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Sample records for diphenylethane 1,2

  1. Synthesis, molecular structure and computational study of (Z)-2-((E)-4-nitrobenzylidene)hydrazone)-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmacı, Gökhan; Aktan, Ebru; Seferoğlu, Nurgül; Hökelek, Tuncer; Seferoğlu, Zeynel

    2015-11-01

    A new benzilmonohydrazone, (Z)-2-((E)-4-nitrobenzylidene)hydrazone)-1,2-diphenylethan-1-one (BMH) has been synthesized for the first time. It was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H/13C NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure of the title compound was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. In addition, molecular structure of BMH was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique and found that the compound crystallizes in triclinic, space group P-1. Furthermore, chemical calculations employing density functional theory (DFT) method were performed to study the structural and spectroscopic properties of BMH, and the results were compared with the experimental findings.

  2. Towards a first-principles model of Fermi resonance in the alkyl CH stretch region: Application to 1,2-diphenylethane and 2,2,2-paracyclophane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Evan G.; Dean, Jacob C.; Zwier, Timothy S.; Sibert, Edwin L.

    2013-02-01

    The spectroscopy of two flexible hydrocarbons, 1,2-diphenylethane (DPE) and 2,2,2-paracyclophane (TCP) is presented, and a predictive theoretical model for describing the alkyl CH stretch region of these hydrocarbons is developed. Ultraviolet hole-burning spectroscopy identified two isomers of DPE and a single conformation of TCP present in the supersonic jet expansion. Through the analysis of the ground state low-frequency vibronic spectroscopy obtained by dispersed fluorescence, conformational assignments were made for both DPE and TCP. The two isomers of DPE were found to retain the low energy structures of butane, being present in both the gauche and anti structures. TCP forms a C2 symmetric structure, differing from the predicted lower energy C3 conformation by the symmetry of the ethano bridges (-CH2CH2-) linking the phenyl substituents. Resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy is used to record single-conformation IR spectra of the two conformers of DPE and the single conformer of TCP in the alkyl CH stretch region and in the mid-IR that covers the CH bend fundamentals. A local mode Hamiltonian that incorporates cubic stretch-bend coupling is developed. Its parameters are obtained from density functional theory methods. Full dimensional calculations are compared to those that use reduced dimensional Hamiltonians in which anharmonic CH stretches and scissor modes are Fermi coupled. Excellent agreement is found. Scale factors of select terms in the reduced dimensional Hamiltonian are determined by fitting the theoretical Hamiltonian to the anti-DPE spectrum. The scaled Hamiltonian is then used to predict successfully structures for the remaining lower symmetry experimentally determined spectra in the alkyl CH stretch region.

  3. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of novel 3-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(diphenylphosphino)-2-((diphenylphosphino)methyl)-3-methylbutanone-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine tungsten dicarbonyl (PyrPMB-W) nanostructure thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hossainy, Ahmed F.; Ibrahim, A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a novel transition metal complex, 3-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(diphenylphosphino)-2-((diphenylphosphino)methyl)-3-methylbutanone-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine tungsten dicarbonyl (PyrPMB-W) was synthesized and characterized using IR, mass spectra MS (FAB), 1H and 1H{31P} NMR spectra. The thermal evaporation technique was successfully used to deposit highly uniform and good adhesion of PyrPMB-W thin film. The structural properties of PyrPMB-W were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the complex was well polycrystalline and corresponds to space group P21/c with a monoclinic crystal structure. The important absorption parameters such as molar extinction coefficient (εmolar), the oscillator strength (f), and the electric dipole strength (q2) were also calculated. The analysis of the spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient in the intrinsic absorption region reveals a directly allowed transition with a band gap of 1.87 eV. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single oscillator Wemple-Didomenico (WD) model. The single oscillator energy (E0), the dispersion energy (Ed), the high frequency dielectric constant (ε∞), the lattice dielectric constant (εL) and the ratio of the free charge carrier concentration of the effective mass (N/m∗) were estimated. From the optical constant analysis, the optical conductivity, volume and surface energy loss functions were reported. Structural and optical mechanisms were discussed for future applications in nanoscaled optoelectronic devices.

  4. Spectroscopic studies on 2-[2-(4-methylquinolin-2-yl)hydrazono]-1,2-diphenylethanone molecule and its metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleem, H. S.; El-Inany, G. A.; Mousa, M.; Hanafy, F. I.

    2009-11-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of a hydrazone: 2-[2-(4-methylquinolin-2-yl)hydrazono]-1,2-diphenylethanone (BHQ) derived from 2-hydrazino-4-methylquinoline and 1,2-diphenylethan-1,2-dione (benzil) have been studied in various solvents of different polarities. The dependence of the band shift Δ ύ on the solvent parameters viz.D, Z, ET, DN, AN, α, β and π* was discussed. Also, the effect of pH on the free hydrazone and its Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes was studied spectrophotometrically in 75% (v/v) dioxane-water in order to determine the dissociation and stability constants. The stoichiometry of the formed complexes was determined by three different methods: Job's, mole ratio and slope ratio which indicate the formation of 1:2, M:L complexes for Co(II) and Cu(II) and 1:1, Ni(II):L. Beer's law is valid in the range 0.32-7.04 μg/mL depending on the type of the metal ion. The use of BHQ as an indicator via a spectrophotometric titration of Cu(II) and Ni(II) with EDTA was efficient.

  5. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  6. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  7. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  8. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  9. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromoethane ; CASRN 106 - 93 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  10. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  11. 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Tribromobenzene ; CASRN 615 - 54 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  12. 1,1,2-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 598 - 77 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  13. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  14. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    cis - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 59 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  15. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 00 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  16. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Trichlorobenzene ; CASRN 120 - 82 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  17. 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Epoxybutane ( EBU ) ; CASRN 106 - 88 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  18. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  19. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  20. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  1. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  2. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2... GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.2 Definitions. (a) Rule or regulation means the...) Significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or on...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  4. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  5. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  6. 49 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.2 Definitions. As used in this part, Administrator includes: (a) The Federal Aviation Administrator. (b) The Federal Highway Administrator. (c)...

  7. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  8. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  9. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  10. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  11. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  12. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  13. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  14. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  15. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  16. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  17. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  18. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  19. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  20. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aliens and... alien means an applicant for admission coming or attempting to come into the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien seeking transit through the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien...

  1. 45 CFR 1210.1-2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1210.1-2 Section 1210.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA... separation of any Trainee or Volunteer. Separate procedures, as detailed in the VISTA Handbook,...

  2. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973, as amended, Pub. L. 93-113, (42...

  3. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973, as amended, Pub. L. 93-113, (42...

  4. AC conductivity and relaxation mechanism in (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Susmita; Barik, Subrat Kumar; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have synthesized polycrystalline sample of (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramic by a standard high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Studies of dielectric and electrical properties of the compound have been carried out in a wide range of temperature (RT - 400 °C) and frequency (1kHz - 1MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopic technique. The imaginary vs. real component of the complex impedance plot (Nyquist plot) of the prepared sample exhibits the existence of grain, grain boundary contributions in the complex electrical parameters and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) type behavior like semiconductor. Details study of ac conductivity plot reveals that the material obeys universal Jonscher's power law.

  5. Cloaking spin-(1/2) matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, De-Hone

    2010-06-15

    A physical construct for the cloaking of relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves is proposed. It is shown that when the effective energy and mass of relativistic spin-(1/2) particles moving in an effective vector field in a spherical shell are controlled, their matter waves can be perfectly guided through the shell without any distortion or loss; that is, the construct provides a three-dimensional cloaking shell for relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves. The proposal serves as the basis for some interesting applications such as providing a method to guide the matter waves of spin particles and an ideal setup to exhibit spin-spin interactions as well as perfect quantum interferences of some global effects in spin-(1/2) matter waves.

  6. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  7. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrafluoroethane ; CASRN 811 - 97 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  8. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 34 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  9. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromo - 3 - chloropropane ( DBCP ) ; CASRN 96 - 12 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessm

  10. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 630 - 20 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  11. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  12. 43 CFR 1815.1-2 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.1-2 Applications. (a) Place of filing. The application for relief shall be filed in the office which... particular disaster and its effect upon contract performance. (3) An estimate of the damages suffered. (4)...

  13. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venâncio, Mateus F.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.; De Almeida, Wagner B.

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  14. 1,2-Diazinium hydrogen chloranilate

    PubMed Central

    Gotoh, Kazuma; Ishida, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C4H5N2 +·C6HCl2O4 −, there are three crystallographically independent 1,2-diazinium cations and hydrogen chloranilate anions. The anions are held together by pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form two types of dimers, one of which is centrosymmetric. The 1,2-diazinium cations are linked on both sides of each dimer via bifurcated N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to give two kinds of 2–2 cation–anion associations. The 2–2 associations are linked by inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a mol­ecular tape along the [230] direction. The tapes are further connected by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21580959

  15. Nitrone Cycloadditions of 1,2-Cyclohexadiene

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Joyann S.; Styduhar, Evan D.; Pham, Hung V.; McMahon, Travis C.; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of 1,2-cyclohexadiene, a rarely exploited strained allene. 1,2-Cyclohexadiene is generated in situ under mild conditions and trapped with nitrones to give isoxazolidine products in synthetically useful yields. The reactions occur regioselectively and exhibit a notable endo preference, thus resulting in the controlled formation of two new bonds and two stereogenic centers. DFT calculations of stepwise and concerted reaction pathways are used to rationalize the observed selectivities. Moreover, the strategic manipulation of nitrone cycloadducts demonstrates the utility of this methodology for the assembly of compounds bearing multiple heterocyclic units. These studies showcase the exploitation of a traditionally avoided reactive intermediate in chemical synthesis. PMID:26854652

  16. 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloro - 1,2,2 - trifluoroethane ( CFC - 113 ) ; CASRN 76 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  17. Equilibria of 1,1,2,-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.Y.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-07-01

    ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs) are now considered to be the prime contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion. As a result, the use of activated carbons to adsorb specific CFCs has received great attention. In this paper, the equilibrium adsorption characteristics of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane vapor on different-shaped carbons were studied. Adsorption isotherms of 1,2,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on an activated carbon pellet and an activated carbon felt were measured. The equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon pellet having a dual pore structure were expressed by the Redlich-Peterson equation, and equilibrium constants were expressed as functions of temperature from 298 to 393 K. On the other hand, the equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon felt having a relatively uniform pore structure were interpreted by the Dubinin-Radushkevich correlation based on the micropore volume filling theory. The affinity coefficient was correlated by the molar polarization.

  18. (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang Shigen; Guo Qi

    2007-11-15

    Approximate solutions of (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons (SNSs) are presented. It is shown that the power of a SNS in a nematic liquid crystal is in direct proportion to the second power of the degree of nonlocality, the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with a logarithmic nonlocal response is in inverse proportion to the second power of its beamwidth, and the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with an sth-power decay nonlocal response is in direct proportion to the (s+2)th power of the degree of nonlocality.

  19. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  20. Fragrance material review on 1,2-ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,2-ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,2-Ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1,2-ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE fragrances.

  1. The 1.2 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A set of test structures was designed using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) test chip assembler and was used to evaluate the first CMOS-bulk foundry runs with feature sizes of 1.2 microns. In addition to the problems associated with the physical scaling of the structures, this geometry provided an additional set of problems, since the design files had to be generated in such a way as to be capable of being processed through p-well, n-well, and twin-well processing lines. This requirement meant that the files containing the geometric design rules as well as the structure design files had to produce process-insensitive designs, a requirement that does not apply to the more mature 3.0-micron CMOS feature size technology. Because of the photolithographic steps required with this feature size, the maximum allowable chip size was 10 x 10 mm, and this chip was divided into 24 project areas, with each area being 1.6 x 1.6 mm in size. The JPL-designed structures occupied 13 out of the 21 allowable project sizes and provided the only test information obtained from these three preliminary runs. The structures were used to successfully evaluate three different manufacturing runs through two separate foundries.

  2. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  3. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Maness, Andrew D; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  4. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Maness, Andrew D; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

  5. X-1-2 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 aircraft on the ramp at NACA High Speed Flight Research Station located on the South Base of Muroc Army Air Field in 1947. The X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots. The aircraft has white paint and the NACA tail band. The black Xs are reference markings for tracking purposes. They were widely used on NACA aircraft in the early 1950s. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager

  6. Substrate interactions in dehalogenation of 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane mixtures by Dehalogenimonas spp.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, Jacob L; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2014-04-01

    When chlorinated alkanes are present as soil or groundwater pollutants, they often occur in mixtures. This study evaluated substrate interactions during the anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated alkanes by the type strains of two Dehalogenimonas species, D. lykanthroporepellens and D. alkenigignens. Four contaminant mixtures comprised of combinations of the chlorinated solvents 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were assessed for each species. Chlorinated solvent depletion and daughter product formation determined as a function of time following inoculation into anaerobic media revealed preferential dechlorination of 1,1,2-TCA over both 1,2-DCA and 1,2-DCP for both species. 1,2-DCA in particular was not dechlorinated until 1,1,2-TCA reached low concentrations. In contrast, both species concurrently dechlorinated 1,2-DCA and 1,2-DCP over a comparably large concentration range. This is the first report of substrate interactions during chlorinated alkane dehalogenation by pure cultures, and the results provide insights into the chlorinated alkane transformation processes that may be expected for contaminant mixtures in environments where Dehalogenimonas spp. are present. PMID:23990262

  7. Electrical properties of Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, K. Amar; Chandra, K. P.; Dubey, K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 was prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase cubic structure having space group Pm3m. AC impedance plots as a function of frequency at different temperatures were used to analyse the electrical behaviour of the sample, which indicated the negative temperature coefficient of resistance character. Complex impedance analysis targeted non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. Frequency dependent ac conductivity data obeyed Jonscher's power law. The apparent activation energy was estimated to be 0.97 eV at 1 kHz.

  8. Microwave spectrum, structural parameters, and quadrupole coupling for 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine.

    PubMed

    Daly, Adam M; Tanjaroon, Chakree; Marwitz, Adam J V; Liu, Shih-Yuan; Kukolich, Stephen G

    2010-04-21

    The first microwave spectrum for 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine has been measured in the frequency range 7-18 GHz, providing accurate rotational constants and nitrogen and boron quadrupole coupling strengths for three isotopomers, H(6)C(4)(11)B(14)N, H(6)C(4)(10)B(14)N, and H(5)DC(4)(11)B(14)N. The measured rotational constants were used to accurately determine coordinates for the substituted atoms and provide sufficient data to determine most of the important structural parameters for this molecule. The spectra were obtained using a pulsed beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, with sufficient resolution to allow accurate measurements of (14)N, (11)B, and (10)B nuclear quadrupole hyperfine interactions. High-level ab initio calculations provided structural parameters and quadrupole coupling strengths that are in very good agreement with measured values. The rotational constants for the parent compound are A = 5657.335(1), B = 5349.2807(5), and C = 2749.1281(4) MHz, yielding the inertial defect Delta(0) = 0.02 amu x A(2) for the ground-state structure. The observed near-zero and positive inertial defect clearly indicates that the molecular structure of 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is planar. The least-squares fit analysis to determine the azaborine ring structure yielded the experimental bond lengths and 2sigma errors R(B-N) = 1.45(3) A, R(B-C) = 1.51(1) A, and R(N-C) = 1.37(3) A for the ground-state structure. Interbond angles for the ring were also determined. An extended Townes-Dailey population analysis of the boron and nitrogen quadrupole coupling constants provided the valence p-electron occupancy p(c) = 0.3e for boron and p(c) = 1.3e for nitrogen.

  9. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  13. Emissions in potassium vapour under 4S1/2-7S1/2 two-photon nsec excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, D.; Chatzikyriakos, G.; Armyras, A.; Efthimiopoulos, T.

    2010-11-01

    The two-photon excitation of 4S1/2-7S1/2 transition of potassium atoms is studied. Several coherent emissions and processes are possible, such as parametric four-wave (PFWM), parametric six-wave (PSWM) mixing and competition with the stimulated hyper Raman (SHRS) and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The radiations at the transitions 6P3/2,1/2-4S1/2, 6S1/2-4P3/2,1/2 and 5P3/2,1/2-4S1/2 are emitted only in the forward direction (indicating a parametric process), while the radiation at the transition 4P3/2,1/2-4S1/2 is emitted in the forward and in the backward direction, indicating an ASE process.

  14. Vibrational analysis of 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and 1,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsend

    1982-02-01

    Liquid-state IR and Raman spectra and solid-state IR spectra have been obtained for 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and l,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane. Carbon-halogen stretching bands are observed in the liquid-state spectrum of the dichloro compound at 751, 725, 624 and 574 cm -1 and at 677, 640, 551 and 507 cm -1 in the liquid-state spectrum of the dibromo compound. Both compounds exist as P CTt HHH and P XT XHH conformations in the liquid, but only the P XT XHH conformer is present for each in the crystalline solid. Further Interpretation of the spectra was aided by normal coordinate calculations.

  15. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  18. 43 CFR § 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Contents. § 2812.1-2 Section § 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  19. 49 CFR 1.2 - Organization of the Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Organization of the Department. 1.2 Section 1.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.2 Organization of the Department. (a) The Secretary of Transportation is the head of the Department. (b) The Department comprises...

  20. 43 CFR 3473.1-2 - Where submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Land Management State office having jurisdiction over the lands (43 CFR subpart 1821). (2) All second... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where submitted. 3473.1-2 Section 3473.1-2..., Rentals, and Royalties § 3473.1-2 Where submitted. (a)(1) All first-year rentals and the...

  1. 43 CFR 3473.1-2 - Where submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Land Management State office having jurisdiction over the lands (43 CFR subpart 1821). (2) All second... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where submitted. 3473.1-2 Section 3473.1-2..., Rentals, and Royalties § 3473.1-2 Where submitted. (a)(1) All first-year rentals and the...

  2. 43 CFR 3473.1-2 - Where submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Land Management State office having jurisdiction over the lands (43 CFR subpart 1821). (2) All second... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where submitted. 3473.1-2 Section 3473.1-2..., Rentals, and Royalties § 3473.1-2 Where submitted. (a)(1) All first-year rentals and the...

  3. 43 CFR 3473.1-2 - Where submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Land Management State office having jurisdiction over the lands (43 CFR subpart 1821). (2) All second... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where submitted. 3473.1-2 Section 3473.1-2..., Rentals, and Royalties § 3473.1-2 Where submitted. (a)(1) All first-year rentals and the...

  4. Reaction of pyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole with acetylenedicarboxylic ester

    SciTech Connect

    Prostakov, N.S.; Varlamov, A.V.; Shendrik, I.V.; Krapivko, A.P.; Golovtsov, N.I.

    1986-08-01

    Previously unknown polynuclear condensed systems with bridgehead nitrogen atoms have been obtained by treating acetylenedicarboxylic ester with pyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole.

  5. First principles prediction of a morphotropic phase boundary in the Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-(Bi1/2Sr1/2)(Zn1/2Nb1/2)O3 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Valentino R; Henry, Asegun S; Takagi, Shigeyuki M; Singh, David J

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude and direction of polarization within alloys of the tetragonally distorted Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BZT) and the rhombohedrally oriented Bi1/2Sr1/2Zn1/2Nb1/2O3 (BSZN) are explored using density functional theory. For compositions with 50% of BZT, we find that the polarization points mainly along the [001] direction. Conversely, for low concentrations of BZT the polarization is rhombohedrally oriented. Based on these results we propose a phase diagram with a possible monoclinc phase between 25% and 50 % BZT where this material may have a useful piezoelectric response.

  6. Synthesis of Naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and Imidazo[5,1,2-cd]indolizines Through Pd-Catalyzed Cycloaromatization of 2-Phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines with Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyuan; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, palladium-catalyzed oxidative cycloaromatization of 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (PIP) with internal alkyne is studied. From this reaction, two classes of fused N-heterocycle, naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (NIP) and imidazo[5,1,2-cd]indolizine (IID), were formed through dehydrogenative coupling featured with cleavage of the C-H bonds located on different moiety of the PIP substrates. Moreover, when 5-methyl-2-phenylimidazo [1,2-a]pyridine or 2-mesitylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine was used, either NIP or IID could be obtained as an exclusive product with good efficiency. Intriguingly, Pd(II) showed different action mode in promoting this reaction compared with Rh(III) and led to the formation of NIP with reversed regio-selectivity for the reaction of asymmetrical alkyne. PMID:26168267

  7. X-1-2 on Ramp with Boeing B-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 sitting on the ramp at NACA High- Speed Flight Research Station with the Boeing B-29 launch ship behind. The B-29 was fondly referred to as 'Fertile Myrtle.' The painting near the nose depicts a stork carrying a bundle which is symbolic of the Mothership launching her babe (X-1-2). The pilot access door is open to the cockpit of the X-1-2 aircraft.

  8. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  9. 43 CFR 3101.1-2 - Surface use rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface use rights. 3101.1-2 Section 3101... § 3101.1-2 Surface use rights. A lessee shall have the right to use so much of the leased lands as is... operations, and specification of interim and final reclamation measures. At a minimum, measures shall...

  10. 43 CFR 3101.1-2 - Surface use rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surface use rights. 3101.1-2 Section 3101... § 3101.1-2 Surface use rights. A lessee shall have the right to use so much of the leased lands as is... operations, and specification of interim and final reclamation measures. At a minimum, measures shall...

  11. 43 CFR 3101.1-2 - Surface use rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surface use rights. 3101.1-2 Section 3101... § 3101.1-2 Surface use rights. A lessee shall have the right to use so much of the leased lands as is... operations, and specification of interim and final reclamation measures. At a minimum, measures shall...

  12. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  13. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  14. 41 CFR 60-1.2 - Administrative responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative responsibility. 60-1.2 Section 60-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... OF LABOR 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal...

  15. 41 CFR 60-1.2 - Administrative responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Administrative responsibility. 60-1.2 Section 60-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... OF LABOR 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal...

  16. 41 CFR 60-1.2 - Administrative responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administrative responsibility. 60-1.2 Section 60-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... OF LABOR 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal...

  17. 41 CFR 60-1.2 - Administrative responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Administrative responsibility. 60-1.2 Section 60-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... OF LABOR 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal...

  18. 41 CFR 60-1.2 - Administrative responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative responsibility. 60-1.2 Section 60-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... OF LABOR 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal...

  19. 77 FR 30407 - 1,2-Ethanediamine, N

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting an exemption from the... residues of 1,2- ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, polymer with 2,4-diisocyanato-1- methylbenzene on food... apply to me? You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer,...

  20. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... System lands, which proposal shall be filed in compliance with 36 CFR part 254, the authorized officer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange...

  1. 43 CFR 2720.1-2 - Form of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Form of application. 2720.1-2 Section 2720.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) CONVEYANCE OF FEDERALLY-OWNED MINERAL INTERESTS Conveyance of Federally-Owned...

  2. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... administered by the National Park Service; (2) The boundaries of lands and waters administered by the...

  3. Resolution of terminal 1,2-diols via silyl transfer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xixi; Worthy, Amanda D; Tan, Kian L

    2013-10-18

    Through kinetic analysis and optimization, we report an improved resolution of terminal 1,2-diols via asymmetric silyl transfer. Because the reaction is a regiodivergent resolution, the monoprotected product could be isolated in excess of 95:5 er and 40% yield. The described method offers a means of chemically differentiating a terminal 1,2-diol with concomitant resolution of the enantiomers.

  4. 48 CFR 970.2201-1-2 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... absence of any illegal drug, as defined in 10 CFR Part 707.4. All positions requiring access... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policies. 970.2201-1-2 Section 970.2201-1-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY...

  5. 5 CFR 1.2 - Extent of the competitive service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of the competitive service. 1.2 Section 1.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND... pursuant to statute or by the Office of Personnel Management (hereafter referred to in this subchapter...

  6. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  7. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  8. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  9. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  10. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  11. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  12. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  13. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  14. 43 CFR 3103.1-2 - Where submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where submitted. 3103.1-2 Section 3103.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Where submitted. (a)(1) All fees for lease applications or offers or for requests for approval...

  15. 43 CFR 3103.1-2 - Where submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where submitted. 3103.1-2 Section 3103.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Where submitted. (a)(1) All fees for lease applications or offers or for requests for approval...

  16. 43 CFR 3103.1-2 - Where submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where submitted. 3103.1-2 Section 3103.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Where submitted. (a)(1) All fees for lease applications or offers or for requests for approval...

  17. 43 CFR 3103.1-2 - Where submitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where submitted. 3103.1-2 Section 3103.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Where submitted. (a)(1) All fees for lease applications or offers or for requests for approval...

  18. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  19. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  20. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  1. The LDA-1/2 technique: Recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Luiz G.; Pelá, Ronaldo R.; Teles, Lara K.; Marques, Marcelo; Ribeiro, Mauro, Jr.; Furthmüller, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a review of the LDA(GGA)-1/2 method for band calculation. We review the many applications of the method: band gaps, semiconductor interfaces, semiconductor alloys. The number of applications where the method fails is minimal. Leading to results with a precision comparable to Hedin's GW method, LDA-1/2 has the advantage of being orders of magnitude faster. The paper begins by a short theoretical review in which we try not repeat what is already published. Then we present some results that are scattered in the literature. We find that LDA(GGA)-1/2 is the recommended method for excited state energy calculations.

  2. Bubble point pressures for chlorodifluoromethane + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, bromotrifluoromethane + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, and bromotrifluoromethane + chloropentafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Kenji, Hongo, Masaru; Takagi, Toshiharu; Arai, Yasuhiko . Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-01-01

    The bubble point pressures for chlorodifluoromethane (R22) + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R114), bromotrifluoromethane (R13B1) + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R114), and bromotrifluoromethane (R13B1) + chloropentafluoroethane (R115) were measured by a static method. Measurements were made at various compositions at temperatures from 298.15 K to near their critical temperature. The uncertainty of the pressures was estimated to be no greater than [plus minus]0.3%. The bubble point pressures for pure substances were correlated by the Wagner equation, and those for the mixtures were also correlated by the Wagner equation, using a corresponding states principle.

  3. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... affecting § 1.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... above ground level. ALS means approach light system. APU means auxiliary power unit. ASR means...

  4. Hierarchical domain structure of lead-free piezoelectric (Na1/2 Bi1/2)TiO3-(K1/2 Bi1/2)TiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chengtao; Wang, Yaojin; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Delaire, Olivier; Li, Xiaobin; Luo, Haosu

    2016-05-01

    We report a unique hierarchical domain structure in single crystals of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-xat. %(K1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 for x = 5 and 8 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A high density of polar nano-domains with a lamellar morphology was found, which were self-assembled into a quadrant-like configuration, which then assembled into conventional ferroelectric macro-domains. Studies by high resolution TEM revealed that the polar lamellar regions contained a coexistence of in-phase and anti-phase oxygen octahedral tilt regions of a few nanometers in size. Domain frustration over multiple length scales may play an important role in the stabilization of the hierarchy, and in reducing the piezoelectric response of this Pb-free piezoelectric solid solution.

  5. 26 CFR 303.1-2 - Application of part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION TAXES UNDER THE TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT § 303.1-2 Application of part. (a) Property covered..., 1929, and Treasury Decision 4514, approved January 18, 1935 (26 CFR (1938 ed.) 452.1-452.10). (b)...

  6. Contextual view of district with Quarters 1, 2, and 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of district with Quarters 1, 2, and 3 in view, as well as Whiting Way, camera facing southwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Naval Station Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. X-1-2 with Pilots Robert Champine Herb Hoover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 and two of the NACA pilots that flew the aircraft. The one on the left is Robert Champine with the other being Herbert Hoover. The X-1-2 was also equipped with the 10-percent wing and 8 percent tail, powered with an XLR-11 rocket engine and aircraft made its first powered flight on December 9, 1946 with Chalmers 'Slick' Goodlin at the controls. As with the X-1-1 the X-1-2 continued to investigate transonic/supersonic flight regime. NACA pilot Herbert Hoover became the first civilian to fly Mach 1, March 10, 1948. X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots, when it was retired to be rebuilt as the X-1E.

  8. 2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 SHOWING. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  9. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles. PMID:25222918

  10. Structure and ferroelectric properties of Bi(Zn(1/2)Ti(1/2))O3-(Bi(1/2)K(1/2))TiO3 perovskite solid solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Chih; Vittayakorn, Naratip; Cann, David P

    2009-07-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics based on chiBi(Zn(1/2)Ti(1/2))O3-(1-chi)(Bi(1/2)K(1/2))TiO3 were obtained via solid state processing techniques. A single perovskite phase with tetragonal symmetry was obtained for Bi(Zn(1/2)Ti(1/2))O3 (BZT) substitutions up to 20 mol%. The maximum density was 97.1% at the composition of chi = 0.1. The dielectric measurement indicated that the transition temperature decreased linearly with increasing BZT content. The P-E loops revealed an increase in remanent polarization (P(r)) with the addition of BZT. The maximum planar coupling coefficient, kappa(p), for the chi = 0.1 composition was 21.6 and the piezoelectric coefficient, d33, for chi = 0, chi = 0.05, and chi = 0.1 was 108, 185, and 235 pm/V, respectively. Overall, the dielectric and piezoelectric properties showed significant improvement when BZT was added.

  11. Skin cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gumaste, P V; Penn, L A; Cymerman, R M; Kirchhoff, T; Polsky, D; McLellan, B

    2015-06-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have an elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. These patients and their clinicians are often concerned about their risk for other cancers, including skin cancer. Research evaluating the association between BRCA1/2 mutations and skin cancer is limited and has produced inconsistent results. Herein, we review the current literature on the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No studies have shown a statistically significant risk of melanoma in BRCA1 families. BRCA2 mutations have been linked to melanoma in large breast and ovarian cancer families, though a statistically significant elevated risk was reported in only one study. Five additional studies have shown some association between BRCA2 mutations and melanoma, while four studies did not find any association. With respect to nonmelanoma skin cancers, studies have produced conflicting results. Given the current state of medical knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to warrant increased skin cancer surveillance of patients with a confirmed BRCA1/2 mutation or a family history of a BRCA1/2 mutation, in the absence of standard risk factors. Nonetheless, suspected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers should be counselled about skin cancer risks and may benefit from yearly full skin examinations.

  12. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1). PMID:19881852

  13. Electron Excitation of Argon: 4s'[1/2]_1, 4p[1/2]_1, and 4p'[1/2]_0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipović, D. V.; Pejčev, V.; Marinković, B.; Vušković, L.

    1999-10-01

    A broad interest in low-energy electron collisions with argon has recently led to very sophisticated calculations.footnote D. H. Madison, C. M. Maloney, and J. B. Wang, J. Phys. B 31, 873 (1998).^,footnote S. Kaur, R. Srivastava, R. P. McEachran, and A. Stauffer, J. Phys. B 31, 4833 (1998).^,footnote V. Zeman, K. Bartschat, C, Noren, and J. W. McConkey, Phys. Rev. A 58, 1275 (1998). The agreement between theoretical results and the only existing full set of experimentally obtained absolute differential cross sectionsfootnote A. Chutjian and D. C. Cartwright, Phys. Rev. A 23, 2178 (1981). is not satisfactory. We have performed a set of experiments to resolve existing discrepancies between available data. At the conference we will present absolute differential cross sections for argon excited in 4s'[1/2]_1, 4p[1/2]_1, and 4p'[1/2]0 states by electron collision. The incident electron energies were in the range of 16 to 80 eV and overall energy resolution was 40 meV. The angular range covered in our experiments was 5^circ to 150^circ. Data were extrapolated to 0^circ and to 180^circ and numerically integrated to yield integral, momentum transfer, and viscosity cross sections.

  14. Will 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine-based drugs resist metabolism by cytochrome P450 compound I?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is a structural and electronic analogue of benzene which is able to occupy benzene-binding pockets in T4 lysozyme and has been proposed as suitable arene-mimicking group for biological and pharmaceutical applications. Its applicability in a biological context requires it to be able to resist modification by xenobiotic-degrading enzymes like the P450 cytochromes. Quantum chemical computations described in this work show that 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is much more prone to modification by these enzymes than benzene, unless steric crowding of the ring prevents it from reaching the active site, or otherwise only allows reaction at the less reactive C4-position. This novel heterocyclic compound is therefore expected to be of limited usefulness as an aryl bioisostere. PMID:27547588

  15. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  16. A novel route to C-unsubstituted 1,2-oxaphosphetane and 1,2-oxaphospholane complexes.

    PubMed

    Kyri, A W; Schnakenburg, G; Streubel, R

    2016-06-30

    The synthesis of 1,2-oxaphosphetane complexes and 1,2-oxaphospholane complex bearing only substituents at phosphorus is reported using the reaction of Li/Cl phosphinidenoid complex with 2-iodoethanol or 3-bromo-propane-1-ol and the subsequent dehydrohalogenation using KHMDS. In contrast, the reaction of complex with (t)BuLi leads selectively to the formation of phosphinito complex .

  17. A novel route to C-unsubstituted 1,2-oxaphosphetane and 1,2-oxaphospholane complexes.

    PubMed

    Kyri, A W; Schnakenburg, G; Streubel, R

    2016-06-30

    The synthesis of 1,2-oxaphosphetane complexes and 1,2-oxaphospholane complex bearing only substituents at phosphorus is reported using the reaction of Li/Cl phosphinidenoid complex with 2-iodoethanol or 3-bromo-propane-1-ol and the subsequent dehydrohalogenation using KHMDS. In contrast, the reaction of complex with (t)BuLi leads selectively to the formation of phosphinito complex . PMID:27320731

  18. Dielectric relaxation in 0-3 PVDF-Ba(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, K. P.; Singh, Rajan; Kulkarni, A. R.; Prasad, K.

    2016-05-01

    (1-x)PVDF-xBa(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramic-polymer composites with x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 were prepared using melt-mixing technique. The crystal symmetry, space group and unit cell dimensions were determined from the XRD data of Ba(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 using FullProf software, whereas crystallite size and lattice strain were estimated using Williamson-Hall approach. The distribution of Ba(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 particles in the PVDF matrix were examined on the cryo-fractured surfaces using a scanning electron microscope. Cole-Cole and pseudo Cole-Cole analysis suggested the dielectric relaxation in this system to be of non-Debye type. Filler concentration dependent real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant as well as ac conductivity data followed definite trends of exponential growth types of variation.

  19. Comparison of a conventional HIV 1/2 line immunoassay with a rapid confirmatory HIV 1/2 assay.

    PubMed

    Tinguely, Caroline; Schild-Spycher, Therese; Bahador, Zahra; Gowland, Peter; Stolz, Martin; Niederhauser, Christoph

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the rapid confirmatory HIV 1/2 assay Geenius was compared with the conventional HIV 1/2 line immunoblot (INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score). One hundred HIV 1/2 confirmed positive samples from donors and patients and 136 negative screening samples from blood donors were evaluated with both assays. A 20 member performance panel consisting of different HIV 1 and 2 subtypes was also analysed. Ninety-nine of the confirmed HIV positive samples were positive with both assays. One sample was positive with the INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score but indeterminate with the Geenius HIV 1/2. From 136 negative blood donor samples (negative with a combo HIV assay and a highly sensitive ID-NAT), 125 were concordant negative. Six and five samples were incorrectly indeterminate with the INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score and the Geenius HIV 1/2, respectively. One sample was weak positive with the INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score but negative with the Geenius HIV 1/2. The 20 member performance showed equivalent results with both assays. The rapid assay showed a comparable sensitivity and specificity for confirmation for positive and negative HIV donor and patient samples as well for a 20 member performance panel.

  20. 1,2-Hydroxypyridonates as Contrast Agents for Magnetic ResonanceImaging: TREN-1,2-HOPO

    SciTech Connect

    Jocher, Christoph J.; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Avedano, Stefano; Botta, Mauro; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-05-08

    1,2-Hydroxypyridinones (1,2-HOPO) form very stable lanthanide complexes that may be useful as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). X-ray diffraction of single crystals established that the solid state structures of the Eu(III) and the previously reported [Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 5452] Gd(III) complex are identical. The recently discovered sensitizing properties of 1,2-HOPO chelates for Eu(III) luminescence allow direct measurement of the number if water molecules in the metal complex. Fluorescence measurements of the Eu(III) complex corroborate that in solution two water molecules coordinate the lanthanide (q = 2) as proposed from the analysis of NMRD profiles. In addition, fluorescence measurements have verified the anion binding interactions of lanthanide TREN-1,2-HOPO complexes in solution, studied by relaxivity, revealing only very weak oxalate binding (K{sub A} = 82.7 {+-} 6.5 M{sup -1}). Solution thermodynamic studies of the metal complex and free ligand have been carried out using potentiometry, spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The metal ion selectivity of TREN-1,2-HOPO supports the feasibility of using 1,2-HOPO ligands for selective lanthanide binding [pGd = 19.3 (2); pZn = 15.2 (2), pCa = 8.8 (3)].

  1. Near infrared rubidium 62P3/2,1/2→62S1/2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Paul J.; Richards, Ryan M.; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2016-09-01

    An optically pumped near infrared rubidium (Rb) pulsed, mirrorless laser has been demonstrated in a heat pipe along both the 62P3/2-62S1/2 transition at 2.73 μm and the 62P1/2-62S1/2 transition at 2.79 μm. The bleached limit, slope efficiency, and maximum laser output energy of the near infrared Rb laser scale linearly with increasing Rb density, contrary to prior results. Previously, a maximum output energy of ~5 nJ had been observed before a rollover occurred in the scaling of output energy with rubidium concentration. In this experiment, the maximum laser output energy observed was ~100 nJ, with no indication of any scaling limitation. A maximum slope efficiency of 1.7×10-4 was observed. A small percentage of the pump photons were absorbed even at the maximum Rb density attainable in the heat pipe, indicating that laser efficiency could be scaled to near the quantum efficiency. Additionally, the hyperfine structure and absorption spectral profile of the 52S1/2-62P1/2 and 52S1/2-62P3/2 (blue) pump transitions were studied using a cw pump source.

  2. Existence of independent [1, 2]-sets in caterpillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, Eko Budi; Marcelo, Reginaldo M.

    2016-02-01

    Given a graph G, a subset S ⊆ V (G) is an independent [1, 2]-set if no two vertices in S are adjacent and for every vertex ν ∈ V (G)/S, 1 ≤ |N(ν) ∩ S| ≤ 2, that is, every vertex ν ∈ V (G)/S is adjacent to at least one but not more than two vertices in S. In this paper, we discuss the existence of independent [1, 2]-sets in a family of trees called caterpillars.

  3. Combination of skull traction with posterior C1-2 fusion for old C1-2 dislocations.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue Feng; Yang, Hui Lin; Jiang, Wei Min; Tang, Tian Si; Gong, Xiao Hong; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Ji Gang; Wang, Gen Lin

    2011-06-01

    Between January 2003 and December 2009, 23 patients who had suffered old C1-2 dislocations, were surgically treated in our orthopedics department. Fifteen patients underwent direct posterior C1-2 fusion following pre-operative reduction by skull traction. In eight patients, reduction was achieved only by skull traction under general anesthesia, facilitated by manual hyperextension of the cervical spine and maintained by simultaneous posterior C1-2 fusion. Intra-operative traction was monitored using C-arm fluoroscopy and cortical somatosensory-evoked potentials. Posterior C1-2 fixation was achieved in nine patients using C1-2 laminar hooks and in 14 patients using C1 laminar hooks with C2 pedicle screws. During the follow-up of 5 to 72 months (mean: 42.8 months), solid bony fusion was accomplished in all patients. Using Di Lorenzo's grades and Japanese Orthopedics Association scores, there was significant improvement (p<0.05). The cervical medullary angle exhibited a significant improvement of 31.7°, from 121.6° to 153.3° (p<0.05). There were no complications, including dural tears, spinal cord damage, vertebral artery damage, or breakage or loosening of implants.

  4. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-2 - Fee policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-2 Fee policy. (a) DOE management and operating contractors may be paid a fee in accordance with the requirements of this subsection... available fee should reflect the financial risk assumed by the contractor. (2) It is the policy of...

  5. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-2 - Fee policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-2 Fee policy. (a) DOE management and operating contractors may be paid a fee in accordance with the requirements of this subsection... available fee should reflect the financial risk assumed by the contractor. (2) It is the policy of...

  6. MAPK Signaling and ERK1/2 bistability in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Rafeul; Gorska, Magdalena M.

    2010-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) integrate signals from numerous receptors and translate these signals into cell functions. MAPKs are critical for immune cell metabolism, migration, production of pro-inflammatory mediators, survival, and differentiation. We provide a concise review of the involvement of MAPK in important cells of the immune system. Certain cell functions e.g. production of pro-inflammatory mediators resolve quickly and may require a transient MAPK activation, other processes such as cell differentiation and long-term survival may require persistent MAPK signal. The persistent MAPK signal is frequently a consequence of positive feedback loops or double negative feedback loops which perpetuate the signal after removal of an external cell stimulus. This self-perpetuated activation of a signaling circuit is a manifestation of its bistability. Bistable systems can exist in “on” and “off” states and both states are stable. We have demonstrated the existence of self-perpetuated activation mechanism for ERK1/2 in bronchial epithelial cells. This sustained activation of ERK1/2 supports long-term survival of these cells and primes them for cytokine transcription. ERK1/2 bistability arises from repetitive stimulation of the cell. The repeated stimulation (e.g. repeated viral infection or repeated allergen exposure) seems to be a common theme in asthma and other chronic illnesses. We thus hypothesize that the self-perpetuated ERK1/2 signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:21121982

  7. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  8. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 1.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...) means nondirectional beacon (automatic direction finder). NM means nautical mile. NOPAC means North... Tracking and Reporting System. RAIL means runway alignment indicator light system. RBN means radio...

  9. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 1.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...) means nondirectional beacon (automatic direction finder). NM means nautical mile. NOPAC means North... Tracking and Reporting System. RAIL means runway alignment indicator light system. RBN means radio...

  10. Determination of Ethane-1,2-diamine in Inert Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Graeme H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a procedure for determining ethane-1,2-diamine (EN) which is generally applicable for inert or labile complexes or for EN in its salts, although it cannot be used directly with ammonium or coordinated ammonia. It gives results with five percent accuracy or better and requires less than one hour laboratory time. (JN)

  11. The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.

    2005-01-01

    The bromination of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and brominating agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.

  12. Graphing Online Searches with Lotus 1-2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how Lotus 1-2-3 software can be used to create graphs using downloaded online searches as raw material, notes most commands applied, and outlines three required steps: downloading, importing the downloading file into the worksheet, and making graphs. An example in bibliometrics and sample graphs are included. (EJS)

  13. Multiplex detection of Solenopsis invicta viruses -1, -2, and -3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed to detect simultaneously Solenopsis invicta viruses -1, -2, and -3 in their host, the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. cDNA synthesis was conducted in a single reaction containing three oligonucleotide primers specific for ...

  14. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and up to the ordinary high water mark in other places) and... management plans, or in emergency operations involving threats to life, property, or park resources. (e)...

  15. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and up to the ordinary high water mark in other places) and... management plans, or in emergency operations involving threats to life, property, or park resources. (e)...

