-Liang; White, Charles R.; Stevens, Hazel Y.; Frangos, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Bone cells are subject to interstitial fluid flow (IFF) driven by venous pressure and mechanical loading. Rapid dynamic changes in mechanical loading cause transient gradients in IFF. The effects of pulsatile flow (temporal gradients in fluid shear) on rat UMR106 cells and rat primary osteoblastic cells were studied. Pulsatile flow induced a 95% increase in S-phase UMR106 cells compared with static controls. In contrast, ramped steady flow stimulated only a 3% increase. Similar patterns of S-phase induction were also observed in rat primary osteoblastic cells. Pulsatile flow significantly increased relative UMR106 cell number by 37 and 62% at 1.5 and 24 h, respectively. Pulsatile flow also significantly increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation by 418%, whereas ramped steady flow reduced ERK1/2 activation to 17% of control. Correspondingly, retinoblastoma protein was significantly phosphorylated by pulsatile fluid flow. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 by U0126 (a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor) reduced shear-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. These findings suggest that temporal gradients in fluid shear stress are potent stimuli of bone cell proliferation.

  18. Nox4 and Duox1/2 Mediate Redox Activation of Mesenchymal Cell Migration by PDGF.

    PubMed

    Tyurin-Kuzmin, Pyotr A; Zhdanovskaya, Nadezhda D; Sukhova, Anna A; Sagaradze, George D; Albert, Eugene A; Ageeva, Ludmila V; Sharonov, George V; Vorotnikov, Alexander V; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A

    2016-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) orchestrates wound healing and tissue regeneration by regulating recruitment of the precursor mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and fibroblasts. PDGF stimulates generation of hydrogen peroxide that is required for cell migration, but the sources and intracellular targets of H2O2 remain obscure. Here we demonstrate sustained live responses of H2O2 to PDGF and identify PKB/Akt, but not Erk1/2, as the target for redox regulation in cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and MSC. Apocynin, cell-permeable catalase and LY294002 inhibited PDGF-induced migration and mitotic activity of these cells indicating involvement of PI3-kinase pathway and H2O2. Real-time PCR revealed Nox4 and Duox1/2 as the potential sources of H2O2. Silencing of Duox1/2 in fibroblasts or Nox4 in MSC reduced PDGF-stimulated intracellular H2O2, PKB/Akt phosphorylation and migration, but had no such effect on Erk1/2. In contrast to PDGF, EGF failed to increase cytoplasmic H2O2, phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and migration of fibroblasts and MSC, confirming the critical impact of redox signaling. We conclude that PDGF-induced migration of mesenchymal cells requires Nox4 and Duox1/2 enzymes, which mediate redox-sensitive activation of PI3-kinase pathway and PKB/Akt.

  19. Enzyme IIANtr Regulates Salmonella Invasion Via 1,2-Propanediol And Propionate Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Woongjae; Kim, Dajeong; Yoon, Hyunjin; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria possess a nitrogen-metabolic phosphotransferase system (PTSNtr) consisting of EINtr, NPr, and EIIANtr (encoded by ptsP, ptsO, and ptsN, respectively). The PTSNtr plays diverse regulatory roles, but the substrate phosphorylated by EIIANtr and its primary functions have not yet been identified. To comprehensively understand the roles of PTSNtr in Salmonella Typhimurium, we compared the whole transcriptomes of wild-type and a ΔptsN mutant. Genome-wide RNA sequencing revealed that 3.5% of the annotated genes were up- or down-regulated by three-fold or more in the absence of EIIANtr. The ΔptsN mutant significantly down-regulated the expression of genes involved in vitamin B12 synthesis, 1,2-propanediol utilization, and propionate catabolism. Moreover, the invasiveness of the ΔptsN mutant increased about 5-fold when 1,2-propanediol or propionate was added, which was attributable to the increased stability of HilD, the transcriptional regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island-1. Interestingly, an abundance of 1,2-propanediol or propionate promoted the production of EIIANtr, suggesting the possibility of a positive feedback loop between EIIANtr and two catabolic pathways. These results demonstrate that EIIANtr is a key factor for the utilization of 1,2-propanediol and propionate as carbon and energy sources, and thereby modulates the invasiveness of Salmonella via 1,2-propanediol or propionate catabolism. PMID:28333132

  20. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, R.; Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50 mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC50 values of 25.02 mg/L (r2 = 0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r2 = 0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  1. Three 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing substituted benzyl and benzylamino groups.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Veysel T; Kazak, Canan; Ağar, Erbil; Kahveci, Bahittin; Guven, Kutalmis

    2005-02-01

    The title compounds, 4-benzylamino-3-(4-methylbenzyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one, C17H18N4O, (I), 3-(4-methylbenzyl)-4-(4-methylbenzylamino)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one, C18H20N4O, (II), and 3-(4-chlorobenzyl)-4-(4-methylbenzylamino)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one, C17H17ClN4O, (III), were obtained from the corresponding Schiff base in the presence of diglyme and NaBH(4). Each compound contains a 1,2,4-triazole ring and two benzene rings, which are essentially planar. The molecules are linked by a combination of intermolecular N-H...O and N-H...N hydrogen bonds. Additionally, there is a weak pi-pi stacking interaction in (I), involving the benzene ring of the aminobenzyl group and the partially aromatic 1,2,4-triazole moiety, with a centroid-centroid distance of 3.7397 (10) A.

  2. Nox4 and Duox1/2 Mediate Redox Activation of Mesenchymal Cell Migration by PDGF

    PubMed Central

    Sukhova, Anna A.; Sagaradze, George D.; Albert, Eugene A.; Ageeva, Ludmila V.; Sharonov, George V.; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) orchestrates wound healing and tissue regeneration by regulating recruitment of the precursor mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and fibroblasts. PDGF stimulates generation of hydrogen peroxide that is required for cell migration, but the sources and intracellular targets of H2O2 remain obscure. Here we demonstrate sustained live responses of H2O2 to PDGF and identify PKB/Akt, but not Erk1/2, as the target for redox regulation in cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and MSC. Apocynin, cell-permeable catalase and LY294002 inhibited PDGF-induced migration and mitotic activity of these cells indicating involvement of PI3-kinase pathway and H2O2. Real-time PCR revealed Nox4 and Duox1/2 as the potential sources of H2O2. Silencing of Duox1/2 in fibroblasts or Nox4 in MSC reduced PDGF-stimulated intracellular H2O2, PKB/Akt phosphorylation and migration, but had no such effect on Erk1/2. In contrast to PDGF, EGF failed to increase cytoplasmic H2O2, phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and migration of fibroblasts and MSC, confirming the critical impact of redox signaling. We conclude that PDGF-induced migration of mesenchymal cells requires Nox4 and Duox1/2 enzymes, which mediate redox-sensitive activation of PI3-kinase pathway and PKB/Akt. PMID:27110716

  3. Arabidopsis AIP1-2 restricted by WER-mediated patterning modulates planar polarity

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Christian S.; Claes, Andrea R.; Nzayisenga, Jean-Claude; Pietra, Stefano; Stanislas, Thomas; Hüser, Anke; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Grebe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) is crucial for the development of diverse multicellular organisms. Small Rac/Rho-family GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton contribute to planar polarity formation at sites of polarity establishment in animals and plants. Yet, upstream pathways coordinating planar polarity differ strikingly between kingdoms. In the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, a concentration gradient of the phytohormone auxin coordinates polar recruitment of Rho-of-plant (ROP) to sites of polar epidermal hair initiation. However, little is known about cytoskeletal components and interactions that contribute to this planar polarity or about their relation to the patterning machinery. Here, we show that ACTIN7 (ACT7) represents a main actin isoform required for planar polarity of root hair positioning, interacting with the negative modulator ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2 (AIP1-2). ACT7, AIP1-2 and their genetic interaction are required for coordinated planar polarity of ROP downstream of ethylene signalling. Strikingly, AIP1-2 displays hair cell file-enriched expression, restricted by WEREWOLF (WER)-dependent patterning and modified by ethylene and auxin action. Hence, our findings reveal AIP1-2, expressed under control of the WER-dependent patterning machinery and the ethylene signalling pathway, as a modulator of actin-mediated planar polarity. PMID:25428588

  4. Arabidopsis AIP1-2 restricted by WER-mediated patterning modulates planar polarity.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Christian S; Claes, Andrea R; Nzayisenga, Jean-Claude; Pietra, Stefano; Stanislas, Thomas; Hüser, Anke; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Grebe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) is crucial for the development of diverse multicellular organisms. Small Rac/Rho-family GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton contribute to planar polarity formation at sites of polarity establishment in animals and plants. Yet, upstream pathways coordinating planar polarity differ strikingly between kingdoms. In the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, a concentration gradient of the phytohormone auxin coordinates polar recruitment of Rho-of-plant (ROP) to sites of polar epidermal hair initiation. However, little is known about cytoskeletal components and interactions that contribute to this planar polarity or about their relation to the patterning machinery. Here, we show that ACTIN7 (ACT7) represents a main actin isoform required for planar polarity of root hair positioning, interacting with the negative modulator ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2 (AIP1-2). ACT7, AIP1-2 and their genetic interaction are required for coordinated planar polarity of ROP downstream of ethylene signalling. Strikingly, AIP1-2 displays hair cell file-enriched expression, restricted by WEREWOLF (WER)-dependent patterning and modified by ethylene and auxin action. Hence, our findings reveal AIP1-2, expressed under control of the WER-dependent patterning machinery and the ethylene signalling pathway, as a modulator of actin-mediated planar polarity.

  5. Production of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine by bonito muscle lysophosphatidylcholine/transacylase.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kaoru; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Matsuura, Fumito; Satouchi, Kiyoshi; Koike, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), which has highly unsaturated fatty acid at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of glycerol, is a characteristic molecular species of bonito muscle. To examine the involvement of a de novo route in its synthesis, the molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA) were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a 1,3-bis[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]propan-2-olato dizinc(II) complex, a novel phosphate-capture molecule. However, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl species could not be detected. Next, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC synthesis by the cytosolic lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)/transacylase was examined using endogenous LPC from bonito muscle, in which the 2-docosahexaenoyl species is abundant. The LPC/transacylase synthesized 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC as the most abundant molecular species. For further characterization, the LPC/transacylase was purified to homogeneity from the 100,000 x g supernatant of bonito muscle. The isolated LPC/transacylase is a labile glycoprotein with molecular mass of 52 kDa including a 5-kDa sugar moiety. The LPC/transacylase showed a PC synthesis (transacylase activity) below and above the critical micelle concentration of substrate LPC, and fatty acid release (lysophospholipase activity) was always smaller than the transacylase activity, even with a monomeric substrate. These results suggest that the LPC/transacylase is responsible for the synthesis of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC.

  6. Conversion of 1,2-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhenjun; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2014-07-17

    We have studied the reactions of 1,2-propylene glycol (1,2-PG), DOCH(CH3)CH2OD, on partially reduced, hydroxylated and oxidized TiO2(110) surfaces using temperature programmed desorption. On reduced TiO2(110), propylene, propanal, and acetone are identified as primary carbon-containing products. While the propylene formation channel dominates at low 1,2-PG coverages, all of the above-mentioned products are observed at high coverages. The carbon-containing products are accompanied by the formation of D2O and D2. The observation of only deuterated products shows that the source of hydrogen (D) is from the 1,2-PG hydroxyls. The role of bridging oxygen vacancy (VO) sites was further investigated by titrating them via hydroxylation and oxidation. The results show that hydroxylation does not change the reactivity because the VO sites are regenerated at 500 K, which is a temperature lower than the 1,2-PG product formation temperature. In contrast, surface oxidation causes significant changes in the product distribution, with increased acetone and propanal formation and decreased propylene formation. Additionally D2 is completely eliminated as an observed product at the expense of D2O formation.

  7. Systematically engineering Escherichia coli for enhanced production of 1,2-propanediol and 1-propanol.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rachit; Sun, Xinxiao; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2015-06-19

    The biological production of high value commodity 1,2-propanediol has been established by engineering the glycolysis pathway. However, the simultaneous achievement of high titer and high yield has not been reported yet, as all efforts in increasing the titer have resulted in low yields. In this work, we overcome this limitation by employing an optimal minimal set of enzymes, channeling the carbon flux into the 1,2-propanediol pathway, increasing NADH availability, and improving the anaerobic growth of the engineered Escherichia coli strain by developing a cell adaptation method. These efforts lead to 1,2-propanediol production at a titer of 5.13 g/L with a yield of 0.48 g/g glucose in 20 mL shake flask studies. On this basis, we pursue the enhancement of 1-propanol production from the 1,2-propanediol platform. By constructing a fusion diol dehydratase and developing a dual strain process, we achieve a 1-propanol titer of 2.91 g/L in 20 mL shake flask studies. To summarize, we report the production of 1,2-propanediol at enhanced titer and enhanced yield simultaneously in E. coli for the first time. Furthermore, we establish an efficient system for the production of biofuel 1-propanol biologically.

  8. D 1 , 2 (RN) versus C (RN) local minimizer and a Hopf-type maximum principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Siegfried; Costa, David G.; Tehrani, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    We consider functionals of the form Φ (u) =1/2∫RN | ∇u|2 -∫RN b (x) G (u) on D 1 , 2 (RN), N ≥ 3, whose critical points are the weak solutions of a corresponding elliptic equation in the whole RN. We present a Brezis-Nirenberg type result and a Hopf-type maximum principle in the context of the space D 1 , 2 (RN). More precisely, we prove that a local minimizer of Φ in the topology of the subspace V must be a local minimizer of Φ in the D 1 , 2 (RN)-topology, where V is given by V : = { v ∈D 1 , 2 (RN) : v ∈ C (RN)withsupx∈RN ⁡ (1 + | x| N - 2) | v (x) | < ∞ }. It is well-known that the Brezis-Nirenberg result has been proved a strong tool in the study of multiple solutions for elliptic boundary value problems in bounded domains. We believe that the result obtained in this paper may play a similar role for elliptic problems in RN.

  9. Controls and constrains of the membrane disrupting action of Aurein 1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmiri, Mahdi; Enciso, Marta; Mechler, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Aurein 1.2 is a 13 residue antimicrobial peptide secreted by the Australian tree frog Litoria Aurea. It is a surface-acting membrane disrupting peptide that permeabilizes bacterial membranes via the carpet mechanism; the molecular details of this process are mostly unknown. Here the mechanism of action of Aurein 1.2 was investigated with an emphasis on the role of membrane charge and C-terminal amidation of the peptide. Using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) fingerprinting it was found that the membrane charge correlates with membrane affinity of the peptide, however the binding and the membrane disrupting processes are not charge driven; increased membrane charge reduces the membrane disrupting activity. Coarse grain simulations revealed that phenylalanine residues act as membrane anchors. Accordingly Aurein 1.2 has the ability to bind to any membrane. Furthermore, bundling precludes membrane disruption in case of wild type peptides, while non C-terminal amidated peptides form random aggregates leading to detachment from the membrane. Hence C-terminal amidation is crucial for Aurein 1.2 action. Our results suggest that Aurein 1.2 acts via aggregation driven membrane penetration. The concomitant change in the tension of the outer leaflet imposes a spontaneous curvature on the membrane, leading to disintegration.

  10. Metal complexes with some 3-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacesi, Marcella; Devoto, Gerolamo; Gelli, Gioanna

    1985-01-01

    Complexes of empirical formula M(L) 2X 2 were synthesized and characterized, where L = 5-methyl-3-(2,4,6-trimethoxiphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (topho), M = Zn(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Pd(II), Pt(II), X = Cl, M = Pd(II), Pt(II), X = Br, M = Zn(II), X = I; L = 5-methy]-3-(3,5-dichloro,2,4,6-trimethyl-phenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (ctpho), M = Cu(II), Co(II), X = Cl; L = 5-methyl-3-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (tpho), M = Cu(II), X = Cl. Magnetic, spectral, conductivity and elemental analysis data indicate that the ligands always act as monodentate, N-bonded. The Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes are square planar and all the other derivatives are tetrahedral.