  16. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and up to the ordinary high water mark in other places) and... management plans, or in emergency operations involving threats to life, property, or park resources. (e)...

  17. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and up to the ordinary high water mark in other places) and... management plans, or in emergency operations involving threats to life, property, or park resources. (e)...

  18. 1,2-shifts of hydrogen atoms in aryl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.A.; Scott, L.T.

    1999-06-16

    An energy barrier on the order of 60 kcal/mol is predicted for the 1,2-shift of hydrogen atoms in aryl radicals. Such rearrangements are, therefore, not expected to occur under ordinary laboratory conditions, but they should be prevalent in the aryl radicals formed during combustion, flash vacuum pyrolysis, and other high-temperature gas-phase processes. As a demonstration of this rearrangement, the 2-benzo[c]phenanthryl radical (1) was generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis of the corresponding aryl bromide. A 1,2-shift of hydrogen out of the sterically congested cover region of 1, followed by cyclization and rearomatization of the resulting radical, is proposed to explain the observation of benzo[ghi]fluoranthene as the dominant monomeric product formed. Under the same conditions, [1,3,4,5-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]-2-bromobenzo[c]phenanthrene gives [1,2,3,4-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]-benzo[ghi]fluoranthene as the dominant monomeric product, in accord with the expectation of a deuterium atom 1,2-shift.

  19. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers were first synthesized by reacting bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazide with aniline hydrochloride at 250 C in the melt and also by reacting 1,3 or 1,4-bis- (4-hydroxyphenyl)- phenylene- dihydrazide with 2 moles of aniline hydrochloride in the melt. Purification of the di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers was accomplished by recrystallization. Poly (1,2,4-triazoles) (PT) were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions were carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PT of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides.

  20. 2. Threefourths view of bridge showing truss spans 1, 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Three-fourths view of bridge showing truss spans 1, 2, and 3 timber approach on south end, and relation of bridge to stream an adjoining terrain - Bridge No. 33.3, Spanning Elk River at Milepost JC-33.3, Fayetteville, Lincoln County, TN

  1. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  2. Sporothrix schenckii (sensu strict S. globosa) mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2013-09-01

    Sporotix schenckii is a pathogenic fungus that causes human and animal sporotrichosis, and based on morphology of the sessile conidia and molecular analysis, it was recently recognized as a species complex comprising at least the following six sibling species: S. albicans, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, S. mexicana and S. schenckii. However, apart from S. schenckii sensu strict, only S. brasiliensis, S. globosa and S. luriei are associated with human and animal infection. S. globosa has been most commonly isolated in Asia, Europe and the USA; therefore, molecular epidemiological study for S. globosa is important in relation to human sporotrichosis in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene of Sporothrix schenckii with the aim of understanding the taxonomy of the genus Sporothrix. The MAT1-2 gene (1618 bp) encodes a protein sequence of 198 amino acids. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis also detected MAT1-2 gene mRNA expression in all of the S. schenckii strains examined, indicating that this gene is expressed in S. schenckii cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the MAT1-2 gene fragments of Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, O. ulmi and S. schenckii indicated that these isolates could be classified into four clusters. MAT1-1 gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive in 15 isolates, but negative in four human isolates and one feline isolate.

  3. Analyzing ERK 1/2 signalling and targets.

    PubMed

    Brietz, Alexandra; Schuch, Kristin Verena; Wangorsch, Gaby; Lorenz, Kristina; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-07-19

    The ERK cascade (e.g. Raf-1) protects the heart from cell death and ischemic injury but can also turn maladaptive. Furthermore, an additional autophosphorylation of ERK2 at Thr188 (Erk1 at Thr208) allows ERK to phosphorylate nuclear targets involved in hypertrophy, stressing this additional phosphorylation as a promising pharmacological target. An in silico model was assembled and setup to reproduce different phosphorylation states of ERK 1/2 and various types of stimuli (hypertrophic versus non-hypertrophic). Synergistic and antagonistic receptor stimuli can be predicted in a semi-quantitative model, simulated time courses were experimentally validated. Furthermore, we detected new targets of ERK 1/2, which possibly contribute to the development of pathological hypertrophy. In addition we modeled further interaction partners involved in the protective and maladaptive cascade. Experimental validation included different gene expression data sets supporting key components and novel interaction partners as well as time courses in chronic heart failure.

  4. Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase from Haloferax sp. D1227.

    PubMed

    Fu, W; Oriel, P

    1998-11-01

    Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase from the extreme halophile Haloferax sp. D1227 (Hf. D1227) was purified using a three-step procedure. The enzyme was found to be a homotetramer of 42,000 +/- 1,000 Da subunits, with a native molecular weight of 174,000 +/- 6,000 Da. The optimal salt concentration, temperature, and pH for enzyme activity were 2 M KCl or NaCl, 45 degrees C, and pH 7.2, respectively. The gene encoding Hf. D1227 gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Haloferax volcanii. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited a 9.2% excess acidic over basic amino acids typical of halophilic enzymes. Four novel histidine clusters and a possible extradiol dioxygenase fingerprint region were identified. PMID:9827334

  5. Hexamethylenetetramine-4-nitrocatechol-water (1/2/1).

    PubMed

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Usman, Anwar; Fun, Hoong Kun; Poh, Bo Long; Karalai, Chatchanok

    2002-11-01

    In the title adduct, 1,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]decane-4-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol-water (1/2/1), C(6)H(12)N(4).2C(6)H(5)NO(4).H(2)O, the hexamethylenetetramine molecule acts as an acceptor of intermolecular O-H.N hydrogen-bonding interactions from the water molecule and the hydroxy groups of one of the two symmetry-independent 4-nitrocatechol molecules. The structure is built from molecular layers which are stabilized by three intermolecular O-H.O, two intermolecular O-H.N and four intermolecular C-H.O hydrogen bonds. The layers are further interconnected by one additional intermolecular O-H.N and two intermolecular C-H.O hydrogen bonds.

  6. Efficient synthesis and reactions of 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes

    PubMed Central

    Tanui, Hillary K.; Hao, Erhong; Ihachi, Moses I.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Smith, Kevin M.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2011-01-01

    Various dipyrroles possess important motifs for construction of pyrrole-containing pigments. A series of 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes (4a–d) has been efficiently synthesized using an improved one-pot double Sonagashira coupling from trimethylsilylethyne and various 2-iodopyrroles. The resulting 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes were further transformed into novel indolyl-, ethenyl- and carboranyl-dipyrroles (5–7) using the Larock indole synthesis, stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation, or B10H14. Indolyl-dipyrroles were found to selectively bind fluoride ions using one pyrrolic and the indolyl NHs, whereas the carboranyl- and ethenyl-dipyrroles are potentially valuable precursors for the synthesis of porphyrin isomers and expanded pigments. PMID:21822371

  7. General synthesis of substituted 1,2-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, David; Cotos, Leandro; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; García-Tellado, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    A general and practical metal-free protocol for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydropyridines with wide structural/functional diversity at the ring and featuring mono, double, or spiro substitution at the sp(3) position is described. The protocol entails a microwave-assisted domino reaction of a propargyl vinyl ether (secondary or tertiary) and a primary amine (aliphatic or aromatic) in toluene or methanol.

  8. Solid-state conversion of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3-(K1/2Na1/2)NbO3 single crystals and their piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Yong; Kang, Suk-Joong L.

    2014-06-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic with a composition of (94 - x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-6BaTiO3-x(K1/2Na1/2)NbO3 (NBT-BT-xKNN) is a promising lead-free piezoelectric material for actuator applications because of its giant electric-field-induced strains, which are comparable with that of soft Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) ceramics. Using the solid-state single crystal growth method, we succeeded in fabricating usable single crystals of NBT-BT-3KNN (6 mm × 6 mm × 8 mm size) with a uniform chemical composition. The room temperature piezoelectric properties of ⟨001⟩, ⟨110⟩, and ⟨111⟩ oriented single crystals were measured. Single crystals showed strong anisotropic strain characteristics. In particular, ⟨001⟩ oriented single crystals had excellent piezoelectric properties with small hysteresis and a high strain of 0.57% at 7 kV/mm. In addition, the fabricated single crystals exhibited a high converse piezoelectric constant, Smax/Emax, of over 1000 pm/V at 4 kV/mm. These values are greater than those reported for any lead-containing and lead-free ceramics and comparable with those of lead-based single crystals. Our investigation demonstrates the solid-state conversion of lead-free single crystals and their practical usability in replacement of lead-based materials.

  9. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  10. 38. View of DRS 1, 2, and 3 (structure nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View of DRS 1, 2, and 3 (structure nos. 735, 736, and 737) console fault locator for beam power status, radio frequency (RF) and intermediate frequency (IF) fault conditions, RF switches status and TR status. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  11. Dielectric Relaxation In Complex Perovskite Sm(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nishant; Prasad, S.; Sinha, T. P.

    2011-11-01

    The complex perovskite oxide Samarium nickel titenate, Sm(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 (SNT) is synthesized by a solid-state reaction technique. The X-ray diffraction of the sample at room temperature shows a monoclinic phase. The scanning micrograph of the sample shows the average grain size≈0.6μm The field dependence of dielectric response and the loss tangent of the sample are measured in a frequency range from 100Hz to 1MHz and in a temperature range from 313 K to 673 K. An analysis of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity with frequency is performed, assuming a distribution of relaxation times as confirmed by Cole-Cole plots. The frequency dependent electrical data are analyzed in the framework of conductivity formalism. The frequency dependent conductivity data are fitted to the universal power law. All these formalisms provided for qualitative similarities in the relaxation times.

  12. Preparation of crosslinked 1,2,4-oxadiazole polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Shalhoub, I. M.; Kwong, H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    New crosslinked 1,2,4-oxadiazole elastomers were prepared by thermally condensing a monomer having the formula H2N(HON)C-R-Q, wherein Q is a triazine ring-forming group such as nitrile or amidine or a mixture of such group with amidoxime, or a mixture of said monomer with R C(NOH)NH2 sub 2 with R in these formulas standing for a bivalent organic radical. In the monomer charge, the overall proportions of amidoxime groups to triazine ring-forming groups varies depending on the extent of crosslinking desired in the final polymer.

  13. IFSAR reductions from ERS-1,/2 tandem data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poehler, Paul L.; Mansfield, Arthur W.; Rogers, George W.; Rais, Houra

    1998-09-01

    Recent advantages in the areas of phase history processing, interferometric synthetic aperture radar processing algorithms, and the use of photogrammetric techniques have made it possible to extract extremely accurate DEM generation from Synthetic Aperture Radar images. Recent improvements by the authors in the phase unwrapping and interferogram conditioning steps are described which make it possible to obtain good elevation accuracy from noisy interferograms resulting from temporal decorrelation due to foliage or extreme terrain. Results are shown of data reductions from separate passes of the ERS-1,/2 Tandem System over Ft. Irwin, California, and Aschaffenburg, Germany.

  14. Spangolite: an s = 1/2 maple leaf lattice antiferromagnet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennell, T.; Piatek, J. O.; Stephenson, R. A.; Nilsen, G. J.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2011-04-01

    Spangolite, Cu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl·3H2O, is a hydrated layered copper sulfate mineral. The Cu2 + ions of each layer form a systematically depleted triangular lattice which approximates a maple leaf lattice. We present details of the crystal structure, which suggest that in spangolite this lattice actually comprises two species of edge linked trimers with different exchange parameters. However, magnetic susceptibility measurements show that despite the structural trimers, the magnetic properties are dominated by dimerization. The high temperature magnetic moment is strongly reduced below that expected for the six s = 1/2 in the unit cell.

  15. Role of point defects in bipolar fatigue behavior of Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} modified (Bi{sub 1/2}K{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} relaxor ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nitish Ansell, Troy Y.; Cann, David P.

    2014-04-21

    Lead-free Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}K{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3}-(Bi{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} (BMT-BKT-BNT) ceramics have been shown to exhibit large electromechanical strains under high electric fields along with negligible fatigue under strong electric fields. To investigate the role of point defects on the fatigue characteristics, the composition 5BMT-40BKT-55BNT was doped to incorporate acceptor and donor defects on the A and B sites by adjusting the Bi/Na and Ti/Mg stoichiometries. All samples had pseudo-cubic symmetries based on x-ray diffraction, typical of relaxors. Dielectric measurements showed that the high and low temperature phase transitions were largely unaffected by doping. Acceptor doping resulted in the observation of a typical ferroelectric-like polarization with a remnant polarization and strain hysteresis loops with significant negative strain. Donor-doped compositions exhibited characteristics that were indicative of an ergodic relaxor phase. Fatigue measurements were carried out on all of the compositions. While the A-site acceptor-doped composition showed a small degradation in maximum strain after 10{sup 6} cycles, the other compositions were essentially fatigue free. Impedance measurements were used to identify the important conduction mechanisms in these compositions. As expected, the presence of defects did not strongly influence the fatigue behavior in donor-doped compositions owing to the nature of their reversible field-induced phase transformation. Even for the acceptor-doped compositions, which had stable domains in the absence of an electric field at room temperature, there was negligible degradation in the maximum strain due to fatigue. This suggests that either the defects introduced through stoichiometric variations do not play a prominent role in fatigue in these systems or it is compensated by factors like decrease in coercive field, an increase in ergodicity, symmetry change, or other factors.

  16. LBNF 1.2 MW TARGET: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN & FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, Cory F.; Ammigan, K.; Anderson, K.; Hartsell, B.; Hurh, P.; Hylen, J.; Zwaska, R.

    2015-06-29

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a modified design based on the NuMI low energy target that is reconfigured to accommodate beam operation at 1.2 MW. Achieving this power with a graphite target material and ancillary systems originally rated for 400 kW requires several design changes and R&D efforts related to material bonding and electrical isolation. Target cooling, structural design, and fabrication techniques must address higher stresses and heat loads that will be present during 1.2 MW operation, as the assembly will be subject to cyclic loads and thermal expansion. Mitigations must be balanced against compromises in neutrino yield. Beam monitoring and subsystem instrumentation will be updated and added to ensure confidence in target positioning and monitoring. Remote connection to the target hall support structure must provide for the eventual upgrade to a 2.4 MW target design, without producing excessive radioactive waste or unreasonable exposure to technicians during reconfiguration. Current designs and assembly layouts will be presented, in addition to current findings on processes and possibilities for prototype and final assembly fabrication.

  17. Battle brewing over the BRCA1/2 gene patents.

    PubMed

    Agovic, Amina

    2010-01-01

    The revolutionary discovery of the DNA and the successful mapping of the human genome have allowed scientists worldwide to engage in an unprecedented research on the cutting-edge biomedical technology such as the genetic engineering (gene-splicing or recombinant DNA). However, as is often the case with modern bio-technologies, genes related innovation is heavily dependent on strong patent protection primarily due to high costs of research and commercialisation in this area. The aim of this paper is to provide a description of the District Court Ruling in the case of Association for Molecular Pathology et al v United States Patent and Trademark Office et al (ACLU v Myriad). In doing so, the article provides information on the relevant background at issues, including a brief introduction to general patentability requirements in relation to genes and the controversy surrounding the patentability of genetic material. The analysis of the complaint filed in the ACLU v Myriad case and the details of the District Court Ruling follows. The paper concludes with an outlook of the future legal actions involving Myriad's BRCA1/2 and the assessment of the potential impact that the BRCA1/2 District Court Ruling and subsequent appeal(s) may have on the American patent law.

  18. Reactivity of 1,2,5,6-Tetrathiocines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrixon, Justin D.

    This thesis describes selected chemistry of 1,2,5,6-tetrathiocines, 8-membered heterocycles containing four S atoms which can be considered as bis(disulfides). Chapter 1 provides a literature review of the existing chemistry of 1,2,5,6-tetrathiocines. Chapters 2 -- 4 examine the oxidative addition chemistry of tetrathiocines to zero-valent group 10 metal complexes in the presence of an auxiliary phosphine ligand under microwave conditions to afford nickel, palladium and platinum dithiolate complexes. These chapters probe the effect of the metal (Chapter 2), the auxiliary phosphine (Chapter 3) and the tetrathiocine (Chapter 4) on the outcome of the chemical reaction, leading to a range of mono-, di- and hexa-metallic complexes which have been fully characterized by multinuclear NMR, mass spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Finally, Chapter 6 describes the use of tetrathiocines as precursors to 1,3,2-benzodithiazyl (BDTA) radicals and two new dithiazolyl radicals have been isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction and EPR spectroscopy.

  19. Propellant Containing 3, 6bis(1h-1,2,3,4-Tetrazol-5-Ylamino)-1,2,4,5- Tetrazine Or Salt Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren

    2003-12-02

    The compound 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine and its salts are provided together with a propellant composition including an oxidizer, a binder and 3,6-bis(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine or its salts.

  20. Emissions in potassium vapour under 4S{sub 1/2}-7S{sub 1/2} two-photon nsec excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Pentaris, D.; Chatzikyriakos, G.; Armyras, A.; Efthimiopoulos, T.

    2010-11-10

    The two-photon excitation of 4S{sub 1/2}-7S{sub 1/2} transition of potassium atoms is studied. Several coherent emissions and processes are possible, such as parametric four-wave (PFWM), parametric six-wave (PSWM) mixing and competition with the stimulated hyper Raman (SHRS) and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The radiations at the transitions 6P{sub 3/2,1/2}-4S{sub 1/2}, 6S{sub 1/2}-4P{sub 3/2,1/2} and 5P{sub 3/2,1/2}-4S{sub 1/2} are emitted only in the forward direction (indicating a parametric process), while the radiation at the transition 4P{sub 3/2,1/2}-4S{sub 1/2} is emitted in the forward and in the backward direction, indicating an ASE process.

  1. NASA budget growth 1-2% in fiscal 1993?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    1992-04-01

    Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.) presented departing NASA Administrator Richard Truly with a sobering question at a March 25 hearing of the Senate Appropriations VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies subcommittee. Mikulski told Truly that if the so-called budget “firewalls” don't come down so that defense money can be shifted to domestic spending, her subcommittee's budget allocation will not be sufficient to fund President Bush's requests for NASA. The question she posed to Truly was, if the firewalls do not come down, “Do you believe the best appropriations strategy would be to go to a continuing resolution until March of next year … or recommend trying to squeeze the existing requirements into a growth rate of 1-2% and cut programs based on your priorities?” A continuing resolution would mean continuation of funding at current levels.

  2. The 1,2,4-oxadiazole elastomers. [heat resistant polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Shalhoub, I. M.; Kwong, H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Crosslinked 1,2,4-oxadiazole elastomers were prepared either by thermally condensing a monomer having the formula HwN(HON)C-R-Q, wherein Q is a triazine ring forming group such as nitrile or amidine, or by a mixture of said monomer with RC(NOH)NH22, with R in these formulas standing for a bivalent organic radical containing fluorine, hydrogen, or trifluoromethyl. In the monomer charge, the overall proportions of amidoxime groups to triazine ring forming groups varies depending on the extent of crosslinking desired in the final polymer. The heat and chemical resistant elastomers disclosed can serve, for instance, as adhesives, caulking compounds, channel sealants, fuel tank liners.

  3. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 1,2-Benzothiazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chandani; Bassin, Jatinder P; Scott, Mark; Flye, Jenna; Hunter, Ann P; Martin, Lee; Goyal, Madhu

    2016-01-01

    A number of 1,2-benzothiazines have been synthesized in a three-step process. Nine chalcones 1-9 bearing methyl, fluoro, chloro and bromo substituents were chlorosulfonated with chlorosulfonic acid to generate the chalcone sulfonyl chlorides 10-18. These were converted to the dibromo compounds 19-27 through reaction with bromine in glacial acetic acid. Compounds 19-27 were reacted with ammonia, methylamine, ethylamine, aniline and benzylamine to generate a library of 45 1,2-benzothiazines 28-72. Compounds 28-72 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using broth microdilution techniques against two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhimurium). The results demonstrated that none of the compounds showed any activity against Gram-negative bacteria P. vulgaris and S. typhimurium; however, compounds 31, 33, 38, 43, 45, 50, 53, 55, 58, 60, 63 and 68 showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcous aureus. The range of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 25-600 µg/mL, though some of the MIC and MBC concentrations were high, indicating weak activity. Structure activity relationship studies revealed that the compounds with a hydrogen atom or an ethyl group on the nitrogen of the thiazine ring exerted antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The results also showed that the compounds where the benzene ring of the benzoyl moiety contained a methyl group or a chlorine or bromine atom in the para position showed higher antimicrobial activity. Similar influences were identified where either a bromine or chlorine atom was in the meta position. PMID:27376253

  4. Summary of Salient Findings of "Natural Attenuation of the Lead Scavengers 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) at Motor Fuel Release Sites and Implications for Risk Management"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tetra-ethyl lead was widely used in leaded automobile gasoline from 1923 until 1987 (See Figure 1). To prevent lead deposits from fouling the engine, 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were added to the gasoline to act as lead scavengers. These compounds r...

  5. Natural Attenuation of the Lead Scavengers 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB) and 1.2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) at Motor Fuel Release Sites and Implications for Risk Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lead scavengers 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were included along with lead in conventional leaded gasoline used for automobiles in the US prior to 1988. Old spills of leaded gasoline from underground storage tank systems (USTs) at gasoline service...

  6. X-1-2 on ramp with Boeing B-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 Sitting on the ramp at NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station with the Boeing B-29 launch ship behind. The painting near the nose of the B-29 depicts a stork carrying a bundle which is symbolic of the Mothership launching her babe (X-1-2). The pilot access door is open to the cockpit of the X-1-2 aircraft. On the X-1-2's fin is the old NACA shield, which was later replaced with a yellow band and the letters 'NACA' plus wings that were both black. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1

  7. Dichlorido{N-[1-(2-pyrid-yl)ethyl-idene]ethane-1,2-diamine}copper(II).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bi, Cai-Feng; Wang, Da-Qi; Fan, Yu-Hua

    2009-03-25

    The title complex, [CuCl(2)(C(9)H(13)N(3))], is mononuclear and contains a five-coordinate Cu(II) atom. The geometry of the Cu(II) atom can be described as tetra-gonal-pyramidal derived from the calculation of the value τ = 0.102. The three N atoms of the pyridine and ethane-1,2-diamine ligands and one Cl atom belong to the basal plane and the other Cl atom represents the axial position of the pyramid. The Cu atom is displaced by 0.2599 (2) Å from the basal plane towards the axial Cl atom. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked into chains by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  8. Purification and characterization of a 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene 1,2-dioxygenase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Rieble, S; Joshi, D K; Gold, M H

    1994-01-01

    1,2,4-Trihydroxybenzene (THB) is an intermediate in the Phanerochaete chrysosporium degradation of vanillate and aromatic pollutants. A P. chrysosporium intracellular enzyme able to oxidatively cleave the aromatic ring of THB was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic and ion-exchange chromatographies, and native gel electrophoresis. The native protein has a molecular mass of 90 kDa and a subunit mass of 45 kDa. The enzyme catalyzes an intradiol cleavage of the substrate aromatic ring to produce maleylacetate. 18O2 incorporation studies demonstrate that molecular oxygen is a cosubstrate in the reaction. The enzyme exhibits high substrate specificity for THB; however, catechol cleavage occurs at approximately 20% of the optimal rate. THB dioxygenase catalyzes a key step in the degradation pathway of vanillate, an intermediate in lignin degradation. Maleylacetate, the product of THB cleavage, is reduced to beta-ketoadipate by an NADPH-requiring enzyme present in partially purified extracts. Images PMID:8050996

  9. Damped soft phonons and diffuse scattering in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Iida, H.; Hirota, K.; Ohwada, K.; Noguchi, Y.; Miyayama, M.

    2013-02-01

    Neutron-scattering studies of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 (BNT) have been performed to elucidate the microscopic mechanism of the broad maximum in the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant at Tm˜600 K and the reduction in the piezoelectric properties above the depolarization temperature, 460˜480 K. We observed diffuse scattering near the Γ point below 700 K, which competes with the superlattice peak at the M point of the tetragonal phase but coexists with the superlattice peak at the R point of the rhombohedral phase. The diffuse scattering shows an anisotropic Q shape extending along the <100> direction transverse to the scattering vector Q, which is explained by atomic shifts bridging the tetragonal and rhombohedral structures. We propose that the broad maximum in the dielectric constant is associated with a diffusive first-order transition between the competing tetragonal and rhombohedral phases. In addition, we found that the diffuse scattering is reduced for single crystals grown under high oxygen pressure, which suggests an analogy with the central peak in hydrogen-reduced SrTiO3. Inelastic neutron scattering near the Γ point reveals a heavily overdamped soft mode similar to those reported in lead-based relaxors, the “waterfall” feature. Moreover, a damped soft transverse acoustic mode is observed for the <100> direction as the anisotropic diffuse scattering, indicating phase instabilities with the same origin as that of the diffuse scattering. The recovery of the soft mode is observed near the depolarization temperature, which coincides with the disappearance of the superlattice peak at the M point. These results indicate that the depolarization and the waterfall feature originate in the dynamic nature of ferroelectric clusters in the coexisting tetragonal/rhombohedral phase.

  10. Orientational relaxations in solid (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, P; Mitsari, E; Romanini, M; Serra, P; Tamarit, J Ll; Zuriaga, M; Macovez, R

    2016-04-28

    We employ dielectric spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the dipolar dynamics in the orientationally disordered solid phase of (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane. Three distinct orientational dynamics are observed as separate dielectric loss features, all characterized by a simply activated temperature dependence. The slower process, associated to a glassy transition at 156 ± 1 K, corresponds to a cooperative motion by which each molecule rotates by 180° around the molecular symmetry axis through an intermediate state in which the symmetry axis is oriented roughly orthogonally to the initial and final states. Of the other two dipolar relaxations, the intermediate one is the Johari-Goldstein precursor relaxation of the cooperative dynamics, while the fastest process corresponds to an orientational fluctuation of single molecules into a higher-energy orientation. The Kirkwood correlation factor of the cooperative relaxation is of the order of one tenth, indicating that the molecular dipoles maintain on average a strong antiparallel alignment during their collective motion. These findings show that the combination of dielectric spectroscopy and molecular simulations allows studying in great detail the orientational dynamics in molecular solids.

  11. Coke formation during pyrolysis of 1,2-dichloroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Holmen, A.; Lindvag, O.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most processes involving hydrocarbons or carbon oxides at high temperatures suffer from the disadvantage of coke formation. The formation of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is of significant practical importance. Examples of such processes are the steam cracking of alkanes to produce olefins and the thermal decomposition of 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC) for the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Even id the rate of coke production is low, the cumulative nature of the solid product will result in reactor fouling. The present work deals with the thermal decomposition of EDC. Coke formation has been studied on metal surfaces in a quartz tubular reactor. The rate of coke deposition was measures on metal foils hanging from one arm of a microbalance. A complete analysis of the product gas was accomplished using on-line gas chromatography. The results show that coke deposition during thermal decomposition of EDC depends on the composition of the feed as well as on the nature of the surface of the metal foil. Small amounts of other components (contamination with other chlorinated hydrocarbons as an example) may have a large influence on the rate of coke formation. The results are discussed in terms of surface composition/morphology of the metal foil and the free radical mechanism for thermal decomposition of FDC.

  12. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  13. Orientational relaxations in solid (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, P.; Mitsari, E.; Romanini, M.; Serra, P.; Tamarit, J. Ll.; Zuriaga, M.; Macovez, R.

    2016-04-01

    We employ dielectric spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the dipolar dynamics in the orientationally disordered solid phase of (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane. Three distinct orientational dynamics are observed as separate dielectric loss features, all characterized by a simply activated temperature dependence. The slower process, associated to a glassy transition at 156 ± 1 K, corresponds to a cooperative motion by which each molecule rotates by 180° around the molecular symmetry axis through an intermediate state in which the symmetry axis is oriented roughly orthogonally to the initial and final states. Of the other two dipolar relaxations, the intermediate one is the Johari-Goldstein precursor relaxation of the cooperative dynamics, while the fastest process corresponds to an orientational fluctuation of single molecules into a higher-energy orientation. The Kirkwood correlation factor of the cooperative relaxation is of the order of one tenth, indicating that the molecular dipoles maintain on average a strong antiparallel alignment during their collective motion. These findings show that the combination of dielectric spectroscopy and molecular simulations allows studying in great detail the orientational dynamics in molecular solids.

  14. Magnetic entanglement in spin-1/2 XY chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumani, Fatemeh Khastehdel; Nemati, Somayyeh; Mahdavifar, Saeed; Darooneh, Amir Hosein

    2016-03-01

    In the study of entanglement in a spin chain, people often consider the nearest-neighbor spins. The motivation is the prevailing role of the short range interactions in creating quantum correlation between the 1st neighbor (1N) spins. Here, we address the same question between farther neighbor spins. We consider the one-dimensional (1D) spin-1/2 XY model in a magnetic field. Using the fermionization approach, we diagonalize the Hamiltonian of the system. Then, we provide the analytical results for entanglement between the 2nd, 3rd and 4th neighbor (denoted as 2N, 3N, and 4N respectively) spins. We find a magnetic entanglement that starts from a critical entangled-field (hcE) at zero temperature. The critical entangled-field depends on the distance between the spins. In addition to the analytical results, the mentioned phenomenon is confirmed by the numerical Lanczos calculations. By adding the temperature to the model, the magnetic entanglement remains stable up to a critical temperature, Tc. Our results show that entanglement spreads step by step to farther neighbors in the spin chain by reducing temperature. At first, the 1N spins are entangled and then further neighbors will be entangled respectively. Tc depends on the value of the magnetic field and will be maximized at the quantum critical field.

  15. Delta. I =1/2 weak baryon decays

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsen, R.E.; Ryan, W.H.; Scadron, M.D. )

    1991-01-01

    First we extract phenomenological values for the reduced matrix elements {l angle}{ital B}{prime}{vert bar}{ital H}{sub {ital w}}{sup PC}{vert bar}{ital B}{r angle} and {l angle}{ital B}{vert bar}{ital H}{sub {ital w}}{sup PV}{vert bar}{ital D}{r angle} connected with octet-baryon {ital B}{r arrow}{ital B}{prime}{pi},{ital B}{prime}{gamma} weak decays and decuplet decays {ital D}{r arrow}{ital B}{pi}. Then we show at the quark level that the combination of {Delta}{ital I}=1/2 quark {ital W}-exchange and self-energy graphs explains {l angle}{ital B}{prime}{vert bar}{ital H}{sub {ital w}}{sup PC}{vert bar}{ital B}{r angle} transitions better than either separately. However, only the self-energy graph can contribute to {l angle}{Xi}{vert bar}{ital H}{sub {ital w}}{sup PV}{vert bar}{Omega}{r angle}. This overall picture gives an excellent fit to over ten nonleptonic weak baryon decays.

  16. Burning Heptane Droplets in 1/2 Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 11, 1997. This round of experiments burned heptane droplets in 1/2 atmosphere pressure consisting of oxygen and helium. During this mission, scientists have seen for the first time droplets which stop burning due to heat loss by radiation. From these data, the investigators hope to understand the physical and chemical processes that take place in droplet combustion in different environments, including conditions under which the flames extinguish, the chemistry of the combustion reaction, and the production of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and soot particles. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (244KB JPEG, 1350 x 2016 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300173.html.

  17. Orientational relaxations in solid (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, P; Mitsari, E; Romanini, M; Serra, P; Tamarit, J Ll; Zuriaga, M; Macovez, R

    2016-04-28

    We employ dielectric spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the dipolar dynamics in the orientationally disordered solid phase of (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane. Three distinct orientational dynamics are observed as separate dielectric loss features, all characterized by a simply activated temperature dependence. The slower process, associated to a glassy transition at 156 ± 1 K, corresponds to a cooperative motion by which each molecule rotates by 180° around the molecular symmetry axis through an intermediate state in which the symmetry axis is oriented roughly orthogonally to the initial and final states. Of the other two dipolar relaxations, the intermediate one is the Johari-Goldstein precursor relaxation of the cooperative dynamics, while the fastest process corresponds to an orientational fluctuation of single molecules into a higher-energy orientation. The Kirkwood correlation factor of the cooperative relaxation is of the order of one tenth, indicating that the molecular dipoles maintain on average a strong antiparallel alignment during their collective motion. These findings show that the combination of dielectric spectroscopy and molecular simulations allows studying in great detail the orientational dynamics in molecular solids. PMID:27131555

  18. RAG1/2 knockout pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiao; Guo, Xiaogang; Fan, Nana; Song, Jun; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Quanmei; Yi, Xiaoling; Schambach, Axel; Frampton, Jon; Esteban, Miguel A; Yang, Dongshan; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-08-01

    Pigs share many physiological, biochemical, and anatomical similarities with humans and have emerged as valuable large animal models for biomedical research. Considering the advantages in immune system resemblance, suitable size, and longevity for clinical practical and monitoring purpose, SCID pigs bearing dysfunctional RAG could serve as important experimental tools for regenerative medicine, allograft and xenograft transplantation, and reconstitution experiments related to the immune system. In this study, we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of RAG1 and RAG2 knockout pigs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were genetically engineered using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and then used to provide donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 27 live cloned piglets; among these piglets, 9 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG1, 3 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG2, and 10 were targeted with a monoallelic mutation in RAG2. Piglets with biallelic mutations in either RAG1 or RAG2 exhibited hypoplasia of immune organs, failed to perform V(D)J rearrangement, and lost mature B and T cells. These immunodeficient RAG1/2 knockout pigs are promising tools for biomedical and translational research. PMID:24973446

  19. Resistance integrons: class 1, 2 and 3 integrons.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Bao, Xuerui; Ji, Lili; Chen, Lei; Liu, Junyan; Miao, Jian; Chen, Dingqiang; Bian, Huawei; Li, Yanmei; Yu, Guangchao

    2015-10-20

    As recently indiscriminate abuse of existing antibiotics in both clinical and veterinary treatment leads to proliferation of antibiotic resistance in microbes and poses a dilemma for the future treatment of such bacterial infection, antimicrobial resistance has been considered to be one of the currently leading concerns in global public health, and reported to widely spread and extended to a large variety of microorganisms. In China, as one of the currently worst areas for antibiotics abuse, the annual prescription of antibiotics, including both clinical and veterinary treatment, has approaching 140 gram per person and been roughly estimated to be 10 times higher than that in the United Kingdom, which is considered to be a potential area for the emergence of "Super Bugs". Based on the integrons surveillance in Guangzhou, China in the past decade, this review thus aimed at summarizing the role of integrons in the perspective of both clinical setting and environment, with the focus on the occurrence and prevalence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons.

  20. Vapor intrusion risk of lead scavengers 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Li, Haiyan; Spiese, Richard; Wilson, John; Yan, Guangxu; Guo, Shaohui

    2016-06-01

    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represented a critical yet still neglected problem at sites impacted by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to simulate the vapor intrusion risk of lead scavengers 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide, EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) under different site conditions. We found that simulated EDB and DCA indoor air concentrations can exceed USEPA screening level (4.7 × 10(-3) μg/m(3) for EDB and 1.1 × 10(-1) μg/m(3) for DCA) if the source concentration is high enough (is still within the concentration range found at leaking UST site). To evaluate the chance that vapor intrusion of EDB might exceed the USEPA screening levels for indoor air, the simulation results were compared to the distribution of EDB at leaking UST sites in the US. If there is no degradation of EDB or only abiotic degradation of EDB, from 15% to 37% of leaking UST sites might exceed the USEPA screening level. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel releases containing EDB and DCA. Based on a thorough literature review, we also compiled previous published data on the EDB and DCA groundwater source concentrations and their degradation rates. These data are valuable in evaluating EDB and DCA vapor intrusion risk. In addition, a set of refined attenuation factors based on site-specific information (e.g., soil types, source depths, and degradation rates) were provided for establishing site-specific screening criteria for EDB and DCA. Overall, this study points out that lead scavengers EDB and DCA may cause vapor intrusion problems. As more field data of EDB and DCA become available, we recommend that USEPA consider including these data in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary.

  1. Vapor intrusion risk of lead scavengers 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Li, Haiyan; Spiese, Richard; Wilson, John; Yan, Guangxu; Guo, Shaohui

    2016-06-01

    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represented a critical yet still neglected problem at sites impacted by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to simulate the vapor intrusion risk of lead scavengers 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide, EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) under different site conditions. We found that simulated EDB and DCA indoor air concentrations can exceed USEPA screening level (4.7 × 10(-3) μg/m(3) for EDB and 1.1 × 10(-1) μg/m(3) for DCA) if the source concentration is high enough (is still within the concentration range found at leaking UST site). To evaluate the chance that vapor intrusion of EDB might exceed the USEPA screening levels for indoor air, the simulation results were compared to the distribution of EDB at leaking UST sites in the US. If there is no degradation of EDB or only abiotic degradation of EDB, from 15% to 37% of leaking UST sites might exceed the USEPA screening level. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbon may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel releases containing EDB and DCA. Based on a thorough literature review, we also compiled previous published data on the EDB and DCA groundwater source concentrations and their degradation rates. These data are valuable in evaluating EDB and DCA vapor intrusion risk. In addition, a set of refined attenuation factors based on site-specific information (e.g., soil types, source depths, and degradation rates) were provided for establishing site-specific screening criteria for EDB and DCA. Overall, this study points out that lead scavengers EDB and DCA may cause vapor intrusion problems. As more field data of EDB and DCA become available, we recommend that USEPA consider including these data in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary. PMID:27038569

  2. X-1-2 mounted under B-29 for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    A roll-out of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, bomber with the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 mated and ready for flight. NACA Flight 33 was flown on September 23, 1949, as a pilot familiarization flight with NACA pilot, John H. Griffith at the controls. Griffith reached a top speed of Mach 0.998 during the flight. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of

  3. Experimentally driven atomistic model of 1,2 polybutadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkourmpis, Thomas; Mitchell, Geoffrey R.

    2014-02-01

    We present an efficient method of combining wide angle neutron scattering data with detailed atomistic models, allowing us to perform a quantitative and qualitative mapping of the organisation of the chain conformation in both glass and liquid phases. The structural refinement method presented in this work is based on the exploitation of the intrachain features of the diffraction pattern and its intimate linkage with atomistic models by the use of internal coordinates for bond lengths, valence angles, and torsion rotations. Atomic connectivity is defined through these coordinates that are in turn assigned by pre-defined probability distributions, thus allowing for the models in question to be built stochastically. Incremental variation of these coordinates allows for the construction of models that minimise the differences between the observed and calculated structure factors. We present a series of neutron scattering data of 1,2 polybutadiene at the region 120-400 K. Analysis of the experimental data yields bond lengths for CC and C  C of 1.54 Å and 1.35 Å, respectively. Valence angles of the backbone were found to be at 112° and the torsion distributions are characterised by five rotational states, a three-fold trans-skew± for the backbone and gauche± for the vinyl group. Rotational states of the vinyl group were found to be equally populated, indicating a largely atactic chan. The two backbone torsion angles exhibit different behaviour with respect to temperature of their trans population, with one of them adopting an almost all trans sequence. Consequently, the resulting configuration leads to a rather persistent chain, something indicated by the value of the characteristic ratio extrapolated from the model. We compare our results with theoretical predictions, computer simulations, RIS models and previously reported experimental results.

  4. Experimentally driven atomistic model of 1,2 polybutadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Gkourmpis, Thomas; Mitchell, Geoffrey R.

    2014-02-07

    We present an efficient method of combining wide angle neutron scattering data with detailed atomistic models, allowing us to perform a quantitative and qualitative mapping of the organisation of the chain conformation in both glass and liquid phases. The structural refinement method presented in this work is based on the exploitation of the intrachain features of the diffraction pattern and its intimate linkage with atomistic models by the use of internal coordinates for bond lengths, valence angles, and torsion rotations. Atomic connectivity is defined through these coordinates that are in turn assigned by pre-defined probability distributions, thus allowing for the models in question to be built stochastically. Incremental variation of these coordinates allows for the construction of models that minimise the differences between the observed and calculated structure factors. We present a series of neutron scattering data of 1,2 polybutadiene at the region 120–400 K. Analysis of the experimental data yields bond lengths for Cî—¸C and C î—» C of 1.54 Å and 1.35 Å, respectively. Valence angles of the backbone were found to be at 112° and the torsion distributions are characterised by five rotational states, a three-fold trans-skew± for the backbone and gauche± for the vinyl group. Rotational states of the vinyl group were found to be equally populated, indicating a largely atactic chan. The two backbone torsion angles exhibit different behaviour with respect to temperature of their trans population, with one of them adopting an almost all trans sequence. Consequently, the resulting configuration leads to a rather persistent chain, something indicated by the value of the characteristic ratio extrapolated from the model. We compare our results with theoretical predictions, computer simulations, RIS models and previously reported experimental results.

  5. Nijmegen Baryon-Baryon Interactions for S = -1, -2 Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, Th. A.; Nagels, M. M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    We present and discuss the most recent version of the extended-soft-core (ESC) interactions. The ESC-model describes the nucleon-nucleon (NN), hyperon-nucleon (YN), and hyperon-hyperon (YY), in terms of meson-exchanges using (broken) SUF(3)-symmetry. In this approach to baryon-baryon (BB) the dynamics is derived from (i) one-boson-exchanges (OBE), (ii) two-meson-exchanges (TME), and (iii) meson-pair-exchanges (MPE), (iv) gluon-exchanges, and (v) quark-core effects. In the OBE-sector, a special feature is the importance of the axial-vector meson potentials, and the inclusion of a zero in the scalar- and axial- meson form-factors. Novelties are the inclusion of (a) odderon-exchange, and (b) special pronounced effects of the appearance of forbidden six-quark configurations. With these ingredients, a rather flexible dynamical framework is constructed. Namely, it appeared feasible to keep the parameters of the model in reasonable accordance with the predictions of the 3P0 quark-pair-creation model (QPC). This is the case for the meson- and meson-pair-baryon coupling constants and the F/(F + D)-ratio's as well. The NN, YN, and YY results for this model are rather promising. In particular, we improved the ΛN spin-orbit interaction greatly by the inclusion of (a) the Brown, Downs, and Iddings anti-symmetric spin-orbit potentials, and (b) new corrections to the MPE-potentials. Also, the special quark-core effects provide ample repulsion in the Σ+p(3S1,T = 3/2)- and ΣN(1S0,T = 1/2)-channels. The new version of the ESC-model reported here will be referred to as ESC07 henceforth.