  11. Synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives and in vitro antifungal evaluation on Candida strains.

    PubMed

    Lima-Neto, Reginaldo G; Cavalcante, Nery N M; Srivastava, Rajendra M; Mendonça Junior, Francisco J B; Wanderley, Almir G; Neves, Rejane P; dos Anjos, Janaína V

    2012-05-16

    1,2,3-Triazoles have been extensively studied as compounds possessing important biological activities. In this work, we describe the synthesis of ten 2-(1-aryl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)propan-2-ols via copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc or click chemistry). Next the in vitro antifungal activity of these ten compounds was evaluated using the microdilution broth method against 42 isolates of four different Candida species. Among all tested compounds, the halogen substituted triazole 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-(1,2,3)triazol-4-yl]propan-2-ol, revealed the best antifungal profile, showing that further modifications could be done in the structure to obtain a better drug candidate in the future.

  12. Compression behavior of quaternary and higher order solid-solution L1(2) trialuminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    Results from preliminary studies undertaken to evaluate the existence of single-phase L1(2) solid solutions between pairs of ternary L1(2) trialuminides are presented. Two-kilogram ingots of selected quaternary compositions were cast, homogenized and forged into pancakes; compression specimens were machined from the forgings and tested as a function of temperature. The results are compared against existing data for the ternary alloys. The ternary L1(2) trialuminides Al66Ti25Mn9, Al67Ti25Cr8, and Al22Ti8Fe3 were found to exhibit continuous solubility in one another. The quaternary Cr-Mn composition does not indicate any strength advantage over its ternary counterparts. The continuous replacement of Mn with Fe enhances the strength of the quaternary compound over the ternary Al66Ti25 Mn9.

  13. Pc1-2 activity and energetic electron precipitation in the polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francia, Patrizia; De Lauretis, Marcello; Regi, Mauro; Pezzopane, Michael; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Spogli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    A possible driver of the precipitation of magnetospheric energetic electron is represented by EMIC or Pc1-2 magnetospheric waves, which can induce the electron precipitation process through pitch angle scattering by gyro-resonant interaction. We present a study on the correlation between the occurrence of Pc1-2 waves and the precipitation of energetic electrons in the high latitude ionosphere. We used ULF geomagnetic measurements at Mario Zucchelli Station (Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica) to identify Pc1-2 events. In correspondence to such events, analyses are done to look for possible signatures of the precipitating particles in the ionospheric parameters provided by the ionosonde and GPS receiver at Mario Zucchelli Station.

  14. Aromatic fluorine compounds. II. 1,2,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzene and related compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.; Burness, D.M.; Fort, D.M.; Blough, R.R.

    1951-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene and a group of bromofluoro and chlorofluorobenzenes with a predominating 1,2,4,5-structure are described. Flash point and surface tension data for the fluorinated benzenes and the influence of chlorine substitution upon these values were studied. Under nitration conditions, 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene will not form a nitro derivative, but will undergo a preferential 1,4-fluorine displacement-oxidation mechanism to give 2,5-difluoro-1,4-benzoquinone. Diazotization reactions on 2-nitro-3,4,6-trifluoroaniline reveal that the nitro group or a fluorine atom in the 4- or 6-position may become labilized, under certain conditions, and undergo replacement.

  15. Discovery of Diphenyl Amine Based Sodium Channel Blockers, Effective Against hNav1.2

    PubMed Central

    Hudgens, Debjani P.; Taylor, Catherine; Batts, Timothy W.; Patel, Manoj K.; Brown, Milton L.

    2009-01-01

    The development of new therapies for chronic pain is an area of unmet medical need. Central to pathways of chronic pain is the upregulation of voltage gated sodium channels. The use of tricyclic antidepressants, which also have sodium channel activity, in chronic pain therapy prompted us to develop novel compounds from this scaffold. Herein, we show that the tricyclic moiety is not needed for effective inhibition of the [3H]-BTX binding site and sodium currents of hNav1.2. Our lead compound (6), containing a diphenyl amine motif demonstrated a 53.2% inhibitory block of Nav1.2 current at 10 μM, which is greater than 50% increase in current block in comparison to the amitriptyline standard. Altogether our study establishes that the tricyclic motif is unnecessary for hNav1.2 activity and modification of the amine portion is detrimental to sodium channel block. PMID:17035036

  16. Characteristics of Dy/W( 1 1 2 ) thin films during epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslemzadeh, N.; Barrett, S. D.; Ledieu, J.

    2002-12-01

    At RT a laminar growth has been found for Dy on W(1 1 2). For coverages more than 1 ML, epitaxial relations of Dy(0 0 0 1)∥W(1 1 2) with Dy[1 1 2¯ 0]∥W[1 1 1¯] were found. The high background intensity and the limited energy range over which the Dy LEED spots were visible suggests that the film was not well ordered. STM studies showed that the development of the second monolayer involved chain-like atomic rows, with irregular lengths and distances, on top of the first monolayer. For five monolayer films, flat terraces of Dy were observed by STM. Growth at 470 and 570 K was also found to be laminar, but LEED produced patterns with streaks.

  17. Microbial Hydroxylation of 5-Anilino-1,2,3,4-Thiatriazole

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Robert J.; Longfield, Thomas H.

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-five fungi, including 100 basidiomycetes and 35 yeasts, 75 actinomycetes, and 40 bacteria were screened for their ability to convert 5-anilino-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (AT) to 5-(p-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (p-HT). Eleven cultures were found that formed p-HT, which was isolated and whose structure was determined. Aspergillus tamarii NRRL 3280 formed 8.6 g of p-HT/liter from 10 g of AT/liter (78.9% conversion) in shaken flasks and 4.57 g of p-HT/liter from 6 g of AT/liter (69.8% conversion) in 30-liter fermentors. Washed cells of A. tamarii NRRL 3280 also carried out this conversion. 5-(o-hydroxyanilino)-1,2,3,4-thiatriazole (o-HT) was identified as a second product formed by Aspergillus terreus NRRL 1960. PMID:4699219

  18. Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol via 1,2,4-benzenetriol by an Arthrobacter sp.

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.K.; Spain, J.C.; Dreisbach, J.H.

    1994-08-01

    The degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) by Moraxella and Pseudomonas spp. involves an initial monooxygenase-catalyzed removal of the nitro group. The resultant hydroquinone is subject to ring fission catalyzed by a dioxygenase enzyme. A strain of an Arthrobacter sp. JS443, capable of degrading PNP with stoichiometric release of nitrite has been isolated. During induction of the enzymes required for growth on PNP, 1,2,4-benzenetriol was identified as an intermediate by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and radiotracer studies. 1,2,4-Benzenetriol was converted to maleylacetic acid, which was further degraded by the beta-ketoadipate pathway. Conversion of PNP to 1,2,4-benzenetriol is catalyzed by a monooxygenase system in strain JS443 through the formation of 4-nitrocatechol, 4-nitroresorcinol, or both. Results clearly indicate the existence of an alternative pathway for the biodegradation of PNP. 15 refs, 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Syntheses and Degradations of Fluorinated Heterocyclics. 2; Perfluoroalkyl and Perfluroalkylether-1,2,4-Oxadiazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. J. L.; Kratzer, R. H.; Kaufman, J.; Nakahara, J. H.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    3-Perfluoroalkylether-5-perfluoro-n-heptyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole and 3,S-bis(perfluoroalkylether)-1,2,4-oxadiazole were synthesized and characterized. The 3, 5-bis(perfluoroalkylether)-l, 2,4-oxadiazole was subjected to thermal, thermal oxidative, and hydrolytic degradations at 235 and 325 C and was found to be stable under these conditions as evidenced by practically quantitative recovery of the test samples. In the presence of Jet-A fuel at 235 C a low degree of degradation, approximately 4%, was observed. 3,5-Bis(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole was found to be stable to attack by water at 325 C; however in air in the presence of jet-A at 235 C the extent of degradation was in excess of 10%.

  20. Dynamic properties of spin-1/2 XY chains (in English)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzhko, O.; Krokhmalskii, T.

    We have considered a numerical scheme for the calculation of the equilibrium properties of spin-{1/2} XY chains. Within its frames it is necessary to solve in the last resort only the 2N× 2N eigenvalue and eigenvector problem but not the 2^N× 2^N one as for an arbitrary system consisting of N spins {1/2}. To illustrate the approach we have presented some new results. Namely, the xx dynamic structure factor for the Ising model in transverse field, the density of states for the isotropic chain with random intersite couplings and transverse fields that linearly depend on the surrounding couplings, and the zz dynamic structure factor for the Ising model in the random transverse field. The results obtained are hoped to be useful for an interpretation of observable data for one-dimensional spin-{1/2} XY substances.

  1. Stereospecific microbial conversion of lactic acid into 1,2-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wei; Guo, Jiantao

    2015-04-17

    Biocatalytic syntheses are increasingly explored as the alternate platform of chemical production in order to address the sustainable development challenge faced by the current chemical industry. Here, we report the design and implementation of an artificial pathway to convert lactic acid into 1,2-propanediol. It circumvents a highly cytotoxic intermediate that exists in a widely used natural pathway. We identified and characterized a key enzyme that catalyzed the nonnatural step of the pathway. After 72 h of cultivation under shake-flask conditions, an Escherichia coli biocatalyst expressing the artificial route synthesized 1.5 g/L of R- or 1.7 g/L of S-1,2-propanediol from D- or L- lactic acid at high enantiomeric purity, respectively. The bioconversion is part of a novel biosynthetic pathway that can be further incorporated into appropriate microbial hosts for the de novo synthesis of optically pure 1,2-propanediol from renewable feedstocks.

  2. Rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in human breast cancer cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhiwei; Yu Xinyuan; Shaikh, Zahir A.

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd), an endocrine disruptor, can induce a variety of signaling events including the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. In this study, the involvement of estrogen receptors (ER) in these events was evaluated in three human breast caner cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3. The Cd-induced signal activation patterns in the three cell lines mimicked those exhibited in response to 17{beta}-estradiol. Specifically, treatment of MCF-7 cells, that express ER{alpha}, ER{beta} and GPR30, to 0.5-10 {mu}M Cd for only 2.5 min resulted in transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Cd also triggered a gradual increase and sustained activation of AKT during the 60 min treatment period. In SK-BR-3 cells, that express only GPR30, Cd also caused a transient activation of ERK1/2, but not of AKT. In contrast, in MDA-MB-231 cells, that express only ER{beta}, Cd was unable to cause rapid activation of either ERK1/2 or AKT. A transient phosphorylation of ER{alpha} was also observed within 2.5 min of Cd exposure in the MCF-7 cells. While the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, did not prevent the effect of Cd on these signals, specific siRNA against hER{alpha} significantly reduced Cd-induced activation of ERK1/2 and completely blocked the activation of AKT. It is concluded that Cd, like estradiol, can cause rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT and that these signaling events are mediated by possible interaction with membrane ER{alpha} and GPR30, but not ER{beta}.

  3. Phototoxicity and chronic toxicity of methyl paraben and 1,2-hexanediol in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyun; Park, Nayeon; Kho, Younglim; Lee, Kiyoung; Ji, Kyunghee

    2017-01-01

    Parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in consumer products. Exposure to methylparaben (MP) has been associated with adverse health outcomes, therefore, an alternative compound, 1,2-hexanediol (1,2-H), has been applied for cosmetics. In the present study, the phototoxicity of MP and 1,2-H, as well as the toxic effect caused by chronic exposure, were investigated using Daphnia magna. The 48 h acute toxicity tests with D. magna were conducted under indoor or ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation conditions, i.e., exposure to 4 h/d sunlight. Changes in the transcription of genes related to oxidative stress were determined in D. magna juveniles, to investigate the underlying mechanism of phototoxicity. The 21 d chronic toxicity tests of MP and 1,2-H were performed under indoor light irradiation. Exposure to MP under environmental level of UV light was more detrimental to D. magna. Transcripts of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase genes in D. magna was significantly increased by co-exposure to MP and UV light. After 21 d of chronic exposure to MP and 1,2-H, the reproduction no-observed effect concentrations for D. magna were 1 and >10 mg/L, respectively. The present study showed that exposure to UV could magnify the toxicity of MP on daphnids. Although acute and chronic toxicities of 1,2-H were generally lower than those of MP, its effects on other aquatic organisms should not be ignored. Further studies are needed to identify other mechanisms of MP phototoxicity.

  4. ERK1/2 mediates sperm acrosome reaction through elevation of intracellular calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Jaldety, Yael; Breitbart, Haim

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilization capacity after residing in the female reproductive tract for a few hours in a process called capacitation. Only capacitated sperm can bind the zona pellucida (ZP) of the egg and undergo the acrosome reaction, a process that allows penetration and fertilization. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mediates signalling in many cell types, however its role in sperm function is largely unknown. Here we show that ERK1/2 is highly phosphorylated/activated after a short incubation of mouse sperm under capacitation conditions and that this phosphorylation is reduced after longer incubation. Further phosphorylation was observed upon addition of crude extract of egg ZP or epidermal growth factor (EGF). The mitogen-activated ERK-kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 abolished ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in vitro fertilization rate and the acrosome reaction induced by ZP or EGF but not by the Ca2+-ionophore A23187. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 along the capacitation process diminished almost completely the sperm's ability to go through the acrosome reaction, while inhibition at the end of capacitation attenuated the acrosome reaction rate by only 45%. The fact that the acrosome reaction, induced by the Ca2+ -ionophore A23187, was not inhibited by U0126 suggests that ERK1/2 mediates the acrosome reaction by activating Ca2+ transport into the cell. Direct determination of intracellular [Ca2+] revealed that Ca2+ influx induced by EGF or ZP was completely blocked by U0126. Thus, it has been established that the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation in response to ZP or by activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by EGF, is a key event for intracellular Ca2+ elevation and the subsequent occurrence of the acrosome reaction.

  5. Determinants of frequency-dependent regulation of Kv1.2-containing potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Baronas, Victoria A; Yang, Runying; Vilin, Yury Y; Kurata, Harley T

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels are important regulators of electrical excitation in many tissues, with Kv1.2 standing out as an essential contributor in the CNS. Genetic deletion of Kv1.2 invariably leads to early lethality in mice. In humans, mutations affecting Kv1.2 function are linked to epileptic encephalopathy and movement disorders. We have demonstrated that Kv1.2 is subject to a unique regulatory mechanism in which repetitive stimulation leads to dramatic potentiation of current. In this study, we explore the properties and molecular determinants of this use-dependent potentiation/activation. First, we examine how alterations in duty cycle (depolarization and repolarization/recovery times) affect the onset and extent of use-dependent activation. Also, we use trains of repetitive depolarizations to test the effects of a variety of Thr252 (S2-S3 linker) mutations on use-dependent activation. Substitutions of Thr with some sterically similar amino acids (Ser, Val, and Met, but not Cys) retain use-dependent activation, while bulky or charged amino acid substitutions eliminate use-dependence. Introduction of Thr at the equivalent position in other Kv1 channels (1.1, 1.3, 1.4), was not sufficient to transfer the phenotype. We hypothesize that use-dependent activation of Kv1.2 channels is mediated by an extrinsic regulator that binds preferentially to the channel closed state, with Thr252 being necessary but not sufficient for this interaction to alter channel function. These findings extend the conclusions of our recent demonstration of use-dependent activation of Kv1.2-containing channels in hippocampal neurons, by adding new details about the molecular mechanism underlying this effect.

  6. A study of chemical remediation on 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S.

    2015-12-01

    Shujun Ye, Guanqun Wang, and Jichun WuKey Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education; School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China, Nanjing, 210093, China; sjye@nju.edu.cn The ground water is contaminated by 1,2,4 Trichlorobenzene (TCB) in a former chemical plant in Nanjing, China. So 1,2,4-TCB is the contaminant of concern in this study. As chemical oxidation technology is a common in-site remediation technique, hydrogen peroxide, sodium sulfate and the two-mixed oxidants under the catalytic condition are used to remove 1,2,4-TCB from groundwater. By changing the values of temperature and pH in the experiments, the best conditions for chemical oxidation with oxidants mentioned above were determined. The fluorescent brightener of PF, manufactured by the former chemical plant, was added to groundwater to evaluate whether its existence made an impact on the chemical oxidation. 1-D sand column tests were conducted to study the degradation effect by using the chemical oxidation technology. The experiment results showed that single oxidant and mixed both oxidants can remove 1,2,4-TCB completely. The oxidation efficiency of both oxidants is influenced by temperature and pH. For hydrogen peroxide, the oxidation efficiency decreases with the increase of pH, while, for sodium sulfate, the efficiency is high under the mild acidic condition. The fluorescent brightener PF has an impact on the oxidation efficiency, with negative effect on the oxidation with hydrogen peroxide but positive effect with sodium sulfate. 1-D sand column tests testified the degradation of 1,2,4-TCB by the chemical oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and sodium sulfate. KEY WORDS: 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene hydrogen peroxide sodium persulfate optical brightener PF chemical oxidation AcknowledgementsFunding for this research from DuPont Company and NSFC Project No. 41472212.