  6. 1,2,4-triazolium-cation-based energetic salts.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Chaza; Klapötke, Thomas M; Sabaté, Carles Miró

    2008-01-01

    3,4,5-Triamino-1,2,4-triazole (guanazine, 1) can be readily methylated with methyl iodide yielding methylguanazinium iodide (2). Salts containing the novel methylguanazinium cation with energetic anions were synthesised by metathesis reactions with silver azide (3), silver nitrate (4), silver perchlorate (5), sodium 5,5'-azotetrazolate (6), silver 5-nitrotetrazolate (7) and silver dinitramide (8), yielding a new family of heterocycle-based salts, which were fully characterised by analytical (mass spectrometry and elemental analysis) and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman and NMR). In addition, the molecular structures of all compounds were confirmed by X-ray analysis, revealing extensive hydrogen-bonding in the solid state and densities between 1.399 (3) and 1.669 g cm(-3) (5). The hydrogen-bonded ring motifs are discussed in the formalism of graph-set analysis for hydrogen-bond patterns and compared to each other. Preliminary sensitivity testing of the crystalline compounds indicate surprisingly low sensitivities to both friction and impact, the highest friction and shock sensitivity being found for the perchlorate (5, 220 N) and the dinitramide (8, 20 J) salts, respectively. In addition, DSC analysis was used to assess the thermal stabilities of the compounds: 3-6 melt above 200 degrees C with concomitant decomposition, whereas 7 and 8 have clearly defined melting points at 162 and 129 degrees C, respectively, and with decomposition occurring about 30 degrees C above the melting point. Lastly all compounds have positive calculated heats of formation between 336 (4) and 4070 kJ kg(-1) (6) and calculated detonation velocities in the range between 8330 (7) and 8922 m s(-1) (6) making them of interest as new highly energetic materials with low sensitivity. PMID:18523937

  7. 40 CFR 721.10092 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-[[1-[(2-propen-1-yloxy)methyl]undecyl]oxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10092 Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),...

  8. Identification of high-risk Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in lineage I (serotype 1/2a, 1/2c, 3a and 3c) using multiplex PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Using molecular subtyping techniques, Listeria monocytogenes is divided into three major phylogenetic lineages, and a multiplex PCR method can differentiate five L. monocytogenes subgroups: 1/2a-3a, 1/2c-3c, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e, and 4a-4c. In the current study, we conducted genome comparison...

  9. MAP4K family kinases act in parallel to MST1/2 to activate LATS1/2 in the Hippo pathway

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhipeng; Moroishi, Toshiro; Mottier-Pavie, Violaine; Plouffe, Steven W.; Hansen, Carsten G.; Hong, Audrey W.; Park, Hyun Woo; Mo, Jung-Soon; Lu, Wenqi; Lu, Shicong; Flores, Fabian; Yu, Fa-Xing; Halder, Georg; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo pathway plays a central role in tissue homoeostasis, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Core components of the Hippo pathway include a kinase cascade of MST1/2 and LATS1/2 and the transcription co-activators YAP/TAZ. In response to stimulation, LATS1/2 phosphorylate and inhibit YAP/TAZ, the main effectors of the Hippo pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that MST1/2 are not required for the regulation of YAP/TAZ. Here we show that deletion of LATS1/2 but not MST1/2 abolishes YAP/TAZ phosphorylation. We have identified MAP4K family members—Drosophila Happyhour homologues MAP4K1/2/3 and Misshapen homologues MAP4K4/6/7—as direct LATS1/2-activating kinases. Combined deletion of MAP4Ks and MST1/2, but neither alone, suppresses phosphorylation of LATS1/2 and YAP/TAZ in response to a wide range of signals. Our results demonstrate that MAP4Ks act in parallel to and are partially redundant with MST1/2 in the regulation of LATS1/2 and YAP/TAZ, and establish MAP4Ks as components of the expanded Hippo pathway. PMID:26437443

  10. Water Security Toolkit User Manual Version 1.2.

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Hart, David; Hart, William Eugene; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Haxton, Terranna; Murray, Regan; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas; Laird, Carl; Seth, Arpan; Hackebeil, Gabriel; McGee, Shawn; Mann, Angelica

    2014-08-01

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) is a suite of open source software tools that can be used by water utilities to create response strategies to reduce the impact of contamination in a water distribution network . WST includes hydraulic and water quality modeling software , optimizati on methodologies , and visualization tools to identify: (1) sensor locations to detect contamination, (2) locations in the network in which the contamination was introduced, (3) hydrants to remove contaminated water from the distribution system, (4) locations in the network to inject decontamination agents to inactivate, remove, or destroy contaminants, (5) locations in the network to take grab sample s to help identify the source of contamination and (6) valves to close in order to isolate contaminate d areas of the network. This user manual describes the different components of WST , along w ith examples and case studies. License Notice The Water Security Toolkit (WST) v.1.2 Copyright c 2012 Sandia Corporation. Under the terms of Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000, there is a non-exclusive license for use of this work by or on behalf of the U.S. government. This software is distributed under the Revised BSD License (see below). In addition, WST leverages a variety of third-party software packages, which have separate licensing policies: Acro Revised BSD License argparse Python Software Foundation License Boost Boost Software License Coopr Revised BSD License Coverage BSD License Distribute Python Software Foundation License / Zope Public License EPANET Public Domain EPANET-ERD Revised BSD License EPANET-MSX GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.3 gcovr Revised BSD License GRASP AT&T Commercial License for noncommercial use; includes randomsample and sideconstraints executable files LZMA SDK Public Domain nose GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.2.1 ordereddict MIT License pip MIT License PLY BSD License PyEPANET Revised BSD License Pyro MIT License PyUtilib Revised BSD License Py

  11. A Survey Of [CII] And Oxygen At 1-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisbin, Drew; Ferkinhoff, C.; Stacey, G. J.; Nikola, T.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Parshley, S.; Verma, A.

    2013-01-01

    We are using our ZEUS spectrometer on the 10.4m CSO to conduct a redshift 1-2 survey of star formation in galaxies using the 158μm [CII] line as our primary probe. The [CII] line is typically the single brightest line from star forming galaxies and is both an important coolant for the ISM and a sensitive probe of the strength of the ambient far-UV field. Using ZEUS, we have now detected the [CII] line from ~24 galaxies. This data is being supplemented with Herschel spectroscopy covering [OI] 63μm, [OIII] 52μm, and [OIV] 26μm, as well as PACS and SPIRE photometry. This ensemble of data constrains the physical conditions of the gas, the strength and hardness of the ambient interstellar radiation fields, and the energy budget of AGN activity in star forming sources. Our previous 13-galaxy survey showed that luminous star forming galaxies in this epoch have moderate intensity kpc-scale star formation - likely an extension of the Schmidt-Kennicutt law to very high gas mass fractions. Our AGN dominated systems have similarly large scale, but significantly more intense star formation suggesting punctuated, collision-induced star formation. Our expanded survey nearly doubles the sample size and also incorporates several known PAH emission sources. The PAH emission arises from PDRs and is related to the photoelectric heating, while the [CII] and [OI] lines trace the cooling. PAHS therefore trace star formation and, since the features are extremely bright, are excellent redshift indicators, which will undoubtedly play a growing role as diagnostic tools in the high-z Universe in the future. Here we present early survey results and discuss the utility of these lines towards unraveling the AGN and star formation activity at high redshifts. Our findings indicate high redshift starburst systems unergoing massive kpc-scale starformation, and AGN dominated systems analogous to local ULIRGs with the possibility of AGN-induced intense star formation. We thank NSF and NASA for

  12. Review of Whole person healthcare, Volumes 1, 2, & 3 (2007).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Reviews the book, Whole person healthcare, Volumes 1, 2, & 3 by I. A. Serlin, M. A. DiCowden, K. Rockefeller, S. Brown, J. Sonke-Henderson, R. Brandman, and J. Graham-Pole (2007). With the more-than-1,000-page tour de force titled Whole Person Healthcare, Ilene Serlin, current president of the San Francisco Psychological Association, has purposefully edited a three-volume series aimed at humanizing the fields of psychotherapy and health care. Throughout the series, all of the authors carry the message that integrative treatment strategies in psychotherapy and health care are more valuable than reductionist "treat the symptom rather than the person" approaches as a way to humanize patient-client interaction. Whole Person Healthcare persuasively presents the principle reasons for integrating human-centered strategies into psychotherapeutic and health care practices. Volume 1 of the series, Humanizing Healthcare, sets the tone for the other two volumes, providing a conceptual scaffold for framing humanistic and positive psychological theories within an applied health care setting. Volume 2 of the series, Psychology, Spirituality, and Health, focuses on presenting concrete, evidence-based examples of integrative therapeutic techniques such as imagery and visualization, meditation, meaning finding, prayer and psychospiritual practices, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong. Volume 3 of the series, The Arts and Health, provides a critically important contribution to the field because the art therapies are so often forgotten in the world of managed health care. Volume 3 gives evidence-based examples of the valuable contributions of artistic interactions within therapeutic contexts. The collection of readings in Whole Person Healthcare covers a wide spectrum of modern healing approaches, and this series is a must for any practitioner of integrative, holistic therapies. However, there are two practical barriers of note. First is cost: The price is too steep for most readers

  13. X-1-2 on ramp during ground engine test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    Ground engine test run on the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 airplane at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit service area. Notice the front on the lower part of the aircraft aft of the nose section. The frost forms from the mixture of the propellants (including liquid oxygen) in the internal tanks. This photograph was taken in 1947. The aircraft shown is still painted in its original saffron (orange) paint finish. This was later changed to white, which was more visible against the dark blue sky than saffron turned out to be. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December

  14. Equatorial dynamics in a 2 {1}/{2}- layer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreary, Julian P.; Yu, Zuojun

    A nonlinear, 2 {1}/{2}- layer model is used to study the dynamics of wind-driven equatorial ocean circulation, including the generation of mean flows and instabilities. The model allows water to entrain into, and detrain from, the upper layer, and as a consequence the temperatures of the two active layers can vary. The model ocean basin is rectangular, extends 100° zonally, and for most solutions has open boundaries at 15°S and 15°N. All solutions are forced by a switched-on wind field that is an idealized version of the Pacific trades: the wind is westward, uniform in the meridional direction (so it has no curl), located primarily in the central and eastern oceans, and in most cases it has an amplitude of 0.5 dyn cm -2. For reasonable choices of parameters, solutions adjust to have a realistic equatorial circulation with a westward surface jet, an eastward undercurrent, and with upwelling and cool sea surface temperature in the eastern ocean. Most of the meridional circulation (81% of the transport) is part of a closed tropical circulation cell, in which water upwells in the eastern, equatorial ocean and downwells elsewhere in the basin; the rest participates in a mid-latitude circulation cell with lower-layer water entering the basin and upper-layer water leaving it through the open boundaries. Three basic types of unstable disturbances are generated in the eastern ocean: two of them are antisymmetric about the equator, one being surface-trapped with a period of about 21 days (f 1), and the other predominantly a lower-layer oscillation with periods ranging from 35 to 53 days (f 2) that causes the undercurrent to meander; the third is symmetric with a period of about 28 days (f 0) and a structure like that of a first-meridional-mode Rossby wave. The amplitudes of the disturbances are sensitive to model parameters, and as parameter values are varied systematically solutions appear to follow variations of the quasi-periodic route to turbulence, one of the common

  15. Frustrated mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising ferrimagnets on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žukovič, M.; Bobák, A.

    2015-05-01

    Mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising ferrimagnets on a triangular lattice with sublattices A, B, and C are studied for two spin-value distributions (SA,SB,SC) =(1 /2 ,1 /2 ,1 ) and (1 /2 ,1 ,1 ) by Monte Carlo simulations. The nonbipartite character of the lattice induces geometrical frustration in both systems, which leads to the critical behavior rather different from their ferromagnetic counterparts. We confirm second-order phase transitions belonging to the standard Ising universality class occurring at higher temperatures, however, in both models these change at tricritical points (TCP) to first-order transitions at lower temperatures. In the model (1 /2 ,1 /2 ,1 ) , TCP occurs on the boundary between paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic (±1 /21 /2 ,∓1 ) phases. The boundary between two ferrimagnetic phases (±1 /21 /2 ,∓1 ) and (±1 /2 ,∓1 /2 ,0 ) at lower temperatures is always first order and it is joined by a line of second-order phase transitions between the paramagnetic and the ferrimagnetic (±1 /2 ,∓1 /2 ,0 ) phases at a critical endpoint. The tricritical behavior is also confirmed in the model (1 /2 ,1 ,1 ) on the boundary between the paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic (0 ,±1 ,∓1 ) phases.

  16. Hyperfine splitting of the 2s1/2 and 2p1/2 levels in Li- and be-like ions of (59)(141) Pr.

    PubMed

    Beiersdorfer, P; Träbert, E; Brown, G V; Clementson, J; Thorn, D B; Chen, M H; Cheng, K T; Sapirstein, J

    2014-06-13

    High-resolution spectroscopy of the 2s(1/2)-2p(1/2) transition in the extreme ultraviolet region is shown to resolve the level splitting induced by the nuclear magnetic field of both the 2s(1/2) and the 2p(1/2) levels in lithiumlike (141)Pr(56+) and of the 2s(1/2)2p(1/2) (3)P(1) level in berylliumlike (141)Pr(55+). The (141)Pr ions are an ideal test of this measurement approach because their energy levels are known well from first principles and are unaffected by small energy contributions from QED and nuclear magnetization effects. The accuracy attained in the measured 196.5 ± 1.2 meV 2s(1/2) splitting is more than an order of magnitude better than that achieved before using crystal spectroscopy of the 2s(1/2)-2p(3/2) x-ray transition and at the level needed to implement a proposed scheme for disentangling the contributions from QED and nuclear magnetization effects in higher-Z ions, such as (209)Bi.

  17. YpT1-2N0 rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation has lower survival compared with pT1-2N0 rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jue-feng; Zhu, Ji; Li, Gui-chao; Sun, Wen-jie; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic T1-2N0 rectal cancer shows an excellent prognosis without preoperative or postoperative chemoradiation. However, oncologic outcome of ypT1-2N0 remains unclear and undetermined. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the survival of ypT1-2 and pT1-2 rectal cancer patients after radical resection and identify risk factors of ypT1-2 rectal cancer in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-registered rectal cancer patients. The results showed that ypT1-2N0 rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation has lower survival compared with pT1-2N0 rectal cancer and mucinous/signet-ring cancer and less than 12 lymph nodes retrieval were two risk factors in ypT1-2 patients. These results suggest that ypT1-2 patients with one or two risk factors may benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26517674

  18. Deprotometalation-iodolysis and computed CH acidity of 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-triazoles. Application to the synthesis of resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Nagaradja, Elisabeth; Bentabed-Ababsa, Ghenia; Scalabrini, Mathieu; Chevallier, Floris; Philippot, Stéphanie; Fontanay, Stéphane; Duval, Raphaël E; Halauko, Yury S; Ivashkevich, Oleg A; Matulis, Vadim E; Roisnel, Thierry; Mongin, Florence

    2015-10-01

    1-Aryl- and 2-aryl-1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized by N-arylation of the corresponding azoles using aryl iodides. The deprotometalations of 1-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole and -1,2,4-triazole were performed using a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidino-based mixed lithium-zinc combination and occurred at the most acidic site, affording by iodolysis the 5-substituted derivatives. Dideprotonation was noted from 1-(2-thienyl)-1,2,4-triazole by increasing the amount of base. From 2-phenyl-1,2,3-triazoles, and in particular from 2-(4-trifluoromethoxy)phenyl-1,2,3-triazole, reactions at the 4 position of the triazolyl, but also ortho to the triazolyl on the phenyl group, were observed. The results were analyzed with the help of the CH acidities of the substrates, determined in THF solution using the DFT B3LYP method. 4-Iodo-2-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole and 4-iodo-2-(2-iodophenyl)-1,2,3-triazole were next involved in Suzuki coupling reactions to furnish the corresponding 4-arylated and 4,2'-diarylated derivatives. When evaluated for biological activities, the latter (which are resveratrol analogues) showed moderate antibacterial activity and promising antiproliferative effect against MDA-MB-231 cell line.

  19. Initial reactions in the oxidation of 1,2-dihydronaphthalene by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strains.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, S L; Resnick, S M; Gibson, D T

    1996-01-01

    The substrate oxidation profiles of Sphingomonas yanoikuyae B1 biphenyl-2,3-dioxygenase and cis-biphenyl dihydrodiol dehydrogenase activities were examined with 1,2-dihydronaphthalene and various cis-diols as substrates. m-Xylene-induced cells of strain B1 oxidized 1,2-dihydronaphthalene to (-)-(1R,2S)-cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene as the major product (73% relative yield). Small amounts of (+)-(R)-2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (15%), naphthalene (6%), and alpha-tetralone (6%) were also formed. Strain B8/36, which lacks an active cis-biphenyl dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, formed (+)-(1R,2S)-cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (51%), in addition to (-)-(1R,2S)-cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (44%) and (+)-(R)-2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (5%). The cis-biphenyl dihydrodiol dehydrogenase of strain B1 oxidized both enantiomers of cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene, but only the (+)-(1S,2R)-enantiomers of cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and cis-1,2-dihydroxy-3-phenylcyclohexa-3,5-diene. The results show that biphenyl dioxygenase expressed by S. yanoikuyae catalyzes dioxygenation, monooxygenation, and desaturation reactions with 1,2-dihydronaphthalene as the substrate, and cis-biphenyl dihydrodiol dehydrogenase catalyzes the enantioselective dehydrogenation of (+)-(1S,2R)-cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene and (+)-(1S,2R)-cis-1,2-dihydroxy-3-phenylcyclohexa-3,5-diene. PMID:8953711

  20. Gyromagnetic gs factors of the spin-1/2 particles in the (1/2+-1/2--3/2-) triad of the four-vector spinor, ψμ, irreducibility and linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Acosta, E. G.; Banda Guzmán, V. M.; Kirchbach, M.

    2015-07-01

    The gauged Klein-Gordon equation, extended by a gsσμνFμν/4 interaction, the contraction of the electromagnetic field strength tensor, Fμν, with the generators, σμν/2, of the Lorentz group in (1/2, 0) ⊕ (0, 1/2), and gs being the gyromagnetic factor, is examined with the aim to find out as to what extent it qualifies as a wave equation for general relativistic spin-1/2 particles transforming as (1/2, 0) ⊕ (0, 1/2) and possibly distinct from the Dirac fermions. This equation can be viewed as the generalization of the gs = 2 case, known under the name of the Feynman-Gell-Mann equation, the only one which allows for a bilinearization into the gauged Dirac equation and its conjugate. At the same time, it is well-known a fact that a gs = 2 value can also be obtained upon the bilinearization of the nonrelativistic Schrödinger into nonrelativistic Pauli equations. The inevitable conclusion is that it must not be necessarily relativity which fixes the gyromagnetic factor of the electron to g(1/2) = 2, but rather the specific form of the primordial quadratic wave equation obeyed by it, that is amenable to a linearization. The fact is that space-time symmetries alone define solely the kinematic properties of the particles and neither fix the values of their interacting constants, nor do they necessarily prescribe linear Lagrangians. Information on such properties has to be obtained from additional physical inputs involving the dynamics. We here provide an example in support of the latter statement. Our case is that the spin-1/2- fermion residing within the four-vector spinor triad, ψμ (1/2+-1/2--3/2-), whose sectors at the free particle level are interconnected by spin-up and spin-down ladder operators, does not allow for a description within a linear framework at the interacting level. Upon gauging, despite transforming according to the irreducible (1/2, 1) ⊕ (1, 1/2) building block of ψμ, and being described by 16-dimensional four-vector spinors, though

  1. Bioavailability of Clindamycin From a New Clindamycin Phosphate 1.2%-Benzoyl Peroxide 3% Combination Gel.

    PubMed

    Jones, Terry M; Jasper, Stacy; Alió Sáenz, Alessandra B

    2013-01-01

    A new topical fixed-dose combination product containing clindamycin (1%, formulated as 1.2% clindamycin phosphate, CLNP 1.2%) with low strength (3%) benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in a methylparaben-free gel vehicle (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF) has been developed for the treatment of acne. The objective of this study was to determine the relative bioavailability of clindamycin and clindamycin sulfoxide from CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF compared with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-BPO 5% in a methylparaben-preserved gel vehicle (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MP) and clindamycin phosphate 1.2%-BPO 5% in a methylparaben-free gel vehicle (CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MPF), and to determine whether exposure is affected by BPO concentration (3% vs. 5%) when applied topically. Seventy-two subjects with moderate-severe acne were randomized to receive CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF, CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MP, or CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MPF in a 5-day, open-label, and parallel-group study. Cmax and AUC values for clindamycin were highest for CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MP, followed by CLNP 1.2%-BPO 3%-MPF and CLNP 1.2%-BPO 5%-MPF, but differences were not statistically significant. Systemic exposure to clindamycin and clindamycin sulfoxide was low and comparable between the formulations. Results indicate that differences in BPO concentration do not influence clindamycin bioavailability.

  2. 40 CFR 721.1637 - 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-[2-[[(4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1- oxy]ethoxy]-3-(2-propenyloxy)-4-methylbenzenesulfonate... Substances § 721.1637 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1637 - 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-[2-[[(4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1- oxy]ethoxy]-3-(2-propenyloxy)-4-methylbenzenesulfonate... Substances § 721.1637 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-...

  4. Determination of evolutionary relationships of outbreak-associated Listeria monocytogenes strains of serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b by whole-genome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used whole-genome sequencing to determine evolutionary relationships among 20 outbreak-associated clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b. Isolates from 6 of 11 outbreaks fell outside the clonal groups or “epidemic clones” that have been previously associated with outb...

  5. Synthesis, characterization and X-ray structure of glycosyl-1,2-isoxazoles and glycosyl-1,2-isoxazolines prepared via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaamoussi, Issam; Fichtali, Ismail; Ben Tama, Abdeslem; El Hadrami, El Mestafa; Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovani; Julve, Miguel; Stiriba, Salah-Eddine

    2013-09-01

    A convenient preparative method of a series of glycosyl-1,2-isoxazoles (6-11) and glycosyl-1,2-isoxazolines (15-20) by a simple and efficient 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of a series of aryl nitrile oxide, generated in situ from aryl oximes (4-5), with a variety of O-propargyl glycosyles (1-3) or O-allyl glycosyles (12-14) respectively, is reported. The carbohydrate-containing 1,2-isoxazoles and 1,2-isoxazolines compounds were isolated in excellent yields (81-91%) and they were fully characterized by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. The relative stereochemistry of the glycosyl-1,2-isoxazole 10 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The molecular structure of 10 confirms the retention of both, the anomeric stereochemistry of the D-fructose as well as the placement of the acetal groups.

  6. Antiulcer agents. 3. Structure-activity-toxicity relationships of substituted imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and a related imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, J J; Perkins, D G; Frantz, J D; Solomon, D M; Elliott, A J; Chiu, P J; Long, J F

    1987-11-01

    Investigation of the interrelationship between structure, antiulcer activity, and toxicology screening data derived from a series of compounds selected from structure-activity studies directed toward identifying a successor to 3-(cyanomethyl)-2-methyl-8-(phenylmethoxy)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine, Sch 28080 (1), has identified 3-(cyanomethyl)-2,7-dimethyl-8-(phenylmethoxy)imidazo[1,2 -a]pyridine (5), 3-amino-2-methyl-8-(2-phenylethyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (6), and 3-amino-2-methyl-8-(phenylmethoxy)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine (7). These analogues exhibit a combination of antisecretory and cytoprotective activity in animal models, while eliminating the adverse effects of the prototype 1. One of these, 3-amino-2-methyl-8-(phenylmethoxy)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine, Sch 32651 (7), has a profile meeting all criteria. PMID:3669012

  7. 1. COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THREE RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES, 203 1/2 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THREE RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES, 203 1/2 TO 205 WHITTIER, BUILT IN 1905, NORTH FRONTS LOOKING SOUTH - Joseph & Emma May Hoover House, 203 1/2 West Whittier Avenue, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  8. The pore region of the Kv1.2alpha subunit is an important component of recombinant Kv1.2 channel oxygen sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Laura; Takimoto, Koichi; Petrovic, Milan; Pongs, Olaf; Millhorn, David

    2003-06-27

    Oxygen-sensitive K(+) channels are important elements in the cellular response to hypoxia. Although much progress has been made in identifying their molecular composition, the structural components associated to their O(2)-sensitivity are not yet understood. Recombinant Kv1.2 currents expressed in Xenopus oocytes are inhibited by a decrease in O(2) availability. On the contrary, heterologous Kv2.1 channels are O(2)-insensitive. To elucidate the protein segment responsible for the O(2)-sensitivity of Kv1.2 channels, we analyzed the response to anoxia of Kv1.2/Kv2.1 chimeric channels. Expression of chimeric Kv2.1 channels each containing the S4, the S1-S3 or the S6-COOH segments of Kv1.2 polypeptide resulted in a K(+) current insensitive to anoxia. In contrast, transferring the S5-S6 segment of Kv1.2 into Kv2.1 produced an O(2)-sensitive K(+) current. Finally, mutating a redox-sensitive methionine residue (M380) of Kv1.2 polypeptide did not affect O(2)-sensitivity. Thus, the pore and its surrounding regions of Kv1.2 polypeptide confer its hypoxic inhibition. This response is independent on the redox modulation of methionine residues in this protein segment. PMID:12804584

  9. 41 CFR 300-1.2 - What is the purpose of the FTR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the FTR? 300-1.2 Section 300-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1-THE FEDERAL TRAVEL REGULATION (FTR) § 300-1.2 What is the purpose of...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types....

  11. 43 CFR 2916.1-2 - Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. 2916.1-2 Section 2916.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.1-2 Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. Nothing in this part...

  12. 43 CFR 2916.1-2 - Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. 2916.1-2 Section 2916.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.1-2 Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. Nothing in this part...

  13. 43 CFR 2916.1-2 - Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. 2916.1-2 Section 2916.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.1-2 Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. Nothing in this part...

  14. 43 CFR 2916.1-2 - Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. 2916.1-2 Section 2916.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.1-2 Rights reserved; protection of improvements and roads. Nothing in this part...

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of cis- & trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final Toxicological Review of cis- & trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. 1,2-Dichloroethylene is used as a solvent for wa...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2... NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types. Consideration shall be given to a variety of geologic media in which sites for the development of repositories may...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2... NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types. Consideration shall be given to a variety of geologic media in which sites for the development of repositories may...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2... NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types. Consideration shall be given to a variety of geologic media in which sites for the development of repositories may...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-1-2 - Diversity of rock types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diversity of rock types. 960.3-1-2 Section 960.3-1-2... NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-2 Diversity of rock types. Consideration shall be given to a variety of geologic media in which sites for the development of repositories may...

  20. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-2 - Amendment of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Amendment of agreement. (a) An agreement entered into by a domestic...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10212 - 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10212 1,2-Ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin. (a... 1,2-ethanediol, reaction products with epichlorohydrin (PMN P-09-241; CAS No. 705265-31-2)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10366 - Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10366 Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-(PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10366 - Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10366 Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-(PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10366 - Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10366 Benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 4-bromo-1,2-dimethyl-(PMN...

  8. Removal of EDB and 1,2-DCA by Abiotic Reaction with Iron(II) Sulfide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) and 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were used as lead scavengers in leaded motor gasoline in the USA until the late 1980s. Leaded gasoline in contact with ground water should produce concentrations of EDB near 1900 µg/L, and concentrations of 1,2-DCA near 3...

  9. 14 CFR Sec. 1-2 - Waivers from this system of accounts and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waivers from this system of accounts and reports. Sec. 1-2 Section 1-2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-2 Waivers from this system of accounts and...

  10. 14 CFR Sec. 1-2 - Waivers from this system of accounts and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waivers from this system of accounts and reports. Sec. 1-2 Section 1-2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-2 Waivers from this system of accounts and...

  11. 14 CFR Sec. 1-2 - Waivers from this system of accounts and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waivers from this system of accounts and reports. Sec. 1-2 Section 1-2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-2 Waivers from this system of accounts and...

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 1-2 - Waivers from this system of accounts and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waivers from this system of accounts and reports. Sec. 1-2 Section 1-2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-2 Waivers from this system of accounts and...

  13. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Ethylene Dibromide and 1,2-Dichloroethane in the Presence of Fuel Hydrocarbons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field evidence from underground storage tank sites where leaded gasoline leaked indicates the lead scavengers 1,2- dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide, or EDB) and 1,2- dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) may be present in groundwater at levels that pose unacceptable risk. These compounds are...

  14. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-2 - Amendment of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amendment of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Amendment of agreement. (a) An agreement entered into by a domestic...

  15. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-2 - Amendment of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amendment of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Amendment of agreement. (a) An agreement entered into by a domestic...

  16. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-2 - Amendment of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amendment of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Amendment of agreement. (a) An agreement entered into by a domestic...

  17. 26 CFR 36.3121(l)(1)-2 - Amendment of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amendment of agreement. 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Section 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SUBSIDIARIES § 36.3121(l)(1)-2 Amendment of agreement. (a) An agreement entered into by a domestic...

  18. 7{ital S}{sub {bold 1/2}}{r_arrow}9{ital S}{sub {bold 1/2}} two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium

    SciTech Connect

    Simsarian, J.E.; Shi, W.; Orozco, L.A.; Sprouse, G.D.; Zhao, W.Z.

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the {sup 210}Fr 9{ital S}{sub 1/2} energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7{ital P}{sub 3/2} is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9{ital S}{sub 1/2} state and the 7{ital S}{sub 1/2} ground state to be 25671.021{plus_minus}0.006 cm{sup {minus}1}. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  19. Structural and dielectric properties of A(Fe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} [A = Ba, Sr, Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Alo

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: FTIR spectra of BFT, SFT and CFT at room temperature. Research highlights: {yields} The structural and dielectric properties of BaFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3}, SrFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} and CaFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3}. {yields} Fourier transform infrared spectra show two primary phonon modes of the samples at around 450 cm{sup -1} and 620 cm{sup -1}. {yields} The compounds show significant frequency dispersion in its dielectric properties. {yields} The relaxation mechanism of the samples is modelled by Cole-Cole equation. -- Abstract: The complex perovskite oxide barium iron tantalate (BFT), BaFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3}, strontium iron tantalate (SFT), SrFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} and calcium iron tantalate (CFT), CaFe{sub 1/2}Ta{sub 1/2}O{sub 3} are synthesized by a solid-state reaction technique. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data of the samples shows that BFT and SFT crystallize in cubic structure, with lattice parameter a = 4.06 A for BFT and 3.959 A for SFT, whereas CFT crystallizes in orthorhombic structure having lattice parameters a = 5.443 A, b = 5.542 A and c = 7.757 A. Fourier transform infrared spectra show two primary phonon modes of the samples at around 450 cm{sup -1} and 620 cm{sup -1}. The compounds show significant frequency dispersion in its dielectric properties. The complex impedance plane plots of the samples show that the relaxation (conduction) mechanism in these materials is purely a bulk effect arising from the semiconductive grains. The relaxation mechanism of the samples is modelled by Cole-Cole equation. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra are found to follow the power law.

  20. Gapped and gapless short-range-ordered magnetic states with (1/2 ,1/2 ,1/2 ) wave vectors in the pyrochlore magnet Tb2 +xTi2 -xO7 +δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermarrec, E.; Maharaj, D. D.; Gaudet, J.; Fritsch, K.; Pomaranski, D.; Kycia, J. B.; Qiu, Y.; Copley, J. R. D.; Couchman, M. M. P.; Morningstar, A. O. R.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent low-temperature heat capacity (CP) measurements on polycrystalline samples of the pyrochlore antiferromagnet Tb2 +xTi2 -xO7 +δ have shown a strong sensitivity to the precise Tb concentration x , with a large anomaly exhibited for x ˜0.005 at TC˜0.5 K and no such anomaly and corresponding phase transition for x ≤0 . We have grown single-crystal samples of Tb2 +xTi2 -xO7 +δ , with approximate composition x =-0.001 ,+0.0042 , and +0.0147 , where the x =0.0042 single crystal exhibits a large CP anomaly at TC=0.45 K, but neither the x =-0.001 nor the x =+0.0147 single crystals display any such anomaly. We present new time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements on the x =-0.001 and the x =+0.0147 samples which show strong (1/2 ,1/2 ,1/2 )">1/2 ,1/2 ,1/2 quasi-Bragg peaks at low temperatures characteristic of short-range antiferromagnetic spin ice (AFSI) order at zero magnetic field but only under field-cooled conditions, as was previously observed in our x =0.0042 single crystal. Furthermore, the frozen AFSI state displays a gapped spin excitation spectrum around (1/2 ,1/2 ,1/2 ) quasi-Bragg peaks and gapped AFSI state at low temperatures under field-cooled conditions are robust features of Tb2Ti2O7 , and are not correlated with the presence or absence of the CP anomaly and phase transition at low temperatures. Further, these results show that the ordered state giving rise to the CP anomaly is confined to 0 ≤x ≤0.01 for Tb2 +xTi2 -xO7 +δ , and is not obviously connected with conventional order of magnetic dipole degrees of freedom.

  1. SUZUKI-MIYAURA COUPLING REACTIONS OF 3,5-DICHLORO-1,2,4-THIADIAZOLE

    PubMed Central

    Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Boykin, David W.

    2014-01-01

    3,5-Dichloro-1,2,4-thiadiazole was allowed to react with different arylboronic acids under different Suzuki-Miyaura coupling conditions: at room temperature 5-aryl-3-chloro-1,2,4-thiadiazoles were obtained and at toluene reflux temperature the products were 3,5-diaryl-1,2,4-thiadiazoles. Sequential coupling reactions lead to 3,5-diaryl-1,2,4-thiadiazoles with non-identical aryl groups. The structure of 3-methoxy-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-thiadiazole was established from X-ray crystallographic data. PMID:24644388

  2. Magnetic and ferroelectric orders in strained Gd{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}: First-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, P. X.; Dong, S.; Xie, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Zhou, X. H.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-05-07

    The emergent magnetic and ferroelectric orders in A-site ordered Gd{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} under lattice strain are investigated using the first-principles calculations. It is revealed that the lattice prefers the perovskite structure with alternatively stacked Ga-O and Na-O layers along the b-axis and the ground spin state favors the G-type antiferromagnetic (G-AFM) order. The ac-plane biaxial strain can remarkably tune the amplitude of ferroelectric polarization, while the G-AFM spin structure is robustly unaffected. The ±4% strains can trigger the change of polarization up to ±50% relative to the polarization value of unstrained structure. The present work suggests a possible scenario to control emergent multiferroic behaviors in Gd{sub 1/2}Na{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} via lattice strain.

  3. Fluorination of 1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5-trihalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shiley, R.H.; Dickerson, D.R.; Finger, G.C.

    1972-01-01

    Three trifluorobenzenes were prepared by reaction of the corresponding trichlorobenzenes with potassium fluoride or pottassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. Molar yields were 12.8% for 1,2,3-, 8.3% for 1,2,4-, and 56.2% for 1,3,5-. Improved yields of the 1,2,3- (23.9%) and the 1,2,4- (34.0%) trifluorobenzenes were obtained from certain partially fluorinated intermediates. Several chlorofluorobenzene intermediates were obtained in goods yields by careful control of the reaction variables. The instability of the polyfluorobenzenes in the halogen-exchange reaction medium explains, in part, why only limited yields of the polyfluorobenzenes are obtained by using this method. ?? 1972.

  4. Frustration of ferroelectricity in epitaxial film of relaxor ferroelectric PbSc1/2Nb1/2O3.

    PubMed

    Tyunina, M; Pintilie, I; Iuga, A; Stratulat, M S; Pintilie, L

    2014-08-13

    Relaxor-to-ferroelectric transformations induced by varying electric fields and temperatures are studied experimentally in acube-on-cubetype epitaxial PbSc(1/2)Nb(1/2)O3 film grown on La(1/2)Sr(1/2)CoO3/MgO(001). Dielectric response, quasi-static and dynamic polarization, and dynamic current-voltage characteristics evidence the absence of spontaneous relaxor-to-ferroelectric transition. The electricfield-induced transformation from a glass-like relaxor state to a new dynamic polar state is detected at low temperatures below 100 K only. The frustration of ferroelectricity is discussed in relation to orientational anisotropy of the dipolar system in the epitaxial (001) film.

  5. Metabolic engineering of a 1,2-propanediol pathway in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Altaras, N E; Cameron, D C

    1999-03-01

    1,2-Propanediol (1,2-PD) is a major commodity chemical that is currently derived from propylene, a nonrenewable resource. A goal of our research is to develop fermentation routes to 1,2-PD from renewable resources. Here we report the production of enantiomerically pure R-1,2-PD from glucose in Escherichia coli expressing NADH-linked glycerol dehydrogenase genes (E. coli gldA or Klebsiella pneumoniae dhaD). We also show that E. coli overexpressing the E. coli methylglyoxal synthase gene (mgs) produced 1,2-PD. The expression of either glycerol dehydrogenase or methylglyoxal synthase resulted in the anaerobic production of approximately 0.25 g of 1,2-PD per liter. R-1,2-PD production was further improved to 0.7 g of 1,2-PD per liter when methylglyoxal synthase and glycerol dehydrogenase (gldA) were coexpressed. In vitro studies indicated that the route to R-1,2-PD involved the reduction of methylglyoxal to R-lactaldehyde by the recombinant glycerol dehydrogenase and the reduction of R-lactaldehyde to R-1, 2-PD by a native E. coli activity. We expect that R-1,2-PD production can be significantly improved through further metabolic and bioprocess engineering.

  6. Metabolic engineering of a 1,2-propanediol pathway in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Altaras, N E; Cameron, D C

    1999-03-01

    1,2-Propanediol (1,2-PD) is a major commodity chemical that is currently derived from propylene, a nonrenewable resource. A goal of our research is to develop fermentation routes to 1,2-PD from renewable resources. Here we report the production of enantiomerically pure R-1,2-PD from glucose in Escherichia coli expressing NADH-linked glycerol dehydrogenase genes (E. coli gldA or Klebsiella pneumoniae dhaD). We also show that E. coli overexpressing the E. coli methylglyoxal synthase gene (mgs) produced 1,2-PD. The expression of either glycerol dehydrogenase or methylglyoxal synthase resulted in the anaerobic production of approximately 0.25 g of 1,2-PD per liter. R-1,2-PD production was further improved to 0.7 g of 1,2-PD per liter when methylglyoxal synthase and glycerol dehydrogenase (gldA) were coexpressed. In vitro studies indicated that the route to R-1,2-PD involved the reduction of methylglyoxal to R-lactaldehyde by the recombinant glycerol dehydrogenase and the reduction of R-lactaldehyde to R-1, 2-PD by a native E. coli activity. We expect that R-1,2-PD production can be significantly improved through further metabolic and bioprocess engineering. PMID:10049880

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of highly tetragonal (1-x)Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)-xPbTiO3 piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Pandey, Rishikesh; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    We present here the comprehensive X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dielectric measurement of (1-x)Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-xPbTiO3 (BZT-xPT) piezoceramics with x=0.65, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.80. Powder X-ray diffraction data reveals the tetragonal structure (space group P4mm) of BZT-xPT ceramics for all the compositions.

  8. The Acid and/or Thermal Mediated Ring Contraction of 4H-1,2,6-Thiadiazines To Afford 1,2,5-Thiadiazoles.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, Andreas S; Kourtellaris, Andreas; Koutentis, Panayiotis A

    2016-08-19

    A near-quantitative acid and/or thermal mediated ring contraction of 3',5'-diarylspiro(benzo[d][1,3]dioxole-2,4'-[1,2,6]thiadiazines) affords 3-aryl-4-(2-arylbenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-2-yl)-1,2,5-thiadiazoles. The reaction scope was studied providing 11 examples of this ring contraction. A double Wagner-Meerwein reaction mechanism is proposed. PMID:27483200

  9. MEK1/2 inhibitors activate macrophage ABCG1 expression and reverse cholesterol transport-An anti-atherogenic function of ERK1/2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Yuanli; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Jie; Cao, Xingyue; Li, Xiaoju; Li, Luyuan; Miao, Qing Robert; Hajjar, David P; Duan, Yajun; Han, Jihong

    2016-09-01

    Expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), a molecule facilitating cholesterol efflux to HDL, is activated by liver X receptor (LXR). In this study, we investigated if inhibition of ERK1/2 can activate macrophage ABCG1 expression and functions. MEK1/2 inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, increased ABCG1 mRNA and protein expression, and activated the natural ABCG1 promoter but not the promoter with the LXR responsive element (LXRE) deletion. Inhibition of ABCG1 expression by ABCG1 siRNA did enhance the formation of macrophage/foam cells and it attenuated the inhibitory effect of MEK1/2 inhibitors on foam cell formation. MEK1/2 inhibitors activated macrophage cholesterol efflux to HDL in vitro, and they enhanced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in vivo. ApoE deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice receiving U0126 treatment had reduced sinus lesions in the aortic root which was associated with activated macrophage ABCG1 expression in the lesion areas. MEK1/2 inhibitors coordinated the RXR agonist, but not the LXR agonist, to induce ABCG1 expression. Furthermore, induction of ABCG1 expression by MEK1/2 inhibitors was associated with activation of SIRT1, a positive regulator of LXR activity, and inactivation of SULT2B1 and RIP140, two negative regulators of LXR activity. Taken together, our study suggests that MEK1/2 inhibitors activate macrophage ABCG1 expression/RCT, and inhibit foam cell formation and lesion development by multiple mechanisms, supporting the concept that ERK1/2 inhibition is anti-atherogenic. PMID:27365310

  10. Beyond the Dimer and Trimer: Tetraspiro[2.1.2(5).1.2(9).1.2(13).1(3)] hexadecane-1,3,5,7-tetraone--the Cyclic Tetramer of Carbonylcyclopropane.

    PubMed

    Sedenkova, Kseniya N; Averina, Elena B; Grishin, Yuri K; Andriasov, Kristian S; Stepanova, Svetlana A; Roznyatovsky, Vitaly A; Kutateladze, Andrei G; Rybakov, Victor B; Albov, Dmitry V; Kuznetsova, Tamara S; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2016-03-14

    Tetraspiro[2.1.2(5).1.2(9).1.2(13).1(3)]hexadecane-1,3,5,7-tetraone 4, a unique tetraketone containing a cyclooctane core and four spiroannelated cyclopropane moieties, represents the previously unknown cyclotetramer of carbonylcyclopropane. For this purpose oxidation of the parent polyspirocyclic hydrocarbon was examined under various oxidative conditions, and the reactivity of oxidants towards methylene groups of the eight-membered cycle, activated by adjacent spirocyclopropane rings, was evaluated and contrasted. Whereas the treatment of tetraspirohexadecane with ozone resulted in monooxidation, its reaction with methyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane afforded the product of four-fold oxidation, triketoalcohol 10. Subsequent oxidation of the latter with Dess-Martin periodinane gave the target tetraketone 4.

  11. S,S-1,2-Dicyclohexylethane-1,2-diol and its racemic compound: a striking exception to Wallach's rule.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Brian O; Brock, Carolyn Pratt

    2006-06-01

    The structures of enantiopure S,S-1,2-dicyclohexylethane-1,2-diol and its racemic compound (rac-S,S-1,2-dicyclohexylethane-1,2-diol) have been determined at 295 and 173 K. The crystals of the enantiopure material are more than 4% denser than the crystals of the racemic compound, but the melting points indicate that the crystals of the less dense racemic compound are considerably more stable than those of the racemic conglomerate. This apparent exception to the correlation of crystal density and melting point is explained. The enantiopure crystals have four molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 4). Two of the molecules have the conformation observed for the one independent molecule of the racemic compound and two have a higher energy conformation; the overall P2(1) structure is a perturbed version of a P2(1)2(1)2(1) structure with Z' = 2. The enantiopure and racemic crystals have the same hydrogen-bonding motif, but the motif in the former appears to be significantly strained. A reason why crystals of enantiopure material might be systematically less dense than crystals of its racemic compound and to be more likely to have Z' > 1 is suggested.

  12. Complete Reductive Dechlorination of 1,2-Dichloropropane by Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Loffler, F. E.; Champine, J. E.; Ritalahti, K. M.; Sprague, S. J.; Tiedje, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The transformation of 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-D) was observed in anaerobic microcosms and enrichment cultures derived from Red Cedar Creek sediment. 1-Chloropropane (1-CP) and 2-CP were detected after an incubation period of 4 weeks. After 4 months the initial amount of 1,2-D was stoichiometrically converted to propene, which was not further transformed. Dechlorination of 1,2-D was not inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonate. Sequential 5% (vol/vol) transfers from active microcosms yielded a sediment-free, nonmethanogenic culture, which completely dechlorinated 1,2-D to propene at a rate of 5 nmol min(sup-1) mg of protein(sup-1). No intermediate formation of 1-CP or 2-CP was detected in the sediment-free enrichment culture. A variety of electron donors, including hydrogen, supported reductive dechlorination of 1,2-D. The highest dechlorination rates were observed between 20(deg) and 25(deg)C. In the presence of 1,2-D, the hydrogen threshold concentration was below 1 ppm by volume (ppmv). In addition to 1,2-D, the enrichment culture transformed 1,1-D, 2-bromo-1-CP, tetrachloroethene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane to less halogenated compounds. These findings extend our knowledge of the reductive dechlorination process and show that halogenated propanes can be completely dechlorinated by anaerobic bacteria. PMID:16535654

  13. Synthesis, antitumor evaluation and 3D-QSAR studies of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Zhen-Zhen; Ke, Zhong-Lu; Xi, Li-Min; Yan, Qi-Dong; Yang, Wei-Qiang; Zhu, Li-Qing; Lin, Fei-Lei; Lv, Wei-Ke; Wu, Han-Gui; Wang, John; Li, Hai-Bo

    2016-10-01

    A series of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine derivatives have been synthesized and their structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compared to some reported structures of 1,6-dihydro-1,2,4,5-tetrazine, these compounds can't be considered as having homoaromaticity. Their antiproliferative activities were evaluated against MCF-7, Bewo and HL-60 cells in vitro. Two compounds were highly effective against MCF-7, Bewo and HL-60 cells with IC50 values in 0.63-13.12μM. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were carried out on 51 [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine derivatives with antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cell. Models with good predictive abilities were generated with the cross validated q(2) values for CoMFA and CoMSIA being 0.716 and 0.723, respectively. Conventional r(2) values were 0.985 and 0.976, respectively. The results provide the tool for guiding the design and synthesis of novel and more potent tetrazine derivatives. PMID:27597251

  14. Synthesis of Indeno[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-11-ones and Chromeno[4',3':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-ones through Palladium-Catalyzed Cascade Reactions of 2-(2-Bromophenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2016-04-15

    A novel and efficient synthesis of 11H-indeno[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-11-one, a hybrid structure of indenone with imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine, from the reaction of 2-(2-bromophenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine with carbon monoxide through palladium-catalyzed CO insertion and C-H bond activation, has been developed. Intriguingly, under similar conditions but in the presence of Cu(OAc)2, the reaction selectively afforded 6H-chromeno[4',3':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-one, a hybrid structure of chromenone with imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine, via a more sophisticated cascade process including acetoxylation, deacetylation, CO insertion, and C-H bond activation. PMID:26980482

  15. New highlights of the syntheses of pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalin-4-ones

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Emilian; Nicolescu, Alina; Georgescu, Florentina; Teodorescu, Florina; Marinescu, Daniela; Macsim, Ana-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Summary The one-pot three-component reactions of 1-substituted benzimidazoles with ethyl bromoacetate and electron-deficient alkynes, in 1,2-epoxybutane, gave a variety of pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalin-4-ones and pyrrolo[1,2-a]benzimidazoles. The influence of experimental conditions on the course of reaction was investigated. A novel synthetic pathway starting from benzimidazoles unsubstituted at the five membered ring, alkyl bromoacetates and non-symmetrical electron-deficient alkynes in the molar ratio of 1:2:1, in 1,2-epoxybutane at reflux temperature, led directly to pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalin-4-ones in fair yield by an one-pot three-component reaction. PMID:25383108

  16. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.; Wang, Guijun

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  17. Identification and Characterization of 1,2-BN Cyclohexene Using Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukolich, Stephen G.; Sun, Ming; Daly, Adam M.; Ishibashi, Jacob S. A.; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    1,2-BN Cyclohexene was produced from 1,2-BN Cyclohexane through the loss of H_2 and characterized and identified using a pulsed-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. The first microwave spectra for 1,2-10BN Cyclohexene 1,2-11BN Cyclohexene have been measured in the frequency range of 5.5-12.5 GHz, providing accurate rotational constants and nitrogen and boron quadrupole coupling strengths for two isotopologues. High-level ab initio calculations provided rotational constants and quadrupole coupling strengths for the precursor 1,2-BN Cyclohexane (C_4H12BN) and 1,2-BN Cyclohexene(C_4H10BN). Calculated molecular properties for 1,2-BN Cyclohexene are in very good agreement with measured parameters. Calculated parameters for the starting material, 1,2-BN Cyclohexane do not agree with the experimental data. Rotational constants for 1,2-11BN Cyclohexene are A = 4702.058(2) MHz, B = 4360.334(1) MHz and C = 2494.407(1) MHz. The inertial defect is Δ_0 = -20.78 amu-Å^2 clearly indicating a nonplanar structure. These microwave experiments show that heating the initial compound, 1,2-BN Cyclohexane, to 60 C in a 1 atm neon stream results in the loss of H_2 and conversion to 1,2-BN Cyclohexene. This appears to be the first characterization of the 1,2-BN Cyclohexene monomer. Supported by the NSF CHE-1057796 and DOE DE-EE-0005658

  18. Cellular mechanisms and behavioral consequences of Kv1.2 regulation in the rat cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael R; Fuchs, Jason R; Green, John T; Morielli, Anthony D

    2012-01-01

    The potassium channel Kv1.2 alpha-subunit is expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) dendrites where its pharmacological inhibition increases excitability (Khavandgar et al., 2005). Kv1.2 is also expressed in cerebellar basket cell (BC) axon terminals (Sheng et al., 1994), where its blockade increases BC inhibition of PCs (Southan and Robertson, 1998a). Secretin receptors are also expressed both in PC dendrites and BC axon terminals (reviewed in (Yuan et al.). The effect of secretin on PC excitability is not yet known, but, like Kv1.2 inhibitors, secretin potently increases inhibitory input to PCs (Yung et al., 2001). This suggests secretin may act in part by suppressing Kv1.2. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a mechanism of Kv1.2 suppression (Nesti et al., 2004). This process can be regulated by protein kinase A (PKA) (Connors et al., 2008). Since secretin receptors activate PKA (Wessels-Reiker et al., 1993), we tested the hypothesis that secretin regulates Kv1.2 trafficking in the cerebellum. Using cell surface protein biotinylation of rat cerebellar slices, we found secretin decreased cell-surface Kv1.2 levels by modulating Kv1.2 endocytic trafficking. This effect was mimicked by activating adenylate cyclase (AC) with forskolin, and was blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of AC or PKA. Imaging studies identified the BC axon terminal and Purkinje cell dendrites as loci of AC-dependent Kv1.2 trafficking. The physiological significance of secretin regulated Kv1.2 endocytosis is supported by our finding that infusion into the cerebellar cortex of either the Kv1.2 inhibitor Tityustoxin-Kα, or of the Kv1.2 regulator secretin, significantly enhances acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in rats. PMID:22764231

  19. Safety assessment of 1,2-glycols as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Caprylyl glycol and related 1,2-glycols are used mostly as skin and hair conditioning agents and viscosity agents in cosmetic products, and caprylyl glycol and pentylene glycol also function as cosmetic preservatives. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel noted that, while these ingredients are dermally absorbed, modeling data predicted decreased skin penetration of longer chain 1,2-glycols. Because the negative oral toxicity data on shorter chain 1,2-glycols and genotoxicity data support the safety of the 1,2-glycols reviewed in this safety assessment, the Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  20. Synthesis and Thermal Behavior of a Fused, Tricyclic 1,2,3,4-Tetrazine Ring System.

    PubMed

    Chavez, David E; Bottaro, Jeffery C; Petrie, Mark; Parrish, Damon A

    2015-10-26

    This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a fused, tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine ring system. The molecule is synthesized in a three-step process from 5,5'-dinitro-bis,1,2,4-triazole via a di-N-amino compound. Oxidation to form the azo-coupled fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-tetrazine is achieved using tert-butyl hypochlorite as the oxidant. The di-N-amino compound and the desired fused tricyclic 1,2,3,4-triazine display interesting thermal behavior and are predicted to be high-performance energetic materials.

  1. Regulation of ERK1/2 activity upon contact inhibition in fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kueppers, Monika; Faust, Dagmar; Linz, Berenike; Dietrich, Cornelia

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Regulation of ERK1/2 activity upon contact inhibition was investigated. {yields} Upstream activation of ERK is attenuated upon contact inhibition. {yields} ERK phosphatases are probably not involved in ERK1/2 dephosphorylation. {yields} Signaling of the EGFR and PDGFR is differentially inhibited upon contact inhibition. -- Abstract: Contact inhibition is a crucial mechanism regulating proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Despite its generally accepted importance for maintaining tissue homeostasis knowledge about the underlying molecular mechanisms of contact inhibition is still scarce. Since the MAPK ERK1/2 plays a pivotal role in the control of proliferation, we investigated regulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation which is downregulated in confluent NIH3T3 cultures. We found a decrease in upstream signaling including phosphorylation of the growth factor receptor adaptor protein ShcA and the MAPK kinase MEK1/2 in confluent compared to exponentially growing cultures whereas involvement of ERK1/2 phosphatases in ERK1/2 inactivation is unlikely. Treatment of confluent, serum-deprived cultures with PDGF-B resulted in similar phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and induction of DNA-synthesis as detected in sparse, serum-deprived cultures. In contrast, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and DNA-synthesis could not be stimulated in confluent, serum-deprived cultures exposed to EGF. Our data indicate that PDGFR- and EGFR signaling are differentially inhibited in confluent cultures of NIH3T3 cells.

  2. The [17.0] 2Π1/2← X 2Π1/2 system of AlCa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbi, Jacqueline C.; Langenberg, Jon D.; Morse, Michael D.

    2000-04-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to study supersonically cooled AlCa. This study investigates under higher resolution (0.007 cm-1) a single band previously studied and tentatively assigned as the (0-0) vibrational transition of the [17.0] 2Δ3/2(?)← X 2Π1/2 system of AlCa. The resolution of the rotational structure in the present study enabled a definite assignment as a 2Π1/2← 2Π1/2 transition. Analysis of the spectrum gives B0'=0.096685(19) cm-1, ( p+2 q)'=-0.013078(370) cm -1, and B0″=0.105518(20) cm -1. These convert to ground and excited state bond lengths of r0″=3.14942(30) and r0'=3.29014(32) Å, respectively.

  3. Computation-guided development of Au-catalyzed cycloisomerizations proceeding via 1,2-Si or 1,2-H migrations: regiodivergent synthesis of silylfurans.

    PubMed

    Dudnik, Alexander S; Xia, Yuanzhi; Li, Yahong; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2010-06-01

    A novel highly efficient regiodivergent Au-catalyzed cycloisomerization of allenyl and homopropargylic ketones into synthetically valuable 2- and 3-silylfurans has been designed with the aid of DFT calculations. This cascade transformation features 1,2-Si or 1,2-H migrations in a common Au-carbene intermediate. Both experimental and computational results clearly indicate that the 1,2-Si migration is kinetically favored over the 1,2-shifts of H, alkyl, and aryl groups in the beta-Si-substituted Au-carbenes. In addition, experimental results on the Au(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of homopropargylic ketones demonstrated that counterion and solvent effects could reverse the above migratory preference. The DFT calculations provided a rationale for this 1,2-migration regiodivergency. Thus, in the case of Ph(3)PAuSbF(6), DFT-simulated reaction proceeds through the initial propargyl-allenyl isomerization followed by the cyclization into the Au-carbene intermediate with the exclusive formation of 1,2-Si migration products and solvent effects cannot affect this regioselectivity. However, in the case of a TfO(-) counterion, reaction occurs via the initial 5-endo-dig cyclization to give a cyclic furyl-Au intermediate. In the case of nonpolar solvents, subsequent ipso-protiodeauration of the latter is kinetically more favorable than the generation of the common Au-carbene intermediate and leads to the formation of formal 1,2-H migration products. In contrast, when polar solvent is employed in this DFT-simulated reaction, beta-to-Au protonation of the furyl-Au species to give a Au-carbene intermediate competes with the ipso-protiodeauration. Subsequent dissociation of the triflate ligand in this carbene in polar media due to efficient solvation of charged intermediates facilitates formation of the 1,2-Si shift products. The above results of the DFT calculations were validated by the experimental data. The present study demonstrates that DFT calculations could efficiently

  4. Isotope shift of the 32S 1/2 -22S 1/2 transition in lithium and the nuclear polarizability.

    PubMed

    Puchalski, M; Moro, A M; Pachucki, K

    2006-09-29

    High precision calculation of the isotope shift of the 3(2)S(1/2)-2(2)S(1/2) transition in lithium is presented. The wave function and matrix elements of relativistic operators are obtained by using recursion relations. Apart from the relativistic contribution, we obtain the nuclear polarizability correction for 11Li. The resulting difference of the squared charge radii 11Li-7Li based on the measurements of Sánchez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033002 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.033002] is deltar(ch)(2)=0.157(81) fm(2), which significantly differs from the previous evaluation.

  5. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds. PMID:27589713

  6. L1/2 regularization: a thresholding representation theory and a fast solver.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongben; Chang, Xiangyu; Xu, Fengmin; Zhang, Hai

    2012-07-01

    The special importance of L1/2 regularization has been recognized in recent studies on sparse modeling (particularly on compressed sensing). The L1/2 regularization, however, leads to a nonconvex, nonsmooth, and non-Lipschitz optimization problem that is difficult to solve fast and efficiently. In this paper, through developing a threshoding representation theory for L1/2 regularization, we propose an iterative half thresholding algorithm for fast solution of L1/2 regularization, corresponding to the well-known iterative soft thresholding algorithm for L1 regularization, and the iterative hard thresholding algorithm for L0 regularization. We prove the existence of the resolvent of gradient of ||x||1/2(1/2), calculate its analytic expression, and establish an alternative feature theorem on solutions of L1/2 regularization, based on which a thresholding representation of solutions of L1/2 regularization is derived and an optimal regularization parameter setting rule is formulated. The developed theory provides a successful practice of extension of the well- known Moreau's proximity forward-backward splitting theory to the L1/2 regularization case. We verify the convergence of the iterative half thresholding algorithm and provide a series of experiments to assess performance of the algorithm. The experiments show that the half algorithm is effective, efficient, and can be accepted as a fast solver for L1/2 regularization. With the new algorithm, we conduct a phase diagram study to further demonstrate the superiority of L1/2 regularization over L1 regularization.

  7. Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T simultaneously transcribes many rdhA genes during organohalide respiration with 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,2,3-TCP as electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kalpataru; Bowman, Kimberly S; Rainey, Fred A; Siddaramappa, Shivakumara; Challacombe, Jean F; Moe, William M

    2014-05-01

    The genome sequence of the organohalide-respiring bacterium Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellensBL-DC-9(T) contains numerous loci annotated as reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdh) genes based on inferred protein sequence identity with functional dehalogenases of other bacterial species. Many of these genes are truncated, lack adjacent regulatory elements, or lack cognate genes coding for membrane-anchoring proteins typical of the functionally characterized active reductive dehalogenases of organohalide-respiring bacteria. To investigate the expression patterns of the rdh genes in D. lykanthroporepellensBL-DC-9(T), oligonucleotide primers were designed to uniquely target 25 rdh genes present in the genome as well as four putative regulatory genes. RNA extracts from cultures of strain BL-DC-9(T) actively dechlorinating three different electron acceptors, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane were reverse-transcribed and subjected to PCR amplification using rdh-specific primers. Nineteen rdh gene transcripts, including 13 full-length rdhA genes, six truncated rdhA genes, and five rdhA genes having cognate rdhB genes were consistently detected during the dechlorination of all three of the polychlorinated alkanes tested. Transcripts from all four of the putative regulatory genes were also consistently detected. Results reported here expand the diversity of bacteria known to simultaneously transcribe multiple rdh genes and provide insights into the transcription factors associated with rdh gene expression.

  8. Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T simultaneously transcribes many rdhA genes during organohalide respiration with 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,2,3-TCP as electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kalpataru; Bowman, Kimberly S; Rainey, Fred A; Siddaramappa, Shivakumara; Challacombe, Jean F; Moe, William M

    2014-05-01

    The genome sequence of the organohalide-respiring bacterium Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellensBL-DC-9(T) contains numerous loci annotated as reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdh) genes based on inferred protein sequence identity with functional dehalogenases of other bacterial species. Many of these genes are truncated, lack adjacent regulatory elements, or lack cognate genes coding for membrane-anchoring proteins typical of the functionally characterized active reductive dehalogenases of organohalide-respiring bacteria. To investigate the expression patterns of the rdh genes in D. lykanthroporepellensBL-DC-9(T), oligonucleotide primers were designed to uniquely target 25 rdh genes present in the genome as well as four putative regulatory genes. RNA extracts from cultures of strain BL-DC-9(T) actively dechlorinating three different electron acceptors, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane were reverse-transcribed and subjected to PCR amplification using rdh-specific primers. Nineteen rdh gene transcripts, including 13 full-length rdhA genes, six truncated rdhA genes, and five rdhA genes having cognate rdhB genes were consistently detected during the dechlorination of all three of the polychlorinated alkanes tested. Transcripts from all four of the putative regulatory genes were also consistently detected. Results reported here expand the diversity of bacteria known to simultaneously transcribe multiple rdh genes and provide insights into the transcription factors associated with rdh gene expression. PMID:24673292

  9. Magnetic dimers and trimers in the disordered S =3/2 spin system BaTi1/2Mn1/2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, F. A.; Kaneko, U. F.; Granado, E.; Sichelschmidt, J.; Hölzel, M.; Duque, J. G. S.; Nunes, C. A. J.; Amaral, R. P.; Marques-Ferreira, P.; Lora-Serrano, R.

    2015-06-01

    We report a structural-magnetic investigation by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), neutron diffraction, dc susceptibility (χdc), and electron spin resonance (ESR) of the 12R-type perovskite BaTi1/2Mn1/2O3 . Our structural analysis by neutron diffraction supports the existence of structural trimers with chemically disordered occupancy of Mn4+ and Ti4+ ions, with the valence of the Mn ions confirmed by the XAS measurements. The magnetic properties are explored by combining dc-susceptibility and X -band (9.4 GHz) electron spin resonance, both in the temperature interval of 2 ≤T ≤1000 K. A scenario is presented under which the magnetism is explained by considering magnetic dimers and trimers, with exchange constants Ja/kB=200 (2 ) K and Jb/kB=130 (10 ) K, and orphan spins. Thus, BaTi1/2Mn1/2O3 is proposed as a rare case of an intrinsically disordered S =3/2 spin gap system with a frustrated ground state.

  10. Synthesis and in vitro antifungal and cytotoxicity evaluation of substituted 4,5-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d][1,2,3]thia(or selena)diazoles.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, A R; Sattari, S; Bineshmarvasti, M; Daneshtalab, M; Shafiee, Abbas

    2003-01-01

    Unsubstituted 4,5-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d][1,2,3]thia (or selena)diazoles (2a, 2b), prepared from the semicarbazone (1a), were nitrated using fuming nitric acid at 0 degrees C to yield various mono-nitrated dihydronaphthalenes (3a-3e). Related sulfamoyl derivatives (4a, 4b) were prepared using chlorosulfonic acid, followed by the addition of ammonia solution. Synthesis of 6,9-dimethoxy-4,5-dihydronaphtho[1,2-d][1,2,3]thiadiazole derivative (2c) was performed using 5,8-dimethoxy-alpha-tetralone semicarbazone (1b) and thionylchloride at low temperature. At 10 ppm concentration, all compounds showed low toxicity (higher than 80% survival) on brine shrimps, while at 100 ppm concentration compounds 2d, 3d, and 4b exhibited toxicity (less than 60% survival). Compounds 3a, 3e, and especially 4a showed significant antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans. Compound 4a, while being the most active antifungal agent in this series, possessed low toxicity.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10092 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-[[1-[(2-propen-1-yloxy)methyl]undecyl]oxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1....-sulfo-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.- tridecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1). 721.10092 Section 721.10092 Protection of Environment...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10092 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-[[1-[(2-propen-1-yloxy)methyl]undecyl]oxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1....-sulfo-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.- tridecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1). 721.10092 Section 721.10092 Protection of Environment...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10092 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-[[1-[(2-propen-1-yloxy)methyl]undecyl]oxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1....-sulfo-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.- tridecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1). 721.10092 Section 721.10092 Protection of Environment...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10092 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-[[1-[(2-propen-1-yloxy)methyl]undecyl]oxy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1....-sulfo-.omega.- undecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1); Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.- tridecyl]oxy]-, ammonium salt (1:1). 721.10092 Section 721.10092 Protection of Environment...

  15. Determination of depolarization temperature of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-based lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Eva-Maria; Jo, Wook; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rödel, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    The depolarization temperature Td of piezoelectric materials is an important figure of merit for their application at elevated temperatures. Until now, there are several methods proposed in the literature to determine the depolarization temperature of piezoelectrics, which are based on different physical origins. Their validity and inter-correlation have not been clearly manifested. This paper applies the definition of depolarization temperature as the temperature of the steepest decrease of remanent polarization and evaluates currently used methods, both in terms of this definition and practical applicability. For the investigations, the lead-free piezoceramics (1-y)(Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-xBi1/2K1/2TiO3)-yK0.5Na0.5NbO3 in a wide compositional range were chosen. Results were then compared to those for BaTiO3 and a commercial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based material as references. Thermally stimulated depolarization current and in situ temperature-dependent piezoelectric coefficient d33 are recommended to determine Td according to the proposed definition. Methods based on inflection point of the real part of permittivity or the peak in dielectric loss give consistently higher temperature values.

  16. [Research of imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives. XXX. Synthesis and properties of (imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acid derivatives].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, V A; Tolpygin, I E; Spasov, A A; Serdiuk, T S; Sukhov, A G

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl esters of (9-subtituted-imidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazolyl-2)acetic acids were synthesized. The chemical properties of these esters (hydrolysis, decarboxylation, hydrazinolysis) and biological activity (fungicidal, antimicrobial, antiarrhythmic activity, and also affects on the brain rhythmogenesis) of the prepared compounds were studied.

  17. Preparation of 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole. [1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.Y.

    1985-03-05

    A new high density composition of matter, 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole, has been synthesized using inexpensive, commonly available compounds. This compound has been found to be an explosive, and its use as a propellant is anticipated. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Particle agglutination test "Serodia HIV-1/2" as a novel anti-HIV-1/2 screening test: comparative study on 3311 serum samples.

    PubMed

    Poljak, M; Zener, N; Seme, K; Kristancic, L

    1997-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays are most widely used screening tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Nevertheless, the need of simpler, noninstrumented tests is evident in many parts of the world, where laboratory facilities and trained personnel are limited, and HIV incidence is high. A recently developed variant of gelatin-particle agglutination tests, Serodia HIV-1/2 (Fujirebio Inc., Tokyo, Japan), is one of such simple and noninstrumented tests. To evaluate its utility, 3311 serum samples (281 anti-HIV-1 positive, 8 anti-HIV-2 positive and 3022 anti-HIV-1/2 negative) obtained from 2632 individuals from Slovenia, other parts of former Yugoslavia and Senegal were investigated. No false-negative results and only one false-positive result were obtained during the procedures, giving overall sensitivity and specificity of the particle agglutination test of 100% and 99.97%, respectively. We have concluded that Serodia HIV-1/2 test is highly specific and sensitive for detection of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies, suitable for small blood banks and for epidemiological surveys.

  19. Synthesis, antimicrobial and in vitro antitumor activities of a series of 1,2,3-thiadiazole and 1,2,3-selenadiazole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Nizar M; Al-Smadi, Mousa; Al-Momani, Fouad; Alzoubi, Karem H; Mansi, Iman; Al-Balas, Qosay

    2015-01-01

    Three derivatives of substituted 1,2,3-thia- or 1,2,3-selenadiazole (4a–c) were prepared and characterized by different chemical techniques. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antitumor activities. Compounds 4a (propenoxide derivative), 4b (carbaldehyde derivative), and 4c (benzene derivative) were active against the yeast-like fungi Candida albicans. Compound 4a was active against gram-negative Escherichia coli, and compound 4c was active against the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. For the antitumor activity, both compounds 4b and 4c were active against all tested tumor cell lines, namely, SW480, HCT116, C32, MV3, HMT3522, and MCF-7. The activity of compound 4c was greater than that of compound 4b and more than that of the reference antitumor 5-flourouracil against the SW480, HCT116, and MCF-7 tumor cell lines. In conclusion, a number of the prepared 1,2,3-thia- or 1,2,3-selenadiazole compounds showed promising antifungal, antibacterial, and in vitro antitumor activities. Further investigations are required to explore the mechanism by which active compound are inducing their cytotoxicity. PMID:26316694

  20. Evidence for bay region activation of chrysene 1,2-dihydrodiol to an ultimate carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Levin, W; Wood, A W; Chang, R L; Yagi, H; Mah, H D; Jerina, D M; Conney, A H

    1978-06-01

    The tumor-initiating activities of chrysene and the three metabolically possible trans-dihydrodiols at the 1,2-, 3,4-, and 5,6-positions of chyrsene were determined on the skin of female CD-1 mice. A single topical application of 0.4, 1.25, or 4.0 mumol of each compound was followed 7 days later by twice-weekly applications of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 25 weeks. The most potent tumor initiator was chrysene 1,2-dihydrodiol, which had approximately twice the tumorigenic activity of the parent hydrocarbon chrysene at all doses tested. Chrysene 3,4-dihydrodiol and chrysene 5,6-dihydrodiol had no significant tumorigenic activity. 1,2-Dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochrysene, a compound related to chrysene 1,2-dihydrodiol but with the conjugated nonaromatic double bond removed from the 3,4-position of the molecule, had less than 25% of the tumorigenic activity of chrysene 1,2-dihydrodiol. These results indicate that chrysene 1,2-dihydrodiol is a proximate carcinogenic metabolite of chrysene and that a chrysene 1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide, in which the epoxide group forms part of the bay region in the molecule, is a likely candidate as an ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of chrysene.

  1. 26 CFR 48.6416(b)(1)-2 - Determination of price readjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Determination of price readjustments. 48.6416(b)(1)-2 Section 48.6416(b)(1)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... models are introduced, or a general price reduction affecting articles held in stock by the vendee as...

  2. miR-155 Inhibits Nucleus Pulposus Cells' Degeneration through Targeting ERK 1/2.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dongping; Dai, Libing; Yao, Yicun; Qin, Shengnan; Xie, Han; Wang, Wen; Liang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    We first investigated the difference in microRNA expression between normal NP cells and degenerative NP cells using gene chip. We have found that the expression of ERK1/2 was decreased with overexpression of miR-155 in normal nucleus pulposus cell. Expression of ERK1/2 was increased with inhibition of miR-155. Overexpression or inhibition of miR-155 had no effects on the expression level of mRNA ERK1/2 in nucleus pulposus cell, which showed that miR-155 affected the expression of pERK1/2 after transcription of ERK1/2 mRNA indicating that ERK1/2 was a new target protein regulated by miR-155. In the degeneration of intervertebral disc, inhibited miR-155 decreased the expressions of extracellular main matrix collagen II and glycosaminoglycan and increased expression of ERK1/2. Taken together, our data suggested that miR-155 was the identified miRNA which regulated NP cells degenerated through directly targeting ERK1/2. PMID:27635110

  3. 40 CFR 721.10292 - Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10292 Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2). (a) Chemical substance...-) hexafluoro-cesium (1:2) (PMN P-11-546; CAS No. 16923-87-8) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10292 - Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10292 Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2). (a) Chemical substance...-) hexafluoro-cesium (1:2) (PMN P-11-546; CAS No. 16923-87-8) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10292 - Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10292 Silicate (2-), hexafluoro-, cesium (1:2). (a) Chemical substance...-) hexafluoro-cesium (1:2) (PMN P-11-546; CAS No. 16923-87-8) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  9. 10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF SOUTH SIDE ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH SHOWING 1/2 SCREEN DOOR TO EXTERIOR AND DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO DINING ROOM. HOLE AT BOTTOM LEFT OF 1/2 SCREEN DOOR WAS A CAT DOOR. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of cis- & trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene and trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the miR-155 Inhibits Nucleus Pulposus Cells' Degeneration through Targeting ERK 1/2

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Libing; Yao, Yicun; Qin, Shengnan; Xie, Han; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    We first investigated the difference in microRNA expression between normal NP cells and degenerative NP cells using gene chip. We have found that the expression of ERK1/2 was decreased with overexpression of miR-155 in normal nucleus pulposus cell. Expression of ERK1/2 was increased with inhibition of miR-155. Overexpression or inhibition of miR-155 had no effects on the expression level of mRNA ERK1/2 in nucleus pulposus cell, which showed that miR-155 affected the expression of pERK1/2 after transcription of ERK1/2 mRNA indicating that ERK1/2 was a new target protein regulated by miR-155. In the degeneration of intervertebral disc, inhibited miR-155 decreased the expressions of extracellular main matrix collagen II and glycosaminoglycan and increased expression of ERK1/2. Taken together, our data suggested that miR-155 was the identified miRNA which regulated NP cells degenerated through directly targeting ERK1/2. PMID:27635110

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (2010 Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS ...

  12. miR-155 Inhibits Nucleus Pulposus Cells' Degeneration through Targeting ERK 1/2

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Libing; Yao, Yicun; Qin, Shengnan; Xie, Han; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    We first investigated the difference in microRNA expression between normal NP cells and degenerative NP cells using gene chip. We have found that the expression of ERK1/2 was decreased with overexpression of miR-155 in normal nucleus pulposus cell. Expression of ERK1/2 was increased with inhibition of miR-155. Overexpression or inhibition of miR-155 had no effects on the expression level of mRNA ERK1/2 in nucleus pulposus cell, which showed that miR-155 affected the expression of pERK1/2 after transcription of ERK1/2 mRNA indicating that ERK1/2 was a new target protein regulated by miR-155. In the degeneration of intervertebral disc, inhibited miR-155 decreased the expressions of extracellular main matrix collagen II and glycosaminoglycan and increased expression of ERK1/2. Taken together, our data suggested that miR-155 was the identified miRNA which regulated NP cells degenerated through directly targeting ERK1/2.

  13. 43 CFR 3863.1-2 - Proof of improvements for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proof of improvements for patent. 3863.1-2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-2 Proof of improvements for patent. The proof of improvements...

  14. 43 CFR 3863.1-2 - Proof of improvements for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proof of improvements for patent. 3863.1-2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-2 Proof of improvements for patent. The proof of improvements...

  15. 43 CFR 3863.1-2 - Proof of improvements for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proof of improvements for patent. 3863.1-2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-2 Proof of improvements for patent. The proof of improvements...

  16. 43 CFR 3863.1-2 - Proof of improvements for patent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proof of improvements for patent. 3863.1-2... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-2 Proof of improvements for patent. The proof of improvements...

  17. 76 FR 76162 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of November 1-2, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of November 1-2, 2011 In accordance with Section... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on... on November 1-2, 2011, which includes the domestic policy directive issued at the meeting,...

  18. 78 FR 79007 - 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... the notice in the Federal Register of October 28, 2013 (78 FR 64243). The conference was held in... COMMISSION 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of 1,1,1,2- Tetrafluoroethane, provided for in subheadings 2903.39.20 of...

  19. 45. STEEL FRAMING FOR LOFT, Y&D No. 107723 Scales 1/2' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. STEEL FRAMING FOR LOFT, Y&D No. 107723 Scales 1/2' and 1-1/2' = 1'; July 2, 1929 - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  1. 14 CFR 158.15 - Project eligibility at PFC levels of $1, $2, or $3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project eligibility at PFC levels of $1, $2, or $3. 158.15 Section 158.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) General § 158.15 Project eligibility at PFC levels of $1, $2, or $3. (a) To...

  2. Method of purifying a gas stream using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunald; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    A method for separating a target gas from a gaseous mixture using 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids is presented. Industrial effluent streams may be cleaned by removing carbon dioxide from the stream by contacting the effluent stream with a 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquid compound.

  3. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3807 - Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3807 Formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3... chemical substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with phenol and 1,2,3-propanetriol, methylated...

  5. Chemiluminescence efficiency of catalyzed 1,2-dioxetanone decomposition determined by steric effects.

    PubMed

    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; de Oliveira, Marcelo Almeida; Ciscato, Luiz Francisco Monteiro Leite; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Bastos, Erick Leite; Baader, Wilhelm Josef

    2015-04-17

    The chemiluminescent decomposition of 1,2-dioxetanones (α-peroxylactones), catalyzed by an appropriate fluorescent activator, is an important simple model for efficient bioluminescent transformations. In this work, we report experimental data on the catalyzed decomposition of two spiro-substituted 1,2-dioxetanone derivatives, which support the occurrence of an intermolecular electron transfer from the activator to the peroxide. The low efficiency of the studied systems is associated with steric hindrance during the chemiexcitation sequence, rationalized using the concept of supermolecule formation between the peroxide and the catalyst. This approach explains the difference in the chemiexcitation efficiencies in the decomposition of four-membered cyclic peroxide derivatives: 1,2-dioxetanes, 1,2-dioxetanones, and 1,2-dioxetanedione (the intermediate in the peroxyoxalate reaction), which are the most important model compounds for excited-state formation in chemiluminescence and bioluminescence processes. PMID:25831218

  6. Inosine strongly enhances proliferation of human C32 melanoma cells through PLC-PKC-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Sofia; Costa, Vera Marisa; Diniz, Carmen; Fresco, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer. The lack of effective pharmacological approaches for this tumour can be related to the incomplete understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in melanoma cell proliferation. Adenosine has growth-promoting and growth inhibitory effects on tumour cells. We aimed to investigate effects of adenosine and its metabolic product, inosine, on human C32 melanoma cells and the signalling pathways involved. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assays were used to evaluate adenosine, adenosine deaminase and inosine effects, in the absence or presence of adenosine receptor (AR), A3 AR and P2Y1 R antagonists and PLC, PKC, MEK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors. ERK1/2 levels were determined using an ELISA kit. Adenosine and inosine levels were quantified using an enzyme-coupled assay. Adenosine caused cell proliferation through AR activation. Adenosine deaminase increased inosine levels (nanomolar concentrations) on the extracellular space, in a time-dependent manner, inducing proliferation through A3 AR activation. Micromolar concentrations of inosine enhanced proliferation through A3 AR activation, causing an increase in ERK1/2 levels, and P2Y1 R activation via ENT-dependent mechanisms. We propose the simultaneous activation of PLC-PKC-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways as the main mechanism responsible for the proliferative effect elicited by inosine and its significant role in melanoma cancer progression.

  7. Inosine strongly enhances proliferation of human C32 melanoma cells through PLC-PKC-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Sofia; Costa, Vera Marisa; Diniz, Carmen; Fresco, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer. The lack of effective pharmacological approaches for this tumour can be related to the incomplete understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in melanoma cell proliferation. Adenosine has growth-promoting and growth inhibitory effects on tumour cells. We aimed to investigate effects of adenosine and its metabolic product, inosine, on human C32 melanoma cells and the signalling pathways involved. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assays were used to evaluate adenosine, adenosine deaminase and inosine effects, in the absence or presence of adenosine receptor (AR), A3 AR and P2Y1 R antagonists and PLC, PKC, MEK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors. ERK1/2 levels were determined using an ELISA kit. Adenosine and inosine levels were quantified using an enzyme-coupled assay. Adenosine caused cell proliferation through AR activation. Adenosine deaminase increased inosine levels (nanomolar concentrations) on the extracellular space, in a time-dependent manner, inducing proliferation through A3 AR activation. Micromolar concentrations of inosine enhanced proliferation through A3 AR activation, causing an increase in ERK1/2 levels, and P2Y1 R activation via ENT-dependent mechanisms. We propose the simultaneous activation of PLC-PKC-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways as the main mechanism responsible for the proliferative effect elicited by inosine and its significant role in melanoma cancer progression. PMID:24909096

  8. Multicentric evaluation of a new assay for prothrombin fragment F1+2 determination.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, H D; Conard, J; Mannucci, M; Monteagudo, J; Pelzer, H; Reverter, J C; Samama, M; Tripodi, A; Wagner, C

    1992-10-01

    A multicenter study of a recently developed ELISA for the determination of prothrombin fragment F1+2 was performed in order to evaluate analytical and clinical aspects. Mean intra-assay and inter-assay reproducibility were found to be 11.0 and 12.6%, respectively. The measuring range covered by the calibration curve reaches from 0.04 to 10.0 nM/l F1+2. Testing 133 healthy subjects a reference range of 0.37 to 1.11 nM/l F1+2 (2.5-97.5 percentile) with a median of 0.66 nM/l F1+2 was calculated. Minor difficulties with blood sampling (venous occlusion for 2 min) did not affect F1+2 plasma concentrations. Significantly increased F1+2 levels were measured in patients with leukemia (p < 0.0001), severe liver disease (p < 0.005) and after myocardial infarction (p < 0.01). Elevated F1+2 concentration before the beginning of heparin therapy (1.25 nM/l) decreased to 0.77 nM/l (p < 0.0001) after 1 day of therapy. For patients in the stable phase of oral anticoagulant therapy decreasing F1+2 concentrations were measured with increasing INR. F1+2 levels were already significantly reduced in patients with INR < 2.0 (0.56 nM/l; p = 0.0005). Thus F1+2 determination may be helpful in identifying activation processes as well as in monitoring anticoagulant therapy.

  9. Comment on “Impedance spectroscopy study and ground state electronic properties of In(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 (Physica B 406 (2011) 1081-1087)” and related works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belik, Alexei A.

    2012-09-01

    In this comment, we demonstrated that some reports about synthesis and properties of double In-based perovskites, In(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3, In(Ni1/2Zr1/2)O3, and In(Co1/2Ti1/2)O3, are incorrect. Mixtures of different known oxides were investigated instead of the claimed new compounds. We also tried to prepare In(Ni1/2Zr1/2)O3, In(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3, and In(Zn1/2Mn1/2)O3 using a high-pressure method (at 6 GPa and 1580 K) and found that these compounds are not formed. Only in the In2O3-NiO-MnO2 system, a new perovskite phase is formed using the high-pressure preparation method.

  10. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of 1,2,3-triazole-sucrose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Krasimira T; Potewar, Taterao M; Correia-da-Silva, Paula; Barros, M Teresa; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ćiric, Ana; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-11-19

    A library of 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-1,2,3-triazoles have been investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Most of the target compounds showed good inhibitory activity against a variety of clinically and food contaminant important microbial pathogens. In particular, 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-4-(4-pentylphenyl)-1,2,3-triazole (5) was highly active against all the tested bacteria with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 1.1 and 4.4 µM and bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) from 2.2 and 8.4 µM. The compound 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-4-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,3-triazole (3) showed antifungal activity with MICs from 0.6 to 4.8 µM and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) ranging between 1.2 and 8.9 µM. Furthermore, some of the compounds possessed moderate cytotoxicity against human breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, without showing toxicity for non-tumor liver cells. The above mentioned derivatives represent promising leads for the development of new generation of sugar-triazole antifungal agents.

  11. Adsorption structure, thermal reaction and initial pathways of 1,2-benzyne on Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jong-Liang; Lin, Yi-Shiue; Lin, Bo-Chiuan; Liao, Yuan-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Shang-Wei; Jhuang, Jyun-Yi; Lee, Yarong; Lin, Jiing-Chyuan

    2016-10-01

    1,2-C6H4I2 is used as precursor to generate 1,2-C6H4 (ortho-C6H4) on Cu(100). The reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) confirms the vertical adsorption geometry of 1,2-C6H4 on Cu(100), which agrees with that predicted theoretically. H2 evolving between 620 K and 870 K is the only reaction product detected from the 1,2-C6H4 decomposition in temperature-programmed reaction/desorption (TPR/D). Our calculations indicate that the 1,2-C6H4 primarily undergoes C3-H bond scission, forming 1,2,3-C6H3, with distorted C6 ring, and H atom on the surface without ring rupture (C1-C2 bond dissociation) prior to H loss. Furthermore, isomerization of the 1,2-C6H4, if it does occur, may proceed via dehydrogenation-hydrogenation, instead of H-shift.

  12. Microbial synthesis of the energetic material precursor 1,2,4-butanetriol.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wei; Molefe, Mapitso N; Frost, J W

    2003-10-29

    The lack of a route to precursor 1,2,4-butanetriol that is amenable to large-scale synthesis has impeded substitution of 1,2,4-butanetriol trinitrate for nitroglycerin. To identify an alternative to the current commercial synthesis of racemic d,l-1,2,4-butanetriol involving NaBH4 reduction of esterified d,l-malic acid, microbial syntheses of d- and l-1,2,4-butanetriol have been established. These microbial syntheses rely on the creation of biosynthetic pathways that do not exist in nature. Oxidation of d-xylose by Pseudomonas fragi provides d-xylonic acid in 70% yield. Escherichia coli DH5alpha/pWN6.186A then catalyzes the conversion of d-xylonic acid into d-1,2,4-butanetriol in 25% yield. P. fragi is also used to oxidize l-arabinose to a mixture of l-arabino-1,4-lactone and l-arabinonic acid in 54% overall yield. After hydrolysis of the lactone, l-arabinonic acid is converted to l-1,2,4-butanetriol in 35% yield using E. coli BL21(DE3)/pWN6.222A. As a catalytic route to 1,2,4-butanetriol, microbial synthesis avoids the high H2 pressures and elevated temperatures required by catalytic hydrogenation of malic acid.