  7. Determination of magic wavelengths for the 7 s 1/2 2S -7 p 3/2, 1/2 2P transitions in Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhjit; Sahoo, B. K.; Arora, Bindiya

    2016-08-01

    Magic wavelengths (λmagic) for the 7 S1 /2-7 P1 /2 ,3 /2 transitions (D lines) in Fr were reported by Dammalapati et al. [U. Dammalapati, K. Harada, and Y. Sakemi, Phys. Rev. A 93, 043407 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.043407]. These λmagic were determined by plotting dynamic polarizabilities (α ) of the involved states with the above transitions against a desired range of wavelengths. Electric dipole (E1) matrix elements listed in [J. E. Sansonetti, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 36, 497 (2007), 10.1063/1.2719251], from the measured lifetimes of the 7 P1 /2 ,3 /2 states and from the calculations considering core-polarization effects in the relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) method, were used to determine α . However, contributions from core correlation effects and from the E1 matrix elements of the 7 P -7 S , 7 P -8 S , and 7 P -6 D transitions to α of the 7 P states were ignored. In this work, we demonstrate importance of these contributions and improve accuracies of α further by replacing the E1 matrix elements taken from the HFR method by the values obtained employing relativistic coupled-cluster theory. Our static α are found to be in excellent agreement with the other available theoretical results, whereas substituting the E1 matrix elements used by Dammalapati et al. gives very small α values for the 7 P states. Owing to this, we find disagreement in λmagic reported by Dammalapati et al. for linearly polarized light, especially at wavelengths close to the D lines and in the infrared region. As a consequence, a λmagic reported at 797.75 nm which was seen supporting a blue detuned trap in their work is now estimated at 771.03 nm and is supporting a red detuned trap. Also, none of our results match with the earlier results for circularly polarized light. Moreover, our static values of α will be very useful for guiding experiments to carry out their measurements.

  8. Phased Array Inspection of Titanium Disk Forgings Targeting no. 1/2 FBH Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.A.; Friedl, J.

    2005-04-09

    The phased array implementation of a focused zoned ultrasonic inspection to achieve a >3dB signal-to-noise for no. 1/2 flat bottom holes (FBH) in titanium is reported. Previous work established the ultrasound focusing required to achieve the targeted sensitivity. This work reports on the design of a phased array transducer capable of maintaining the needed focus to the depths required in the forging inspection. The performance of the phased array inspection is verified by examining signal-to-noise of no. 1/2 FBHs contained in coupons cut from actual forgings.

  9. [Tumors in CBA line mice caused by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine].

    PubMed

    Turusov, V S; Lanko, N S; Bazlova, L S

    1977-01-01

    Female CBA mice were treated weekly with subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (8 mg/Kg b. w.) for 38--40 weeks. All animals but one developed tumors, mainly of the uterus, and region and intestine. Uterine tumors were most likely endometrial sarcomas, although myometrial and vascular components were also present. Large tumors of the anal region were squamous cell or baso-squamous carcinomata, while small growths were sebaceous adenomas or basal-cell tumors. 1.2-dimethylhydrazine appears to be a more multipotent carcinogen for mice than for the rat. Uterine sarcomas are of special interest in view of their rarity in mice.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structures and spectral characterization of chiral 4-R-1,2,4-triazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gural'skiy, Il'ya A.; Reshetnikov, Viktor A.; Omelchenko, Irina V.; Szebesczyk, Agnieszka; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Fritsky, Igor O.

    2017-01-01

    1,2,4-triazoles attract attention as actively used medications and ligands for constructing coordination architectures. In this paper we describe four optically active 4-substituted 1,2,4-triazoles that have been prepared by Bayer's synthesis from the corresponding aliphatic chiral amines. This approach tends to be universal towards different triazoles and permits to conserve a homochirality of substrates. Novel asymmetric molecules have been characterized by spectroscopic techniques and their structures have been retrieved from the single crystal X-ray analysis. Chiro-optical studies of these heterocycles have been made by means of circular dichroism spectroscopy.

  11. Exact and numerical results for a dimerized coupled spin- 1/2 chain

    PubMed

    Martins; Nienhuis

    2000-12-04

    We establish exact results for coupled spin-1/2 chains for special values of the four-spin interaction V and dimerization parameter delta. The first exact result is at delta = 1/2 and V = -2. Because we find a very small but finite gap in this dimerized chain, this can serve as a very strong test case for numerical and approximate analytical techniques. The second result is for the homogeneous chain with V = -4 and gives evidence that the system has a spontaneously dimerized ground state. Numerical diagonalization and bosonization techniques indicate that the interplay between dimerization and interaction could result in gapless phases in the regime 0

  12. Singlet oxygenation of 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.; Rosenberg, M. L.; Gemmer, R. V.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural changes that occur in cis and trans forms of 1,2-poly(1,4-hexadiene) during methylene blue-photosensitized oxidation were examined by infrared and (C-13)-NMR spectroscopy. The singlet oxygenation of these polymers yielded the expected allylic hydroperoxides accompanied by double bond shifts to new vinyl and trans-vinylene double bonds. The photosensitized oxidation exhibited zero-order kinetics; the relative rates for the cis- and trans-1,2-poly(1,4-hexadiene)s were approximately 3.8:1.0.

  13. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of cationic low molecular weight amphipathic 1,2,3-triazoles.

    PubMed

    Bakka, Thomas A; Strøm, Morten B; Andersen, Jeanette H; Gautun, Odd R

    2017-03-01

    A library of 28 small cationic 1,4-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles was prepared for studies of antimicrobial activity. The structures addressed the pharmacophore model of small antimicrobial peptides and an amphipathic motif found in marine antimicrobials. Eight compounds showed promising antimicrobial activity, of which the most potent compound 10b displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4-8μg/mL against Streptococcus agalacticae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. The simple syntheses and low degree of functionalization make these 1,4-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles interesting for further optimizations.

  14. Ring-opening of unsymmetrical 1,2-dioxines using cobalt(II) salen complexes.

    PubMed

    Greatrex, Ben W; Taylor, Dennis K

    2005-01-21

    The regioselectivity of the metal-catalyzed ring opening of unsymmetrical 1,2-dioxines to cis-gamma-hydroxyenones was investigated using two different Co(II) salen complexes. Regioselectivity was determined by direct examination of the enone ratios and by derivitization with a stabilized phosphorus ylide. The steric influence of the substituents on the 1,2-dioxine was the primary influence on regioselectivity. Temperature played little role; however, solvent and selection of Co(II) complex could be used to mildly influence the outcome of the rearrangement for selected substrates. The origins of the selectivity for the reaction are discussed.

  15. 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, a less sensitive explosive

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Coburn, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    A less sensitive explosive, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. The compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) has a crystal density of 1.93 g/cm.sup.3 and calculated detonation velocity and pressure equivalent to those of RDX. It can be prepared in high yield from inexpensive starting materials in a safe synthesis. Results from initial small-scale sensitivity tests indicate that NTO is less sensitive than RDX and HMX in all respects. A 4.13 cm diameter, unconfined plate-dent test at 92% of crystal density gave the detonation pressure predicted for NTO by the BKW calculation.

  16. Reactive modelling of 1,2-DCA and DOC near the shoreline.

    PubMed

    Colombani, N; Pantano, A; Mastrocicco, M; Petitta, M

    2014-11-15

    1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) was found to be the most abundant compound among chlorinated hydrocarbons detected in a petrochemical plant in southern Italy. This site is located near the coastline, and it is set above an unconfined coastal aquifer, where seawater intrusion is present. The presence of organic and inorganic contaminants at this site has required the implementation of remediation strategies, consisting of pumping wells (hydraulic barrier) and a horizontal flow barrier. The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of salt water intrusion on the degradation rate of 1,2-DCA. This was done on a three-dimensional domain relative to a limited portion of a well characterized field site, accounting for density-dependent flow and reactive transport modelling of 1,2-DCA and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). The modelling procedure was performed employing SEAWAT-4.0 and PHT3D, to reproduce the complex three-dimensional flow and transport domain. In order to determine the fate of 1,2-DCA, detailed field investigations provided intensive depth profile information. Different, kinetically controlled degradation rates were simulated to explain the observed, selective degradation of pollutants in groundwater. Calibration of the model was accomplished by comparison with the two different sets of measurements obtained from the MLS devices and from pumping wells. With the calibrated model, it was possible to distinguish between dispersive non-reactive processes and bacterially mediated reactions. In the non-reactive model, 1,2-DCA sorption was simulated using linear sorption coefficient determined with field data and 1,2-DCA degradation was simulated using a first order decay coefficient using literature data as initial guess. Finally, on the reactive transport model, where a two-step approach with partial equilibrium approach was implemented, the effects of neglecting the cation exchange capacity, omitting density-dependent flow, and refining the vertical

  17. CMMI Version 1.2 and Beyond Systems and Software Technology Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-29

    Presentation • “Extreme Programming (XP), Six Sigma, & CMMI: How They Can Work Together” • “CMMI V1.2 Model Changes” Presentation 5 CMMI Update: V1.2 and...Level 4 Reported Maturity Level 5 Reported Country Number of Appraisals Maturity Level 1 Reported Maturity Level 2 Reported Maturity Level 3...Reported Maturity Level 4 Reported Maturity Level 5 Reported Argentina 26 No Yes Yes Yes Yes Malaysia 29 No Yes Yes No Yes Australia 26 Yes Yes

  18. Alternative Splicing Generates a Novel Truncated Cav1.2 Channel in Neonatal Rat Heart*

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ping; Yu, Dejie; Hu, Zhenyu; Liang, Mui Cheng; Wang, Jue Jin; Yu, Chye Yun; Ng, Gandi; Yong, Tan Fong; Soon, Jia Lin; Chua, Yeow Leng; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2015-01-01

    L-type Cav1.2 Ca2+ channel undergoes extensive alternative splicing, generating functionally different channels. Alternatively spliced Cav1.2 Ca2+ channels have been found to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner or under pathological conditions. To provide a more comprehensive understanding of alternative splicing in Cav1.2 channel, we systematically investigated the splicing patterns in the neonatal and adult rat hearts. The neonatal heart expresses a novel 104-bp exon 33L at the IVS3-4 linker that is generated by the use of an alternative acceptor site. Inclusion of exon 33L causes frameshift and C-terminal truncation. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings of Cav1.233L channels expressed in HEK 293 cells did not detect any current. However, when co-expressed with wild type Cav1.2 channels, Cav1.233L channels reduced the current density and altered the electrophysiological properties of the wild type Cav1.2 channels. Interestingly, the truncated 3.5-domain Cav1.233L channels also yielded a dominant negative effect on Cav1.3 channels, but not on Cav3.2 channels, suggesting that Cavβ subunits is required for Cav1.233L regulation. A biochemical study provided evidence that Cav1.233L channels enhanced protein degradation of wild type channels via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Although the physiological significance of the Cav1.233L channels in neonatal heart is still unknown, our report demonstrates the ability of this novel truncated channel to modulate the activity of the functional Cav1.2 channels. Moreover, the human Cav1.2 channel also contains exon 33L that is developmentally regulated in heart. Unexpectedly, human exon 33L has a one-nucleotide insertion that allowed in-frame translation of a full Cav1.2 channel. An electrophysiological study showed that human Cav1.233L channel is a functional channel but conducts Ca2+ ions at a much lower level. PMID:25694430

  19. Towards metal-mediated g-quartet analogues: 1,2,4-triazole nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Withers, Jamie M; Telfer, Shane G; Filichev, Vyacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    We proposed that metal-coordinating nucleotides could be used to control the assembly of G-quadruplexes through the formation of an artificial metal-centered quartet. Several guanine-rich DNA sequences containing 1,2,4-triazole-functionalized nucleotides were investigated. These oligonucleotides were designed to form quartets mediated by metal-triazole bonding both on the surface of and within the G-quadruplex core. In contrast to duplex studies in which 1,2,4-triazole nucleosides serve as a mimic of Watson-Crick base-pairs, our results show that these nucleosides are not suitable components of an artificial metal-centered quartet.

  20. The Role of ERK1/2 in the Development of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Sun, Jian; Tong, Qian; Lin, Qian; Qian, Lingbo; Park, Yongsoo; Zheng, Yang

    2016-12-08

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition that affects carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and may impair numerous organs and functions of the organism. Cardiac dysfunction afflicts many patients who experience the oxidative stress of the heart. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the major complications that accounts for more than half of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality cases. Chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia from diabetes mellitus cause cardiac oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, impaired cellular calcium handling, mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic disturbances, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, which ultimately lead to DCM. Although many studies have explored the mechanisms leading to DCM, the pathophysiology of DCM has not yet been fully clarified. In fact, as a potential mechanism, the associations between DCM development and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation have been the subjects of tremendous interest. Nonetheless, much remains to be investigated, such as tissue- and cell-specific processes of selection of MAPK activation between pro-apoptotic vs. pro-survival fate, as well as their relation with the pathogenesis of diabetes and associated complications. In general, it turns out that MAPK signaling pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase, are demonstrated to be actively involved in myocardial dysfunction, hypertrophy, fibrosis and heart failure. As one of MAPK family members, the activation of ERK1/2 has also been known to be involved in cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. However, many recent studies have demonstrated that ERK1/2 signaling activation also plays a crucial role in FGF21 signaling and exerts a protective environment of glucose and lipid metabolism, therefore preventing abnormal healing and cardiac dysfunction. The duration, extent, and subcellular compartment of ERK1/2 activation are

  1. Cycloadditions of 1,2,3-Triazines Bearing C5-Electron Donating Substituents: Robust Pyrimidine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Glinkerman, Christopher M.; Boger, Dale L.

    2015-01-01

    The examination of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines 17–19, bearing electron-donating substituents at C5, are described. Despite the noncomplementary 1,2,3-triazine C5 substituents, amidines were found to undergo a powerful cycloaddition to provide 2,5-disubstituted pyrimidines in excellent yields (42–99%; EDG = SMe > OMe > NHAc). Even select ynamines and enamines were capable of cycloadditions with 17, but not 18 or 19, to provide trisubstituted pyridines in modest yields (37–40% and 33% respectively). PMID:26172042

  2. Analysis of surface error correction capability of 1.2m active support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yu; Fan, Bin; Li, Chaoqiang; Liu, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    The surface error correction ability is one of the important indicators to measure the performance of the active support system. In this paper, the correction force algorithm for the active support system of 1.2m thin meniscus mirror is introduced. Based on this algorithm, a simulation analysis is made. The simulation results show that the 1.2m active support system has excellent correction ability for Zernike polynomials term 4, 5, 6, 10 and 11, and has a good effect on the Zernike polynomials term 7 and 8.

  3. Coadsorption of lithium and oxygen on W(1 1 2): nanosized facets versus single crystals.

    PubMed

    Suchorski, Y; Hupalo, M S

    2011-05-01

    Coadsorption of lithium and oxygen on a nanosized W-tip is studied using field ion appearance energy spectroscopy (FIAES). Binding energies of coadsorbed Li-adatoms are derived locally for chosen atomic sites on (1 1 2) facets for different oxygen and Li-coverages. Independently, the binding energies of Li-adatoms in coadsorbed Li/oxygen layers are determined for macroscopic W(1 1 2) single crystal samples from the adsorption isobars in adsorption-desorption equilibrium experiments and compared with the local nm-scale measurements. The comparison reveals a very good agreement of results obtained by two different methods on differing length scales.

  4. Status of the /Delta/I = 1/2 rule in Kaon decay

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The /Delta/I = 1/2 rule in /Kappa/ /yields/ /pi//pi/ decays and its status are discussed and reviewed. First, the authors present the phenomenological deductions which have a firm basis, including the penguin diagram, vacuum insertion, current algebra and chiral perturbation theory. Then they proceed to discuss new conjectures and speculations e.g. I/N expansion, W-exchange, low-energy penguin diagrams, the s-d self-energy tadpole, QCD-quality, instanton effects, etc. and to assess their roles in understanding the /Delta/I = 1/2 enigma.

  5. The Role of ERK1/2 in the Development of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zheng; Sun, Jian; Tong, Qian; Lin, Qian; Qian, Lingbo; Park, Yongsoo; Zheng, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition that affects carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and may impair numerous organs and functions of the organism. Cardiac dysfunction afflicts many patients who experience the oxidative stress of the heart. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the major complications that accounts for more than half of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality cases. Chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia from diabetes mellitus cause cardiac oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, impaired cellular calcium handling, mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic disturbances, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, which ultimately lead to DCM. Although many studies have explored the mechanisms leading to DCM, the pathophysiology of DCM has not yet been fully clarified. In fact, as a potential mechanism, the associations between DCM development and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation have been the subjects of tremendous interest. Nonetheless, much remains to be investigated, such as tissue- and cell-specific processes of selection of MAPK activation between pro-apoptotic vs. pro-survival fate, as well as their relation with the pathogenesis of diabetes and associated complications. In general, it turns out that MAPK signaling pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase, are demonstrated to be actively involved in myocardial dysfunction, hypertrophy, fibrosis and heart failure. As one of MAPK family members, the activation of ERK1/2 has also been known to be involved in cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. However, many recent studies have demonstrated that ERK1/2 signaling activation also plays a crucial role in FGF21 signaling and exerts a protective environment of glucose and lipid metabolism, therefore preventing abnormal healing and cardiac dysfunction. The duration, extent, and subcellular compartment of ERK1/2 activation are

  6. Penta-cyclo-[9.3.1.1(2,6).1(4,8).1(9,13)]octa-deca-1(2),8(9)-diene.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Savvas; Moushi, Eleni

    2012-07-01

    The title compound, C(18)H(24), was the main product of thermolysis of noradamantene dimer (hepta-cyclo-[9.3.1.1(2,6).1(4,8).1(9,13).0(1,9).0(2,8)]octa-deca-ne). The crystal structure was determined to prove that the thermolysis product of noradamantene dimer is favored by stretch release due to ring opening of the four-membered ring. The bond length of the quaternary C atoms of the starting material was calculated as 1.6 Å, enlarged in comparison to other single bonds. After the rearrangement, the stretch release of the above carbons leads to an increase of the distance between them (2.824 Å) with respect to the crystallographic data.

  7. Degradation of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane by Microbial Consortia in Wetland Sediment: Controls on 1,2-Dichloroethane and Vinyl Chloride Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorah, M. M.; Voytek, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Concurrent geochemical analyses of porewater and genetic analyses of wetland sediment over time in laboratory microcosm experiments are being used to define biodegradation pathways of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (PCA) and associated critical microorganisms in anaerobic wetland sediments. These experiments were conducted to better understand factors controlling in situ daughter product distribution as part of a study of natural attenuation of a chlorinated solvent plume that is discharging to a freshwater tidal wetland at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Possible biodegradation pathways of PCA under anaerobic conditions include (1) sequential hydrogenolysis of PCA to 1,1,2-trichloroethane (TCA), 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA), chloroethane, and ethane; (2) hydrogenolysis of PCA to TCA followed by dichloroelimination of TCA to vinyl chloride (VC); and (3) dichloroelimination of PCA to cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) and subsequent hydrogenolysis of DCE to VC. Elucidation of factors controlling the occurrence of these diverse pathways is critical because of differing toxicity and persistence of the daughter products. Microcosm experiments were conducted in March and July 1999 using wetland sediment and porewater collected at two contaminated sites in the study area-one characterized as predominantly methanogenic (WB23) and one characterized as mixed iron-reducing and methanogenic (WB30)-and amended only with PCA or TCA. Microcosm water was analyzed for volatile organic compounds, methane, ferrous iron, and sulfate, while genetic analyses of the corresponding microcosm sediment were used to obtain profiles of bacteria and methanogenic communities at each time step. All PCA-amended microcosms showed simultaneous production of TCA (from hydrogenolysis) and DCE (from dichloroelimination) from day 1. Subsequently, DCA became the predominant daughter product in microcosms constructed with WB23 sediment, which showed high methane production throughout the experiment

  8. Structure and dynamics of 1,2-dimethoxyethane and 1,2-dimethoxypropane in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezaveh, Samira; Samanta, Susruta; Milano, Giuseppe; Roccatano, Danilo

    2011-10-01

    Herein, we report a comparative modelling study of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) and 1,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) at 298 K and 318 K in the liquid state, water mixtures, and at infinite dilution condition in water, methanol, carbon tetrachloride, and n-heptane. Both DME and DMP are united-atom models compatible with GROMOS/OPLS force fields. Calculated thermodynamic and structural properties of the pure DME and DMP liquids resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental data. In aqueous solutions, densities, diffusion coefficients, and concentration dependent conformers of DME, were in agreement with experimental data. The calculated free energy of solvation (ΔGhyd) at 298 K is equal to -22.1 ± 0.8 kJ mol-1 in good agreement with the experimental value of 20.2 kJ mol-1. In addition, the free energy of solvation of DME in non-aqueous solvents follows the trend methanol ≈ water < carbon tetrachloride < n-heptane, consistently with the dielectric constant of the solvents. On contrary, the presence of an extra methyl group on chiral carbon makes DMP less soluble than DME in water (ΔGhyd = -16.0 ± 1.1 kJ mol-1) but more soluble in non-polar solvents as n-heptane. Finally, for the DMP the chiral discrimination of the two enantiomers was calculated as solvation free energy difference of one DMP isomer in the solution of the other. The obtained value of ΔΔGRS = -3.7 ± 1.4 kJ mol-1 indicates a net chiral discrimination of the two enantiomers.

  9. Quartic force fields for excited electronic states: rovibronic reference data for the 1 (2)A' and 1 (2)A″ states of the isoformyl radical, HOC.

    PubMed

    Morgan, W James; Fortenberry, Ryan C

    2015-01-25

    Quartic force fields (QFFs) have been shown to be an effective, accurate, and relatively compact means of computing rovibrational spectroscopic data for numerous molecules with numerous applications. However, excited states have been nearly excluded from the this approach since most accurate QFFs are based on the "gold standard" coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] method which is not readily extended to excited states. In this work, rovibronic spectroscopic data is provided for the isoformyl radical, a molecule of significance in combustion and astrochemistry, both through the traditional means of variational access to excited states with CCSD(T) and in the novel extension of QFFs routinely to treat electronically excited states through the standard coupled cluster excited state approach, equation of motion (EOM) CCSD. It is shown here that the new EOM-based QFF provides structural parameters and rotational constants that are quite close to those from a related CCSD(T)-based QFF for the 1 (2)A(″) excited state of HOC. The anharmonic vibrational frequency percent differences between the two QFFs are less than 0.4% for the O-H stretch, less than 1.9% for the C-O stretch, and around 3.0% for the bend. Even so, the pure excited state EOM-QFF anharmonic frequencies are still very good abinitio representations that may be applied to systems where electronically excited states are not variationally accessible. Additionally, rovibrational spectroscopic data is provided for the 1 (2)A(') ground state of HOC and for both the ground and excited state of DOC.

  10. Exposure to the androgenic brominated flame retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane alters reproductive and aggressive behaviors in birds.

    PubMed

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Letcher, Robert J; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2015-10-01

    Detected in environmental samples, 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH) is a bioaccumulative isomer of a current-use brominated flame retardant. All 4 structural isomers are androgen agonists; however, little toxicological information exists for this compound. The objective of the present study was to determine if β-DBE-DBCH, the isomer found most prominently in animal tissue, affects androgen-dependent behavior of breeding American kestrels (Falco sparverius). The authors hypothesized that if β-DBE-DBCH acts as an androgen agonist in kestrels, androgen-dependent behaviors (i.e., copulation, courtship, aggression) would increase and behaviors inhibited by androgens (i.e., parental care behaviors) would decrease. Sixteen captive experimental kestrel pairs were exposed to 0.239 ng β-DBE-DBCH/g kestrel/d by diet from 4 wk prior to pairing until their nestlings hatched (mean 82 d) and compared with vehicle only-exposed control pairs (n = 15). Androgen-dependent behaviors were significantly increased in β-DBE-DBCH-exposed birds, consistent with the authors' hypothesis. These behavioral changes included copulation and other sexual behaviors in males and females and aggression in males, suggesting that β-DBE-DBCH may have acted like an androgen agonist in these birds. Parental behaviors were not reduced in exposed birds as predicted, although dietary exposure had ceased before chicks hatched. Further assessment of β-DBE-DBCH is recommended given these behavioral changes and the previously reported reproductive changes in the same birds.

  11. Magnetic, magnetoelectric and dielectric behavior of CoFe2O4-Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 particulate and layered composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulawik, J.; Szwagierczak, D.; Guzdek, P.

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic, magnetoelectric and dielectric properties of multiferroic CoFe2O4-Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 composites prepared as bulk ceramics were compared with those of tape cast and cofired laminates consisting of alternate ferrite and relaxor layers. X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscope observations of ceramic samples revealed two-phase composition and fine grained microstructure with uniformly distributed ferrite and relaxor phases. High and broad maxima of dielectric permittivity attributed to dielectric relaxation were found for ceramic samples measured in a temperature range from -55 to 500 °C at frequencies 10 Hz-2 MHz. Magnetic hysteresis, zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) curves, and dependencies of magnetization on temperature for both magnetoelectric composites were measured with a vibrating sample magnetometer in an applied magnetic field up to 80 kOe at 4-400 K. The hysteresis loops obtained for composites are typical of a mixture of the hard magnetic material with a significant amount of the paramagnet. The bifurcation of ZFC-FC magnetizations observed for both composites implies spin-glass behavior. Magnetoelectric properties at room temperature were investigated as a function of dc magnetic field (0.3-7.2 kOe) and frequency (10 Hz-10 kHz) of ac magnetic field. Both types of composites exhibit a distinct magnetoelectric effect. Maximum values of magnetoelectric coefficient attained for the layered composites exceed 200 mV/(cm Oe) and are almost three times higher than those for particulate composites.

  12. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterisation of the antitumour properties of pyrido[1',2':1,2]imidazo[4,5-h]quinazoline.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Marianne; Blache, Yves; Bailly, Christian; Poujol, Sylvain; Chapat, Jean-Pierre; Pinguet, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    The anti-tumour activity of pyrido[1',2':1,2]imidazo[4,5-h]quinazoline (PIQ) was investigated in vitro and in vivo with a human tumour model. In vitro PIQ cytotoxicity was evaluated on two different human parental-sensitive cancer cell lines (HL60S and A2780S) and their multidrug-resistant variant sublines (HL60R and A2780R). Proliferation was assessed using the MTT assay and PIQ showed activity, particularly with resistant cell lines. Drug activity was not affected by MDR resistance. After LD50 determination using Swiss mice, in vivo activity with A2780 ovarian carcinoma was carried out using xenografted Swiss nude mice. We performed either a weekly intra-peritoneal injection of 64 mg.kg-1 PIQ or an intra-venous injection of 10 mg.kg-1 PIQ during 2 months. After 60 days of treatment, no toxicologically meaningful differences were observed in macroscopic and microscopic parameters compared to controls. Both regimens demonstrated efficacy against xenografted tumours. However, the decrease in tumoural volume of the xenografted mice was significant only in the PIC i.v. injection group. Pharmacokinetics and the accumulation of PIQ in normal and tumour tissues were also assessed using a chromatographic method. The lack of activity using the i.p. route was explained by the four-fold reduction of its AUC in comparison to the i.v. route. After an i.v. injection, the highest concentrations of PIQ were accumulated in the tumour and spleen. Drug analysis has shown that PIQ intercalates into DNA. PIQ derivatives are effective new antitumour agents in cancer chemotherapy.

  13. Covariant differential calculi on quantum symplectic superspace S Pq 1 | 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Salih

    2017-02-01

    A unitary orthosymplectic quantum supergroup is introduced. Two covariant differential calculi on the quantum superspace S Pq 1 | 2 are presented. The h-deformed symplectic superspaces via a contraction of the q-deformed symplectic superspaces are obtained. A new h-deformation of the Heisenberg superalgebra is given.

  14. Diverse Reductive Dehalogenases Are Associated with Clostridiales-Enriched Microcosms Dechlorinating 1,2-Dichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    Merlino, Giuseppe; Balloi, Annalisa; Marzorati, Massimo; Mapelli, Francesca; Rizzi, Aurora; Lavazza, Davide; de Ferra, Francesca; Carpani, Giovanna; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of successful biostimulation of active microbiomes for the cleanup of a polluted site is strictly dependent on the knowledge of the key microorganisms equipped with the relevant catabolic genes responsible for the degradation process. In this work, we present the characterization of the bacterial community developed in anaerobic microcosms after biostimulation with the electron donor lactate of groundwater polluted with 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA). Through a multilevel analysis, we have assessed (i) the structural analysis of the bacterial community; (ii) the identification of putative dehalorespiring bacteria; (iii) the characterization of functional genes encoding for putative 1,2-DCA reductive dehalogenases (RDs). Following the biostimulation treatment, the structure of the bacterial community underwent a notable change of the main phylotypes, with the enrichment of representatives of the order Clostridiales. Through PCR targeting conserved regions within known RD genes, four novel variants of RDs previously associated with the reductive dechlorination of 1,2-DCA were identified in the metagenome of the Clostridiales-dominated bacterial community. PMID:26273600

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  16. A Convenient Synthetic Protocol to 1,2-Bis(dialkylphosphino)ethanes

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Laurence R; Heath, Alex; Low, Choon Heng; Ashley, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    1,2-Bis(dialkylphosphino)ethanes are readily prepared from the parent phosphine oxides, via a novel sodium aluminium hydride/sodium hydride reduction protocol of intermediate chlorophosphonium chlorides. This approach is amenable to multi-gram syntheses, utilises readily available and inexpensive reagents, and benefits from a facile non-aqueous work-up in the final reductive step. PMID:26190960

  17. Osterix is regulated by Erk1/2 during osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Choi, You Hee; Gu, Young-Mi; Oh, Jae-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Youl

    2011-11-25

    Osterix (Osx) is a novel zinc finger-containing transcription factor that is essential for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in bone homeostasis. The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are a group of evolutionarily conserved proline-directed protein serine/threonine kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Erk1/2 plays essential roles in osteoblast differentiation and in supporting osteoclastogenesis, but the precise molecular signaling mechanisms between Osterix and Erk1/2 are not known. We therefore focused on the relationship between Osterix and Erk1/2 during osteoblast differentiation because BMP signaling induces Erk activation in osteoblasts. We investigated the role of the MAPK pathway in regulating protein levels and transcriptional functions of Osterix. We found that Erk activation by overexpression of constitutively active MEK increased the mRNA and protein levels of Osterix and enhanced the transcriptional activity of Osterix, whereas U0126, an inhibitor of MEK, suppressed the protein levels of Osterix and the transcriptional activity. Also, overexpression of constitutively active MEK stabilized Osterix protein. These results suggest that Erk1/2 regulates a major transcription factor, Osterix, during osteoblast differentiation by increasing its protein stability and transcriptional activity.

  18. Non-epithelial uterine tumours induced in CBA mice by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Turusov, V S; Bazlova, L S; Lanko, N S

    1977-07-01

    In CBA mice treated with weekly subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine an unusually high incidence of uterine sarcomas was observed in two successive experiments. The tumours are easily transplantable. The description of their histological structure is presented and their histogenesis is discussed.

  19. 20 CFR 1.2 - What functions are assigned to OWCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 1.2 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ORGANIZATION... Order 13179 (“Providing Compensation to America's Nuclear Weapons Workers”) of December 7, 2000.... (e) The Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, as amended and extended (33 U.S.C. 901 et...

  20. Education for Survival; A Social Studies and Science Curriculum Guide for Grades 1, 2, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubman, Ruth W.; And Others

    This book is one of a series on Education For Survival and integrates a conservation curriculum into a social studies and science program for grades 1, 2, and 3. It was developed to help lead young people to an awareness of environmental problems which confront our society. The first chapter presents a resume of all social science curriculum units…