  13. Intra-amygdala inhibition of ERK(1/2) potentiates the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Besheer, Joyce; Fisher, Kristen R; Cannady, Reginald; Grondin, Julie J M; Hodge, Clyde W

    2012-03-17

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) has been implicated in modulating drug seeking behavior and is a target of alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Given that the discriminative stimulus (subjective/interoceptive) effects of drugs are determinants of abuse liability and can influence drug seeking behavior, we examined the role of ERK(1/2) in modulating the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Using drug discrimination procedures, rats were trained to discriminate a moderate intragastric (IG) alcohol dose (1g/kg) versus water (IG). Following an alcohol (1g/kg) discrimination session phosphorylated ERK(1/2) (pERK(1/2)) immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly elevated in the amygdala, but not the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, we hypothesized that intra-amygdala inhibition of ERK(1/2) would disrupt expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. However, intra-amygdala or accumbens administration of the MEK/ERK(1/2) inhibitor U0126 (1 and 3μg) had no effect on the discriminative stimulus effects of the training dose of alcohol (1g/kg). Contrary to our hypothesis, intra-amygdala infusion of U0126 (3μg) potentiated the discriminative stimulus effects of a low alcohol dose (0.5g/kg) and had no effect following nucleus accumbens infusion. Importantly, site-specific inhibition of pERK(1/2) in each brain region was confirmed. Therefore, the increase in pERK(1/2) IR in the amygdala following systemic alcohol administration may be reflective of the widespread effects of alcohol on the brain (activation/inhibition of brain circuits), whereas the site specific microinjection studies confirmed functional involvement of intra-amygdala ERK(1/2). These findings show that activity of the ERK signaling pathway in the amygdala can influence the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol.

  14. Local structural distortion and electrical transport properties of Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Jinlong; Yang, Liuxiang; Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Wenge; Hong, Xinguo; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-12-16

    Perovskite-structure materials generally exhibit local structural distortions that are distinct from long-range, average crystal structure. The characterization of such distortion is critical to understanding the structural and physical properties of materials. In this work, we combined Pair Distribution Function (PDF) technique with Raman spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurement to study Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure. PDF analysis reveals strong local structural distortion at ambient conditions. As pressure increases, the local structure distortions are substantially suppressed and eventually vanish around 4 GPa, leading to concurrent changes in the electronic band structure and anomalies in the electrical resistivity. We find, consistent withmore » PDF analysis, Raman spectroscopy data suggest that the local structure changes to a higher ordered state at pressures above 4 GPa.« less

  15. Conglomerate formative precursor of chiral drug timolol: 3-(4-Morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yloxy)-propane-1,2-diol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredikhin, Alexander A.; Zakharychev, Dmitry V.; Fayzullin, Robert R.; Bredikhina, Zemfira A.; Gubaidullin, Aidar T.

    2015-05-01

    Solid state properties of 3-(4-N-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yloxy)-propane-1,2-diol 3, the synthetic precursor of popular drug timolol, have been investigated. The original solubility test, the data of X-ray diffraction and DSC methods indicate that the compound is prone to spontaneous resolution. Diol 3 crystallizing from both enantiopure or racemic feed material forms "guaifenesin-like" crystal packing in which the classic H-bonded bilayers, framed in both sides by hydrophobic molecular fragments, act as the basic supramolecular motif. The main chain conformation of the molecules in the crystals of diol 3 differs from that in the guaifenesin crystals, and this fact changes the absolute configuration of spiral columns formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonds in crystals of 3 as compared with guaifenesin crystals.

  16. Design and synthesis of new imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine and imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives with antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Garamvölgyi, Rita; Dobos, Judit; Sipos, Anna; Boros, Sándor; Illyés, Eszter; Baska, Ferenc; Kékesi, László; Szabadkai, István; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Kéri, György; Őrfi, László

    2016-01-27

    Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer and it is generally associated with poor prognosis in patients with late-stage disease. Due to the increasing occurrence of melanoma, there is a need for the development of novel therapies. A new series of diarylamide and diarylurea derivatives containing imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine or imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine scaffold was designed and synthesized to investigate their in vitro efficacy against the A375P human melanoma cell line. We found several compounds expressing submicromolar IC50 values against the A375P cells, from which 15d, 17e, 18c, 18h, 18i demonstrated the highest potencies with IC50 below 0.06 μM.

  17. Facile synthesis of new imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines carrying 1,2,3-triazoles via click chemistry and their antiepileptic studies.

    PubMed

    Ulloora, Shrikanth; Shabaraya, Ramakrishna; Adhikari, Airody Vasudeva

    2013-06-01

    The present article reports the synthesis and anticonvulsant studies of new 2-arylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines carrying suitably substituted 1,2,3-triazoles as well as their intermediates. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by various spectroscopic techniques. The anticonvulsant study was carried out by MES and scPTZ screening methods, while their toxicity study was performed following Rotarod method. The active compounds showed enhanced seizure control in scPTZ method when compared with that of MES method. Compounds 3f, 4c, 4f, 5k, 5p and 5w carrying active pharmacophores exhibited complete protection against seizure and their results were comparable with standard drug diazepam. Majority of new compounds were found to be non-toxic, while few of them showed toxicity at 100 mg/kg. The clogP values of target compounds are in the range of 3.5-5.3, which confirm their lipophilic nature.

  18. Local structural distortion and electrical transport properties of Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinlong; Yang, Liuxiang; Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Wenge; Hong, Xinguo; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite-structure materials generally exhibit local structural distortions that are distinct from long-range, average crystal structure. The characterization of such distortion is critical to understanding the structural and physical properties of materials. In this work, we combined Pair Distribution Function (PDF) technique with Raman spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurement to study Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure. PDF analysis reveals strong local structural distortion at ambient conditions. As pressure increases, the local structure distortions are substantially suppressed and eventually vanish around 4 GPa, leading to concurrent changes in the electronic band structure and anomalies in the electrical resistivity. Consistent with PDF analysis, Raman spectroscopy data suggest that the local structure changes to a higher ordered state at pressures above 4 GPa. PMID:26671171

  19. Energy storage property in lead free gd doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zannen, Moneim; Lahmar, Abdelilah; Khemakhem, Hamadi; El Marssi, Mimoun

    2016-11-01

    The Effect of Gadolinium ion incorporation on structure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) ceramic was investigated. X-ray diffraction allowed the identification of a pure phase isostructural to NBT. Dielectric measurements showed more pronounced anomalies in the range of depolarization temperature when Gd was added. Antiferroelectric-like behavior with a double pinched hysteresis loop was observed versus temperature in the doped phase. The energy-storage density (W) was calculated using the P-E loops data and was found to vary from 0.45 J cm-3 at room temperature to 0.85 J cm-3 at 413 K, which is promising for energy storage application.

  20. Effects of (Bi1/2,Na1/2)TiO3 on the electrical properties of BiFeO3-based thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Hong; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2016-10-01

    (100)-oriented (1 - x)BiFeO3-x(Bi1/2,Na1/2)TiO3 (BF-BNT) thin films with x = 0.05 were grown on LaNiO3/Si substrate by co-sputter method. It was found that BF-BNT films show better ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties than the BiFeO3 films deposited under the same condition, especially at the deposition temperature of 450 °C. The addition of small amount of BNT (x = 0.05) to BF films increases the dielectric constant to 480. The BF-BNT film piezoelectric coefficient (d 33(AFM)) of the BF-BNT film deposited at 450 °C is ˜100 pm/V, which is comparable to the best value of BF-based films with substitutions of other perovskite or rare-earth elements.

  1. Factor analysis of the WISC-R (Spanish version) at 11 age levels between 6 1/2 and 16 1/2 years.

    PubMed

    Gass, C S; Demsky, Y I; Martin, P C

    1998-01-01

    The Spanish version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R, Wechsler, 1974)-the Escala de Inteligencia para Niños-Revision (EIWN-R, Wechsler, 1982)-has a potentially important role in the assessment of Hispanic children. However, little is known regarding its psychometric characteristics. This study used the normative data from the EIWN-R standardization sample (N = 532 Cuban Americans) to examine its factorial composition and general comparability with the WISC-R. Within each of the 11 age groups (ages 6 1/2 to 16 1/2), the correlation matrix of raw scores was subjected to a principal components analysis and varimax rotation. The results supported a 2-factor solution across age groups roughly corresponding with Wechsler's verbal and performance dimensions. The existence of a meaningful third factor, which has empirical support in the WISC-R literature, failed to emerge for the EIWN-R.

  2. Diastereoselective Synthesis of (+/-)-1,2-Diphenyl-1,2-propanediol. A Discovery-Based Grignard Reaction Suitable for a Large Organic Lab Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaccio, James A.; Bravo, Roxana P.; Drahus, Antoinette L.; Biggins, John B.; Concepcion, Rosalyn V.; Cabrera, David

    2001-04-01

    We have developed an undergraduate organic laboratory experiment that probes the diastereoselectivity of the reaction between a Grignard reagent and a common, inexpensive a-chiral ketone. Students isolate a single diastereomer of (+/-)-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-propanediol by treatment of (+/-)-benzoin with MeMgI. Since the mp ranges of the two possible diol diastereomers differ by 10 °C, the reaction's diastereoselectivity can be established by mp determination alone, and it can be rationalized by the preferential addition of MeMgI to the least sterically hindered face of the carbonyl group in a rigid, five-membered cyclic intermediate (the "Cram chelate model"). This experiment is an interesting alternative to traditional Grignard experiments, is operationally straightforward and easily performed in large lab courses, and introduces students to p-facial discrimination by having them establish the stereochemical course of kinetically controlled nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl.

  3. Bis­(3,5-diamino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium) 3,4-dioxocyclo­butane-1,2-diolate

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Loh, Wan-Sin; Johnson, Atim; Yousuf, Sammer; Eno, Ededet

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C2H6N5 +·C4O4 2−, contains two 3,5-diamino-4H-1,2,4-triazolium cations and one squarate dianion. The squaric acid mol­ecule donated one H atom to each of the two 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole mol­ecules at their N atoms. The squaric acid dianion has four C—O bonds which are shorter than a normal single C—O bond (1.426 Å) and are slightly longer than a normal C=O bond (1.23 Å), which indicates the degree of electron delocalization in the dianion. In the crystal, the cations and dianions are linked by N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. PMID:23476545

  4. Local structural distortion and electrical transport properties of Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinlong; Yang, Liuxiang; Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Wenge; Hong, Xinguo; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite-structure materials generally exhibit local structural distortions that are distinct from long-range, average crystal structure. The characterization of such distortion is critical to understanding the structural and physical properties of materials. In this work, we combined Pair Distribution Function (PDF) technique with Raman spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurement to study Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure. PDF analysis reveals strong local structural distortion at ambient conditions. As pressure increases, the local structure distortions are substantially suppressed and eventually vanish around 4 GPa, leading to concurrent changes in the electronic band structure and anomalies in the electrical resistivity. Consistent with PDF analysis, Raman spectroscopy data suggest that the local structure changes to a higher ordered state at pressures above 4 GPa. PMID:26671171

  5. Di-ionizable p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,2-crown-3 ligands in cone and 1,2-alternate conformations: synthesis and metal ion extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongmei; Cao, Xiaodan; Purkiss, David W; Bartsch, Richard A

    2007-04-21

    Novel di-ionizable p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,2-crown-3 ligands in cone and 1,2-alternate conformations were prepared as potential metal ion extractants. Selective bridging of proximal hydroxyl groups of the calix[4]arene platform by a crown-3 polyether unit was achieved under Mitsunobu reaction conditions. In addition to the carboxylic acid group, the acidity tunable N-(X)sulfonyl oxyacetamide functions [OCH(2)C(O)NHSO(2)X] with X group variation from methyl to phenyl to p-nitrophenyl to trifluomethyl were used as the proton-ionizable groups. Conformations and regioselectivities of the new ligands were established by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Competitive solvent extractions of alkali metal cations and of alkaline earth metal cations from aqueous solutions into chloroform were performed, as were single species extractions of lead(ii) and mercury(ii).

  6. Local structural distortion and electrical transport properties of Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Yang, Liuxiang; Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Zhang, Jianzhong; Yang, Wenge; Hong, Xinguo; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-12-01

    Perovskite-structure materials generally exhibit local structural distortions that are distinct from long-range, average crystal structure. The characterization of such distortion is critical to understanding the structural and physical properties of materials. In this work, we combined Pair Distribution Function (PDF) technique with Raman spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurement to study Bi(Ni1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite under high pressure. PDF analysis reveals strong local structural distortion at ambient conditions. As pressure increases, the local structure distortions are substantially suppressed and eventually vanish around 4 GPa, leading to concurrent changes in the electronic band structure and anomalies in the electrical resistivity. Consistent with PDF analysis, Raman spectroscopy data suggest that the local structure changes to a higher ordered state at pressures above 4 GPa.

  7. An Ising-like Model to Predict Dielectric Properties of the Relaxor Ferroelectric Solid Solution Barium titanate - Bismuth(Zinc1/2Titanium 1/2)Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Dennis L.

    We developed a model to investigate the dielectric properties of the BaTiO3 - Bi(Zn 1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BT-BZT) solid solution, which is a relaxor ferroelectric and exhibits long range disorder. The model uses ab initio methods to determine all polarization states for every atomic configuration of 2x2x2 supercells of BT-BZT. Each supercell is placed on a lattice with an Ising-like interaction between neighboring cell polarizations. This method allows us to consider long range disorder, which is not possible with ab initio methods alone, and is required to properly understand relaxor ferroelectric materials. We analyze the Monte Carlo data for a single lattice configuration using the multiple histogram method, and develop a modified histogram technique to combine data from multiple lattice configurations. Our calculated values of dielectric constant, specific heat, and polarization agree reasonably well with experiment.

  8. An indolocarbazole dimer as a new stereodynamic probe for chiral 1,2-diamines.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hae-Geun; Kim, Min Jun; Jeong, Kyu-Sung

    2014-08-01

    An indolocarbazole dimer that contains aldehyde groups at both ends was prepared by connecting two monomeric units through a rod-like 1,4-butadiynyl spacer. Upon mixing with chiral 1,2-diamines at room temperature, the dimer was in situ converted to the corresponding cyclic diimines in the presence of tetrabutylammonium acetate as a template. The resulting diimines fold to helical conformations of right-handed (P) or left-handed (M) orientations, depending on the absolute stereochemistries of chiral 1,2-diamines. The patterns and intensities of the CD spectra can be used to determine the absolute configurations and enantiomeric excesses of chiral 1,2-diamines.

  9. 1,2-Phosphaborines: hybrid inorganic/organic P-B analogues of benzene.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Jonathan H; Brown, Paul A; Shuford, Kevin L; Martin, Caleb D

    2015-10-01

    Photolysis of the cyclic phosphine oligomer [PPh]5 in the presence of pentaarylboroles leads to the formation of 1,2-phosphaborines by the formal insertion of a phenylphosphinidene fragment into the endocyclic CB bond. The solid-state structure features a virtually planar central ring with bond lengths indicating significant delocalization. Appreciable ring current in the 1,2-phosphaborine core, detected in nuclear independent chemical shift (NICS) calculations, are consistent with aromatic character. These products are the first reported 1,2-BPC4 conjugated heterocycles and open a new avenue for BP as a valence isoelectronic substitute for CC in arene systems. PMID:26315985

  10. Binding of Eu(III) to 1,2-hydroxypyridinone-modified peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Arnie R; Olatunde, Abiola O; Morrow, Janet R; Achim, Catalina

    2012-12-01

    Substitution of a nucleobase pair with a pair of 1,2-hydroxypyridinone (1,2-HOPO) ligands in the center of a 10-base-pair peptide nucleic acid (PNA) duplex provides a strong binding site for Eu(III) as evidenced by UV thermal melting curves, UV titrations, and luminescence spectroscopy. Eu(III) excitation spectra and luminescence lifetime data are consistent with Eu(III) bound to both 1,2 HOPO ligands in a PNA-HOPO duplex as the major species present in solution.

  11. Energetic Trinitro- and Fluorodinitroethyl Ethers of 1,2,4,5-Tetrazines.

    PubMed

    Chavez, David E; Parrish, Damon A; Mitchell, Lauren

    2016-07-18

    Several new energetic ethyl ethers of 1,2,4,5-tetrazine have been synthesized. These molecules display good thermal stability, good oxygen balance, and high densities. Included in these studies are a 2,2,2-trinitroethoxy 1,2,4,5-tetrazine and two fluorodinitroethoxy 1,2,4,5-tetrazines. One of these compounds was converted into the di-N-oxide derivative. The sensitivity of these materials towards destructive stimuli was determined, and overall the materials show promising energetic performance properties.

  12. ERK1/2 regulate the balance between eccentric and concentric cardiac growth

    PubMed Central

    Kehat, Izhak; Davis, Jennifer; Tiburcy, Malte; Accornero, Federica; Saba-El-Leil, Marc K.; Maillet, Marjorie; York, Allen J.; Lorenz, John N.; Zimmermann, Wolfram H.; Meloche, Sylvain; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale An increase in cardiac afterload typically produces concentric hypertrophy characterized by an increase in cardiomyocyte width, while volume overload or exercise results in eccentric growth characterized by cellular elongation and addition of sarcomeres in series. The signaling pathways that control eccentric versus concentric heart growth are not well understood. Objective To determine the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in regulating the cardiac hypertrophic response. Methods and results Here we used mice lacking all ERK1/2 protein in the heart (Erk1−/− Erk2fl/fl-Cre) and mice expressing activated Mek1 in the heart to induce ERK1/2 signaling, as well as mechanistic experiments in cultured myocytes to assess cellular growth characteristics associated with this signaling pathway. While genetic deletion of all ERK1/2 from the mouse heart did not block the cardiac hypertrophic response per se, meaning that the heart still increased in weight with both aging and pathologic stress stimulation, it did dramatically alter how the heart grew. For example, adult myocytes from hearts of Erk1−/− Erk2fl/fl-Cre mice showed preferential eccentric growth (lengthening) while myocytes from Mek1 transgenic hearts showed concentric growth (width increase). Isolated adult myocytes acutely inhibited for ERK1/2 signaling by adenoviral gene transfer showed spontaneous lengthening while infection with an activated Mek1 adenovirus promoted constitutive ERK1/2 signaling and increased myocyte thickness. A similar effect was observed in engineered heart tissue under cyclical stretching, where ERK1/2 inhibition led to preferential lengthening. Conclusions Taken together these data demonstrate that the ERK1/2 signaling pathway uniquely regulates the balance between eccentric and concentric growth of the heart. Summary We studied mice lacking all ERK1/2 protein in the heart and mice expressing activated Mek1 in the heart to evaluate the role of the ERK 1/2

  13. Violation of local realism by a system with N spin-(1/2) particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiao-Hua; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2003-09-01

    Recently, it was found that Mermin's inequalities may not always be optimal for the refutation of a local realistic description [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 210402 (2002)]. To complete this work, we derive an inequality for the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type pure state for a system with N spin-(1/2) particles and the violation of the inequality can be shown for all the non product pure states. Mermin's inequality for a system of N spin-(1/2) particles and Gisin's theorem for a system of two spin-(1/2) particles are both included in our inequality.

  14. Characterization and crystal structure determination of β-1,2-mannobiose phosphorylase from Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Tomohiro; Nihira, Takanori; Chiku, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Erika; Arakawa, Takatoshi; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Fushinobu, Shinya

    2015-12-21

    Glycoside hydrolase family 130 consists of phosphorylases and hydrolases for β-mannosides. Here, we characterized β-1,2-mannobiose phosphorylase from Listeria innocua (Lin0857) and determined its crystal structures complexed with β-1,2-linked mannooligosaccharides. β-1,2-Mannotriose was bound in a U-shape, interacting with a phosphate analog at both ends. Lin0857 has a unique dimer structure connected by a loop, and a significant open-close loop displacement was observed for substrate entry. A long loop, which is exclusively present in Lin0857, covers the active site to limit the pocket size. A structural basis for substrate recognition and phosphorolysis was provided.

  15. E7449: A dual inhibitor of PARP1/2 and tankyrase1/2 inhibits growth of DNA repair deficient tumors and antagonizes Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiayi; Chang, Paul; Kolber-Simonds, Donna; Ackermann, Karen; Twine, Natalie C.; Shie, Jue-Lon; Miu, Jingzang Tao; Huang, Kuan-Chun; Moniz, George A.; Nomoto, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase1 (PARP1) impairs DNA damage repair, and early generation PARP1/2 inhibitors (olaparib, niraparib, etc.) have demonstrated clinical proof of concept for cancer treatment. Here, we describe the development of the novel PARP inhibitor E7449, a potent PARP1/2 inhibitor that also inhibits PARP5a/5b, otherwise known as tankyrase1 and 2 (TNKS1 and 2), important regulators of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. E7449 inhibits PARP enzymatic activity and additionally traps PARP1 onto damaged DNA; a mechanism previously shown to augment cytotoxicity. Cells deficient in DNA repair pathways beyond homologous recombination were sensitive to E7449 treatment. Chemotherapy was potentiated by E7449 and single agent had significant antitumor activity in BRCA-deficient xenografts. Additionally, E7449 inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colon cancer cell lines, likely through TNKS inhibition. Consistent with this possibility, E7449 stabilized axin and TNKS proteins resulting in β-catenin de-stabilization and significantly altered expression of Wnt target genes. Notably, hair growth mediated by Wnt signaling was inhibited by E7449. A pharmacodynamic effect of E7449 on Wnt target genes was observed in tumors, although E7449 lacked single agent antitumor activity in vivo, a finding typical for selective TNKS inhibitors. E7449 antitumor activity was increased through combination with MEK inhibition. Particularly noteworthy was the lack of toxicity, most significantly the lack of intestinal toxicity reported for other TNKS inhibitors. E7449 represents a novel dual PARP1/2 and TNKS1/2 inhibitor which has the advantage of targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling addicted tumors. E7449 is currently in early clinical development. PMID:26513298

  16. Anti-adipogenic effect of epiberberine is mediated by regulation of the Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 and AMPKα/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Sue; Kim, Ji-Hye; Ali, Md Yousof; Jung, Hee Jin; Min, Byung-Sun; Choi, Ran Joo; Kim, Gun-Do; Jung, Hyun Ah

    2015-12-01

    It has been reported that alkaloids derived from Coptis chinensis exert anti-adipogenic activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by downregulating peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α). However, the signaling-based mechanism of the inhibitory role of epiberberine in the early stages of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation is uncharacterized. Here, we show that epiberberine had inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation and significantly decreased lipid accumulation by downregulating an adipocyte-specific transcription factor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Furthermore, we observed that epiberberine markedly suppressed the differentiation-mediated phosphorylation of components of both the Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MEK1)/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AMP-activated protein kinase-α1 (AMPKα)/Akt pathways. In addition, gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) was significantly inhibited by treatment with epiberberine during adipogenesis. These results indicate that the anti-adipogenic mechanism of epiberberine is associated with inhibition of phosphorylation of Raf/MEK1/ERK1/2 and AMPKα/Akt, followed by downregulation of the major transcription factors of adipogenesis, such as PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and SREBP-1, and FAS. Taken together, this study suggests that the anti-adipogenic effect of epiberberine is mediated by downregulation of the Raf/MEK1/ERK1/2 and AMPKα/Akt pathways during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, the anti-adipogenic effects of epiberberine were not accompanied by modulation of β-catenin.

  17. Cytotoxicity and bioactivation mechanism of benzyl 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl sulfide and benzyl 1,2,3,4,4-pentachlorobuta-1,3-dienyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Veltman, J.C.; Dekant, W.; Guengerich, F.P.; Anders, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolism and cytotoxicity of benzyl 1,2,3,4,4-pentachlorobuta-1,3-dienyl sulfide (1) and benzyl 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl sulfide (2) were studied as an alternative test of the hypothesis that the toxicity of the cysteine S-conjugates S-(pentachlorobutadienyl)-L-cysteine and S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine is associated with their metabolism to unstable thiols; the expectation was that the benzyl sulfides 1 and 2 would undergo cytochrome P-450 dependent benzylic hydroxylation and that the intermediate hemimercaptals would eliminate unstable, cytotoxic thiols. This expectation was realized: 1 and 2 were cytotoxic in isolated rat hepatocytes. The cytotoxicity of 1 was greater in hepatocytes from phenobarbital-treated rats compared with control rats and in male then in female rats and was inhibited by carbon monoxide and 2-(N,N-diethylamino)ethyl 2,2-diphenylvalerate HCl (SKF 525-A). Benzyl sulfides 1 and 2 were metabolized to benzaldehyde by rat hepatic microsomal fractions and by a purified, reconstituted cytochrome P-450/sub PB-B/ system. Benzaldehyde was not cytotoxic. These results provide support for the hypothesis that benzyl sulfides 1 and 2 and the corresponding cysteine S-conjugates yield unstable thiols, which may give rise to acylating agents or to stable, but toxic, terminal products that are responsible for the cytotoxic effects of benzyl sulfides and cysteine S-conjugates.

  18. Dynamic relocation of the TORC1–Gtr1/2–Ego1/2/3 complex is regulated by Gtr1 and Gtr2

    PubMed Central

    Kira, Shintaro; Kumano, Yuri; Ukai, Hirofumi; Takeda, Eigo; Matsuura, Akira; Noda, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    TORC1 regulates cellular growth, metabolism, and autophagy by integrating various signals, including nutrient availability, through the small GTPases RagA/B/C/D in mammals and Gtr1/2 in budding yeast. Rag/Gtr is anchored to the lysosomal/vacuolar membrane by the scaffold protein complex Ragulator/Ego. Here we show that Ego consists of Ego1 and Ego3, and novel subunit Ego2. The ∆ego2 mutant exhibited only partial defects both in Gtr1-dependent TORC1 activation and Gtr1 localization on the vacuole. Ego1/2/3, Gtr1/2, and Tor1/Tco89 were colocalized on the vacuole and associated puncta. When Gtr1 was in its GTP-bound form and TORC1 was active, these proteins were preferentially localized on the vacuolar membrane, whereas when Gtr1 was in its GDP-bound form, they were mostly localized on the puncta. The localization of TORC1 to puncta was further facilitated by direct binding to Gtr2, which is involved in suppression of TORC1 activity. Thus regulation of TORC1 activity through Gtr1/Gtr2 is tightly coupled to the dynamic relocation of these proteins. PMID:26609069

  19. The B(1/2 2P3/2) --> X(1/2 2Sigma + ) transition in XeBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenger, Jason O.; Tellinghuisen, Joel

    1995-12-01

    The B(1/2 2P3/2)→X(1/2 2Σ+) transition in XeBr is recorded at high resolution, using a CCD array detector to record spectra from Tesla discharge sources containing isotopically pure 136Xe with 81Br2 or 79Br2. The high signal/noise capabilities of the detector permit the measurement of discrete vibrational structure in this system, which has normally been treated as a purely bound-free transition. The assignments comprise 119 υ'-υ″ bands for 136Xe81Br and 86 for 136Xe79Br, spanning υ'=0-33 and υ″=0-16. The van der Waals ground state is analyzed through fits to the customary polynomials in (υ+1/2) and to near-dissociation expansions. Franck-Condon calculations are used to locate the X-state potential on the internuclear axis relative to the B state, which is modeled as a Rittner potential. The following fundamental spectroscopic constants (units cm-1, for 136Xe81Br) are obtained from the analysis: Te'=35 863.2, ωe'=135.72, ωexe'=0.32, ωe″=25.7, ωexe″=0.62. The ground state has a dissociation energy De″=254±2 cm-1 and supports 24 bound vibrational levels.

  20. Rigidity Transitions in Ternary As_xGe_xSe_1-2x and As_xGe_xS_1-2x Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Tao; Boolchand, Punit; Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2003-03-01

    These ternary glasses are of interest for elastic threshold studies because they do not display nanoscale phase separation^1 effects. MDSC measurements on As_xGe_xSe_1-2x glasses have shown^2 T_g(x) to increase monotonically with x, and the non-reversing heat flow, ΔHnr(x), to display a global minimum ˜ 0 in 0.09 < x < 0.14 range, or 2.27 < < 2.42. The thermally reversing window width in this ternary is large and resides below the Phillips-Thorpe value of rc = 2.4, features that were addressed in ref.1.We have now performed FT-Raman scattering as a function of x, and established compositional trend of corner-sharing mode frequency, ν_cs(x), of Ge(Se_1/2)4 tetrahedra. The results show evidence of a second order elastic threshold near r_c(1) = 2.27(1) and a first order one near r_c(2) = 2.42(1). At the latter, a jump in ν_cs of 0.5(1)cm-1 is observed. The elastic power-law in the intermediate phase yield a value p =0.90(5). Preliminary results on corresponding sulfide glasses have also been obtained. Supported by NSF grant DMR ^_01^_01808 1 P.Boolchand et al. Comptes Rendus ( in press). 2 Y.Wang et al. Europhysics Lett. 52,633(2000).

  1. Synthesis optimisation and characterisation of the organic-inorganic layered materials ZnS(m-xylylenediamine)1/2 and ZnS(p-xylylenediamine)1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luberda-Durnaś, K.; Guillén, A. González; Łasocha, W.

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic layered materials of the type ZnS(amine)1/2, where amine=m-xylylenediamine (MXDA) or p-xylylenediamine (PXDA), were synthesised using a simple solvothermal method. Since the samples crystallised in the form of very fine powder, X-ray powder diffraction techniques were used for structural characterisation. The crystal structure studies, involving direct methods, show that both compounds crystallised in the orthorhombic crystal system, but in different space groups: ZnS(MXDA)1/2 in non-centrosymmetric Ccm21, ZnS(PXDA)1/2 in centrosymmetric Pcab. The obtained materials are built according to similar orders: semiconducting monolayers with the formula ZnS, parallel to the (010) plane, are separated by diamines. The organic and inorganic fragments are connected by covalent bonds between metal atoms of the layers and nitrogen atoms of the amino groups. The optical properties of the hybrid materials differ from those of their bulk counterpart. In both compounds a blue-shift of about 0.8 or 0.9 eV was observed with reference to the bulk phase of ZnS.

  2. Microwave Spectrum and Molecular Structure of the ARGON-CIS-1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Mark D.; Leung, Helen O.; Nelson, Craig J.; Yoon, Leonard H.

    2016-06-01

    The non-planar molecular structure of the complex formed between the argon atom and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene is determined via analysis of its microwave spectrum. Spectra of the 35Cl and 37Cl isotopologues are observed in natural abundance and the nuclear quadrupole splitting due to the two chlorine nuclei is fully resolved. In addition, the complete quadrupole coupling tensor for the cis-1,2-dichloroethylene molecule, including the single non-zero off-diagonal element, has been determined. Unlike the argon-cis-1,2-difluoroethylene and the argon-vinyl chloride complexes, tunneling between the two equivalent non-planar configurations of argon-cis-1,2-dichloroethylene is not observed.

  3. The Use of Lotus 1-2-3 Macros in Engineering Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are the use of spreadsheet programs in chemical engineering calculations using Lotus 1-2-3 macros. Discusses the macro commands, subroutine operations, and solution of partial differential equation. Provides examples of the subroutine programs and spreadsheet solution. (YP)

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Cis-& Trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  5. Fused 1,2,3-Dithiazoles: Convenient Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Lidia S; Baranovsky, Ilia V; Irtegova, Irina G; Bagryanskaya, Irina Y; Shundrin, Leonid A; Zibarev, Andrey V; Rakitin, Oleg A

    2016-01-01

    A new general protocol for synthesis of fused 1,2,3-dithiazoles by the reaction of cyclic oximes with S₂Cl₂ and pyridine in acetonitrile has been developed. The target 1,2,3-dithiazoles fused with various carbocycles, such as indene, naphthalenone, cyclohexadienone, cyclopentadiene, and benzoannulene, were selectively obtained in low to high yields. In most cases, the hetero ring-closure was accompanied by chlorination of the carbocyclic moieties. With naphthalenone derivatives, a novel dithiazole rearrangement (15→13) featuring unexpected movement of the dithiazole ring from α- to β-position, with respect to keto group, was discovered. Molecular structure of 4-chloro-5H-naphtho[1,2-d][1,2,3]dithiazol-5-one 13 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical properties of 13 were studied by cyclic voltammetry and a complex behavior was observed, most likely including hydrodechlorination at a low potential. PMID:27164072

  6. Batch gradient method with smoothing L1/2 regularization for training of feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Fan, Qinwei; Zurada, Jacek M; Wang, Jian; Yang, Dakun; Liu, Yan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a novel method to prune feedforward neural networks by introducing an L1/2 regularization term into the error function. This procedure forces weights to become smaller during the training and can eventually removed after the training. The usual L1/2 regularization term involves absolute values and is not differentiable at the origin, which typically causes oscillation of the gradient of the error function during the training. A key point of this paper is to modify the usual L1/2 regularization term by smoothing it at the origin. This approach offers the following three advantages: First, it removes the oscillation of the gradient value. Secondly, it gives better pruning, namely the final weights to be removed are smaller than those produced through the usual L1/2 regularization. Thirdly, it makes it possible to prove the convergence of the training. Supporting numerical examples are also provided.

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  8. 22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. MILL NO. 1, 2nd FLOOR, LIGHT TABLES AND KNITTING MACHINE. LIGHT TABLE USED TO CHECK FOR CLOTH DEFECTS. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  9. Novel fermentation: the production of R(-)-1,2-propanediol and acetol by Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.C.; Cooney, C.L.

    1986-07-01

    Three strains of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum were found that produce R(-)-1,2-propanediol from a variety of sugars, including D-glucose and D-xylose. The fermentation of glucose by strain HG-8 (ATCC 31960) gave 7.9 g/l of R(-)-1,2-propanediol with a best yield of 0.27 g/g glucose and an enantiomeric excess of greater than 99%. Acetol accumulated to 1.47 g/l. Product formation was not affected by phosphate concentrations up to 113 mM. A possible pathway to these products involves a variation of the methylglyoxal bypass. Methylglyoxal is reduced to acetol, which is further reduced to %(-)-1,2-propanediol. This fermentation provides a unique route to R(-)-1,2-propanediol and acetol from inexpensive, readily available substrates.

  10. The influence of oxygen on the surface chemistry of 1,2-propanediol on Pd(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Rhea M.; Medlin, J. Will

    2014-01-01

    The surface chemistry of 1,2-propanediol (PDO) has been studied on oxygen precovered Pd(111) using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Adsorbed 1,2-propanedioxy (-OCH(CH3)CH2O-) forms from the activation of the O-H bonds. When the concentration of O(a) is large compared to 1,2-propanedioxy, no H2 is produced and the dialkoxide reacts to form H2O, CO through decarbonylation, and CO2 through decarboxylation. Unreacted oxygen also desorbs as O2 at high temperature. Conversely, when the concentration of O(a) is small relative to 1,2-propanedioxy, the dialkoxide reacts to form decomposition products (H2, CO), oxidation products (H2O, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, formaldehyde) and deoxygenation products (ethylene, propylene). Co-adsorbed oxygen increases the overall coverage of PDO that can undergo decomposition, which in turn strongly influences decomposition activation barriers and products.

  11. 1:2,000,000-scale Counties of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanfear, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    This coverage is of the county boundaries of the conterminous United States. It was derived from the Digital Line Graph (DLG) files representing the 1:2,000,000-scale map in the National Atlas of the United States.

  12. A New Family of Ionic Liquids 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-Triazolium Nitrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Greg; Kaplan, Greg; Hall, Leslie; Hawkins, Tommy; Larue, Joann

    2004-01-01

    A new class of ionic liquids based upon 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrates (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, 2-propeny1, and n-butyl) have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational spectra, multinuclear NMR, elemental analysis, and DSC studies. A single crystal x-ray study was carried out for 1-amino-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrate and the details will be presented.

  13. 1,2-Dihydropentalenes from Fulvenes by [6 + 2] Cycloadditions with 1-Isopropenylpyrrolidine

    PubMed Central

    Coşkun, Necdet; Ma, Jingxiang; Azimi, Saeed; Gärtner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In situ generated acetone pyrrolidine enamine undergoes [6 + 2] cycloadditions with fulvenes to give 1,2-dihydropentalenes. This ring annulation method works particularly well with 6-monosubstituted fulvenes and is subject to steric hindrance at C-6 of the fulvene. On the basis of mechanistic studies, optimal conditions have been developed for a one-pot synthesis of 1,2-dihydropentalenes using catalytic amounts of pyrrolidine. PMID:22029269

  14. Adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagonal cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Moumita; Ghosh, Asim Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Exact analytic expressions of eigenvalues of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagon in the presence of uniform magnetic field have been obtained. Magnetization process, nature of isentrops and properties of magneto caloric effect in terms of adiabatic demagnetization have been investigated. Theoretical results have been used to study the magneto caloric effect of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg hexagonal compound Cu3WO6.

  15. JNK1/2 expression and modulation of STAT3 signaling in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    GKOUVERIS, IOANNIS; NIKITAKIS, NIKOLAOS; KARANIKOU, MARIA; RASSIDAKIS, GEORGE; SKLAVOUNOU, ALEXANDRA

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of protein kinases that link extracellular stimuli with intracellular responses and participate in numerous cellular processes such as growth, proliferation, differentiation, inflammation and apoptosis. Persistent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is accompanied by increases in STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation, is associated with cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The role and significance of the activation of MAPKs, particularly of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), on STAT3 signaling in OSCC have not been thoroughly investigated. The present study examines the effects of JNK1/2 modulation on STAT3 signaling and cellular activities in OSCC cells. The expression levels of STAT3 [total, tyrosine phosphorylated (p-Tyr) and serine phosphorylated (p-Ser)], JNK, c-Jun and cyclin D1 were assessed in the OSCC cell lines SCC25 and SCC9. Inhibition of JNK1/2 was achieved by pharmacological agents (SP600125) and by small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing, while JNK1/2 was induced by active MAPK kinase 7. Cell proliferation and viability rates were also evaluated. Inhibition of JNK1/2 with either SP600125 treatment or specific siRNA silencing resulted in decreased levels of p-Ser STAT3 and increased levels of p-Tyr STAT3 and cyclin D1 in both cell lines. Furthermore, JNK1/2 inhibition resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cell growth and viability in both cell lines. Opposite results were observed with JNK1/2 induction in both cell lines. The present results are supportive of a potential tumor suppressive role of JNK1/2 signaling in OSCC, which may be mediated through negative crosstalk with the oncogenic STAT3 signaling pathway. The possible therapeutic implications of JNK1/2 inhibition for patients with OSCC require to be investigated. PMID:27347203

  16. 1,2-Azaborine, the BN derivative of ortho-benzyne

    PubMed Central

    Edel, Klara; Brough, Sarah; Lamm, Ashley N.; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The BN analogue of ortho-benzyne, 1,2-azaborine, is generated by flash vacuum pyroylsis, trapped under cryogenic conditions, and studied by direct spectroscopic techniques. The parent BN-aryne spontaneously binds N2 and CO2, demonstrating its highly reactive nature. The interaction with N2 is photochemically reversible. The CO2 adduct of 1,2-azaborine is a cyclic lactam that undergoes photocleavage thus resulting in overall CO2 splitting. PMID:26095444

  17. The synthesis and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons IV : 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamberti, J M; Reynolds, T W; Chanan, H H

    1946-01-01

    A six gallon quantity of 1,2,3-trimethylbenezene was prepared and purified in a four-step synthesis involving the condensation of 1,3-pentadiene with crotonaldehyde. The dimethylcyclohexencarboxaldehydes formed were hydrogenated to give the corresponding isomeric dimethylcyclohexylcarbinols. The dehydration of the carbinols and the subsequent dehydrogenation of the trimethylcyclohexenes yielded the 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. The overall yield was 24 percent; the physical properties of the materials are given.

  18. Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Cascade Reactions Involving 1,2-Indole Migration.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Estela; Nieto Faza, Olalla; Silva López, Carlos; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A; Sanz, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    A cascade reaction of indoles with propargylic diols involving an unprecedented metal-free 1,2-indole migration onto an alkyne was carried out. DFT calculations support a mechanism consisting of a concerted nucleophilic attack of the indole nucleus with loss of water, followed by the 1,2-migration and subsequent Nazarov cyclization. This Brønsted acid-catalyzed protocol affords indole-functionalized benzofulvene derivatives in high yields. PMID:26211757

  19. Analysis of Cav1.2 and Ryanodine Receptor Clusters in Rat Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Scriven, David R.L.; Asghari, Parisa; Schulson, Meredith N.; Moore, Edwin D.W.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of ryanodine receptor (RyR) and Cav1.2 clusters in adult rat ventricular myocytes using three-dimensional object-based colocalization metrics. We found that ∼75% of the Cav1.2 clusters and 65% of the RyR clusters were within couplons, and both were roughly two and a half times larger than their extradyadic counterparts. Within a couplon, Cav1.2 was concentrated near the center of the underlying RyR cluster and accounted for ∼67% of its size. These data, together with previous findings from binding studies, enable us to estimate that a couplon contains 74 RyR tetramers and 10 copies of the α-subunit of Cav1.2. Extradyadic clusters of RyR contained ∼30 tetramers, whereas the extradyadic Cav1.2 clusters contained, on average, only four channels. Between 80% and 85% of both RyR and Cav1.2 molecules are within couplons. RyR clusters were in the closest proximity, with a median nearest-neighbor distance of 552 nm; comparable values for Cav1.2 clusters and couplons were 619 nm and 735 nm, respectively. Extradyadic RyR clusters were significantly closer together (624 nm) and closer to the couplons (674 nm) than the couplons were to each other. In contrast, the extradyadic clusters of Cav1.2 showed no preferential localization and were broadly distributed. These results provide a wealth of morphometric data that are essential for understanding intracellular Ca2+ regulation and modeling Ca2+ dynamics. PMID:21156134

  20. 1,2-Azaborine: The Boron-Nitrogen Derivative of ortho-Benzyne.

    PubMed

    Edel, Klara; Brough, Sarah A; Lamm, Ashley N; Liu, Shih-Yuan; Bettinger, Holger F

    2015-06-26

    The BN analogue of ortho-benzyne, 1,2-azaborine, is generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis, trapped under cryogenic conditions, and studied by direct spectroscopic techniques. The parent BN aryne spontaneously binds N2 and CO2, thus demonstrating its highly reactive nature. The interaction with N2 is photochemically reversible. The CO2 adduct of 1,2-azaborine is a cyclic carbamate which undergoes photocleavage, thus resulting in overall CO2 splitting.

  1. 17 CFR 240.36a1-2 - Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption from SIPA for OTC... § 240.36a1-2 Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers. Preliminary Note: OTC derivatives dealers... (§ 240.36a1-1), and application of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 (§ 240.36a1-2)....

  2. 17 CFR 240.36a1-2 - Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from SIPA for OTC... § 240.36a1-2 Exemption from SIPA for OTC derivatives dealers. Preliminary Note: OTC derivatives dealers... (§ 240.36a1-1), and application of the Securities Investor Protection Act of 1970 (§ 240.36a1-2)....

  3. Voltage-dependent gating and gating charge measurements in the Kv1.2 potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Itzel G.; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E.; Carrasco-Zanini, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Much has been learned about the voltage sensors of ion channels since the x-ray structure of the mammalian voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.2 was published in 2005. High resolution structural data of a Kv channel enabled the structural interpretation of numerous electrophysiological findings collected in various ion channels, most notably Shaker, and permitted the development of meticulous computational simulations of the activation mechanism. The fundamental premise for the structural interpretation of functional measurements from Shaker is that this channel and Kv1.2 have the same characteristics, such that correlation of data from both channels would be a trivial task. We tested these assumptions by measuring Kv1.2 voltage-dependent gating and charge per channel. We found that the Kv1.2 gating charge is near 10 elementary charges (eo), ∼25% less than the well-established 13–14 eo in Shaker. Next, we neutralized positive residues in the Kv1.2 S4 transmembrane segment to investigate the cause of the reduction of the gating charge and found that, whereas replacing R1 with glutamine decreased voltage sensitivity to ∼50% of the wild-type channel value, mutation of the subsequent arginines had a much smaller effect. These data are in marked contrast to the effects of charge neutralization in Shaker, where removal of the first four basic residues reduces the gating charge by roughly the same amount. In light of these differences, we propose that the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of Kv1.2 and Shaker might undergo the same physical movement, but the septum that separates the aqueous crevices in the VSD of Kv1.2 might be thicker than Shaker’s, accounting for the smaller Kv1.2 gating charge. PMID:25779871

  4. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane using copper nanoparticles under reduction conditions of sodium borohydride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Chieh; Lo, Shang-Lien; Tsai, Shin-Mu; Lien, Hsing-Lung

    2011-09-01

    1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is a raw material used for the manufacture of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and therefore has very often been detected in the groundwater nearby the VCM manufacturing plant. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is capable of degrading a wide array of highly chlorinated contaminants; however, the reactivity of ZVI towards 1,2-DCA is very low. In this study, zero-valent copper nanoparticles have been synthesized for effective dechlorination of 1,2-DCA under reduction conditions of sodium borohydride. Copper nanoparticles consisted of mainly metallic copper (Cu(0)) with small amounts of cuprous oxide (Cu(2)O). They have surface areas of about 19.0 m(2) g(-1) and an average diameter of 15 nm. Batch experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of copper nanoparticles for 1,2-DCA degradation using sodium borohydride as electron donors where the ORP was measured as -1100 mV. More than 80% of 1,2-DCA (30 mg L(-1)) was rapidly degraded within 2 h in the presence of both copper nanoparticles (2.5 g L(-1)) and borohydride (25 mM). No reduction of 1,2-DCA was observed when the system contained either copper nanoparticles alone or borohydride alone. The degradation intermediates included ethane and ethylene accounting for 79% and ∼1.5% of the 1,2-DCA lost, respectively. Potential environmental applications can be achieved by immobilizing copper nanoparticles onto the surface of reducing metals to form a reactive bimetallic structure.

  5. Rapid transformation of 1,2,3,4-TCDD by Pd/Fe catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Huang, Weilin; Peng, Ping'an; Fennell, Donna E

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD) in the presence of Pd/Fe, Cu/Fe and Ni/Fe bimetallic catalysts or zero-valent iron (ZVI) under aqueous and ambient temperature conditions. It was found that the Pd/Fe catalyst can rapidly transform 1,2,3,4-TCDD to chlorine-free dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) with >95% of conversion and half lives on the order of 5h, whereas Cu/Fe, Ni/Fe and ZVI were not reactive over 10d. The dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD in the Pd/Fe systems was found to be stepwise, with 1,2,3-tri (TrCDD), 1,2-di (DCDD), and mono-(MCDD) chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins as the three intermediate products at low concentrations and DD as the final and dominant product. The reaction rate of 1,2,3,4-TCDD dechlorination appeared to decrease as the coverage of palladium on iron particle surface increases from 0.0060 mol% to 0.0228 mol%. Compared to our prior study of reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD with zero valent zinc (ZVZ) as the reductant, the reactions with Pd/Fe bimetallic materials were relatively slower for TCDD, but much faster for TrCDDs and DCDDs, yielding DD as the major product. The study suggested that Pd/Fe bimetallic catalyst-based reactions may be suitable for rapid decontamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) polluted soils and sediments.

  6. Thermal rearrangements in 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The work described was carried out to study the thermal rearrangements of two unsaturated diene polymers - 1,2-poly(cis-1,4-hexadiene) (CHD) and 1,2-poly(trans-1.4-hexadiene) (THD). It is shown that both CHD and THD have a predominatly 1,8 diene structure and seem to cyclize mainly by the (2 + 2) thermal cycloaddition of double bonds, and to a small extent also by sigmatropic rearrangement with hydrogen shift.

  7. Regulation of fucose and 1,2-propanediol utilization by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Staib, Lena; Fuchs, Thilo M

    2015-01-01

    After ingestion, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) encounters a densely populated, competitive environment in the gastrointestinal tract. To escape nutrient limitation caused by the intestinal microbiota, this pathogen has acquired specific metabolic traits to use compounds that are not metabolized by the commensal bacteria. For example, the utilization of 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD), a product of the fermentation of L-fucose, which is present in foods of herbal origin and is also a terminal sugar of gut mucins. Under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of tetrathionate, 1,2-PD can serve as an energy source for S. Typhimurium. Comprehensive database analysis revealed that the 1,2-PD and fucose utilization operons are present in all S. enterica serovars sequenced thus far. The operon, consisting of 21 genes, is expressed as a single polycistronic mRNA. As demonstrated here, 1,2-PD was formed and further used when S. Typhimurium strain 14028 was grown with L-fucose, and the gene fucA encoding L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase was required for this growth. Using promoter fusions, we monitored the expression of the propanediol utilization operon that was induced at very low concentrations of 1,2-PD and was inhibited by the presence of D-glucose.

  8. Apker Award Talk: Atomic Beam Measurement of the Indium 6p1 / 2 Scalar Polarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augenbraun, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    We report on the first measurement of the scalar polarizability of the indium 6p1 / 2 -excited state using two-step laser spectroscopy in an atomic beam. This is one in a series of precise atomic structure measurements by the Majumder lab at Williams College, which serve as stringent tests of abinitio calculation methods for three-valence-electron systems. We stabilize a laser to the indium 5p1 / 2 --> 6s1 / 2 410 nm transition and scan a second laser across the 6s1 / 2 --> 6p1 / 2 1343 nm transition. The two laser beams are overlapped and interact transversely with a collimated atomic beam of indium. Two-tone FM spectroscopy allows us to observe the small (< 1 part in 103) IR absorption, and characteristic sideband features in the RF-demodulated lineshape provide built-in frequency calibration. Application of DC electric fields up to 20 kV/cm give rise to Stark shifts of order 100 MHz. Because our group has previously measured the difference in polarizabilities within the 410 nm transition, we can determine the 6p1 / 2 polarizability with no loss of precision. Preliminary results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical calculations and can be used to infer accurate values for the indium 6 p - 5 d matrix elements.

  9. CacyBP/SIP binds ERK1/2 and affects transcriptional activity of Elk-1

    SciTech Connect

    Kilanczyk, Ewa; Filipek, Slawomir; Jastrzebska, Beata; Filipek, Anna

    2009-02-27

    In this work we showed for the first time that mouse CacyBP/SIP interacts with extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). We also established that a calcium binding protein, S100A6, competes for this interaction. Moreover, the E217K mutant of CacyBP/SIP does not bind significantly to ERK1/2 although it retains the ability to interact with S100A6. Molecular modeling shows that the E217K mutation in the 189-219 CacyBP/SIP fragment markedly changes its electrostatic potential, suggesting that the binding with ERK1/2 might have an electrostatic character. We also demonstrate that CacyBP/SIP-ERK1/2 interaction inhibits phosphorylation of the Elk-1 transcription factor in vitro and in the nuclear fraction of NB2a cells. Altogether, our data suggest that the binding of CacyBP/SIP with ERK1/2 might regulate Elk-1 phosphorylation/transcriptional activity and that S100A6 might further modulate this effect via Ca{sup 2+}-dependent interaction with CacyBP/SIP and competition with ERK1/2.

  10. Strain-Promoted Reaction of 1,2,4-Triazines with Bicyclononynes

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Katherine A; Valette, Nathalie M; Webb, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Strain-promoted inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder cycloaddition (SPIEDAC) reactions between 1,2,4,5-tetrazines and strained dienophiles, such as bicyclononynes, are among the fastest bioorthogonal reactions. However, the synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrazines is complex and can involve volatile reagents. 1,2,4-Triazines also undergo cycloaddition reactions with acyclic and unstrained dienophiles at elevated temperatures, but their reaction with strained alkynes has not been described. We postulated that 1,2,4-triazines would react with strained alkynes at low temperatures and therefore provide an alternative to the tetrazine cycloaddition reaction for use in in vitro or in vivo labelling experiments. We describe the synthesis of a 1,2,4-triazin-3-ylalanine derivative fully compatible with the fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) strategy for peptide synthesis and demonstrate its reaction with strained bicyclononynes at 37 °C with rates comparable to the reaction of azides with the same substrates. The synthetic route to triazinylalanine is readily adaptable to late-stage functionalization of other probe molecules, and the 1,2,4-triazine-SPIEDAC therefore has potential as an alternative to tetrazine cycloaddition for applications in cellular and biochemical studies. PMID:26275391

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Ti-55Ni-1.2Co High Stiffness Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Norwich, Dennis W.; Ehrlinspiel, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of high stiffness nominal Ti-55Ni-1.2Co (wt.%) shape memory alloys (SMAs) was systematically investigated in the present study including straight wires, wire-formed stents, and laser-cut stents. It was found that the corrosion behavior of Ti-55Ni-1.2Co alloys is comparable with those of binary NiTiNol counterparts, which is attributed to the small alloying amount of cobalt. Additionally, the corrosion resistance of high stiffness Ti-55Ni-1.2Co SMAs is independent of the stent-forming method. To explore the galvanic corrosion susceptibility between Ti-55Ni-1.2Co and binary NiTiNol alloys, a NiTiNol sleeve was laser welded to the Ti-55Ni-1.2Co stent. Interestingly, there is no galvanic corrosion observed in this NiTiCo-NiTiNol component, even after immersion of the component in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 37 °C for three months. This study will shed some light on the industrial applications of high stiffness Ti-55Ni-1.2Co shape memory alloys.

  12. Regulation of fucose and 1,2-propanediol utilization by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Staib, Lena; Fuchs, Thilo M.

    2015-01-01

    After ingestion, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) encounters a densely populated, competitive environment in the gastrointestinal tract. To escape nutrient limitation caused by the intestinal microbiota, this pathogen has acquired specific metabolic traits to use compounds that are not metabolized by the commensal bacteria. For example, the utilization of 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD), a product of the fermentation of L-fucose, which is present in foods of herbal origin and is also a terminal sugar of gut mucins. Under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of tetrathionate, 1,2-PD can serve as an energy source for S. Typhimurium. Comprehensive database analysis revealed that the 1,2-PD and fucose utilization operons are present in all S. enterica serovars sequenced thus far. The operon, consisting of 21 genes, is expressed as a single polycistronic mRNA. As demonstrated here, 1,2-PD was formed and further used when S. Typhimurium strain 14028 was grown with L-fucose, and the gene fucA encoding L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase was required for this growth. Using promoter fusions, we monitored the expression of the propanediol utilization operon that was induced at very low concentrations of 1,2-PD and was inhibited by the presence of D-glucose. PMID:26528264

  13. Fluorescent property of 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine and pyrimidine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and pyrimidines are important organic fluorophores which have been investigated as biomarkers and photochemical sensors. The effect on the luminescent property by substituents in the heterocycle and phenyl rings, have been studied as well. In this investigation, series of 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and pyrimidines were synthesized and evaluated in relation to fluorescence emission, based upon the hypothesis that the hydroxymethyl group may act as an enhancer of fluorescence intensity. Results Compounds of both series emitted light in organic solvents dilutions as well as in acidic and alkaline media. Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy determined that both fused heterocycles fluoresced more intensely than the parent unsubstituted imidazo[1,2-a]azine fluorophore. In particular, 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines fluoresced more intensely than 3-hydroxymethyl imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, the latter emitting blue light at longer wavelengths, whereas the former emitted purple light. Conclusion It was concluded that in most cases the hydroxymethyl moiety did act as an enhancer of the fluorescence intensity, however, a comparison made with the fluorescence emitted by 2-aryl imidazo[1,2-a]azines revealed that in some cases the hydroxymethyl substituent decreased the fluorescence intensity. PMID:22871219

  14. Potential sources of 1,2,8,9-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wenning, R.J.; Harris, M.A.; Paustenbach, D.J.; Bedbury, H. )

    1992-04-01

    A recent study reported elevated levels of 1,2,8,9-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,8,9-TCDD) in crustaceans and finfish collected from Newark Bay, New Jersey (Rappe et al., 1989). The authors suggested that the presence of this compound in biota was due to operations at a former 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T) manufacturing facility located on the lower Passaic River. Since 1,2,8,9-TCDD had been identified in two soil samples claimed to be associated with the site, it was concluded that the former manufacturing plant was the source of this compound. A review of the scientific literature was conducted to evaluate whether this isomer is associated with the formulation of 2,4,5-T and to determine whether 1,2,8,9-TCDD is commonly found in the aquatic environment. Measurements and chromatographic data from known sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins indicate that incinerator fly ash, soot from wood-burning chimneys, and the combustion of polychlorinated biphenyls and some chlorophenoxy herbicides are sources of 1,2,8,9-TCDD. This isomer has never been found in samples of 2,4,5-T. We conclude, therefore, that the presence of 1,2,8,9-TCDD in Newark Bay biota is not associated with 2,4,5-T manufacturers but, rather, the result of various commercial, residential, municipal, and industrial combustion processes.85 references.

  15. Reactive iron barriers: a niche enabling microbial dehalorespiration of 1,2-dichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Zemb, Olivier; Lee, Matthew; Low, Adrian; Manefield, Mike

    2010-09-01

    A reactive iron barrier in a contaminated aquifer with low pH was found to dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in situ. This chlorinated ethane is known to resist abiotic reduction by zero valent iron. Samples taken up-gradient and within the barrier were used to inoculate anaerobic batch cultures amended with various electron donors. Cultures inoculated with groundwater from within the reactive iron barrier reduced 1,2-DCA to ethene. The same effect could be achieved by simultaneously supplying hydrogen while neutralising pH. The presence of iron or hydrogen at neutral pH had negligible effects on 1,2-DCA reduction in cultures inoculated with groundwater sampled up-gradient of the barrier. Molecular microbial community characterisation revealed that Dehalobacter species were more abundant in groundwater sampled from within the barrier. These findings suggest reactive iron barriers represent a remediation technology for 1,2-DCA degradation acting through in situ recruitment of 1,2-DCA reducing bacteria such as Dehalobacter.

  16. Ovarian Cancer and BRCA1/2 Testing: Opportunities to Improve Clinical Care and Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Karakasis, Katherine; Burnier, Julia V.; Bowering, Valerie; Oza, Amit M.; Lheureux, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Without prevention or screening options available, ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive tract. High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most common histologic subtype, and the role of germline BRCA1/2 mutation in predisposition and prognosis is established. Given the targeted treatment opportunities with PARP inhibitors, a predictive role for BRCA1/2 mutation has emerged. Despite recommendations to provide BRCA1/2 testing to all women with histologically confirmed HGSOC, uniform implementation remains challenging. The opportunity to review and revise genetic screening and testing practices will identify opportunities, where universal adoption of BRCA1/2 mutation testing will impact and improve treatment of women with ovarian cancer. Improving education and awareness of genetic testing for women with cancer, as well as the broader general community, will help focus much-needed attention on opportunities to advance prevention and screening programs in ovarian cancer. This is imperative not only for women with cancer and those at risk of developing cancer but also for their first-degree relatives. In addition, BRCA1/2 testing may have direct implications for patients with other types of cancers, many of which are now being found to have BRCA1/2 involvement. PMID:27242959

  17. ERF1_2 -- Enhanced River Reach File 2.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Jacqueline V.; Brakebill, John W.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2003-01-01

    The digital segmented network based on watershed boundaries, ERF1_2, includes enhancements to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's River Reach File 1 (RF1) (USEPA, 1996; DeWald and others, 1985) to support national and regional-scale surface water-quality modeling. Alexander and others (1999) developed ERF1, which assessed the hydrologic integrity of the digital reach traces and calculated the mean water time-of-travel in river reaches and reservoirs. ERF1_2 serves as the foundation for SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions (of nutrient transport) on Watershed) modeling. Within the context of a Geographic Information System, SPARROW estimates the proportion of watersheds in the conterminous U.S. with outflow concentrations of several nutrients, including total nitrogen and total phosphorus, (Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., and Alexander, R.B., 1997). This version of the network expands on ERF1 (Version 1.2; Alexander, et al., 1999) and includes the incremental and total drainage area derived from 1-kilometer (km) elevation data for North America. Previous estimates of the water time-of-travel were recomputed for reaches with water-quality monitoring sites that included two reaches. The mean flow and velocity estimates for these split reaches are based on previous estimation methods (Alexander et al., 1999) and are unchanged in ERF1_2. Drainage area calculations provide data used to estimate the contribution of a given nutrient to the outflow. Data estimates depend on the accuracy of node connectivity. Reaches split at water-quality or pesticide-monitoring sites indicate the source point for estimating the contribution and transport of nutrients and their loads throughout the watersheds. The ERF1_2 coverage extends the earlier drainage area founded on the 1-kilometer data for North America (Verdin, 1996; Verdin and Jenson, 1996). A 1-kilometer raster grid of ERF1_2 projected to Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area, NAD 27 Datum (Snyder, 1987), was merged with the

  18. Metabolism of 1-fluoro-1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane, and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane.

    PubMed

    Yin, H; Jones, J P; Anders, M W

    1995-03-01

    1-Fluoro-1,1,2-trichloroethane (HCFC-131a), 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-132b), and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane (HCFC-133a) were chosen as models for comparative metabolism studies on 1,1,1,2-tetrahaloethanes, which are under consideration as replacements for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Male Fischer 344 rats were given 10 mmol/kg ip HCFC-131a or HCFC-132b or exposed by inhalation to 1% HCFC-133a for 2 h. Urine collected in the first 24 h after exposure was analyzed by 19F NMR and GC/MS and with a fluoride-selective ion electrode for the formation of fluorine-containing metabolites. Metabolites of HCFC-131a included 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide, 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl sulfate, dichlorofluoroacetic acid, and inorganic fluoride. Metabolites of HCFC-132b were characterized as 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethyl glucuronide, 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethyl sulfate, chlorodifluoroacetic acid, chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde hydrate, chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct, and inorganic fluoride. HCFC-133a was metabolized to 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl glucuronide, trifluoroacetic acid, trifluoroacetaldehyde hydrate, trifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct, inorganic fluoride, and a minor, unidentified metabolite. With HCFC-131a and HCFC-132b, glucuronide conjugates of 2,2,2-trihaloethanols were the major urinary metabolites, whereas with HCFC-133a, a trifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct was the major urinary metabolite. Analysis of metabolite distribution in vivo indicated that aldehydic metabolites increased as fluorine substitution increased in the order HCFC-131a < HCFC-132b < HCFC-133a. With NADPH-fortified rat liver microsomes, HCFC-133a and HCFC-132b were biotransformed to trifluoroacetaldehyde and chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde, respectively, whereas HCFC-131a was converted to dichlorofluoroacetic acid. No covalently bound metabolites were detected by 19F NMR spectroscopy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7766810

  19. (1RS,2RS,3RS)-1,2-Dimeth­oxy-3-methyl-2-phenyl-1-(2-thien­yl)cyclo­propane

    PubMed Central

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Suero, Marcos G.; García-Granda, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H18O2S, a new cis-1,2-dimethoxy­cyclo­propane, the two meth­oxy groups are in a cis configuration and in trans positions with respect to the H atom and the phenyl and thienyl rings on the cyclo­propyl group. The mol­ecular packing is dominated by weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions, allowing the formation of zigzag chains propagating parallel to the c axis. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 86.12 (8)°. PMID:21582532

  20. The reaction of 4,5-dichloro-1,2,3-dithiazolium chloride with sulfimides: a new synthesis of N-aryl-1,2,3-dithiazolimines.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, Andreas S; Koutentis, Panayiotis A

    2009-01-01

    N-Aryl-S,S-dimethylsulfimides 3(Ar = 4-NO(2)C(6)H(4)), 4 (Ar = Ph) and 5 (Ar = 4-Tol)react with Appel salt 1 to give the corresponding N-aryl-(4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazolylidene)benzenamines 8 (Ar = 4-NO(2)C(6)H(4)), 9 (Ar = Ph) and 10 (Ar = 4-Tol) in 84, 94 and 87% yields, respectively. The reaction proceeds in the absence of base and a proposed reaction mechanism is given. PMID:19633609

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,2-dithiol-3-thiones and pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines as novel hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hun; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Yong Sup

    2016-06-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor which is strongly associated with tumor survival, progression, and therapeutic resistance. Accordingly, it has been suggested that the inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway can suppress tumor, and it has become an important therapeutic target. In present study, oltipraz, its metabolite M2, and their derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as HIF-1α inhibitors. Among the synthesized, benzyl-substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine 2g most potently inhibited HIF-1α protein accumulation (81% at 10μM) and VEGF, GLUT-1 transcription (77% and 92% at 10μM, respectively). PMID:27157007

  2. Isolation and characterization of tetrachloroethylene- and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene-dechlorinating propionibacteria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Ikeutsu, Kaori; Toyama, Tadashi; Choi, Dubok; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2011-10-01

    Two rapidly growing propionibacteria that could reductively dechlorinate tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) to ethylene were isolated from environmental sediments. Metabolic characterization and partial sequence analysis of their 16S rRNA genes showed that the new isolates, designated as strains Propionibacterium sp. HK-1 and Propionibacterium sp. HK-3, did not match any known PCE- or cis-DCE-degrading bacteria. Both strains dechlorinated relatively high concentrations of PCE (0.3 mM) and cis-DCE (0.52 mM) under anaerobic conditions without accumulating toxic intermediates during incubation. Cell-free extracts of both strains catalyzed PCE and cis-DCE dechlorination; degradation was accelerated by the addition of various electron donors. PCE dehalogenase from strain HK-1 was mediated by a corrinoid protein, since the dehalogenase was inactivated by propyl iodide only after reduction by titanium citrate. The amounts of chloride ions (0.094 and 0.103 mM) released after PCE (0.026 mM) and cis-DCE (0.05 mM) dehalogenation using the cell-free enzyme extracts of both strains, HK-1 and HK-3, were stoichiometrically similar (91 and 100%), indicating that PCE and cis-DCE were fully dechlorinated. Radiotracer studies with [1,2-¹⁴C] PCE and [1,2-¹⁴C] cis-DCE indicated that ethylene was the terminal product; partial conversion to ethylene was observed. Various chlorinated aliphatic compounds (PCE, trichloroethylene, cis-DCE, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and vinyl chloride) were degraded by cell-free extracts of strain HK-1.

  3. Distinct Pathways of ERK1/2 Activation by Hydroxy-Carboxylic Acid Receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo; Wang, Hui-qian; Wang, Li-hui; Chen, Ru-ping; Liu, Jun-ping

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic investigations have shown that, upon agonist activation, hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor-1(HCA1) couples to a Gi protein and inhibits adenylate cyclase activity, leading to inhibition of liberation of free fatty acid. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for HCA1 signaling remain largely unknown. Using CHO-K1 cells stably expressing HCA1, and L6 cells, which endogenously express rat HCA1 receptors, we found that activation of ERK1/2 by HCA1 was rapid, peaking at 5 min, and was significantly blocked by pertussis toxin. Furthermore, time course experiments with different kinase inhibitors demonstrated that HCA1 induced ERK1/2 activation via the extracellular Ca2+, PKC and IGF-I receptor transactivation-dependent pathways. In addition, we observed that pretreated the cells with M119K, an inhibitor of Gβγ subunit-dependent signaling, effectively attenuated the ERK1/2 activation triggered by HCA1, suggesting a critical role for βγ-subunits in HCA1-activated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the present results also indicated that the arrestin2/3 were not required for ERK1/2 activation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that upon binding to agonist, HCA1 receptors initially activate Gi, leading to dissociation of the Gβγ subunit from activated Gi, and subsequently induce ERK1/2 activation via two distinct pathways: one PKC-dependent pathway and the other IGF-IR transactivation-dependent pathway. Our results provide the first in-depth evidence that defines the molecular mechanism of HCA1-mediated ERK1/2 activation. PMID:24671202

  4. Phasic phosphorylation of caldesmon and ERK 1/2 during contractions in human myometrium.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jonathan; Maiti, Kaushik; Read, Mark; Hure, Alexis; Smith, Julia; Chan, Eng-Cheng; Smith, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Human myometrium develops phasic contractions during labor. Phosphorylation of caldesmon (h-CaD) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) has been implicated in development of these contractions, however the phospho-regulation of these proteins is yet to be examined during periods of both contraction and relaxation. We hypothesized that protein phosphorylation events are implicated in the phasic nature of myometrial contractions, and aimed to examine h-CaD and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in myometrium snap frozen at specific stages, including; (1) prior to onset of contractions, (2) at peak contraction and (3) during relaxation. We aimed to compare h-CaD and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation in vitro against results from in vivo studies that compared not-in-labor (NIL) and laboring (L) myometrium. Comparison of NIL (n = 8) and L (n = 8) myometrium revealed a 2-fold increase in h-CaD phosphorylation (ser-789; P = 0.012) during onset of labor in vivo, and was associated with significantly up-regulated ERK2 expression (P = 0.022), however no change in ERK2 phosphorylation was observed (P = 0.475). During in vitro studies (n = 5), transition from non-contracting tissue to tissue at peak contraction was associated with increased phosphorylation of both h-CaD and ERK 1/2. Furthermore, tissue preserved at relaxation phase exhibited diminished levels of h-CaD and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation compared to tissue preserved at peak contraction, thereby producing a phasic phosphorylation profile for h-CaD and ERK 1/2. h-CaD and ERK 1/2 are phosphorylated during myometrial contractions, however their phospho-regulation is dynamic, in that h-CaD and ERK 1/2 are phosphorylated and dephosphorylated in phase with contraction and relaxation respectively. Comparisons of NIL and L tissue are at risk of failing to detect these changes, as L samples are not necessarily preserved in the midst of an active contraction.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of relaxor ferroelectric PbFe1/2Ta1/2O3 thin film: A comparison with ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez V, R.; Kumar, Ashok; Sanchez, Dilsom A.; Palai, R.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2010-10-01

    Highly oriented Pb(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3 (PFT) film is fabricated on conducting La0.67Sr0.33CoO3 coated (100) MgO substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. The x-ray diffraction pattern shows single phase compound having preferential orientation along (100) plane. Surface topography of the film indicates homogeneous distribution of grains with an average grain size ˜55 nm. Broad dielectric dispersion, high dielectric diffusivity, and moderate dielectric loss are observed in the vicinity of wide range of temperatures and frequencies. A reasonably good shift in dielectric maximum temperature (˜30 K) is observed from 1 to 500 kHz suggests relaxor nature of film in this frequency range. At the same time, diffuse dielectric dispersion is seen above 500 kHz indicating diffuse ferroelectric phase transition. Dielectric data fallows the nonlinear Vogel-Fulcher relation below 500 kHz applied frequency which support the relaxor nature of PFT film. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop and butterfly loop show well defined saturated loop below freezing temperature (Tf) (˜150 K). A large shift in dielectric maximum temperature (Tm), i.e., around 75 K is observed compared to bulk counterpart that may be due to misfit strain across substrate-bottom electrode-film interface and in plane compressive strain in the film.

  6. Structural transitions in Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O 3 under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Kojima, Seiji; Yasuda, Naohiko; Prosandeev, Sergey; Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-12-01

    Room-temperature Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction measurements together with first-principles calculations were employed to investigate the behavior of disordered Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PIN) under pressure up to 50GPa. Raman spectra show broad bands but a peak near the 380cm-1 increases its intensity with pressure. The linewidth of the band at 550cm-1 also increases with pressure, while two of the Raman peaks merge above 6GPa. Above 16GPa, we observe additional splitting of the band at 50cm-1. The pressure evolution of the diffraction patterns for PIN shows obvious Bragg peaks splitting above 16GPa; consistent with a symmetry lowering transition. The transition at 0.5GPa is identified as a pseudo-cubic to orthorhombic (Pbam) structural change whereas the transition at 16GPa is isostructure and associated with changes in linear compressibility and octahedral titling, and the transition at 30GPa is associated to an orthorhombic to monoclinic change. First-principles calculations indicate that the Pbam structure is ground state with antiferrodisdortion consistent with experiment.

  7. Physical chemistry of binary organic eutectic and monotectic alloys; 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene-β-naphthol and 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene-succinonitrile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, U. S.; Pandey, Pinky; Rai, R. N.

    2000-12-01

    Phase diagrams of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene-β-naphthol and 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene-succinonitrile systems which are organic analogues of a nonmetal-nonmetal and a nonmetal-metal system, respectively, show the formation of a simple eutectic (melting point 103.7°C) with 0.71 mole fraction of β-naphthol in the former case and a monotectic (melting point 76.0°C) with 0.07 mole fraction of succinonitrile and a eutectic (melting point 52.5°C) with 0.97 mole fraction of succinonitrile in the latter case. The growth behaviour of the pure components, the eutectics and the monotectic studied by measuring the rate of movement of the solid-liquid interface in a capillary, suggests that the data obey the Hillig-Turnbull equation, v= u(Δ T) n, where v is the growth velocity, Δ T is the undercooling and u and n are constants depending on the nature of the materials involved. From the values of enthalpy of fusion determined by the DSC method using Mettler DSC-4000 system, entropy of fusion, interfacial energy, enthalpy of mixing and excess thermodynamic functions were calculated. The optical microphotographs of pure components and polyphase materials show their characteristic features.

  8. P2-type Na(x)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn(2)O(4) and LiFePO(4), are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth's crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g(-1). Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na(2/3)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O(2), that delivers 190 mAh g(-1) of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe(3+)/Fe(4+) redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature. PMID:22543301

  9. Structural and electrical characterization of heteroepitaxial Pb[Yb1/2Nb1/2]O3-PbTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornand, V.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2000-04-01

    The pulsed laser deposition process has been used to prepare heteroepitaxial (1-x) Pb[Yb1/2Nb1/2]O3-xPbTiO3 (PYbN-PT, x=0.4,0.5) thin films on single crystalline (001)pcSrRuO3/LaAlO3 and (111)pcSrRuO3/SrTiO3 substrates (the subscript pc refers here to the pseudocubic subcell). High laser frequencies (f-16 Hz) and 300 mTorr of background O3/O2 in the chamber during deposition provide stoichiometric and high crystalline quality heterostructures. Temperatures in the 560-660 °C range lead to improved microstructures as well as good dielectric and ferroelectric properties consistent with those of PYbN-PT ceramics. In particular, films show room temperature dielectric constants greater than 1300 and exhibit well-developed hysteresis loops with remanent polarizations (Pr) as high as 40-50 μC cm-2. Results are discussed in terms of film composition and crystallinity.

  10. Absence of tetragonal distortion in (1-x)SrTiO3-xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Rishikesh; Kiran Pillutla, Ravi; Shankar, Uma; Kumar Singh, Akhilesh

    2013-05-01

    We have carried out powder x-ray diffraction and dielectric studies on the lead free solid solution (1-x)SrTiO3-xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 [(1-x)ST-xBZT] with x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50 to explore the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Analysis of the powder x-ray diffraction data reveals the cubic structure (space group Pm3m) of (1-x)ST-xBZT for the composition with x ≤ 0.20, at room temperature as well as at low temperature. Highly tetragonal BZT fails to introduce any tetragonality when alloyed with ST. The solid solubility is limited to x < 0.20 and for higher BZT concentrations impurity phases start appearing. The ferroelectric and dielectric characterization of (1-x)ST-xBZT solid solution shows that all the compositions are paraelectric. The implications of the absence of tetragonal distortion in (1-x)ST-xBZT solid solution is discussed in connection with recently investigated other solid solutions based on BZT.

  11. FGF2 Stimulates COUP-TFII Expression via the MEK1/2 Pathway to Inhibit Osteoblast Differentiation in C3H10T1/2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Nam; Kim, Jung-Woo; Oh, Sin-Hye; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates many key biological processes, including organ development and cell fate determination. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFII have been studied extensively, little is known about what regulates its gene expression, especially the role of inducible extracellular factors in triggering it. Here we report that COUP-TFII expression is regulated specifically by fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which mediates activation of the MEK1/2 pathway in mesenchymal lineage C3H10T1/2 cells. Although FGF2 treatment increased cell proliferation, the induction of COUP-TFII expression was dispensable. Instead, FGF2-primed cells in which COUP-TFII expression was induced showed a low potential for osteoblast differentiation, as evidenced by decreases in alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic marker gene expression. Reducing COUP-TFII by U0126 or siRNA against COUP-TFII prevented the anti-osteogenic effect of FGF2, indicating that COUP-TFII plays a key role in the FGF2-mediated determination of osteoblast differentiation capability. This report is the first to suggest that FGF2 is an extracellular inducer of COUP-TFII expression and may suppress the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal cells by inducing COUP-TFII expression prior to the onset of osteogenic differentiation. PMID:27404388

  12. Site engineering in chemical solution deposited Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 thin films using Mn acceptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chao; Yang, Changhong; Geng, Fangjuan; Lv, Panpan; Yao, Qian

    2016-02-01

    A series of Mn doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) thin films with dopant concentrations from 0 to 4 at% (NBTMn x , x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04) were fabricated on the indium tin oxide/glass substrates by chemical solution deposition. The effects of Mn doping content on crystalline, ferroelectric and dielectric properties were investigated. All thin films exhibit phase-pure polycrystalline perovskite structures. For the insulating measurement, at low electric field, space charge limited conduction or a grain boundary limited behavior is responsible for the leakage behavior of NBTMn x thin films, whereas at the high electric field, the dominant mechanism is changed to the interface-limited Fowler-Nordheim tunneling except NBTMn0.04. The leakage current density is reduced by more than three orders of magnitude in NBTMn0.02 compared with that of NBT thin film. Also, the enhanced ferroelectric properties of NBTMn0.02 thin film can be observed in polarization-electric filed hysteresis loop with P r of 38 μC cm-2, which is consistent with the result of the normalized capacitance-voltage curve. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor of NBTMn0.02 thin film are 501 and 0.04, respectively at 100 kHz. These electrical property improvements are attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancy-induced leakage current.

  13. Reconciling Local Structure Disorder and the Relaxor State in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3

    PubMed Central

    Groszewicz, Pedro B.; Gröting, Melanie; Breitzke, Hergen; Jo, Wook; Albe, Karsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics are key functional materials indispensable for the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric transducers. Currently there are strong efforts to develop novel environmentally benign lead-free relaxor materials. The structural origins of the relaxor state and the role of composition modifications in these lead-free materials are still not well understood. In the present contribution, the solid-solution (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-xBT), a prototypic lead-free relaxor is studied by the combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT). For the first time it is shown that the peculiar composition dependence of the EFG distribution width (ΔQISwidth) correlates strongly to the dispersion in dielectric permittivity, a fingerprint of the relaxor state. Significant disorder is found in the local structure of BNT-xBT, as indicated by the analysis of the electric field gradient (EFG) in 23Na 3QMAS NMR spectra. Aided by DFT calculations, this disorder is attributed to a continuous unimodal distribution of octahedral tilting. These results contrast strongly to the previously proposed coexistence of two octahedral tilt systems in BNT-xBT. Based on these results, we propose that considerable octahedral tilt disorder may be a general feature of these oxides and essential for their relaxor properties. PMID:27545094

  14. Precise measurement of the Stark shift within the 5P1/2 -->6S1/2 transition in 115In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, A. T.; Ranjit, G.; Majumder, P. K.

    2011-05-01

    We are pursuing a series of precise atomic structure measurements in Group IIIA elements--currently thallium and indium--designed to test recent ab initio theoretical calculations in these systems. In indium, a two-step, two-color vapor cell hyperfine spectroscopy experiment was recently completed in our laboratory. Previously, an atomic beam system in conjunction with a thallium oven source and high-voltage field plates was used to complete a precise scalar polarizability measurement in thallium. In our current work, we have designed a new indium atomic beam source, and are pursuing a precision measurement of the indium atomic polarizability within the 410 nm 5P 1/2 --> 6S1/2 transition. The new source is capable of reaching 1100 °C and contains a series of parallel effusive slits to produce a dense, collimated beam of indium. We intersect the laser transversely with the atomic beam in the presence of a precisely calibrated electric field of 30 kV/cm. Frequency modulation of the laser, and simultaneous piezoelectric modulation of the atomic beam allows a dual-frequency lock-in detection scheme. This produces a zero-background atomic absorption spectrum of high signal-to-noise ratio. Our goal is to achieve a polarizability measurement at the 1% level of accuracy or better, which will provide a stringent new test of the atomic theory calculations.

  15. Preparation and dielectric properties of the lead-free BaFe1/2Nb1/2O3 ceramics obtained from mechanically triggered powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Dariusz; Niemiec, Przemysław; Szafraniak-Wiza, Izabela; Adamczyk, Małgorzata; Skulski, Ryszard

    2015-10-01

    In the paper the influence of mechanical activation of the powder on the final dielectric properties lead-free Ba(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 (BFN) ceramic was examined. The BFN ceramics were obtained by 3-steps route. Firstly, the substrates were pre-homogenized in a planetary ball mill. Than, the powder was activated in vibratory mill (the shaker type SPEX 8000 Mixer Mill) for different duration between 25 h and 100 h. The influence of the milling time on the BFN powder was monitored by X-ray diffraction. The diffraction data confirmed that the milling process of the starting components is accompanied by partial synthesis of the BFN materials. The longer of the high-energy milling duration the powders results in increasing the amount of amorphous/nanocrystalline content. The mechanically activated materials were sintered in order to obtain the ceramic samples. During this temperature treatment the final crystallisation of the powder appeared what was confirmed by XRD studies. The performed dielectric measurements have revealed the reduction of the dielectric loss of the BFN ceramics compared to materials obtained by classic methods.

  16. Octahedral tilt transitions in the relaxor ferroelectric Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kai-Christian Gröting, Melanie; Albe, Karsten

    2015-07-15

    The kinetics of octahedral tilt transitions in the lead-free relaxor material sodium bismuth titanate Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2}TiO{sub 3} (NBT) is investigated by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory. Energy barriers for transitions between tetragonal, rhombohedral and orthorhombic tilts in cation configurations with [001]- and [111]-order on the A-sites are determined by nudged elastic band calculations. By tilting entire layers of octahedra simultaneously we find that the activation energy is lower for structures with 001-order compared to such with 111-order. The energetic coupling between differently tilted layers is, however, negligibly small. By introducing a single octahedral defect we create local tilt disorder and find that the deformation energy of the neighboring octahedra is less in a rhombohedral than in a tetragonal structure. By successively increasing the size of clusters of orthorhombic defects in a rhombohedral matrix with 001-order, we determine a critical cluster size of about 40 Å . Thus groups of about ten octahedra can be considered as nuclei for polar nanoregions, which are the cause of the experimentally observed relaxor behavior of NBT. - Graphical abstract: Nine orthorhombic oxygen octahedral tilt defects in a rhombohedral tilt configuration. - Highlights: • Chemical order influences energy barriers of octahedral tilt transitions. • The octahedral deformation energy is lower in rhombohedral phases. • Tilt defect clusters are more likely in rhombohedral structures. • Tilt defect clusters can act as nuclei for polar nanoregions.

  17. P2-type Nax[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth’s crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g-1. Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na2/3[Fe1/2Mn1/2]O2, that delivers 190 mAh g-1 of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe3+/Fe4+ redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature.

  18. P2-type Na(x)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O2 made from earth-abundant elements for rechargeable Na batteries.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kajiyama, Masataka; Iwatate, Junichi; Nishikawa, Heisuke; Hitomi, Shuji; Okuyama, Ryoichi; Usui, Ryo; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Komaba, Shinichi

    2012-04-29

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have risen to prominence as key devices for green and sustainable energy development. Electric vehicles, which are not equipped with an internal combustion engine, have been launched in the market. Manganese- and iron-based positive-electrode materials, such as LiMn(2)O(4) and LiFePO(4), are used in large-scale batteries for electric vehicles. Manganese and iron are abundant elements in the Earth's crust, but lithium is not. In contrast to lithium, sodium is an attractive charge carrier on the basis of elemental abundance. Recently, some layered materials, where sodium can be electrochemically and reversibly extracted/inserted, have been reported. However, their reversible capacity is typically limited to 100 mAh g(-1). Herein, we report a new electrode material, P2-Na(2/3)[Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)]O(2), that delivers 190 mAh g(-1) of reversible capacity in the sodium cells with the electrochemically active Fe(3+)/Fe(4+) redox. These results will contribute to the development of rechargeable batteries from the earth-abundant elements operable at room temperature.

  19. Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of Ba(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3-BiFeO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manotham, S.; Butnoi, P.; Jaita, P.; Pinitsoontorn, S.; Sweatman, D.; Eitssayeam, S.; Pengpat, K.; Rujijanagul, G.

    2016-11-01

    The properties of (1- x)Ba(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3- xBiFeO3 [(1- x)BFT- xBFO] ( x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) ceramics have been investigated. (1- x)BFT- xBFO powders were synthesized by a modified two-step calcination technique, and ceramics were fabricated by a conventional technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the modified ceramics exhibited a mixture of BFT cubic phase and BFO rhombohedral phase. The peaks shift increased with increasing BFO content to a maximum value for the composition with x = 0.5. The overall shift of the XRD patterns indicated distortion of the unit cell, which may be due to ions from BFO entering the BFT lattice. BFO additive promoted grain growth, while the maximum density of the studied ceramics was observed for the x = 0.1 composition. The modified ceramics presented enhanced thermal and frequency stability of the dielectric constant. BFO additive also reduced the loss tangent for the system. Improvement of the magnetic behavior was observed after adding BFO. Furthermore, all the ceramics, including pure BFT (a nonmagnetic phase at room temperature), presented a magnetocapacitance effect, which can be related to magnetoresistance along with Maxwell-Wagner polarization effects.

  20. Heterogeneous and hyperfine interactions between valence states of molecular iodine correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) dissociation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturo, Vera V.; Cherepanov, Igor N.; Lukashov, Sergey S.; Poretsky, Sergey A.; Pravilov, Anatoly M.; Zhironkin, Anatoly I.

    2016-05-01

    Detailed analysis of interactions between all 0g + , 1u, and 0u - weakly bound states of iodine molecule correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) (bb) dissociation limit has been performed. For this purpose, the 0u - (bb) state has been described using analysis of rotationally resolved excitation spectra of luminescence from the g 0g - state populated in a three-step three-color perturbation facilitated excitation scheme via the 0u - state. Energies of 41 rovibrational levels, molecular constants, and potential energy curve have been determined. Energy gaps between closest rovibrational levels of the 0u - and 0g + , 1u (bb) states are found to be large, ˜6 cm-1. However, interaction of all three 0g + , 1u, and 0u - (bb) states has been observed. It has been found that the 0u - and 1u electronic states are mixed by heterogeneous interactions, while their mixing with the 0g + one is due to hyperfine interactions predominantly. Admixture coefficients and electronic matrix elements of the coupling between the 0g + ˜1u, 0g + ˜ 0u - , and 0u - ˜1u states have been estimated.

  1. Reconciling Local Structure Disorder and the Relaxor State in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Groszewicz, Pedro B; Gröting, Melanie; Breitzke, Hergen; Jo, Wook; Albe, Karsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics are key functional materials indispensable for the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric transducers. Currently there are strong efforts to develop novel environmentally benign lead-free relaxor materials. The structural origins of the relaxor state and the role of composition modifications in these lead-free materials are still not well understood. In the present contribution, the solid-solution (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-xBT), a prototypic lead-free relaxor is studied by the combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT). For the first time it is shown that the peculiar composition dependence of the EFG distribution width (ΔQISwidth) correlates strongly to the dispersion in dielectric permittivity, a fingerprint of the relaxor state. Significant disorder is found in the local structure of BNT-xBT, as indicated by the analysis of the electric field gradient (EFG) in (23)Na 3QMAS NMR spectra. Aided by DFT calculations, this disorder is attributed to a continuous unimodal distribution of octahedral tilting. These results contrast strongly to the previously proposed coexistence of two octahedral tilt systems in BNT-xBT. Based on these results, we propose that considerable octahedral tilt disorder may be a general feature of these oxides and essential for their relaxor properties. PMID:27545094

  2. Coadsorption of organic compounds and water vapor on BPL activated carbon: 2. 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane and dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Eissmann, R.N.; LeVan, M.D. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    A novel volumetric apparatus is used to measure equilibria for mixed vapors of halocarbons and water coadsorbed on BPL activated carbon. Pure-component 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC 113) and dichloromethane (methylene chloride) isotherms are obtained at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 C over wide ranges of pressure. A separate isotherm measured for CFC-113 at 50 C indicates the presence of pure component hysteresis in the mesopore structure of the activated carbon at high halocarbon loadings. Mixture equilibria are measured for CFC-113/water systems at 25 and 100 C and for dichloromethane/water systems at 25 C. All components exhibit hysteresis, and the halocarbon partial pressure increases as the water loading is increased at constant halocarbon loading. Results for halocarbon/water mixtures together with previous results for hydrocarbon/water mixtures show that the apparent total pore volume filled near saturation is dependent on the adsorption temperature and the solubility of the organic compound in water.

  3. Reconciling Local Structure Disorder and the Relaxor State in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groszewicz, Pedro B.; Gröting, Melanie; Breitzke, Hergen; Jo, Wook; Albe, Karsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics are key functional materials indispensable for the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric transducers. Currently there are strong efforts to develop novel environmentally benign lead-free relaxor materials. The structural origins of the relaxor state and the role of composition modifications in these lead-free materials are still not well understood. In the present contribution, the solid-solution (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-xBT), a prototypic lead-free relaxor is studied by the combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT). For the first time it is shown that the peculiar composition dependence of the EFG distribution width (ΔQISwidth) correlates strongly to the dispersion in dielectric permittivity, a fingerprint of the relaxor state. Significant disorder is found in the local structure of BNT-xBT, as indicated by the analysis of the electric field gradient (EFG) in 23Na 3QMAS NMR spectra. Aided by DFT calculations, this disorder is attributed to a continuous unimodal distribution of octahedral tilting. These results contrast strongly to the previously proposed coexistence of two octahedral tilt systems in BNT-xBT. Based on these results, we propose that considerable octahedral tilt disorder may be a general feature of these oxides and essential for their relaxor properties.

  4. Dielectric relaxation in complex perovskite oxide In(Ni{sub 1/2}Zr{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Lata; Singh, B.P.; Sinha, T.P.

    2009-09-15

    The dielectric study of indium nickel zirconate, In(Ni{sub 1/2}Zr{sub 1/2})O{sub 3} (INZ) synthesized by solid state reaction technique is performed in a frequency range from 500 Hz to 1 MHz and in a temperature range from 303 to 493 K. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the compound is monoclinic. A relaxation is observed in the entire temperature range as a gradual decrease in {epsilon}'({omega}) and as a broad peak in {epsilon}''({omega}) in the frequency dependent real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant, respectively. The frequency dependent electrical data are analyzed in the framework of conductivity and electric modulus formalisms. The frequencies corresponding to the maxima of the imaginary electric modulus at various temperatures are found to obey an Arrhenius law with activation energy of 0.66 eV. The Cole-Cole model is used to study the dielectric relaxation of INZ. The scaling behaviour of imaginary part of electric modulus suggests that the relaxation describes the same mechanism at various temperatures. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra follow the universal power law.

  5. Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of Ba(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3-BiFeO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manotham, S.; Butnoi, P.; Jaita, P.; Pinitsoontorn, S.; Sweatman, D.; Eitssayeam, S.; Pengpat, K.; Rujijanagul, G.

    2016-08-01

    The properties of (1-x)Ba(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3-xBiFeO3 [(1-x)BFT-xBFO] (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) ceramics have been investigated. (1-x)BFT-xBFO powders were synthesized by a modified two-step calcination technique, and ceramics were fabricated by a conventional technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the modified ceramics exhibited a mixture of BFT cubic phase and BFO rhombohedral phase. The peaks shift increased with increasing BFO content to a maximum value for the composition with x = 0.5. The overall shift of the XRD patterns indicated distortion of the unit cell, which may be due to ions from BFO entering the BFT lattice. BFO additive promoted grain growth, while the maximum density of the studied ceramics was observed for the x = 0.1 composition. The modified ceramics presented enhanced thermal and frequency stability of the dielectric constant. BFO additive also reduced the loss tangent for the system. Improvement of the magnetic behavior was observed after adding BFO. Furthermore, all the ceramics, including pure BFT (a nonmagnetic phase at room temperature), presented a magnetocapacitance effect, which can be related to magnetoresistance along with Maxwell-Wagner polarization effects.

  6. Reconciling Local Structure Disorder and the Relaxor State in (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Groszewicz, Pedro B; Gröting, Melanie; Breitzke, Hergen; Jo, Wook; Albe, Karsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Rödel, Jürgen

    2016-08-22

    Lead-based relaxor ferroelectrics are key functional materials indispensable for the production of multilayer ceramic capacitors and piezoelectric transducers. Currently there are strong efforts to develop novel environmentally benign lead-free relaxor materials. The structural origins of the relaxor state and the role of composition modifications in these lead-free materials are still not well understood. In the present contribution, the solid-solution (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3 (BNT-xBT), a prototypic lead-free relaxor is studied by the combination of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, dielectric measurements and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT). For the first time it is shown that the peculiar composition dependence of the EFG distribution width (ΔQISwidth) correlates strongly to the dispersion in dielectric permittivity, a fingerprint of the relaxor state. Significant disorder is found in the local structure of BNT-xBT, as indicated by the analysis of the electric field gradient (EFG) in (23)Na 3QMAS NMR spectra. Aided by DFT calculations, this disorder is attributed to a continuous unimodal distribution of octahedral tilting. These results contrast strongly to the previously proposed coexistence of two octahedral tilt systems in BNT-xBT. Based on these results, we propose that considerable octahedral tilt disorder may be a general feature of these oxides and essential for their relaxor properties.

  7. Dynamical mechanism of phase transitions in A-site ferroelectric relaxor (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guochu; Danilkin, Sergey; Zhang, Haiwu; Imperia, Paolo; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2014-10-01

    The dynamical phase transition mechanism of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 (NBT) was studied using inelastic neutron scattering. Softening was observed of multiple phonon modes in the phase transition sequence of NBT. As usual, the softening of the zone center transverse optical modes Δ5 and Σ3 was observed in the (200) and (220) zones, showing the Ti vibration instabilities in TiO6 octahedra for both cubic-tetragonal (C-T) and tetragonal-rhombohedral (T-R) phase transitions. In these two phase transitions, however, Ti4+ has different preferential displacement directions. Surprisingly, the longitudinal optic mode also softens significantly toward the zone center in the range of the transition temperature, indicating the Na+/Bi3+ vibration instability against TiO6 octahedra during the T-R phase transition. Strong inelastic diffuse scattering shows up near M(1.5, 0.5, 0) and R(1.5, 1.5, 0.5) in the tetragonal and rhombohedral phases, respectively, indicating the condensations of the M3 and R25 optic modes for the corresponding transitions. This reveals the different rotation instabilities of TiO6 in the corresponding transition temperature range. Bottleneck or waterfall features were observed in the dispersion curves at certain temperatures but did not show close correlations to the formation of polar nanoregions. Additional instabilities could be the origin of the complexity of phase transitions and crystallographic structures in NBT.

  8. Anisotropic phonon coupling in the relaxor ferroelectric (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 near its high-temperature phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ling; Toulouse, Jean; Luo, Haosu; Tian, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The lead free relaxor Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) undergoes a structural cubic-to-tetragonal transition near 800 K which is caused by the cooperative rotations of O6 octahedra. These rotations are also accompanied by the displacements of the cations and the formation of the polar nanodomains (PNDs) that are responsible for the characteristic dielectric dispersion of relaxor ferroelectrics. Because of their intrinsic properties, spontaneous polarization, and lack of inversion symmetry, these PNDs are also piezoelectric and can mediate an interaction between polarization and strain or couple the optic and acoustic phonons. Because PNDs introduce a local tetragonal symmetry, the phonon coupling they mediate is found to be anisotropic. In this paper we present inelastic neutron scattering results on coupled transverse acoustic (TA) and transverse optic (TO) phonons in the [110] and [001] directions and across the cubic-tetragonal phase transition at TC˜800 K. The phonon spectra are analyzed using a mode coupling model. In the [110] direction, as in other relaxors and some ferroelectric perovskites, a precipitous drop of the TO phonon into the TA branch or "waterfall" is observed at a certain qwf˜0.14 r.l.u. In the [001] direction, the highly overdamped line shape can be fitted with closely positioned bare mode energies which are largely overlapping along the dispersion curves. Two competing lattice coupling mechanism are proposed to explain these observations.

  9. HY5 regulates nitrite reductase 1 (NIR1) and ammonium transporter1;2 (AMT1;2) in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lifen; Zhang, Hongcheng; Zhang, Huiyong; Deng, Xing Wang; Wei, Ning

    2015-09-01

    HY5 (Long Hypocotyles 5) is a key transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana that has a pivotal role in seedling development. Soil nitrogen is an essential macronutrient, and its uptake, assimilation and metabolism are influenced by nutrient availability and by lights. To understand the role of HY5 in nitrogen assimilation pathways, we examined the phenotype as well as the expression of selected nitrogen assimilation-related genes in hy5 mutant grown under various nitrogen limiting and nitrogen sufficient conditions, or different light conditions. We report that HY5 positively regulates nitrite reductase gene NIR1 and negatively regulates the ammonium transporter gene AMT1;2 under all nitrogen and light conditions tested, while it affects several other genes in a nitrogen supply-dependent manner. HY5 is not required for light induction of NIR1, AMT1;2 and NIA genes, but it is necessary for high level expression of NIR1 and NIA under optimal nutrient and light conditions. In addition, nitrogen deficiency exacerbates the abnormal root system of hy5. Together, our results suggest that HY5 exhibits the growth-promoting activity only when sufficient nutrients, including lights, are provided, and that HY5 has a complex involvement in nitrogen acquisition and metabolism in Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:26259199

  10. Nox4 and Duox1/2 Mediate Redox Activation of Mesenchymal Cell Migration by PDGF.

    PubMed

    Tyurin-Kuzmin, Pyotr A; Zhdanovskaya, Nadezhda D; Sukhova, Anna A; Sagaradze, George D; Albert, Eugene A; Ageeva, Ludmila V; Sharonov, George V; Vorotnikov, Alexander V; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A

    2016-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) orchestrates wound healing and tissue regeneration by regulating recruitment of the precursor mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and fibroblasts. PDGF stimulates generation of hydrogen peroxide that is required for cell migration, but the sources and intracellular targets of H2O2 remain obscure. Here we demonstrate sustained live responses of H2O2 to PDGF and identify PKB/Akt, but not Erk1/2, as the target for redox regulation in cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and MSC. Apocynin, cell-permeable catalase and LY294002 inhibited PDGF-induced migration and mitotic activity of these cells indicating involvement of PI3-kinase pathway and H2O2. Real-time PCR revealed Nox4 and Duox1/2 as the potential sources of H2O2. Silencing of Duox1/2 in fibroblasts or Nox4 in MSC reduced PDGF-stimulated intracellular H2O2, PKB/Akt phosphorylation and migration, but had no such effect on Erk1/2. In contrast to PDGF, EGF failed to increase cytoplasmic H2O2, phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and migration of fibroblasts and MSC, confirming the critical impact of redox signaling. We conclude that PDGF-induced migration of mesenchymal cells requires Nox4 and Duox1/2 enzymes, which mediate redox-sensitive activation of PI3-kinase pathway and PKB/Akt. PMID:27110716

  11. The continuum limit of aN-1(2) spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernier, Eric; Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2016-10-01

    Building on our previous work for a2(2) and a3(2) we explore systematically the continuum limit of gapless aN-1(2) vertex models and spin chains. We find the existence of three possible regimes. Regimes I and II for a2n-1(2) are related with a2n-1(2) Toda, and described by n compact bosons. Regime I for a2n(2) is related with a2n(2) Toda and involves n compact bosons, while regime II is related instead with B (1) (0 , n) super Toda, and involves in addition a single Majorana fermion. The most interesting is regime III, where non-compact degrees of freedom appear, generalising the emergence of the Euclidean black hole CFT in the a2(2) case. For a2n(2) we find a continuum limit made of n compact and n non-compact bosons, while for a2n-1(2) we find n compact and n - 1 non-compact bosons. We also find deep relations between aN-1(2) in regime III and the gauged WZW models SO (N) / SO (N - 1).

  12. Involvement of histone H1.2 in apoptosis induced by DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Akimitsu; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Hirota, Junko; Takao, Toshifumi; Fan, Yuhong; Matsuoka, Yosuke; Zhang, Lilin; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Yoshitaka; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide

    2003-09-19

    It is poorly understood how apoptotic signals arising from DNA damage are transmitted to mitochondria, which release apoptogenic factors into the cytoplasm that activate downstream destruction programs. Here, we identify histone H1.2 as a cytochrome c-releasing factor that appears in the cytoplasm after exposure to X-ray irradiation. While all nuclear histone H1 forms are released into the cytoplasm in a p53-dependent manner after irradiation, only H1.2, but not other H1 forms, induced cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria in a Bak-dependent manner. Reducing H1.2 expression enhanced cellular resistance to apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation or etoposide, but not that induced by other stimuli including TNF-alpha and UV irradiation. H1.2-deficient mice exhibited increased cellular resistance in thymocytes and the small intestine to X-ray-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that histone H1.2 plays an important role in transmitting apoptotic signals from the nucleus to the mitochondria following DNA double-strand breaks.

  13. Activation of Erk1/2 and Akt following unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B; Grande, Maria T; Eleno, Nélida; Arévalo, Miguel; Guerrero, Carmen; Santos, Eugerio; López-Novoa, José M

    2008-07-01

    Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction is a well characterized model of renal injury leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and distinct patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the obstructed kidney. In this study we assessed the contribution of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2 and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathways to early renal changes following unilateral obstruction. Increased activation of small Ras GTPase and its downstream effectors ERK1/2 and Akt was detected in ligated kidneys. The use of specific pharmacological inhibitors to either ERK1/2 or Akt activation led to decreased levels of fibroblast-myofibroblast markers in the interstitium while inhibition of PI3K reduced the number of proliferating cells and the amount of interstitial extracellular matrix deposition. Treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor diminished the number of apoptotic tubule and interstitial cells. Our results suggest a role for the MAPK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt systems in early changes induced by ureteral obstruction and that inhibition of these signaling pathways may provide a novel approach to prevent progression of renal fibrosis.

  14. Conversion of 1,2-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhenjun; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2014-07-17

    We have studied the reactions of 1,2-propylene glycol (1,2-PG), DOCH(CH3)CH2OD, on partially reduced, hydroxylated and oxidized TiO2(110) surfaces using temperature programmed desorption. On reduced TiO2(110), propylene, propanal, and acetone are identified as primary carbon-containing products. While the propylene formation channel dominates at low 1,2-PG coverages, all of the above-mentioned products are observed at high coverages. The carbon-containing products are accompanied by the formation of D2O and D2. The observation of only deuterated products shows that the source of hydrogen (D) is from the 1,2-PG hydroxyls. The role of bridging oxygen vacancy (VO) sites was further investigated by titrating them via hydroxylation and oxidation. The results show that hydroxylation does not change the reactivity because the VO sites are regenerated at 500 K, which is a temperature lower than the 1,2-PG product formation temperature. In contrast, surface oxidation causes significant changes in the product distribution, with increased acetone and propanal formation and decreased propylene formation. Additionally D2 is completely eliminated as an observed product at the expense of D2O formation.

  15. The first 1-alkyl-3-perfluoroalkyl-4,5- dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium salts.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hong; Twamley, Brendan; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2004-02-20

    Syntheses of quaternary 1-alkyl-3-perfluoroalkyl-4,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium iodides have led to a variety of new quaternary salts via metathesis reactions. 1,4,5-Trimethyl-3-trifluoro-methyl-1,2,4-triazolium iodide (6) with LiN(SO(2)CF(3))(2), KSO(3)CF(3), AgClO(4), AgBF(4); 1-(3-fluoropropyl)-3-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium iodide (7) with LiN(SO(2)CF(3))(2); and 1,4,5-trimethyl-3-perfluorooctyl-1,2,4-triazolium iodide (8) with LiN(SO(2)CF(3))(2), AgClO(4), AgBF(4) gave excellent yields of new thermally stable and relatively low melting quaternary salts. The structure of 1,4,5-trimethyl-3-perfluorooctyl-1,2,4-triazolium tetrafluoroborate (11c) was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Although the molecular weight of 11c (cation) is 3-fold greater than that of the 3-trifluoromethyl derivative 9d, its melting point is 32 degrees C lower.

  16. Nox4 and Duox1/2 Mediate Redox Activation of Mesenchymal Cell Migration by PDGF

    PubMed Central

    Sukhova, Anna A.; Sagaradze, George D.; Albert, Eugene A.; Ageeva, Ludmila V.; Sharonov, George V.; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) orchestrates wound healing and tissue regeneration by regulating recruitment of the precursor mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and fibroblasts. PDGF stimulates generation of hydrogen peroxide that is required for cell migration, but the sources and intracellular targets of H2O2 remain obscure. Here we demonstrate sustained live responses of H2O2 to PDGF and identify PKB/Akt, but not Erk1/2, as the target for redox regulation in cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and MSC. Apocynin, cell-permeable catalase and LY294002 inhibited PDGF-induced migration and mitotic activity of these cells indicating involvement of PI3-kinase pathway and H2O2. Real-time PCR revealed Nox4 and Duox1/2 as the potential sources of H2O2. Silencing of Duox1/2 in fibroblasts or Nox4 in MSC reduced PDGF-stimulated intracellular H2O2, PKB/Akt phosphorylation and migration, but had no such effect on Erk1/2. In contrast to PDGF, EGF failed to increase cytoplasmic H2O2, phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and migration of fibroblasts and MSC, confirming the critical impact of redox signaling. We conclude that PDGF-induced migration of mesenchymal cells requires Nox4 and Duox1/2 enzymes, which mediate redox-sensitive activation of PI3-kinase pathway and PKB/Akt. PMID:27110716

  17. Production of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine by bonito muscle lysophosphatidylcholine/transacylase.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kaoru; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Matsuura, Fumito; Satouchi, Kiyoshi; Koike, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), which has highly unsaturated fatty acid at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of glycerol, is a characteristic molecular species of bonito muscle. To examine the involvement of a de novo route in its synthesis, the molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA) were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a 1,3-bis[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]propan-2-olato dizinc(II) complex, a novel phosphate-capture molecule. However, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl species could not be detected. Next, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC synthesis by the cytosolic lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)/transacylase was examined using endogenous LPC from bonito muscle, in which the 2-docosahexaenoyl species is abundant. The LPC/transacylase synthesized 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC as the most abundant molecular species. For further characterization, the LPC/transacylase was purified to homogeneity from the 100,000 x g supernatant of bonito muscle. The isolated LPC/transacylase is a labile glycoprotein with molecular mass of 52 kDa including a 5-kDa sugar moiety. The LPC/transacylase showed a PC synthesis (transacylase activity) below and above the critical micelle concentration of substrate LPC, and fatty acid release (lysophospholipase activity) was always smaller than the transacylase activity, even with a monomeric substrate. These results suggest that the LPC/transacylase is responsible for the synthesis of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC. PMID:15625317

  18. Investigating the Antimalarial Action of 1,2,4-Trioxolanes with Fluorescent Chemical Probes

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Carmony L.; Lauterwasser, Erica M.W.; Mahajan, Sumit S.; Hoke, Jonathan M.; Cooper, Roland A.; Renslo, Adam R.

    2011-01-01

    The 1,2,4-trioxolanes are a new class of synthetic peroxidic antimalarials currently in human clinical trials. The well known reactivity of the 1,2,4-trioxolane ring towards inorganic ferrous iron and ferrous iron heme is proposed to play a role in the antimalarial action of this class of compounds. We have designed structurally relevant fluorescent chemical probes to study the sub-cellular localization of 1,2,4-trioxolanes in cultured Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Microscopy experiments revealed that a probe fluorescently labeled on the adamantane ring accumulated specifically in digestive vacuole-associated neutral lipid bodies within the parasite while an isosteric, but non-peroxidic congener did not. Probes fluorescently labeled on the cyclohexane ring showed no distinct localization pattern. In their sub-cellular localization and peroxidative effects, 1,2,4-trioxolane probes behave much like artemisinin-based probes studied previously. Our results are consistent with a role for adamantane-derived carbon-centered radicals in the antimalarial action of 1,2,4-trioxolanes, as hypothesized previously on the basis of chemical reactivity studies. PMID:22023506

  19. Controls and constrains of the membrane disrupting action of Aurein 1.2

    PubMed Central

    Shahmiri, Mahdi; Enciso, Marta; Mechler, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Aurein 1.2 is a 13 residue antimicrobial peptide secreted by the Australian tree frog Litoria Aurea. It is a surface-acting membrane disrupting peptide that permeabilizes bacterial membranes via the carpet mechanism; the molecular details of this process are mostly unknown. Here the mechanism of action of Aurein 1.2 was investigated with an emphasis on the role of membrane charge and C-terminal amidation of the peptide. Using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) fingerprinting it was found that the membrane charge correlates with membrane affinity of the peptide, however the binding and the membrane disrupting processes are not charge driven; increased membrane charge reduces the membrane disrupting activity. Coarse grain simulations revealed that phenylalanine residues act as membrane anchors. Accordingly Aurein 1.2 has the ability to bind to any membrane. Furthermore, bundling precludes membrane disruption in case of wild type peptides, while non C-terminal amidated peptides form random aggregates leading to detachment from the membrane. Hence C-terminal amidation is crucial for Aurein 1.2 action. Our results suggest that Aurein 1.2 acts via aggregation driven membrane penetration. The concomitant change in the tension of the outer leaflet imposes a spontaneous curvature on the membrane, leading to disintegration. PMID:26574052

  20. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashini, R.; Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50 mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC50 values of 25.02 mg/L (r2 = 0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r2 = 0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  1. Production of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine by bonito muscle lysophosphatidylcholine/transacylase.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kaoru; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Matsuura, Fumito; Satouchi, Kiyoshi; Koike, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), which has highly unsaturated fatty acid at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of glycerol, is a characteristic molecular species of bonito muscle. To examine the involvement of a de novo route in its synthesis, the molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA) were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a 1,3-bis[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]propan-2-olato dizinc(II) complex, a novel phosphate-capture molecule. However, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl species could not be detected. Next, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC synthesis by the cytosolic lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)/transacylase was examined using endogenous LPC from bonito muscle, in which the 2-docosahexaenoyl species is abundant. The LPC/transacylase synthesized 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC as the most abundant molecular species. For further characterization, the LPC/transacylase was purified to homogeneity from the 100,000 x g supernatant of bonito muscle. The isolated LPC/transacylase is a labile glycoprotein with molecular mass of 52 kDa including a 5-kDa sugar moiety. The LPC/transacylase showed a PC synthesis (transacylase activity) below and above the critical micelle concentration of substrate LPC, and fatty acid release (lysophospholipase activity) was always smaller than the transacylase activity, even with a monomeric substrate. These results suggest that the LPC/transacylase is responsible for the synthesis of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC.

  2. Controls and constrains of the membrane disrupting action of Aurein 1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmiri, Mahdi; Enciso, Marta; Mechler, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Aurein 1.2 is a 13 residue antimicrobial peptide secreted by the Australian tree frog Litoria Aurea. It is a surface-acting membrane disrupting peptide that permeabilizes bacterial membranes via the carpet mechanism; the molecular details of this process are mostly unknown. Here the mechanism of action of Aurein 1.2 was investigated with an emphasis on the role of membrane charge and C-terminal amidation of the peptide. Using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) fingerprinting it was found that the membrane charge correlates with membrane affinity of the peptide, however the binding and the membrane disrupting processes are not charge driven; increased membrane charge reduces the membrane disrupting activity. Coarse grain simulations revealed that phenylalanine residues act as membrane anchors. Accordingly Aurein 1.2 has the ability to bind to any membrane. Furthermore, bundling precludes membrane disruption in case of wild type peptides, while non C-terminal amidated peptides form random aggregates leading to detachment from the membrane. Hence C-terminal amidation is crucial for Aurein 1.2 action. Our results suggest that Aurein 1.2 acts via aggregation driven membrane penetration. The concomitant change in the tension of the outer leaflet imposes a spontaneous curvature on the membrane, leading to disintegration.

  3. Deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations in an urban population of Black women.

    PubMed

    Lynce, Filipa; Smith, Karen Lisa; Stein, Julie; DeMarco, Tiffani; Wang, Yiru; Wang, Hongkun; Fries, Melissa; Peshkin, Beth N; Isaacs, Claudine

    2015-08-01

    Information on the prevalence of deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations in clinic-based populations of Black women is limited. In order to address this gap, we performed a retrospective study to determine the prevalence of deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations, predictors of having a mutation, and acceptance of risk-reducing surgeries in Black women. In an urban unselected clinic-based population, we evaluated 211 self-identified Black women who underwent genetic counseling for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. BRCA1/2 mutations were identified in 13.4% of the participants who received genetic testing. Younger age at diagnosis, higher BRCAPRO score, significant family history, and diagnosis of triple-negative breast cancer were associated with identification of a BRCA1/2 mutation. Of the affected patients found to have a deleterious mutation, almost half underwent prophylactic measures. In our study population, 1 in 7 Black women who underwent genetic testing harbored a deleterious BRCA1/2 mutation independent of age at diagnosis or family history.

  4. Temporal gradients in shear stimulate osteoblastic proliferation via ERK1/2 and retinoblastoma protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Guang-Liang; White, Charles R.; Stevens, Hazel Y.; Frangos, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Bone cells are subject to interstitial fluid flow (IFF) driven by venous pressure and mechanical loading. Rapid dynamic changes in mechanical loading cause transient gradients in IFF. The effects of pulsatile flow (temporal gradients in fluid shear) on rat UMR106 cells and rat primary osteoblastic cells were studied. Pulsatile flow induced a 95% increase in S-phase UMR106 cells compared with static controls. In contrast, ramped steady flow stimulated only a 3% increase. Similar patterns of S-phase induction were also observed in rat primary osteoblastic cells. Pulsatile flow significantly increased relative UMR106 cell number by 37 and 62% at 1.5 and 24 h, respectively. Pulsatile flow also significantly increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation by 418%, whereas ramped steady flow reduced ERK1/2 activation to 17% of control. Correspondingly, retinoblastoma protein was significantly phosphorylated by pulsatile fluid flow. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 by U0126 (a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor) reduced shear-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. These findings suggest that temporal gradients in fluid shear stress are potent stimuli of bone cell proliferation.

  5. Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to 1,2-Propanediol Over Clay Based Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Jung, Jae-Sun; Yang, Eun-Hyeok; Lee, Kwan-Young; Moon, Dong Ju

    2015-11-01

    1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) is one of the promising product among the valuable products derived from glycerol and it can be obtained by the catalytic hydrogenolysis of glycerol. Copper-supported clay-based catalysts were prepared with different pore sizes using various ratios of kaolin, Mg, and Al by coprecipitation and applied in the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-PDO. In recent research, variations of pore volume and pore size could affect the diffusion of reagents within the catalyst due to the collision between reagents or pore wall and reagents. It changes selectivities of each product in hydrogenolysis of glycerol reaction. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were analyzed by XRD, N2 physisorption, TPR, CO2-TPD, SEM, and a mercury porosimeter. The Cu/TALCITE 4 catalyst showed 98% 1,2-PDO selectivity with 65% glycerol conversion under the optimized condition of 190 degrees C, 25 bar, and 20 wt% glycerol aqueous solution. It was found that the basic strength and meso-macro pore structure of the catalysts play an important role in glycerol conversion and 1,2-PDO selectivity. PMID:26726594

  6. D 1 , 2 (RN) versus C (RN) local minimizer and a Hopf-type maximum principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Siegfried; Costa, David G.; Tehrani, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    We consider functionals of the form Φ (u) =1/2∫RN | ∇u|2 -∫RN b (x) G (u) on D 1 , 2 (RN), N ≥ 3, whose critical points are the weak solutions of a corresponding elliptic equation in the whole RN. We present a Brezis-Nirenberg type result and a Hopf-type maximum principle in the context of the space D 1 , 2 (RN). More precisely, we prove that a local minimizer of Φ in the topology of the subspace V must be a local minimizer of Φ in the D 1 , 2 (RN)-topology, where V is given by V : = { v ∈D 1 , 2 (RN) : v ∈ C (RN)withsupx∈RN ⁡ (1 + | x| N - 2) | v (x) | < ∞ }. It is well-known that the Brezis-Nirenberg result has been proved a strong tool in the study of multiple solutions for elliptic boundary value problems in bounded domains. We believe that the result obtained in this paper may play a similar role for elliptic problems in RN.

  7. Arabidopsis AIP1-2 restricted by WER-mediated patterning modulates planar polarity.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Christian S; Claes, Andrea R; Nzayisenga, Jean-Claude; Pietra, Stefano; Stanislas, Thomas; Hüser, Anke; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Grebe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) is crucial for the development of diverse multicellular organisms. Small Rac/Rho-family GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton contribute to planar polarity formation at sites of polarity establishment in animals and plants. Yet, upstream pathways coordinating planar polarity differ strikingly between kingdoms. In the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, a concentration gradient of the phytohormone auxin coordinates polar recruitment of Rho-of-plant (ROP) to sites of polar epidermal hair initiation. However, little is known about cytoskeletal components and interactions that contribute to this planar polarity or about their relation to the patterning machinery. Here, we show that ACTIN7 (ACT7) represents a main actin isoform required for planar polarity of root hair positioning, interacting with the negative modulator ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2 (AIP1-2). ACT7, AIP1-2 and their genetic interaction are required for coordinated planar polarity of ROP downstream of ethylene signalling. Strikingly, AIP1-2 displays hair cell file-enriched expression, restricted by WEREWOLF (WER)-dependent patterning and modified by ethylene and auxin action. Hence, our findings reveal AIP1-2, expressed under control of the WER-dependent patterning machinery and the ethylene signalling pathway, as a modulator of actin-mediated planar polarity.

  8. Arabidopsis AIP1-2 restricted by WER-mediated patterning modulates planar polarity

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Christian S.; Claes, Andrea R.; Nzayisenga, Jean-Claude; Pietra, Stefano; Stanislas, Thomas; Hüser, Anke; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Grebe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) is crucial for the development of diverse multicellular organisms. Small Rac/Rho-family GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton contribute to planar polarity formation at sites of polarity establishment in animals and plants. Yet, upstream pathways coordinating planar polarity differ strikingly between kingdoms. In the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, a concentration gradient of the phytohormone auxin coordinates polar recruitment of Rho-of-plant (ROP) to sites of polar epidermal hair initiation. However, little is known about cytoskeletal components and interactions that contribute to this planar polarity or about their relation to the patterning machinery. Here, we show that ACTIN7 (ACT7) represents a main actin isoform required for planar polarity of root hair positioning, interacting with the negative modulator ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2 (AIP1-2). ACT7, AIP1-2 and their genetic interaction are required for coordinated planar polarity of ROP downstream of ethylene signalling. Strikingly, AIP1-2 displays hair cell file-enriched expression, restricted by WEREWOLF (WER)-dependent patterning and modified by ethylene and auxin action. Hence, our findings reveal AIP1-2, expressed under control of the WER-dependent patterning machinery and the ethylene signalling pathway, as a modulator of actin-mediated planar polarity. PMID:25428588

  9. Toxic tau oligomer formation blocked by capping of cysteine residues with 1,2-dihydroxybenzene groups

    PubMed Central

    Soeda, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Misato; Almeida, Osborne F. X.; Sumioka, Akio; Maeda, Sumihiro; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Saito, Akiko; Miyasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Masaaki; Koyama, Hiroko; Yoshiike, Yuji; Sugimoto, Hachiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Takashima, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau fibrils, are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; the neurofibrillary tangle load correlates strongly with clinical progression of the disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that tau oligomer formation precedes the appearance of neurofibrillary tangles and contributes to neuronal loss. Here we show that tau oligomer formation can be inhibited by compounds whose chemical backbone includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Specifically, we demonstrate that 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-containing compounds bind to and cap cysteine residues of tau and prevent its aggregation by hindering interactions between tau molecules. Further, we show that orally administered DL-isoproterenol, an adrenergic receptor agonist whose skeleton includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and which penetrates the brain, reduces the levels of detergent-insoluble tau, neuronal loss and reverses neurofibrillary tangle-associated brain dysfunction. Thus, compounds that target the cysteine residues of tau may prove useful in halting the progression of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. PMID:26671725

  10. Discovery of Diphenyl Amine Based Sodium Channel Blockers, Effective Against hNav1.2

    PubMed Central

    Hudgens, Debjani P.; Taylor, Catherine; Batts, Timothy W.; Patel, Manoj K.; Brown, Milton L.

    2009-01-01

    The development of new therapies for chronic pain is an area of unmet medical need. Central to pathways of chronic pain is the upregulation of voltage gated sodium channels. The use of tricyclic antidepressants, which also have sodium channel activity, in chronic pain therapy prompted us to develop novel compounds from this scaffold. Herein, we show that the tricyclic moiety is not needed for effective inhibition of the [3H]-BTX binding site and sodium currents of hNav1.2. Our lead compound (6), containing a diphenyl amine motif demonstrated a 53.2% inhibitory block of Nav1.2 current at 10 μM, which is greater than 50% increase in current block in comparison to the amitriptyline standard. Altogether our study establishes that the tricyclic motif is unnecessary for hNav1.2 activity and modification of the amine portion is detrimental to sodium channel block. PMID:17035036

  11. (1 + 2)-Dimensional sub-strongly nonlocal spatial optical solitons: Perturbation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hongyan; Ouyang, Shigen; Guo, Qi; Wu, Lijun

    2007-07-01

    By extending the (1 + 1)-dimensional [(1 + 1)-D] perturbation method suggested by Ouyang et al. [S. Ouyang, Q. Guo, W. Hu, Phys. Rev. E. 74 (2006) 036622] to the (1 + 2)-D case, we obtain a fundamental soliton solution to the (1 + 2)-D nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NNLSE) with a Gaussian-type response function for the sub-strongly nonlocal case. Numerical simulations show that the soliton solution obtained in this paper can describe the soliton states in both the sub-strongly nonlocal case and the strongly nonlocal case. It is found that the phase constant and the power of the (1 + 2)-D strongly nonlocal spatial optical soliton with a Gaussian-type response function are both in inverse proportion to the 4th power of its beam width.

  12. Discovery of imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole derivatives as novel SIRT1 activators.

    PubMed

    Vu, Chi B; Bemis, Jean E; Disch, Jeremy S; Ng, Pui Yee; Nunes, Joseph J; Milne, Jill C; Carney, David P; Lynch, Amy V; Smith, Jesse J; Lavu, Siva; Lambert, Philip D; Gagne, David J; Jirousek, Michael R; Schenk, Simon; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Perni, Robert B

    2009-03-12

    A series of imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole derivatives is shown to activate the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, a potential new therapeutic target to treat various metabolic disorders. This series of compounds was derived from a high throughput screening hit bearing an oxazolopyridine core. Water-solubilizing groups could be installed conveniently at either the C-2 or C-3 position of the imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole ring. The SIRT1 enzyme activity could be adjusted by modifying the amide portion of these imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole derivatives. The most potent analogue within this series, namely, compound 29, has demonstrated oral antidiabetic activity in the ob/ob mouse model, the diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, and the Zucker fa/fa rat model.

  13. An ionothermally prepared S = 1/2 vanadium oxyfluoride kagome lattice.

    PubMed

    Aidoudi, Farida H; Aldous, David W; Goff, Richard J; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Attfield, J Paul; Morris, Russell E; Lightfoot, Philip

    2011-10-01

    Frustrated magnetic lattices offer the possibility of many exotic ground states that are of great fundamental importance. Of particular significance is the hunt for frustrated spin-1/2 networks as candidates for quantum spin liquids, which would have exciting and unusual magnetic properties at low temperatures. The few reported candidate materials have all been based on d(9) ions. Here, we report the ionothermal synthesis of [NH(4)](2)[C(7)H(14)N][V(7)O(6)F(18)], an inorganic-organic hybrid solid that contains a S = 1/2 kagome network of d(1) V(4+) ions. The compound exhibits a high degree of magnetic frustration, with significant antiferromagnetic interactions but no long-range magnetic order or spin-freezing above 2 K, and appears to be an excellent candidate for realizing a quantum spin liquid ground state in a spin-1/2 kagome network. PMID:21941253

  14. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of N,N′-Bis(2-hydroxylbenzyl)-1,2-ethanediamine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. Omar F.; Aspedon, Arden; Cooperwood, John S.

    2010-01-01

    A series of N,N′-Bis(2-hydroxylbenzyl)-1,2-ethanediamine derivatives and its schiff bases were synthesized, characterized and screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica. Result indicated that the ethylenediamine derivatives, N,N′-Bis(2-hydroxy-5-bromobenzyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (21), and N,N′-Bis(2-hydroxy-5-chlorobenzyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (22) showed the most favorable antimicrobial activity exhibiting LC50 of 11.6 and 8.79 μM against S.enterica, 86 and 138 μM against P. aeruginosa, and 140 and 287 μM against S. aureus, respectively. These compounds displayed highest level of resistance with S. aureus. Thus, the high level of activity seen with the compounds (21, 22) suggests that these compounds could serve as the leads for development of novel synthetic compounds with enhanced antimicrobial activity. PMID:20548968

  15. Infrared absorption cross sections for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane have been determined over the spectral range 750-1600 cm-1 from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a 26-cm-pathlength cell. Spectra of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane/dry synthetic air mixtures were recorded at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD) at a number of temperatures and pressures (22-761 Torr and 191-296 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using composite 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. This cross section dataset is intended to replace what is currently available in the HITRAN/GEISA databases.

  16. Calculation of radiative corrections to hyperfine splitting in p1/2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapirstein, J.; Cheng, K. T.

    2006-10-01

    Techniques to calculate one-loop radiative corrections to hyperfine splitting including binding corrections to all orders have been developed in the last decade for s states of atoms and ions. In this paper these methods are extended to p1/2 states for three cases. In the first case, the point-Coulomb 2p1/2 hyperfine splitting is treated for the hydrogen isoelectonic sequence, and the lowest order result, (α)/(4π)EF , is shown to have large binding corrections at high Z . In the second case, neutral alkali-metal atoms are considered. In the third case, hyperfine splitting of the 2p1/2 state of lithiumlike bismuth is treated. In the latter two cases, correlation corrections are included and, in addition, the point is stressed that uncertainties associated with nuclear structure, which complicate comparison with experiment for s states, are considerably reduced because of the smaller overlap with the nucleus.

  17. Localization of d-myoinositol 1:2-cyclic phosphate 2-phosphohydrolase in rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, N.; Dawson, R. M. C.

    1972-01-01

    1. On subcellular fractionation of rat kidney homogenates by differential and density-gradient centrifugation, the bulk of the inositol 1:2-cyclic phosphate 2-phosphohydrolase activity remains with the alkaline phosphatase activity, suggesting localization in the brush borders of the proximal tubules. 2. Histochemical studies with a medium containing inositol 1:2-cyclic phosphate and Escherichia coli phosphomonoesterase show Gomori staining around the brush borders of the proximal tubules in the outer cortex only. 3. Serial sections across the kidney from cortex perimeter to papilla suggest that the inositol 1:2-cyclic phosphate 2-phosphohydrolase has a limited distribution along the proximal tubule of the nephron, probably being limited to the pars convoluta, whereas the alkaline phosphatase extends along the pars recta. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:4347783

  18. Aromatic fluorine compounds. II. 1,2,4,5-Tetrafluorobenzene and related compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Reed, F.H.; Burness, D.M.; Fort, D.M.; Blough, R.R.

    1951-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene and a group of bromofluoro and chlorofluorobenzenes with a predominating 1,2,4,5-structure are described. Flash point and surface tension data for the fluorinated benzenes and the influence of chlorine substitution upon these values were studied. Under nitration conditions, 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene will not form a nitro derivative, but will undergo a preferential 1,4-fluorine displacement-oxidation mechanism to give 2,5-difluoro-1,4-benzoquinone. Diazotization reactions on 2-nitro-3,4,6-trifluoroaniline reveal that the nitro group or a fluorine atom in the 4- or 6-position may become labilized, under certain conditions, and undergo replacement.

  19. Improved sparse reconstruction for fluorescence molecular tomography with L1/2 regularization

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongbo; Yu, Jingjing; He, Xiaowei; Hou, Yuqing; Dong, Fang; Zhang, Shuling

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a promising imaging technique that allows in vivo visualization of molecular-level events associated with disease progression and treatment response. Accurate and efficient 3D reconstruction algorithms will facilitate the wide-use of FMT in preclinical research. Here, we utilize L1/2-norm regularization for improving FMT reconstruction. To efficiently solve the nonconvex L1/2-norm penalized problem, we transform it into a weighted L1-norm minimization problem and employ a homotopy-based iterative reweighting algorithm to recover small fluorescent targets. Both simulations on heterogeneous mouse model and in vivo experiments demonstrated that the proposed L1/2-norm method outperformed the comparative L1-norm reconstruction methods in terms of location accuracy, spatial resolution and quantitation of fluorescent yield. Furthermore, simulation analysis showed the robustness of the proposed method, under different levels of measurement noise and number of excitation sources. PMID:26137370

  20. A Qualitative Comparison of the Reactivities of 3,4,4,5-Tetrachloro-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazine and 4,5-Dichloro-1,2,3-dithiazolium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, Andreas S; Koutentis, Panayiotis A

    2015-01-01

    The high yielding transformations of 3,4,4,5-tetrachloro-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazine into 3,5-dichloro-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one (up to 85%) and 2-(3,5-dichloro-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-ylidene)malononitrile (up to 83%) have been investigated and compared to the analogous transformations of the closely-related 4,5-dichloro-1,2,3-dithiazolium chloride (Appel's salt) into 4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-one and 2-(4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene)malononitrile. Furthermore, cyclocondensation of 3,4,4,5-tetrachloro-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazine with 2-aminophenol and 1,2-benzenediamines gave fused 4H-1,2,6-thiadiazines in 68%-85% yields. PMID:26274946

  1. Discovery of ‘click’ 1,2,3-triazolium salts as potential anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ivana; Stojanovic, Nikolina; Bolje, Aljosa; Brozovic, Anamaria; Polancec, Denis; Ambriovic-Ristov, Andreja; Stojkovic, Marijana Radic; Piantanida, Ivo; Eljuga, Domagoj

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment, new compounds with potential anticancer activities are synthesized and screened. Here we present the screening of a new class of compounds, 1-(2-picolyl)-, 4-(2-picolyl)-, 1-(2-pyridyl)-, and 4-(2-pyridyl)-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium salts and ‘parent’ 1,2,3-triazole precursors. Methods Cytotoxic activity of new compounds was determined by spectrophotometric MTT assay on several tumour and one normal cell line. Effect of the selected compound to bind double stranded DNA (ds DNA) was examined by testing its influence on thermal stability of calf thymus DNA while its influence on cell cycle was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by addition of specific substrate 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA). Results Parent triazoles were largely inactive, while some of the triazolium salts were highly cytotoxic for HeLa cells. Triazolium salts exhibited high cell-type dependent cytotoxicity against different tumour cells. Selected compound (4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1-(2-picolyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazolium hexafluorophosphate(V) (2b) was significantly more cytotoxic against tumour cells than to normal cells, with very high therapeutic index 7.69 for large cell lung carcinoma H460 cells. Additionally, this compound was similarly cytotoxic against parent laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells and their drug resistant 7T subline, suggesting the potential of this compound in treatment of drug resistant cancers. Compound 2b arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. It did not bind ds DNA, but induced ROS in treated cells, which further triggered cell death. Conclusions Our results suggest that the ‘click’ triazolium salts are worthy of further investigation as anti-cancer agents.

  2. A study of chemical remediation on 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S.

    2015-12-01

    Shujun Ye, Guanqun Wang, and Jichun WuKey Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education; School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China, Nanjing, 210093, China; sjye@nju.edu.cn The ground water is contaminated by 1,2,4 Trichlorobenzene (TCB) in a former chemical plant in Nanjing, China. So 1,2,4-TCB is the contaminant of concern in this study. As chemical oxidation technology is a common in-site remediation technique, hydrogen peroxide, sodium sulfate and the two-mixed oxidants under the catalytic condition are used to remove 1,2,4-TCB from groundwater. By changing the values of temperature and pH in the experiments, the best conditions for chemical oxidation with oxidants mentioned above were determined. The fluorescent brightener of PF, manufactured by the former chemical plant, was added to groundwater to evaluate whether its existence made an impact on the chemical oxidation. 1-D sand column tests were conducted to study the degradation effect by using the chemical oxidation technology. The experiment results showed that single oxidant and mixed both oxidants can remove 1,2,4-TCB completely. The oxidation efficiency of both oxidants is influenced by temperature and pH. For hydrogen peroxide, the oxidation efficiency decreases with the increase of pH, while, for sodium sulfate, the efficiency is high under the mild acidic condition. The fluorescent brightener PF has an impact on the oxidation efficiency, with negative effect on the oxidation with hydrogen peroxide but positive effect with sodium sulfate. 1-D sand column tests testified the degradation of 1,2,4-TCB by the chemical oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and sodium sulfate. KEY WORDS: 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene hydrogen peroxide sodium persulfate optical brightener PF chemical oxidation AcknowledgementsFunding for this research from DuPont Company and NSFC Project No. 41472212.

  3. ERK1/2 mediates sperm acrosome reaction through elevation of intracellular calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Jaldety, Yael; Breitbart, Haim

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilization capacity after residing in the female reproductive tract for a few hours in a process called capacitation. Only capacitated sperm can bind the zona pellucida (ZP) of the egg and undergo the acrosome reaction, a process that allows penetration and fertilization. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mediates signalling in many cell types, however its role in sperm function is largely unknown. Here we show that ERK1/2 is highly phosphorylated/activated after a short incubation of mouse sperm under capacitation conditions and that this phosphorylation is reduced after longer incubation. Further phosphorylation was observed upon addition of crude extract of egg ZP or epidermal growth factor (EGF). The mitogen-activated ERK-kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 abolished ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in vitro fertilization rate and the acrosome reaction induced by ZP or EGF but not by the Ca2+-ionophore A23187. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 along the capacitation process diminished almost completely the sperm's ability to go through the acrosome reaction, while inhibition at the end of capacitation attenuated the acrosome reaction rate by only 45%. The fact that the acrosome reaction, induced by the Ca2+ -ionophore A23187, was not inhibited by U0126 suggests that ERK1/2 mediates the acrosome reaction by activating Ca2+ transport into the cell. Direct determination of intracellular [Ca2+] revealed that Ca2+ influx induced by EGF or ZP was completely blocked by U0126. Thus, it has been established that the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation in response to ZP or by activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by EGF, is a key event for intracellular Ca2+ elevation and the subsequent occurrence of the acrosome reaction.

  4. The Role of Kv1.2 Channel in Electrotaxis Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaofeng; Edmundson, Mathew; Telezhkin, Vsevolod; Gu, Yu; Wei, Xiaoqing; Kemp, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage‐gated potassium Kv1.2 channels play pivotal role in maintaining of resting membrane potential and, consequently, regulation of cellular excitability of neurons. Endogenously generated electric field (EF) have been proven as an important regulator for cell migration and tissue repair. The mechanisms of ion channel involvement in EF‐induced cell responses are extensively studied but largely are poorly understood. In this study we generated three COS‐7 clones with different expression levels of Kv1.2 channel, and confirmed their functional variations with patch clamp analysis. Time‐lapse imaging analysis showed that EF‐induced cell migration response was Kv1.2 channel expression level depended. Inhibition of Kv1.2 channels with charybdotoxin (ChTX) constrained the sensitivity of COS‐7 cells to EF stimulation more than their motility. Immunocytochemistry and pull‐down analyses demonstrated association of Kv1.2 channels with actin‐binding protein cortactin and its re‐localization to the cathode‐facing membrane at EF stimulation, which confirms the mechanism of EF‐induced directional migration. This study displays that Kv1.2 channels represent an important physiological link in EF‐induced cell migration. The described mechanism suggests a potential application of EF which may improve therapeutic performance in curing injuries of neuronal and/or cardiac tissue repair, post operational therapy, and various degenerative syndromes. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1375–1384, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26580832

  5. Phase Separation in As_2-xGe_xSe_1-2x Glasses^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Daniel; Mamedov, Sergey; Qu, Tao; Boolchand, Punit

    2003-03-01

    The global maximum in Tg near stoichiometric compositions(GeSe_2, As_2Se_3) in binary (Ge-Se, As-Se) selenide glasses is evidence for nanoscale phase separation [1]. The connection between Tg and network connectivity has thus opened new possibilities to address glass structure issues using scanning calorimetry. Eleven compositions spanning the two end members of the titled ternary are examined in MDSC [2] and FT-Raman scattering measurements. T_g(x) are found to increase with x in the 0 < x < 1.2 range, to display a global maximum in the 1.2 < xt < 1.8 range, and to decrease thereafter. FT-Raman scattering reveals lineshapes that smoothly evolve from As_2Se3 glass to Ge_2Se3 glass. Addition of Ge_2Se3 to As_2Se3 glass results in formation of Ge(Se_1/2)4 tetrahedra as Tg increases since increases. At x =1, the glass can be described as a random network of polymeric As2 (Se_1/2)4 units mixed with Ge(Se_1/2)4 tetrahedra. At x > x_t, the Ge/Se ratio > 1/2 , as ethanelike Ge_2Se3 nanophase nucleates, and Tg decline as decreases [1]. ^* Supported by NSF grant DMR 01-010808 [1] P.Boolchand and W.J.Bresser Phil. Mag. B 80,1757(2000). [2] D.G.Georgiev et al. Phys.Rev B 62,R9228(2000).

  6. Discovery of ‘click’ 1,2,3-triazolium salts as potential anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Ivana; Stojanovic, Nikolina; Bolje, Aljosa; Brozovic, Anamaria; Polancec, Denis; Ambriovic-Ristov, Andreja; Stojkovic, Marijana Radic; Piantanida, Ivo; Eljuga, Domagoj

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment, new compounds with potential anticancer activities are synthesized and screened. Here we present the screening of a new class of compounds, 1-(2-picolyl)-, 4-(2-picolyl)-, 1-(2-pyridyl)-, and 4-(2-pyridyl)-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium salts and ‘parent’ 1,2,3-triazole precursors. Methods Cytotoxic activity of new compounds was determined by spectrophotometric MTT assay on several tumour and one normal cell line. Effect of the selected compound to bind double stranded DNA (ds DNA) was examined by testing its influence on thermal stability of calf thymus DNA while its influence on cell cycle was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by addition of specific substrate 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA). Results Parent triazoles were largely inactive, while some of the triazolium salts were highly cytotoxic for HeLa cells. Triazolium salts exhibited high cell-type dependent cytotoxicity against different tumour cells. Selected compound (4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1-(2-picolyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazolium hexafluorophosphate(V) (2b) was significantly more cytotoxic against tumour cells than to normal cells, with very high therapeutic index 7.69 for large cell lung carcinoma H460 cells. Additionally, this compound was similarly cytotoxic against parent laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells and their drug resistant 7T subline, suggesting the potential of this compound in treatment of drug resistant cancers. Compound 2b arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. It did not bind ds DNA, but induced ROS in treated cells, which further triggered cell death. Conclusions Our results suggest that the ‘click’ triazolium salts are worthy of further investigation as anti-cancer agents. PMID:27679544

  7. BRCA1/2 genetic testing uptake and psychosocial outcomes in men

    PubMed Central

    Gatammah, Rhoda; Peshkin, Beth N.; Krieger, Ayelet; Gell, Christy; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.; Schwartz, Marc D.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively evaluated the uptake and outcomes of BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing in men. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study to describe and compare uptake of and psychosocial outcomes following BRCA1/2 testing in a sample of men and women at high-risk for carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation. Men (n = 98) and women (n = 243) unaffected with cancer completed baseline assessments prior to genetic counseling and testing and then 6- and 12-months post-testing. Most men (n = 94; 95.9%) opted to have genetic testing, of whom 44 received positive BRCA1/2 genetic test results and 50 received true negative results. Among women, 93.4% had genetic testing, of whom 79 received positive results and 148 received negative results. In multivariate models, male BRCA1/2 carriers reported significantly higher genetic testing distress (6-months: Z = 4.48, P < 0.0001; 12-months: Z = 2.78, P < 0.01) than male non-carriers. After controlling for baseline levels of distress, no statistically significant differences emerged between male and female BRCA1/2 carriers in psychological distress at 12-months post-testing, although absolute differences were evident over time. Predictors of distress related to genetic testing among male carriers at 12-months included higher baseline cancer-specific distress (Z = 4.73, P < 0.0001) and being unmarried (Z = 2.18, P < 0.05). Similarly, baseline cancer-specific distress was independently associated with cancer-specific distress at 6- (Z = 3.66, P < 0.001) and 12-months (Z = 4.44, P < 0.0001) post-testing among male carriers. Clinically, our results suggest that pre-test assessment of distress and creation of educational materials specifically tailored to the needs and concerns of male carriers may be appropriate in this important but understudied high-risk group. PMID:21365268

  8. Increased yields of radical cations by arene addition to irradiated 1,2-dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funston, Alison M.; Miller, John R.

    2005-04-01

    Pulse radiolysis in chlorinated hydrocarbon liquids such as 1,2-dichloroethane is a versatile and effective method for the generation of solute radical cations. The addition of a large concentration of toluene or benzene to solutions of 1,2-dichloroethane is found to increase the yield of solute radical cations ( G=0.68 molecules 100 eV -1 in 1,2-dichloroethane (J. Phys. Chem. 83(15) (1979) 1944) by a factor of 2.5. The increased yield is found for solutes which have a potential of ˜1.1 V (vs. SCE) or below for the S + rad /S couple and is due to reaction of the chlorine atom:toluene (π-Cl rad ) complex with the solute. A similar species forms with benzene. π-Cl rad is formed with a yield of G=3.0, and arises principally as a result of geminate recombination of ions. It has an absorption in the visible with λ max 460 nm, ɛ max=1800 M -1 cm -1 and decays with an observed first-order rate constant k=1.12×10 6 s -1. The rate of reaction of the π-Cl • with added solutes ranges from 2.5 to 5×10 9 M -1 s -1. The other oxidant present in the 1,2-dichloroethane/toluene solutions is identified as the toluene cation dimer. This is formed from the 1,2-dichloroethane radical cation with bimolecular rate constant k=1.35×10 10 M -1 s -1 with a radiation chemical yield G=0.5. The rate of reaction of this species with the added solutes is diffusion controlled, k=1-2×10 10 M -1 s -1.

  9. The Nav1.2 channel is regulated by GSK3

    PubMed Central

    James, Thomas F.; Nenov, Miroslav N.; Wildburger, Norelle C.; Lichti, Cheryl; Luisi, Jonathan; Vergara, Fernanda; Panova-Electronova, Neli I.; Nilsson, Carol L.; Rudra, Jai; Green, Thomas A.; Labate, Demetrio; Laezza, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Background Phosphorylation plays an essential role in regulating the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels and excitability. Yet, a surprisingly limited number of kinases have been identified as regulators of Nav channels. Herein, we posited that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a critical kinase found associated with numerous brain disorders, might directly regulate neuronal Nav channels. Methods We used patch-clamp electrophysiology to record sodium currents from Nav1.2 channels stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. mRNA and protein levels were quantified with RT-PCR, Western blot, or confocal microscopy, and in vitro phosphorylation and mass spectrometry to identify phosphorylated residues. Results We found that exposure of cells to GSK3 inhibitor XIII significantly potentiates the peak current density of Nav1.2, a phenotype reproduced by silencing GSK3 with siRNA. Contrarily, overexpression of GSK3β suppressed Nav1.2-encoded currents. Neither mRNA nor total protein expression were changed upon GSK3 inhibition. Cell surface labeling of CD4-chimeric constructs expressing intracellular domains of the Nav1.2 channel indicates that cell surface expression of CD4-Nav1.2-Ctail was up-regulated upon pharmacological inhibition of GSK3, resulting in an increase of surface puncta at the plasma membrane. Finally, using in vitro phosphorylation in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry, we further demonstrate that GSK3β phosphorylates T1966 at the C-terminal tail of Nav1.2. Conclusion These findings provide evidence for a new mechanism by which GSK3 modulate Nav channel function via its C-terminal tail. General Significance These findings provide fundamental knowledge in understanding signaling dysfunction common in several neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25615535

  10. Determination of magic wavelengths for the 7 s 1/2 2S -7 p 3/2, 1/2 2P transitions in Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhjit; Sahoo, B. K.; Arora, Bindiya

    2016-08-01

    Magic wavelengths (λmagic) for the 7 S1 /2-7 P1 /2 ,3 /2 transitions (D lines) in Fr were reported by Dammalapati et al. [U. Dammalapati, K. Harada, and Y. Sakemi, Phys. Rev. A 93, 043407 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.043407]. These λmagic were determined by plotting dynamic polarizabilities (α ) of the involved states with the above transitions against a desired range of wavelengths. Electric dipole (E1) matrix elements listed in [J. E. Sansonetti, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 36, 497 (2007), 10.1063/1.2719251], from the measured lifetimes of the 7 P1 /2 ,3 /2 states and from the calculations considering core-polarization effects in the relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) method, were used to determine α . However, contributions from core correlation effects and from the E1 matrix elements of the 7 P -7 S , 7 P -8 S , and 7 P -6 D transitions to α of the 7 P states were ignored. In this work, we demonstrate importance of these contributions and improve accuracies of α further by replacing the E1 matrix elements taken from the HFR method by the values obtained employing relativistic coupled-cluster theory. Our static α are found to be in excellent agreement with the other available theoretical results, whereas substituting the E1 matrix elements used by Dammalapati et al. gives very small α values for the 7 P states. Owing to this, we find disagreement in λmagic reported by Dammalapati et al. for linearly polarized light, especially at wavelengths close to the D lines and in the infrared region. As a consequence, a λmagic reported at 797.75 nm which was seen supporting a blue detuned trap in their work is now estimated at 771.03 nm and is supporting a red detuned trap. Also, none of our results match with the earlier results for circularly polarized light. Moreover, our static values of α will be very useful for guiding experiments to carry out their measurements.

  11. Demonstration of Redox Potential of Metschnikowia koreensis for Stereoinversion of Secondary Alcohols/1,2-Diols

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Vachan Singh; Banoth, Linga; Banerjee, U. C.

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports the Metschnikowia koreensis-catalyzed one-pot deracemization of secondary alcohols/1,2-diols and their derivatives with in vivo cofactor regeneration. Reaction is stereoselective and proceeds with sequential oxidation of (R)-secondary alcohols to the corresponding ketones and the reduction of the ketones to (S)-secondary alcohols. Method is applicable to a repertoire of racemic aryl secondary alcohols and 1,2-diols establishing a wide range of substrate specificity of M. koreensis. This ecofriendly method afforded the product in high yield (88%) and excellent optical purity (>98% ee), minimizing the requirement of multistep reaction and expensive cofactor. PMID:24592389

  12. Cycloadditions of 1,2,3-Triazines Bearing C5-Electron Donating Substituents: Robust Pyrimidine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Glinkerman, Christopher M.; Boger, Dale L.

    2015-01-01

    The examination of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines 17–19, bearing electron-donating substituents at C5, are described. Despite the noncomplementary 1,2,3-triazine C5 substituents, amidines were found to undergo a powerful cycloaddition to provide 2,5-disubstituted pyrimidines in excellent yields (42–99%; EDG = SMe > OMe > NHAc). Even select ynamines and enamines were capable of cycloadditions with 17, but not 18 or 19, to provide trisubstituted pyridines in modest yields (37–40% and 33% respectively). PMID:26172042

  13. Quantum Correlations of Two Relativistic Spin-{1}/{2} Particles Under Noisy Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, M.; Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.; Makaremi, T.

    2016-02-01

    We study the quantum correlation dynamics of bipartite spin-{1}/{2} density matrices for two particles under Wigner rotations induced by Lorentz transformations which is transmitted through noisy channels. We compare quantum entanglement, geometric discord(GD), and quantum discord (QD) for bipartite relativistic spin-{1}/{2} states under noisy channels. We find out QD and GD tend to death asymptotically but a sudden change in the decay rate of the entanglement occurs under noisy channels. Also, bipartite relativistic spin density matrices are considered as a quantum channel for teleportation one-qubit state under the influence of depolarizing noise and compare fidelity for various velocities of observers.

  14. Synthesis and biological activity of pyrimido [1, 2-a] quinoline moiety and its 2-substituted derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, A. G.; Halikar, N. K.

    2013-04-01

    2-Amino-3-cyano quinoline (1) and bis (methylthio) methylene malononitrile (2) were refluxed in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) in presence of catalytic amount of anhydrous potassium carbonate to afforded 3, 11-dicyano-4-imino-2-methylthio -4H-pyrimido [1, 2-a] quinoline (3). The latter were further reacted with different substituted aniline, phenol, hetryl amine and compound containing active methyl group. Afforded to 3, 11-dicyano-4-imino -4H-pyrimido [1, 2-a] quinoline and their 2-substuited derivatives (4a-7c). All these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral data, and screened for their antimicrobial activities.

  15. 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, a less sensitive explosive

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Coburn, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    A less sensitive explosive, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. The compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) has a crystal density of 1.93 g/cm.sup.3 and calculated detonation velocity and pressure equivalent to those of RDX. It can be prepared in high yield from inexpensive starting materials in a safe synthesis. Results from initial small-scale sensitivity tests indicate that NTO is less sensitive than RDX and HMX in all respects. A 4.13 cm diameter, unconfined plate-dent test at 92% of crystal density gave the detonation pressure predicted for NTO by the BKW calculation.

  16. Toxicity in man due to stain removers containing 1,2-dichloropropane.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, C; Marai, P; Ponti, R; Dell'Oro, C; Sala, C; Zedda, S; Locatelli, F

    1985-11-01

    There are reports that 1,2-dichloropropane, a constituent of many commercial solvents and stain removers in Italy, has caused severe liver damage and, sometimes, acute renal failure. Between 1980 and 1983 three cases of 1,2-dichloropropane intoxication (1 by ingestion, 2 by inhalation) were observed. Clinical features included severe liver damage, acute renal failure (2 patients), haemolytic anaemia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The most surprising features were haemolytic anaemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation which have not been reported before. The clinical picture was similar despite different modes of exposure. PMID:4063220

  17. Toxicity in man due to stain removers containing 1,2-dichloropropane.

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, C; Marai, P; Ponti, R; Dell'Oro, C; Sala, C; Zedda, S; Locatelli, F

    1985-01-01

    There are reports that 1,2-dichloropropane, a constituent of many commercial solvents and stain removers in Italy, has caused severe liver damage and, sometimes, acute renal failure. Between 1980 and 1983 three cases of 1,2-dichloropropane intoxication (1 by ingestion, 2 by inhalation) were observed. Clinical features included severe liver damage, acute renal failure (2 patients), haemolytic anaemia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The most surprising features were haemolytic anaemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation which have not been reported before. The clinical picture was similar despite different modes of exposure. PMID:4063220

  18. Synthesis and reaction of the first 1,2-oxaphosphetane complexes.

    PubMed

    Kyri, Andreas Wolfgang; Nesterov, Vitaly; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Streubel, Rainer

    2014-09-26

    While P(V) 1,2-oxaphosphetanes are well known from the Wittig reaction, their P(III) analogues are still unexplored. Herein, the synthesis and reactions of the first 1,2-oxaphosphetane complexes are presented, which were achieved by reaction of the phosphinidenoid complex [Li(12-crown-4)(solv)][(OC)5W{(Me3Si)2HCPCl}] with different epoxides. The title compounds appeared to be stable in toluene up to 100 °C, before unselective decomposition started. Acid-induced ring expansion with benzonitrile resulted in selective formation of the first complex bearing a 1,3,4-oxazaphosphacyclohex-2-ene ligand.

  19. Electronic Properties of 1,2;8,9-Dibenzopentacene in Solutions, Solid Matrices, and Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovstopyat, A.; Zojer, E.; Leising, G.

    2016-03-01

    The optical properties of 1,2;8,9-dibenzopentacene molecules in different environments, namely solutions, solid solutions, and thin films, focusing on the shift of the electronic levels as a function of the dielectric properties of the surrounding media are investigated. In all cases, we find that the optical gap of 1,2;8,9-dibenzopentacene is somewhat larger than that of pentacene (by ~0.21 eV in solution) in spite of the larger extent of the π-electron system in the former molecule. This a priori unexpected finding is rationalized on the basis of quantum-mechanical simulations.

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazolates.

    PubMed

    Haiges, R; Bélanger-Chabot, G; Kaplan, S M; Christe, K O

    2015-02-21

    Salts of 3,5-dinitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole, a building block for energetic materials, have been prepared and fully characterized. Most of the studied salts exhibit high thermal stability and very low shock and friction sensitivities. 3,5-Dinitro-1,2,4-triazolates with the nitrogen-rich ammonium, guanidinium, aminoguanidinium, and aminotetrazolium cations are energetic and have potential for energetic material applications. Salts containing alkali, alkali earth metal, and silver cations exhibit coloured emissions upon combustion while salts with large organic cations such as PPh4(+) and (Ph3P)2N(+) are highly insensitive and can be easily crystallized.

  1. Alternative Splicing Generates a Novel Truncated Cav1.2 Channel in Neonatal Rat Heart*

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ping; Yu, Dejie; Hu, Zhenyu; Liang, Mui Cheng; Wang, Jue Jin; Yu, Chye Yun; Ng, Gandi; Yong, Tan Fong; Soon, Jia Lin; Chua, Yeow Leng; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2015-01-01

    L-type Cav1.2 Ca2+ channel undergoes extensive alternative splicing, generating functionally different channels. Alternatively spliced Cav1.2 Ca2+ channels have been found to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner or under pathological conditions. To provide a more comprehensive understanding of alternative splicing in Cav1.2 channel, we systematically investigated the splicing patterns in the neonatal and adult rat hearts. The neonatal heart expresses a novel 104-bp exon 33L at the IVS3-4 linker that is generated by the use of an alternative acceptor site. Inclusion of exon 33L causes frameshift and C-terminal truncation. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings of Cav1.233L channels expressed in HEK 293 cells did not detect any current. However, when co-expressed with wild type Cav1.2 channels, Cav1.233L channels reduced the current density and altered the electrophysiological properties of the wild type Cav1.2 channels. Interestingly, the truncated 3.5-domain Cav1.233L channels also yielded a dominant negative effect on Cav1.3 channels, but not on Cav3.2 channels, suggesting that Cavβ subunits is required for Cav1.233L regulation. A biochemical study provided evidence that Cav1.233L channels enhanced protein degradation of wild type channels via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Although the physiological significance of the Cav1.233L channels in neonatal heart is still unknown, our report demonstrates the ability of this novel truncated channel to modulate the activity of the functional Cav1.2 channels. Moreover, the human Cav1.2 channel also contains exon 33L that is developmentally regulated in heart. Unexpectedly, human exon 33L has a one-nucleotide insertion that allowed in-frame translation of a full Cav1.2 channel. An electrophysiological study showed that human Cav1.233L channel is a functional channel but conducts Ca2+ ions at a much lower level. PMID:25694430

  2. A Two-parameter bicovariant differential calculus on the (1 + 2)-dimensional q-superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Ergün

    2016-01-01

    We construct a two-parameter bicovariant differential calculus on ℛq1/2 with the help of the covariance point of view using the Hopf algebra structure of ℛq1/2. To achieve this, we first use the consistency of calculus and the approach of R-matrix which satisfies both ungraded and graded Yang-Baxter equations. In particular, based on this differential calculus, we investigate Cartan-Maurer forms for this q-superspace. Finally, we obtain the quantum Lie superalgebra corresponding the Cartan-Maurer forms.

  3. Singlet oxygenation of 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.; Rosenberg, M. L.; Gemmer, R. V.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural changes that occur in cis and trans forms of 1,2-poly(1,4-hexadiene) during methylene blue-photosensitized oxidation were examined by infrared and (C-13)-NMR spectroscopy. The singlet oxygenation of these polymers yielded the expected allylic hydroperoxides accompanied by double bond shifts to new vinyl and trans-vinylene double bonds. The photosensitized oxidation exhibited zero-order kinetics; the relative rates for the cis- and trans-1,2-poly(1,4-hexadiene)s were approximately 3.8:1.0.

  4. Photodisintegration of 9Be and the importance of the unbound 1/2+ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Kikuchi, Yuma; Myo, Takayuki; Aikawa, Masayuki; Katō, Kiyoshi

    2016-02-01

    The photodisintegration cross section of the 9Be(1/2+) state is investigated in a framework of the α + α + n three-body model. The 1/2+ state of 9Be locates just above the three-body threshold, and the s-wave neutron property of this state is a long-standing problem. It has been a topic of quite interest in relation to the breakup mechanism of 9Be into the 8Be(0+) + n and (α + α + n) channels.

  5. Phased Array Inspection of Titanium Disk Forgings Targeting no. 1/2 FBH Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.A.; Friedl, J.

    2005-04-09

    The phased array implementation of a focused zoned ultrasonic inspection to achieve a >3dB signal-to-noise for no. 1/2 flat bottom holes (FBH) in titanium is reported. Previous work established the ultrasound focusing required to achieve the targeted sensitivity. This work reports on the design of a phased array transducer capable of maintaining the needed focus to the depths required in the forging inspection. The performance of the phased array inspection is verified by examining signal-to-noise of no. 1/2 FBHs contained in coupons cut from actual forgings.

  6. Isolation of a Moderately Stable but Sensitive Zwitterionic Diazonium Tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate.

    PubMed

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard; Pflüger, Carolin

    2016-07-15

    An unexpected formation of a diazonium compound was observed by nitration of an amino substituted triazolyl tetrazole with mixed acid. The crystal structure determination revealed a zwitterionic diazonium tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate, whose constitution was supported by NMR and vibrational spectroscopic analysis. The thermal stability and sensitivity toward impact and friction were determined. In contrast, diazotriazoles are rather unstable and are mainly handled in solution and/or low temperatures, which is not the case for this diazonium tetrazolyl-1,2,3-triazolate, being stable at ambient temperature. PMID:27352144

  7. 3-[Chloro-(phen-yl)meth-yl]-6-methyl-1,2-benzoxazole.

    PubMed

    Kayalvizhi, M; Vasuki, G; Ramamurthi, K; Veerareddy, A; Laxminarasimha, G

    2011-11-01

    The title compound, C(15)H(12)ClNO, is a functionalized 1,2-benzoxazole with a chloro-(phen-yl)methyl substituent. The mol-ecule is V-shaped, the dihedral angle between the mean plane of the 1,2-benzoxazole system [maximum deviation = 0.023 (3) Å for the N atom] and the phenyl ring being 70.33 (14)°. There are no hydrogen-bonding inter-actions in the crystal structure, which is stabilized by van der Waals inter-actions only.

  8. M5 brane on {{R}^{{{1},{2}}}} × {S^3}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We deconstruct 16 rigid supersymmetry variations for M5 brane on {{R}^{{{1},{2}}}} × ({S^{{3}}}/{{Z}_k}) and obtain on-shell closure on Lie derivatives. Dimensional reduction on the Hopf fiber by taking k → ∞ gives sYM on {{R}^{{{1},{2}}}} × {S^{{2}}} with 8 rigid supersymmetries. We reproduce the result in arXiv:0908.3263 but we also derive an additional graviphoton term which is associated with the twisting of the Hopf bundle.

  9. Reactive modelling of 1,2-DCA and DOC near the shoreline.

    PubMed

    Colombani, N; Pantano, A; Mastrocicco, M; Petitta, M

    2014-11-15

    1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) was found to be the most abundant compound among chlorinated hydrocarbons detected in a petrochemical plant in southern Italy. This site is located near the coastline, and it is set above an unconfined coastal aquifer, where seawater intrusion is present. The presence of organic and inorganic contaminants at this site has required the implementation of remediation strategies, consisting of pumping wells (hydraulic barrier) and a horizontal flow barrier. The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of salt water intrusion on the degradation rate of 1,2-DCA. This was done on a three-dimensional domain relative to a limited portion of a well characterized field site, accounting for density-dependent flow and reactive transport modelling of 1,2-DCA and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). The modelling procedure was performed employing SEAWAT-4.0 and PHT3D, to reproduce the complex three-dimensional flow and transport domain. In order to determine the fate of 1,2-DCA, detailed field investigations provided intensive depth profile information. Different, kinetically controlled degradation rates were simulated to explain the observed, selective degradation of pollutants in groundwater. Calibration of the model was accomplished by comparison with the two different sets of measurements obtained from the MLS devices and from pumping wells. With the calibrated model, it was possible to distinguish between dispersive non-reactive processes and bacterially mediated reactions. In the non-reactive model, 1,2-DCA sorption was simulated using linear sorption coefficient determined with field data and 1,2-DCA degradation was simulated using a first order decay coefficient using literature data as initial guess. Finally, on the reactive transport model, where a two-step approach with partial equilibrium approach was implemented, the effects of neglecting the cation exchange capacity, omitting density-dependent flow, and refining the vertical

  10. Degradation of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane by Microbial Consortia in Wetland Sediment: Controls on 1,2-Dichloroethane and Vinyl Chloride Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorah, M. M.; Voytek, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Concurrent geochemical analyses of porewater and genetic analyses of wetland sediment over time in laboratory microcosm experiments are being used to define biodegradation pathways of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (PCA) and associated critical microorganisms in anaerobic wetland sediments. These experiments were conducted to better understand factors controlling in situ daughter product distribution as part of a study of natural attenuation of a chlorinated solvent plume that is discharging to a freshwater tidal wetland at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Possible biodegradation pathways of PCA under anaerobic conditions include (1) sequential hydrogenolysis of PCA to 1,1,2-trichloroethane (TCA), 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA), chloroethane, and ethane; (2) hydrogenolysis of PCA to TCA followed by dichloroelimination of TCA to vinyl chloride (VC); and (3) dichloroelimination of PCA to cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) and subsequent hydrogenolysis of DCE to VC. Elucidation of factors controlling the occurrence of these diverse pathways is critical because of differing toxicity and persistence of the daughter products. Microcosm experiments were conducted in March and July 1999 using wetland sediment and porewater collected at two contaminated sites in the study area-one characterized as predominantly methanogenic (WB23) and one characterized as mixed iron-reducing and methanogenic (WB30)-and amended only with PCA or TCA. Microcosm water was analyzed for volatile organic compounds, methane, ferrous iron, and sulfate, while genetic analyses of the corresponding microcosm sediment were used to obtain profiles of bacteria and methanogenic communities at each time step. All PCA-amended microcosms showed simultaneous production of TCA (from hydrogenolysis) and DCE (from dichloroelimination) from day 1. Subsequently, DCA became the predominant daughter product in microcosms constructed with WB23 sediment, which showed high methane production throughout the experiment

  11. Halogen-bonded adduct of 1,2-dibromo-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane.

    PubMed

    Brisdon, Alan K; Muneer, Abeer M T; Pritchard, Robin G

    2015-10-01

    Halogen bonding is an intermolecular interaction capable of being used to direct extended structures. Typical halogen-bonding systems involve a noncovalent interaction between a Lewis base, such as an amine, as an acceptor and a halogen atom of a halofluorocarbon as a donor. Vapour-phase diffusion of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) with 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane results in crystals of the 1:1 adduct, C2Br2F4·C6H12N2, which crystallizes as an infinite one-dimensional polymeric structure linked by intermolecular N...Br halogen bonds [2.829 (3) Å], which are 0.57 Å shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii.

  12. Determination of Evolutionary Relationships of Outbreak-Associated Listeria monocytogenes Strains of Serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bergholz, Teresa M.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Katz, Lee S.; Silk, Benjamin J.; Jackson, Kelly A.; Kucerova, Zuzana; Joseph, Lavin A.; Turnsek, Maryann; Gladney, Lori M.; Halpin, Jessica L.; Xavier, Karen; Gossack, Joseph; Ward, Todd J.; Frace, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We used whole-genome sequencing to determine evolutionary relationships among 20 outbreak-associated clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b. Isolates from 6 of 11 outbreaks fell outside the clonal groups or “epidemic clones” that have been previously associated with outbreaks, suggesting that epidemic potential may be widespread in L. monocytogenes and is not limited to the recognized epidemic clones. Pairwise comparisons between epidemiologically related isolates within clonal complexes showed that genome-level variation differed by 2 orders of magnitude between different comparisons, and the distribution of point mutations (core versus accessory genome) also varied. In addition, genetic divergence between one closely related pair of isolates from a single outbreak was driven primarily by changes in phage regions. The evolutionary analysis showed that the changes could be attributed to horizontal gene transfer; members of the diverse bacterial community found in the production facility could have served as the source of novel genetic material at some point in the production chain. The results raise the question of how to best utilize information contained within the accessory genome in outbreak investigations. The full magnitude and complexity of genetic changes revealed by genome sequencing could not be discerned from traditional subtyping methods, and the results demonstrate the challenges of interpreting genetic variation among isolates recovered from a single outbreak. Epidemiological information remains critical for proper interpretation of nucleotide and structural diversity among isolates recovered during outbreaks and will remain so until we understand more about how various population histories influence genetic variation. PMID:26590286

  13. 1 : 2 Adducts of copper(I) halides with 1,2-bis(di-2-pyridylphosphino)ethane: solid state and solution structural studies and antitumour activity.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Richard J; Navarro, Maribel; Shearwood, Anne-Marie J; Healy, Peter C; Skelton, Brian W; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Berners-Price, Susan J

    2009-12-28

    The 1 : 2 adducts of copper(I) halides with 1,2-bis(2-pyridylphosphino)ethane (d2pype) have been synthesized and solution properties characterized by variable temperature (1)H, (31)P and (65)Cu NMR spectroscopy. Single-crystal structure determinations for the chloride, bromide and iodide complexes show these to crystallize from acetonitrile in the triclinic space group P1 as isostructural centrosymmetric dimers [(d2pype)Cu(mu-d2pype)(2)Cu(d2pype)]X(2).(solvent) with a approximately 12.6, b approximately 12.7, c approximately 15.3 A, alpha approximately 84, beta approximately 67, gamma approximately 84 degrees. In contrast to the analogous AuCl:2(d2pype) and AgNO(3):2(d2pype) adducts, in solution these CuX:2(d2pype) adducts (where X = Cl, Br and I) exist almost exclusively as bis-chelated monomeric [Cu(d2pype)(2)]X; evidence for an equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric forms is detected only for the CuCl adduct in methanol. Cytotoxicity studies in two human breast cancer lines and two matched liver progenitor cell lines indicate that [Cu(d2pype)(2)]Cl is non selectively toxic to both non-tumourigenic and tumourigenic cells. However, the analogous Au(I) compound [Au(d2pype)(2)]Cl, is toxic to highly tumourigenic cells and more selective in its toxicity to tumourigenic cells compared to non-tumourigenic cells. The significance of these results to the further development of selective, mitochondria-targeted, Au(I) antitumour complexes is discussed.

  14. The B(1/2 2P3/2) --> X(1/2 2Sigma + ) transition in XeI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzykewycz, Dan T.; Tellinghuisen, Joel

    1996-07-01

    The B(1/2 2P3/2)→X(1/2 2Σ+) transition in XeI (2385-2490 Å) is recorded at high resolution for the single isotopomer 136Xe127I, using a Tesla discharge source and a CCD array detector. The high signal-to-noise capabilities of the detector make it possible to measure the discrete vibrational structure in this system for the first time. The assignments consist of 86 v'-v″ bands spanning 15 upper-state levels (assigned as v'=3-17) and 17 lower-state levels (tentatively assigned as v″=0-16). A vibrational analysis yields the following spectroscopic constants (cm-1): ΔTe=40 047.8, ωe'=110.6, ωexe'=0.217, ωe″=24.0, ωexe″=0.66. From a near-dissociation analysis, the X state has a dissociation energy (De) of 267±5 cm-1 and supports 28 bound vibrational levels. However, it is likely that our lowest observed v″ level is not v″=0, so these values should be considered lower limits. The potential energy curves are modeled by a Morse-RKR function for the X state and a Rittner function for the B state. Trial-and-error Franck-Condon calculations are used to locate the B- and X-state potential curves relative to each other, fixing the X-state internuclear distance Re at a value ˜0.7 Å larger than that for the B state. Bound-free simulations of the low-resolution spectrum indicate that the X potential must be significantly steeper in the Franck-Condon region than found from previous scattering studies.

  15. Gain-of-function Mutations in Transient Receptor Potential C6 (TRPC6) Activate Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2)*

    PubMed Central

    Chiluiza, David; Krishna, Sneha; Schumacher, Valérie A.; Schlöndorff, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) gene are a cause of autosomal dominant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The mechanisms whereby abnormal TRPC6 activity results in proteinuria remain unknown. The ERK1/2 MAPKs are activated in glomeruli and podocytes in several proteinuric disease models. We therefore examined whether FSGS-associated mutations in TRPC6 result in activation of these kinases. In 293T cells and cultured podocytes, overexpression of gain-of-function TRPC6 mutants resulted in increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, an effect dependent upon channel function. Pharmacologic inhibitor studies implicated several signaling mediators, including calmodulin and calcineurin, supporting the importance of TRPC6-mediated calcium influx in this process. Through medium transfer experiments, we uncovered two distinct mechanisms for ERK activation by mutant TRPC6, a cell-autonomous, EGF receptor-independent mechanism and a non-cell-autonomous mechanism involving metalloprotease-mediated release of a presumed EGF receptor ligand. The inhibitors KN-92 and H89 were able to block both pathways in mutant TRPC6 expressing cells as well as the prolonged elevation of intracellular calcium levels upon carbachol stimulation seen in these cells. However, these effects appear to be independent of their effects on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and PKA, respectively. Phosphorylation of Thr-70, Ser-282, and Tyr-31/285 were not necessary for ERK activation by mutant TRPC6, although a phosphomimetic TRPC6 S282E mutant was capable of ERK activation. Taken together, these results identify two pathways downstream of mutant TRPC6 leading to ERK activation that may play a role in the development of FSGS. PMID:23645677

  16. Quartic force fields for excited electronic states: rovibronic reference data for the 1 (2)A' and 1 (2)A″ states of the isoformyl radical, HOC.

    PubMed

    Morgan, W James; Fortenberry, Ryan C

    2015-01-25

    Quartic force fields (QFFs) have been shown to be an effective, accurate, and relatively compact means of computing rovibrational spectroscopic data for numerous molecules with numerous applications. However, excited states have been nearly excluded from the this approach since most accurate QFFs are based on the "gold standard" coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] method which is not readily extended to excited states. In this work, rovibronic spectroscopic data is provided for the isoformyl radical, a molecule of significance in combustion and astrochemistry, both through the traditional means of variational access to excited states with CCSD(T) and in the novel extension of QFFs routinely to treat electronically excited states through the standard coupled cluster excited state approach, equation of motion (EOM) CCSD. It is shown here that the new EOM-based QFF provides structural parameters and rotational constants that are quite close to those from a related CCSD(T)-based QFF for the 1 (2)A(″) excited state of HOC. The anharmonic vibrational frequency percent differences between the two QFFs are less than 0.4% for the O-H stretch, less than 1.9% for the C-O stretch, and around 3.0% for the bend. Even so, the pure excited state EOM-QFF anharmonic frequencies are still very good abinitio representations that may be applied to systems where electronically excited states are not variationally accessible. Additionally, rovibrational spectroscopic data is provided for the 1 (2)A(') ground state of HOC and for both the ground and excited state of DOC.

  17. Education for Survival; A Social Studies and Science Curriculum Guide for Grades 1, 2, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubman, Ruth W.; And Others

    This book is one of a series on Education For Survival and integrates a conservation curriculum into a social studies and science program for grades 1, 2, and 3. It was developed to help lead young people to an awareness of environmental problems which confront our society. The first chapter presents a resume of all social science curriculum units…

  18. Determination of the hyperfine coupling constant of the cesium 7S1/2 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jie; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    We report the hyperfine splitting (HFS) measurement of the cesium (Cs) 7S1/2 state by optical–optical double-resonance spectroscopy with the Cs 6S1/2–6P3/2–7S1/2 (852 nm  +  1470 nm) ladder-type system. The HFS frequency calibration is performed by employing a phase-type waveguide electro-optic modulator together with a stable confocal Fabry–Perot cavity. From the measured HFS between the F″  =  3 and F″  =  4 manifolds of the Cs 7S1/2 state (HFS  =  2183.273  ±  0.062 MHz), we have determined the magnetic dipole hyperfine coupling constant (A  =  545.818  ±  0.016 MHz), which is in good agreement with the previous work but much more precise.

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1044 - 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. 1915.1044 Section 1915.1044 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1044 - 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. 1915.1044 Section 1915.1044 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic...