Science.gov

Sample records for diploid seedless watermelon

  1. Grafting increases lycopene in seedless watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although watermelon grafting has been done for years in Asia and Europe, this production method is still novel to the U.S. Fruit from four rootstocks with scions of the seedless watermelons Palomar, TriX313, Matrix, and Petite Perfection were compared for soluble solids content, pH, and carotenoids...

  2. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Nimmakayala, Padma; Manohar, Sumanth; Malkaram, Sridhar; Almeida, Aldo; Cantrell, Robert; Tomason, Yan; Abburi, Lavanya; Rahman, Mohammad A.; Vajja, Venkata G.; Khachane, Amit; Kumar, Brajendra; Rajasimha, Harsha K.; Levi, Amnon; Wehner, Todd; Reddy, Umesh K.

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits. PMID:25520388

  3. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Nimmakayala, Padma; Manohar, Sumanth; Malkaram, Sridhar; Almeida, Aldo; Cantrell, Robert; Tomason, Yan; Abburi, Lavanya; Rahman, Mohammad A; Vajja, Venkata G; Khachane, Amit; Kumar, Brajendra; Rajasimha, Harsha K; Levi, Amnon; Wehner, Todd; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-03-01

    The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits.

  4. Grafting Seedless Watermelons, How and Why? Will Grafting Help With Disease Control?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera has gained importance in the United States. Grafting vegetable crops, especially cucurbit’s, is very common in Europe and Asia. In these regions, the practice of crop ...

  5. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M

    2006-10-01

    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage. PMID:17002453

  6. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight and Watermelon Vine Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), are two important and emerging diseases of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Recently, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto roo...

  7. Utilizing Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm for developing tetraploid lines useful as rootstocks and in breeding programs of seedless watermelon lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, soil-borne diseases and pests have intensified in watermelon, particularly after the phasing out of the soil fumigant methyl bromide, and there is a continuous need to develop solutions for reducing the disease and pest pressure in this important cucurbit crop. Grafting of watermel...

  8. Carotenoid changes of intact watermelons after storage.

    PubMed

    Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Collins, Julie K

    2006-08-01

    Watermelon contains lycopene, a red carotenoid pigment that has strong antioxidant properties. The lycopene content of watermelon is substantial, contributing 8-20 mg per 180 g serving. There are no reports on carotenoid changes in whole watermelon during storage. Three types of watermelon, open-pollinated seeded, hybrid seeded, and seedless types, were stored at 5, 13, and 21 degrees C for 14 days and flesh color, composition, and carotenoid content were compared to those of fruit not stored. Watermelons stored at 21 degrees C had increased pH, chroma, and carotenoid content compared to fresh fruit. Compared to fresh fruit, watermelons stored at 21 degrees C gained 11-40% in lycopene and 50-139% in beta-carotene, whereas fruit held at 13 degrees C changed little in carotenoid content. These results indicate that carotenoid biosynthesis in watermelons can be affected by temperature and storage.

  9. Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in south eastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae...

  10. Effect of phytophthora capsici crown rot on watermelon rootstocks and grafts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon in the southeastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae genera is also gaining acceptance in our l...

  11. US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE ORANGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, hereby releases for propagation the US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE citrus scion selection, formerly tested as USDA 1-10-60. US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE resulted from irradiation of Ridge Pineapple seeds by C.J. Hearn in 1970 at the U.S. Horticultu...

  12. Evaluation of watermelon varieties for tolerance to powdery mildew and Phytophthora fruit rot, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand. This study was undertaken to determine the performance of seeded and seedless commercial watermelon varieties for tolerance to powdery mildew (PM) and Phytophthora fruit rot as...

  13. Watermelon, phytochemicals and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon fruit contains lycopene, a carotenoid pigment, and citrulline, an amino acid. These plant compounds may be helpful in preventing some chronic diseases. The amount of lycopene in watermelon ranges from 35 to 125 mg per kg of edible portion, and there is 2 to 4 mg per kg citrulline presen...

  14. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The...

  15. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The...

  16. Seed formation in triploid loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) through cross-hybridization with pollen of diploid cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Shinji; Iwasuna, Miwako; Kobori, Aya; Tsutaki, Yasunori; Yoshida, Akihiro; Murota, Yuri; Nishino, Eisho; Sassa, Hidenori; Koba, Takato

    2014-06-01

    As the fruits of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica, 2n = 2x = 34) carry large seeds, the breeding of seedless loquat has long been a goal. The recent creation of triploid cultivars (2n = 3x = 51) and the application of gibberellins allow commercial production of seedless loquat, but the possibility of seed formation in triploid loquats has not been carefully investigated. Through crossing experiments and cytological observations of meiosis and pollen tube growth, we found that the triploid line 3N-N28 was essentially self-sterile, but developed seeds on pollination with pollen from diploid cultivars at rates of up to 5.5%. Almost half of the seedlings survived to 5 months, and carried diploid (2n = 34), tetraploid (2n = 68), or aneuploid chromosome numbers. Our results suggest that triploid loquat cultivars might retain the risk of seed formation. Protection from pollination by diploid cultivars or the development of new triploid cultivars will be necessary to ensure the production of seedless loquat fruits.

  17. Diploid versus Haploid Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticona, Armando; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo C.

    Using a bit string model, we show that asexual reproduction for diploids is more efficient than for haploids: it improves genetic material producing new individuals with less deleterious mutations. We also see that in a system where competition is present, diploids dominate, even though we consider some dominant loci.

  18. 7 CFR 1210.305 - Watermelon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon. 1210.305 Section 1210.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.305 Watermelon. Watermelon means...

  19. 7 CFR 1210.305 - Watermelon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Watermelon. 1210.305 Section 1210.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.305 Watermelon. Watermelon means...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.305 - Watermelon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Watermelon. 1210.305 Section 1210.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.305 Watermelon. Watermelon means...

  1. 7 CFR 1210.305 - Watermelon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Watermelon. 1210.305 Section 1210.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.305 Watermelon. Watermelon means...

  2. 7 CFR 1210.305 - Watermelon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Watermelon. 1210.305 Section 1210.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.305 Watermelon. Watermelon means...

  3. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective...

  5. Ripening events in seeded watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeded watermelons generally start color development in the locule (seed cavity), with color progressing to the center of the fruit during the ripening process. Soluble solids content (SSR) is thought to be highest at the blossom end. In large-fruited watermelon where only a portion of the fruit is...

  6. First Complete Genome Sequence of a Watermelon Mosaic Virus Isolated from Watermelon in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rajbanshi, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic virus was first reported in 1965 from the Rio Grande Valley, TX. We report here the first complete genome sequence of a watermelon mosaic virus isolate from watermelon collected from the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. PMID:27103724

  7. Sun drying of seedless and seeded grapes.

    PubMed

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    In this study, sun drying behaviour of seedless and seeded grapes was investigated. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of seedless and seeded grapes of berry size of 1.72 cm and 2.20 cm thicknesses from the initial moisture contents of 78.2% and 79.5% (w.b.) to final moisture content of around 22% (w.b.) were 176 and 228 h in open sun drying, respectively. The drying data were fitted to 12 thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models were compared using the determination of coefficient (R(2)), mean relative percent error (P), reduced chi-square (χ (2)) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The results showed that Midilli et al. model was found to satisfactorily describe the sun drying curves of seedless and seeded grapes. The effective moisture diffusivity values were estimated from Fick's diffusion model by 1.02 × 10(-11) and 1.66 × 10(-11) m(2)/s for seeded and seedless grapes. PMID:23572844

  8. Gamma rays produce superior seedless citrus

    SciTech Connect

    Pyrah, D.

    1984-10-01

    Using gamma radiation, seedless forms of some varieties of oranges and grapefruit are being produced. Since it has long been known that radiation causes mutations in plants and animals, experiments were conducted to determine if seediness could be altered by exposing seeds or budwood to higher than natural doses of gamma radiation. Orange and grapefruit seeds and cuttings exposed to gamma rays in the early 1970's have produced trees that bear fruit superior to that now on the market.

  9. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The...

  10. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is...

  11. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except...

  12. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1846 Grades of seedless raisins. (a) “U.S. Grade A” is...

  13. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1845 Sizes of seedless raisins. The size designations...

  14. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1849 Grades of golden seedless raisins. Except...

  15. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden Seedless Raisins § 52.1848 Sizes of golden seedless raisins. The...

  16. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless Raisins § 52.1845 Sizes of seedless raisins. The size designations...

  17. Maturity and Postharvest Performance of US Early Pride Seedless Mandarins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes efforts underway at the US Horticultural Laboratory, Ft. Pierce, FL to develop seedless versions of seedy, but otherwise high quality citrus scions. Two approaches for development of seedless scions are discussed: 1) irradiation which has resulted in the release of 'US Seedle...

  18. Cutting Watermelon: Lessons in Instructional Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstead, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Literacy coordinator Martha Sandstead finds inspiration for her coaching work in a quote from civil rights organizer Lawrence Guyot: "Let's say you're riding past a picnic, and people are cuttin' watermelons. You don't immediately go and say, "stop the watermelon cutting" and let's talk. … You cut some watermelons, or you help…

  19. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  20. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless...

  1. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless...

  2. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless...

  3. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless...

  5. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless...

  6. New flesh colors in watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are currently six published flesh colors in watermelon along with the associated genes for each of the designated flesh colors. Previous results have shown that segregation patterns did not fit with published results for canary yellow and red flesh. We believe that part of the problem has been...

  7. Expression and Polymorphism of Watermelon Fruit ESTs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 8,000 ESTs were generated for watermelon and were assembled into 4,700 EST-unigenes (http://www.icugi.org). Microarray and Real-Time PCR analyses were used to examine differential expression of 832 of these EST-unigenes in developing and ripening watermelon fruit. RNA was isolated from waterm...

  8. Differential Expression of Genes in Watermelon Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cDNA library was constructed using watermelon flesh mRNA from three distinct developmental stages. The library was first normalized and then subtracted by hybridization with leaf cDNAs (drivers). Random cDNA clones of the watermelon flesh subtraction library were sequenced from the 5’ end in ord...

  9. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  10. Triploid-diploid mosaic chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Bloom, S E; Buss, E G

    1966-08-12

    Cytological analysis of an underdeveloped chicken embryo at 6 days of incubation revealed a triploid-diploid mosaic condition. Of the 30 metaphases observed, 19 were triploid and 11 diploid. The triploid cells were 3A-ZZZ and diploid cells 2A-ZZ, as determined for the six largest pairs of chromnosomes. PMID:5328678

  11. Seedless fruit production by hormonal regulation of fruit set.

    PubMed

    Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-02-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. PMID:22253976

  12. Intersexual partial diploids of phycomyces.

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, B J; Cerdá-Olmedo, E

    2001-01-01

    Sexual interaction between strains of opposite sex in many fungi of the order Mucorales modifies hyphal morphology and increases the carotene content. The progeny of crosses of Phycomyces blakesleeanus usually include a small proportion of anomalous segregants that show these signs of sexual stimulation without a partner. We have analyzed the genetic constitution of such segregants from crosses that involved a carF mutation for overaccumulation of beta-carotene and other markers. The new strains were diploids or partial diploids heterozygous for the sex markers. Diploidy was unknown in this fungus and in the Zygomycetes. Random chromosome losses during the vegetative growth of the diploid led to heterokaryosis in the coenocytic mycelia and eventually to sectors of various tints and mating behavior. The changes in the nuclear composition of the mycelia could be followed by selecting for individual nuclei. The results impose a reinterpretation of the sexual cycle of Phycomyces. Some of the intersexual strains that carried the carF mutation contained 25 mg beta-carotene per gram of dry mass and were sufficiently stable for practical use in carotene production. PMID:11404328

  13. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  14. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  15. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  16. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  17. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM...

  18. Watermelon lycopene and allied health claims

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Ambreen; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Niaz, Rai Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Presently, functional foods and nutraceuticals are gaining immense importance in the prevention of various maladies through dietary regimen module. Consumption of fruits and vegetables based diet has pursuit a range of bioactive components, especially phytochemicals targeting life threatening ailments. In this context, lycopene is an extensively studied antioxidant potentially present in watermelon, tomato, pink guava etc. Watermelon is one of the unique sources having readily available cis-isomeric lycopene. The distinctive aroma of watermelon is imparted by medium- and short-chain fatty acids along with geranial, ß-ionone and neral. Its consumption has been escalated owing to rich nutritional profile and allied health benefits. It is effective in reducing the extent of cancer insurgence, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and macular diseases. The structural characteristics, physiochemical properties and therapeutic effects of lycopene are the limelight of the manuscript. However, further research investigations are still needed to address the health enhancing potential of watermelon lycopene. PMID:26417290

  19. Clonal diploid sperm of the diploid-triploid mosaic loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei:Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Morishima, Kagayaki; Oshima, Kouzou; Horie, Shin; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2004-06-01

    The loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus comprises diploid, triploid and diploid-triploid mosaic individuals in a wild population of the Hokkaido island, Japan. Previous studies revealed the presence of a cryptic clonal lineage among diploid loaches, which is maintained by uniparental reproduction of genetically identical diploid eggs. In the present study, we analyzed distribution and genetic status of diploid and triploid cells in infrequent mosaic males. Flow cytometry, microsatellite genotyping and DNA fingerprinting verified that mosaic males consisted of diploid cells with genotypes identical to the natural clone and triploid cells with diploid genomes of the clonal lineage plus haploid genome from sperm nucleus of the father. Thus, the occurrence of diploid-triploid mosaicism might be caused by accidental fertilization of a diploid blastomere nucleus with haploid sperm after the initiation of clonal development of unreduced eggs. Such mosaic males produced fertile sperm with diploid DNA content. The experimental cross between normal diploid female and diploid-triploid mosaic male gave rise to the appearance of triploid progeny which exhibited two microsatellite alleles identical to the clonal genotype and one allele derived from the normal female. In DNA fingerprinting, such triploid progeny gave not only all the DNA fragments from the clone, but also other fragments from the normal female. Induced androgenesis using UV irradiated eggs and sperm of the mosaic male gave rise to the occurrence of diploid individuals with paternally derived microsatellite genotypes and DNA fingerprints, absolutely identical to the natural clonal lineage. These results conclude that the diploid-triploid mosaic male produced unreduced diploid sperm with genetically identical genotypes. The spermatogenesis in the clonal diploid cells under the mosaic condition suggests that triploid male somatic cells might transform genetically all-female germ cells to differentiate into functionally

  20. Diploid males, diploid sperm production, and triploid females in the ant Tapinoma erraticum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournault, Laurent; Aron, Serge

    2009-12-01

    Under complementary sex determination (CSD), females of Hymenoptera arise from diploid, fertilized eggs and males from haploid, unfertilized eggs. Incidentally, fertilized eggs that inherit two identical alleles at the CSD locus will develop into diploid males. Diploid males are usually unviable or sterile. In a few species, however, they produce diploid sperm and father a triploid female progeny. Diploid males have been reported in a number of social Hymenoptera, but the occurrence of triploid females has hardly ever been documented. Here, we report the presence of triploid females, diploid males, and diploid sperm (produced by diploid males and stored in queen spermathecae) in the ant Tapinoma erraticum. Moreover, we show variations in the frequency of triploids among female castes: Triploid females are more frequent among workers than virgin queens; they are absent among mated, reproductive queens. The frequency of triploid workers also varies between populations and between nests within populations.

  1. Grafting for Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested...

  2. Adding value to grafted watermelon: Novel benefits and potential pitfalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafted watermelons are commonly used in Asia and areas of Europe but are not widely used in the United States. The traditional reason for grafting watermelons has been for resistance to soil borne diseases such as Fusarium. We began to explore novel benefits which might make grafted watermelons m...

  3. [Analysis of the level and pattern of genomic DNA methylation in different ploidy watermelons by MSAP (Citrullus lanatus)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Guo; Gu, Yu; Chen, Cheng Bin; Jiao, Ding Liang; Xue, Zhen Yi; Song, Wen Qin

    2009-04-01

    DNA methylation is one of the major epigenetic modifications. It is very important to the regulation of gene expression. In present study, an autoploidy series (2x, 3x and 4x) in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) was constructed and MSAP (Methylation-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism) analysis was conducted to elucidate the level and pattern of DNA methylation at CCGG sites in different ploidy watermelons. Totally, 1883 genetic loci were produced by 23 pairs of selective primers, of which 647, 655 and 581 sites were detected in diploid, autotriploid and autotetraploid, respectively. The methylation sites were 181, 150 and 159, and the corresponding total methylation ratios were 28.0%, 22.9% and 27.4% in 2x, 3x and 4x, respectively, of which the fully methylation sites were 121, 80 and 82, and the corresponding fully methylation ratios were 18.7%, 12.2% and 14.1%. Further analysis of the pattern of DNA methylation suggested that compared 4x with 2x, about half of detected sites (54.4%) shown changes of DNA methylation patterns. Similarly, compared 4x with 3x, 45.4% sites also shown changes of DNA methylation patterns. Moreover, the trend of DNA methylation adjustment mainly involved increase of DNA methylation levels in 4x. However, compared 3x with 2x or 4x, although the changes of DNA methylation pattern also widely occurred, which involved 41.6% (compared 3x with 2x) and 45.4% (compared 3x with 4x) sites, respectively, the trend of DNA methylation adjustment mainly involved decrease of DNA methylation levels in 3x. All these results indicated that DNA methylation events were widely existed in different ploidy watermelons. However, not only based on the total DNA methylation ratio or fully DNA methylation ratio, the results both implied that the DNA methylation levels were not closely associated with the autopolyploidy level in watermelon. Autotriploid watermelon shows obvious low level of DNA methylation. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns also suggested that

  4. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  5. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outcrossing polyploidy nature of cultivated potato has hindered the use of genomics resources to dissect the genetic basis of agronomically important traits. Reversion to the diploid level allows us to apply powerful tools toward this effort. Parthenogenesis generates diploid cultivated potato, ...

  6. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Key Findings Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries ce were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century ce and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century ce present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. Conclusions The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. PMID

  7. Biochemical characteristics and thermal inhibition kinetics of polyphenol oxidase extracted from Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was isolated from Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless') and its biochemical characteristics were studied. Optimum pH and temperature for grape PPO activity were pH 6.0 and 25 degrees C with 10 mM catechol as substrate. The enzyme was heat-stable betwee...

  8. Grafting – a tool for managing root-knot nematodes in watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm, bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, hybrid squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima), and commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus) were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) in a field infested ...

  9. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  10. Breeding for phytonutrient content; examples from watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for high phytonutrient fruits and vegetables can be a fairly straightforward endeavor when the compounds of interest produce a visible effect or the methods for quantifying the compounds simple and inexpensive. Lycopene in tomatoes and watermelon is one such compound, since the amount of r...

  11. Green-fleshed watermelon contains chlorophyll

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many popular and technical reports on watermelon ignore an uncommon color, green, even though mention of this color has been in the literature since 1901. However, what causes the green hue has not been reported. Since some cucurbits have chloroplasts, and chlorophyll in the flesh tissue, we surmi...

  12. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Watermelons for Sensing Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelon varieties, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the external surface of t...

  13. The components of rice and watermelon root exudates and their effects on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lixuan; Huo, Hongwei; Zhang, Fang; Hao, Wenya; Xiao, Liang; Dong, Caixia; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is susceptible to wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON). Intercropping management of watermelon/aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) alleviates watermelon wilt disease, because some unidentified component(s) in rice root exudates suppress FON sporulation and spore germination. Here, we show that the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid is present in rice root exudates only, and it inhibits FON spore germination and sporulation. We found that exogenously applied p-coumaric acid up-regulated the expression of ClPR3 in roots, as well as increased chitinase activity in leaves. Furthermore, exogenously applied p-coumaric acid increased β-1,3-glucanase activity in watermelon roots. By contrast, we found that ferulic acid was secreted by watermelon roots, but not by rice roots, and that it stimulated spore germination and sporulation of FON. Exogenous application of ferulic acid down-regulated ClPR3 expression and inhibited chitinase activity in watermelon leaves. Salicylic acid was detected in both watermelon and rice root exudates, which stimulated FON spore germination at low concentrations and suppressed spore germination at high concentrations. Exogenously applied salicylic acid did not alter ClPR3 expression, but did increase chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities in watermelon leaves. Together, our results show that the root exudates of phenolic acids were different between rice and watermelon, which lead to their special ecological roles on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense. PMID:27217091

  14. Production of androgenetic diploid loach by cold-shock of eggs fertilized with diploid sperm.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jilun; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2013-07-15

    Diploid androgenotes were produced without egg irradiation in the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. Eggs of wild-type diploid females were fertilized with diploid sperm of a neo-tetraploid male and then cold-shock treated at 3 °C (range, ±0.5 °C) for 30 minutes just after fertilization to eliminate the female nucleus. After hatching, ploidy status of the hatched larvae was analyzed by flow cytometry, which revealed putative diploid androgenotes as well as larvae possessing other ploidies. Five independent microsatellite DNA markers were genotyped to confirm all-male inheritance of the resultant diploid larvae. The mean ± SD yield rate of diploid androgenetic larvae to total eggs used was 12.29 ± 3.25% in the cold-shock group and 22.23 ± 13.42% in the UV-irradiated group (P > 0.05). No diploid androgenetic larvae were detected in the intact control group. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating successful induction of diploid androgenotes without egg irradiation in fish. PMID:23602217

  15. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-22

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs. PMID:26954263

  16. Isolation and characterization of latent and active polyphenoloxidase in BRS Clara (CNPUV 154-147 × Centennial seedless) and BRS Morena (Marroo seedless × Centennial seedless) seedless table grapes.

    PubMed

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Pavezzi, Fabiana Carina; Martin, Natália; Gomes, Eleni; Da Silva, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    The seedless grapes BRS Clara and BRS Morena, developed in Brazil, are currently growing in popularity due to their premium texture and taste. However, there are no reports on the polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from these cultivars. In this paper, active and latent PPO from BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless grapes were extracted using the non-ionic detergents Triton-X-100 (active) and Triton-X-114 (latent), and their catecholase activities were characterized. The PPO extracted using Triton-X-110 exhibited maximum activities at pH 6.0 and at 25 °C. Above 30 °C, a gradual decline in activities was noted, with complete inactivation at 60 °C. The PPO from grapes extracted with Triton-X-114 was activated with 0.2% of the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and exhibited maximum activities at pH 5.5 and at 30 °C. It was stable until the temperature reached 60 °C.

  17. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-22

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs.

  18. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs.

  19. Manufacture of diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, T Y; Markert, C L

    1980-01-01

    Tetraploid mouse embryos were produced by cytochalasin B treatment. These embryos usually die before completion of embryonic development and are abnormal morphologically and physiologically. The tetraploid embryos can be rescued to develop to maturity by aggregating them with normal diploid embryos to produce diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice. The diploid/tetraploid chimeric embryos are frequently abnormal: the larger the proportion of tetraploid cells, the greater the abnormality. By karyotype analysis and by the use of appropriate pigment cell markers, we have demonstrated that two of our surviving chimeras are in fact diploid/tetraploid chimeras. One surviving chimera is retarded in growth and displays neurological abnormalities. The coat color chimerism suggests that this chimera is about 50% tetraploid. Another chimera with about 10% tetraploid pigment cells in the coat is only slightly retarded in growth and is a fertile male. Tetraploid cells are distributed in many, if not all, tissues of embryos but evidently are physiologically inadequate to support completely normal development and function in the absence of substantial numbers of normal diploid cells. Images PMID:6934528

  20. The height of watermelons with wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15-22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067-83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions.

  1. Watermelon juice: A promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing of watermelons to produce the neutraceuticals lycopene and citrulline yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/Mt of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7-10% readily fermentable sugars, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was ...

  2. Gibberellins and parthenocarpic ability in developing ovaries of seedless mandarins.

    PubMed

    Talon, M; Zacarias, L; Primo-Millo, E

    1992-08-01

    Satsuma (Citrus unshiu [Mak] Marc.) and Clementine (Citrus reticulata [Hort.] Ex. Tanaka, cv Oroval) are two species of seedless mandarins differing in their tendency to develop parthenocarpic fruits. Satsuma is a male-sterile cultivar that shows a high degree of natural parthenocarpy and a high fruit set. Seedless Clementine varieties are self-incompatible, and in the absence of cross-pollination show a very low ability to set fruit. The gibberellins (GAs) GA53, putative 17-OH-GA(53), GA(44), GA(17), GA(19), GA(20), GA(29), GA(1), 3-epi-GA(1), GA(8), GA(24), GA(9), and GA(4) have been identified from developing fruits of both species by full-scan combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using selected ion monitoring with [(2)H(2)]- and [(13)C]-labeled internal standards, the levels of GA(53), GA(44), GA(19), GA(20), GA(1), GA(8), GA(4), and GA(9) were determined in developing ovaries at anthesis and 7 days before and after anthesis, from both species. Except for GA8, levels of the 13-hydroxy-GAs were higher in Satsuma than in Clementine, and these differences were more prominent for developing young fruits. At petal fall, Satsuma had, on a nanograms per gram dry weight basis, higher levels of GA(53) (10.4x), GA(44) (13.9x), GA(19) (3.0x), GA(20) (11.2x), and GA(1) (2.0x). By contrast, levels of GA(8) were always higher in Clementine, whereas levels of GA(4) did not differ greatly. Levels of GA(9) were very low in both species. At petal fall, fruitlets of Satsuma and Clementine contained 65 and 13 picograms of GA(1), respectively. At this time, the application of 25 micrograms of paclobutrazol to fruits increased fruit abscission in both varieties. This effect was reversed by the simultaneous applications of 1 microgram of GA(3). GA(3) alone improved the set in Clementine (13x), but had little influence on Satsuma. Thus, seedless fruits of the self-incompatible Clementine mandarin may not have adequate GA levels for fruit set. Collectively, these results

  3. A Rudimentary Optical System in Detecting Ripeness of Red Watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezan Abdullah, Noor; Hashim, Hadzli; Fathullah Sulaiman, Muhammad; Korlina Madzhi, Nina; Faiz Mohd Sampian, Ahmad; Aima Ismail, Faridatul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to detect the ripeness and quality of the watermelon particularly for red watermelon. The ripeness of the watermelon will be evaluated by using near-infrared spectroscopy sensor (NRIS). The color wavelength will classify the ripeness of the watermelon. An infrared light will be used to get the appropriate wavelength from the watermelon either from the rind or inner of it and the signal received will be analyzed. An appropriate algorithm is used to extract the information of the inner of the watermelon. A microcontroller namely Programmable Interface Controller (PIC) will be used to execute the algorithm and the result will be displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Based on the result obtain from the device, the data is computed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This approach is vital to verify the relationship between unripe and ripeness of red watermelon. The objective of this project is to produce an efficient system to detect the ripeness of the watermelon.

  4. Tolerance to the Herbicide Clomazone in Watermelon Plant Introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pre-emergence herbicide clomazone (trade name: Command 3ME), is widely used in watermelon production in the US for suppression of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds growing in between plastic beds. Exposure of young watermelon plants to clomazone can cause moderate or severe injury that is expr...

  5. Black oat cover crop management in watermelon production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb.) were sown as a cover crop near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26 deg N) in Fall 2010. The cover crop was allowed to senesce naturally and was planted to watermelons in both the spring and in the fall of 2011. Watermelon transplants planted in the spring into mowed black o...

  6. Sequencing the Genome of the Heirloom Watermelon Cultivar Charleston Gray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the watermelon cultivar Charleston Gray, a major heirloom which has been used in breeding programs of many watermelon cultivars, was sequenced. Our strategy involved a hybrid approach using the Illumina and 454/Titanium next-generation sequencing technologies. For Illumina, shotgun g...

  7. Mechanism of seedlessness in a new lemon cultivar 'Xiangshui' [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Wei; Huang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Feng; He, Xin-Hua; Pan, Jie-Chun

    2012-12-01

    Seedlessness is an important economic trait of lemon. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon requires detailed data on pollen and embryo sac fertility, embryo development and compatibility mechanisms governing self- and cross-pollination. The results of the current study indicate that the fertility of pollen and mature embryo sac remains normal. When flowers were self- or cross-pollinated, pollen grains of 'Xiangshui' were able to germinate on the stigma. In the case of self-pollination, pollen tubes became twisted, tube tips enlarged and tubes ruptured in the bottom of stigma. Following cross-pollination, tubes were able to grow normally in the style and ovary and enter the embryo sac, where double fertilization took place. Embryonic development resulting from cross-pollination was normal. After cross-pollination, the zygote began to divide at 2 weeks post-pollination, with early globular embryos observed after 3 weeks, globular and heart-shaped embryos at 4 weeks, torpedo-shaped embryos at 5 weeks, cotyledonary embryos at 6 weeks and thereafter germinable seeds. After self-pollination, however, ovules began to abort at 2 weeks post-pollination, with ovules disappearing at 5 weeks, ultimately producing seedless fruits. Emasculated unpollinated flowers also developed into seedless fruits, indicating that seedlessness contributes to parthenocarpy. However, gametophytic self-incompatibility has a major role in seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon by blocking fertilization at the bottom of the stigma. PMID:23114638

  8. Mechanism of seedlessness in a new lemon cultivar 'Xiangshui' [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Wei; Huang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Feng; He, Xin-Hua; Pan, Jie-Chun

    2012-12-01

    Seedlessness is an important economic trait of lemon. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon requires detailed data on pollen and embryo sac fertility, embryo development and compatibility mechanisms governing self- and cross-pollination. The results of the current study indicate that the fertility of pollen and mature embryo sac remains normal. When flowers were self- or cross-pollinated, pollen grains of 'Xiangshui' were able to germinate on the stigma. In the case of self-pollination, pollen tubes became twisted, tube tips enlarged and tubes ruptured in the bottom of stigma. Following cross-pollination, tubes were able to grow normally in the style and ovary and enter the embryo sac, where double fertilization took place. Embryonic development resulting from cross-pollination was normal. After cross-pollination, the zygote began to divide at 2 weeks post-pollination, with early globular embryos observed after 3 weeks, globular and heart-shaped embryos at 4 weeks, torpedo-shaped embryos at 5 weeks, cotyledonary embryos at 6 weeks and thereafter germinable seeds. After self-pollination, however, ovules began to abort at 2 weeks post-pollination, with ovules disappearing at 5 weeks, ultimately producing seedless fruits. Emasculated unpollinated flowers also developed into seedless fruits, indicating that seedlessness contributes to parthenocarpy. However, gametophytic self-incompatibility has a major role in seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon by blocking fertilization at the bottom of the stigma.

  9. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  10. On the Genealogy of Asexual Diploids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Fumei; Langley, Charles H.; Song, Yun S.

    Given molecular genetic data from diploid individuals that, at present, reproduce mostly or exclusively asexually without recombination, an important problem in evolutionary biology is detecting evidence of past sexual reproduction (i.e., meiosis and mating) and recombination (both meiotic and mitotic). However, currently there is a lack of computational tools for carrying out such a study. In this paper, we formulate a new problem of reconstructing diploid genealogies under the assumption of no sexual reproduction or recombination, with the ultimate goal being to devise genealogy-based tools for testing deviation from these assumptions. We first consider the infinite-sites model of mutation and develop linear-time algorithms to test the existence of an asexual diploid genealogy compatible with the infinite-sites model of mutation, and to construct one if it exists. Then, we relax the infinite-sites assumption and develop an integer linear programming formulation to reconstruct asexual diploid genealogies with the minimum number of homoplasy (back or recurrent mutation) events. We apply our algorithms on simulated data sets with sizes of biological interest.

  11. Functional anatomy of haploid and diploid rabbit spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, D

    1979-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of surface replicas of haploid and diploid rabbit spermatozoa after treatment with various chemical media have shown that the various structural components of the diploid sperm head possess the same stabilities and labilities as those of the haploid. Therefore, at least in terms of functional anatomy, diploid rabbit spermatozoa should be capable of penetrating the egg investments and undergoing syngamy. PMID:443919

  12. [Infrared spectroscopic analysis of Guilin watermelon frost products].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-lan; Chen, Xiao-kang; Xu, Yong-qun; Sun, Su-qin; Zhou, Qun; Lu, Wen-guan

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze different products of Guilin watermelon frost by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) under thermal perturbation. The structural information of the samples indicates that samples from the same factory but of different brands had some dissimilarities in the IR spectra, and the type and content of accessories of them were different compared with conventional IR spectra of samples, peaks at 638 and 616 cm(-1) all arise from anhydrous sodium sulfate in watermelon frost spray and watermelon frost capsule; the characteristic absorption peaks of the sucrose, dextrin or other accessories can be seen clearly in the spectra of watermelon frost throat-clearing buccal tablets, watermelon frost throat tablets and watermelon frost lozenge. And the IR spectra of watermelon frost lozenge is very similar to the IR spectra of sucrose, so it can be easily proved that the content of sucrose in watermelon frost lozenge is high. In the 2D-IR correlation spectra, the samples presented the differences in the position, number and relative intensity of autopeaks and correlation peak clusters. Consequently, the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FTIR, second derivative infrared spectra and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information about main chemical constituents in medical materials, but also analyze and identify the type and content of accessories in Guilin watermelon frost. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research. PMID:23156761

  13. [Infrared spectroscopic analysis of Guilin watermelon frost products].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-lan; Chen, Xiao-kang; Xu, Yong-qun; Sun, Su-qin; Zhou, Qun; Lu, Wen-guan

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze different products of Guilin watermelon frost by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) under thermal perturbation. The structural information of the samples indicates that samples from the same factory but of different brands had some dissimilarities in the IR spectra, and the type and content of accessories of them were different compared with conventional IR spectra of samples, peaks at 638 and 616 cm(-1) all arise from anhydrous sodium sulfate in watermelon frost spray and watermelon frost capsule; the characteristic absorption peaks of the sucrose, dextrin or other accessories can be seen clearly in the spectra of watermelon frost throat-clearing buccal tablets, watermelon frost throat tablets and watermelon frost lozenge. And the IR spectra of watermelon frost lozenge is very similar to the IR spectra of sucrose, so it can be easily proved that the content of sucrose in watermelon frost lozenge is high. In the 2D-IR correlation spectra, the samples presented the differences in the position, number and relative intensity of autopeaks and correlation peak clusters. Consequently, the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FTIR, second derivative infrared spectra and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information about main chemical constituents in medical materials, but also analyze and identify the type and content of accessories in Guilin watermelon frost. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.

  14. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  15. Squash vein yellowing virus affecting watermelon in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline outside of the continental U.S. This has implications for management of cucurbit virus diseases throughout the Caribbean....

  16. Morphological transformations of silver nanoparticles in seedless photochemical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ya; Zhang, Congyun; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Dongjie; Fu, Yizheng; Moeendarbari, Sina; Pickering, Christopher S.; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Yaqing

    2016-05-01

    Photochemical synthesis is an easily controlled and reliable method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanoparticles with various morphologies. In this work, we have systematically investigated the seedless photochemical synthesis of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles with and without PVP as surface capping agent. The time evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles during the synthesis process are studied using UV-visible spectra, optical images and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the light irradiation precisely controls the start and termination of the reaction, and the presence or absence of PVP greatly affects the morphology evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles. With PVP as the surface capping agent, Ag nanoparticles grow into decahedra or prism by the deposition of Ag atoms on {111} or {110} facets through epitaxial growth. However, a different morphology evolution could happen when Ag nanoparticle is synthesized without PVP as surface capping agent. In this case, Ag nanoparticles can fuse into the decahedrons through an edge-selective particle fusion mechanism, which involves attachment, rotation and realignment of Ag nanoparticles. This process was evidenced with HRTEM images at the different stages of the transformation from Ag colloid to decahedra nanoparticles. Oriented attachment and Ostwald ripening also play important role in the transformation process.

  17. Shock-Strength Determination With Seeded and Seedless Laser Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, G. C.; Meyers, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Two nonintrusive laser diagnostics were independently used to demonstrate the measurement of time-averaged and spatially-resolved pressure change across a twodimensional (2-D) shock wave. The first method is Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) which uses water seeding and generates 2-D maps of 3-orthogonal components of velocity. A DGV-measured change in flow direction behind an oblique shock provides an indirect determination of pressure jump across the shock, when used with the known incoming Mach number and ideal shock relations (or Prandtl-Meyer flow equations for an expansion fan). This approach was demonstrated at Mach 2 on 2-D shocks and expansions generated from a flat plate at angles-of-attack approx. equals -2.4deg and +0.6deg, respectively. This technique also works for temperature jump (as well as pressure) and for normal shocks (as well as oblique). The second method, laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA), is a seedless approach that was used to generate 1-D spatial profiles of streamwise Mach number, sound speed, pressure, and temperature across the same shock waves. Excellent agreement was obtained between the DGV and LITA methods, suggesting that either technique is viable for noninvasive shock-strength measurements.

  18. Seedless Laser Velocimetry Using Heterodyne Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A need exists for a seedless equivalent of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for use in low-turbulence or supersonic flows or elsewhere where seeding is undesirable or impractical. A compact laser velocimeter using heterodyne non-resonant laser-induced thermal acoustics (LITA) to measure a single component of velocity is described. Neither molecular (e.g. NO2) nor particulate seed is added to the flow. In non-resonant LITA two beams split from a short-pulse pump laser are crossed; interference produces two counterpropagating sound waves by electrostriction. A CW probe laser incident on the sound waves at the proper angle is directed towards a detector. Measurement of the beating between the Doppler-shifted light and a highly attenuated portion of the probe beam allows determination of one component of flow velocity, speed of sound, and temperature. The sound waves essentially take the place of the particulate seed used in LDV. The velocimeter was used to study the flow behind a rearward-facing step in NASA Langley Research Center's Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel. Comparison is made with pitot-static probe data in the freestream over the range 0 m/s - 55 m/s. Comparison with LDV is made in the recirculation region behind the step and in a well-developed boundary layer in front of the step. Good agreement is found in all cases.

  19. Evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds during ripening of 'superior seedless' grapes.

    PubMed

    Hellín, Pilar; Manso, Angela; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2010-05-26

    The evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds was studied during ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Superior Seedless' grapes in two consecutive years. The major free detected compounds were citral, geraniol, and benzyl alcohol whereas geraniol, citral, nerol, citronellol, dienediol I, linalol oxide I, linalol oxide II, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were identified in the glycosidically bound fraction. Concentrations of the main free terpene alcohols responsible for 'Superior Seedless' aroma decreased during grape development, and bound compounds became predominant at grape maturity. Calculation of odor activity values showed that geraniol was the most active odorant followed to a lesser extent by citral and nerol. With regard to phenolic compound evolution, flavan-3-ols and flavonols were maximal at veraison and decreased throughout the ripening, stilbenes content decreased from the first stage, and total phenolics increased to show a maximum in the ripe grapes. At ripening, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin were the main compounds detected in 'Superior Seedless'. PMID:20438135

  20. Transcriptional regulation of lycopene metabolism mediated by rootstock during the ripening of grafted watermelons.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Liu, Peng; Cao, Lei; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Liqiang; Lv, Huifang; Bie, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Rootstocks have comprehensive effects on lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits. However, little is known about lycopene metabolic regulation in grafted watermelon. To address this problem, parallel changes in lycopene contents and the expression of its metabolic genes were analyzed during the fruit ripening of nongrafted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd, pumpkin, and wild watermelon. Results showed that rootstocks mediated the transcriptional regulations of lycopene accumulation in different ways. Bottle gourd and wild watermelon promoted lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits by upregulating the biosynthetic genes phytoene synthase (PSY) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), and downregulating the catabolic genes β-carotene hydroxylase (CHYB), zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD). However, pumpkin did not affect lycopene accumulation by upregulating both biosynthetic and catabolic genes. The rootstock-dependent characteristic of lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits provided an alternative model for investigating lycopene metabolic regulation. PMID:27507492

  1. Utility of Grafting for Managing Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  2. Grafting for Management of Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  3. Transcriptional regulation of lycopene metabolism mediated by rootstock during the ripening of grafted watermelons.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Liu, Peng; Cao, Lei; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Liqiang; Lv, Huifang; Bie, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Rootstocks have comprehensive effects on lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits. However, little is known about lycopene metabolic regulation in grafted watermelon. To address this problem, parallel changes in lycopene contents and the expression of its metabolic genes were analyzed during the fruit ripening of nongrafted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd, pumpkin, and wild watermelon. Results showed that rootstocks mediated the transcriptional regulations of lycopene accumulation in different ways. Bottle gourd and wild watermelon promoted lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits by upregulating the biosynthetic genes phytoene synthase (PSY) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), and downregulating the catabolic genes β-carotene hydroxylase (CHYB), zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD). However, pumpkin did not affect lycopene accumulation by upregulating both biosynthetic and catabolic genes. The rootstock-dependent characteristic of lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits provided an alternative model for investigating lycopene metabolic regulation.

  4. Physiological investigation of gold nanorods toward watermelon.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yujie; Li, Junli; Ren, Hongxuan; Huang, Jin; Yuan, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phytotoxicity and oxidant stress of the gold nanorods toward watermelon, and hence give a quantitative risk assessment of both seeds and plants phase. The seed germination, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the contents of soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) have been measured while the plant roots were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the gold nanorods significantly promoted the root elongation. Furthermore, the results on the enzymes activities of plant indicated that oxidative stress happened in the plant treated with gold nanorods. However, the gold nanorods resulted in the phytotoxicity toward plant especially at high concentration. The TEM images of the plant roots with and without the treatment of gold nanorods showed the significant different size of starch granules. In conclusion, significant physiological changes of plant occurred after treatment with the gold nanorods. PMID:25936063

  5. The evolution of haploid, diploid and polymorphic haploid-diploid life cycles: the role of meiotic mutation.

    PubMed

    Hall, D W

    2000-10-01

    Here I present a simple population genetic model to investigate the evolution of polymorphic haploid-diploid life cycles. The key feature of the model is the assumption of mutation occurring during meiosis. I show that, in addition to regions favoring haploid or diploid life cycles, there are substantial regions of the parameter space under which polymorphic haploid-diploid life cycles are expected to evolve.

  6. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing...

  7. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing...

  8. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing...

  9. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing...

  10. 76 FR 42009 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and Importer Representation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and... changes the boundaries of all seven districts under the Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan (Plan) to reapportion the producer, handler, and importer memberships on the National Watermelon Promotion Board...

  11. 76 FR 25619 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and Importer Representation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Redistricting and... proposed rule invites comments on changing the boundaries of all seven districts under the Watermelon... National Watermelon Promotion Board (Board). In addition, the Board is adding two importer seats based...

  12. Impact of five cover crop green manures and Actinovate on Fusarium Wilt of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triploid watermelon cultivars are grown on more than 2,023 ha in Maryland and in Delaware. Triploid watermelons have little host resistance to Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum). The effects of four different fall-planted cover crops that were tilled in the spring as gree...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.521 - Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. 1210... WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1210.521 Reports of disposition of exempted watermelons. The Board may require reports by handlers or importers on the handling/importing...

  14. Isolation and genetic mapping of NBS-LRR disease resistance gene analogs in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-six watermelon disease resistance gene analogs (WRGA) were isolated from genotypes possessing disease resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum races 0, 1, and 2, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain, cucumber mosaic virus, and watermelon mosaic virus. Deg...

  15. Production of androgenetic diploid rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J E; Thorgaard, G H

    1985-01-01

    Haploid androgenesis was induced in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) when eggs were irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation prior to fertilization. Diploidy was restored to the androgenetic haploid zygotes by suppression of first cleavage division using hydrostatic pressure. Peak survival in the androgenetic diploid lots (32.5-38.9 percent of control) occurred when a pressure shock of 9000 pounds per square inch lasting from one to three minutes was applied to the eggs 345 minutes post-fertilization. Chromosomal analysis confirmed diploidy in the androgenetic individuals and suggested that YY rainbow trout are viable to at least the "eyed stage" of development. Inheritance patterns at two loci confirmed all-paternal inheritance. The relatively high yields of completely homozygous androgenetic rainbow trout and the potential for the use of androgenesis in the production of inbred lines and in genetic studies indicate that androgenesis may become a valuable tool in fish research and breeding.

  16. Analysis and residue levels of forchlorfenuron (CPPU) in watermelons.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Antonio; Piedra, Luis; Aguilera, Ana; Boulaid, Mourad; Camacho, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the application of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) for analysis of residues of forchlorfenuron (CPPU), a new plant growth regulator, in watermelons, after a sample preparation step based on the buffered Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe extraction method. Analytical determinations were carried out in a triple quadrupole system fitted with an electrospray interphase operating in the positive ionisation mode (ESI+). Three simultaneous MS-MS transitions of the quasi-molecular ion m/z 248 (precursor ion) were monitored for data acquisition (248 > 129, 248 > 155, and 248 > 248), using the transition 248 > 129 for quantitation. Recovery studies on watermelons at levels of 1-200 microg/kg, performing five replicates at each level and using bracketing single-level calibration with matrix-matched standards for quantitation, gave forchlorfenuron mean recoveries ranging from 82 to 106% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 18%. The limit of determination was established at 1 microg/kg. The method was applied to evaluate the persistence of forchlorfenuron residues in watermelons grown in plastic greenhouses, after applying an individual spray treatment to the flower ovary at the anthesis stage (45 mu g/flower and 60 mu g/flower for cv "Extazy" and cv "reina de corazones" watermelons, respectively). One month after treatment, 20 "Extazy" watermelon units (1.5-2 kg/unit) and 20 "Reina de corazones" watermelon units (4-5 kg/unit) were collected and analyzed individually. None of the samples contained forchlorfenuron residues higher than 1 microg/kg.

  17. Dielectric spectroscopy of watermelons for quality sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Stuart O.; Guo, Wen-chuan; Trabelsi, Samir; Kays, Stanley J.

    2007-07-01

    Dielectric properties of four small-sized watermelon cultivars, grown and harvested to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and an impedance analyser over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Probe measurements were made on the external surface of the melons and also on tissue samples from the edible internal tissue. Moisture content and soluble solids content (SSC) were measured for internal tissue samples, and SSC (sweetness) was used as the quality factor for correlation with the dielectric properties. Individual dielectric constant and loss factor correlations with SSC were low, but a high correlation was obtained between the SSC and permittivity from a complex-plane plot of dielectric constant and loss factor, each divided by SSC. However, SSC prediction from the dielectric properties by this relationship was not as high as expected (coefficient of determination about 0.4). Permittivity data (dielectric constant and loss factor) for the melons are presented graphically to show their relationships with frequency for the four melon cultivars and for external surface and internal tissue measurements. A dielectric relaxation for the external surface measurements, which may be attributable to a combination of bound water, Maxwell-Wagner, molecular cluster or ion-related effects, is also illustrated. Coefficients of determination for complex-plane plots, moisture content and SSC relationship, and penetration depth are also shown graphically. Further studies are needed for determining the practicality of sensing melon quality from their dielectric properties.

  18. Evolution of haploid selection in predominantly diploid organisms

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Sarah P.; Scott, Michael F.; Immler, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Diploid organisms manipulate the extent to which their haploid gametes experience selection. Animals typically produce sperm with a diploid complement of most proteins and RNA, limiting selection on the haploid genotype. Plants, however, exhibit extensive expression in pollen, with actively transcribed haploid genomes. Here we analyze models that track the evolution of genes that modify the strength of haploid selection to predict when evolution intensifies and when it dampens the “selective arena” within which male gametes compete for fertilization. Considering deleterious mutations, evolution leads diploid mothers to strengthen selection among haploid sperm/pollen, because this reduces the mutation load inherited by their diploid offspring. If, however, selection acts in opposite directions in haploids and diploids (“ploidally antagonistic selection”), mothers evolve to reduce haploid selection to avoid selectively amplifying alleles harmful to their offspring. Consequently, with maternal control, selection in the haploid phase either is maximized or reaches an intermediate state, depending on the deleterious mutation rate relative to the extent of ploidally antagonistic selection. By contrast, evolution generally leads diploid fathers to mask mutations in their gametes to the maximum extent possible, whenever masking (e.g., through transcript sharing) increases the average fitness of a father’s gametes. We discuss the implications of this maternal–paternal conflict over the extent of haploid selection and describe empirical studies needed to refine our understanding of haploid selection among seemingly diploid organisms. PMID:26669442

  19. Tetraploid Artemisia annua hairy roots produce more artemisinin than diploids.

    PubMed

    De Jesus-Gonzalez, L; Weathers, P J

    2003-04-01

    Hairy root cultures of diploid Artemisia annua L. (clone YUT16) grow rapidly and produce the antimalarial sesquiterpene artemisinin. Little is known about how polyploidy affects the growth of transformed hairy roots and the production of secondary metabolites. Using colchicine, we produced four stable tetraploid clones of A. annua L. from the YUT16 hairy root clone. Analysis showed major differences in growth and artemisinin production compared to the diploid clone. Tetraploid clones produced up to six times more artemisinin than the diploid parent. This study provides an initial step in increasing our understanding of the role of polyploidy in secondary metabolite production, especially in hairy roots. PMID:12789527

  20. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultivars from three locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers of fresh fruit and vegetables face increasing production costs and more intense international market competition. Maximizing marketability by offering high quality produce that is also highly nutritious gives new market niches for some crops, such as watermelons, if appropriate germplasm ...

  1. Crown blight of melons and crown decline of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cucurbits (family Cucurbitaceae) form a diverse group of species grown around the world under many different conditions and for many different purposes. The major cultivated types include cucumber, melon (cantaloupe or muskmelon, honeydew, etc.), watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. Minor cultivated...

  2. Permittivities of watermelon pulp and juice and correlation with quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permittivities from 10 to 4500 MHz at 24 'C were measured on pulp and juice of watermelons of different maturities with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer. The dielectric constant of both materials decreased monotonically with increasing frequency and loss factor had minimum at ab...

  3. The Height and Range of Watermelons without Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    We determine the weak limit of the distribution of the random variables "height" and "range" on the set of p-watermelons without wall restriction as the number of steps tends to infinity. Additionally, we provide asymptotics for the moments of the random variable "height".

  4. Organic weed control in certified organic watermelon production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma to determine the impact of organic production systems on weed control and watermelon (Citrullus l...

  5. Evaluation of Reflex (fomesafen) herbicide for watermelon in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective preemergence herbicides are needed for weed control in watermelon grown from transplants. Reflex (fomesafen) was found to be effective and to exhibit crop safety in southeast USA. Trials were conducted during 2011 and 2012 in southeast Oklahoma to determine if this product would be useful...

  6. Quantifying the mutational meltdown in diploid populations.

    PubMed

    Coron, Camille; Méléard, Sylvie; Porcher, Emmanuelle; Robert, Alexandre

    2013-05-01

    Mutational meltdown, in which demographic and genetic processes mutually reinforce one another to accelerate the extinction of small populations, has been poorly quantified despite its potential importance in conservation biology. Here we present a model-based framework to study and quantify the mutational meltdown in a finite diploid population that is evolving continuously in time and subject to resource competition. We model slightly deleterious mutations affecting the population demographic parameters and study how the rate of mutation fixation increases as the genetic load increases, a process that we investigate at two timescales: an ecological scale and a mutational scale. Unlike most previous studies, we treat population size as a random process in continuous time. We show that as deleterious mutations accumulate, the decrease in mean population size accelerates with time relative to a null model with a constant mean fixation time. We quantify this mutational meltdown via the change in the mean fixation time after each new mutation fixation, and we show that the meltdown appears less severe than predicted by earlier theoretical work. We also emphasize that mean population size alone can be a misleading index of the risk of population extinction, which could be better evaluated with additional information on demographic parameters.

  7. Selection at the Haploid and Diploid Phases: Cyclical Variation

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Evelyn P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers a deterministic model, where selection acts at both the diploid and haploid phases of development. The stability criteria for the maintenance of a protected polymorphism are derived. The implications of the model are examined through several examples, with emphasis on the comparison of these conditions to those of models that view selection as acting only at the diploid or haploid phases. It is found that the consideration of both phases broadens the conditions over such models. PMID:17248758

  8. Niche differentiation between diploid and hexaploid Aster amellus.

    PubMed

    Raabová, Jana; Fischer, Markus; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2008-12-01

    The maintenance of separated diploid and polyploid populations within a contact zone is possible due to both prezygotic and postzygotic isolation mechanisms. Niche differentiation between two cytotypes may be an important prezygotic isolating mechanism and can be studied using reciprocal transplant experiments. We investigated niche differentiation between diploid and hexaploid Aster amellus in their contact zone in the Czech Republic. Diploid populations are confined to habitats with low productivity, whereas hexaploid populations occur in habitats with both low and high productivity. Thus, we chose three diploid populations and six hexaploid populations, three in each of the two different habitat types. We analyzed habitat characteristics and carried out reciprocal transplant experiments in the field using both seeds and adult plants. Sites of diploid and hexaploid populations differed significantly in vegetation and soil properties. The mean number of juveniles was higher at sites of home ploidy level than at sites of foreign ploidy level, suggesting niche differentiation between the two cytotypes. On the other hand, transplanted adult plants survived at all sites and juvenile plants were able to establish at some sites of the foreign cytotype. Furthermore, the mean number of juveniles, survival, and flowering percentages were higher at home sites than at foreign sites, indicating local adaptation. We conclude that niche differentiation between the two cytotypes and local adaptation within each cytotype may contribute to the maintenance of diploid and hexaploid populations of A. amellus in their contact zone. Moreover, further factors, such as differences in flowering phenology and exclusion of minority cytotypes, should also be considered.

  9. The draft genome of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and resequencing of 20 diverse accessions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Honghe; Salse, Jerome; Lucas, William J; Zhang, Haiying; Zheng, Yi; Mao, Linyong; Ren, Yi; Wang, Zhiwen; Min, Jiumeng; Guo, Xiaosen; Murat, Florent; Ham, Byung-Kook; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Gao, Shan; Huang, Mingyun; Xu, Yimin; Zhong, Silin; Bombarely, Aureliano; Mueller, Lukas A; Zhao, Hong; He, Hongju; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Tan, Tao; Pang, Erli; Lin, Kui; Hu, Qun; Kuang, Hanhui; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Bo; Liu, Jingan; Kou, Qinghe; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Jiang, Jiao; Gong, Guoyi; Klee, Kathrin; Schoof, Heiko; Huang, Ying; Hu, Xuesong; Dong, Shanshan; Liang, Dequan; Wang, Juan; Wu, Kui; Xia, Yang; Zhao, Xiang; Zheng, Zequn; Xing, Miao; Liang, Xinming; Huang, Bangqing; Lv, Tian; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yi, Hongping; Li, Ruiqiang; Wu, Mingzhu; Levi, Amnon; Zhang, Xingping; Giovannoni, James J; Wang, Jun; Li, Yunfu; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is an important cucurbit crop grown throughout the world. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis provided an evolutionary scenario for the origin of the 11 watermelon chromosomes derived from a 7-chromosome paleohexaploid eudicot ancestor. Resequencing of 20 watermelon accessions representing three different C. lanatus subspecies produced numerous haplotypes and identified the extent of genetic diversity and population structure of watermelon germplasm. Genomic regions that were preferentially selected during domestication were identified. Many disease-resistance genes were also found to be lost during domestication. In addition, integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses yielded important insights into aspects of phloem-based vascular signaling in common between watermelon and cucumber and identified genes crucial to valuable fruit-quality traits, including sugar accumulation and citrulline metabolism.

  10. Ancestries of a recombining diploid population.

    PubMed

    Sainudiin, R; Thatte, B; Véber, A

    2016-01-01

    We derive the exact one-step transition probabilities of the number of lineages that are ancestral to a random sample from the current generation of a bi-parental population that is evolving under the discrete Wright-Fisher model with n diploid individuals. Our model allows for a per-generation recombination probability of r . When r = 1, our model is equivalent to Chang's (Adv Appl Probab 31:1002-1038, 1999) model for the karyotic pedigree. When r = 0, our model is equivalent to Kingman's (Stoch Process Appl 13:235-248, 1982) discrete coalescent model for the cytoplasmic tree or sub-karyotic tree containing a DNA locus that is free of intra-locus recombination. When 0 < r < 1 our model can be thought to track a sub-karyotic ancestral graph containing a DNA sequence from an autosomal chromosome that has an intra-locus recombination probability r . Thus, our family of models indexed by r ∈ [0, 1] connects Kingman's discrete coalescent to Chang's pedigree in a continuous way as r goes from 0 to 1. For large populations, we also study three properties of the ancestral process corresponding to a given r ∈ (0, 1): the time Tn to a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the population, the time Un at which all individuals are either common ancestors of all present day individuals or ancestral to none of them, and the fraction of individuals that are common ancestors at time Un. These results generalize the three main results of Chang's (Adv Appl Probab 31:1002-1038, 1999). When we appropriately rescale time and recombination probability by the population size, our model leads to the continuous time Markov chain called the ancestral recombination graph of Hudson (Theor Popul Biol 23:183-201, 1983) and Griffiths (The two-locus ancestral graph, Institute of Mathematical Statistics 100-117, 1991). PMID:25925241

  11. Accumulation of weathered pp'-DDE in xylem sap of grafted watermelon.

    PubMed

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar

    2012-04-01

    Movement of weathered p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE) from contaminated soil to the rhizosphere pore water to the xylem sap of grafted watermelon was studied under green house conditions. p,p'-DDE concentrations in pore water and xylem sap was compared in intact plants, homografted, and compatible heterografts of Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo and Citrullus lanatus plants. An average p,p'-DDE concentrations in pore water of contaminated soil ranged from 0.36 microg/L to 0.55 microg/L and there were no statistically significant among the cultivars. Conversely, the xylem sap p,p'-DDE concentration of heterografted watermelon having a zucchini rootstock and watermelon scion was 71 microg/L and it was greater than intact watermelon plants (0.49 microg/L) but less than that of intact plants of zucchini (141 microg/L). Homografting showed no effect on xylem sap p,p'-DDE concentrations of the identical cultivars. The bio-concentration factors (BCFs) which is an average p,p'-DDE concentration in xylem sap over average p,p'-DDE in pore water were 344, 325, 197, 1.28, and 0.89 for intact plant of zucchini, homografted zucchini, heterografted watermelon, homografted watermelon, and intact plant of watermelon, respectively. Xylem sap p,p'-DDE concentrations of the heterografted watermelon plants were clearly influenced by plant phylogeny and enhanced by the zucchini rootstock compared to intact watermelon plants. PMID:22567720

  12. Watermelon consumption improves inflammation and antioxidant capacity in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Hartig, Nicole; Kaufman, Katy; Hooshmand, Shirin; Figueroa, Arturo; Kern, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P< .05). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in watermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (P< .05). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in DSS-treated rats when watermelon was consumed (P< .05). Fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression was significantly downregulated in the watermelon group without DSS (P< .05). These findings indicate that watermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid

  13. Development and evaluation of quanitative early monitoring techniques for Squash vein yellowing virus, the cause of watermelon vine decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline caused by whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is an emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. Although the late stage symptoms of watermelon vine decline are basically diagnostic for the presence of SqV...

  14. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  15. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  16. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  17. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  18. 40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic... Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow...

  19. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are three generally accepted Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) physiological races (0, 1, and 2) that infect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Among them, race 1 is the most prevalent on watermelon throughout the world, while race 2 is highly aggressive to all commercial watermelon cultivar...

  20. Adsorption study of Ammonia Nitrogen by watermelon rind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, A.; Yusof, L.; Beddu, N. S.; Galasin, N.; Lee, P. Y.; Lee, R. N. S.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    The utilization of fruit waste for low-cost adsorbents as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing ammonia nitrogen from wastewater has been reviewed. The adsorption studies were conducted as a function of contact time and adsorbent dosage and it were carried out on four different adsorbents; fresh watermelon rind and modified watermelon rind with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4). Adsorbents were tested for characterization by using zeta potential test and all samples shows negative values thus makes it favourable for the adsorption process. The batch experimental result showed that adsorption process is rapid and equilibrium was established within 40 minutes of contact time. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate amounted in range of 96% to 99%, and the adsorption capacities were in range of 1.21 to 1.24 mg/g for all four different types of adsorbents used.

  1. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  2. Capsicum annum, a new host of watermelon mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Kazhal

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Kurdistan province, Iran was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and partial characterization of coat protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of WMV infecting C. annuum, adding a new host to list of more than 170 species infected by this virus.

  3. Lipoxygenase and Hydroperoxide Lyase in Germinating Watermelon Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Brady A.; Zimmerman, Don C.

    1976-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.1.13) was found in seedlings of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai (watermelon). The enzyme has pH optima of 4.4 and 5.5 and is inhibited by 0.2 mM nordihydroguaiaretic acid. It is present in two functional units with estimated molecular weights of 120,000 and 240,000, respectively. A new enzyme, tentatively termed hydroperoxide lyase, has been partially purified from watermelon seedlings. The enzyme, located principally in the region of the hypocotyl-root junction, catalyzes the conversion of 13-l-hydroperoxy-cis-9-trans-11-octadecadienoic acid to 12-oxo-trans-10-dodecenoic acid and hexanal. The hydroperoxide lyase enzyme from watermelon has a molecular weight in excess of 250,000, a pH optimum in the range of 6 to 6.5, and is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. Its presence has also been demonstrated in other cucurbits. The maximum activity of both enzymes occurs on the 6th day of germination. The identification of the products of the hydroperoxide lyase reaction suggests that lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase may be involved in the conversion of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids to traumatic acid (trans-2-dodecenedioic acid). PMID:16659569

  4. Powdery mildew resistant cucurbit rootstocks confer tolerance to grafted susceptible watermelon scions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open fields. We have developed watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible watermelon cultivar Mickey Lee (ML) was g...

  5. MSW-28 a full flavor crisp watermelon line with high lycopene and medium brix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional breeding techniques have increased the immediately-available sugar content in watermelon, up to 14%. This results in a sweet flavor but greatly limits the watermelon serving size for people concerned about dietary sugar intake. The Agricultural Research Service of the United States De...

  6. Broad Mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) infestation and injury in watermelon and potential sources of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the summer of 2006, we observed severe broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) injury and infestations on watermelon plant introductions (PI) and commercial cultivars grown in the field in Charleston, SC. Broad mites have previously not been reported on watermelons in the U.S.A. However, the...

  7. Is Grafting Useful for Managing Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm lines, four Lagenaria siceraria cultivars, one Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested with the southern root-knot nemat...

  8. Fruit age and development of Phytophthora fruit rot on resistant and susceptible watermelon lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is an emerging disease in most watermelon producing regions of Southeast U.S. and has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers especially in GA, SC, and NC. We recently released four germplasm lines (USVL203-PFR, USVL020-PFR, USVL782-PFR,...

  9. First Report Of Vine Decline Of Mature Watermelon Plants Caused By Olpidium Bornovanus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Olpidium bornovanus as a root pathogen of field-grown watermelon, and describes its association with a late season watermelon vine decline in the field. This report provides an overview of this fungus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regu...

  10. An improved assay for detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli in watermelon and melon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of a watermelon seedling blight and fruit blotch (WFB), has emerged as a serious seedborne pathogen of watermelon, melons, pumpkin, and citron. Although attempts have been made to develop a simple routine laboratory seed assay to detect the...

  11. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Cucurbit Species Used as Rootstocks for Grafting Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increased interest in the United States in grafting watermelon on cucurbit rootstocks to control soilborne diseases. Several cucurbit species including Lagenaria siceraria, Cucurbita spp. and Benincasa hispida (wax gourds) have been used in Asia as rootstocks for watermelon. In our pre...

  12. Identification and Utility of Markers Linked to the Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance Gene in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is one of the most economically important viruses affecting watermelon in the United States. The ZYMV-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL) is considered a major limitation to commercial watermelon production in the entire United States. Experiments with F2 and BC1 plants, d...

  13. Can You Tell the Density of the Watermelon from This Photograph?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foong, See Kit; Lim, Chim Chai

    2010-01-01

    Based on a photograph, the density of a watermelon floating in a pail of water is estimated with different levels of simplification--with and without consideration of refraction and three-dimensional effects. The watermelon was approximated as a sphere. The results of the theoretical estimations were verified experimentally. (Contains 6 figures.)

  14. A high resolution genetic map anchoring scaffolds of the sequenced watermelon genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high-density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of ...

  15. Common-Path Heterodyne Laser-Induced Thermal Acoustics for Seedless Laser Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger C.; Herring, G. C.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a novel technique for the detection of heterodyne laser-induced thermal acoustics signals, which allows the construction of a highly stable seedless laser velocimeter. A common-path configuration is combined with quadrature detection to provide flow direction, greatly improve robustness to misalignment and vibration, and give reliable velocity measurement at low flow velocities. Comparison with Pitot tube measurements in the freestream of a wind tunnel shows root-mean-square errors of 0.67 m/s over the velocity range 0.55 m/s.

  16. Effects of ambient oxidant air pollution in the San Joaquin Valley on Thompson seedless grapes

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, R.F.; Ashcroft, R.

    1984-01-01

    Mature Thompson seedless grape vines were enclosed in specially constructed plastic covered chambers supplied with carbon filtered and non-filtered (ambient) air from time of bud break through leaf drop. Effects on vegetative growth and fruiting were determined for three seasons. No effects on fruit production were measured the first season after covering but vegetative growth increased 12% in chambers supplied with filtered air. By the third season fruit yields were 27.5% higher in the filtered as compared with ambient chambers. The only visible symptoms associated with exposure to the oxidants was accelerated senescence which appeared 3 weeks to 1 month earlier on vines receiving ambient or nonfiltered air.

  17. Comparative transcript profiling of gene expression between seedless Ponkan mandarin and its seedy wild type during floral organ development by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Seedlessness is an important agronomic trait for citrus, and male sterility (MS) is one main cause of seedless citrus fruit. However, the molecular mechanism of citrus seedlessness remained not well explored. Results An integrative strategy combining suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library with cDNA microarray was employed to study the underlying mechanism of seedlessness of a Ponkan mandarin seedless mutant (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Screening with custom microarray, a total of 279 differentially expressed clones were identified, and 133 unigenes (43 contigs and 90 singletons) were obtained after sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) distribution based on biological process suggested that the majority of differential genes are involved in metabolic process and respond to stimulus and regulation of biology process; based on molecular function they function as DNA/RNA binding or have catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity. A gene encoding male sterility-like protein was highly up-regulated in the seedless mutant compared with the wild type, while several transcription factors (TFs) such as AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC and C2C2-GATA zinc-finger domain TFs were down-regulated. Conclusion Our research highlighted some candidate pathways that participated in the citrus male gametophyte development and could be beneficial for seedless citrus breeding in the future. PMID:22897898

  18. Selection on Meiosis Genes in Diploid and Tetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kevin M.; Arnold, Brian; Xue, Katherine; Šurinová, Maria; O’Connell, Jeremy; Bomblies, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation is critical for fertility across eukaryotes, and core meiotic processes are well conserved even between kingdoms. Nevertheless, recent work in animals has shown that at least some meiosis genes are highly diverse or strongly differentiated among populations. What drives this remains largely unknown. We previously showed that autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa evolved stable meiosis, likely through reduced crossover rates, and that associated with this there is strong evidence for selection in a subset of meiosis genes known to affect axis formation, synapsis, and crossover frequency. Here, we use genome-wide data to study the molecular evolution of 70 meiosis genes in a much wider sample of A. arenosa. We sample the polyploid lineage, a diploid lineage from the Carpathian Mountains, and a more distantly related diploid lineage from the adjacent, but biogeographically distinct Pannonian Basin. We find that not only did selection act on meiosis genes in the polyploid lineage but also independently on a smaller subset of meiosis genes in Pannonian diploids. Functionally related genes are targeted by selection in these distinct contexts, and in two cases, independent sweeps occurred in the same loci. The tetraploid lineage has sustained selection on more genes, has more amino acid changes in each, and these more often affect conserved or potentially functional sites. We hypothesize that Pannonian diploid and tetraploid A. arenosa experienced selection on structural proteins that mediate sister chromatid cohesion, the formation of meiotic chromosome axes, and synapsis, likely for different underlying reasons. PMID:25543117

  19. Assay for mutagenesis in heterozygous diploid human lymphoblasts

    DOEpatents

    Skopek, Thomas R.; Liber, Howard L.; Penman, Bruce W.; Thilly, William G.; Hoppe, IV, Henry

    1981-01-01

    An assay is disclosed for determining mutagenic damage caused by the administration of a known or suspected mutagen to diploid human lymphoblastoid cell lines. The gene locus employed for this assay is the gene for thymidine kinase, uridine kinase, or cytidine deaminase. Since human lymphoblastoid cells contain two genes for these enzymes, heterozygotes of human lymphoblastoid cells are used in this assay.

  20. Fertile diploid drones in africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera adansonii.

    PubMed

    Chaud-Netto, J

    1977-02-15

    59 diploid drones of Apis mellifera adansonii, 12-37 days old, were tested for the presence of semen after provoked ejaculation; 13 drones ejaculated semen enough to be used in an instrumental insemination, but only three on them (5%) furnished 1 mm3 of semen. The problems referring to the attainment of descendants from the 2n drones are briefly discussed.

  1. Does hybridization drive the transition to asexuality in diploid Boechera?

    PubMed

    Beck, James B; Alexander, Patrick J; Allphin, Loreen; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A; Rushworth, Catherine; Bailey, C Donovan; Windham, Michael D

    2012-04-01

    Gametophytic apomixis is a common form of asexual reproduction in plants. Virtually all gametophytic apomicts are polyploids, and some view polyploidy as a prerequisite for the transition to apomixis. However, any causal link between apomixis and polyploidy is complicated by the fact that most apomictic polyploids are allopolyploids, leading some to speculate that hybridization, rather than polyploidy, enables apomixis. Diploid apomixis presents a rare opportunity to isolate the role of hybridization, and a number of diploid apomicts have been documented in the genus Boechera (Brassicaceae). Here, we present the results of a microsatellite study of 1393 morphologically and geographically diverse diploid individuals, evaluating the hypothesis that diploid Boechera apomicts are hybrids. This genus-wide dataset was made possible by the applicability of a core set of microsatellite loci in 69 of the 70 diploid Boechera species and by our ability to successfully genotype herbarium specimens of widely varying ages. With few exceptions, diploid apomicts exhibited markedly high levels of heterozygosity resulting from the combination of disparate genomes. This strongly suggests that most apomictic diploid Boechera lineages are of hybrid origin, and that the genomic consequences of hybridization allow for the transition to gametophytic apomixis in this genus.

  2. Selection on meiosis genes in diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin M; Arnold, Brian; Xue, Katherine; Šurinová, Maria; O'Connell, Jeremy; Bomblies, Kirsten

    2015-04-01

    Meiotic chromosome segregation is critical for fertility across eukaryotes, and core meiotic processes are well conserved even between kingdoms. Nevertheless, recent work in animals has shown that at least some meiosis genes are highly diverse or strongly differentiated among populations. What drives this remains largely unknown. We previously showed that autotetraploid Arabidopsis arenosa evolved stable meiosis, likely through reduced crossover rates, and that associated with this there is strong evidence for selection in a subset of meiosis genes known to affect axis formation, synapsis, and crossover frequency. Here, we use genome-wide data to study the molecular evolution of 70 meiosis genes in a much wider sample of A. arenosa. We sample the polyploid lineage, a diploid lineage from the Carpathian Mountains, and a more distantly related diploid lineage from the adjacent, but biogeographically distinct Pannonian Basin. We find that not only did selection act on meiosis genes in the polyploid lineage but also independently on a smaller subset of meiosis genes in Pannonian diploids. Functionally related genes are targeted by selection in these distinct contexts, and in two cases, independent sweeps occurred in the same loci. The tetraploid lineage has sustained selection on more genes, has more amino acid changes in each, and these more often affect conserved or potentially functional sites. We hypothesize that Pannonian diploid and tetraploid A. arenosa experienced selection on structural proteins that mediate sister chromatid cohesion, the formation of meiotic chromosome axes, and synapsis, likely for different underlying reasons.

  3. Heterozygote advantage as a natural consequence of adaptation in diploids

    PubMed Central

    Sellis, Diamantis; Callahan, Benjamin J.; Petrov, Dmitri A.; Messer, Philipp W.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular adaptation is typically assumed to proceed by sequential fixation of beneficial mutations. In diploids, this picture presupposes that for most adaptive mutations, the homozygotes have a higher fitness than the heterozygotes. Here, we show that contrary to this expectation, a substantial proportion of adaptive mutations should display heterozygote advantage. This feature of adaptation in diploids emerges naturally from the primary importance of the fitness of heterozygotes for the invasion of new adaptive mutations. We formalize this result in the framework of Fisher's influential geometric model of adaptation. We find that in diploids, adaptation should often proceed through a succession of short-lived balanced states that maintain substantially higher levels of phenotypic and fitness variation in the population compared with classic adaptive walks. In fast-changing environments, this variation produces a diversity advantage that allows diploids to remain better adapted compared with haploids despite the disadvantage associated with the presence of unfit homozygotes. The short-lived balanced states arising during adaptive walks should be mostly invisible to current scans for long-term balancing selection. Instead, they should leave signatures of incomplete selective sweeps, which do appear to be common in many species. Our results also raise the possibility that balancing selection, as a natural consequence of frequent adaptation, might play a more prominent role among the forces maintaining genetic variation than is commonly recognized. PMID:22143780

  4. 7 CFR 905.153 - Procedure for determining handlers' permitted quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... three seasons. Each handler's average week shall be computed by adding the total volume of red seedless grapefruit handled in the immediately preceding three seasons and dividing the total by 99. The average week for handlers with less than three previous seasons of shipments shall be calculated by adding...

  5. 7 CFR 905.153 - Procedure for determining handlers' permitted quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... three seasons. Each handler's average week shall be computed by adding the total volume of red seedless grapefruit handled in the immediately preceding three seasons and dividing the total by 99. The average week for handlers with less than three previous seasons of shipments shall be calculated by adding...

  6. 7 CFR 905.153 - Procedure for determining handlers' permitted quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... three seasons. Each handler's average week shall be computed by adding the total volume of red seedless grapefruit handled in the immediately preceding three seasons and dividing the total by 99. The average week for handlers with less than three previous seasons of shipments shall be calculated by adding...

  7. 7 CFR 905.153 - Procedure for determining handlers' permitted quantities of red seedless grapefruit when a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... three seasons. Each handler's average week shall be computed by adding the total volume of red seedless grapefruit handled in the immediately preceding three seasons and dividing the total by 99. The average week for handlers with less than three previous seasons of shipments shall be calculated by adding...

  8. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Wayne W; Bruton, Benny D; Russo, Vincent M

    2009-01-01

    Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v) directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene), but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen) in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v) sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar) or up to 35% (w/v) sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results of this investigation

  9. Molecular, genetic and transcriptional evidence for a role of VvAGL11 in stenospermocarpic seedlessness in grapevine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stenospermocarpy is a mechanism through which certain genotypes of Vitis vinifera L. such as Sultanina produce berries with seeds reduced in size. Stenospermocarpy has not yet been characterized at the molecular level. Results Genetic and physical maps were integrated with the public genomic sequence of Vitis vinifera L. to improve QTL analysis for seedlessness and berry size in experimental progeny derived from a cross of two seedless genotypes. Major QTLs co-positioning for both traits on chromosome 18 defined a 92-kb confidence interval. Functional information from model species including Vitis suggested that VvAGL11, included in this confidence interval, might be the main positional candidate gene responsible for seed and berry development. Characterization of VvAGL11 at the sequence level in the experimental progeny identified several SNPs and INDELs in both regulatory and coding regions. In association analyses performed over three seasons, these SNPs and INDELs explained up to 78% and 44% of the phenotypic variation in seed and berry weight, respectively. Moreover, genetic experiments indicated that the regulatory region has a larger effect on the phenotype than the coding region. Transcriptional analysis lent additional support to the putative role of VvAGL11's regulatory region, as its expression is abolished in seedless genotypes at key stages of seed development. These results transform VvAGL11 into a functional candidate gene for further analyses based on genetic transformation. For breeding purposes, intragenic markers were tested individually for marker assisted selection, and the best markers were those closest to the transcription start site. Conclusion We propose that VvAGL11 is the major functional candidate gene for seedlessness, and we provide experimental evidence suggesting that the seedless phenotype might be caused by variations in its promoter region. Current knowledge of the function of its orthologous genes, its expression

  10. [Effects of straw mulching on soil moisture and watermelon yield in dryland].

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Xia; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Yang, Bao-Ping; Han, Qing-Fang

    2014-07-01

    To explore the effects of straw mulching on soil moisture and yield of watermelon, corn straw was used as mulching materials, and three straw mulch treatments were performed, i. e., whole mulch (WM), rows mulch (SM) and root domain mulch (RM), and non-mulching as control. The results indicated that WM and RM treatments increased significantly soil water storage in 0-120 cm of soil layer under root domain and rows compared with the control during watermelon growth period, and soil water storage of RM was higher than that of SM after growing tendril. Effects of all straw mulch treatments on soil moisture were most obvious from watermelon post-growing tendril to pre-swelling and maturity. With the growth and development of watermelon, the three straw mulch treatments improved soil moisture around root domain, resulting in increased watermelon yields. Compared with the CK, the WM, SM and RM treatments significantly improved the yield and the water use efficiency of watermelon by 24.8%, 11.5% and 15.1%, and 42.7%, 24.3% and 29.4%. The WM with 13500 kg x hm(-2) straw was recommended for watermelon production in arid areas due to its favorable effect on soil storage moisture, yield and water use efficiency.

  11. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology. PMID:26110539

  12. Measurement of internal quality of watermelon by Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Haiqing; Xu, Huirong; Ying, Yibin; Lu, Huishan; Yu, Haiyan

    2006-10-01

    Watermelon is a popular fruit in the world. Soluble solids content (SSC) is major characteristic used for assessing watermelon internal quality. This study was about a method for nondestructive internal quality detection of watermelons by means of visible/Near Infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmittance technique. Vis/NIR transmittance spectra of intact watermelons were acquired using a low-cost commercially available spectrometer when the watermelon was in motion (1.4m/s) and in static state. Spectra data were analyzed by partial least squares (PLS) method. The influences of different data preprocessing and spectra treatments were also investigated. Performance of different models was assessed in terms of root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (r) between the predicted and measured parameter values. Results showed that spectra data preprocessing influenced the performance of the calibration models and the PLS method can provide good results. The nondestructive Vis/NIR measurements provided good estimates of SSC index of watermelon both in motion and in static state, and the predicted values were highly correlated with destructively measured values. The results indicated the feasibility of Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance spectral analysis for predicting watermelon internal quality in a nondestructive way.

  13. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology. PMID:26110539

  14. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  18. Acceptability of minimally processed and irradiated pineapple and watermelon among Brazilian consumers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Behrens, Jorge Herman; Oliveira Souza, Kátia Leani; Martins Vizeu, Dirceu; Hutzler, Beatriz Weltman; Teresa Destro, Maria; Landgraf, Mariza

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the acceptance of MP watermelon and pineapple exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. No significant differences were observed in liking between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and also between doses of 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. Significant differences in sourness (pineapple) or sweetness (watermelon) and between intention of purchase of irradiated and non-irradiated fruits were not observed as well. Results showed that MP watermelon and pineapple could be irradiated with doses up to 2.5 kGy without significant changes in acceptability.

  19. Consumer acceptability of low-sugar watermelon sweetened with non-calorie sweetener by a Native American community.

    PubMed

    Collins, Julie K; Davis, Angela R; Adams, Arin; Manness, Niels; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope M

    2006-01-01

    Watermelons are a good source of lycopene, a carotenoid that exhibits antioxidant activity and may protect against some cancers. However, intake of watermelon may be restricted for individuals who have diabetes or those who limit carbohydrate intake. A low-sugar watermelon was developed at Lane, Oklahoma using traditional plant breeding techniques. The objective of this study was to determine whether the artificially sweetened low-sugar watermelon was acceptable with Native Americans, a group with a high incidence of diabetes. The red flesh from a low-sugar watermelon and a commercial variety of watermelon was removed and cut into cubes. Low and high levels of artificial sweetener were added to the low-sugar watermelon. Students at a Native American school (Grades 1-12) and adults at a Native American Feeding Center were asked to rate how much they liked or disliked the watermelon using a seven-point hedonic scale. Sugar composition, pH, lycopene and other carotenoids were analyzed from samples using established methods. The pH, lycopene, beta-carotene and total carotenoid levels were similar among fruit. Artificially sweetened fruit were rated slightly more acceptable in taste than the commercial control watermelons by both age groups. The low-sugar watermelons were lower in sugar composition but were comparable with conventional melons in all other quality factors and were found acceptable in taste by a broad age group of Native American consumers.

  20. Genomic relationships among diploid and hexaploid species of Andropogon (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Norrmann, G; Hanson, L; Renvoize, S; Leitch, I J

    2004-12-01

    Andropogon is a pantropical grass genus comprising 100-120 species and found mainly in the grasslands of Africa and the Americas. While the genomic relationships between many Andropogon species have been resolved by studying chromosome behavior in interspecific hybrids, relationships between the North and South American diploids have remained elusive. Further, the genome composition of two hexaploid species (including the important forage grass Andropogon lateralis Nees) has been unclear because of the strong hybridization barriers that exist between species. Consequently, genomic in situ hybridization was applied to shed light on these issues. The results confirmed that (i) both the South American (Andropogon selloanus (Hack.) Hack., Andropogon macrothrix Trin.) and North American (Andropogon gyrans Michx.) diploid species shared a common S genome and (ii) the S genome comprises just one of the three genomes in the hexaploids A. lateralis Nees and Andropogon bicornis L. The evolutionary and taxonomic implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. On the Evolution of New Metabolic Functions in Diploid Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Barry G.

    1980-01-01

    Evolution of lactose utilization via the ebg system of Escherichia coli requires both structural gene (ebgA) and regulatory gene (ebgR) mutations. Because evolution of new metabolic functions in diploids might be subject to constraints not present in haploid organisms, merodiploid strains carrying a wild-type and an evolved ebgA allele, or a wild-type and an evolved ebgR allele were constructed. I show that heterozygosity at ebgA does not significantly affect the selective advantage of the evolved ebgA allele; whereas heterozygosity at ebgR eliminates the selective advantage of the evolved ebgR allele. It is suggested that, in diploid organisms, evolution of new functions for systems under negative control would be very difficult. PMID:6790336

  2. [Diploid/triploid mosaicism: a variable but characteristic phenotype].

    PubMed

    Natera-De Benito, Daniel; Poo, Pilar; Gean, Esther; Vicente-Villa, Asunción; García-Cazorla, Angels; Fons-Estupiña, M Carmen

    2014-08-16

    Introduccion. El mosaicismo diploide/triploide es una alteracion cromosomica poco frecuente. La produce un fallo en la division poscigotica durante el desarrollo embrionario. Da lugar a la coexistencia de dos lineas celulares con diferente constitucion cromosomica (46,XX y 69,XXX) en un mismo individuo. Su fenotipo clinico es caracteristico. Las alteraciones pigmentarias con un patron de distribucion que sigue las lineas de Blaschko son el principal signo guia, asi como las alteraciones de otros tejidos derivados del ectodermo. Casos clinicos. Describimos las caracteristicas clinicas de tres pacientes afectos de mosaicismo diploide/triploide y realizamos una comparacion de su fenotipo clinico con el de los casos publicados previamente en la bibliografia. Las alteraciones observadas con mayor frecuencia fueron alteraciones cutaneas, discapacidad intelectual, obesidad troncular, talla baja, hemihipertrofia, y manos pequeñas y estrechas con clino y camptodactilia. Las caracteristicas fenotipicas de nuestros pacientes fueron similares a las de los casos comunicados previamente. Aunque no existe un fenotipo unico y especifico asociado al mosaicismo diploide/triploide, existen malformaciones caracteristicas que conforman un sindrome malformativo bien definido. El cariotipo realizado en linfocitos de sangre periferica en las tres pacientes fue normal, y se logro el diagnostico mediante cariotipo en fibroblastos cultivados tras biopsia de piel hipopigmentada. Conclusiones. La presencia de discapacidad intelectual asociada a obesidad troncular, talla baja, hemihipertrofia o clino y camptodactilia, ademas de las alteraciones cutaneas, debe hacer pensar en la posible existencia de un mosaicismo diploide/triploide. En la mayoria de los casos, es necesario el estudio del cariotipo en los fibroblastos para llegar al diagnostico.

  3. The Diploid Genome Sequence of an Individual Human

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Samuel; Sutton, Granger; Ng, Pauline C; Feuk, Lars; Halpern, Aaron L; Walenz, Brian P; Axelrod, Nelson; Huang, Jiaqi; Kirkness, Ewen F; Denisov, Gennady; Lin, Yuan; MacDonald, Jeffrey R; Pang, Andy Wing Chun; Shago, Mary; Stockwell, Timothy B; Tsiamouri, Alexia; Bafna, Vineet; Bansal, Vikas; Kravitz, Saul A; Busam, Dana A; Beeson, Karen Y; McIntosh, Tina C; Remington, Karin A; Abril, Josep F; Gill, John; Borman, Jon; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Frazier, Marvin E; Scherer, Stephen W; Strausberg, Robert L; Venter, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    Presented here is a genome sequence of an individual human. It was produced from ∼32 million random DNA fragments, sequenced by Sanger dideoxy technology and assembled into 4,528 scaffolds, comprising 2,810 million bases (Mb) of contiguous sequence with approximately 7.5-fold coverage for any given region. We developed a modified version of the Celera assembler to facilitate the identification and comparison of alternate alleles within this individual diploid genome. Comparison of this genome and the National Center for Biotechnology Information human reference assembly revealed more than 4.1 million DNA variants, encompassing 12.3 Mb. These variants (of which 1,288,319 were novel) included 3,213,401 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 53,823 block substitutions (2–206 bp), 292,102 heterozygous insertion/deletion events (indels)(1–571 bp), 559,473 homozygous indels (1–82,711 bp), 90 inversions, as well as numerous segmental duplications and copy number variation regions. Non-SNP DNA variation accounts for 22% of all events identified in the donor, however they involve 74% of all variant bases. This suggests an important role for non-SNP genetic alterations in defining the diploid genome structure. Moreover, 44% of genes were heterozygous for one or more variants. Using a novel haplotype assembly strategy, we were able to span 1.5 Gb of genome sequence in segments >200 kb, providing further precision to the diploid nature of the genome. These data depict a definitive molecular portrait of a diploid human genome that provides a starting point for future genome comparisons and enables an era of individualized genomic information. PMID:17803354

  4. Coexistence analysis of diploid and triploid hybrid water frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apri, M.; Suandi, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-02-01

    A dynamical model for genotype distributions of all hybrid populations of Pelophylax esculentus in the absence of differential survival is studied here. Assuming that under natural condition the parental genotypes LL and RR do not survive into adult stage, the dynamic is then reduced into three-dimensional dynamical system of classes LR, LLR, LRR genotypes. Coexistence of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and LRR) genotypes is analyzed here.

  5. Genome size and genome evolution in diploid Triticeae species.

    PubMed

    Eilam, T; Anikster, Y; Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Sagi-Assif, O; Feldman, M

    2007-11-01

    One of the intriguing issues concerning the dynamics of plant genomes is the occurrence of intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA amount. The aim of this work was to assess the ranges of intraspecific, interspecific, and intergeneric variation in nuclear DNA content of diploid species of the tribe Triticeae (Poaceae) and to examine the relation between life form or habitat and genome size. Altogether, 438 plants representing 272 lines that belong to 22 species were analyzed. Nuclear DNA content was estimated by flow cytometry. Very small intraspecific variation in DNA amount was found between lines of Triticeae diploid species collected from different habitats or between different morphs. In contrast to the constancy in nuclear DNA amount at the intraspecific level, there are significant differences in genome size between the various diploid species. Within the genus Aegilops, the 1C DNA amount ranged from 4.84 pg in A. caudata to 7.52 pg in A. sharonensis; among genera, the 1C DNA amount ranged from 4.18 pg in Heteranthelium piliferum to 9.45 pg in Secale montanum. No evidence was found for a smaller genome size in annual, self-pollinating species relative to perennial, cross-pollinating ones. Diploids that grow in the southern part of the group's distribution have larger genomes than those growing in other parts of the distribution. The contrast between the low variation at the intraspecific level and the high variation at the interspecific one suggests that changes in genome size originated in close temporal proximity to the speciation event, i.e., before, during, or immediately after it. The possible effects of sudden changes in genome size on speciation processes are discussed.

  6. Sexual conflict and the alternation of haploid and diploid generations

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David; Wilczek, Amity

    2006-01-01

    Land plants possess a multicellular diploid stage (sporophyte) that begins development while attached to a multicellular haploid progenitor (gametophyte). Although the closest algal relatives of land plants lack a multicellular sporophyte, they do produce a zygote that grows while attached to the maternal gametophyte. The diploid offspring shares one haploid set of genes with the haploid mother that supplies it with resources and a paternal haploid complement that is not shared with the mother. Sexual conflict can arise within the diploid offspring because the offspring's maternal genome will be transmitted in its entirety to all other sexual and asexual offspring that the mother may produce, but the offspring's paternally derived genes may be absent from these other offspring. Thus, the selective forces favouring the evolution of genomic imprinting may have been present from the origin of modern land plants. In bryophytes, where gametophytes are long-lived and capable of multiple bouts of asexual and sexual reproduction, we predict strong sexual conflict over allocation to sporophytes. Female gametophytes of pteridophytes produce a single sporophyte and often lack means of asexual reproduction. Therefore, sexual conflict is predicted to be attenuated. Finally, we explore similarities among models of mate choice, offspring choice and segregation distortion. PMID:16612891

  7. Extensive Recombination of a Yeast Diploid Hybrid through Meiotic Reversion

    PubMed Central

    Laureau, Raphaëlle; Loeillet, Sophie; Salinas, Francisco; Bergström, Anders; Legoix-Né, Patricia; Liti, Gianni; Nicolas, Alain

    2016-01-01

    In somatic cells, recombination between the homologous chromosomes followed by equational segregation leads to loss of heterozygosity events (LOH), allowing the expression of recessive alleles and the production of novel allele combinations that are potentially beneficial upon Darwinian selection. However, inter-homolog recombination in somatic cells is rare, thus reducing potential genetic variation. Here, we explored the property of S. cerevisiae to enter the meiotic developmental program, induce meiotic Spo11-dependent double-strand breaks genome-wide and return to mitotic growth, a process known as Return To Growth (RTG). Whole genome sequencing of 36 RTG strains derived from the hybrid S288c/SK1 diploid strain demonstrates that the RTGs are bona fide diploids with mosaic recombined genome, derived from either parental origin. Individual RTG genome-wide genotypes are comprised of 5 to 87 homozygous regions due to the loss of heterozygous (LOH) events of various lengths, varying between a few nucleotides up to several hundred kilobases. Furthermore, we show that reiteration of the RTG process shows incremental increases of homozygosity. Phenotype/genotype analysis of the RTG strains for the auxotrophic and arsenate resistance traits validates the potential of this procedure of genome diversification to rapidly map complex traits loci (QTLs) in diploid strains without undergoing sexual reproduction. PMID:26828862

  8. Direct mating between diploid sake strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Shinji; Aritomi, Kazuo; Minohara, Takafumi; Nishizawa, Yoshinori; Hoshida, Hisashi; Kashiwagi, Susumu; Akada, Rinji

    2006-02-01

    Various auxotrophic mutants of diploid heterothallic Japanese sake strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were utilized for selecting mating-competent diploid isolates. The auxotrophic mutants were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and crossed with laboratory haploid tester strains carrying complementary auxotrophic markers. Zygotes were then selected on minimal medium. Sake strains exhibiting a MATa or MATalpha mating type were easily obtained at high frequency without prior sporulation, suggesting that the UV irradiation induced homozygosity at the MAT locus. Flow cytometric analysis of a hybrid showed a twofold higher DNA content than the sake diploid parent, consistent with tetraploidy. By crossing strains of opposite mating type in all possible combinations, a number of hybrids were constructed. Hybrids formed in crosses between traditional sake strains and between a natural nonhaploid isolate and traditional sake strains displayed equivalent fermentation ability without any apparent defects and produced comparable or improved sake. Isolation of mating-competent auxotrophic mutants directly from industrial yeast strains allows crossbreeding to construct polyploids suitable for industrial use without dependence on sporulation.

  9. Genetics of CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII Diploids I. Isolation and Characterization and Meiotic Segregation Pattern of a Homozygous Diploid

    PubMed Central

    Eves, Eva M.; Chiang, Kwen-Sheng

    1982-01-01

    A strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been investigated which, when mated with known wild-types, produces very few viable germination products and transmits its Mendelian markers to more than half of those products. Cytogenetic observations, fluorometric measurements of DNA and genetic data all suggest that the strain, d mt-ery-M3a sr-u-1 is a stable homozygous diploid. This strain has twice as many nuclear chromatin bodies at metaphase and twice as much DNA as its haploid progenitor, and the phenotypes of its meiotic progeny are consistent with predictions based on triploid meiosis. Data from crosses involving d mt-ery-M3a sr-u-1 and from crosses involving hybrid diploids indicate that the frequency of second division segregation increases in triploid zygotes and that mitotic segregation following triploid meiosis is a frequent event which may more often result from mitotic recombination than from chromosome loss. PMID:7095421

  10. Developmental, transcriptome, and genetic alterations associated with parthenocarpy in the grapevine seedless somatic variant Corinto bianco.

    PubMed

    Royo, Carolina; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Nebish, Anna; Martínez, Óscar; Rey, Manuel; Aroutiounian, Rouben; Ibáñez, Javier; Martínez-Zapater, José M

    2016-01-01

    Seedlessness is a relevant trait in grapevine cultivars intended for fresh consumption or raisin production. Previous DNA marker analysis indicated that Corinto bianco (CB) is a parthenocarpic somatic variant of the seeded cultivar Pedro Ximenes (PX). This study compared both variant lines to determine the basis of this parthenocarpic phenotype. At maturity, CB seedless berries were 6-fold smaller than PX berries. The macrogametophyte was absent from CB ovules, and CB was also pollen sterile. Occasionally, one seed developed in 1.6% of CB berries. Microsatellite genotyping and flow cytometry analyses of seedlings generated from these seeds showed that most CB viable seeds were formed by fertilization of unreduced gametes generated by meiotic diplospory, a process that has not been described previously in grapevine. Microarray and RNA-sequencing analyses identified 1958 genes that were differentially expressed between CB and PX developing flowers. Genes downregulated in CB were enriched in gametophyte-preferentially expressed transcripts, indicating the absence of regular post-meiotic germline development in CB. RNA-sequencing was also used for genetic variant calling and 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms distinguishing the CB and PX variant lines were detected. Among these, CB-specific polymorphisms were considered as candidate parthenocarpy-responsible mutations, including a putative deleterious substitution in a HAL2-like protein. Collectively, these results revealed that the absence of a mature macrogametophyte, probably due to meiosis arrest, coupled with a process of fertilization-independent fruit growth, caused parthenocarpy in CB. This study provides a number of grapevine parthenocarpy-responsible candidate genes and shows how genomic approaches can shed light on the genetic origin of woody crop somatic variants. PMID:26454283

  11. Developmental, transcriptome, and genetic alterations associated with parthenocarpy in the grapevine seedless somatic variant Corinto bianco.

    PubMed

    Royo, Carolina; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Nebish, Anna; Martínez, Óscar; Rey, Manuel; Aroutiounian, Rouben; Ibáñez, Javier; Martínez-Zapater, José M

    2016-01-01

    Seedlessness is a relevant trait in grapevine cultivars intended for fresh consumption or raisin production. Previous DNA marker analysis indicated that Corinto bianco (CB) is a parthenocarpic somatic variant of the seeded cultivar Pedro Ximenes (PX). This study compared both variant lines to determine the basis of this parthenocarpic phenotype. At maturity, CB seedless berries were 6-fold smaller than PX berries. The macrogametophyte was absent from CB ovules, and CB was also pollen sterile. Occasionally, one seed developed in 1.6% of CB berries. Microsatellite genotyping and flow cytometry analyses of seedlings generated from these seeds showed that most CB viable seeds were formed by fertilization of unreduced gametes generated by meiotic diplospory, a process that has not been described previously in grapevine. Microarray and RNA-sequencing analyses identified 1958 genes that were differentially expressed between CB and PX developing flowers. Genes downregulated in CB were enriched in gametophyte-preferentially expressed transcripts, indicating the absence of regular post-meiotic germline development in CB. RNA-sequencing was also used for genetic variant calling and 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms distinguishing the CB and PX variant lines were detected. Among these, CB-specific polymorphisms were considered as candidate parthenocarpy-responsible mutations, including a putative deleterious substitution in a HAL2-like protein. Collectively, these results revealed that the absence of a mature macrogametophyte, probably due to meiosis arrest, coupled with a process of fertilization-independent fruit growth, caused parthenocarpy in CB. This study provides a number of grapevine parthenocarpy-responsible candidate genes and shows how genomic approaches can shed light on the genetic origin of woody crop somatic variants.

  12. Statistical Analysis Of Heavy Metals Concentration In Watermelon Plants Irrigated By Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanjani, M. J.; Maghsoudi moud, A. A.; Saffari, V. R.; Hashamipor, S. M.; Soltanizadeh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated by urban wastewater is a cause of serious concern due to the potentials health problems of consuming contaminated produce. In this study it is tried to model the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe,…) as a function of their concentration in watermelon roots and stems. Our study shows there is a good relationship between them for most of collected data. By measuring the concentration in root and stem of watermelon plant samples before harvesting, the concentration of heavy metal in watermelon's fruit can be estimated by presented mathematical models. This study shows the concentrations of heavy metals in fruits, roots and stems of watermelon plants are very high and in dangerous level when irrigated by municipal waste water.

  13. Dissipation and residue of acetamiprid in watermelon and soil in the open field.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junxue; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-09-01

    Residue dynamics of acetamiprid in watermelon and soil was studied in this paper utilizing liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LODs for acetamiprid in whole watermelon, melon flesh and soil were 0.002 mg/kg. The fortified recoveries ranged from 73.7% to 107.5% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.7%-5.9%. Acetamiprid dissipated in watermelon and soil with the half-life 3.12-3.92 days and 1.18-1.46 days in two locations Beijing and Shandong provinces, respectively. In the terminal residue experiment, no higher residue than 0.01 mg/kg in melon flesh and 0.3 mg/kg in whole watermelon and soil were detected. PMID:22885545

  14. An intelligent procedure for watermelon ripeness detection based on vibration signals.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh, Rouzbeh; Moosavian, Ashkan; Rajabipour, Ali; Najafi, Gholamhassan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, an efficient procedure for ripeness detection of watermelon was presented. A nondestructive method was used based on vibration response to determine the internal quality of watermelon. The responses of samples to vibration excitation were optically recorded by a Laser Doppler (LD) vibrometer. Vibration data was collected from watermelons of two qualities, namely, ripe and unripe. Vibration signals were transformed from time-domain to frequency-domain by fast Fourier transform (FFT). Twenty nine features were extracted from the FFT amplitude and phase angle of the vibration signals. K-nearest neighbor (KNN) analysis was applied as a classifier in decision-making stage. The experimental results showed that the usage of the FFT amplitude of the vibration signals gave the maximum classification accuracy. This method allowed identification at a 95.0 % level of efficiency. Hence, the proposed method can reliably detect watermelon ripeness.

  15. Analysis of variation for apomictic reproduction in diploid Paspalum rufum

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Luciana; Galdeano, Florencia; Sartor, María E.; Quarin, Camilo L.; Espinoza, Francisco; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The diploid cytotype of Paspalum rufum (Poaceae) reproduces sexually and is self-sterile; however, recurrent autopolyploidization through 2n + n fertilization and the ability for reproduction via apomixis have been documented in one genotype of the species. The objectives of this work were to analyse the variation in the functionality of apomixis components in diploid genotypes of P. rufum and to identify individuals with contrasting reproductive behaviours. Methods Samples of five individuals from each of three natural populations of P. rufum (designated R2, R5 and R6) were used. Seeds were obtained after open pollination, selfing, conspecific interploidy crosses and interspecific interploidy self-pollination induction. The reproductive behaviour of each plant was determined by using the flow cytometric seed screen (FCSS) method. Embryo sacs were cleared using a series of ethanol and methyl salicylate solutions and observed microscopically. Key Results In open pollination, all genotypes formed seeds by sexual means and no evidence of apomeiotic reproduction was detected. However, in conspecific interploidy crosses and interspecific interploidy self-pollination induction, variations in the reproductive pathways were observed. While all plants from populations R2 and R6 formed seeds exclusively by sexual means, three genotypes from the R5 population developed seeds from both meiotic and aposporous embryo sacs, and one of them (R5#49) through the complete apomictic pathway (apospory + parthenogenesis + pseudogamy). Cytoembryological observations revealed the presence of both meiotic and aposporous embryo sacs in all the genotypes analysed, suggesting that parthenogenesis could be uncoupled from apospory in some genotypes. Conclusions The results presented demonstrate the existence of variation in the functionality of apomixis components in natural diploid genotypes of P. rufum and have identified individuals with contrasting reproductive

  16. Characters that differ between diploid and haploid honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Matthias; Trenzcek, Tina; Fahrenhorst, Hartmut; Engels, Wolf

    2005-12-30

    Diploid males have long been considered a curiosity contradictory to the haplo-diploid mode of sex determination in the Hymenoptera. In Apis mellifera, 'false' diploid male larvae are eliminated by worker cannibalism immediately after hatching. A 'cannibalism substance' produced by diploid drone larvae to induce worker-assisted suicide has been hypothesized, but it has never been detected. Diploid drones are only removed some hours after hatching. Older larvae are evidently not regarded as 'false males' and instead are regularly nursed by the brood-attending worker bees. As the pheromonal cues presumably are located on the surface of newly hatched bee larvae, we extracted the cuticular secretions and analyzed their chemical composition by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Larvae were sexed and then reared in vitro for up to three days. The GC-MS pattern that was obtained, with alkanes as the major compounds, was compared between diploid and haploid drone larvae. We also examined some physical parameters of adult drones. There was no difference between diploid and haploid males in their weight at the day of emergence. The diploid adult drones had fewer wing hooks and smaller testes. The sperm DNA content was 0.30 and 0.15 pg per nucleus, giving an exact 2:1 ratio for the gametocytes of diploid and haploid drones, respectively. Vitellogenin was found in the hemolymph of both types of imaginal drones at 5 to 6 days, with a significantly lower titer in the diploids.

  17. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Shim, Chang-Ki; Kim, Yong-Ki; Jee, Hyeong-Jin; Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Jong-Ho; Han, Eun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (106 sporangia/ml). At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840) showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904) were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora. PMID:25288932

  18. Measurement of sugar content of watermelon using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in comparison with dielectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xuemei; Bao, Yidan

    2006-09-01

    The sugar content of watermelon is important to its taste thus influences the market. It's difficult to know whether the melon is sweet or not for consumers. We tried to develop a convenient meter to determine the sugar of watermelon. The first objective of this paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a near-infrared reflectance spectrometer (NIRS) to investigate the relationship between sugar content of watermelon and absorption spectra. The NIRS reflectance of nondestructive watermelon was measured with a Visible/NIR spectrophotometer in 325-1075nm range. The sugar content of watermelon was obtained with a handhold sugar content meter. The second objective was to measure the watermelon's dielectric property, such as dielectric resistance, capacitance, quality factor and dielectric loss. A digital electric bridge instrument was used to get the dielectric property. The experimental results show that they were related to watermelon's sugar content. A comparison between the two methods was made in the paper. The model derived from NIRS reflection is useful for class identification of Zaochun Hongyu watermelon though it's not quite accurate in sweetness prediction (the max. deviation is 0.7). Electric property bears little relation to sugar content of watermelon at this experiment and it couldn't be used as non-destructive inspection method.

  19. Comparative mapping in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai].

    PubMed

    Sandlin, Katherine; Prothro, Jason; Heesacker, Adam; Khalilian, Nelly; Okashah, Rebecca; Xiang, Wenwen; Bachlava, Eleni; Caldwell, David G; Taylor, Chris A; Seymour, Danelle K; White, Victoria; Chan, Eva; Tolla, Greg; White, Cathy; Safran, Dolores; Graham, Elaine; Knapp, Steven; McGregor, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    The first single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai] were constructed and compared. Three populations were developed from crosses between two elite cultivars, Klondike Black Seeded × New Hampshire Midget (KBS × NHM), an elite cultivar and wild egusi accession, Strain II × PI 560023 (SII × Egusi) and an elite cultivar and a wild citron accession, ZWRM50 × PI 244019 (ZWRM × Citroides). The SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides F(2) populations consisted of 187 and 182 individuals respectively while the KBS × NHM recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisted of 164 lines. The length of the genetic maps were 1,438, 1,514 and 1,144 cM with average marker distances of 3.8, 4.2, and 3.4 cM for the KBS × NHM, SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides populations, respectively. Shared markers were used to align the three maps so that the linkage groups (LGs) represented the 11 chromosomes of the species. Marker segregation distortion were observed in all three populations, but was highest (12.7 %) in the ZWRM × Citroides population, where Citroides alleles were favored. The three maps were used to construct a consensus map containing 378 SNP markers with an average distance of 5.1 cM between markers. Phenotypic data was collected for fruit weight (FWT), fruit length (FL), fruit width (FWD), fruit shape index (FSI), rind thickness (RTH) and Brix (BRX) and analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with these traits. A total of 40 QTL were identified in the three populations, including major QTL for fruit size and shape that were stable across genetic backgrounds and environments. The present study reports the first SNP maps for Citrullus and the first map constructed using two elite parents. We also report the first stable QTL associated with fruit size and shape in Citrullus lanatus. These maps, QTL and SNPs should be useful for the watermelon community and represent a significant step towards the

  20. Tetraploid citrus rootstocks are more tolerant to salt stress than diploid.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Basel; Allario, Thierry; Dambier, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphaël

    2008-09-01

    Citrus trees are subject to several abiotic constraints such as salinity. Providing new rootstocks more tolerant is thus a requirement. In this article, we investigated salt stress tolerance of three tetraploid rootstock genotypes when compared to their respective diploid rootstocks (Poncirus trifoliata, Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin). Plant growth, leaf fall and ion contents were investigated. At the end of the experiment, leaf fall was observed only for diploid Poncirus trifoliata plants as well as chlorosis symptoms for Poncirus trifoliata and Carrizo citrange diploid plants. The diploid Cleopatra mandarin plants growth rate was not affected by salt stress and has even been increased for tetraploid Cleopatra mandarin. Ion contents investigation has shown lower accumulations of chloride ions in leaves of the tetraploid plants when compared to diploid plants. Our results suggest that citrus tetraploid rootstocks are more tolerant to salt stress than their corresponding diploid.

  1. ACC Synthase Genes are Polymorphic in Watermelon (Citrullus spp.) and Differentially Expressed in Flowers and in Response to Auxin and Gibberellin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowering pattern of watermelon species (Citrullus) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. In watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.), ethylene promotes male flower development while inhibitors of ethylene promote pistillate (pistil-bearing) flower formation. This is opposite to the feminizing effec...

  2. Performance comparisons between diploid and triploid sunshine bass in fresh water ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerby, J.H.; Everson, J.M.; Harrell, R.M.; Geiger, J.G.; Starling, C.C.; Revels, H.

    2002-01-01

    Diploid and triploid sunshine bass (white bass ??? x striped bass ???) were produced in 1990 at Florida's Richloam Fish Hatchery. Triploidy was induced with hydrostatic pressure. Fry were cultured to phase I in earthen ponds in Webster and Gainesville, FL, and transported to Leetown, WV, where they were held in circular flow-through fiberglass tanks. Ploidy of treated fish was determined with a Coulter counter and triploids were segregated from diploids. In April 1991, control diploid and triploid populations were graded to remove the largest and smallest individuals, and four 0.2-ha hypalon-lined ponds were stocked with 600 fish each; two ponds contained triploids and two contained diploids. Triploids and diploids were not significantly different in average fork length (FL) or weight at stocking. Triploids averaged 231 mm and 181.2 g, compared to diploid averages of 233 mm and 188.9 g. Monthly samples indicated that diploids grew faster than triploids; mean weights and lengths were both significantly different after 3 months. When harvested in October, triploids averaged 358 mm and 867.9 g, whereas diploids averaged 381 mm and 1153.5 g. Survival of triploids and diploids was 97.0% and 95.9%, respectively. Mean standing crop was 2496.3 kg/ha for triploids and 3280.6 kg/ha for diploids. Male diploids and most female diploids were sexually mature at 2 years of age. Sterility of triploids was confirmed as gonads remained reduced and dysfunctional at 5 years of age. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diploid biological evolution models with general smooth fitness landscapes and recombination.

    PubMed

    Saakian, David B; Kirakosyan, Zara; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2008-06-01

    Using a Hamilton-Jacobi equation approach, we obtain analytic equations for steady-state population distributions and mean fitness functions for Crow-Kimura and Eigen-type diploid biological evolution models with general smooth hypergeometric fitness landscapes. Our numerical solutions of diploid biological evolution models confirm the analytic equations obtained. We also study the parallel diploid model for the simple case of recombination and calculate the variance of distribution, which is consistent with numerical results. PMID:18643300

  4. The association between polyploidy and clonal reproduction in diploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Sarah J; Husband, Brian C

    2013-04-01

    Clonal reproduction is associated with the incidence of polyploidy in flowering plants. This pattern may arise through selection for increased clonality in polyploids compared to diploids to reduce mixed-ploidy mating. Here, we test whether clonal reproduction is greater in tetraploid than diploid populations of the mixed-ploidy plant, Chamerion angustifolium, through an analysis of the size and spatial distribution of clones in natural populations using AFLP genotyping and a comparison of root bud production in a greenhouse study. Natural tetraploid populations (N = 5) had significantly more AFLP genotypes (x¯ = 10.8) than diploid populations (x¯ = 6.0). Tetraploid populations tended to have fewer ramets per genotype and fewer genotypes with >1 ramet. In a spatial autocorrelation analysis, ramets within genotypes were more spatially aggregated in diploid populations than in tetraploid populations. In the greenhouse, tetraploids allocated 90.4% more dry mass to root buds than diploids, but tetraploids produced no more root buds and 44% fewer root buds per unit root mass than diploids. Our results indicate that clonal reproduction is significant in most populations, but tetraploid populations are not more clonal than diploids, nor are their clones more spatially aggregated. As a result, tetraploids may be less sheltered from mixed-ploidy mating and diploids more exposed to inbreeding, the balance of which could influence the establishment of tetraploids in diploid populations. PMID:23432094

  5. Metapopulation inbreeding dynamics, effective size and subpopulation differentiation--A general analytical approach for diploid organisms.

    PubMed

    Hössjer, Ola; Olsson, Fredrik; Laikre, Linda; Ryman, Nils

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by problems in conservation biology we study genetic dynamics in structured populations of diploid organisms (monoecious or dioecious). Our analysis provides an analytical framework that unifies substantial parts of previous work in terms of exact identity by descent (IBD) and identity by state (IBS) recursions. We provide exact conditions under which two structured haploid and diploid populations are equivalent, and some sufficient conditions under which a dioecious diploid population can be treated as a monoecious diploid one. The IBD recursions are used for computing local and metapopulation inbreeding and coancestry effective population sizes and for predictions of several types of fixation indices over different time horizons. PMID:25875853

  6. Metapopulation inbreeding dynamics, effective size and subpopulation differentiation--A general analytical approach for diploid organisms.

    PubMed

    Hössjer, Ola; Olsson, Fredrik; Laikre, Linda; Ryman, Nils

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by problems in conservation biology we study genetic dynamics in structured populations of diploid organisms (monoecious or dioecious). Our analysis provides an analytical framework that unifies substantial parts of previous work in terms of exact identity by descent (IBD) and identity by state (IBS) recursions. We provide exact conditions under which two structured haploid and diploid populations are equivalent, and some sufficient conditions under which a dioecious diploid population can be treated as a monoecious diploid one. The IBD recursions are used for computing local and metapopulation inbreeding and coancestry effective population sizes and for predictions of several types of fixation indices over different time horizons.

  7. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon.

  8. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. PMID:25308777

  9. A monoecious and diploid Moran model of random mating.

    PubMed

    Hössjer, Ola; Tyvand, Peder A

    2016-04-01

    An exact Markov chain is developed for a Moran model of random mating for monoecious diploid individuals with a given probability of self-fertilization. The model captures the dynamics of genetic variation at a biallelic locus. We compare the model with the corresponding diploid Wright-Fisher (WF) model. We also develop a novel diffusion approximation of both models, where the genotype frequency distribution dynamics is described by two partial differential equations, on different time scales. The first equation captures the more slowly varying allele frequencies, and it is the same for the Moran and WF models. The other equation captures departures of the fraction of heterozygous genotypes from a large population equilibrium curve that equals Hardy-Weinberg proportions in the absence of selfing. It is the distribution of a continuous time Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process for the Moran model and a discrete time autoregressive process for the WF model. One application of our results is to capture dynamics of the degree of non-random mating of both models, in terms of the fixation index fIS. Although fIS has a stable fixed point that only depends on the degree of selfing, the normally distributed oscillations around this fixed point are stochastically larger for the Moran than for the WF model. PMID:26807805

  10. Spatial heterogeneity and the evolution of sex in diploids.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Aneil F

    2009-07-01

    Much of the theoretical work on the evolution of sex has focused on the effects of recombination. In diploids, segregation also occurs during sexual reproduction. Segregation breaks down some types of genetic associations that are not affected by recombination and thus influences the evolution of sex in ways that are not apparent from studying the evolution of recombination as a surrogate for sex. Here I examine the evolution of sex in diploids experiencing spatially heterogeneous selection. If divergent selection causes genetic differentiation, then migration can be a powerful force generating genetic associations that may not be favored by selection. An advantage to sex can arise from breaking down these associations. By examining modifiers of both sex and recombination, the model allows for a direct comparison of the forces acting on these related but different processes, illuminating the role of segregation. The model also includes inbreeding, which has been shown to be important for both segregation and recombination. I find that inbreeding affects the evolution of sex through segregation, not recombination. Several suggestions for empirical experiments are given.

  11. Deleterious mutations and selection for sex in finite diploid populations.

    PubMed

    Roze, Denis; Michod, Richard E

    2010-04-01

    In diploid populations, indirect benefits of sex may stem from segregation and recombination. Although it has been recognized that finite population size is an important component of selection for recombination, its effects on selection for segregation have been somewhat less studied. In this article, we develop analytical two- and three-locus models to study the effect of recurrent deleterious mutations on a modifier gene increasing sex, in a finite diploid population. The model also incorporates effects of mitotic recombination, causing loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Predictions are tested using multilocus simulations representing deleterious mutations occurring at a large number of loci. The model and simulations show that excess of heterozygosity generated by finite population size is an important component of selection for sex, favoring segregation when deleterious alleles are nearly additive to dominant. Furthermore, sex tends to break correlations in homozygosity among selected loci, which disfavors sex when deleterious alleles are either recessive or dominant. As a result, we find that it is difficult to maintain costly sex when deleterious alleles are recessive. LOH tends to favor sex when deleterious mutations are recessive, but the effect is relatively weak for rates of LOH corresponding to current estimates (of the order 10(-4)-10(-5)).

  12. Deciphering the diploid ancestral genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Mandáková, Terezie; Wu, Jian; Xie, Qi; Lysak, Martin A; Wang, Xiaowu

    2013-05-01

    The genus Brassica includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. Their current genome structures were shaped by whole-genome triplication followed by extensive diploidization. The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors. We reconstructed three ancestral subgenomes of B. rapa (n = 10) by comparing its whole-genome sequence to ancestral and extant Brassicaceae genomes. All three B. rapa paleogenomes apparently consisted of seven chromosomes, similar to the ancestral translocation Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (tPCK; n = 7), which is the evolutionarily younger variant of the Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7). Based on comparative analysis of genome sequences or linkage maps of Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra, radish (Raphanus sativus), and other closely related species, we propose a two-step merging of three tPCK-like genomes to form the hexaploid ancestor of the tribe Brassiceae with 42 chromosomes. Subsequent diversification of the Brassiceae was marked by extensive genome reshuffling and chromosome number reduction mediated by translocation events and followed by loss and/or inactivation of centromeres. Furthermore, via interspecies genome comparison, we refined intervals for seven of the genomic blocks of the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), thus revising the key reference genome for evolutionary genomics of crucifers. PMID:23653472

  13. Deciphering the diploid ancestral genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Mandáková, Terezie; Wu, Jian; Xie, Qi; Lysak, Martin A; Wang, Xiaowu

    2013-05-01

    The genus Brassica includes several important agricultural and horticultural crops. Their current genome structures were shaped by whole-genome triplication followed by extensive diploidization. The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors. We reconstructed three ancestral subgenomes of B. rapa (n = 10) by comparing its whole-genome sequence to ancestral and extant Brassicaceae genomes. All three B. rapa paleogenomes apparently consisted of seven chromosomes, similar to the ancestral translocation Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (tPCK; n = 7), which is the evolutionarily younger variant of the Proto-Calepineae Karyotype (n = 7). Based on comparative analysis of genome sequences or linkage maps of Brassica oleracea, Brassica nigra, radish (Raphanus sativus), and other closely related species, we propose a two-step merging of three tPCK-like genomes to form the hexaploid ancestor of the tribe Brassiceae with 42 chromosomes. Subsequent diversification of the Brassiceae was marked by extensive genome reshuffling and chromosome number reduction mediated by translocation events and followed by loss and/or inactivation of centromeres. Furthermore, via interspecies genome comparison, we refined intervals for seven of the genomic blocks of the Ancestral Crucifer Karyotype (n = 8), thus revising the key reference genome for evolutionary genomics of crucifers.

  14. Identification and translocation of metabolites from powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to susceptible watermelon scions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an important commercial crop, and nutritious fruit, is high in antioxidants, vitamins, and lycopene. Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii, which significantly reduces watermelon production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. C...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... registered greenhouses as specified by 7 CFR 319.56-36.” (g) Each consignment must be protected from pest... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... registered greenhouses as specified by 7 CFR 319.56-36.” (g) Each consignment must be protected from pest... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... registered greenhouses as specified by 7 CFR 319.56-36.” (g) Each consignment must be protected from pest... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... registered greenhouses as specified by 7 CFR 319.56-36.” (g) Each consignment must be protected from pest... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... registered greenhouses as specified by 7 CFR 319.56-36.” (g) Each consignment must be protected from pest... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon...

  20. Progress in the Development of Crimson Sweet-type Watermelon Breeding Lines with Resistance to Acidovorax Avenae Subsp. Citrulli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial fruit blotch (Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli [Schaad et al.] Willems et al.) continues to occur almost every year and has the potential to cause a disaster for the watermelon industry. In this study, Crimson Sweet watermelon was crossed with PI482279 and PI494817, two Citrullus lanatus...

  1. Influence of insecticides and reflective mulch on watermelon vine decline caused by squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines a few weeks ...

  2. Diseases and their management strategies take top research priority in watermelon research and development group member’s survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is an important crop grown for its delicious fruit in the U.S. and in many countries across the world. A survey of members of Watermelon Research and Development Group (WRDG) was conducted via email and during WRDG meetings in 2014 and 2015 in an effort to identify and rank important rese...

  3. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  4. ``alternative Self-Diploidization'' or ``asd'' Homothallism in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: Isolation of a Mutant, Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Interaction and Endomitotic Diploidization

    PubMed Central

    Ono, B. I.; Ishino-Arao, Y.; Takasugi, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Fukuda, M.; Fukui, M.; Miyakawa, I.; Sando, N.

    1990-01-01

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae representing a novel life cycle, named ``alternative self-diploidization'' or ``ASD'' homothallism, was obtained fortuitously. In this life cycle, MATα (or MATa) haplophase and MATα/MATα (or MATa/MATa) diplophase alternate. Germinated cells are haploid and mating. They soon become nonmating and sporogenous as they vegetatively grow. They sooner or later diploidize presumably via endomitosis. The diploid cells haploidize via normal meiosis. A single recessive nuclear mutation, named asd1-1, is responsible for ``ASD'' homothallism. In the ρ(0) cytoplasm, asd1-1 cells mate even if at a low efficiency and fail to diploidize. Since pet mutations do not have such effects, we conclude that a certain mitochondrial function other than respiration is required for manifestation of ``ASD'' homothallism. That is, ``ASD'' homothallism is the result of some sort of nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction. PMID:2204579

  5. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Elbeshehy, Esam K.F.; Metwali, Ehab M.R.; Almaghrabi, Omar A.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g−1 fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L−1 recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L−1 as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  6. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  7. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus.

  8. A High Resolution Genetic Map Anchoring Scaffolds of the Sequenced Watermelon Genome

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Qinghe; Jiang, Jiao; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Haiying; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Levi, Amnon; Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite Chinese watermelon line 97103 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). The genetic map was constructed using an F8 population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RILs are derived from a cross between the line 97103 and the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 296341-FR (C. lanatus var. citroides) that contains resistance to fusarium wilt (races 0, 1, and 2). The genetic map consists of eleven linkage groups that include 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel) and 36 structure variation (SV) markers and spans ∼800 cM with a mean marker interval of 0.8 cM. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 11 BACs that produced chromosome-specifc signals, we have depicted watermelon chromosomes that correspond to the eleven linkage groups constructed in this study. The high resolution genetic map developed here should be a useful platform for the assembly of the watermelon genome, for the development of sequence-based markers used in breeding programs, and for the identification of genes associated with important agricultural traits. PMID:22247776

  9. Diploid males and their triploid offspring in the paper wasp Polistes dominulus

    PubMed Central

    Liebert, Aviva E; Sumana, Annagiri; Starks, Philip T

    2005-01-01

    Although the hymenopteran sex-determining mechanism generally results in haploid males and diploid females, diploid males can be produced via homozygosity at the sex-determining locus. Diploid males have low fitness because they are effectively sterile or produce presumably sterile triploid offspring. Previously, triploid females were observed in three species of North American Polistes paper wasps, and this was interpreted as indirect evidence of diploid males. Here we report what is, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence: four of five early male-producing Polistes dominulus nests from three populations contained diploid males. Because haploid males were also found, however, the adaptive value of early males cannot be ignored. Using genetic and morphological data from triploid females, we also present evidence that both diploid males and triploid females remain undetected throughout the colony cycle. Consequently, diploid male production may result in a delayed fitness cost for two generations. This phenomenon is particularly relevant for introduced populations with few alleles at the sex-determining locus, but cannot be ignored in native populations without supporting genetic data. Future research using paper wasp populations to test theories of social evolution should explicitly consider the potential impacts of diploid males. PMID:17148166

  10. Pollen competition as a unilateral reproductive barrier between sympatric diploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium.

    PubMed

    Husband, Brian C; Schemske, Douglas W; Burton, Tracy L; Goodwillie, Carol

    2002-12-22

    Speciation requires the evolution of barriers to gene exchange between descendant and progenitor populations. Cryptic reproductive barriers in plants arise after pollination but before fertilization as a result of pollen competition and interactions between male gametophytes and female reproductive tissues. We tested for such gametic isolation between the polyploid Chamerion angustifolium and its diploid progenitor by conducting single (diploid or tetraploid) and mixed ploidy (1 : 1 diploid and tetraploid) pollinations on both cytotypes and inferring siring success from paternity analysis and pollen-tube counts. In mixed pollinations, polyploids sired most (79%) of their own seeds as well as those of diploids (61%) (correcting for triploid block, siring success was 70% and 83%, respectively). In single donor pollinations, pollen tubes from tetraploids were more numerous than those from diploids at four different positions in each style and for both diploid and tetraploid pollen recipients. The lack of a pollen donor x recipient interaction indicates that the tetraploid siring advantage is a result of pollen competition rather than pollen-pistil interactions. Such unilateral pollen precedence results in an asymmetrical pattern of isolation, with tetraploids experiencing less gene flow than diploids. It also enhances tetraploid establishment in sympatric populations, by maximizing tetraploid success and simultaneously diminishing that of diploids through the production of inviable triploid offspring. PMID:12573071

  11. Seedless growth of zinc oxide flower-shaped structures on multilayer graphene by electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A seedless growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) structures on multilayer (ML) graphene by electrochemical deposition without any pre-deposited ZnO seed layer or metal catalyst was studied. A high density of a mixture of vertically aligned/non-aligned ZnO rods and flower-shaped structures was obtained. ML graphene seems to generate the formation of flower-shaped structures due to the stacking boundaries. The nucleation of ZnO seems to be promoted at the stacking edges of ML graphene with the increase of applied current density, resulting in the formation of flower-shaped structures. The diameters of the rods/flower-shaped structures also increase with the applied current density. ZnO rods/flower-shaped structures with high aspect ratio over 5.0 and good crystallinity were obtained at the applied current densities of −0.5 and −1.0 mA/cm2. The growth mechanism was proposed. The growth involves the formation of ZnO nucleation below 80°C and the enhancement of the growth of vertically non-aligned rods and flower-shaped structures at 80°C. Such ZnO/graphene hybrid structure provides several potential applications in sensing devices. PMID:25024694

  12. Phenolic composition of the Brazilian seedless table grape varieties BRS Clara and BRS Morena.

    PubMed

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2011-08-10

    The detailed phenolic composition (anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, and flavan-3-ols) in the skin and flesh of the new BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless table grapes has been studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The two grapes, especially BRS Morena, contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly located in their skins and qualitatively not different from those found in Vitis vinifera grapes. In addition, BRS Morena (a teinturier variety) showed qualitatively different phenolic compositions in its skin and flesh, mainly affecting the anthocyanin and flavonol profiles. Consistent with high phenolic contents, high antioxidant capacity values were registered for both grape varieties, especially for BRS Morena. Proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acids were the major phenolic compounds found in BRS Clara and were also important in BRS Morena, although anthocyanins were the main phenolic compounds in the latter case. These results suggest that the entire grapes, including the skin, may potentially possess properties that are beneficial to human health. In this context, the BRS Morena grape can be considered as a high resveratrol producer.

  13. Evaluation of essential oils for maintaining postharvest quality of Thompson seedless table grape.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Ali; Hassani, Abbas; Ghosta, Youbert; Bernousi, Iraj; Meshkatalsadat, Mohammad Hadi; Shabani, Razieh; Ziaee, Seyed Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The effects of postharvest spraying of essential oils from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), summer savory (Satureja hortensis) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on fungal decay and quality parameters of the 'Thompson seedless' table grape stored at 0 ± 1°C for 60 days were evaluated. Results showed that the essential oils, especially of thyme and fennel, have a good inhibitory effect on the development of fungal decay in Thompson table grapes. In addition, essential oils reduced weight loss, berry and rachis browning and had no considerable adverse effect on the flavour of the fruits. GC-MS analysis showed that the main compounds identified in sweet basil, fennel, summer savory and thyme oils are linalool (65.25%), trans-anethole (64.72%), carvacrol (54.14%) and β-ocimene (12.62%), respectively. Therefore, these essential oils have good potential for use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides for the preservation and storage of table grapes. PMID:21999332

  14. Stenospermy and seed development in the "Brazilian seedless" variety of sugar apple (Annona squamosa).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Rayane C; Ribeiro, Leonardo M; Mercadante-Simões, Maria Olívia; Costa, Márcia R; Nietsche, Silvia; Pereira, Marlon C T

    2014-12-01

    Stenospermy was identified in naturally occurring sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) mutants with great potential for use in genetic improvement programs. However, to date, there have been no detailed studies of the development of aspermic fruit in this species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the anatomy of developing fruit in the 'Brazilian Seedless' mutant. Flower buds in pre-anthesis and developing fruits were subjected to common plant anatomy techniques. The abnormal ovules are unitegmic and orthotropic and have a long funiculus. There is evidence of fertilization, including the presence of embryos in early development and the proliferation of starch grains in the embryo sac. However, the embryos and embryo sac degenerate, although this does not affect pericarp development. Ovule abortion does not occur. The perisperm, which is formed from the peripheral layers of the nucellus, fills the cavity left by the embryo sac. The mature fruit contains numerous small sterile seeds with abundant perisperm and unlignified integument that is restricted to the micropylar region. The majority of perisperm cells are living and appear to be metabolically active in the periphery. Therefore, stenospermy leads to the formation of sterile seeds in A. squamosa, and the perisperm possibly play an important role in fruit development.

  15. Effect of yearly conditions and management practices on ochratoxin A production in Sultana Seedless vineyards.

    PubMed

    Meyvaci, K B; Aksoy, U; Eltem, R; Altindişli, A; Aşkun, T; Taşkin, E

    2012-01-01

    Sun drying of seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Sultanina) is widely practised in the western Aegean Region providing Turkey with a significant share in the world trade of sultanas. Research was initiated in 1998 to determine the incidence of ochratoxin A (OTA), to identify the major factors resulting in contamination and to develop techniques to reduce or prevent contamination. This paper assesses OTA formation in five experimental vineyards located in Manisa province of Turkey between 1998 and 2003. The cultural practices recorded were tillage (type and timing), fertilisation, plant protection, irrigation, trellising, pruning, GA(3) application, harvest maturity and date, and drying practices (type of drying yard, dipping into alkaline solution, length of drying period). In the experimental vineyards, no OTA was found at veraison. OTA levels in grapes harvested at fresh maturity ranged between

  16. Establishment of the diploid gynogenetic hybrid clonal line of red crucian carp x common carp.

    PubMed

    Liu, ShaoJun; Duan, Wei; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Shen, JiaMin; Wang, Jing; Luo, KaiKun; Liu, Yun

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the gynogenetic cytobiological behavior of the third gynogenetic generation (G(3)), which was generated from the diploid eggs produced by the second gynogenetic generation (G(2)) of red crucian carp x common carp, and determined the chromosomal numbers of G(3), G(2)xscatter scale carp and G(2)xallotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp. The results showed that the diploid eggs of G(2) with 100 chromosomes, activated by UV-irradiated sperm from scatter scale carp and without the treatment for doubling the chromosomes, could develop into G(3) with 100 chromosomes. Similar to the first and second gynogenetic generations (G(1) and G(2)), G(3) was also diploid (2n=100) and presented the hybrid traits. The triploids (3n=150) and tetraploids (4n=200) were produced by crossing G(2) with scatter scale carp, and crossing G(2) with allotetraploids, respectively. The extrusion of the second polar body in the eggs of G(2) ruled out the possibility that the retention of the second polar body led to the formation of the diploid eggs. In addition, we discussed the mechanism of the formation of the diploid eggs generated by G(2). The establishment of the diploid gynogenesis clonal line (G(1), G(2) and G(3)) provided the evidence that the diploid eggs were able to develop into a new diploid hybrid clonal line by gynogenesis. By producing the diploid eggs as a unique reproductive way, the diploid gynogenetic progeny of allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp had important significances in both biological evolution and production application. PMID:17447025

  17. Evolution of maternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A

    2012-08-01

    Maternal care has been suggested to evolve more readily in haplodiploid populations. Because maternal care appears to have been a prerequisite for the evolution of eusociality, this effect potentially explains the apparent preponderance of haplodiploidy among eusocial taxa. Here, I use a kin selection approach to model the evolution of maternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. In contrast to previous suggestions, I find that haplodiploidy may inhibit as well as promote the evolution of maternal care. Moreover, I find that the haplodiploidy effect vanishes in outbred populations if gene effects average rather than add together. I confirm these analytical results using numerical simulation of an explicit population genetics model. This analysis casts doubt upon the idea that haplodiploidy has promoted the evolution of maternal care and, consequently, the evolution of eusociality. PMID:22694128

  18. Characterization of a heteropolysaccharide isolated from diploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Niu, Yuge; Lv, Junli; Xie, Zhuohong; Jin, Lei; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-02-15

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide (GPP), with a molecular mass of 7.1×10(3) Da, was isolated from the defatted whole-plant of diploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that GPP was a heteropolysaccharide mainly containing mannose, glucose, galactose and arabinose, at a molar ratio of 1.00:77.33:4.81:1.83. The detailed structure analysis revealed that GPP consisted of a (1→4)-α-D-glucoside backbone with a 1→)-α-D-glucopyranosyl branch at the C-6 position of (1→4,6)-linked-α-D-glucopyranosyl on every 5 monosaccharide residues, with a few mannose, galactose and arabinose terminal residues. GPP exhibited scavenging capacities against hydroxyl, peroxyl and DPPH radicals in vitro, and had a greater bile acid-binding ability than psyllium on a per weight basis. These results suggested a potential application of GPP in functional foods and dietary supplements.

  19. Diploid chromosome set of kissing bug Triatoma baratai (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Reis, Y V; Borgueti, A O; Mendonça, V J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2015-02-06

    Triatomines are insects that are taxonomically included in the Hemiptera order and Triatominae subfamily. Based on phenotypic similarity, capacity hybridization, and genetic and ecological aspects, the triatomine species can be grouped into specific complexes and subcomplexes. However, these groupings have not been confirmed. Cytogenetic analyses are important cytotaxonomic tools for improving the taxonomic knowledge of triatomines. Thus, we examined the karyotype of Triatoma baratai and compared the results with those of other species in the Matogrossensis subcomplex in order increase the understanding of vector potential. We also examined the cytotaxonomic classification of this insect. Triatoma baratai, similarly to other species that currently compose the Matogrossensis subcomplex, contains 22 chromosomes (20A + XY). Here, we describe the diploid chromosome set of T. baratai. We confirmed their current classification in the Matogrossensis subcomplex and demonstrated that the species in this subcomplex present karyotype homogeneity.

  20. The YH database: the first Asian diploid genome database.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqing; Ma, Lijia; Song, Chao; Yang, Zhentao; Wang, Xiulan; Huang, Hui; Li, Yingrui; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The YH database is a server that allows the user to easily browse and download data from the first Asian diploid genome. The aim of this platform is to facilitate the study of this Asian genome and to enable improved organization and presentation large-scale personal genome data. Powered by GBrowse, we illustrate here the genome sequences, SNPs, and sequencing reads in the MapView. The relationships between phenotype and genotype can be searched by location, dbSNP ID, HGMD ID, gene symbol and disease name. A BLAST web service is also provided for the purpose of aligning query sequence against YH genome consensus. The YH database is currently one of the three personal genome database, organizing the original data and analysis results in a user-friendly interface, which is an endeavor to achieve fundamental goals for establishing personal medicine. The database is available at http://yh.genomics.org.cn.

  1. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance. PMID:26302171

  2. NMR Spectroscopy Identifies Metabolites Translocated from Powdery Mildew Resistant Rootstocks to Susceptible Watermelon Scions.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Kousik, Chandrasekar; Hassell, Richard; Chowdhury, Kamal; Boroujerdi, Arezue F

    2015-09-16

    Powdery mildew (PM) disease causes significant loss in watermelon. Due to the unavailability of a commercial watermelon variety that is resistant to PM, grafting susceptible cultivars on wild resistant rootstocks is being explored as a short-term management strategy to combat this disease. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiles of susceptible and resistant rootstocks of watermelon and their corresponding susceptible scions (Mickey Lee) were compared to screen for potential metabolites related to PM resistance using multivariate principal component analysis. Significant score plot differences between the susceptible and resistant groups were revealed through Mahalanobis distance analysis. Significantly different spectral buckets and their corresponding metabolites (including choline, fumarate, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetate, and melatonin) have been identified quantitatively using multivariate loading plots and verified by volcano plot analyses. The data suggest that these metabolites were translocated from the powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to their corresponding powdery mildew susceptible scions and can be related to PM disease resistance.

  3. A fast and accurate algorithm for diploid individual haplotype reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingli; Liang, Binbin

    2013-08-01

    Haplotypes can provide significant information in many research fields, including molecular biology and medical therapy. However, haplotyping is much more difficult than genotyping by using only biological techniques. With the development of sequencing technologies, it becomes possible to obtain haplotypes by combining sequence fragments. The haplotype reconstruction problem of diploid individual has received considerable attention in recent years. It assembles the two haplotypes for a chromosome given the collection of fragments coming from the two haplotypes. Fragment errors significantly increase the difficulty of the problem, and which has been shown to be NP-hard. In this paper, a fast and accurate algorithm, named FAHR, is proposed for haplotyping a single diploid individual. Algorithm FAHR reconstructs the SNP sites of a pair of haplotypes one after another. The SNP fragments that cover some SNP site are partitioned into two groups according to the alleles of the corresponding SNP site, and the SNP values of the pair of haplotypes are ascertained by using the fragments in the group that contains more SNP fragments. The experimental comparisons were conducted among the FAHR, the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms by using the haplotypes on chromosome 1 of 60 individuals in CEPH samples, which were released by the International HapMap Project. Experimental results under different parameter settings indicate that the reconstruction rate of the FAHR algorithm is higher than those of the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms, and the running time of the FAHR algorithm is shorter than those of the Fast Hare and the DGS algorithms. Moreover, the FAHR algorithm has high efficiency even for the reconstruction of long haplotypes and is very practical for realistic applications.

  4. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  5. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  6. Genetic diversity in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) landraces from Zimbabwe revealed by RAPD and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Mujaju, C; Sehic, J; Werlemark, G; Garkava-Gustavsson, L; Fatih, M; Nybom, H

    2010-08-01

    Low polymorphism in cultivated watermelon has been reported in previous studies, based mainly on US Plant Introductions and watermelon cultivars, most of which were linked to breeding programmes associated with disease resistance. Since germplasm sampled in a putative centre of origin in southern Africa may harbour considerably higher variability, DNA marker-based diversity was estimated among 81 seedlings from eight accessions of watermelon collected in Zimbabwe; five accessions of cow-melons (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) and three of sweet watermelons (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Two molecular marker methods were used, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) also known as microsatellite DNA. Ten RAPD primers produced 138 markers of which 122 were polymorphic. Nine SSR primer pairs detected a total of 43 alleles with an average of 4.8 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.47 to 0.77 for the RAPD primers and from 0.39 to 0.97 for the SSR loci. Similarity matrices obtained with SSR and RAPD, respectively, were highly correlated but only RAPD was able to provide each sample with an individual-specific DNA profile. Dendrograms and multidimensional scaling (MDS) produced two major clusters; one with the five cow-melon accessions and the other with the three sweet watermelon accessions. One of the most variable cow-melon accessions took an intermediate position in the MDS analysis, indicating the occurrence of gene flow between the two subspecies. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) attributed most of the variability to within-accessions, and contrary to previous reports, sweet watermelon accessions apparently contain diversity of the same magnitude as the cow-melons.

  7. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  8. Quantitative Understanding of Nanoparticle Uptake in Watermelon Plants.

    PubMed

    Raliya, Ramesh; Franke, Christina; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Nair, Remya; Reed, Nathan; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30-80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues. PMID:27617020

  9. [Watermelon stomach: Chronic renal failure and/or imatinib?].

    PubMed

    Montagnac, Richard; Blaison, Dominique; Brahimi, Saïd; Schendel, Adeline; Levasseur, Thomas; Takin, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    Watermelon stomach or gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome is an uncommon cause of sometimes severe upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Essentially based on a pathognomonic endoscopic appearance, its diagnosis may be unrecognised because mistaken with portal hypertensive gastropathy, while treatment of these two entities is different. Its etiopathogeny remains still unclear, even if it is frequently associated with different systemic illnesses as hepatic cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders and chronic renal failure. The mechanism inducing these vascular ectasia may be linked with mechanical stress on submucosal vessels due to antropyloric peristaltic motility dysfunction modulated by neurohormonal vasoactive alterations. Because medical therapies are not very satisfactory, among the endoscopic modalities, argon plasma coagulation seems to be actually the first-line treatment because the most effective and safe. However, surgical antrectomy may be sometimes necessary. Recently GAVE syndrome appeared as a new adverse reaction of imatinib mesylate, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia, and we report here the observation of such a pathology in one patient treated at the same time by haemodialysis and by imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia.

  10. Quantitative Understanding of Nanoparticle Uptake in Watermelon Plants

    PubMed Central

    Raliya, Ramesh; Franke, Christina; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Nair, Remya; Reed, Nathan; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30–80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues.

  11. Quantitative Understanding of Nanoparticle Uptake in Watermelon Plants

    PubMed Central

    Raliya, Ramesh; Franke, Christina; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Nair, Remya; Reed, Nathan; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-01-01

    The use of agrochemical-nutrient fertilizers has come under scrutiny in recent years due to concerns that they damage the ecosystem and endanger public health. Nanotechnology offers many possible interventions to mitigate these risks by use of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, and nanosensors; and concurrently increases profitability, yields, and sustainability within the agricultural industry. Aerosol based foliar delivery of nanoparticles may help to enhance nanoparticle uptake and reduce environmental impacts of chemical fertilizers conventionally applied through a soil route. The purpose of this work was to study uptake, translocation, and accumulation of various gold nanostructures, 30–80 nm, delivered by aerosol application to a watermelon plant. Cellular uptake and accumulation of gold nanoparticles were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Observations suggested that nanoparticles could be taken up by the plant through direct penetration and transport through the stomatal opening. Observed translocation of nanoparticles from leaf to root shows evidence that nanoparticles travel by the phloem transport mechanism. Accumulation and transport of nanoparticles depend on nanoparticle shape, application method, and nature of plant tissues. PMID:27617020

  12. [Sugar characterization of mini-watermelon and rapid sugar determination by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Xie, Jin-chun; Li, Xiao-yu; Feng, Le-ping

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the distribution of sugar level within the mini-watermelon was studied, a new sugar characterization method of mini-watermelon using average sugar level, the highest sugar level and the lowest sugar level index is proposed. Feasibility of nondestructive determination of mini-watermenlon sugar level using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy information was investigated by an experiment. PLS models for measuring the 3 sugar levels were established. The results obtained by near infrared spectroscopy agreed with that of the new method established above.

  13. Application of magnetic resonance imaging to non-destructive void detection in watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Miki, T.; Hayashi, S.; Kajikawa, H.; Shimada, M.; Kawate, Y.; Nishizawa, T.; Ikegaya, D.; Kimura, N.; Takabatake, K.; Sugiura, N.; Suzuki, M.

    A novel application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The possibility of utilizing MRI for non-destructive quality evaluation of watermelons was studied. In this study, we applied MRI to the detection of internal voids in watermelons. In order to increase the measurement rate, we employed a one-dimensional projection profile method instead of observing a two-dimensional cross-sectional image. The void detection was carried out with this technique over 30 samples and 28 samples were correctly evaluated. The measurement rate was 900 ms per sample, which is an acceptable speed for a sorting machine in the agricultural field.

  14. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    PubMed

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  15. Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine.

    PubMed

    Ogodo, Alloysius Chibuike; Ugbogu, Ositadinma Chinyere; Ugbogu, Amadike Eziuche; Ezeonu, Chukwuma Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Pawpaw, banana and watermelon are tropical fruits with short shelf-lives under the prevailing temperatures and humid conditions in tropical countries like Nigeria. Production of wine from these fruits could help reduce the level of post-harvest loss and increase variety of wines. Pawpaw, banana and watermelon were used to produce mixed fruit wines using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine. Exactly 609 and 406 g each of the fruits in two-mixed and three-mixed fruit fermentation respectively were crushed using laboratory blender, mixed with distilled water (1:1 w/v), and heated for 30 min with subsequent addition of sugar (0.656 kg). The fruit musts were subjected to primary (aerobic) and secondary (anaerobic) fermentation for 4 and 21 days respectively. During fermentation, aliquots were removed from the fermentation tank for analysis. During primary fermentation, consistent increases in alcohol contents (ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 %) and total acidities (ranging from 0.20 to 0.80 %) were observed with gradual decrease in specific gravities (ranging from 1.060 to 0.9800) and pH (ranging from 4.80 to 2.90). Temperature ranged from 27 °C to 29 °C. The alcoholic content of the final wines were 17.50 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and watermelon), 16.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw and banana), 18.50 ± 0.02 % (banana and watermelon wine) and 18.00 ± 0.02 % (pawpaw, banana and watermelon). The alcoholic content of the wines did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The pH of all the wines were acidic and ranged from 2.5 ± 0.01 to 3.8 ± 0.01 (p > 0.05). The acid concentration (residual and volatile acidity) were within the acceptable limit and ranged from 0.35 ± 0.02 to 0.88 ± 0.01 % (p > 0.05). Sensory evaluation (P > 0.05) rated the wines acceptability as 'pawpaw and banana wine' > 'pawpaw and watermelon' > 'pawpaw, watermelon and banana' > 'banana and watermelon wine'. This study has shown that acceptable mixed fruit wines could be

  16. Adaptation of diploid and tetraploid chamerion angustifolium to elevation but not local environment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sara L; Husband, Brian C

    2013-06-01

    Polyploid organisms often have different geographic ranges than their diploid relatives. However, it is unclear whether this divergence is maintained by adaptation or results from historical differences in colonization. Here, we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment with diploid and autotetraploid Chamerion angustifolium to test for adaptation at the ploidy and population level. In the Rocky Mountains, pure diploid populations occur at high elevations and pure autotetraploid populations occur at low elevations with mixed ploidy populations between. We planted 3134 seedlings in 2004 and 3890 juveniles (bolting) in 2005 among nine plots, three in each of the diploid, mixed ploidy, and tetraploid zones, and monitored survival until 2008. For both seedlings and juvenile plants, elevation significantly influenced survival. The juvenile plants also showed a significant ploidy by elevation interaction, indicating that diploids and tetraploids survived best at their native elevations. In contrast, we found no evidence of local adaptation to plot within elevation. This suggests that the current distribution of diploids and tetraploids across elevations is the result of adaptation and that genome duplication may have facilitated the invasion of lower elevation habitats by limiting the movement of maladapted alleles from diploid populations at higher elevations. PMID:23730769

  17. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  18. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  19. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  20. Cytotype distribution at a diploid-tetraploid contact zone in Chamerion (Epilobium) angustifolium (Onagraceae).

    PubMed

    Husband, B C; Schemske, D W

    1998-12-01

    In North America, the geographic distributions of diploid and tetraploid Chamerion (formerly Epilobium) angustifolium overlap in a narrow zone along the southern border of the boreal forest and along the Rocky Mountains. We examined the frequency and distribution of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes in a narrow (5 km) zone of sympatry across an elevational gradient and in putatively uniform diploid and tetraploid reference populations on the Beartooth Pass, in the Rocky Mountains of southern Montana-northern Wyoming. All five reference populations sampled were dominated by a single cytotype, but only one was completely uniform. In the zone of sympatry, 27 transects were sampled every 2 m for a total of 238 plants. Reproductive status (vegetative, flower buds, open flowers) was recorded, and the ploidy of each plant was determined by flow cytometry. Diploid and tetraploid plants predominated (36 and 55%, respectively) but were heterogeneously distributed among the transects. Six of the 27 transects were fixed for a single cytotype (four transects, diploid; two transects, tetraploid), and in seven others either diploids or tetraploids predominated (frequency >75%). Triploids represented 9% of the total sample and occurred most frequently in transects containing both diploids and tetraploids (G = 3.4, df = 2, P = 0.07). Diploids were more often reproductive (in bud, flower, or fruit) than either triploids or tetraploids (G = 12.0, df = 2, P < 0.001) and were the only cytotype to have produced open flowers. These results suggest that the zone of sympatry is best characterized as a mosaic rather than a cline, with diploid and tetraploids in close proximity and that the distribution of polyploidy is regulated by ecological sorting in a heterogeneous physical environment. PMID:21719413

  1. Direction of illumination controls gametophyte orientation in seedless plants and related algae

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Correa, Christopher; Ecker, Alice; Graham, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    The environmental influences that determine dorsiventral or axial gametophyte orientation are unknown for most modern seedless plants. To fill this gap, an experimental laboratory system was employed to evaluate the relative effects of light direction and gravity on body orientation of the dorsiventral green alga Coleochaete orbicularis, and gametophytes of liverworts Blasia pusilla and Marchantia polymorpha, early-diverging moss Sphagnum compactum, and fern Ceratopteris richardii, the latter functioning as experimental control. Replicate clonal cultures were experimentally illuminated only from above, only from below, or from multiple directions, with the same near-saturation PAR level for periods brief enough to minimize nutrient limitation effects, and orientation of new growth was evaluated. For all species tested, direction of illumination exerted stronger control over gametophyte body orientation than gravity. When illuminated only from below: 1) axial Sphagnum gametophores that had initially grown into an overlying air space inverted growth by 180°, burrowing into the substrate; 2) new growth of dorsiventral Blasia, Marchantia, and Ceratopteris gametophytes–whose ventral rhizoids initially penetrated agar substrate and dorsal surfaces initially faced overlying airspace–twisted 180° so that ventral surfaces bearing rhizoids faced overlying air space and rhizoids extended into the air; and 3) Coleochaete lost typical dorsiventral organization and diagnostic dorsal hairs. Direction of illumination also exerted stronger control over orientation of liverwort new growth than surface contact did. These results indicate that early land plants likely inherited light-directed gametophyte body orientation from ancestral streptophyte algae and suggest a mechanism for reorientation of gametophyte-dominant land plants after spatial disturbance. PMID:26237278

  2. Synthesis and optical properties of small Au nanorods using a seedless growth technique.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moustafa R K; Snyder, Brian; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2012-06-26

    Gold nanoparticles have shown potential in photothermal cancer therapy and optoelectronic technology. In both applications, a call for small size nanorods is warranted. In the present work, a one-pot seedless synthetic technique has been developed to prepare relatively small monodisperse gold nanorods with average dimensions (length × width) of 18 × 4.5 nm, 25 × 5 nm, 15 × 4.5 nm, and 10 × 2.5 nm. In this method, the pH was found to play a crucial role in the monodispersity of the nanorods when the NaBH(4) concentration of the growth solution was adjusted to control the reduction rate of the gold ions. At the optimized pH and NaBH(4) concentrations, smaller gold nanorods were produced by adjusting the CTAB concentration in the growth solution. In addition, the concentration of silver ions in the growth solution was found to be pivotal in controlling the aspect ratio of the nanorods. The extinction coefficient values for the small gold nanorods synthesized with three different aspect ratios were estimated using the absorption spectra, size distributions, and the atomic spectroscopic analysis data. The previously accepted relationships between the extinction coefficient or the longitudinal band wavelength values and the nanorods' aspect ratios found for the large nanorods do not extend to the small size domain reported in the present work. The failure of extending these relationships over larger sizes is a result of the interaction of light with the large rods giving an extinction band which results mostly from scattering processes while the extinction of the small nanorods results from absorption processes.

  3. Direction of illumination controls gametophyte orientation in seedless plants and related algae.

    PubMed

    Cardona-Correa, Christopher; Ecker, Alice; Graham, Linda E

    2015-01-01

    The environmental influences that determine dorsiventral or axial gametophyte orientation are unknown for most modern seedless plants. To fill this gap, an experimental laboratory system was employed to evaluate the relative effects of light direction and gravity on body orientation of the dorsiventral green alga Coleochaete orbicularis, and gametophytes of liverworts Blasia pusilla and Marchantia polymorpha, early-diverging moss Sphagnum compactum, and fern Ceratopteris richardii, the latter functioning as experimental control. Replicate clonal cultures were experimentally illuminated only from above, only from below, or from multiple directions, with the same near-saturation PAR level for periods brief enough to minimize nutrient limitation effects, and orientation of new growth was evaluated. For all species tested, direction of illumination exerted stronger control over gametophyte body orientation than gravity. When illuminated only from below: 1) axial Sphagnum gametophores that had initially grown into an overlying air space inverted growth by 180°, burrowing into the substrate; 2) new growth of dorsiventral Blasia, Marchantia, and Ceratopteris gametophytes-whose ventral rhizoids initially penetrated agar substrate and dorsal surfaces initially faced overlying airspace-twisted 180° so that ventral surfaces bearing rhizoids faced overlying air space and rhizoids extended into the air; and 3) Coleochaete lost typical dorsiventral organization and diagnostic dorsal hairs. Direction of illumination also exerted stronger control over orientation of liverwort new growth than surface contact did. These results indicate that early land plants likely inherited light-directed gametophyte body orientation from ancestral streptophyte algae and suggest a mechanism for reorientation of gametophyte-dominant land plants after spatial disturbance. PMID:26237278

  4. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  5. Identification and expression analysis of genes associated with the early berry development in the seedless grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar Sultanine.

    PubMed

    Costenaro-da-Silva, Danielle; Passaia, Gisele; Henriques, João A P; Margis, Rogério; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís F

    2010-11-01

    Sultanine grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important commercial seedless table-grape varieties and the main source of seedlessness for breeding programs around the world. Despite its commercial relevance, little is known about the genetic control of seedlessness in grapes, remaining unknown the molecular identity of genes responsible for such phenotype. Actually, studies concerning berry development in seedless grapes are scarce at the molecular level. We therefore developed a representational difference analysis (RDA) modified method named Bulk Representational Analysis of Transcripts (BRAT) in the attempt to identify genes specifically associated with each of the main developmental stages of Sultanine grapevine berries. A total of 2400 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified and cloned by RDA according to three specific developmental berry stages. After sequencing and in silico analysis, 1554 (64.75%) TDFs were validated according to our sequence quality cut-off. The assembly of these expressed sequence tags (ESTs) yielded 504 singletons and 77 clusters, with an overall EST redundancy of approximately 67%. Amongst all stage-specific cDNAs, nine candidate genes were selected and, along with two reference genes, submitted to a deeper analysis of their temporal expression profiles by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Seven out of nine genes proved to be in agreement with the stage-specific expression that allowed their isolation by RDA. PMID:21802609

  6. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless.

  7. Development of Enzymes in the Cotyledons of Watermelon Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, T.; McGregor, D. I.; Beevers, Harry

    1973-01-01

    Changes in hypocotyl length, cotyledon weight, lipid content, chlorophyll content, and capacity for photosynthesis have been described in seedlings of Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad. (watermelon) growing at 30 C under various light treatments. Corresponding changes in the levels of 19 enzymes in the cotyledons are described, with particular emphasis on enzymes of microbodies, since during normal greening, enzymes of the glyoxysomes are lost and those of leaf peroxisomes appear. In complete darkness enzymes of the glyoxysomes reach a peak at 4 days and decline as the fat is depleted. Enzymes of mitochondria and of glycolytic pathways also peak at 4 to 5 days and either remain unchanged or decline to a lesser extent. Exposure to light at 4 days, when the cotyledons emerge, results in a selectively greater destruction of enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle; chlorophyll synthesis and capacity for photosynthesis increase in parallel, and there is a striking increase in the activities of chloroplast enzymes and in those of the leaf peroxisomes, hydroxypyruvate reductase and glycolate oxidase. The reciprocal changes in enzymes of the glyoxysomes and of leaf peroxisomes can be temporally dissociated, since even after 10 days in darkness, when malate synthetase and isocitrate lyase have reached very low levels, hydroxypyruvate reductase and glycolate oxidase increase strikingly on exposure to light and the cotyledons become photosynthetic. Furthermore, the parallel development of enzymes of leaf peroxisomes and functional chloroplasts is not immutable, since hydroxypyruvate reductase and glycolate oxidase activity can be elicited in darkness following a 5-minute exposure to light at day 4 while chlorophyll does not develop under these conditions. PMID:16658299

  8. A major quantitative trait locus is associated with Fusarium Wilt Race 1 resistance in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). A genetic population of 186 F3 families (24 plants in each family) exhibited continuous segregation for Fon race 1 response. Geno...

  9. Waste cotton as a biodegradable mulching material for transplanted watermelon and cantaloupe production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch is commonly used in transplanted vegetable crop production in the southeastern U. S. Cantaloupe and watermelon growers use a system of hybrid transplants, grown on narrow LDPE mulch-covered seedbeds with overhead irrigation, and use the mulch cover for only one...

  10. Pilot survey results to prioritize research needs in the watermelon industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is useful for researchers of any commodity to occasionally survey their clientele to monitor for new developments and make sure their research is focused on major problems. A discussion at the Watermelon Research and Development Working Group meeting in Asheville, NC (2006) led to the development...

  11. Flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, pale yellow and red watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two loci, C and i-C were previously reported to determine flesh color between canary yellow and red watermelon. Recently LCYB was found as a color determinant gene for canary yellow (C) and co-dominant CAPS marker was developed to identify canary yellow and red alleles. Another report suggested th...

  12. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultigens tested in two environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon producers face increasing production costs and international market competition. Maximizing marketability of high quality watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai], that also contain high levels of the amino acid phytonutrient L-citrulline, can provide new market niches for th...

  13. Resistant Citrullus lanatus var. citroides Rootstocks for Managing Root-knot Nematodes in Grafted Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is an important re-emerging pest of watermelon. Several factors have contributed to re-emergence of RKN including: 1) ban of methyl bromide for soil fumigation; 2) reduced land area for crop rotation; and 3) continuous cropping of cucurbits u...

  14. Use of external indicators to predict maturity of mini-watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal-size watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], cultivars Valdoria and Vanessa were evaluated at 20, 30, 40 or 50 days after anthesis to determine a means of determining maturity at harvest. Fruit circumference, weight, ground-spot color, and number of senescent tendrils were measured for ea...

  15. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  16. Potential Sources of Resistance to Broad Mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) in Watermelon Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred and nineteen United States plant introductions (PI) belonging to the watermelon core collection were evaluated for broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) infestation and injury that occurred naturally in a field planting. Of the 219 PI, nine (4%) had no visible broad mite injury ...

  17. USVL-370, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-370’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] containing resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated wit...

  18. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  19. Tolerance to powdery mildew conferred in susceptible watermelon scion by grafting on resistant rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open field production. We have developed several watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible cultivar Mickey Lee ...

  20. First report of Squash vein yellowing virus in Watermelon in Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline in Central America. Symptoms including wilt and collapse of plants at harvest, and non-marketable fruits with internal rind necrosis were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  1. First report of Squash vein yellowing virus in watermelon in Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report the first detection of Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-induced watermelon vine decline in Central America. Symptoms including wilt and collapse of plants at harvest, and non-marketable fruits with internal rind necrosis were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  2. Evaluation of Cultural Practices and Fungicides for Managing Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of new fungicides to manage Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon. The soil at the experimental field in Charleston, SC, was Yonges loamy fine sand. The field was sprayed with Roundup Pro (1 pt/A) and Strategy (2 pt/A) after bedding but prior to...

  3. Patterns of Virus Distribution in Single and Mixed Infections of Florida Watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Tissue blot nucleic acid hybridizati...

  4. A metabolomics approach to identify and quantify the phytochemicals in watermelons by quantitative (1)HNMR.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2016-06-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) contains many health-promoting compounds, such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, phenolic acids and amino acids including l-citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. Reported HPLC method for quantification of l-citrulline and sugars in watermelon involves, time-consuming sample preparation, post-column color development and detection with fluorescence and refractive index detectors. The present study describes development of a method to identify and quantify amino acids and sugars simultaneously from watermelon samples using quantitative proton NMR. Lyophilized watermelon samples (30-50mg) were extracted with deuterium oxide (D2O) by sonication and the centrifuged extract was directly used for quantification and identification with (1)HNMR. An external coaxial insert containing a 65µL of 0.012% 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionic-(2,2,3,3-d4) acid sodium salt (TSP-d4) in D2O was used as a quantitative reference. The levels of l-citrulline and sugars were measured in less than 6min. This rapid quantitation method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and robustness. The limit of detection for l-citrulline was 38µg/mL and the limit of quantification was 71µg/mL; for sugars, the limits were 59-94µg/mL and 120µg/mL, respectively. This method can be used widely for confirmation and rapid quantitation of multiple compounds in large number of biological or breeding samples for routine analysis.

  5. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  6. Patterns of Virus Distribution in Single and Mixed Infections of Florida Watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. To determine the distribution of vir...

  7. Old Dogs, Children, and Watermelon Wine: Focus on the Older Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol E.

    1978-01-01

    Three significant elements should be considered in offering educational programs for the older learner: acceptance (old dogs); support (God bless little children while they're too young to hate); and dependability (watermelon wine). Guidelines are offered for the teacher entering the classroom composed of adult learners. (KC)

  8. Cost benefit analyses of using grafted watermelon transplants for Fusarium wilt disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium wilt continue to plague watermelon growers in intensive production areas where land resources are scarce and rotation of various crops is limited. Risk management alternatives, available to the farmer, have been reduced by the loss of soil fumigation chemicals s...

  9. 78 FR 10104 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... final rule was published in the Federal Register on February 28, 1995 [60 FR ] 10795] containing this... member on the Board. Section 1655(a) of the Act provides for referenda to be conducted to ascertain..., and importers of watermelon voting in the referendum. Accordingly, before these amendments are made...

  10. Identification of unique volatile compounds associated with repelling whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base and are susceptible to many insect pests and diseases. The insects include whiteflies which cause serious economic damages to this important cucurbit crop. However, several United States Plant Introduction a...

  11. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  12. A metabolomics approach to identify and quantify the phytochemicals in watermelons by quantitative (1)HNMR.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2016-06-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) contains many health-promoting compounds, such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, phenolic acids and amino acids including l-citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. Reported HPLC method for quantification of l-citrulline and sugars in watermelon involves, time-consuming sample preparation, post-column color development and detection with fluorescence and refractive index detectors. The present study describes development of a method to identify and quantify amino acids and sugars simultaneously from watermelon samples using quantitative proton NMR. Lyophilized watermelon samples (30-50mg) were extracted with deuterium oxide (D2O) by sonication and the centrifuged extract was directly used for quantification and identification with (1)HNMR. An external coaxial insert containing a 65µL of 0.012% 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionic-(2,2,3,3-d4) acid sodium salt (TSP-d4) in D2O was used as a quantitative reference. The levels of l-citrulline and sugars were measured in less than 6min. This rapid quantitation method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and robustness. The limit of detection for l-citrulline was 38µg/mL and the limit of quantification was 71µg/mL; for sugars, the limits were 59-94µg/mL and 120µg/mL, respectively. This method can be used widely for confirmation and rapid quantitation of multiple compounds in large number of biological or breeding samples for routine analysis. PMID:27130118

  13. A Glance at Microsatellite Motifs from 454 Sequencing Reads of Watermelon Genomic DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single 454 (Life Sciences Sequencing Technology) run of Charleston Gray watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) genomic DNA was performed and sequence data were assembled. A large scale identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) was performed and SSR sequence data were used for the develo...

  14. Efficiency and economic feasibility of pest control systems in watermelon cropping.

    PubMed

    Lima, C H O; Sarmento, R A; Rosado, J F; Silveira, M C A C; Santos, G R; Pedro Neto, M; Erasmo, E A L; Nascimento, I R; Picanço, M C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency and feasibility of two different watermelon pest control systems on pest infestations, natural enemies, and on the productivity and sustainability of watermelon cropping. Two independent experiments were carried out during the dry season of 2011. Both experiments were carried out using a randomized block experimental design, with three treatments; weekly application of pesticide (WAP), integrated pest management (IPM), and nonpesticide application (control); and four replicates. Arthropods sampling was performed every 2 d by direct counting at five randomly selected points in each plot. Samples were taken by beating the leaves from the apical portion of the plant against a white plastic tray. Arthropods that moved along the soil surface were sampled weekly using pitfall traps. Both WAP and IPM treatments negatively affected the arthropod population. We conclude that IPM is an attractive strategy for watermelon cropping both economically and environmentally because it provides the grower with an option to lower production cost, achieves the same production, and there is less need for pesticide application when compared with the prophylactic control treatment when pesticides are applied on a weekly basis. This has not been reported for watermelon before.

  15. Mechanism of disease suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by cover crop green manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  16. Variation in carotenoids among mini watermelons produced in four locations in the Eastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen miniwatermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivars or lines (cultigens), all representing mini size (less than 4 kg), were grown in South and North Florida, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The watermelon was produced at each location using plasticulture (black plastic mulch and drip irrigati...

  17. Identification and Utility of Markers Linked to the Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance Gene in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Florida stain (ZYMV-FL) is one of the most economically important viruses affecting watermelon in the United States. Inheritance of resistance to ZYMV-FL is conferred by a single recessive gene. Described here is single-reaction, polymerase chain reaction-based marker l...

  18. Improved watermelon quality using bottle gourd rootstock expressing a Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been commonly used as a source of rootstock for watermelon. To improve its performance as a rootstock without adverse effects on the scion, the bottle gourd was genetically engineered using a modified "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger sCAX2B. This t...

  19. Nature’s packaging and organization of carotenoids in watermelon and cantaloupe chromoplasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a means to better understand factors influencing the bioavailability of carotenoids from natural sources, the properties of plant-derived precipitates of watermelon lycopene and cantaloupe B-carotene were examined in an aqueous environment. Electron microscopy and chemical analyses revealed that...

  20. Haematological parameters in Umbrina cirrosa (Teleostei, Sciaenidae): a comparison between diploid and triploid specimens.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Loriano; Dall'Oro, Manuela; Bertotto, Daniela; Libertini, Angelo; Francescon, Antonia; Barbaro, Alvise

    2004-05-01

    Haematological features were compared between diploid and triploid specimens of the ray-finned fish Umbrina cirrosa. No significant differences between diploids and triploids were reported in haematocrit and total haemoglobin concentration, but erythrocytes and thrombocytes were significantly greater in size in triploids. Glycaemia was significantly lower in diploids, whereas triploid erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress. In triploids, a greater fraction of leukocytes was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, when stimulated with Bacillus clausii spores, otherwise no significant increase of oxygen consumption was observed in triploid leukocytes after stimulation, based on assays for superoxide anions. Triploids were characterized by a lower concentration of circulating blood cells with a lower surface/volume ratio when compared with diploids. These features may lead to a general disadvantage of triploids in withstanding stress conditions: a situation that needs to be taken into account in aquaculture practice. PMID:15165570

  1. Evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations.

    PubMed

    Davies, N G; Gardner, A

    2014-06-01

    W. D. Hamilton famously suggested that the inflated relatedness of full sisters under haplodiploidy explains why all workers in the social hymenoptera are female. This suggestion has not stood up to further theoretical scrutiny and is not empirically supported. Rather, it appears that altruistic sib-rearing in the social hymenoptera is performed exclusively by females because this behaviour has its origins in parental care, which was performed exclusively by females in the ancestors of this insect group. However, haplodiploidy might still explain the sex of workers if this mode of inheritance has itself been responsible for the rarity of paternal care in this group. Here, we perform a theoretical kin selection analysis to investigate the evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. We find that haplodiploidy may either inhibit or promote paternal care depending on model assumptions, but that under the most plausible scenarios it promotes - rather than inhibits - paternal care. Our analysis casts further doubt upon there being a causal link between haplodiploidy and eusociality. PMID:24773069

  2. Expression of α-amylase inhibitors in diploid Triticum species.

    PubMed

    Zoccatelli, Gianni; Sega, Michela; Bolla, Michela; Cecconi, Daniela; Vaccino, Patrizia; Rizzi, Corrado; Chignola, Roberto; Brandolini, Andrea

    2012-12-15

    The aim of the work was to characterize the expression of various α-amylase inhibitors (αAIs), well known anti-nutritional compounds, for the development of healthier diploid wheat-based functional foods. The salt-soluble protein fractions from the seeds of 53 accessions among Triticum monococcum subsp. monococcum (T.m.), T. monococcum subsp. boeoticum (T.b.) and Triticum urartu (T.u.) were analyzed by immunoblotting after SDS-PAGE and Urea-PAGE using polyclonal antibodies (PABs) raised against 0.19 and 0.28 αAIs expressed in bread-wheat. Reverse zymography with human saliva and Tenebrio molitor α-amylases was used to assay inhibition activity. A great variability of the expression of αAI-related proteins was observed among T.b. and T.u. PABs, and reverse zymography revealed different bands, often not correlating with those present in bread-wheat. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometric analysis identified these proteins as αAIs. Interestingly, no signal was observed within T.m. accessions. This makes T.m. an important candidate for the production of novel functional foods.

  3. The population genetics of clonal and partially clonal diploids.

    PubMed Central

    Balloux, François; Lehmann, Laurent; de Meeûs, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The consequences of variable rates of clonal reproduction on the population genetics of neutral markers are explored in diploid organisms within a subdivided population (island model). We use both analytical and stochastic simulation approaches. High rates of clonal reproduction will positively affect heterozygosity. As a consequence, nearly twice as many alleles per locus can be maintained and population differentiation estimated as F(ST) value is strongly decreased in purely clonal populations as compared to purely sexual ones. With increasing clonal reproduction, effective population size first slowly increases and then points toward extreme values when the reproductive system tends toward strict clonality. This reflects the fact that polymorphism is protected within individuals due to fixed heterozygosity. Contrarily, genotypic diversity smoothly decreases with increasing rates of clonal reproduction. Asexual populations thus maintain higher genetic diversity at each single locus but a lower number of different genotypes. Mixed clonal/sexual reproduction is nearly indistinguishable from strict sexual reproduction as long as the proportion of clonal reproduction is not strongly predominant for all quantities investigated, except for genotypic diversities (both at individual loci and over multiple loci). PMID:12930767

  4. Fast diploidization in close mesopolyploid relatives of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mandáková, Terezie; Joly, Simon; Krzywinski, Martin; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Lysak, Martin A

    2010-07-01

    Mesopolyploid whole-genome duplication (WGD) was revealed in the ancestry of Australian Brassicaceae species with diploid-like chromosome numbers (n = 4 to 6). Multicolor comparative chromosome painting was used to reconstruct complete cytogenetic maps of the cryptic ancient polyploids. Cytogenetic analysis showed that the karyotype of the Australian Camelineae species descended from the eight ancestral chromosomes (n = 8) through allopolyploid WGD followed by the extensive reduction of chromosome number. Nuclear and maternal gene phylogenies corroborated the hybrid origin of the mesotetraploid ancestor and suggest that the hybridization event occurred approximately 6 to 9 million years ago. The four, five, and six fusion chromosome pairs of the analyzed close relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana represent complex mosaics of duplicated ancestral genomic blocks reshuffled by numerous chromosome rearrangements. Unequal reciprocal translocations with or without preceeding pericentric inversions and purported end-to-end chromosome fusions accompanied by inactivation and/or loss of centromeres are hypothesized to be the main pathways for the observed chromosome number reduction. Our results underline the significance of multiple rounds of WGD in the angiosperm genome evolution and demonstrate that chromosome number per se is not a reliable indicator of ploidy level. PMID:20639445

  5. The legacy of diploid progenitors in allopolyploid gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Buggs, Richard J. A.; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Coate, Jeremy E.

    2014-01-01

    Allopolyploidization (hybridization and whole-genome duplication) is a common phenomenon in plant evolution with immediate saltational effects on genome structure and gene expression. New technologies have allowed rapid progress over the past decade in our understanding of the consequences of allopolyploidy. A major question, raised by early pioneer of this field Leslie Gottlieb, concerned the extent to which gene expression differences among duplicate genes present in an allopolyploid are a legacy of expression differences that were already present in the progenitor diploid species. Addressing this question necessitates phylogenetically well-understood natural study systems, appropriate technology, availability of genomic resources and a suitable analytical framework, including a sufficiently detailed and generally accepted terminology. Here, we review these requirements and illustrate their application to a natural study system that Gottlieb worked on and recommended for this purpose: recent allopolyploids of Tragopogon (Asteraceae). We reanalyse recent data from this system within the conceptual framework of parental legacies on duplicate gene expression in allopolyploids. On a broader level, we highlight the intellectual connection between Gottlieb's phrasing of this issue and the more contemporary framework of cis- versus trans-regulation of duplicate gene expression in allopolyploid plants. PMID:24958927

  6. Genetic dissection of scent metabolic profiles in diploid rose populations.

    PubMed

    Spiller, M; Berger, R G; Debener, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The scent of flowers is a very important trait in ornamental roses in terms of both quantity and quality. In cut roses, scented varieties are a rare exception. Although metabolic profiling has identified more than 500 scent volatiles from rose flowers so far, nothing is known about the inheritance of scent in roses. Therefore, we analysed scent volatiles and molecular markers in diploid segregating populations. We resolved the patterns of inheritance of three volatiles (nerol, neryl acetate and geranyl acetate) into single Mendelian traits, and we mapped these as single or oligogenic traits in the rose genome. Three other volatiles (geraniol, beta-citronellol and 2-phenylethanol) displayed quantitative variation in the progeny, and we mapped a total of six QTLs influencing the amounts of these volatiles onto the rose marker map. Because we included known scent related genes and newly generated ESTs for scent volatiles as markers, we were able to link scent related QTLs with putative candidate genes. Our results serve as a starting point for both more detailed analyses of complex scent biosynthetic pathways and the development of markers for marker-assisted breeding of scented rose varieties.

  7. Diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) differ in biomarker responses to the pesticide chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Goh, Yong-Meng; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Lazorchak, James M; Abdullah, Maha; Courtenay, Simon C

    2016-07-01

    The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (mean measured μg/L (SD): 9.71 (2.27), 15.7 (3.69), 31.21 (5.04)) under a static-renewal condition for 21days. Diploid control groups had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), plasma testosterone (T), and brain GnRH and cyp19a2 expression levels than triploids. In CPF-exposed groups, changes in HSI, total weight and length were different between the diploid and triploid fish. In contrast, condition factor did not alter in any of the treatments, while visceral-somatic index (VSI) changed only in diploids. In diploid fish, exposure to CPF did not change brain 11β-hsd2, ftz-f1, foxl2, GnRH or cyp19a2 mRNA levels, while reduced tph2 transcript levels compared to the control group. In contrast, 11β-hsd2 and foxl2 expression levels were changed in triploids following CPF exposures. In diploids, plasma T levels showed a linear dose-response reduction across CPF treatments correlating with liver weight and plasma total cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, no changes in plasma cholesterol and T concentrations were observed in triploids. Plasma cortisol and 17-β estradiol (E2) showed no response to CPF exposure in either ploidy. Results of this first comparison of biomarker responses to pesticide exposure in diploid and polyploid animals showed substantial differences between diploid and triploid C. gariepinus. PMID:26994807

  8. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon. PMID:26673673

  9. The effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) extracts and L-citrulline on rat uterine contractility.

    PubMed

    Munglue, Phukphon; Eumkep, Graingsak; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2013-04-01

    In uterine smooth muscle, the effects of watermelon and its citrulline content are unknown. The aims of this study were therefore, to determine the effects of watermelon extract and citrulline on the myometrium and to investigate their mechanisms of action. The effects of extracts of watermelon flesh and rind and L-citrulline (64 μmol/L) were evaluated on 3 types of contractile activity; spontaneous, those elicited by potassium chloride (KCl) depolarization, or oxytocin (10 nmol/L) application in isolated rat uterus. Inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and its mechanisms of action, N ω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 100 μmol/L), LY83583 (1 μmol/L), and tetraethylamonium chloride (5 mmol/L), as well as Ca signaling pathways, were determined. Both flesh and rind extracts significantly decreased the force produced by all 3 mechanisms, in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts could also significantly decrease the force under conditions of sustained high Ca levels (depolarization and agonist) and when the force was produced only by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release. L-citrulline produced the same effects on force as watermelon extracts. With submaximal doses of extract, the additive effects of L-citrulline were found. The inhibitory effects of extracts and L-citrulline were reversed upon the addition of NO inhibitors, and pretreatment of tissues with these inhibitors prevented the actions of both extracts and L-citrulline. Thus, these data show that watermelon and citrulline are potent tocolytics, decreasing the force produced by calcium entry and SR release and arising by different pathways, including oxytocin stimulation. Their major mechanism is to stimulate the NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) relaxant pathway.

  10. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10-40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28-30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000-1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon. PMID:26673673

  11. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Results Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Conclusions Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening. PMID:24219562

  12. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10-40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28-30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000-1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.

  13. Microsatellite markers linked to the locus of the watermelon fruit stripe pattern.

    PubMed

    Gama, R N C S; Santos, C A F; Dias, R C S; Alves, J C S F; Nogueira, T O

    2015-01-01

    Agronomic performance and external and internal appearance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit are important traits that should be taken into consideration during the development of a new cultivar, as well as being the principal identification elements used by the consumer, which are based on the external appearance and quality of the fruit. Externally, the fruit can be characterized in terms of the shape, the color of the lower rind, and the presence of grooves and stripes, the stripes can be classified as clearly defined or diffuse. The objective of this study was to identify microsatellite markers linked to the stripe pattern of watermelon fruit to support watermelon improvement programs, with the selection of this characteristic in the plantlet stage. F1 and F2 populations, result of a cross between the cultivars BRS Opara (clearly defined stripes) and Pérola (diffuse stripes), were phenotyped for their fruit stripe pattern. The CTAB 2X protocol was used for DNA extraction and 116 microsatellite markers were examined in a group of F2 plants that had fruit with well-defined stripes and fruit with diffuse stripes. The microsatellite loci MCPI_05 and MCPI_16 exhibited a linkage to the stripe pattern at a distance of 1.5 and 1.8 cM, respectively, with LOD scores of 39.28 and 38.11, respectively, which were located on chromosome six of the watermelon genome. These markers can be used in marker-assisted selection in watermelon improvement programs, by various research institutions. PMID:25729959

  14. Residue analysis of multi-class pesticides in watermelon by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Park, Semin; Lee, Sung Joong; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Jeong, Won Young; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jeong, Sung Woo; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Soo Taek; Shin, Sung Chul

    2010-03-01

    As watermelon is farmed primarily by protected and successive cultivation techniques, a number of pesticides are required for the control of pests and diseases. To evaluate the harmful effects of pesticides in watermelon and to guarantee consumers' safety, a rapid screening process for pesticides is required. A LC-MS/MS method was applied for the direct quantitation of 44 pesticide residues in watermelon. A Zorbax XDB-C(18) column was selected for analysis, with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient system of water and 5 mM methanolic ammonium formate. MS/MS experiments were performed in ESI positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring modes. The LOQs were in the range of 1-26 microg/kg, thereby indicating good sensitivity. Most of the recoveries ranged between 70-131% with RSDs < or = 20%. We suggested that the amount of pesticide residues such as pyroquilon (pyn), boscalid (bd), and dimethomorph (di) in amides (AM) and cinosulfuron (ci) in ureas (UR) may have been overestimated for the pesticides owing to increased alpha-error risk, whereas the amounts of pesticide residues, such as imibenconazole (ie) in the triazoles (TR) and fenpyroximate (fee) in the imidazoles (IM), may have been underestimated as the result of increased beta-error risk. The current method allowed for the rapid quantitation and identification of low pesticide levels in the watermelon samples. No pesticide residues were detected in any of the surveyed watermelons obtained from eight local markets in the Republic of Korea. Statistical analysis of the recoveries classified the 44 pesticides into nine groups and three overall categories. PMID:20175086

  15. Ribosomal DNA locus variation and REMAP analysis of the diploid and triploid complexes of Lilium lancifolium.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Truong Xuan; Lee, Sung-Il; Rai, Rameshwar; Kim, Nam-Soo; Kim, Jong Hwa

    2016-08-01

    Lilium lancifolium Thunb. (2n = 2x = 24) is a cytologically conspicuous species with both diploids and triploids in nature. Cytological and molecular genetic analyses were carried out in both diploids and triploids that were collected from 55 geographical locations in Korea, Japan, and China. While the 5S rRNA gene loci were located at duplicated loci on the long arm of chromosome 2, the 45S rRNA gene loci were present in chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 11. While the loci on chromosomes 1 and 7 were constant, the loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 6, 7, and 11 were variable in some plants so that the L. lancifolium accessions were grouped into 7 cytotypes in diploids and 12 cytotypes in triploids. REMAP marker analysis revealed that the diploids were classified into seven clusters, and the triploids were classified into a large cluster. Geographic, cytological, and genetic differentiations were not related in both the diploid and triploid accessions of L. lancifolium. Thus, current genetic variations occurred prior to the geographic differentiation in both diploids and triploids, and the 45S rDNA cytotype variations occurred after geographic differentiation in the current habitats of L. lancifolium. PMID:27458741

  16. Insights into the Evolution of Cotton Diploids and Polyploids from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Page, Justin T.; Huynh, Mark D.; Liechty, Zach S.; Grupp, Kara; Stelly, David; Hulse, Amanda M.; Ashrafi, Hamid; Van Deynze, Allen; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Udall, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the composition, evolution, and function of the Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) genome is complicated by the joint presence of two genomes in its nucleus (AT and DT genomes). These two genomes were derived from progenitor A-genome and D-genome diploids involved in ancestral allopolyploidization. To better understand the allopolyploid genome, we re-sequenced the genomes of extant diploid relatives that contain the A1 (Gossypium herbaceum), A2 (Gossypium arboreum), or D5 (Gossypium raimondii) genomes. We conducted a comparative analysis using deep re-sequencing of multiple accessions of each diploid species and identified 24 million SNPs between the A-diploid and D-diploid genomes. These analyses facilitated the construction of a robust index of conserved SNPs between the A-genomes and D-genomes at all detected polymorphic loci. This index is widely applicable for read mapping efforts of other diploid and allopolyploid Gossypium accessions. Further analysis also revealed locations of putative duplications and deletions in the A-genome relative to the D-genome reference sequence. The approximately 25,400 deleted regions included more than 50% deletion of 978 genes, including many involved with starch synthesis. In the polyploid genome, we also detected 1,472 conversion events between homoeologous chromosomes, including events that overlapped 113 genes. Continued characterization of the Gossypium genomes will further enhance our ability to manipulate fiber and agronomic production of cotton. PMID:23979935

  17. The evolutionary advantage of haploid versus diploid microbes in nutrient-poor environments.

    PubMed

    Bessho, Kazuhiro; Iwasa, Yoh; Day, Troy

    2015-10-21

    Sexual eukaryotic organisms are characterized by haploid and diploid nuclear phases. In many organisms, growth and development occur in both haploid and diploid phases, and the relative length of these phases exhibits considerable diversity. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain the maintenance of this diversity of life cycles and the advantage of being haploid versus that of being diploid. The nutrient-limitation hypothesis postulates that haploid cells, because they are small and thus have a higher surface area to volume ratio, are advantageous in nutrient-poor environments. In this paper, we examine this hypothesis theoretically and determine the conditions under which it holds. On the basis of our analysis, we make the following predictions. First, the relative advantages of different ploidy levels strongly depend on the ploidy-dependent energy conversion efficiency and the scaling of mortality with cell size. Specifically, haploids enjoy a higher intrinsic population growth rate than diploids do under nutrient-poor conditions, but under nutrient-rich conditions the intrinsic population growth rate of diploids is higher, provided that the energy conversion efficiency of diploids is higher than that of haploids and the scaling of mortality with cell size is weak. Second, differences in nutrient concentration in the inflowing medium have almost no effect on the relative advantage of ploidy levels at population equilibrium. Our study illustrates the importance of explicit modeling of microbial life history and population dynamics to understand the evolution of ploidy levels.

  18. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: Infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome

    SciTech Connect

    Kishigami, Satoshi Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the 'Hayflick limit'. However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to 'passage' a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the 'passage' of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels.

  19. Trait responses of invasive aquatic macrophyte congeners: colonizing diploid outperforms polyploid

    PubMed Central

    Grewell, Brenda J.; Skaer Thomason, Meghan J.; Futrell, Caryn J.; Iannucci, Maria; Drenovsky, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding traits underlying colonization and niche breadth of invasive plants is key to developing sustainable management solutions to curtail invasions at the establishment phase, when efforts are often most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate how two invasive congeners differing in ploidy respond to high and lowresource availability following establishment from asexual fragments. Because polyploids are expected to have wider niche breadths than diploid ancestors, we predicted that a decaploid species would have superior ability to maximize resource uptake and use, and outperform a diploid congener when colonizing environments with contrasting light and nutrient availability. A mesocosm experiment was designed to test the main and interactive effects of ploidy (diploid and decaploid) and soil nutrient availability (low and high) nested within light environments (shade and sun) of two invasive aquatic plant congeners. Counter to our predictions, the diploid congener outperformed the decaploid in the early stage of growth. Although growth was similar and low in the cytotypes at low nutrient availability, the diploid species had much higher growth rate and biomass accumulation than the polyploid with nutrient enrichment, irrespective of light environment. Our results also revealed extreme differences in time to anthesis between the cytotypes. The rapid growth and earlier flowering of the diploid congener relative to the decaploid congener represent alternate strategies for establishment and success. PMID:26921139

  20. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome.

    PubMed

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the "Hayflick limit". However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to "passage" a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the "passage" of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels. PMID:18346729

  1. Lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of selected watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld) cultivars grown in India.

    PubMed

    Nagal, Shweta; Kaur, Charanjit; Choudhary, Harshawardhan; Singh, Jashbir; Bhushan Singh, Braj; Singh, K N

    2012-12-01

    The present investigation reports variability in lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of 12 watermelon cultivars grown in India. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using four in vitro assays, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl. Among watermelon cultivars, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found with respect to lycopene content and antioxidant capacity. Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. Colour of watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. Results indicate that watermelon is a good source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that can be exploited to produce high-quality cultivars.

  2. Scanning genomic areas under selection sweep and association mapping as tools to identify horticultural important genes in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) contains 88% water, sugars, and several important health-related compounds, including lycopene, citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. The current genetic diversity study uses microsatellites with known map positions to identify genomic regions that under...

  3. Obstruction of adaptation in diploids by recessive, strongly deleterious alleles

    PubMed Central

    Assaf, Zoe June; Petrov, Dmitri A.; Blundell, Jamie R.

    2015-01-01

    Recessive deleterious mutations are common, causing many genetic disorders in humans and producing inbreeding depression in the majority of sexually reproducing diploids. The abundance of recessive deleterious mutations in natural populations suggests they are likely to be present on a chromosome when a new adaptive mutation occurs, yet the dynamics of recessive deleterious hitchhikers and their impact on adaptation remains poorly understood. Here we model how a recessive deleterious mutation impacts the fate of a genetically linked dominant beneficial mutation. The frequency trajectory of the adaptive mutation in this case is dramatically altered and results in what we have termed a “staggered sweep.” It is named for its three-phased trajectory: (i) Initially, the two linked mutations have a selective advantage while rare and will increase in frequency together, then (ii), at higher frequencies, the recessive hitchhiker is exposed to selection and can cause a balanced state via heterozygote advantage (the staggered phase), and (iii) finally, if recombination unlinks the two mutations, then the beneficial mutation can complete the sweep to fixation. Using both analytics and simulations, we show that strongly deleterious recessive mutations can substantially decrease the probability of fixation for nearby beneficial mutations, thus creating zones in the genome where adaptation is suppressed. These mutations can also significantly prolong the number of generations a beneficial mutation takes to sweep to fixation, and cause the genomic signature of selection to resemble that of soft or partial sweeps. We show that recessive deleterious variation could impact adaptation in humans and Drosophila. PMID:25941393

  4. Evolutionary and expression analysis of a MADS-box gene superfamily involved in ovule development of seeded and seedless grapevines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yin, Xiangjing; Cheng, Chenxia; Wang, Hao; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Zhao, Jiao; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2015-06-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are involved in many aspects of plant growth and development, such as floral organ determination, fruit ripening, and embryonic development. Yet not much is known about grape (Vitis vinifera) MADS-box genes in a relatively comprehensive genomic and functional way during ovule development. Accordingly, we identified 54 grape MADS-box genes, aiming to enhance our understanding of grape MADS-box genes from both evolutionary and functional perspectives. Synteny analysis indicated that both segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape MADS-box family. Furthermore, synteny analysis between the grape and Arabidopsis genomes suggested that several grape MADS-box genes arose before divergence of the two species. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons of exon-intron structures provided further insight into the evolutionary relationships between the genes, as well as their putative functions. Based on phylogenetic tree analysis, grape MADS-box genes were divided into type I and type II subgroups. Tissue-specific expression analysis suggested roles in both vegetative and reproductive tissue development. Expression analysis of the MADS-box genes following gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment revealed their response to GA3 treatment and that seedlessness caused by GA3 treatment underwent a different mechanism from that of normal ovule abortion. Expression profiling of MADS-box genes from six cultivars suggests their function in ovule development and may represent potential ovule identity genes involved in parthenocarpy. The results presented provide a few candidate genes involved in ovule development for future study, which may be useful in seedlessness-related molecular breeding programs. PMID:25429734

  5. Cavitation Resistance in Seedless Vascular Plants: The Structure and Function of Interconduit Pit Membranes1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Craig; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Rico, Christopher; Pittermann, Jarmila

    2014-01-01

    Plant water transport occurs through interconnected xylem conduits that are separated by partially digested regions in the cell wall known as pit membranes. These structures have a dual function. Their porous construction facilitates water movement between conduits while limiting the spread of air that may enter the conduits and render them dysfunctional during a drought. Pit membranes have been well studied in woody plants, but very little is known about their function in more ancient lineages such as seedless vascular plants. Here, we examine the relationships between conduit air seeding, pit hydraulic resistance, and pit anatomy in 10 species of ferns (pteridophytes) and two lycophytes. Air seeding pressures ranged from 0.8 ± 0.15 MPa (mean ± sd) in the hydric fern Athyrium filix-femina to 4.9 ± 0.94 MPa in Psilotum nudum, an epiphytic species. Notably, a positive correlation was found between conduit pit area and vulnerability to air seeding, suggesting that the rare-pit hypothesis explains air seeding in early-diverging lineages much as it does in many angiosperms. Pit area resistance was variable but averaged 54.6 MPa s m−1 across all surveyed pteridophytes. End walls contributed 52% to the overall transport resistance, similar to the 56% in angiosperm vessels and 64% in conifer tracheids. Taken together, our data imply that, irrespective of phylogenetic placement, selection acted on transport efficiency in seedless vascular plants and woody plants in equal measure by compensating for shorter conduits in tracheid-bearing plants with more permeable pit membranes. PMID:24777347

  6. Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless.

    PubMed

    Champa, W A Harindra; Gill, M I S; Mahajan, B V C; Arora, N K

    2015-06-01

    Significance of preharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments on maturity, quality and postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless were studied during two years. The experiment was performed on 12-year old own rooted, grapevines planted at 3 m × 3 m spacing trained on overhead system. Vines were treated with aqueous solutions of SA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM) at pea stage and at veraison. After harvesting, clusters were divided into two lots in which one was subjected to initial quality evaluation, while the other was stored in cold room (3-4 °C, 90-95 % RH) for evaluation of postharvest quality. SA at the dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mM hastened berry maturity by 3 to 5 days, produced less compact bunches alongside larger berries in contrast to control and the lowest dose. The same doses effectively maintained peel colour, higher firmness, lower pectin methyl esterase activity and electrolyte leakage alongside suppressing degradation of TSS and TA during cold storage. These two doses also exhibited higher efficacy on maintaining anthocyanins, phenols and organoleptic properties while reducing weight loss, rachis browning and decay incidence. Correlation analysis demonstrated that many quality parameters are interdependent. In conclusion, preharvest spray of 1.5 mM SA proved to be an effective means of improving quality and extending postharvest life of grape cv. Flame Seedless. PMID:26028743

  7. Different responses to N(+) beam implantation between diploid and autotetraploid rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengming; Huang, Qunce; Qin, Guangyong; Zhao, Shuaipeng

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the biological effects of N(+) beam implantation in different ploidy rice. N(+) beam implantation had increase effect in tillers number, spikelet fertility, grain yield per plant, si-phellem cell size, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, flag leaf dry weight, flag leaf culm dry weight, stomatal length, vascular bundle area, and protein and starch content and decrease effect in 1,000-grain weight, stomatal width and chlorophyll, calcium, sodium, and zinc content for all rice lines. N(+) beam implantation had opposite effect on diploid and autotetraploid rice lines in vascular bundle area, stomatal complexes areas, epidermal cell size, era length, area of air spaces, midrib length, papilla number, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, flag leaf area, and cadmium, copper, ferrum, magnesium and phosphorus content. Twenty traits of diploid line and ten traits of autotetraploid line are significantly increased by N(+) beam in this experiment, ranging from 6.8 to 362.7 % in diploid line and 7.9 to 131.7 % in autotetraploid line. Six traits of diploid lines and 15 traits of autotetraploid line are significantly decreased by N(+) beam implantation in this experiment, ranging from 8.9 to 87.4 % in diploid line and 5.6 to 88.5 % in autotetraploid line.

  8. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    PubMed

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

  9. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    PubMed

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  10. Comparison of leaf proteomes of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid genotypes.

    PubMed

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies.

  11. Comparison of Leaf Proteomes of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivar NZ199 Diploid and Autotetraploid Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    An, Feifei; Fan, Jie; Li, Jun; Li, Qing X.; Li, Kaimian; Zhu, Wenli; Wen, Feng; Carvalho, Luiz J. C. B.; Chen, Songbi

    2014-01-01

    Cassava polyploid breeding has drastically improved our knowledge on increasing root yield and its significant tolerance to stresses. In polyploid cassava plants, increases in DNA content highly affect cell volumes and anatomical structures. However, the mechanism of this effect is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare and validate the changes between cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid and autotetraploid at proteomic levels. The results showed that leaf proteome of cassava cultivar NZ199 diploid was clearly differentiated from its autotetraploid genotype using 2-DE combined MS technique. Sixty-five differential protein spots were seen in 2-DE image of autotetraploid genotype in comparison with that of diploid. Fifty-two proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, of which 47 were up-regulated and 5 were down-regulated in autotetraploid genotype compared with diploid genotype. The classified functions of 32 up-regulated proteins were associated with photosynthesis, defense system, hydrocyanic acid (HCN) metabolism, protein biosynthesis, chaperones, amino acid metabolism and signal transduction. The remarkable variation in photosynthetic activity, HCN content and resistance to salt stress between diploid and autotetraploid genotypes is closely linked with expression levels of proteomic profiles. The analysis of protein interaction networks indicated there are direct interactions between the 15 up-regulation proteins involved in the pathways described above. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of cassava polyploid genotype, and gives a clue to improve cassava polyploidy breeding in increasing photosynthesis and resistance efficiencies. PMID:24727655

  12. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-Mediated Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao-bo; Gao, Xiu-wu; Guo, Jin-hua; Huang, Qun-ce; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2002-12-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 °C for 5 hours. By two-generations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  13. Evolution of watermelon fruit physicochemical and phytochemical composition during ripening as affected by grafting.

    PubMed

    Soteriou, G A; Kyriacou, M C; Siomos, A S; Gerasopoulos, D

    2014-12-15

    Flesh reflectance colorimetry, mechanical texture analysis, pH, titratable acidity (TA), and soluble solid (SS), soluble carbohydrate, lycopene and citrulline content of watermelon fruit were assessed throughout ripening (30-50 days post-anthesis; dpa) in grafted and self-rooted plants. Grafting increased firmness, TA, and lycopene content though it delayed its peak. Lycopene content was mostly ripening-dependant, highly correlated and synchronous with changes in pulp chroma (C) and colour a. The sweetness was affected only by ripening. However, total sugars and SS peaked later in fruit of grafted plants than in non-grafted ones, and significant interaction of ripening with grafting was observed. Citrulline content increased with ripening in fruit of grafted plants, reaching a peak at 45 dpa; whereas in non-grafted ones it was unchanged between 30 and 45 dpa and declined at 50 dpa. As ripening overall was retarded by grafting, fruit quality of grafted watermelon may benefit from belated harvest.

  14. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization in qRT-PCR analysis in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Shuang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is one of the major Cucurbitaceae crops and the recent availability of genome sequence greatly facilitates the fundamental researches on it. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is the preferred method for gene expression analyses, and using validated reference genes for normalization is crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been conducted on watermelon. In this study, transcripts of 15 candidate reference genes were quantified in watermelon using qRT-PCR, and the stability of these genes was compared using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified ClTUA and ClACT, ClEF1α and ClACT, and ClCAC and ClTUA as the best pairs of reference genes in watermelon organs and tissues under normal growth conditions, abiotic stress, and biotic stress, respectively. NormFinder identified ClYLS8, ClUBCP, and ClCAC as the best single reference genes under the above experimental conditions, respectively. ClYLS8 and ClPP2A were identified as the best reference genes across all samples. Two to nine reference genes were required for more reliable normalization depending on the experimental conditions. The widely used watermelon reference gene 18SrRNA was less stable than the other reference genes under the experimental conditions. Catalase family genes were identified in watermelon genome, and used to validate the reliability of the identified reference genes. ClCAT1and ClCAT2 were induced and upregulated in the first 24 h, whereas ClCAT3 was downregulated in the leaves under low temperature stress. However, the expression levels of these genes were significantly overestimated and misinterpreted when 18SrRNA was used as a reference gene. These results provide a good starting point for reference gene selection in qRT-PCR analyses involving watermelon.

  15. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in qRT-PCR Analysis in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Shuang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is one of the major Cucurbitaceae crops and the recent availability of genome sequence greatly facilitates the fundamental researches on it. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT–PCR) is the preferred method for gene expression analyses, and using validated reference genes for normalization is crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been conducted on watermelon. In this study, transcripts of 15 candidate reference genes were quantified in watermelon using qRT–PCR, and the stability of these genes was compared using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified ClTUA and ClACT, ClEF1α and ClACT, and ClCAC and ClTUA as the best pairs of reference genes in watermelon organs and tissues under normal growth conditions, abiotic stress, and biotic stress, respectively. NormFinder identified ClYLS8, ClUBCP, and ClCAC as the best single reference genes under the above experimental conditions, respectively. ClYLS8 and ClPP2A were identified as the best reference genes across all samples. Two to nine reference genes were required for more reliable normalization depending on the experimental conditions. The widely used watermelon reference gene 18SrRNA was less stable than the other reference genes under the experimental conditions. Catalase family genes were identified in watermelon genome, and used to validate the reliability of the identified reference genes. ClCAT1and ClCAT2 were induced and upregulated in the first 24 h, whereas ClCAT3 was downregulated in the leaves under low temperature stress. However, the expression levels of these genes were significantly overestimated and misinterpreted when 18SrRNA was used as a reference gene. These results provide a good starting point for reference gene selection in qRT–PCR analyses involving watermelon. PMID:24587403

  16. Ultrastructural study on dynamics of plastids and mitochondria during microgametogenesis in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin

    2012-02-01

    Dynamics of plastids and mitochondria during microgametogenesis in watermelon were examined by means of transmission electron microscopy. Plastids are present as proplastids in the microspore and as amyloplasts in the vegetative cell of the bicellular pollen grain, whereas the generative cell is completely devoid of plastids, suggesting that microspore plastids are excluded from the generative cell during the microspore mitotic division. Therefore, watermelon is classified as Lycopersicon type, where plastids exclusion from the generative cell leads to purely maternal plastid inheritance. Mitochondria in the generative cell show noticeable alterations in size and cristae during microgametogenesis. The diameter of mitochondria is about 0.5 μm in the newly born generative cell, while only about 0.16 μm in the spindle-shaped generative cell. Numerous cristae are present in mitochondria in the spherical generative cell, but, in contrast, mere two or three cristae retain in the spindle-shaped generative cell in the mature pollen grain. In conclusion, the size and cristae number of mitochondria in the generative cell are reduced significantly during microgametogenesis in watermelon.

  17. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S

    2015-04-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality.

  18. Water Use for Cultivation Management of Watermelon in Upland Field on Sand Dune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Iwao; Senge, Masateru; Itou, Kengo; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    Early-maturing cultivation of watermelon in a plastic tunnel was invetigated in upland field on sand dune on the coast of the Japan Sea to find water use to control blowing sand and to transplant seedlings. This region has low precipitation, low humidity, and strong wind in March and April, when sand is readily blown in the field. Water is used to control blowing sand on days with precipitation below 5 mm, minimum humidity below the meteorological average in April, and maximum wind velocity above the meteorological average in April. For the rooting and growth of watermelon seedlings, soil temperature needs to be raised because it is low in April. Ridges are mulched with transparent, porous polyethylene films 10 or more days before transplanting the seedlings and irrigated with sprinklers on fine days for the thermal storage of solar energy. The stored heat steams the mulched ridges to raise soil temperature to 15°C or higher on the day of transplanting the seedlings. The total amount of irrigation water used for watermelon cultivation was 432.7 mm, of which 23.6 mm was for blowing sand control and 26.6 mm was for transplanting the seedlings. The combined amount, 50.2 mm, is 11.6% of the total amount of water used for cultivation management.

  19. Watermelon origin solved with molecular phylogenetics including Linnaean material: another example of museomics.

    PubMed

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-01-01

    Type specimens are permanently preserved biological specimens that fix the usage of species names. This method became widespread from 1935 onwards and is now obligatory. We used DNA sequencing of types and more recent collections of wild and cultivated melons to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus Citrullus and the correct names for its species. We discovered that the type specimen of the name Citrullus lanatus, prepared by a Linnaean collector in South Africa in 1773, is not the species now thought of as watermelon. Instead, it is a representative of another species that is sister to C. ecirrhosus, a tendril-less South African endemic. The closest relative of the watermelon instead is a West African species. Our nuclear and plastid data furthermore reveal that there are seven species of Citrullus, not four as assumed. Our study implies that sweet watermelon originates from West, not southern Africa as previously believed, and that the South African citron melon has been independently domesticated. These findings affect and explain numerous studies on the origin of these two crops that led to contradictory results because of the erroneous merging of several distinct species.

  20. Use of diploid male frequency data as an indicator of pollinator decline.

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Amro; Roubik, David W; Packer, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    Pollination deficits in agricultural and natural systems are suggestive of large reductions in pollinator populations. However, actual declines are difficult to demonstrate using census data. Here, we show census data to be misleading because many abundant pollinators exhibit high levels of production of sterile diploid males usually found only in small inbred hymenopteran populations; Euglossa imperialis exhibits high levels of diploid male production induced by low effective population sizes (Ne approximately 15), despite being the most abundant orchid bee in lowland tropical forests in Panama. We caution that although some pollinators appear abundant on the basis of census data, their long-term persistence may be highly tenuous based on genetic evidence. We propose the use of diploid male frequency data as a metric for assessing the sustainability of bee populations. PMID:15101404

  1. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the haploid-diploid red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla.

    PubMed

    Kollars, Nicole M; Krueger-Hadfield, Stacy A; Byers, James E; Greig, Thomas W; Strand, Allan E; Weinberger, Florian; Sotka, Erik E

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite loci are popular molecular markers due to their resolution in distinguishing individual genotypes. However, they have rarely been used to explore the population dynamics in species with biphasic life cycles in which both haploid and diploid stages develop into independent, functional organisms. We developed microsatellite loci for the haploid-diploid red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a widespread non-native species in coastal estuaries of the Northern hemisphere. Forty-two loci were screened for amplification and polymorphism. Nine of these loci were polymorphic across four populations of the extant range with two to eleven alleles observed. Mean observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.265 to 0.527 and 0.317 to 0.387, respectively. Overall, these markers will aid in the study of the invasive history of this seaweed and further studies on the population dynamics of this important haploid-diploid primary producer.

  2. Use of diploid male frequency data as an indicator of pollinator decline.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Amro; Roubik, David W; Packer, Laurence

    2004-02-01

    Pollination deficits in agricultural and natural systems are suggestive of large reductions in pollinator populations. However, actual declines are difficult to demonstrate using census data. Here, we show census data to be misleading because many abundant pollinators exhibit high levels of production of sterile diploid males usually found only in small inbred hymenopteran populations; Euglossa imperialis exhibits high levels of diploid male production induced by low effective population sizes (Ne approximately 15), despite being the most abundant orchid bee in lowland tropical forests in Panama. We caution that although some pollinators appear abundant on the basis of census data, their long-term persistence may be highly tenuous based on genetic evidence. We propose the use of diploid male frequency data as a metric for assessing the sustainability of bee populations. PMID:15101404

  3. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the haploid–diploid red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    PubMed Central

    Byers, James E.; Greig, Thomas W.; Strand, Allan E.; Weinberger, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite loci are popular molecular markers due to their resolution in distinguishing individual genotypes. However, they have rarely been used to explore the population dynamics in species with biphasic life cycles in which both haploid and diploid stages develop into independent, functional organisms. We developed microsatellite loci for the haploid–diploid red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a widespread non-native species in coastal estuaries of the Northern hemisphere. Forty-two loci were screened for amplification and polymorphism. Nine of these loci were polymorphic across four populations of the extant range with two to eleven alleles observed. Mean observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.265 to 0.527 and 0.317 to 0.387, respectively. Overall, these markers will aid in the study of the invasive history of this seaweed and further studies on the population dynamics of this important haploid–diploid primary producer. PMID:26339541

  4. Heterofertilization exhibited by trifluralin-induced bicellular pollen on diploid and tetraploid maize crosses.

    PubMed

    Kato, A

    2001-12-01

    The heterofertilization rates and fertility of trifluralin-induced bicellular pollen were investigated in maize (Zea mays L.). A diploid inbred line, Oh43 (r1/r1), and a tetraploid line, Q28-1 (r1/r1/r1/r1), were pollinated with a trifluralin treated diploid stock heterozygous for R1-scm2. The gene R1-scm2 conditions purple pigmentation in both the embryo and the aleurone layer. Heterofertilized kernels were detected as discordant kernels, i.e., yellow kernel with purple embryo or purple kernel with white embryo. The diploid-diploid crosses treated with 0.2-0.3% Trefanocide solution (0.09-0.13% trifluralin) resulted in incidences of discordant kernels (3.7-4.8%) that were significantly higher than the control (2.3%). Most of the seedlings (86%) of the discordant kernels in the 0.3% treatment were triploids or triploid-class aneuploids. In tetraploid-diploid crosses, trifluralin treatments increased the number of plump kernels on the tetraploid ears. In the 0.3% treatment, 5.2% of ovaries produced plump kernels on the ears and most of the seedlings (92%) were tetraploids or tetraploid-class aneuploids, whereas in the control, only 1.5% ovaries produced plump kernels and most of the seedlings (98%) were triploids or triploid-class aneuploids. A high rate of discordance was observed among the plump kernels both in the treated plots (36.1-48.0%) and in the control (33.3%). Consequently, almost all of the plump kernels from the tetraploid-diploid crosses were considered to be the results of heterofertilization. PMID:11768215

  5. Evolutionary Origin and Phylogeography of the Diploid Obligate Parthenogen Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andy J.; Figuerola, Jordi; Amat, Francisco; Rico, Ciro

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the evolutionary origin and the phylogeographic patterns of asexual taxa can shed light on the origin and maintenance of sexual reproduction. We assessed the geographic origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic history of obligate parthenogen diploid Artemia parthenogenetica populations, a widespread halophilic crustacean. Methodology/Principal Findings We analysed a partial sequence of the Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I mitochondrial gene from an extensive set of localities (including Eurasia, Africa, and Australia), and examined their phylogeographic patterns and the phylogenetic relationships of diploid A. parthenogenetica and its closest sexual relatives. Populations displayed an extremely low level of mitochondrial genetic diversity, with one widespread haplotype shared by over 79% of individuals analysed. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses indicated a multiple and recent evolutionary origin of diploid A. parthenogenetica, and strongly suggested that the geographic origin of parthenogenesis in Artemia was in Central Asia. Our results indicate that the maternal sexual ancestors of diploid A. parthenogenetica were an undescribed species from Kazakhstan and A. urmiana. Conclusions/Significance We found evidence for multiple origin of parthenogenesis in Central Asia. Our results indicated that, shortly after its origin, diploid A. parthenogenetica populations underwent a rapid range expansion from Central Asia towards the Mediterranean region, and probably to the rest of its current geographic distribution. This contrasts with the restricted geographic distribution, strong genetic structure, and regional endemism of sexual Artemia lineages and other passively dispersed sexual continental aquatic invertebrates. We hypothesize that diploid parthenogens might have reached their current distribution in historical times, with a range expansion possibly facilitated by an increased availability of suitable habitat provided by

  6. RNA sequencing reveals high resolution expression change of major plant hormone pathway genes after young seedless grape berries treated with gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lijuan; Li, Yanmei; Chen, Shangwu; Perl, Avihai; Zhao, Fengxia; Ma, Huiqin

    2014-12-01

    Seedless varieties are of particular importance to the table-grape and raisin industries. Gibberellin (GA) application is widely used in the early stages of seedless berry development to increase berry size and economic value. However, the underlying mechanism of GA induction of berry enlargement is not well understood. Here, RNA-sequencing analysis of 'Centennial Seedless' (Vitis vinifera L.) berries treated with GA3 12 days after flowering is reported. Pair-wise comparison of GA3-treated and control samples detected 165, 444, 463 genes with an over two-fold change in expression 1, 3, and 7 days after GA3 treatment, respectively. The number of differentially expressed genes increased with time after GA3 treatment, and the differential expression was dominated by downregulation. Significantly modulated expression included genes encoding synthesis and catabolism to manage plant hormone homeostasis, hormone transporters, receptors and key components in signaling pathways; exogenous GA3 induced multipoint cross talk with auxin, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, ABA and ethylene. The temporal gene-expression patterns of cell-wall-modification enzymes, cytoskeleton and membrane components and transporters revealed a pivotal role for cell-wall-relaxation genes in GA3-induced berry enlargement. Our results provide the first sequential transcriptomic atlas of exogenous GA3-induced berry enlargement and reveal the complexity of GA3's effect on berry sizing.

  7. RNA sequencing reveals high resolution expression change of major plant hormone pathway genes after young seedless grape berries treated with gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lijuan; Li, Yanmei; Chen, Shangwu; Perl, Avihai; Zhao, Fengxia; Ma, Huiqin

    2014-12-01

    Seedless varieties are of particular importance to the table-grape and raisin industries. Gibberellin (GA) application is widely used in the early stages of seedless berry development to increase berry size and economic value. However, the underlying mechanism of GA induction of berry enlargement is not well understood. Here, RNA-sequencing analysis of 'Centennial Seedless' (Vitis vinifera L.) berries treated with GA3 12 days after flowering is reported. Pair-wise comparison of GA3-treated and control samples detected 165, 444, 463 genes with an over two-fold change in expression 1, 3, and 7 days after GA3 treatment, respectively. The number of differentially expressed genes increased with time after GA3 treatment, and the differential expression was dominated by downregulation. Significantly modulated expression included genes encoding synthesis and catabolism to manage plant hormone homeostasis, hormone transporters, receptors and key components in signaling pathways; exogenous GA3 induced multipoint cross talk with auxin, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, ABA and ethylene. The temporal gene-expression patterns of cell-wall-modification enzymes, cytoskeleton and membrane components and transporters revealed a pivotal role for cell-wall-relaxation genes in GA3-induced berry enlargement. Our results provide the first sequential transcriptomic atlas of exogenous GA3-induced berry enlargement and reveal the complexity of GA3's effect on berry sizing. PMID:25443848

  8. Genetic relationships in the desert watermelon citrullus colocynthis as viewed with high-frequency, oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. are a viable source for enhancing disease and pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. However, there is information about their genetic diversity and relationships to watermelon cultivars. Genetic diversity and relationships were ...

  9. Embryo Localization Enhances the Survival of Acidovorax citrulli in Watermelon Seeds.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Schneider, Raymond W; Robertson, Clark L; Walcott, Ronald R

    2016-04-01

    Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits has been observed to survive for >34 years in stored melon and watermelon seeds. To better understand this remarkable longevity, we investigated the bacterium's tolerance to desiccation and the effect of bacterial localization in different watermelon seed tissues on its survival. We compared the ability of A. citrulli to tolerate desiccation on filter paper discs and on host (watermelon) and nonhost (cabbage, corn and tomato) seeds to two seedborne (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii) and one soilborne (Ralstonia solanacearum) plant-pathogenic bacteria. A. citrulli survival on dry filter paper (>12 weeks) was similar to that of X. campestris pv. campestris but longer than P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Ralstonia solanacearum survived longer than all other bacteria tested. On all seeds tested, A. citrulli and X. campestris pv. campestris populations declined by 5 orders of magnitude after 12 weeks of incubation at 4°C and 50% relative humidity, while R. solanacearum populations declined by 3 orders. P. stewartii subsp. stewartii was not recovered after 12 weeks of incubation. To determine the effect of tissue localization on bacterial survival, watermelon seeds infested with A. citrulli by flower stigma inoculation (resulting in bacterial localization in the embryo/endosperm) or by ovary pericarp inoculations (resulting in bacterial localization under the testa) were treated with peroxyacetic acid or chlorine (Cl2) gas. Following these treatments, a significantly higher reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission was observed for seeds generated by ovary pericarp inoculation (≥89.5%) than for those generated by stigma inoculation (≤76.5%) (P<0.05). Additionally, higher populations of A. citrulli survived when the bacteria were localized to the embryo/endosperm versus the seed coat, suggesting that tissue localization is important for

  10. Embryo Localization Enhances the Survival of Acidovorax citrulli in Watermelon Seeds.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Schneider, Raymond W; Robertson, Clark L; Walcott, Ronald R

    2016-04-01

    Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits has been observed to survive for >34 years in stored melon and watermelon seeds. To better understand this remarkable longevity, we investigated the bacterium's tolerance to desiccation and the effect of bacterial localization in different watermelon seed tissues on its survival. We compared the ability of A. citrulli to tolerate desiccation on filter paper discs and on host (watermelon) and nonhost (cabbage, corn and tomato) seeds to two seedborne (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii) and one soilborne (Ralstonia solanacearum) plant-pathogenic bacteria. A. citrulli survival on dry filter paper (>12 weeks) was similar to that of X. campestris pv. campestris but longer than P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Ralstonia solanacearum survived longer than all other bacteria tested. On all seeds tested, A. citrulli and X. campestris pv. campestris populations declined by 5 orders of magnitude after 12 weeks of incubation at 4°C and 50% relative humidity, while R. solanacearum populations declined by 3 orders. P. stewartii subsp. stewartii was not recovered after 12 weeks of incubation. To determine the effect of tissue localization on bacterial survival, watermelon seeds infested with A. citrulli by flower stigma inoculation (resulting in bacterial localization in the embryo/endosperm) or by ovary pericarp inoculations (resulting in bacterial localization under the testa) were treated with peroxyacetic acid or chlorine (Cl2) gas. Following these treatments, a significantly higher reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission was observed for seeds generated by ovary pericarp inoculation (≥89.5%) than for those generated by stigma inoculation (≤76.5%) (P<0.05). Additionally, higher populations of A. citrulli survived when the bacteria were localized to the embryo/endosperm versus the seed coat, suggesting that tissue localization is important for

  11. High-Resolution Genetic Map for Understanding the Effect of Genome-Wide Recombination Rate on Nucleotide Diversity in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Umesh K.; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan. R.; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C.; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima’s D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication. PMID:25227227

  12. Carotenoid pigmentation affects the volatile composition of tomato and watermelon fruits, as revealed by comparative genetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Lewinsohn, Efraim; Sitrit, Yaron; Bar, Einat; Azulay, Yaniv; Meir, Ayala; Zamir, Dani; Tadmor, Yaakov

    2005-04-20

    Tomato near-isogenic lines differing in fruit carotenogenesis genes accumulated different aroma volatiles, in a strikingly similar fashion as compared to watermelon cultivars differing in fruit color. The major volatile norisoprenoids present in lycopene-containing tomatoes and watermelons were noncyclic, such as geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 2,6-dimethylhept-5-1-al, 2,3-epoxygeranial, (E,E)-pseudoionone, geranyl acetone, and farnesyl acetone, seemingly derived from lycopene and other noncyclic tetraterpenoids. Beta-ionone, dihydroactinodiolide, and beta-cyclocitral were prominent in both tomato and watermelon fruits containing beta-carotene. Alpha-ionone was detected only in an orange-fleshed tomato mutant that accumulates delta-carotene. A yellow flesh (r) mutant tomato bearing a nonfunctional psy1 gene and the yellow-fleshed watermelon Early Moonbeam, almost devoid of carotenoid fruit pigments, also lacked norisoprenoid derivatives and geranial. This study provides evidence, based on comparative genetics, that carotenoid pigmentation patterns have profound effects on the norisoprene and monoterpene aroma volatile compositions of tomato and watermelon and that in these fruits geranial (trans-citral) is apparently derived from lycopene in vivo.

  13. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice modulates oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray in mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Zakaria, Ainul Mardhiyah; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  14. High-resolution genetic map for understanding the effect of genome-wide recombination rate on nucleotide diversity in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Umesh K; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan R; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-09-15

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima's D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication.

  15. Analysis of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus mixed and pseudo-recombination infections.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Massumi, Hossain; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV) are limiting factors for cucurbit production in south and southeastern Iran. ToLCPMV infects all cucurbit crops (except watermelons) whereas WmCSV is somewhat limited to watermelon, causing detrimental effects on fruit production. In a survey, we detected WmCSV in all watermelon growing farms in Fars province (southern Iran). Given that WmCSV and ToLCPMV are present in the same geographical location in Iran, we studied the interaction of two viruses. Co-infection using agroinfectious clones of WmCSV and ToLCPMV caused severe symptoms in watermelon and zucchini in comparison to symptoms observed from individual infections. Interestingly, inoculation of zucchini with WmCSV DNA-A and ToLCPMV DNA-B agroinfectious clones or vice versa produced a viable pseudo-recombinant and induced systemic symptoms. This demonstrates that replication-associated protein of DNA-A of each virus is able to bind to cis elements of the DNA-B molecules of another virus. PMID:26433951

  16. Analysis of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus mixed and pseudo-recombination infections.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Massumi, Hossain; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) and tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV) are limiting factors for cucurbit production in south and southeastern Iran. ToLCPMV infects all cucurbit crops (except watermelons) whereas WmCSV is somewhat limited to watermelon, causing detrimental effects on fruit production. In a survey, we detected WmCSV in all watermelon growing farms in Fars province (southern Iran). Given that WmCSV and ToLCPMV are present in the same geographical location in Iran, we studied the interaction of two viruses. Co-infection using agroinfectious clones of WmCSV and ToLCPMV caused severe symptoms in watermelon and zucchini in comparison to symptoms observed from individual infections. Interestingly, inoculation of zucchini with WmCSV DNA-A and ToLCPMV DNA-B agroinfectious clones or vice versa produced a viable pseudo-recombinant and induced systemic symptoms. This demonstrates that replication-associated protein of DNA-A of each virus is able to bind to cis elements of the DNA-B molecules of another virus.

  17. Biochemical evaluation of triploid progenies of diploid × tetraploid breeding populations of Camellia for genotypes rich in catechin and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Das, Sourabh Kumar; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Das, Sudripta

    2013-06-01

    To verify the quality of triploid varieties of Camellia tea species at the secondary metabolite level, we tested caffeine and catechin profiles of 97 F(1) segregating progenies in two breeding populations with a common tetraploid parent and diploid parents of two geographic and varietal origins. Catechin and caffeine levels of the triploid progenies were quantified and compared against their diploid parent. Some of the progenies showed better performance than their diploid parent. Most of the progenies of the diploid C. sinensis × tetraploid cross showed heterosis for caffeine and EGCG. Progenies of the C. assamica subsp. lasiocalyx × tetraploid cross showed heterosis for +C, EC, EGC, and TC. The genomic contributions of the diploid parent seem to be the main factor in the variation between the two populations. Our studies showed quantitative enhancement of some of the quality-related parameters in tea, providing a platform to refocus on this classical breeding approach for developing quality cultivars in tea.

  18. Mutation in the gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4) led to andromonoecy in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gaojie; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Shi, Jianting; Tian, Shouwei; Guo, Shaogui; Ren, Yi; Shen, Huolin; Gao, Junping; Xu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Although it has been reported previously that ethylene plays a critical role in sex determination in cucurbit species, how the andromonoecy that carries both the male and hermaphroditic flowers is determined in watermelon is still unknown. Here we showed that the watermelon gene 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4), expressed specifically in carpel primordia, determines the andromonoecy in watermelon. Among four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and one InDel identified in the coding region of CitACS4, the C364W mutation located in the conserved box 6 was co-segregated with andromonoecy. Enzymatic analyses showed that the C364W mutation caused a reduced activity in CitACS4. We believe that the reduced CitACS4 activity may hamper the programmed cell death in stamen primordia, leading to the formation of hermaphroditic flowers. PMID:26839981

  19. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Autotetraploid and Diploid Mulberry (Morus alba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fanwei; Wang, Zhenjiang; Luo, Guoqing; Tang, Cuiming

    2015-01-01

    Autopolyploid plants and their organs are often larger than their diploid counterparts, which makes them attractive to plant breeders. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is an important commercial woody plant in many tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we obtained a series of autotetraploid mulberry plants resulting from a colchicine treatment. To evaluate the effects of genome duplications in mulberry, we compared the phenotypes and transcriptomes of autotetraploid and diploid mulberry trees. In the autotetraploids, the height, breast-height diameter, leaf size, and fruit size were larger than those of diploids. Transcriptome data revealed that of 21,229 expressed genes only 609 (2.87%) were differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids. Among them, 30 genes were associated with the biosynthesis and signal transduction of plant hormones, including cytokinin, gibberellins, ethylene, and auxin. In addition, 41 differentially expressed genes were involved in photosynthesis. These results enhance our understanding of the variations that occur in mulberry autotetraploids and will benefit future breeding work. PMID:26402678

  20. Diverse functions of KNOX transcription factors in the diploid body plan of plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    KNOX genes were initially found as shoot meristem regulators in angiosperms. Recent studies in diverse plant lineages however, have revealed the divergence of KNOX gene function during the evolution of diploid body plans. Using genomic approaches, class I KNOX transcription factors have been shown t...

  1. Meiotic recombination in sexual diploid and apomictic triploid dandelions (Taraxacum officinale L.).

    PubMed

    van Baarlen, P; van Dijk, P J; Hoekstra, R F; de Jong, J H

    2000-10-01

    Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. Previous studies have demonstrated unexpectedly high levels of genetic variation in the apomictic populations, suggesting the occurrence of genetic segregation in the apomicts and (or) hybridization between sexual and apomictic individuals. In this study we analysed meiosis in both sexual diploid and apomictic triploid plants to find mechanisms that could account for the high levels of genetic variation in the apomicts. Microscopic study of microsporocytes in the triploid apomicts revealed that the levels of chromosome pairing and chiasma formation at meiotic prophase I were lower than in that of the sexual diploids, but still sufficient to assume recombination between the homologues. Nomarski DIC (differential interference contrast) microscopy of optically cleared megasporocytes in the apomicts demonstrated incidental formation of tetrads, which suggests that hybridization can occur in triploid apomicts. PMID:11081973

  2. Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Autotetraploid and Diploid Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Dai, Fanwei; Wang, Zhenjiang; Luo, Guoqing; Tang, Cuiming

    2015-01-01

    Autopolyploid plants and their organs are often larger than their diploid counterparts, which makes them attractive to plant breeders. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is an important commercial woody plant in many tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we obtained a series of autotetraploid mulberry plants resulting from a colchicine treatment. To evaluate the effects of genome duplications in mulberry, we compared the phenotypes and transcriptomes of autotetraploid and diploid mulberry trees. In the autotetraploids, the height, breast-height diameter, leaf size, and fruit size were larger than those of diploids. Transcriptome data revealed that of 21,229 expressed genes only 609 (2.87%) were differentially expressed between diploids and autotetraploids. Among them, 30 genes were associated with the biosynthesis and signal transduction of plant hormones, including cytokinin, gibberellins, ethylene, and auxin. In addition, 41 differentially expressed genes were involved in photosynthesis. These results enhance our understanding of the variations that occur in mulberry autotetraploids and will benefit future breeding work. PMID:26402678

  3. FveGD: an online resource for diploid strawberry (fragaria vesca) genomics data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid strawberry species commonly known as the alpine or woodland strawberry, is a versatile experimental plant system that is an emerging model for the Rosaceae family. An ancestral F. vesca genome contributed to the genome of the octoploid dessert strawberry (F. xananassa) and...

  4. Microsatellite-stable diploid carcinoma: a biologically distinct and aggressive subset of sporadic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, N J; Tomlinson, I; Meagher, A; Ward, R L

    2001-01-01

    Chromosomal instability and microsatellite instability represent the major pathways for colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. However, a significant percentage of CRC shows neither pattern of instability, and thus represents a potentially distinctive form of the disease. Flow cytometry was used to determine the degree of DNA aneuploidy in 46 consecutive sporadic colorectal cancers. Microsatellite status was determined by PCR amplification using standard markers, while immunostaining was used to examine the expression of p53. K- ras status was determined by restriction-mediated PCR assay. Twenty-five (54%) tumours were aneuploid, 14 (30%) were diploid and microsatellite-stable and seven (15%) were diploid and microsatellite-unstable. Tumours with microsatellite instability were more likely to be right sided, to occur in women and to be associated with an improved survival. Aneuploid tumours were significantly more common in men and were likely to be left sided. The diploid microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumours did not show a sex or site predilection, but were strongly associated with the presence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Our data suggests that diploid, MSS tumours represent a biologically and phenotypically distinct subset of colorectal carcinoma, and one that is associated with the early development of metastases. We suggest that the genetic stability that characterizes these tumours may favour the maintenance of an invasive phenotype, and thus facilitate disease progression. These findings may have important implications for treatment options in this disease subset. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161382

  5. Genetic diversity of diploid Japanese strawberry species based on microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Agricultural Research Service (ARS) - National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, is a genebank that preserves strawberry genetic resources. In 2004, representatives of two Japanese diploid species, F. iinumae Makino and F. n...

  6. Induced Polyploidy in Diploid Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium muluense) Using Colchicine and Oryzalin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ploidy level of H. muluense, a diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and dwarf ornamental ginger species, has been determined and is reported for the first time. Oryzalin and colchicine were successfully used to induce polyploidy in Hedychium muluense in vitro. Embryogenic cell lines were treated with oryzalin...

  7. Proteomic analysis of skeletal deformity in diploid and triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae.

    PubMed

    Babaheydari, Samad Bahrami; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Dorafshan, Salar; Johari, Seyed Ali

    2016-09-01

    A proteomic screening approach was employed to achieve a better understanding of the changes that occur in protein expression patterns associated with skeletal deformities in both diploid and triploid rainbow trout larvae. Triploidy was induced through the application of heat shock of 28°C for 10min to eggs 10-min post fertilization in an aquarium equipped with a heater. Percentage of skeletal deformity in heat-shocked larvae (2.88±0.30, mean±S.E.) was significantly (P<0.05) greater than that of the diploids (0.55±0.24). At five days after hatching, proteins of normal and deformed specimens of deyolked larvae were subjected to proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Among the identified protein spots from diploids, creatine kinase was found to be increased in larvae with skeletal deformities, while apolipoprotein A-I-2, apolipoprotein A-II and calmodulin were found to be decreased in deformed fish. Among the five protein spots that were identified in heat-shocked fish, apolipoprotein A-I-2, apolipoprotein A-II, parvalbumin, myosin light chain 1-1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase were found to be decreased in deformed larvae. The identification of nine protein spots showing altered expression in deformed fish allows us to reach a preliminary view of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the development of skeletal malformations in diploid and triploid fish.

  8. M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Analyses of Gene Expression during Photomorphogenesis in Diploid Wheat Triticum monococcum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum monococcum (2n), a close ancestor of the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, was used as a model to study components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. Constructed were genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. mo...

  10. Flow cytometric S-phase fraction contributes to diagnosis of diploid malignant salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Driemel, O; Kraft, K; Hemmer, J

    2006-10-01

    DNA ploidy studies on salivary gland tumours have shown that the proportion of aneuploid cases, although confined to the malignant entities, is considerably lower than for other solid malignancies. To analyse whether the S-phase fraction (SPF) may contribute to discrimination of diploid malignant from benign tumours, DNA flow cytometric data from 45 different malignant salivary gland tumours was compared with that of 121 pleomorphic adenomas. All benign tumours were diploid. Twelve malignant tumours contained aneuploid cell populations. The SPF values for diploid malignancies ranged between 0.9% and 11.0% (mean 3.9%), and between 0.5% and 7.9% (mean 2.7%) for pleomorphic adenomas. A 4% cut-off value gained statistical significance for discriminating diploid malignant tumours from pleomorphic adenomas (P<0.01). The sensitivity for SPF>4% was 46% and the positive predictive value was 40%. A sensitivity of 60% and a positive predictive value of 54% was achieved by combining aneuploidy and SPF>4%. These results show that DNA flow cytometry may contribute to diagnostic assessment in salivary gland tumours.

  11. Proteomic analysis of skeletal deformity in diploid and triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae.

    PubMed

    Babaheydari, Samad Bahrami; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Dorafshan, Salar; Johari, Seyed Ali

    2016-09-01

    A proteomic screening approach was employed to achieve a better understanding of the changes that occur in protein expression patterns associated with skeletal deformities in both diploid and triploid rainbow trout larvae. Triploidy was induced through the application of heat shock of 28°C for 10min to eggs 10-min post fertilization in an aquarium equipped with a heater. Percentage of skeletal deformity in heat-shocked larvae (2.88±0.30, mean±S.E.) was significantly (P<0.05) greater than that of the diploids (0.55±0.24). At five days after hatching, proteins of normal and deformed specimens of deyolked larvae were subjected to proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Among the identified protein spots from diploids, creatine kinase was found to be increased in larvae with skeletal deformities, while apolipoprotein A-I-2, apolipoprotein A-II and calmodulin were found to be decreased in deformed fish. Among the five protein spots that were identified in heat-shocked fish, apolipoprotein A-I-2, apolipoprotein A-II, parvalbumin, myosin light chain 1-1 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase were found to be decreased in deformed larvae. The identification of nine protein spots showing altered expression in deformed fish allows us to reach a preliminary view of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the development of skeletal malformations in diploid and triploid fish. PMID:27219664

  12. Maternal effect genes and the evolution of sociality in haplo-diploid organisms.

    PubMed

    Wade, M J

    2001-03-01

    Maternal care and female-biased sex ratios are considered by many to be essential prerequisites for the evolution of eusocial behaviors among the hymenoptera. Using population genetic models, I investigate the evolution of genes that have positive maternal effects but negative, direct effects on offspring fitness. I find that, under many conditions, such genes evolve more easily in haplo-diploids than in diplo-diploids. In fact, the conditions are less restrictive than those of kin selection theory, which postulate genes with negative direct effects but positive sib-social effects. For example, the conditions permitting the evolution of maternal effect genes are not affected if females mate multiply, whereas multiple mating reduces the efficacy of kin selection by reducing genetic relatedness within colonies. Inbreeding also differentially facilitates evolution of maternal effect genes in haplo-diploids relative to diplo-diploids, although it does not differentially affect the evolution of sib-altruism genes. Furthermore, when the direct, deleterious pleiotropic effect is restricted to sons, a maternal effect gene can evolve when the beneficial maternal effect is less than half (with inbreeding, much less) of the deleterious effect on sons. For kin selection, however, the sib-social benefits must always exceed the direct costs because genetic relatedness is always less than or equal to 1.0. The results suggest that haplo-diploidy facilitates (1) the evolution of maternal care, and (2) the evolution of maternal effect genes with antagonistic pleiotropic effects on sons. The latter effect may help explain the tendency toward female-biased sex ratios in haplo-diploids, especially those with inbreeding. I conclude that haplo-diploidy not only facilitates the evolution of sister-sister altruism by kin selection but also facilitates the evolution of maternal care and female-biased sex ratios, two prerequisites for eusociality.

  13. Comparative analysis of testis transcriptomes from triploid and fertile diploid cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Wen, Ming; Duan, Wei; Ren, Li; Hu, Fangzhou; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-04-01

    The fertility of fish is a key factor in fish breeding. RNA-seq is widely used in high-throughput sequencing and provides a rapid method to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying a biological process. To probe fertility-related molecular mechanisms, we obtained testis transcriptomes from diploid and triploid cyprinid fish and tested for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the testis. A total of 6730 transcripts were differentially expressed between the triploid and diploid fish. In these transcripts, 2428 transcripts showed reduced expression and 4302 transcripts were overexpressed in triploid fish compared to the diploid fish. Functional analyses revealed that partial genes related to reproductive, developmental, and locomotion processes, and the axoneme, were differentially expressed in triploid fish relative to diploid fish. Pathway analysis indicated that variations in the gene expression levels of the "ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis pathway" and the "apoptotic pathway" played a central role in the sterility of triploid male fish. A series of genes (DNAHs, DNAL1, IFTs, and DNAAF1) associated with sperm flagellar assembly and motility, and testis-specific candidate markers (Tcte1, Tekt1, Tekt4, Spag17, Spag5, Spag9a, Spag1b, and Spef2), had low expression levels in the testis of triploid fish. We validated these DEGs in triploid fish using quantitative PCR to quantify expression of eight representative genes. Furthermore, 276 putative transcription factors, 6 chromatin remodeling factors, and 35 transcription cofactors exhibited differential expression in triploid compared to diploid fish. This study provides insight into the regulatory mechanisms causing sterility in male triploid fish.

  14. Maternal effect genes and the evolution of sociality in haplo-diploid organisms.

    PubMed

    Wade, M J

    2001-03-01

    Maternal care and female-biased sex ratios are considered by many to be essential prerequisites for the evolution of eusocial behaviors among the hymenoptera. Using population genetic models, I investigate the evolution of genes that have positive maternal effects but negative, direct effects on offspring fitness. I find that, under many conditions, such genes evolve more easily in haplo-diploids than in diplo-diploids. In fact, the conditions are less restrictive than those of kin selection theory, which postulate genes with negative direct effects but positive sib-social effects. For example, the conditions permitting the evolution of maternal effect genes are not affected if females mate multiply, whereas multiple mating reduces the efficacy of kin selection by reducing genetic relatedness within colonies. Inbreeding also differentially facilitates evolution of maternal effect genes in haplo-diploids relative to diplo-diploids, although it does not differentially affect the evolution of sib-altruism genes. Furthermore, when the direct, deleterious pleiotropic effect is restricted to sons, a maternal effect gene can evolve when the beneficial maternal effect is less than half (with inbreeding, much less) of the deleterious effect on sons. For kin selection, however, the sib-social benefits must always exceed the direct costs because genetic relatedness is always less than or equal to 1.0. The results suggest that haplo-diploidy facilitates (1) the evolution of maternal care, and (2) the evolution of maternal effect genes with antagonistic pleiotropic effects on sons. The latter effect may help explain the tendency toward female-biased sex ratios in haplo-diploids, especially those with inbreeding. I conclude that haplo-diploidy not only facilitates the evolution of sister-sister altruism by kin selection but also facilitates the evolution of maternal care and female-biased sex ratios, two prerequisites for eusociality. PMID:11327153

  15. Comparative ITS and AFLP Analysis of Diploid Cardamine (Brassicaceae) Taxa from Closely Related Polyploid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    MARHOLD, KAROL; LIHOVÁ, JUDITA; PERNÝ, MARIÁN; BLEEKER, WALTER

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Diploid representatives from the related polyploid complexes of Cardamine amara, C. pratensis and C. raphanifolia (Brassicaceae), were studied to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among the complexes and among the individual taxa included. • Methods Two independent molecular data sets were used: nucleotide sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nrDNA, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Seventeen diploid taxa from the studied groups were sampled. • Key Results Both ITS and AFLP analyses provided congruent results in inferred relationships, and revealed two main lineages. While the C. amara group, consisting of C. wiedemanniana and four subspecies of C. amara, was resolved as a well‐supported monophyletic group, taxa from the C. pratensis and C. tenera groups (the latter representing diploid taxa of the complex of C. raphanifolia) all appeared together in a single clade/cluster with no support for the recognition of either of the groups. Intra‐individual polymorphisms and patterns of nucleotide variation in the ITS region in C. uliginosa and C. tenera, together with the distribution of AFLP bands, indicate ancient hybridization and introgression among these Caucasian diploids. • Conclusions The lack of supported hierarchical structure suggests that extensive reticulate evolution between these groups, even at the diploid level, has occurred (although an alternative explanation, namely ancestral polymorphism in ITS data, cannot be completely excluded). Several implications for the investigation of the polyploid complexes of concern are drawn. When tracing origins of polyploid taxa, a much more complex scenario should be expected, taking into account all relatives as potential parents, irrespective of the group in which they are classified. PMID:15037449

  16. Seedless Polyol Synthesis and CO Oxidation Activity of Monodisperse (111) and (100)-Oriented Rhodium Nanocrystals in Sub-10 nm Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yawen; Grass, Michael E.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-03-15

    Monodisperse sub-10 nm (6.5 nm) sized Rh nanocrystals with (111) and (100) surface structures were synthesized by a seedless polyol reduction in ethylene glycol, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a capping ligand. When using [Rh(Ac){sub 2}]{sub 2} as the metal precursor, (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra containing 76% (111)-twined hexagons (in 2D projection) were obtained; whereas, when employing RhCl{sub 3} as the metal precursor in the presence of alkylammonium bromide, such as tetramethylammonium bromide and trimethyl(tetradecyl)ammonium bromide, (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were obtained with 85% selectivity. The {l_brace}100{r_brace} faces of the Rh nanocrystals are stabilized by chemically adsorbed Br{sup -} ions from alkylammonium bromides, which led to (100)-oriented nanocubes. Monolayer films of the (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra and (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were deposited on silicon wafers in a Langmuir-Blodgett trough to make model 2D nanoarray catalysts. These nanocatalysts were active for CO oxidation by O{sub 2}, and the turnover frequency was independent of nanoparticle shape, consistent with that previously observed for Rh(111) and Rh(100) single crystals.

  17. Through-glass copper via using the glass reflow and seedless electroplating processes for wafer-level RF MEMS packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Yong; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Seung-Ki; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel method for the fabrication of void-free copper-filled through-glass-vias (TGVs), and their application to the wafer-level radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) packaging scheme. By using the glass reflow process with a patterned silicon mold, a vertical TGV with smooth sidewall and fine pitch could be achieved. Bottom-up void-free filling of the TGV is successfully demonstrated through the seedless copper electroplating process. In addition, the proposed process allows wafer-level packaging with glass cap encapsulation using the anodic bonding process, since the reflowed glass interposer is only formed in the device area surrounded with silicon substrate. A simple coplanar waveguide (CPW) line was employed as the packaged device to evaluate the electrical characteristics and thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure. The fabricated packaging structure showed a low insertion loss of 0.116 dB and a high return loss of 35.537 dB at 20 GHz, which were measured through the whole electrical path, including the CPW line, TGVs and contact pads. An insertion loss lower than 0.1 dB and a return loss higher than 30 dB could be achieved at frequencies of up to 15 GHz, and the resistance of the single copper via was measured to be 36 mΩ. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure was also verified through thermal shock and pressure cooker test.

  18. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  19. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 μg/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 μg/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 μg/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

  20. Spatial pattern and sequential sampling of squash bug (Heteroptera: Coreidae) adults in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Shrefler, James W; Giles, Kristopher; Edelson, J V

    2006-04-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of adult squash bugs were determined in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai, during 2001 and 2002. Results of analysis using Taylor's power law regression model indicated that squash bugs were aggregated in watermelon. Taylor's power law provided a good fit with r2 = 0.94. A fixed precision sequential sampling plan was developed for estimating adult squash bug density at fixed precision levels in watermelon. The plan was tested using a resampling simulation method on nine and 13 independent data sets ranging in density from 0.15 to 2.52 adult squash bugs per plant. Average estimated means obtained in 100 repeated simulation runs were within the 95% CI of the true means for all the data. Average estimated levels of precision were similar to the desired level of precision, particularly when the sampling plan was tested on data having an average mean density of 1.19 adult squash bugs per plant. Also, a sequential sampling for classifying adult squash bug density as below or above economic threshold was developed to assist in the decision-making process. The classification sampling plan is advantageous in that it requires smaller sample sizes to estimate the population status when the population density differs greatly from the action threshold. However, the plan may require excessively large sample sizes when the density is close to the threshold. Therefore, an integrated sequential sampling plan was developed using a combination of a fixed precision and classification sequential sampling plans. The integration of sampling plans can help reduce sampling requirements. PMID:16686160

  1. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P < 0.05). Inactivation of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase could be fitted by two-fraction model and that of pectin methylesterase could be described by first-order reaction model. Titratable acidity, pH, and total soluble solid of juice did not change significantly (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P < 0.05) but did not change significantly with treatment time (P > 0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P < 0.05). Through the comparison of total color difference values, high hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  2. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  3. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  4. Fitness differences among diploids, tetraploids, and their triploid progeny in Chamerion angustifolium: mechanisms of inviability and implications for polyploid evolution.

    PubMed

    Burton, T L; Husband, B C

    2000-08-01

    Theoretical models indicate that the evolution of tetraploids in diploid populations will depend on both the relative fitness of the tetraploid and that of the diploid-tetraploid hybrids. Hybrids are believed to have lower fitness due to imbalances in either the ploidy (endosperm imbalance) or the ratio of maternal to paternal genomes in their endosperm (genomic imprinting). In this study we created diploids, tetraploids, and hybrid triploids of Chamerion angustifolium from crosses between field-collected diploid and tetraploid plants and evaluated them at six life stages in a greenhouse comparison. Diploid offspring (from 2x x 2x crosses) had significantly higher seed production and lower biomass than tetraploid offspring (from 4x x 4x crosses). Relative to the diploid, the cumulative fitness of tetraploids was 0.67. In general, triploids (from 2x x 4x, 4x x 2x crosses) had significantly lower seed production, lower pollen viability, and higher biomass than diploid individuals. Triploid offspring derived from diploid maternal parents had lower germination rates, but higher pollen production than those with tetraploid mothers. Relative to diploids, the cumulative fitness of 2x x 4x triploids and 4x x 2x triploids was 0.12 and 0.06, respectively, providing some support for effect of differing maternal:paternal ratios and endosperm development as a mechanism of hybrid inviability. Collectively, the data show that tetraploids exhibit an inherent fitness disadvantage, although the partial viability and fertility of triploids may help to reduce the barrier to tetraploid establishment in sympatric populations. PMID:11005287

  5. Distribution of four viruses in single and mixed infections within infected watermelon plants in Florida.

    PubMed

    Turechek, William W; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Adkins, Scott

    2010-11-01

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in the past 5 years. Tissue-blot nucleic acid hybridization assays were developed for simple, high-throughput detection of these three viruses as well as Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), which was first reported in Florida in 2008. To determine virus distribution within plants, we collected 80 entire plants just before or during the harvest period in a systematic sample, 20 each on 11 April, 18 April, 26 April, and 3 May 2007, from a fruiting commercial watermelon field near Immokalee, FL showing symptoms of infection by SqVYV, CuLCrV, and PRSV-W and, possibly, CYSDV. This was followed by a sampling of five plants collected at harvest showing symptoms of virus infection on 11 October 2007 in a different commercial planting located in Duette, FL. Tissue prints were made from cross sections of watermelon plants from the crowns through the tips at 0.6-m intervals on nylon membranes and nucleic acid hybridization assays were used for virus detection. Results from testing crown tissue showed that SqVYV, CuLCrV, and PRSV-W were present in ≈37, 44, and 54%, respectively, of the 80 plants collected over the four sampling dates from the first field. For individual vines diagnosed with SqVYV, the distribution of SqVYV in vine tissue decreased proportionately with distance from the crown. The probability of detecting SqVYV was 70% at the base of the vine compared with 23% at the tip of the vine. In contrast, CuLCrV tended to be more evenly distributed throughout the plant, with ≈10% higher probability of detection at the growing tip relative to the crown of the plant. The distribution of PRSV-W resembled that of SqVYV but with ≈20% higher probability of detection at the tip of the vine. Similar trends were

  6. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Dai, Qilin; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wu, Yaqiao; Tang, Jinke; Qiang, You

    2013-06-26

    Chromium (Cr) forms a solid solution with iron (Fe) lattice when doped in core-shell iron -iron oxide nanocluster (NC) and shows a mixed phase of sigma (σ) FeCr and bcc Fe. The Cr dopant affects heavily the magnetization and magnetic reversal process, and causes the hysteresis loop to shrink near the zero field axis. Dramatic transformation happens from dipolar interaction (0 at. % Cr) to strong exchange interaction (8 at. % of Cr) is confirmed from the Henkel plot and delta M plot, and is explained by a water-melon model of core-shell NC system.

  7. The effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weihui; Wang, Zhigang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2015-01-01

    The growth of watermelon is often threatened by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) in successively monocultured soil, which results in economic loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon and to explore the relationship between the effect and the incidence of wilt caused by Fon. The results showed that the activities of soil polyphenol oxidase, urease and invertase were increased, the microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) were significantly increased, and the ratio of MBC/MBN was decreased (P < 0.05). Real-time PCR analysis showed that the Fon population declined significantly in the watermelon/wheat companion system compared with the monoculture system (P < 0.05). The analysis of microbial communities showed that the relative abundance of microbial communities was changed in the rhizosphere of watermelon. Compared with the monoculture system, the relative abundances of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Sordariomycetes were increased, and the relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Cytophagia, Pezizomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were decreased in the rhizosphere of watermelon in the watermelon/wheat companion system; importantly, the incidence of Fusarium wilt was also decreased in the watermelon/wheat companion system. In conclusion, this study indicated that D123 wheat as a companion crop increased soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass, decreased the Fon population, and changed the relative abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon, which may be related to the reduction of Fusarium wilt in the watermelon/wheat companion system. PMID:26388851

  8. The effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weihui; Wang, Zhigang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2015-01-01

    The growth of watermelon is often threatened by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) in successively monocultured soil, which results in economic loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of D123 wheat as a companion crop on soil enzyme activities, microbial biomass and microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon and to explore the relationship between the effect and the incidence of wilt caused by Fon. The results showed that the activities of soil polyphenol oxidase, urease and invertase were increased, the microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP) were significantly increased, and the ratio of MBC/MBN was decreased (P < 0.05). Real-time PCR analysis showed that the Fon population declined significantly in the watermelon/wheat companion system compared with the monoculture system (P < 0.05). The analysis of microbial communities showed that the relative abundance of microbial communities was changed in the rhizosphere of watermelon. Compared with the monoculture system, the relative abundances of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Sordariomycetes were increased, and the relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Cytophagia, Pezizomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were decreased in the rhizosphere of watermelon in the watermelon/wheat companion system; importantly, the incidence of Fusarium wilt was also decreased in the watermelon/wheat companion system. In conclusion, this study indicated that D123 wheat as a companion crop increased soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass, decreased the Fon population, and changed the relative abundance of microbial communities in the rhizosphere of watermelon, which may be related to the reduction of Fusarium wilt in the watermelon/wheat companion system. PMID:26388851

  9. Development of marker sets useful in the early selection of Ren4 powdery mildew resistance and seedlessness for table and raisin grape breeding.

    PubMed

    Mahanil, Siraprapa; Ramming, David; Cadle-Davidson, Molly; Owens, Christopher; Garris, Amanda; Myles, Sean; Cadle-Davidson, Lance

    2012-01-01

    The single, dominant powdery mildew resistance locus Ren4 from Vitis romanetii prevents hyphal growth by Erysiphe necator. Previously, we showed that when introgressed into V. vinifera in the modified BC(2) population 03-3004, Ren4 was linked with the simple sequence repeat marker VMC7f2 on chromosome 18-a marker that is associated with multiple disease resistance and seedlessness. However, in the current study, this marker was monomorphic in related breeding populations 05-3010 and 07-3553. To enhance marker-assisted selection at this locus, we developed multiplexed SNP markers using three approaches: conversion of bulked segregant analysis AFLP markers, sequencing of candidate genes and regions flanking known V. vinifera SNPs, and hybridization to the Vitis9KSNP genotyping array. The Vitis9KSNP array was more cost-efficient than all other approaches tested for marker discovery and genotyping, enabling the genotyping of 1317 informative SNPs within the span of 1 week and at a cost of 11 cents per SNP. From a total of 1,446 high quality, informative markers segregating in 03-3004, we developed a haplotype signature of 15 multiplexed SNP markers linked with Ren4 in 03-3004, 5 of which were linked in 05-3010, and 6 of which were linked in 07-3553. Two of these populations segregated for seedlessness, which was tightly linked with Ren4 in 03-3004 (2 cM) but not in 05-3010 (22 cM). Chromosomal rearrangements were detected among these three populations and the reference genome PN40024. Since this is the first application of the Vitis9KSNP array in a breeding program, some suggestions are provided for application of genotyping arrays. Our results provide novel markers for tracking and pyramiding this unique resistance gene and for further functional characterization of this region on chromosome 18 encoding multiple disease resistance and seedlessness. PMID:21904846

  10. Sequence-characterized amplified polymorphism markers for selecting rind stripe pattern in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inheritance of foreground stripe pattern in rind of watermelon fruits [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] was evaluated and the molecular markers for selecting the JT stripe pattern were developed based on bulked segregant analysis (BSA). Divergence in rind pattern among F2 progeny deri...

  11. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon across Southeastern United States (NC, SC, and GA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici has been documented as a pathogen on a wide variety of vegetable crops in the family Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and plants belonging to 23 other families. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelons caused by P. capsici is particularly severe in southeastern U.S where optima...

  12. Survival and growth populations of Salmonella transferred from melon rind surfaces to cantaloupe, honeydew, and watermelon pulps during preparation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers are eating more fresh vegetable and fruit due to nutritional and health-related benefits. Whole melons (cantaloupes, honeydew and watermelons) are of particular interest because of their nutrient contents. However, they are frequently contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Conditions neces...

  13. Establishment of a transgenic hairy root system in wild and domesticated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) for studying root vigor under drought.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masataka; Morikawa, Kaoru; Abe, Yosuke; Yokota, Akiho; Akashi, Kinya

    2010-07-01

    Root vigor is an important trait for the growth of terrestrial plants, especially in water-deficit environments. Although deserts plants are known for their highly developed root architecture, the molecular mechanism responsible for this trait has not been determined. Here we established an efficient protocol for the genetic manipulation of two varieties of watermelon plants: a desert-grown wild watermelon that shows vigorous root growth under drought, and a domesticated cultivar showing retardation of root growth under drought stress. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transgenic hairy roots were efficiently induced and selected from the hypocotyls of these plants. Transgenic GUS expression was detected in the roots by RT-PCR and histochemical GUS staining. Moreover, a liquid culture system for evaluating their root growth was also established. Interestingly, growth of the hairy roots derived from domesticated variety of watermelon strongly inhibited under high osmotic condition, whereas the hairy roots derived from wild variety of watermelon retained substantial growth rates under the stress condition. The new protocol presented here offers a powerful tool for the comparative study of the molecular mechanism underlying drought-induced root growth in desert plants.

  14. Pre- and post-harvest development of Phytophthora fruit rot on watermelons treated with fungicides in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is a serious disease in most watermelon producing regions in southeastern U.S., and has caused devastating loss over the past few years. In many instances, severe losses occurred after harvest during transportation. Experiments were conducted in 2010, 201...

  15. Detection and occurrence of Melon yellow spot virus in Ecuador: an emergent threat to melon and watermelon production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, more than fifty viruses have been reported in cucurbit crops. In Ecuador, approximately 3000 Ha of watermelon, melon and cucumbers are cultivated annually. However, very few studies have been conducted to identify viruses responsible for important epidemics in this crop in Ecuador. During...

  16. Markers Linked to the ZYMV-FL Resistance Gene and Their Use in Marker-assisted Selection in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is a major pathogen that reduces yield in cucurbits. The best studied strains include ZYMV-FL and ZYMV-CH of which resistance is conferred by a single recessive gene. Bulk segregate analysis was used for watermelon populations derived from PI 595203, a line with...

  17. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogy...

  18. Tetraploidization of diploid Dioscorea results in activation of the antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yi; Hu, Chun-Gen; Yao, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-15

    Polyploidy is reported to show increased tolerance to environmental stress. In this work, tetraploid plants of Dioscorea zingiberensis were obtained by colchicine treatment of shoots propagated in vitro. The highest tetraploid induction rate was achieved by treatment with 0.15% colchicine for 24h. Diploid and tetraploid plants were exposed to normal (28 degrees C) and high temperature (42 degrees C) for 5d during which physiological indices were measured. Compared with diploid plants, relative electrolyte leakage and contents of malondialdehyde, superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide were lower in tetraploids, while activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were stimulated and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione) were maintained at high concentrations. These results indicate that tetraploid plants possess a stronger antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance. PMID:19692145

  19. Production of Early Diploid Males by European Colonies of the Invasive Hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax

    PubMed Central

    Darrouzet, Eric; Gévar, Jérémy; Guignard, Quentin; Aron, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The invasive yellow-legged hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax was accidentally introduced in Europe in the early 2000s. As is the case in colonies of other wasp and hornet species, V. velutina colonies are known to produce sexuals (males and new queens) at the end of the summer. We show that early-stage colonies in French populations frequently produce males well before the usual reproductive period. The vast majority of the males produced are diploid, which is consistent with the loss of genetic diversity previously reported in introduced populations in France. Since males do not participate in colony activities, the production of early diploid males at the expense of workers is expected to hamper colony growth and, ultimately, decrease the expansion of the species in its invasive range in Europe. PMID:26414951

  20. Allelic diversity and molecular characterization of puroindoline genes in five diploid species of the Aegilops genus.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Susana; Guzmán, Carlos; Alvarez, Juan B

    2013-11-01

    Grain hardness is an important quality trait in wheat. This trait is related to the variation in, and the presence of, puroindolines (PINA and PINB). This variation can be increased by the allelic polymorphism present in the Aegilops species that are related to wheat. This study evaluated allelic Pina and Pinb gene variability in five diploid species of the Aegilops genus, along with the molecular characterization of the main allelic variants found in each species. This polymorphism resulted in 16 alleles for the Pina gene and 24 alleles for the Pinb gene, of which 10 and 17, respectively, were novel. Diverse mutations were detected in the deduced mature proteins of these alleles, which could influence the hardness characteristics of these proteins. This study shows that the diploid species of the Aegilops genus could be a good source of genetic variability for both Pina and Pinb genes, which could be used in breeding programmes to extend the range of different textures in wheat.

  1. Production of Early Diploid Males by European Colonies of the Invasive Hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax.

    PubMed

    Darrouzet, Eric; Gévar, Jérémy; Guignard, Quentin; Aron, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The invasive yellow-legged hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax was accidentally introduced in Europe in the early 2000s. As is the case in colonies of other wasp and hornet species, V. velutina colonies are known to produce sexuals (males and new queens) at the end of the summer. We show that early-stage colonies in French populations frequently produce males well before the usual reproductive period. The vast majority of the males produced are diploid, which is consistent with the loss of genetic diversity previously reported in introduced populations in France. Since males do not participate in colony activities, the production of early diploid males at the expense of workers is expected to hamper colony growth and, ultimately, decrease the expansion of the species in its invasive range in Europe.

  2. Microsatellite development for the genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) reveals diploid and polyploid species1

    PubMed Central

    Tosso, Felicien; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Kaymak, Esra; Daïnou, Kasso; Duminil, Jérôme; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) were designed for Guibourtia tessmannii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae), a highly exploited African timber tree, to study population genetic structure and gene flow. Methods and Results: We developed 16 polymorphic nSSRs from a genomic library tested in three populations of G. tessmannii and two populations of G. coleosperma. These nSSRs display three to 14 alleles per locus (mean 8.94) in G. tessmannii. Cross-amplification tests in nine congeneric species demonstrated that the genus Guibourtia contains diploid and polyploid species. Flow cytometry results combined with nSSR profiles suggest that G. tessmannii is octoploid. Conclusions: nSSRs revealed that African Guibourtia species include both diploid and polyploid species. These markers will provide information on the mating system, patterns of gene flow, and genetic structure of African Guibourtia species. PMID:27437170

  3. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of Avena macrostachya and diploid C-genome Avena species.

    PubMed

    Badaeva, Ekaterina D; Shelukhina, Olga Yu; Diederichsen, Axel; Loskutov, Igor G; Pukhalskiy, Vitaly A

    2010-02-01

    The chromosome set of Avena macrostachya Balansa ex Coss. et Durieu was analyzed using C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene probes, and the results were compared with the C-genome diploid Avena L. species. The location of major nucleolar organizer regions and 5S rDNA sites on different chromosomes confirmed the affiliation of A. macrostachya with the C-genome group. However, the symmetric karyotype, the absence of "diffuse heterochromatin" and the location of large C-band complexes in proximal chromosome regions pointed to an isolated position of A. macrostachya from other Avena species. Based on the distribution of rDNA loci on the C-genome chromosomes of diploid and polyploid Avena species, we propose a model of the chromosome alterations that occurred during the evolution of oat species.

  4. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    PubMed

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  6. Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) transmits Acidovorax citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon.

    PubMed

    Choi, Okhee; Park, Jung-Joon; Kim, Jinwoo

    2016-08-01

    The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important pests of cucurbit plants. If TSSM can act as vector for Acidovorax citrulli (Acc), causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), then the movement of mites from infected to healthy plants may represent a potential source of inocula for BFB outbreaks. To confirm the association between Acc and TSSM, we generated a green fluorescent protein-tagged mutant strain (Acc02rf) by transposon mutagenesis and demonstrated that TSSM can transmit Acc from infected to non-infected watermelon plants. Challenge with 10 TSSMs carrying Acc02rf population densities of 1.3 × 10(3) CFU each on freshly grown individual watermelon plants caused disease transmission to 53 %. Incubation periods ranged 7-9 days. Bacteria recovered from symptoms typical of those associated with leaf necrosis were characterized and identified as Acc. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that TSSM can be a vector of Acc. The results reported here support that the strong association of TSSM with Acc is of particular importance in controlling BFB. PMID:27178042

  7. Comparison of Cell and Nuclear Size Difference between Diploid and Induced Triploid in Marine Medaka, Oryzias dancena

    PubMed Central

    Goo, In Bon; Im, Jae Hyun; Gil, Hyun Woo; Lim, Sang Gu; Park, In-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The influence of triploidization on cell and nucleus size characteristics of the same tissues of erythrocyte, retina, kidney, hepatocyte and midgut epithelium in marine medaka, Oryzias dancena has been determined histologically. Induced triploid fish are produced by cold shock treatments. Likewise, the size of horizontal cell nucleus in inner nuclear layer of retina, ganglion cell nucleus in ganglion cell layer of retina, proximal tubule cell of kidney, hepatocytes and nuclear height of midgut epithelium all appear to be significantly larger than diploid (p<0.05). On the other hand, retina thickness is larger in diploid than induced triploid (p<0.05). Induced triploid shows low density of cell number. Results of this study suggest that same characteristics in the induced triploid exhibiting larger cells and nucleus sizes with fewer number of cells than the diploid can be useful criteria for the distinction between diploid and induced triploid, and also the ploidy level in marine medaka. PMID:27004269

  8. S-phase cells of the lymphoplasmocytic compartment in hyperdiploid multiple myeloma are diploid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraldsdottir, V.; Haanen, C.; Kalsbeek-Batenburg, E.; Olthuis, F.

    1995-10-01

    In vivo S-phase cell labeling with iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) was performed in six multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Myeloma cells from four patients were hyperploid. In three out of four patients, DNA/IdUrd flow cytometry revealed that most of the labeled cells, which had divided during the period, elapsed between flash labeling and sampling, had returned to the diploid G0/G1 compartment and not to the hyperdiploid peak. To eliminate contaminating cells belonging to the normal hematopoiesis, plasmocytic and lymphocytic cells were fractionated and analyzed separately. Cell enrichment was performed with use of murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against plasmocytic and lymphocytic cell markers and subsequent magnetic activated cell sorting with immunobeads, i.e., polystyrene magnetic particles coated with sheep anti-mouse IgG. The IdUrd-labeled cells were predominantly lymphocytic cells, returning after mitosis to the diploid G0/G1 peak. Although this pattern of S-phase cells in hyperdiploid MM, belonging to the diploid cell compartment, was observed in three out of four hyperploid cases and although the number of observations is small, S-phase cells may demonstrate an aspect of tumor cell kinetics in hyperploid MM, which has been debated for many years and which indicates the existence of a non-plasmocytic stem cell compartment that feeds the plasmocytoma. The behavior of the labeled cells as observed in a few cases of MM provides another, hitherto undescribed, argument that, at least in some MM patients, a part of the proliferating tumor cells may be diploid lymphocytic (precursor) cells. These findings should be considered when targeting and monitoring treatment of MM and also in purging procedures of bone marrow in patients to be treated by ablative cytotoxic therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. 57 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A Stable Hybrid Containing Haploid Genomes of Two Obligate Diploid Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Uttara; Mohamed, Aiyaz; Kakade, Pallavi; Mugasimangalam, Raja C.; Sadhale, Parag P.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are diploid, predominantly asexual human-pathogenic yeasts. In this study, we constructed tetraploid (4n) strains of C. albicans of the same or different lineages by spheroplast fusion. Induction of chromosome loss in the tetraploid C. albicans generated diploid or near-diploid progeny strains but did not produce any haploid progeny. We also constructed stable heterotetraploid somatic hybrid strains (2n + 2n) of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by spheroplast fusion. Heterodiploid (n + n) progeny hybrids were obtained after inducing chromosome loss in a stable heterotetraploid hybrid. To identify a subset of hybrid heterodiploid progeny strains carrying at least one copy of all chromosomes of both species, unique centromere sequences of various chromosomes of each species were used as markers in PCR analysis. The reduction of chromosome content was confirmed by a comparative genome hybridization (CGH) assay. The hybrid strains were found to be stably propagated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays with antibodies against centromere-specific histones (C. albicans Cse4/C. dubliniensis Cse4) revealed that the centromere identity of chromosomes of each species is maintained in the hybrid genomes of the heterotetraploid and heterodiploid strains. Thus, our results suggest that the diploid genome content is not obligatory for the survival of either C. albicans or C. dubliniensis. In keeping with the recent discovery of the existence of haploid C. albicans strains, the heterodiploid strains of our study can be excellent tools for further species-specific genome elimination, yielding true haploid progeny of C. albicans or C. dubliniensis in future. PMID:23709179

  10. Absence of gene flow between diploids and hexaploids of Aster amellus at multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Münzbergová, Z; Surinová, M; Castro, S

    2013-02-01

    The potential for gene exchange across ploidy levels has long been recognized, but only a few studies have explored the rate of gene flow among different cytotypes. In addition, most of the existing knowledge comes from contact zones between diploids and tetraploids. The purpose of this paper was to investigate relationships between diploid and hexaploid individuals within the Aster amellus aggregate. A. amellus is known to occur in diploid and hexaploid cytotypes in Europe, with a complex contact zone in central Europe. Patterns of genetic diversity were investigated using seven microsatellite loci at three different spatial scales: (1) in the single known mixed-ploidy population; (2) in populations at the contact zone and (3) in a wider range of populations across Europe. The results show clear separation of the cytotypes at all three spatial scales. In addition, analysis of molecular variance strongly supported a model predicting a single origin of the hexaploids, with no or very limited gene flow between the cytotypes. Some hexaploid individuals found in the mixed-ploidy population, however, fell into the diploid cluster. This could suggest recurrent polyploid formation or occasional cross-pollination between cytotypes; however, there are strong post-zygotic breeding barriers between the two cytotypes, making the latter less plausible. Overall, the results suggest that the cytotypes could represent two cryptic species. Nevertheless, their formal separation is difficult as they cannot be distinguished morphologically, occupy very similar habitat conditions and have largely overlapping distribution ranges. These results show that polyploid complexes must be treated with caution as they can hide biological diversity and can have different adaptation potentials, evolving independently.

  11. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  12. Growth and endocrine effect of growth hormone transgene dosage in diploid and triploid coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Robert H; Sakhrani, Dionne; Biagi, Carlo A; Smith, Jack L; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Beckman, Brian

    2014-01-15

    Growth-hormone transgene dosage, polyploidy, and parental effects on growth and endocrine responses have been assessed in coho salmon. Diploid fry with one or two transgene doses grew equally, whereas later-stage juvenile homozygotes grew faster than hemizygotes. In contrast, homozygotes and hemizygotes grew equally after smoltification, both in sea water and fresh water. Triploid transgenic salmon showed impaired growth which could not be fully overcome with additional transgene copies. Levels of muscle GH mRNA were elevated in two vs. one transgene dose diploids, but in triploids, a dosage effect was observed in muscle but not for animals carrying three transgene doses. IGF-I mRNA levels were elevated in transgenic vs. non-transgenic animals, but a dosage effect was not observed. Diploids and triploids with two transgenes had higher plasma GH levels than one-dose animals, but three-dose triploids showed no further elevation. Circulating IGF-I levels also showed a dosage effect in diploids, but not among any transgene doses in triploids. The present study reveals complex interactions among transgene dosage, maternal effects, developmental stage, and ploidy on growth and endocrine parameters in GH transgenic coho salmon. Specifically, GH transgenes do not always express nor have effects on growth that are directly correlated with the number of transgenes. Further, the reduced growth rate seen in triploid transgenic animals could not be fully overcome by increasing transgene dosage. The findings have relevance for understanding growth physiology, transgene function, and for environmental risk assessments that require understanding phenotypes of hemizygous vs. homozygous transgenic animals in populations.

  13. Chromosomal diversification and karyotype evolution of diploids in the cytologically diverse genus Prospero (Hyacinthaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospero (Hyacinthaceae) provides a unique system to assess the impact of genome rearrangements on plant diversification and evolution. The genus exhibits remarkable chromosomal variation but very little morphological differentiation. Basic numbers of x = 4, 5, 6 and 7, extensive polyploidy, and numerous polymorphic chromosome variants were described, but only three species are commonly recognized: P. obtusifolium, P. hanburyi, and P. autumnale s.l., the latter comprising four diploid cytotypes. The relationship between evolutionary patterns and chromosomal variation in diploids, the basic modules of the extensive cytological diversity, is presented. Results Evolutionary inferences were derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 35S rDNA, genome size estimations, and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 35S rDNA of 49 diploids in the three species and all cytotypes of P. autumnale s.l. All species and cytotypes possess a single 35S rDNA locus, interstitial except in P. hanburyi where it is sub-terminal, and one or two 5S rDNA loci (occasionally a third in P. obtusifolium) at fixed locations. The localization of the two rDNA types is unique for each species and cytotype. Phylogenetic data in the P. autumnale complex enable tracing of the evolution of rDNA loci, genome size, and direction of chromosomal fusions: mixed descending dysploidy of x = 7 to x = 6 and independently to x = 5, rather than successive descending dysploidy, is proposed. Conclusions All diploid cytotypes are recovered as well-defined evolutionary lineages. The cytogenetic and phylogenetic approaches have provided excellent phylogenetic markers to infer the direction of chromosomal change in Prospero. Evolution in Prospero, especially in the P. autumnale complex, has been driven by differentiation of an ancestral karyotype largely unaccompanied by morphological change. These new results provide a framework for detailed

  14. Quantitative assay for mutation in diploid human lymphoblasts using microtiter plates

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, E.A.; Thilly, W.G.; Penman, B.W.; Liber, H.L.; Rand, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    A microtiter plating technique which eliminates the need for soft agar and fibroblast feeder layers to determine the colony-forming ability of diploid human lymphoblast lines was described. The calculation of cloning efficiency is based on the Poisson distribution, and a statistical method for calculating confidence intervals is presented. This technique has been applied to the comcomitant examination of induced mutation at the putative loci for hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase, thymidine, kinase, and Na/sup +//K/sup +/ adenosine triphosphatase.

  15. Cell fusion as the formation mechanism of unreduced gametes in the gynogenetic diploid hybrid fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qingfeng; Luo, Kaikun; Chen, Xuan; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    The gynogenetic diploid hybrid clone line (GDH) derived from red crucian carp (♀ RCC) × common carp (♂ CC) possesses the unusual reproductive trait of producing unreduced diploid eggs. To identify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we examined the structure, in vivo developmental process and in vitro dynamic development of the GDH gonad. In summary, compared with RCC and CC, GDH showed certain special straits. First, a high frequency (84.7%) of germ cell fusion occurred in gonadal tissue culture in vitro as observed by time-lapse microscopy. Second, microstructural and ultrastructural observation showed numerous binucleated and multinucleated germ cells in the gonad, providing evidence of germ cell fusion in vivo. By contrast, in the diploid RCC and CC ovaries, neither cell fusion nor multinucleated cells were observed during the development of gonads. Third, the ovary of GDH remained at stage I for 10 months, whereas those of RCC and CC remained at that stage for 2 months, indicating that the GDH germ cells underwent abnormal development before meiosis. This report is the first to demonstrate that cell fusion facilitates the formation of unreduced gametes in vertebrates, which is a valuable finding for both evolutionary biology and reproductive biology. PMID:27530321

  16. Induction of gynogenesis in muskellunge with irradiated sperm of yellow perch proves diploid muskellunge male homogamety.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, K; Rinchard, J; Lin, F; Garcia-Abiado, M A; Schmidt, D

    2000-06-15

    Diploid gynogenesis was induced in muskellunge Esox masquinongy using UV-irradiated muskellunge sperm as the first step in producing monosex females. In this approach, we have to rely on negative controls as an indirect reference for sperm genetic material destruction. In the first experiment, equal proportions of gynogenetic females and males were produced. Negative controls, UV-irradiated sperm without heat shock, yielded some normal hatching larvae, described as spontaneous diploids. In the second experiment, muskellunge eggs were activated using sperm from yellow perch. Because hybrids between these species are not viable, we produced unambiguous gynogens. When UV-irradiated yellow perch sperm was used to inseminate muskellunge eggs, haploids resulted (22.5% +/- 2.8% survival to the eyed stage). To produce diploid gynogens, a heat shock of 31 degrees C was applied to inseminated eggs 20 min after activation for a duration of 6 min. This process yielded several hundreds of gynogens for rearing. Several treatments of masculinizing hormone, 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), were carried out. Fish were dissected and gonads examined histologically for sex determination. Gynogens produced using yellow-perch sperm confirmed the presence of males in the control group, whereas the MT bath treatment (400 microg/liter) resulted in the production of fish with ovotestis. These results provide evidence for male homogamety in muskellunge and imply that a change of strategy is needed to produce monosex populations. PMID:10861556

  17. Comparative Small RNA Analysis of Pollen Development in Autotetraploid and Diploid Rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Wu, Jinwen; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant reproduction. However, knowledge on microRNAome analysis in autotetraploid rice is rather limited. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to analyze miRNAomes during pollen development in diploid and polyploid rice. A total of 172 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEM) were detected in autotetraploid rice compared to its diploid counterpart, and 57 miRNAs were specifically expressed in autotetraploid rice. Of the 172 DEM, 115 and 61 miRNAs exhibited up- and down-regulation, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis on the targets of up-regulated DEM showed that they were enriched in transport and membrane in pre-meiotic interphase, reproduction in meiosis, and nucleotide binding in single microspore stage. osa-miR5788 and osa-miR1432-5p_R+1 were up-regulated in meiosis and their targets revealed interaction with the meiosis-related genes, suggesting that they may involve in the genes regulation associated with the chromosome behavior. Abundant 24 nt siRNAs associated with transposable elements were found in autotetraploid rice during pollen development; however, they significantly declined in diploid rice, suggesting that 24 nt siRNAs may play a role in pollen development. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the effect of polyploidy on small RNA expression patterns during pollen development that cause pollen sterility in autotetraploid rice. PMID:27077850

  18. In vitro induction of tetraploid plants from diploid Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua.

    PubMed

    Gu, X F; Yang, A F; Meng, H; Zhang, J R

    2005-12-01

    Tetraploid plants of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua were obtained with in vitro colchicine treatment. Shoot tips from in vitro-grown plants were treated with five different concentrations of colchicine (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3%) in liquid MS medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962), and shaken (100 rpm) at 25 degrees C in darkness for 24, 48, 72 or 96 h, respectively. Tetraploids were obtained at a frequency of over 3% by using 0.05% colchicine (48 h, 72 h) and 0.1% colchicine (24 h, 48 h) treatment as determined by flow cytometry. Cytological and morphological evidence confirmed the results of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome number of diploid plants was 24 and that of tetraploid plants was 48. The stomata sizes of tetraploid plants were significantly larger than those of diploid plants, while the frequency of stomata were reduced significantly. Similarly, the chloroplast number of guard cells of tetraploid plants increased significantly. The selected tetraploid plants were grafted onto mature trees of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua in the field, resulted in thicker stems, rounder and succulent leaves, larger flowers and a delay in florescence time (3-4 days later) than diploid plants. PMID:16094528

  19. Cell fusion as the formation mechanism of unreduced gametes in the gynogenetic diploid hybrid fish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qingfeng; Luo, Kaikun; Chen, Xuan; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Zhao, Rurong; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    The gynogenetic diploid hybrid clone line (GDH) derived from red crucian carp (♀ RCC) × common carp (♂ CC) possesses the unusual reproductive trait of producing unreduced diploid eggs. To identify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we examined the structure, in vivo developmental process and in vitro dynamic development of the GDH gonad. In summary, compared with RCC and CC, GDH showed certain special straits. First, a high frequency (84.7%) of germ cell fusion occurred in gonadal tissue culture in vitro as observed by time-lapse microscopy. Second, microstructural and ultrastructural observation showed numerous binucleated and multinucleated germ cells in the gonad, providing evidence of germ cell fusion in vivo. By contrast, in the diploid RCC and CC ovaries, neither cell fusion nor multinucleated cells were observed during the development of gonads. Third, the ovary of GDH remained at stage I for 10 months, whereas those of RCC and CC remained at that stage for 2 months, indicating that the GDH germ cells underwent abnormal development before meiosis. This report is the first to demonstrate that cell fusion facilitates the formation of unreduced gametes in vertebrates, which is a valuable finding for both evolutionary biology and reproductive biology. PMID:27530321

  20. Comparative Small RNA Analysis of Pollen Development in Autotetraploid and Diploid Rice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Wu, Jinwen; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in plant reproduction. However, knowledge on microRNAome analysis in autotetraploid rice is rather limited. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to analyze miRNAomes during pollen development in diploid and polyploid rice. A total of 172 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEM) were detected in autotetraploid rice compared to its diploid counterpart, and 57 miRNAs were specifically expressed in autotetraploid rice. Of the 172 DEM, 115 and 61 miRNAs exhibited up- and down-regulation, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis on the targets of up-regulated DEM showed that they were enriched in transport and membrane in pre-meiotic interphase, reproduction in meiosis, and nucleotide binding in single microspore stage. osa-miR5788 and osa-miR1432-5p_R+1 were up-regulated in meiosis and their targets revealed interaction with the meiosis-related genes, suggesting that they may involve in the genes regulation associated with the chromosome behavior. Abundant 24 nt siRNAs associated with transposable elements were found in autotetraploid rice during pollen development; however, they significantly declined in diploid rice, suggesting that 24 nt siRNAs may play a role in pollen development. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the effect of polyploidy on small RNA expression patterns during pollen development that cause pollen sterility in autotetraploid rice. PMID:27077850

  1. A distinct endogenous pararetrovirus family in Nicotiana tomentosiformis, a diploid progenitor of polyploid tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gregor, Wolfgang; Mette, M Florian; Staginnus, Christina; Matzke, Marjori A; Matzke, Antonius J M

    2004-03-01

    A distinct endogenous pararetrovirus (EPRV) family corresponding to a previously unknown virus has been identified in the genome of Nicotiana tomentosiformis, a diploid ancestor of allotetraploid tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The putative virus giving rise to N. tomentosiformis EPRVs (NtoEPRVs) is most similar to tobacco vein clearing virus, an episomal form of a normally silent EPRV family in Nicotiana glutinosa; it is also related to a putative virus giving rise to the NsEPRV family in Nicotiana sylvestris (the second diploid progenitor of tobacco) and in the N. sylvestris fraction of the tobacco genome. The copy number of NtoEPRVs is significantly higher in N. tomentosiformis than in tobacco. This suggests that after the polyploidization event, many copies were lost from the polyploid genome or were accumulated specifically in the diploid genome. By contrast, the copy number of NsEPRVs has remained constant in N. sylvestris and tobacco, indicating that changes have occurred preferentially in the NtoEPRV family during evolution of the three Nicotiana species. NtoEPRVs are often flanked by Gypsy retrotransposon-containing plant DNA. Although the mechanisms of NtoEPRV integration, accumulation, and/or elimination are unknown, these processes are possibly linked to retrotransposon activity.

  2. Genetic analysis of seedling resistance to crown rust in five diploid oat (Avena strigosa) accessions.

    PubMed

    Cabral, A L; Park, R F

    2016-02-01

    Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks., is a serious menace in oats, for which resistance is an effective means of control. Wild diploid oat accessions are a source of novel resistances that first need to be characterised prior to introgression into locally adapted oat cultivars. A genetic analysis of resistance to crown rust was carried out in three diverse diploid oat accessions (CIav6956, CIav9020, PI292226) and two cultivars (Saia and Glabrota) of A. strigosa. A single major gene conditioning resistance to Australian crown rust pathotype (Pt) 0000-2 was identified in each of the three accessions. Allelism tests suggested that these genes are either the same, allelic, or tightly linked with less than 1 % recombination. Similarly, a single gene was identified in Glabrota, and possibly two genes in Saia; both cultivars previously reported to carry two and three crown rust resistance genes, respectively. The identified seedling resistance genes could be deployed in combination with other resistance gene(s) to enhance durability of resistance to crown rust in hexaploid oat. Current diploid and hexaploid linkage maps and molecular anchor markers (simple sequence repeat [SSR] and diversity array technology [DArT] markers) should facilitate their mapping and introgression into hexaploid oat.

  3. Diploid male dynamics under different numbers of sexual alleles and male dispersal abilities.

    PubMed

    Faria, Luiz R R; Soares, Elaine Della Giustina; Carmo, Eduardo do; Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de

    2016-09-01

    Insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) present an haplodiploid system of sexual determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs males. Under single locus complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called "diploid male vortex". We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 10,000 generations. The number of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100 and, at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a varying radius R. Two main results emerge from our simulations: (i) the number of DM depends more on male flight radius than on the number of alleles; (ii) in large geographic regions, the effect of males flight radius on the allelic diversity turns out much less pronounced than in small regions. In other words, small regions where inbreeding normally appears recover genetic diversity due to large flight radii. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g., forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes). PMID:27067711

  4. Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Ovarian Tissues from Diploid and Tetraploid Loaches Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weiwei; Liu, Chuanshu; Cao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Songqian; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Yeke

    2015-01-01

    RNA sequencing and short-read assembly was utilized to produce a transcriptome of ovarian tissues from three-year-old diploid and tetraploid loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). A total of 28,369 unigenes were obtained, comprising 10,546 unigenes with length longer than 1000 bp. More than 73% of the unigenes were annotated through sequence comparison with databases. The RNA-seq data revealed that 2253 genes were differentially expressed between diploid and tetraploid loaches, including 1263 up-regulated and 990 down-regulated genes in tetraploid loach. Some differentially expressed genes, such as vitellogenin (Vtg), gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor type A (GnRHRA), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14a (MAPK14a), ATP synthase subunit alpha (atp5a), and synaptonemal complex protein 1 (Scp1), were involved in regulation of cell proliferation, division, gene transcription, ovarian development and energy metabolism, suggesting that these genes were related to egg diameter of the loach. Results of transcriptome profiling here were validated using real time quantitative PCR in ten selected genes. The present study provided insights into the transcriptome profile of ovarian tissues from diploid and tetraploid loaches Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, which was made available to the research community for functional genomics, comparative genomics, polyploidy evolution and molecular breeding of this loach and other related species. PMID:26184186

  5. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Normalization of miRNA Expression in Grafted Watermelon Plants under Different Nutrient Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weifang; Deng, Qin; Shi, Pibiao; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select appropriate reference genes in scion (watermelon) and rootstocks (squash and bottle gourd) of grafted watermelon plants under normal growth conditions and nutrient stresses (nitrogen and phosphorus starvation). Under nutrient starvation, geNorm identified miR167c and miR167f as two most stable genes in both watermelon leaves and squash roots. miR166b was recommended by both geNorm and NormFinder as the best reference in bottle gourd roots under nutrient limitation. Expression of a new Cucurbitaceae miRNA, miR85, was used to validate the reliability of candidate reference genes under nutrient starvation. Moreover, by comparing several target genes expression in qRT-PCR analysis with those in RNA-seq data, miR166b and miR167c were proved to be the most suitable reference genes to normalize miRNA expression under normal growth condition in scion and rootstock tissues, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive survey of the stability of miRNA reference genes in Cucurbitaceae and provides valuable information for investigating more accurate miRNA expression involving grafted watermelon plants. PMID:27749935

  6. Conditions in Home and Transplant Soils Have Differential Effects on the Performance of Diploid and Allotetraploid Anthericum Species

    PubMed Central

    Černá, Lucie; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased levels of heterozygosity, polyploids are expected to have a greater ability to adapt to different environments than their diploid ancestors. While this theoretical pattern has been suggested repeatedly, studies comparing adaptability to changing conditions in diploids and polyploids are rare. The aim of the study was to determine the importance of environmental conditions of origin as well as target conditions on performance of two Anthericum species, allotetraploid A. liliago and diploid A. ramosum and to explore whether the two species differ in the ability to adapt to these environmental conditions. Specifically, we performed a common garden experiment using soil from 6 localities within the species’ natural range, and we simulated the forest and open environments in which they might occur. We compared the performance of diploid A. ramosum and allotetraploid A. liliago originating from different locations in the different soils. The performance of the two species was not affected by simulated shading but differed strongly between the different target soils. Growth of the tetraploids was not affected by the origin of the plants. In contrast, diploids from the most nutrient poor soil performed best in the richest soil, indicating that diploids from deprived environments have an increased ability to acquire nutrients when available. They are thus able to profit from transfer to novel nutrient rich environments. Therefore, the results of the study did not support the general expectation that the polyploids should have a greater ability than the diploids to adapt to a wide range of conditions. In contrast, the results are in line with the observation that diploids occupy a wider range of environments than the allotetraploids in our system. PMID:25607545

  7. Reciprocal and nonreciprocal recombination in diploid clones from Bacillus subtilis protoplast fusion: Association with the replication origin and terminus

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Magda H.; Hotchkiss, Rollin D.

    1983-01-01

    The primary heterodiploid bacteria regenerated after Bacillus subtilis fusion, although generally noncomplementing diploids, behave in pedigree analysis as multipotential systems. Individual diploid colonies yielding complete reciprocal recombinant (RR) progeny—often accompanied by one or both parents—constitute 10-30% of the total recombinant-forming units. The RR (reciprocal for 8-11 genes) usually occur in equivalent numbers both among and within individual colonies. Novel for bacteria, they demonstrate that entire parental genomes brought together within a diploid protoplast are retained as two independent replicons able to undergo classical recombination characteristic of eukaryotic gametogenesis. Parental or recombinant genomes are also subject to multiple rounds of recombination without obligate segregation and often not reciprocal. Diploid recombinant clones, sharing streptomycin resistance but reciprocal for auxotrophic markers, have displayed a partial ability to make a facultative shift in chromosome expression. They have also produced two types of prototrophs: a stable one (presumably haploid and recombinant) and an unstable one, (diploid and temporarily complementing at low frequency). It follows that chromosome extinction may affect both parental and recombinant chromosomes and does not interfere with recombination. Analysis of the number and chromosomal distribution of crossovers in all recombinants and those from single diploid clones shows increased frequency of exchange in the regions of the replication origin and terminus, possibly a result of the association of these sites with the cell wall or membrane. PMID:16593292

  8. Genome-Wide Identification and Comparative Analysis of Conserved and Novel MicroRNAs in Grafted Watermelon by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional gene regulation and play a critical role in plant growth, development and stresses response. However less is known about miRNAs involvement in grafting behaviors, especially with the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) crop, which is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. Grafting method is commonly used in watermelon production in attempts to improve its adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses, in particular to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In this study, Solexa sequencing has been used to discover small RNA populations and compare miRNAs on genome-wide scale in watermelon grafting system. A total of 11,458,476, 11,614,094 and 9,339,089 raw reads representing 2,957,751, 2,880,328 and 2,964,990 unique sequences were obtained from the scions of self-grafted watermelon and watermelon grafted on-to bottle gourd and squash at two true-leaf stage, respectively. 39 known miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families and 80 novel miRNAs were identified in our small RNA dataset. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, 20 (5 known miRNA families and 15 novel miRNAs) and 47 (17 known miRNA families and 30 novel miRNAs) miRNAs were expressed significantly different in watermelon grafted on to bottle gourd and squash, respectively. MiRNAs expressed differentially when watermelon was grafted onto different rootstocks, suggesting that miRNAs might play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes in watermelon and grafting may possibly by changing miRNAs expressions to regulate plant growth and development as well as adaptation to stresses. The small RNA transcriptomes obtained in this study provided insights into molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in grafted watermelon. Obviously, this result would provide a basis for further unravelling the mechanism on how miRNAs information is exchanged between scion and rootstock in grafted

  9. Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). Results We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. Conclusions We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences

  10. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications. PMID:26077658

  11. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-06-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications.

  12. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of grafting-responsive mRNA in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Fu, Xinxing; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kai; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Hu, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-04-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used to improve plant growth, yield, and adaptation to either biotic or abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Grafting technique is commonly used in watermelon production for improving its tolerance to stresses, especially to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of scions from watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks. Our transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling data provided insights into the molecular aspects of gene regulation in grafted watermelon. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, there were 787 and 3485 genes differentially expressed in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks, respectively. These genes were associated with primary and secondary metabolism, hormone signaling, transcription factors, transporters, and response to stimuli. Grafting led to changes in expression of these genes, suggesting that they may play important roles in mediating the physiological processes of grafted seedlings. The potential roles of the grafting-responsive mRNAs in diverse biological and metabolic processes were discussed. Obviously, the data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the mechanisms of candidate genes function in diverse biological processes and in environmental adaptation in a graft system. PMID:26500104

  13. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of grafting-responsive mRNA in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Fu, Xinxing; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kai; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Hu, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-04-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used to improve plant growth, yield, and adaptation to either biotic or abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Grafting technique is commonly used in watermelon production for improving its tolerance to stresses, especially to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of scions from watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks. Our transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling data provided insights into the molecular aspects of gene regulation in grafted watermelon. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, there were 787 and 3485 genes differentially expressed in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks, respectively. These genes were associated with primary and secondary metabolism, hormone signaling, transcription factors, transporters, and response to stimuli. Grafting led to changes in expression of these genes, suggesting that they may play important roles in mediating the physiological processes of grafted seedlings. The potential roles of the grafting-responsive mRNAs in diverse biological and metabolic processes were discussed. Obviously, the data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the mechanisms of candidate genes function in diverse biological processes and in environmental adaptation in a graft system.

  14. Magnetic interaction reversal in watermelon nanostructured Cr-doped Fe nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You; Dai, Qilin; Tang, Jinke; Bowden, Mark; Engelhard, Mark; Wu, Yaqiao

    2013-11-11

    Cr-doped core-shell Fe/Fe-oxide nanoclusters (NCs) were synthesized at varied atomic percentages of Cr from 0 at. % to 8 at. %. The low concentrations of Cr (<10 at. %) were selected in order to inhibit the complete conversion of the Fe-oxide shell to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the Fe core to FeCr alloy. The magnetic interaction in Fe/Fe-oxide NCs (∼25 nm) can be controlled by antiferromagnetic Cr-dopant. We report the origin of σ-FeCr phase at very low Cr concentration (2 at. %) unlike in previous studies, and the interaction reversal from dipolar to exchange interaction in watermelon-like Cr-doped core-shell NCs.

  15. Parasexual recombination in Dictyostelium discoideum: selection of stable diploid heterozygotes and stable haploid segregants (clones-temperature sensitive-ploidy-fruiting bodies-spore-slime mold).

    PubMed

    Katz, E R; Sussman, M

    1972-02-01

    Haploid strains of Dictyostelium discoideum bearing temperature-sensitive mutations have been used to select stable diploid, heterozygotic clones, which arise at low frequency (about 10(-5)). Segregants arise from such diploids at low frequency (about 10(-3)). The diploids were heterozygous for resistance to cycloheximide and were phenotypically sensitive to the drug. Growth of the diploid cells in the presence of cycloheximide automatically selected those segregants bearing the resistant allele, and facilitated examination of the assortment of unselected markers. The combination of the two selective methods provides a workable system of genetic analysis in this species. We have used this method to locate six markers on three different linkage groups.

  16. Effects of various breeding strategies on diploid drone frequency and quantitative traits in a honey bee population.

    PubMed

    Omholt, S W; Adnøy, T

    1994-11-01

    When selecting in a finite population of honeybees there is a conflict between gain in a quantitative trait and increasing homozygosity, and therefore the frequency of inviable diploid drones. The consequences when using different mating, import, and selection strategies on diploid drone frequency and genetic gain, was explored with Monte Carlo computer simulations.Within a closed population breeding structure, mass selection gave the highest genetic gain in the quantitative trait, but also the largest increase in percentage diploid drones and queens with unacceptably-low brood viability. Mass selection combined with truncation selection against queens having more than 15% diploid drones gave a comparable genetic gain and was the best strategy of the ones studied to avoid diploid drones. Within-family selection (one replacement per sib group) gave the least genetic gain, and a frequency of diploid drones comparable to random (no) selection. It was intermediate between mass selection and mass selection combined with viability selection concerning the frequency of diploid drones.Insemination with pooled and homogenized semen originating from all breeder queens (30), as compared to natural mating with 12 randomly-selected drones, had little effect on the genetic gain and on the overall frequency of diploid drones (10 to 15% by generation 20).The effect of opening the closed breeding population for the import of external queens every generation, by exchanging breeder queens of lowest performance with a corresponding number of new queens (5, 10and 15 out of 30), was also investigated. Under mass selection (natural mating as well as artificial insemination) the frequency of diploid drones and the proportion of queens discarded were reduced because of low brood viability. However, artificial insemination was superior to natural mating considering the latter criterion. If the imported queens were at the same genetic level for the quantitative trait under selection as the

  17. Effects of various breeding strategies on diploid drone frequency and quantitative traits in a honey bee population.

    PubMed

    Omholt, S W; Adnøy, T

    1994-11-01

    When selecting in a finite population of honeybees there is a conflict between gain in a quantitative trait and increasing homozygosity, and therefore the frequency of inviable diploid drones. The consequences when using different mating, import, and selection strategies on diploid drone frequency and genetic gain, was explored with Monte Carlo computer simulations.Within a closed population breeding structure, mass selection gave the highest genetic gain in the quantitative trait, but also the largest increase in percentage diploid drones and queens with unacceptably-low brood viability. Mass selection combined with truncation selection against queens having more than 15% diploid drones gave a comparable genetic gain and was the best strategy of the ones studied to avoid diploid drones. Within-family selection (one replacement per sib group) gave the least genetic gain, and a frequency of diploid drones comparable to random (no) selection. It was intermediate between mass selection and mass selection combined with viability selection concerning the frequency of diploid drones.Insemination with pooled and homogenized semen originating from all breeder queens (30), as compared to natural mating with 12 randomly-selected drones, had little effect on the genetic gain and on the overall frequency of diploid drones (10 to 15% by generation 20).The effect of opening the closed breeding population for the import of external queens every generation, by exchanging breeder queens of lowest performance with a corresponding number of new queens (5, 10and 15 out of 30), was also investigated. Under mass selection (natural mating as well as artificial insemination) the frequency of diploid drones and the proportion of queens discarded were reduced because of low brood viability. However, artificial insemination was superior to natural mating considering the latter criterion. If the imported queens were at the same genetic level for the quantitative trait under selection as the

  18. Adaptation of hepatitis A virus to high titre growth in diploid and permanent cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, J P; Mehdi, S; Mauler, R

    1988-01-01

    A hepatitis A virus isolate originally obtained from the feces of a clinically ill patient and passaged in diploid human embryonic kidney and lung cells was adapted to grow in MRC-5, Cercopithecus aethiops muscle and in Vero cells. Three different adaptation methods were applied. Either method proved to be suitable to finally give high virus titres of cell-bound as well as cell-free virus in the supernatant of infected cultures during 10 to 15 passages. An easily performable immunoperoxidase staining method was used for the titration of hepatitis A virus in microtitre plates. Cytopathogenic changes in MRC-5 cell cultures infected with fully adapted virus are described.

  19. Production of diploid male gametes in Arabidopsis by cold-induced destabilization of postmeiotic radial microtubule arrays.

    PubMed

    De Storme, Nico; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Geelen, Danny

    2012-12-01

    Whole-genome duplication through the formation of diploid gametes is a major route for polyploidization, speciation, and diversification in plants. The prevalence of polyploids in adverse climates led us to hypothesize that abiotic stress conditions can induce or stimulate diploid gamete production. In this study, we show that short periods of cold stress induce the production of diploid and polyploid pollen in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using a combination of cytological and genetic analyses, we demonstrate that cold stress alters the formation of radial microtubule arrays at telophase II and consequently leads to defects in postmeiotic cytokinesis and cell wall formation. As a result, cold-stressed male meiosis generates triads, dyads, and monads that contain binuclear and polynuclear microspores. Fusion of nuclei in binuclear and polynuclear microspores occurs spontaneously before pollen mitosis I and eventually leads to the formation of diploid and polyploid pollen grains. Using segregation analyses, we also found that the majority of cold-induced dyads and triads are genetically equivalent to a second division restitution and produce diploid gametes that are highly homozygous. In a broader perspective, these findings offer insights into the fundamental mechanisms that regulate male gametogenesis in plants and demonstrate that their sensitivity to environmental stress has evolutionary significance and agronomic relevance in terms of polyploidization.

  20. Diploid, but not haploid, human embryonic stem cells can be derived from microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-01-15

    Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells.

  1. Evolution and maintenance of haploid-diploid life cycles in natural populations: The case of the marine brown alga Ectocarpus.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Lucía; Le Gac, Mickael; Hunsperger, Heather M; Mauger, Stéphane; Destombe, Christophe; Cock, J Mark; Ahmed, Sophia; Coelho, Susana M; Valero, Myriam; Peters, Akira F

    2015-07-01

    The evolutionary stability of haploid-diploid life cycles is still controversial. Mathematical models indicate that niche differences between ploidy phases may be a necessary condition for the evolution and maintenance of these life cycles. Nevertheless, experimental support for this prediction remains elusive. In the present work, we explored this hypothesis in natural populations of the brown alga Ectocarpus. Consistent with the life cycle described in culture, Ectocarpus crouaniorum in NW France and E. siliculosus in SW Italy exhibited an alternation between haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes. Our field data invalidated, however, the long-standing view of an isomorphic alternation of generations. Gametophytes and sporophytes displayed marked differences in size and, conforming to theoretical predictions, occupied different spatiotemporal niches. Gametophytes were found almost exclusively on the alga Scytosiphon lomentaria during spring whereas sporophytes were present year-round on abiotic substrata. Paradoxically, E. siliculosus in NW France exhibited similar habitat usage despite the absence of alternation of ploidy phases. Diploid sporophytes grew both epilithically and epiphytically, and this mainly asexual population gained the same ecological advantage postulated for haploid-diploid populations. Consequently, an ecological interpretation of the niche differences between haploid and diploid individuals does not seem to satisfactorily explain the evolution of the Ectocarpus life cycle.

  2. Diploid, but not haploid, human embryonic stem cells can be derived from microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yong; Li, Rong; Huang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2013-01-15

    Human embryonic stem cells have shown tremendous potential in regenerative medicine, and the recent progress in haploid embryonic stem cells provides new insights for future applications of embryonic stem cells. Disruption of normal fertilized embryos remains controversial; thus, the development of a new source for human embryonic stem cells is important for their usefulness. Here, we investigated the feasibility of haploid and diploid embryo reconstruction and embryonic stem cell derivation using microsurgically repaired tripronuclear human zygotes. Diploid and haploid zygotes were successfully reconstructed, but a large proportion of them still had a tripolar spindle assembly. The reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage, although the loss of chromosomes was observed in these zygotes. Finally, triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells were derived from tripronuclear and reconstructed zygotes (from which only one pronucleus was removed), but haploid human embryonic stem cells were not successfully derived from the reconstructed zygotes when two pronuclei were removed. Both triploid and diploid human embryonic stem cells showed the general characteristics of human embryonic stem cells. These results indicate that the lower embryo quality resulting from abnormal spindle assembly contributed to the failure of the haploid embryonic stem cell derivation. However, the successful derivation of diploid embryonic stem cells demonstrated that microsurgical tripronuclear zygotes are an alternative source of human embryonic stem cells. In the future, improving spindle assembly will facilitate the application of triploid zygotes to the field of haploid embryonic stem cells. PMID:23255130

  3. Intensified removal of copper from waste water using activated watermelon based biosorbent in the presence of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Harsh; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Copper is one of the most toxic heavy metals having significant effects on the living organisms and hence effective removal of copper from waste water is crucial. The current work investigates the application of activated watermelon shell based biosorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution. The effect of activation using calcium hydroxide and citric acid as well as the effect of operating parameters like contact time, adsorbent dosage, temperature, pH, initial concentration and ultrasonic power on the extent of removal has been investigated. Experiments performed in the presence of ultrasound to investigate the degree of intensification as compared to the conventional agitation based treatment revealed that the adsorption rate significantly increases in the presence of ultrasound and also the time required for reaching the equilibrium reduces from 60 min in conventional approach to only 20 min in the presence of ultrasound. The extent of adsorption of Cu(II) on adsorbents was found to increase with an increase in the operating pH till an optimum value of 5. The extent of adsorption also increased with a decrease in the initial concentration and particle size as well as with an increase in ultrasonic power till an optimum. Kinetics and isotherm study revealed that all the experimental data was found to best fit the pseudo second order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 31.25mg/g for watermelon treated with calcium hydroxide and 27.027 mg/g for watermelon treated with citric acid. Overall present study established that activated watermelon is an environmentally friendly, low cost and highly efficient biosorbent that can be successfully applied for the removal of copper from aqueous solution with intensification benefits based on the ultrasound assisted approach. PMID:26627740

  4. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susan L F; Everts, Kathryne L; Gardener, Brian McSpadden; Masler, Edward P; Abdelnabby, Hazem M E; Skantar, Andrea M

    2016-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R, and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). In a greenhouse trial, Wayne 1R root dip suppressed numbers of RKN eggs per gram root on 'Charleston Gray' watermelon by 28.9%. However, in studies focused on 'Sugar Baby' watermelon, which is commercially grown in Maryland, a Wayne 1R root dip did not inhibit RKN reproduction or plant death caused by Fon. When all three isolates were applied as seed coats, plant stand in the greenhouse was reduced up to 60% in treatments that included Fon ± P. fluorescens, and eggs per gram root did not differ among treatments. In a microplot trial with Clinto 1R and Wayne 1R root dips, inoculation with P. fluorescens and/or Fon resulted in shorter vine lengths than treatment with either P. fluorescens isolate plus RKN. Root weights, galling indices, eggs per gram root, and second-stage juvenile (J2) numbers in soil were similar among all RKN-inoculated treatments, and fruit production was not affected by treatment. Plant death was high in all treatments. These studies demonstrated that the tested P. fluorescens isolates resulted in some inhibition of vine growth in the field, and were not effective for enhancing plant vigor or suppressing RKN or Fon on watermelon.

  5. Dynamic changes in the leaf proteome of a C3 xerophyte, Citrullus lanatus (wild watermelon), in response to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Kinya; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Kajikawa, Masataka; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Hoshiyasu, Saki; Inagaki, Naoyuki; Yokota, Akiho

    2011-05-01

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a xerophyte native to the Kalahari Desert, Africa. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in this plant, we examined changes in the proteome in response to water deficit. Wild watermelon leaves showed decreased transpiration and a concomitant increase in leaf temperature under water deficit conditions. Comparison of the proteome of stressed plants with that of unstressed plants by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that the intensity of 40 spots increased in response to the stress, and the intensity of 11 spots decreased. We positively identified 23 stress-induced and 6 stress-repressed proteins by mass spectrometry and database analyses. Interestingly, 15 out of the 23 up-regulated proteins (65% of annotated up-regulated proteins) were heat shock proteins (HSPs). Especially, 10 out of the 15 up-regulated HSPs belonged to the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family. Other stress-induced proteins included those related to antioxidative defense and carbohydrate metabolism. Fifteen distinct cDNA sequences encoding the sHSP were characterized from wild watermelon. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the representative sHSP genes revealed strong transcriptional up-regulation in the leaves under water deficit. Moreover, immunoblot analysis confirmed that protein abundance of sHSPs was massively increased under water deficit. Overall, these observations suggest that the defense response of wild watermelon may involve orchestrated regulation of a diverse array of functional proteins related to cellular defense and metabolism, of which HSPs may play a pivotal role on the protection of the plant under water deficit in the presence of strong light.

  6. Intensified removal of copper from waste water using activated watermelon based biosorbent in the presence of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Harsh; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Copper is one of the most toxic heavy metals having significant effects on the living organisms and hence effective removal of copper from waste water is crucial. The current work investigates the application of activated watermelon shell based biosorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution. The effect of activation using calcium hydroxide and citric acid as well as the effect of operating parameters like contact time, adsorbent dosage, temperature, pH, initial concentration and ultrasonic power on the extent of removal has been investigated. Experiments performed in the presence of ultrasound to investigate the degree of intensification as compared to the conventional agitation based treatment revealed that the adsorption rate significantly increases in the presence of ultrasound and also the time required for reaching the equilibrium reduces from 60 min in conventional approach to only 20 min in the presence of ultrasound. The extent of adsorption of Cu(II) on adsorbents was found to increase with an increase in the operating pH till an optimum value of 5. The extent of adsorption also increased with a decrease in the initial concentration and particle size as well as with an increase in ultrasonic power till an optimum. Kinetics and isotherm study revealed that all the experimental data was found to best fit the pseudo second order kinetics and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model respectively. Maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 31.25mg/g for watermelon treated with calcium hydroxide and 27.027 mg/g for watermelon treated with citric acid. Overall present study established that activated watermelon is an environmentally friendly, low cost and highly efficient biosorbent that can be successfully applied for the removal of copper from aqueous solution with intensification benefits based on the ultrasound assisted approach.

  7. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susan L F; Everts, Kathryne L; Gardener, Brian McSpadden; Masler, Edward P; Abdelnabby, Hazem M E; Skantar, Andrea M

    2016-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R, and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). In a greenhouse trial, Wayne 1R root dip suppressed numbers of RKN eggs per gram root on 'Charleston Gray' watermelon by 28.9%. However, in studies focused on 'Sugar Baby' watermelon, which is commercially grown in Maryland, a Wayne 1R root dip did not inhibit RKN reproduction or plant death caused by Fon. When all three isolates were applied as seed coats, plant stand in the greenhouse was reduced up to 60% in treatments that included Fon ± P. fluorescens, and eggs per gram root did not differ among treatments. In a microplot trial with Clinto 1R and Wayne 1R root dips, inoculation with P. fluorescens and/or Fon resulted in shorter vine lengths than treatment with either P. fluorescens isolate plus RKN. Root weights, galling indices, eggs per gram root, and second-stage juvenile (J2) numbers in soil were similar among all RKN-inoculated treatments, and fruit production was not affected by treatment. Plant death was high in all treatments. These studies demonstrated that the tested P. fluorescens isolates resulted in some inhibition of vine growth in the field, and were not effective for enhancing plant vigor or suppressing RKN or Fon on watermelon. PMID:27168652

  8. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Susan L. F.; Everts, Kathryne L.; Gardener, Brian McSpadden; Masler, Edward P.; Abdelnabby, Hazem M. E.; Skantar, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R, and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). In a greenhouse trial, Wayne 1R root dip suppressed numbers of RKN eggs per gram root on ‘Charleston Gray’ watermelon by 28.9%. However, in studies focused on ‘Sugar Baby’ watermelon, which is commercially grown in Maryland, a Wayne 1R root dip did not inhibit RKN reproduction or plant death caused by Fon. When all three isolates were applied as seed coats, plant stand in the greenhouse was reduced up to 60% in treatments that included Fon ± P. fluorescens, and eggs per gram root did not differ among treatments. In a microplot trial with Clinto 1R and Wayne 1R root dips, inoculation with P. fluorescens and/or Fon resulted in shorter vine lengths than treatment with either P. fluorescens isolate plus RKN. Root weights, galling indices, eggs per gram root, and second-stage juvenile (J2) numbers in soil were similar among all RKN-inoculated treatments, and fruit production was not affected by treatment. Plant death was high in all treatments. These studies demonstrated that the tested P. fluorescens isolates resulted in some inhibition of vine growth in the field, and were not effective for enhancing plant vigor or suppressing RKN or Fon on watermelon. PMID:27168652

  9. [Study on classification of ethylene treated and non-ethylene treated watermelons by visible/near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Xu, Hui-rong; Xie, Li-juan

    2009-04-01

    According to the fact that farmers often picked unripe watermelon and treated them with high concentration ethylene to quicken ripeness, classification experiments on the two classes of watermelon mentioned above were conducted based on the Vis/NIR spectroscopy diffuse transmittance technique. In the discriminant analysis, a method to classify them by diffuse transmittance ration at two wavelengths was adopted to discriminate them. Result of mistake ratio 32.5% for samples without ethylene treatment and 20% for ethylene treatment samples indicated that this method could discriminate the two classes of watermelons roughly. Mahalanobis distance and partial least square methods were also used here for discriminant analysis and satisfied results were obtained. The first derivative spectra with Norris derivative filtering of samples without being ethylene-treated using Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis got the result of mistake ratio 1.67% for calibration set, no mistake for prediction set and no mistake for samples being ethylene treated. No mistake took place for the second derivative spectra using partial least square method. In discriminant analysis, spectral data pretreatment methods influence the discriminant results and it should be selected according to the analysis methods.

  10. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Ling, Kai-Shu; Levi, Amnon; Sun, Yuyan; Fan, Min

    2016-01-01

    When infecting a host plant, the fungus Fusarium oxysporum secretes several effector proteins into the xylem tissue to promote virulence. However, in a host plant with an innate immune system involving analogous resistance proteins, the fungus effector proteins may trigger resistance, rather than promoting virulence. Identity of the effector genes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) races that affect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) are currently unknown. In this study, the SIX6 (secreted in xylem protein 6) gene was identified in Fon races 0 and 1 but not in the more virulent Fon race 2. Disrupting the FonSIX6 gene in Fon race 1 did not affect the sporulation or growth rate of the fungus but significantly enhanced Fon virulence in watermelon, suggesting that the mutant ΔFon1SIX6 protein allowed evasion of R protein-mediated host resistance. Complementation of the wild-type race 2 (which lacks FonSIX6) with FonSIX6 reduced its virulence. These results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that FonSIX6 is an avirulence gene. The identification of FonSix6 as an avirulence factor may be a first step in understanding the mechanisms of Fon virulence and resistance in watermelon and further elucidating the role of Six6 in Fusarium-plant interactions. PMID:27320044

  11. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Ling, Kai-Shu; Levi, Amnon; Sun, Yuyan; Fan, Min

    2016-01-01

    When infecting a host plant, the fungus Fusarium oxysporum secretes several effector proteins into the xylem tissue to promote virulence. However, in a host plant with an innate immune system involving analogous resistance proteins, the fungus effector proteins may trigger resistance, rather than promoting virulence. Identity of the effector genes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) races that affect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) are currently unknown. In this study, the SIX6 (secreted in xylem protein 6) gene was identified in Fon races 0 and 1 but not in the more virulent Fon race 2. Disrupting the FonSIX6 gene in Fon race 1 did not affect the sporulation or growth rate of the fungus but significantly enhanced Fon virulence in watermelon, suggesting that the mutant ΔFon1SIX6 protein allowed evasion of R protein-mediated host resistance. Complementation of the wild-type race 2 (which lacks FonSIX6) with FonSIX6 reduced its virulence. These results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that FonSIX6 is an avirulence gene. The identification of FonSix6 as an avirulence factor may be a first step in understanding the mechanisms of Fon virulence and resistance in watermelon and further elucidating the role of Six6 in Fusarium-plant interactions. PMID:27320044

  12. A non-destructive genotyping system from a single seed for marker-assisted selection in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Meru, G; McDowell, D; Waters, V; Seibel, A; Davis, J; McGregor, C

    2013-01-01

    Genomic tools for watermelon breeding are becoming increasingly available. A high throughput genotyping system would facilitate the use of DNA markers in marker-assisted selection. DNA extraction from leaf material requires prior seed germination and is often time-consuming and cost prohibitive. In an effort to develop a more efficient system, watermelon seeds of several genotypes and various seed sizes were sampled by removing ⅓ or ½ sections from the distal ends for DNA extraction, while germinating the remaining proximal parts of the seed. Removing ⅓ of the seed from the distal end had no effect on seed germination percentage or seedling vigor. Different DNA extraction protocols were tested to identify a method that could yield DNA of sufficient quality for amplification by polymerase chain reaction. A sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction protocol with 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone yielded DNA that could be amplified with microsatellite primers and was free of pericarp contamination. In this study, an efficient, non-destructive genotyping protocol for watermelon seed was developed. PMID:23546952

  13. Ethylene-induced gene expression, enzyme activities, and water soaking in immature and ripe watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Karakurt, Yasar; Huber, Donald J

    2004-04-01

    Watermelon fruit exhibit acute softening and placental-tissue water soaking following short exposure to exogenous ethylene. Experiments were performed to address transcript abundance and activities of cell wall and membrane hydrolases in placental tissue in response to treatment of watermelon fruit with ethylene. Watermelon fruit were harvested at immature and full-ripe stages and exposed to 50 microL L(-1) ethylene for 6 days at 20 degrees C. Ethylene affected the abundance of transcripts for PME (EC 3.2.1.11), and alpha-(EC 3.2.1.22) and beta-GAL (EC 3.2.1.23) but these effects were dependent on fruit maturity and appeared not to be associated with the water-soaking syndrome. PG (EC 3.2.1.15) and EXP mRNAs accumulated significantly in response to ethylene exposure. Additionally, the levels of mRNA and activities of LOX (EC 1.13.11.12), PLC (EC 3.1.4.3) and PLD (EC 3.1.4.4) were elevated in fruit of both maturity classes exposed to ethylene and were temporally associated with the visible symptoms of water soaking. The activity trends and transcript abundance in ethylene- compared with air-treated fruit indicate that PG, EXP, LOX, PLC and PLD levels increase with the onset and development of the water-soaking disorder and support the view that catabolic reactions targeting the membranes and cell-walls contribute to the disorder.

  14. Tetraploid/Diploid Mosaicism in Cultured Genital Skin Fibroblasts: Is It Causally Related to Penoscrotal Hypospadias?

    PubMed

    Giltay, Jacques C; Klijn, Aart J; de Jong, Tom P V M; Kats, Peter; van Breugel, Marjolijn; Lens, Susan; Vromans, Martijn; van der Veken, Lars T; Hochstenbach, Ron

    2016-07-01

    Tetraploid/diploid mosaicism is a rare chromosomal abnormality that is infrequently reported in patients with severe developmental delay, growth retardation, and short life span. Here, we present a 6-year-old patient with severe penoscrotal hypospadias and a coloboma of the left eye but with normal growth, normal psychomotor development, and without dysmorphisms. We considered a local, mosaic sex chromosomal aneuploidy as a possible cause of his genital anomaly and performed karyotyping in cultured fibroblasts from the genital skin, obtained during surgical correction. Tetraploid/diploid (92,XXYY/46,XY) mosaicism was found in 43/57 and 6/26 metaphases in 2 separate cultures, respectively. Buccal smear cells, blood lymphocytes, and cells from urine sediment all showed diploidy. We investigated whether this chromosomal abnormality could be found in other patients with severe hypospadias and karyotyped genital fibroblasts of 6 additional patients but found only low frequencies (<11%) of tetraploid cells, not statistically different from those found in control males with no hypospadias. This is the first time tetraploid mosaicism is found in such a high percentage in a patient without psychomotor retardation, dysmorphisms or growth delay. Although the relationship between this observed mosaicism in cultured cells and the underlying pathogenetic mechanism in penoscrotal hypospadias remains to be determined, our data clearly illustrate the power of cytogenetic techniques in detecting mosaicism compared to next-generation sequencing techniques, in which DNA pooled from multiple cells is used. PMID:27587991

  15. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs.

  16. Characterization of a Torulaspora delbrueckii diploid strain with optimized performance in sweet and frozen sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Maria José; Pallotti, Claudia; Andreu, Pasqual; Aguilera, Jaime; Prieto, José Antonio; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2007-05-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is a baker's yeast that is highly tolerant to freeze-thaw stress, making it suitable for frozen dough technology. The T. delbrueckii strain PYCC5321, isolated from traditional bread dough, combines this tolerance with a high degree of ionic and osmotic stress resistance. However, the industrial use of this strain for frozen and sweet frozen baking is hampered by its small cell size, which causes clogging problems at the filtering stage. Here, we report the construction of a stable diploid strain of T. delbrueckii PYCC5321, which we named Td21-2n. The new strain was more than 2.7-fold bigger than their haploid counterpart, whereas biomass yield, stress resistance and sweet dough leavening ability were found to be similar in both strains. Moreover, the gassing power of the diploid after dough freezing also remained unaltered. Thus, Td21-2n meets the requirements necessary for industrial production and is suitable for application in frozen sweet baking products.

  17. Differences between selection on sex versus recombination in red queen models with diploid hosts.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Aneil F

    2009-08-01

    The Red Queen hypothesis argues that parasites generate selection for genetic mixing (sex and recombination) in their hosts. A number of recent papers have examined this hypothesis using models with haploid hosts. In these haploid models, sex and recombination are selectively equivalent. However, sex and recombination are not equivalent in diploids because selection on sex depends on the consequences of segregation as well as recombination. Here I compare how parasites select on modifiers of sexual reproduction and modifiers of recombination rate. Across a wide set of parameters, parasites tend to select against both sex and recombination, though recombination is favored more often than is sex. There is little correspondence between the conditions favoring sex and those favoring recombination, indicating that the direction of selection on sex is often determined by the effects of segregation, not recombination. Moreover, when sex was favored it is usually due to a long-term advantage whereas short-term effects are often responsible for selection favoring recombination. These results strongly indicate that Red Queen models focusing exclusively on the effects of recombination cannot be used to infer the type of selection on sex that is generated by parasites on diploid hosts.

  18. Genome downsizing and karyotype constancy in diploid and polyploid congeners: a model of genome size variation

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Lidia; Realini, María Florencia; Fourastié, María Florencia; García, Ana María; González, Graciela Esther

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary chromosome change involves significant variation in DNA amount in diploids and genome downsizing in polyploids. Genome size and karyotype parameters of Hippeastrum species with different ploidy level were analysed. In Hippeastrum, polyploid species show less DNA content per basic genome than diploid species. The rate of variation is lower at higher ploidy levels. All the species have a basic number x = 11 and bimodal karyotypes. The basic karyotypes consist of four short metacentric chromosomes and seven large chromosomes (submetacentric and subtelocentric). The bimodal karyotype is preserved maintaining the relative proportions of members of the haploid chromosome set, even in the presence of genome downsizing. The constancy of the karyotype is maintained because changes in DNA amount are proportional to the length of the whole-chromosome complement and vary independently in the long and short sets of chromosomes. This karyotype constancy in taxa of Hippeastrum with different genome size and ploidy level indicates that the distribution of extra DNA within the complement is not at random and suggests the presence of mechanisms selecting for constancy, or against changes, in karyotype morphology. PMID:24969503

  19. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries.

  20. Chloroplast DNA Structural Variation, Phylogeny, and Age of Divergence among Diploid Cotton Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yumei; Xu, Qin; Shang, Mingzhao; Zhou, Zhongli; Cai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xingxing; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Wang, Kunbo

    2016-01-01

    The cotton genus (Gossypium spp.) contains 8 monophyletic diploid genome groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, K) and a single allotetraploid clade (AD). To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome in this group, we performed a comparative analysis of 19 Gossypium chloroplast genomes, six reported here for the first time. Nucleotide distance in non-coding regions was about three times that of coding regions. As expected, distances were smaller within than among genome groups. Phylogenetic topologies based on nucleotide and indel data support for the resolution of the 8 genome groups into 6 clades. Phylogenetic analysis of indel distribution among the 19 genomes demonstrates contrasting evolutionary dynamics in different clades, with a parallel genome downsizing in two genome groups and a biased accumulation of insertions in the clade containing the cultivated cottons leading to large (for Gossypium) chloroplast genomes. Divergence time estimates derived from the cpDNA sequence suggest that the major diploid clades had diverged approximately 10 to 11 million years ago. The complete nucleotide sequences of 6 cpDNA genomes are provided, offering a resource for cytonuclear studies in Gossypium. PMID:27309527

  1. Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus x gondouinii and Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Tavaud, M; Zanetto, A; David, J L; Laigret, F; Dirlewanger, E

    2004-12-01

    Prunus avium L. (diploid, AA, 2n=2x=16), Prunus cerasus L. (allotetraploid, AAFF, 2n=4x=32) species, and their hybrid Prunus x gondouinii Rehd., constitute the most widely cultivated cherry tree species. P. cerasus is supposed to be an hybrid species produced by the union of unreduced P. avium gametes and normal P. fruticosa gametes. A continuum of morphological traits between these three species makes their assignation difficult. The aim of this paper is to study the genetic relationships between tetraploid and diploid cherry species. In all, 114 genotypes belonging to these species were analyzed using 75 AFLP markers. The coordinates of these genotypes on the first axis of a correspondence analysis allowed us to clearly distinguish each species, to identify misclassifications and to assign unknown genotypes to one species. We showed that there are specific alleles in P. cerasus, which are not present in the A genome of P. avium and which probably come from the F genome of P. cerasus. The frequencies of each marker in the A and the F genomes were estimated in order to identify A and F specific markers. We discuss the utility of these specific markers for finding the origin of the A and F genomes in the allopolyploid species. PMID:15354194

  2. A Simple Method for Finding Explicit Analytic Transition Densities of Diffusion Processes with General Diploid Selection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun S.; Steinrücken, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The transition density function of the Wright–Fisher diffusion describes the evolution of population-wide allele frequencies over time. This function has important practical applications in population genetics, but finding an explicit formula under a general diploid selection model has remained a difficult open problem. In this article, we develop a new computational method to tackle this classic problem. Specifically, our method explicitly finds the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the diffusion generator associated with the Wright–Fisher diffusion with recurrent mutation and arbitrary diploid selection, thus allowing one to obtain an accurate spectral representation of the transition density function. Simplicity is one of the appealing features of our approach. Although our derivation involves somewhat advanced mathematical concepts, the resulting algorithm is quite simple and efficient, only involving standard linear algebra. Furthermore, unlike previous approaches based on perturbation, which is applicable only when the population-scaled selection coefficient is small, our method is nonperturbative and is valid for a broad range of parameter values. As a by-product of our work, we obtain the rate of convergence to the stationary distribution under mutation–selection balance. PMID:22209899

  3. Autotetraploid Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) obtained using normal diploid eggs: induction and impact on cytogenetic stability.

    PubMed

    Benabdelmouna, Abdellah; Ledu, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    We describe two methods of producing viable and fertile autotetraploid Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) based on the use of normal-sized oocytes produced by normal diploid females. Our methods showed that the oocyte size is not a limiting factor for the success of the induction to autotetraploidy. These methods offer means of direct introgression of genetic progress from elite diploid lines to tetraploids used as broodstock, avoiding a triploid step with the risk of transferring undesirable traits from highly fecund triploids. High variability in the level of cytogenetic stability was found among the different tetraploid oysters tested, showing that induction method has an important impact on the long-term cytogenetic stability of the tetraploids. It appears that induction method based on the use of triploid females induces a greater cytogenetic instability among tetraploids so obtained, and this compared to tetraploids originating from the two methods described in our present study. As the aneuploidies and reversions observed in tetraploids can have serious consequences for the sustainability of tetraploid broodstock itself, as well as their triploid offspring, the two tetraploid induction methods described in the present work offer means to produce tetraploids with optimal cytogenetic, genetic, and zootechnical performances. PMID:26230146

  4. Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Johannesson, Bjarki; Sagi, Ido; Burnett, Lisa Cole; Kort, Daniel H; Prosser, Robert W; Paull, Daniel; Nestor, Michael W; Freeby, Matthew; Greenberg, Ellen; Goland, Robin S; Leibel, Rudolph L; Solomon, Susan L; Benvenisty, Nissim; Sauer, Mark V; Egli, Dieter

    2014-06-26

    The transfer of somatic cell nuclei into oocytes can give rise to pluripotent stem cells that are consistently equivalent to embryonic stem cells, holding promise for autologous cell replacement therapy. Although methods to induce pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by transcription factors are widely used in basic research, numerous differences between induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells have been reported, potentially affecting their clinical use. Because of the therapeutic potential of diploid embryonic stem-cell lines derived from adult cells of diseased human subjects, we have systematically investigated the parameters affecting efficiency of blastocyst development and stem-cell derivation. Here we show that improvements to the oocyte activation protocol, including the use of both kinase and translation inhibitors, and cell culture in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors, promote development to the blastocyst stage. Developmental efficiency varied between oocyte donors, and was inversely related to the number of days of hormonal stimulation required for oocyte maturation, whereas the daily dose of gonadotropin or the total number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved did not affect developmental outcome. Because the use of concentrated Sendai virus for cell fusion induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, causing premature oocyte activation, we used diluted Sendai virus in calcium-free medium. Using this modified nuclear transfer protocol, we derived diploid pluripotent stem-cell lines from somatic cells of a newborn and, for the first time, an adult, a female with type 1 diabetes.

  5. Polyploidization mechanisms: temperature environment can induce diploid gamete formation in Rosa sp.

    PubMed

    Pécrix, Yann; Rallo, Géraldine; Folzer, Hélène; Cigna, Mireille; Gudin, Serge; Le Bris, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Polyploidy is an important evolutionary phenomenon but the mechanisms by which polyploidy arises still remain underexplored. There may be an environmental component to polyploidization. This study aimed to clarify how temperature may promote diploid gamete formation considered an essential element for sexual polyploidization. First of all, a detailed cytological analysis of microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis was performed to target precisely the key developmental stages which are the most sensitive to temperature. Then, heat-induced modifications in sporad and pollen characteristics were analysed through an exposition of high temperature gradient. Rosa plants are sensitive to high temperatures with a developmental sensitivity window limited to meiosis. Moreover, the range of efficient temperatures is actually narrow. 36 °C at early meiosis led to a decrease in pollen viability, pollen ectexine defects but especially the appearance of numerous diploid pollen grains. They resulted from dyads or triads mainly formed following heat-induced spindle misorientations in telophase II. A high temperature environment has the potential to increase gamete ploidy level. The high frequencies of diplogametes obtained at some extreme temperatures support the hypothesis that polyploidization events could have occurred in adverse conditions and suggest polyploidization facilitating in a global change context. PMID:21398431

  6. HaploMerger: Reconstructing allelic relationships for polymorphic diploid genome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Zelin; Huang, Guangrui; Yu, Ting; Yang, Ping; Li, Jie; Fu, Yonggui; Yuan, Shaochun; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2012-01-01

    Whole-genome shotgun assembly has been a long-standing issue for highly polymorphic genomes, and the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has made the issue more challenging than ever. Here we present an automated pipeline, HaploMerger, for reconstructing allelic relationships in a diploid assembly. HaploMerger combines a LASTZ-ChainNet alignment approach with a novel graph-based structure, which helps to untangle allelic relationships between two haplotypes and guides the subsequent creation of reference haploid assemblies. The pipeline provides flexible parameters and schemes to improve the contiguity, continuity, and completeness of the reference assemblies. We show that HaploMerger produces efficient and accurate results in simulations and has advantages over manual curation when applied to real polymorphic assemblies (e.g., 4%–5% heterozygosity). We also used HaploMerger to analyze the diploid assembly of a single Chinese amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) and compared the resulting haploid assemblies with EST sequences, which revealed that the two haplotypes are not only divergent but also highly complementary to each other. Taken together, we have demonstrated that HaploMerger is an effective tool for analyzing and exploiting polymorphic genome assemblies. PMID:22555592

  7. Flower and early fruit development in a diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Courtney A; Geretz, Aviva C; Slovin, Janet P; Liu, Zhongchi

    2012-06-01

    The diploid woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, is being recognized as a model for the more complex octoploid commercial strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa. F. vesca exhibits a short seed to seed cycle, can be easily transformed by Agrobacteria, and a draft genome sequence has been published. These features, together with its similar flower structure, potentially make F. vesca a good model for studying the flower development of other members of the Rosaceae family, which contains many economically important fruit trees and ornamental plants. To propel F. vesca's role in genetic and genomic research and to facilitate the study of its reproductive development, we have investigated in detail F. vesca flower and early fruit development using a seventh generation inbred diploid line, Yellow Wonder 5AF7. We present here standardized developmental staging and detailed descriptions of morphological changes associated with flower and early fruit development based on images of hand dissected flowers, histological sections, and scanning electron microscopy. In situ hybridization with the F. vesca AGAMOUS homolog, FvAG, showed expression in young stamen and carpel primordia. This work lays the essential groundwork and standardization for future molecular, genetic, and genomic studies of F. vesca.

  8. Characterization of a Torulaspora delbrueckii diploid strain with optimized performance in sweet and frozen sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Hernández-López, Maria José; Pallotti, Claudia; Andreu, Pasqual; Aguilera, Jaime; Prieto, José Antonio; Randez-Gil, Francisca

    2007-05-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is a baker's yeast that is highly tolerant to freeze-thaw stress, making it suitable for frozen dough technology. The T. delbrueckii strain PYCC5321, isolated from traditional bread dough, combines this tolerance with a high degree of ionic and osmotic stress resistance. However, the industrial use of this strain for frozen and sweet frozen baking is hampered by its small cell size, which causes clogging problems at the filtering stage. Here, we report the construction of a stable diploid strain of T. delbrueckii PYCC5321, which we named Td21-2n. The new strain was more than 2.7-fold bigger than their haploid counterpart, whereas biomass yield, stress resistance and sweet dough leavening ability were found to be similar in both strains. Moreover, the gassing power of the diploid after dough freezing also remained unaltered. Thus, Td21-2n meets the requirements necessary for industrial production and is suitable for application in frozen sweet baking products. PMID:17316858

  9. Abortive second meiosis detected in cytochalasin-treated eggs in androgenetic diploid Corbicula fluminea.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Ryo; Komaru, Akira

    2006-05-01

    The hermaphroditic diploid clam Corbicula fluminea reproduces by androgenesis. In the control (androgenetic development), all maternal chromosomes and maternal centrosomes at the meiotic poles were extruded as two first polar bodies and subsequently second meiosis did not occur. In eggs treated with cytochalasin D (CD) to inhibit the polar body extrusion, the second meiosis was abortive. After the first meiosis, two centrosomes at the spindle poles remained in the cytoplasm because of the effect of CD. The chromosomes divided into two groups at anaphase-I as observed in the control eggs. Two centrosomes divided into four just after the first meiosis but did not separate completely. The microtubules from the centrosomes were rather short. So at the second meiosis, two monoasters or tetrapolar spindles were formed. The fluorescence signal from microtubules of the monoaster or tetrapolar spindle was weak compared with the spindle at the first meiosis. The maternal chromosomes on the monoaster or tetrapolar spindle did not move, and became large female pronuclei. The pronuclei became the metaphase chromosomes on the spindle for the first cleavage. The present study suggests that second meiosis regulating factors may be abortive in androgenetic diploid C. fluminea.

  10. Diversification of the Homoeologous Lr34 Sequences in Polyploid Wheat Species and Their Diploid Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Shcherban, A B; Kochieva, E Z; Salina, E A

    2016-06-01

    Allopolyploidization induces a multiple processes of genomic reorganization, including the structurally functional diversification of the homoeologous genes. An example of such diversification is the appearance of the Lr34 gene on chromosome 7D of bread wheat T. aestivum (BAD), the gene conferring durable, race non-specific protection against three fungal pathogens. In this study, we focused on the variability of a functionally critical region between exons 10-12 of Lr34 among diploid progenitors of wheat genomes and their respective polyploids. In the diploid A-genome species, two basic forms of the studied region have been revealed: (1) non-functional forms containing stop codons, or/and frameshifts (T. monococcum/T. urartu) and (2) forms with no such a mutations (T. boeoticum). The Lr34 sequence of T. urartu containing a TGA stop codon was inherited by the first tetraploid T. dicoccoides (BA), and then reorganized in some accessions of this species due to the insertion of an LTR retroelement in exon 10. Besides T. boeoticum, the second form of the Lr34 sequence is also characteristic of A. speltoides, which presumably donated this form to all polyploid descendants bearing B-genome. No differences were found between the D-genome-specific Lr34 sequences studied here and downloaded from databases, implying the highest level of conservation of the Lr34 predecessor throughout evolution. The sequence data were later used to construct phylograms, and apparent peculiarities in the evolution of the studied region of Lr34 genes discussed.

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature Pollen in Triploid and Diploid Populus deltoides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Jin; Guo, Ying-Hua; Sun, Pei; Jia, Hui-Xia; Fan, Wei; Lu, Meng-Zhu; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Ploidy affects plant growth vigor and cell size, but the relative effects of pollen fertility and allergenicity between triploid and diploid have not been systematically examined. Here we performed comparative analyses of fertility, proteome, and abundances of putative allergenic proteins of pollen in triploid poplar 'ZhongHuai1' ('ZH1', triploid) and 'ZhongHuai2' ('ZH2', diploid) generated from the same parents. The mature pollen was sterile in triploid poplar 'ZH1'. By applying two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), a total of 72 differentially expressed protein spots (DEPs) were detected in triploid poplar pollen. Among them, 24 upregulated and 43 downregulated proteins were identified in triploid poplar pollen using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation coupled with time of-flight tandem mass spectrometer analysis (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS). The main functions of these DEPs were related with "S-adenosylmethionine metabolism", "actin cytoskeleton organization", or "translational elongation". The infertility of triploid poplar pollen might be related to its abnormal cytoskeletal system. In addition, the abundances of previously identified 28 putative allergenic proteins were compared among three poplar varieties ('ZH1', 'ZH2', and '2KEN8'). Most putative allergenic proteins were downregulated in triploid poplar pollen. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of pollen infertility and low allergenicity in triploid poplar, and gives a clue to improving poplar polyploidy breeding and decreasing the pollen allergenicity. PMID:27598155

  12. Detailed alignment of saccharum and sorghum chromosomes: comparative organization of closely related diploid and polyploid genomes.

    PubMed Central

    Ming, R; Liu, S C; Lin, Y R; da Silva, J; Wilson, W; Braga, D; van Deynze, A; Wenslaff, T F; Wu, K K; Moore, P H; Burnquist, W; Sorrells, M E; Irvine, J E; Paterson, A H

    1998-01-01

    The complex polyploid genomes of three Saccharum species have been aligned with the compact diploid genome of Sorghum (2n = 2x = 20). A set of 428 DNA probes from different Poaceae (grasses) detected 2460 loci in F1 progeny of the crosses Saccharum officinarum Green German x S. spontaneum IND 81-146, and S. spontaneum PIN 84-1 x S. officinarum Muntok Java. Thirty-one DNA probes detected 226 loci in S. officinarum LA Purple x S. robustum Molokai 5829. Genetic maps of the six Saccharum genotypes, including up to 72 linkage groups, were assembled into "homologous groups" based on parallel arrangements of duplicated loci. About 84% of the loci mapped by 242 common probes were homologous between Saccharum and Sorghum. Only one interchromosomal and two intrachromosomal rearrangements differentiated both S. officinarum and S. spontaneum from Sorghum, but 11 additional cases of chromosome structural polymorphism were found within Saccharum. Diploidization was advanced in S. robustum, incipient in S. officinarum, and absent in S. spontaneum, consistent with biogeographic data suggesting that S. robustum is the ancestor of S. officinarum, but raising new questions about the antiquity of S. spontaneum. The densely mapped Sorghum genome will be a valuable tool in ongoing molecular analysis of the complex Saccharum genome. PMID:9832541

  13. Chloroplast DNA Structural Variation, Phylogeny, and Age of Divergence among Diploid Cotton Species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwen; Feng, Kun; Grover, Corrinne E; Li, Pengbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yumei; Xu, Qin; Shang, Mingzhao; Zhou, Zhongli; Cai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xingxing; Wendel, Jonathan F; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    The cotton genus (Gossypium spp.) contains 8 monophyletic diploid genome groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, K) and a single allotetraploid clade (AD). To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome in this group, we performed a comparative analysis of 19 Gossypium chloroplast genomes, six reported here for the first time. Nucleotide distance in non-coding regions was about three times that of coding regions. As expected, distances were smaller within than among genome groups. Phylogenetic topologies based on nucleotide and indel data support for the resolution of the 8 genome groups into 6 clades. Phylogenetic analysis of indel distribution among the 19 genomes demonstrates contrasting evolutionary dynamics in different clades, with a parallel genome downsizing in two genome groups and a biased accumulation of insertions in the clade containing the cultivated cottons leading to large (for Gossypium) chloroplast genomes. Divergence time estimates derived from the cpDNA sequence suggest that the major diploid clades had diverged approximately 10 to 11 million years ago. The complete nucleotide sequences of 6 cpDNA genomes are provided, offering a resource for cytonuclear studies in Gossypium. PMID:27309527

  14. Fecundity and offspring ploidy in matings among diploid, triploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae): consequences for tetraploid establishment.

    PubMed

    Burton, T L; Husband, B C

    2001-11-01

    Models of polyploid evolution indicate that tetraploids are more likely to establish within diploid populations when they are formed recurrently through the union of unreduced (n=2n) gametes. To account for the coexistence of diploids and tetraploids in populations of Chamerion angustifolium, diploid, triploid and tetraploid plants were crossed in all possible combinations and fecundity and ploidy using flow cytometry of the resulting progeny were measured. Combined with previous data on cytotype fitness, these data were used in a simulation to examine the impact of unreduced gametes on tetraploid evolution. Seed set per fruit was highest in 2x x 2x crosses (69%), intermediate in 4x x 4x, 2x x 4x and 3x x 4x crosses (range, 11-35%) and lowest in 3x x 2x and 3x x 3x crosses (range, 1-10%). Offspring were diploid (94%) or triploid (6%) in 2x x 2x crosses, diploid (17.5%), triploid (56%) or tetraploid (26.5%) in 3x x 2x crosses, and triploid (53%) and tetraploid (44%) in all others (4x x 4x, 3x x 4x, 2x x 4x), indicating that some gametes are unreduced, particularly in triploids. Forty-two percent of offspring, from three different crosses, had DNA contents greater than tetraploids. Computer simulations based on these results showed that unreduced gamete formation via triploids in C. angustifolium can promote the coexistence of diploids and tetraploids, but, due to law triploid fitness, is insufficient to overcome tetraploid minority disadvantage. PMID:11869348

  15. On the use of Ethephon as abscising agent in cv. Crimson Seedless table grape production: combination of Fruit Detachment Force, Fruit Drop and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Rizzuti, Antonino; Aguilera-Sáez, Luis Manuel; Gallo, Vito; Cafagna, Isabella; Mastrorilli, Piero; Latronico, Mario; Pacifico, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela Maria Stella; Ferrara, Giuseppe

    2015-03-15

    The effect of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon, in the following ETH) as abscising agent on cv. Crimson Seedless table grape was investigated by means of Fruit Detachment Force (FDF) and Fruit Drop (FD) analyses combined with a metabolomic study carried out by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effectiveness of ETH as abscising agent was ascertained with ETH concentration ranging from 1.4 to 4.0 g/L in a two-year study. The ETH treatments caused berry drops higher than 40% and induced an increase of tartaric acid, procyanidin P2, terpenoid derivatives and peonidin-3-glucoside as well as a decrease of catechin and epicatechin. HRMS-NMR covariance analysis was carried out to correlate the fluctuations of tartaric acid NMR signals to those of MS peaks of the secondary metabolites affected by ETH treatments.

  16. Partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during the whole berry growth maintain yield and berry quality in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo, Rafael; De la Rosa, Jose M.°; Rosario Conesa Saura, M.°

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of partial root-zone drying and conventional deficit irrigation applied during post-veraison and the whole berry growth on water relations, yield and berry quality, one experiment was conducted in a commercial vineyard of 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Five irrigation treatments were imposed: (i) Control (CTL) irrigated to 110% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc), (ii) regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated at 50% of CTL during the non- critical period of post-verasion, (iii) continuous deficit irrigation (DIc), irrigated at 50% of CTL throughout the whole berry growing season, (iv) partial root-zone drying (PRD), irrigated similar to RDI, but alternating the irrigation applied in the dry side every 10-14 days; and (v) continuous partial root-zone drying (PRDc), irrigated as DIc but alternating the irrigation in the dry side every 10-14 days. RDI and PRD received 24% and 28% less water than CTL, respectively. These reductions were higher in DIc and PRDc (65% and 53%, respectively). Total yield was not affected by any DI strategy. Only significantly lower values were observed in the weight and height's berries in respect to CTL. However, the colour parameters evaluated increased in all DI treatments, being slightly higher in DIc and PRDc compared with RDI and PRD. In addition, total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in DIc, compared to other irrigated counterparts. Our findings showed that the application of water deficit during the whole berry growth through the use of DIc and PRDc, can be considered for irrigation scheduling in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  17. CCR4-Not Complex Subunit Not2 Plays Critical Roles in Vegetative Growth, Conidiation and Virulence in Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shixia; Shen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    CCR4-Not complex is a multifunctional regulator that plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the present study, the biological function of FonNot2, a core subunit of the CCR4-Not complex, was explored in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), the causal agent of watermelon wilt disease. FonNot2 was expressed at higher levels in conidia and germinating conidia and during infection in Fon-inoculated watermelon roots than in mycelia. Targeted disruption of FonNot2 resulted in retarded vegetative growth, reduced conidia production, abnormal conidial morphology, and reduced virulence on watermelon. Scanning electron microscopy observation of infection behaviors and qRT-PCR analysis of in planta fungal growth revealed that the ΔFonNot2 mutant was defective in the ability to penetrate watermelon roots and showed reduced fungal biomass in root and stem of the inoculated plants. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses indicated that the ΔFonNot2 mutant displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents (e.g., Congo Red and Calcofluor White) and oxidative stress (e.g., H2O2 and paraquat), decreased fusaric acid content, and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during spore germination. Our data demonstrate that FonNot2 plays critical roles in regulating vegetable growth, conidiogenesis and conidia morphology, and virulence on watermelon via modulating cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, ROS production and FA biosynthesis through the regulation of transcription of genes involved in multiple pathways.

  18. A multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Newport gastroenteritis in Europe associated with watermelon from Brazil, confirmed by whole genome sequencing: October 2011 to January 2012.

    PubMed

    Byrne, L; Fisher, I; Peters, T; Mather, A; Thomson, N; Rosner, B; Bernard, H; McKeown, P; Cormican, M; Cowden, J; Aiyedun, V; Lane, C

    2014-01-01

    In November 2011, the presence of Salmonella Newport in a ready-to-eat watermelon slice was confirmed as part of a local food survey in England. In late December 2011, cases of S. Newport were reported in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Ireland and Germany. During the outbreak, 63 confirmed cases of S. Newport were reported across all six countries with isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from the watermelon isolate.A subset of outbreak isolates were whole-genome sequenced and were identical to, or one single nucleotide polymorphism different from the watermelon isolate.In total, 46 confirmed cases were interviewed of which 27 reported watermelon consumption. Further investigations confirmed the outbreak was linked to the consumption of watermelon imported from Brazil.Although numerous Salmonella outbreaks associated with melons have been reported in the United States and elsewhere, this is the first of its kind in Europe.Expansion of the melon import market from Brazil represents a potential threat for future outbreaks. Whole genome sequencing is rapidly becoming more accessible and can provide a compelling level of evidence of linkage between human cases and sources of infection,to support public health interventions in global food markets. PMID:25138971

  19. Carotenoid content and in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene from guava (Psidium guajava) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Chandrika, U G; Fernando, K S S P; Ranaweera, K K D S

    2009-11-01

    The carotenoid content and in vitro accessibility of the 'Sugar baby' variety of watermelon and the 'Horana red' variety of guava from Sri Lanka was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram showed that the Guava 'Horana red' variety contained almost exclusively lycopene (45.3 +/- 8.0 microg/g fresh weight (FW)), with a small amount of lutein (2.1 +/- 0.6 microg/g FW), beta-carotene (2.0 +/- 0.2 microg/g FW) and beta-cryptoxanthin. As far as carotenoids in the sugar baby variety of watermelon are concerned, it contained lycopene, lutein and beta-carotene of 37.2 +/- 4.0 microg/g FW, 2.1 +/- 0.6 microg/g FW and 0.3 +/- 1 microg/g FW, respectively. The studies showed that guava contains more lycopene (45.3+/-8.0 microg/g FW) than watermelon (37.2 +/- 4.0 microg/g FW), and that the in vitro accessibility of lycopene in guava (73%) is more than that in watermelon (25.8%). Therefore it can be concluded that guava can be used as a better lycopene source than watermelon.

  20. CCR4-Not Complex Subunit Not2 Plays Critical Roles in Vegetative Growth, Conidiation and Virulence in Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shixia; Shen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    CCR4-Not complex is a multifunctional regulator that plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the present study, the biological function of FonNot2, a core subunit of the CCR4-Not complex, was explored in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), the causal agent of watermelon wilt disease. FonNot2 was expressed at higher levels in conidia and germinating conidia and during infection in Fon-inoculated watermelon roots than in mycelia. Targeted disruption of FonNot2 resulted in retarded vegetative growth, reduced conidia production, abnormal conidial morphology, and reduced virulence on watermelon. Scanning electron microscopy observation of infection behaviors and qRT-PCR analysis of in planta fungal growth revealed that the ΔFonNot2 mutant was defective in the ability to penetrate watermelon roots and showed reduced fungal biomass in root and stem of the inoculated plants. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses indicated that the ΔFonNot2 mutant displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents (e.g., Congo Red and Calcofluor White) and oxidative stress (e.g., H2O2 and paraquat), decreased fusaric acid content, and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during spore germination. Our data demonstrate that FonNot2 plays critical roles in regulating vegetable growth, conidiogenesis and conidia morphology, and virulence on watermelon via modulating cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, ROS production and FA biosynthesis through the regulation of transcription of genes involved in multiple pathways. PMID:27695445

  1. A multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Newport gastroenteritis in Europe associated with watermelon from Brazil, confirmed by whole genome sequencing: October 2011 to January 2012.

    PubMed

    Byrne, L; Fisher, I; Peters, T; Mather, A; Thomson, N; Rosner, B; Bernard, H; McKeown, P; Cormican, M; Cowden, J; Aiyedun, V; Lane, C

    2014-08-07

    In November 2011, the presence of Salmonella Newport in a ready-to-eat watermelon slice was confirmed as part of a local food survey in England. In late December 2011, cases of S. Newport were reported in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Ireland and Germany. During the outbreak, 63 confirmed cases of S. Newport were reported across all six countries with isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from the watermelon isolate.A subset of outbreak isolates were whole-genome sequenced and were identical to, or one single nucleotide polymorphism different from the watermelon isolate.In total, 46 confirmed cases were interviewed of which 27 reported watermelon consumption. Further investigations confirmed the outbreak was linked to the consumption of watermelon imported from Brazil.Although numerous Salmonella outbreaks associated with melons have been reported in the United States and elsewhere, this is the first of its kind in Europe.Expansion of the melon import market from Brazil represents a potential threat for future outbreaks. Whole genome sequencing is rapidly becoming more accessible and can provide a compelling level of evidence of linkage between human cases and sources of infection,to support public health interventions in global food markets.

  2. Effect of postharvest pretreatments on organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" table grapes assigned to long term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admane, Naouel; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Di Gennaro, Domenico; Genovese, Francesco; Altieri, Giuseppe; Carlo Di Renzo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Every year a significant amount of organic table grapes is lost during postharvest mainly due to the incidence of decay, stem browning and fast alteration of the taste and aroma. The demand for this fresh product with immaculate appearance and high sensory quality in terms of flavor, is a hard challenge considering the difficulties to conserve them, with alternative safe treatments to the sulphur dioxide (SO2) which is not allowed in organic product. The aim of this experiment was to maintain the quality of organic table grapes and extend their shelf-life for medium and long term, in order to reach new distant promising markets, by using safe methods. The effectiveness of the combination of pretreatment with Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) compounds, physical means and storage under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were performed by using detached organic table grape berries as alternatives to usual industrial SO2 application. The detached organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" berries were pretreated by: i) dipping in ethanol and potassium bicarbonate; ii) massive CO2 concentrations; iii) ozone (O3) fumigation; whereas, untreated berries were included in the trial as control. Moreover, all the samples were packed in thermo-sealed ALPAK bags with MAP of 2% O2:5% CO2:93% N2 and stored at 0°C for 45 days. Initially and after 15, 30 and 45 days of storage, weight loss, decay incidence, berry/skin firmness, pedicel detachment force, skin color parameters, SSC, pH, titratable acidity and sensory evaluation scores, were monitored. After 45 days of storage, the weight loss was higher in the sample pretreated with massive CO2 concentration at 70 - 90 % and the control. The samples pretreated with CO2 at 70% and O3 at 20 ppm maintained the strength of the berry linked to its pedicel, also the berry and skin firmness were statistically higher in samples pretreated with CO2 at 90 - 70% and O3 at 20 ppm in comparison with the control. The skin color parameters and

  3. Disentangling relationships among the diploid members of the intricate genus Knautia (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacoideae).

    PubMed

    Rešetnik, Ivana; Frajman, Božo; Bogdanović, Sandro; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Schönswetter, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The genus Knautia (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacoideae) encompasses 40-60 species mainly distributed in western Eurasia, with highest species diversity in the Alps and the Balkan Peninsula. It is traditionally regarded as one of the taxonomically most challenging European genera due to the widespread occurrence of polyploidy, the high incidence of hybridisation and the maintenance of morphologically intermediate forms. A prerequisite for assessing the complex spatiotemporal diversification of a polyploid group is a comprehensive hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships among its diploid members. To this end, DNA sequence data (nrDNA ITS and plastid petN(ycf6)-psbM) combined with AFLP fingerprinting were performed on 148 diploid populations belonging to 35 taxa. Phylogenies obtained by maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses were used to test the monophyly of the genus and its three sections Trichera, Tricheroides and Knautia, to provide insights into its evolutionary history and to test previous hypotheses of inter- and intrasectional classification. Both nuclear and chloroplast datasets support the monophyly of Knautia and its three sections, with ambiguous placement of K. cf. degenii. The majority of species belong to the nearly exclusively perennial section Trichera (x=10). Within section Trichera all markers revealed largely unresolved phylogenetic relationships suggesting rapid radiation and recent range expansion. In addition, extensive sharing of plastid haplotypes across taxa and wide geographic ranges of plastid haplotypes and ribotype groups were observed. The molecular data are partly at odds with the traditional informal grouping of taxa within section Trichera. Whereas the traditional groups of K. dinarica, K. drymeia and K. montana can be maintained, the new, smaller and well supported Midzorensis and Pancicii Groups as well as the SW European Group are separated from the heterogeneous traditional K. longifolia group. The former groups of K. arvensis, K

  4. Mouse zygotes with one diploid pronucleus formed as a result of ICSI can develop normally beyond birth.

    PubMed

    Krukowska, Anna; Tarkowski, Andrzej K

    2005-11-01

    A mouse spermatozoon was injected into mouse secondary oocytes (ICSI) in the vicinity of the metaphase spindle. In 22% of oocytes injected successfully, the maternal chromatin (the haploid chromatids formed after the second meiotic division) and paternal chromatin (from the sperm nucleus) were surrounded by a common nuclear envelope to form one diploid bi-parental pronucleus. However, the use of spermatozoa in which BrdU had been incorporated into DNA during spermatogenesis revealed, that maternal and paternal chromatin occupied two separate compartments within the one pronucleus. In the living state, the diploid pronucleus could be distinguished from a haploid one by its distinctly larger size and by a greater number of "nucleolus-like bodies"-criteria confirmed karylogically at the 1st cleavage division. Such zygotes with one diploid pronucleus were able to develop in vitro into blastocysts as often as those with two haploid pronuclei [11/29 (38%) vs. 14/35 (40%)]. Seventy nine 2-cell embryos developing in vitro from zygotes with one diploid pronucleus were transplanted to the oviducts of pseudopregnant recipients: two females had six foetuses when killed on the 17th day, and two females gave birth to nine young, eight of which survived and developed into normal fertile animals. PMID:16047392

  5. Genetic diversity and adaptedness in tetraploid Avena barbata and its diploid ancestors Avena hirtula and Avena wiestii.

    PubMed Central

    García, P; Morris, M I; Sáenz-de-Miera, L E; Allard, R W; Pérez de la Vega, M; Ladizinsky, G

    1991-01-01

    Avena barbata, a tetraploid grass, is much more widely adapted and successful in forming dense stands than its diploid ancestors. The success of such polyploids has often been attributed to heterosis associated with ability to breed true for a highly heterozygous state in which allelic differences between the parents are fixed in the polyploid by chromosome doubling. We have examined the relationship between genetic diversity and adaptedness for 14 allozyme loci in A. barbata and its diploid ancestors in samples collected from diverse habitats in Israel and Spain. The relationship varied from locus to locus: superior adaptedness was associated with genetic uniformity for five loci, in part with genetic uniformity and in part with genetic diversity (monomorphism for a single heteroallelic quadriplex) for one locus, and with allelic diversity in the form of heteroallelic quadriplexes combined with genotypic diversity in the form of complex polymorphisms among different homoallelic and/or heteroallelic quadriplexes for the eight remaining loci. These results indicate that allelic diversity fixed in nonsegregating form through chromosome doubling was an important factor in the evolution of adaptedness in A. barbata. However, it is unlikely that heterosis associated with heterozygosity contributed significantly to superior adaptedness in either the diploids or the tetraploid because virtually all loci (approximately 99%) were homozygous in the Avena diploids and tetraploid. PMID:1996323

  6. Skeletal anomaly assessment in diploid and triploid juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and the effect of temperature in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, G; Adams, M B; Ventura, T; Carter, C G; Cobcroft, J M

    2016-04-01

    Triploid Atlantic salmon tend to develop a higher prevalence of skeletal anomalies. This tendency may be exacerbated by an inadequate rearing temperature. Early juvenile all-female diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon were screened for skeletal anomalies in consecutive experiments to include two size ranges: the first tested the effect of ploidy (0.2-8 g) and the second the effect of ploidy, temperature (14 °C and 18 °C) and their interaction (8-60 g). The first experiment showed that ploidy had no effect on skeletal anomaly prevalence. A high prevalence of opercular shortening was observed (average prevalence in both ploidies 85.8%) and short lower jaws were common (highest prevalence observed 11.3%). In the second experiment, ploidy, but not temperature, affected the prevalence of short lower jaw (diploids > triploids) and lower jaw deformity (triploids > diploids, highest prevalence observed 11.1% triploids and 2.7% diploids) with a trend indicating a possible developmental link between the two jaw anomalies in triploids. A radiological assessment (n = 240 individuals) showed that at both temperatures triploids had a significantly (P < 0.05) lower number of vertebrae and higher prevalence of deformed individuals. These findings (second experiment) suggest ploidy was more influential than temperature in this study. PMID:26763087

  7. O father where art thou? Paternity analyses in a natural population of the haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus.

    PubMed

    Krueger-Hadfield, S A; Roze, D; Correa, J A; Destombe, C; Valero, M

    2015-02-01

    The link between life history traits and mating systems in diploid organisms has been extensively addressed in the literature, whereas the degree of selfing and/or inbreeding in natural populations of haploid-diploid organisms, in which haploid gametophytes alternate with diploid sporophytes, has been rarely measured. Dioecy has often been used as a proxy for the mating system in these organisms. Yet, dioecy does not prevent the fusion of gametes from male and female gametophytes originating from the same sporophyte. This is likely a common occurrence when spores from the same parent are dispersed in clumps and recruit together. This pattern of clumped spore dispersal has been hypothesized to explain significant heterozygote deficiency in the dioecious haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus. Fronds and cystocarps (structures in which zygotes are mitotically amplified) were sampled in two 25 m(2) plots located within a high and a low intertidal zone and genotyped at 5 polymorphic microsatellite loci in order to explore the mating system directly using paternity analyses. Multiple males sired cystocarps on each female, but only one of the 423 paternal genotypes corresponded to a field-sampled gametophyte. Nevertheless, larger kinship coefficients were detected between males siring cystocarps on the same female in comparison with males in the entire population, confirming restricted spermatial and clumped spore dispersal. Such dispersal mechanisms may be a mode of reproductive assurance due to nonmotile gametes associated with putatively reduced effects of inbreeding depression because of the free-living haploid stage in C. crispus.

  8. Mapping of SrTm4, a recessive stem rust resistance gene from diploid wheat effective to Ug99

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Race TTKSK (or Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), the causal agent of wheat stem rust, is a serious threat to wheat production worldwide. The best approach to reduce this threat is to identify and deploy new stem rust resistance genes. Diploid wheat, Triticum monococcum (genome Am), ha...

  9. Exploring the diploid wheat ancestral A genome through sequence comparison at the High-Molecular-Weight glutenin locus region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The polyploid nature of hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum, AABBDD) often represents a great challenge in various aspects of research including genetic mapping, map-based cloning of important genes, and sequencing and accurate assembly of its genome. To explore the utility of ancestral diploid species o...

  10. Assembly and diploid architecture of an individual human genome via single-molecule technologies

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, Matthew; Sebra, Robert; Pang, Andy Wing Chun; Ummat, Ajay; Franzen, Oscar; Rausch, Tobias; Stütz, Adrian M; Stedman, William; Anantharaman, Thomas; Hastie, Alex; Dai, Heng; Fritz, Markus Hsi-Yang; Cao, Han; Cohain, Ariella; Deikus, Gintaras; Durrett, Russell E; Blanchard, Scott C; Altman, Roger; Chin, Chen-Shan; Guo, Yan; Paxinos, Ellen E; Korbel, Jan O; Darnell, Robert B; McCombie, W Richard; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Mason, Christopher E; Schadt, Eric E; Bashir, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive analysis of a diploid human genome that combines single-molecule sequencing with single-molecule genome maps. Our hybrid assembly markedly improves upon the contiguity observed from traditional shotgun sequencing approaches, with scaffold N50 values approaching 30 Mb, and we identified complex structural variants (SVs) missed by other high-throughput approaches. Furthermore, by combining Illumina short-read data with long reads, we phased both single-nucleotide variants and SVs, generating haplotypes with over 99% consistency with previous trio-based studies. Our work shows that it is now possible to integrate single-molecule and high-throughput sequence data to generate de novo assembled genomes that approach reference quality. PMID:26121404

  11. The lowest diploid number (2n = 16) yet found in any primate: Callicebus lugens (Humboldt, 1811).

    PubMed

    Bonvicino, Cibele R; Penna-Firme, Valéria; do Nascimento, Fabrícia F; Lemos, Bernardo; Stanyon, Roscoe; Seuánez, Héctor N

    2003-01-01

    Morphologic, molecular and karyologic analyses of Callicebus lugens (Humboldt, 1811) of known geographic origin supported the proposition that this is a valid species. Morphologic and morphometric analyses showed evident differences between C. lugens and two other related taxa of the same group (Callicebus purinus and Callicebus torquatus). Cytochrome b DNA analyses (maximum parsimony, neighbour joining and maximum likelihood) were congruent in showing a strong association between C. lugens and Callicebus sp. of the torquatus group in one branch and a sister branch further divided into two clades: one with species of the personatus group and another, with species of the moloch group. Karyotypic analysis showed that C. lugens has the lowest diploid chromosome number of the primate order (2n = 16). Comparisons with other congeneric species clearly supported the proposition that C. lugens is karyotypically similar to others of the torquatus group.

  12. The genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, David John; Cannon, Steven B; Froenicke, Lutz; Huang, Guodong; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Liu, Xin; Gao, Dongying; Clevenger, Josh; Dash, Sudhansu; Ren, Longhui; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Shirasawa, Kenta; Huang, Wei; Vidigal, Bruna; Abernathy, Brian; Chu, Ye; Niederhuth, Chad E; Umale, Pooja; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Kozik, Alexander; Kim, Kyung Do; Burow, Mark D; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Barkley, Noelle; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Isobe, Sachiko; Guo, Baozhu; Liao, Boshou; Stalker, H Thomas; Schmitz, Robert J; Scheffler, Brian E; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Xun, Xu; Jackson, Scott A; Michelmore, Richard; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid with closely related subgenomes of a total size of ∼2.7 Gb. This makes the assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. As a foundation to understanding the genome of cultivated peanut, we report the genome sequences of its diploid ancestors (Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis). We show that these genomes are similar to cultivated peanut's A and B subgenomes and use them to identify candidate disease resistance genes, to guide tetraploid transcript assemblies and to detect genetic exchange between cultivated peanut's subgenomes. On the basis of remarkably high DNA identity of the A. ipaensis genome and the B subgenome of cultivated peanut and biogeographic evidence, we conclude that A. ipaensis may be a direct descendant of the same population that contributed the B subgenome to cultivated peanut. PMID:26901068

  13. Conditions for the invasion of male-haploidy in diploid populations.

    PubMed

    Kidner, J; Moritz, R F A

    2016-09-01

    Male-haploidy has independently evolved several times in different phylogenetic groups and has led to various extant lineages in the insects, Arachnida and Rotifera. Although the stability of male-haploidy as an evolutionary strategy is not well understood, various theories address the invasion of male-haploidy in diploid populations. Here two of these theories: (i) the maternal transmission hypothesis (MTH) and (ii) the deleterious mutation hypothesis (DMH), are re-investigated with an agent-based model to understand the role of genetic drift as a mechanism facilitating the spread of male-haploidy. These two hypotheses are analysed separately and comparatively, and the results suggest dominance of the MTH. In addition, comparison of the stochastic results to deterministic results using the same model structure shows how genetic drift can enhance the parameter space where male-haploidy can be expected to invade.

  14. Self-renewing diploid Axin2+ cells fuel homeostatic renewal of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bruce; Zhao, Ludan; Fish, Matt; Logan, Catriona Y.; Nusse, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Summary The source of new hepatocytes in the uninjured liver has remained an open question. By lineage tracing using the Wnt-responsive gene Axin2, we identify a population of proliferating and self-renewing cells adjacent to the central vein in the liver lobule. These pericentral cells express the early liver progenitor marker Tbx3, are diploid, and thus differ from mature hepatocytes, which are mostly polyploid. The descendants of pericentral cells differentiate into Tbx3-negative, polyploid hepatocytes and can replace all hepatocytes along the liver lobule during homeostatic renewal. Adjacent central vein endothelial cells provide Wnt signals that maintain the pericentral cells, thereby constituting the niche. Thus, we identify a cell population in the liver that subserves homeostatic hepatocyte renewal, characterize its anatomical niche, and identify molecular signals that regulate its activity. PMID:26245375

  15. The genome sequences of Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of cultivated peanut.

    PubMed

    Bertioli, David John; Cannon, Steven B; Froenicke, Lutz; Huang, Guodong; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Liu, Xin; Gao, Dongying; Clevenger, Josh; Dash, Sudhansu; Ren, Longhui; Moretzsohn, Márcio C; Shirasawa, Kenta; Huang, Wei; Vidigal, Bruna; Abernathy, Brian; Chu, Ye; Niederhuth, Chad E; Umale, Pooja; Araújo, Ana Cláudia G; Kozik, Alexander; Kim, Kyung Do; Burow, Mark D; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Xingjun; Zhang, Xinyou; Barkley, Noelle; Guimarães, Patrícia M; Isobe, Sachiko; Guo, Baozhu; Liao, Boshou; Stalker, H Thomas; Schmitz, Robert J; Scheffler, Brian E; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya C M; Xun, Xu; Jackson, Scott A; Michelmore, Richard; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an allotetraploid with closely related subgenomes of a total size of ∼2.7 Gb. This makes the assembly of chromosomal pseudomolecules very challenging. As a foundation to understanding the genome of cultivated peanut, we report the genome sequences of its diploid ancestors (Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis). We show that these genomes are similar to cultivated peanut's A and B subgenomes and use them to identify candidate disease resistance genes, to guide tetraploid transcript assemblies and to detect genetic exchange between cultivated peanut's subgenomes. On the basis of remarkably high DNA identity of the A. ipaensis genome and the B subgenome of cultivated peanut and biogeographic evidence, we conclude that A. ipaensis may be a direct descendant of the same population that contributed the B subgenome to cultivated peanut.

  16. Self-renewing diploid Axin2(+) cells fuel homeostatic renewal of the liver.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bruce; Zhao, Ludan; Fish, Matt; Logan, Catriona Y; Nusse, Roel

    2015-08-13

    The source of new hepatocytes in the uninjured liver has remained an open question. By lineage tracing using the Wnt-responsive gene Axin2 in mice, we identify a population of proliferating and self-renewing cells adjacent to the central vein in the liver lobule. These pericentral cells express the early liver progenitor marker Tbx3, are diploid, and thereby differ from mature hepatocytes, which are mostly polyploid. The descendants of pericentral cells differentiate into Tbx3-negative, polyploid hepatocytes, and can replace all hepatocytes along the liver lobule during homeostatic renewal. Adjacent central vein endothelial cells provide Wnt signals that maintain the pericentral cells, thereby constituting the niche. Thus, we identify a cell population in the liver that subserves homeostatic hepatocyte renewal, characterize its anatomical niche, and identify molecular signals that regulate its activity.

  17. Bose-Einstein distribution, condensation transition, and multiple stationary states in multiloci evolution of diploid populations.

    PubMed

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rotzschke, Olaf

    2010-09-01

    The mapping between genotype and phenotype is encoded in the complex web of epistatic interaction between genetic loci. In this rugged fitness landscape, recombination processes, which tend to increase variation in the population, compete with selection processes that tend to reduce genetic variation. Here, we show that the Bose-Einstein distribution describe the multiple stationary states of a diploid population under this multiloci evolutionary dynamics. Moreover, the evolutionary process might undergo an interesting condensation phase transition in the universality class of a Bose-Einstein condensation when a finite fraction of pairs of linked loci is fixed into given allelic states. Below this phase transition the genetic variation within a species is significantly reduced and only maintained by the remaining polymorphic loci.

  18. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in the seeded diploid banana Musa ornata Roxb.

    PubMed

    Cronauer-Mitra, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1988-01-01

    Somatic embryos of a seeded diploid ornamental banana (Musa ornata Roxb.) were obtained from zygotic embryos cultured on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) medium with the auxin 2,4-D (0.5, 1, 2 mg/l) and 5% CW. Removal of 2,4-D and transferral to Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) (1972) salts with CW followed by basal MS led to embryo germination and growth. Plantlet production was obtained using filter paper bridges in liquid half-strength SH medium with 1% sucrose. The remarkable phenotypic fidelity of somatic embryos to that of zygotic embryos and the presence of a haustorium-like outgrowth on the somatic embryos is described. PMID:11538845

  19. Under-dominance constrains the evolution of negative autoregulation in diploids.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexander J; Seymour, Robert M; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Reuter, Max

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory networks have evolved to allow gene expression to rapidly track changes in the environment as well as to buffer perturbations and maintain cellular homeostasis in the absence of change. Theoretical work and empirical investigation in Escherichia coli have shown that negative autoregulation confers both rapid response times and reduced intrinsic noise, which is reflected in the fact that almost half of Escherichia coli transcription factors are negatively autoregulated. However, negative autoregulation is rare amongst the transcription factors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This difference is surprising because E. coli and S. cerevisiae otherwise have similar profiles of network motifs. In this study we investigate regulatory interactions amongst the transcription factors of Drosophila melanogaster and humans, and show that they have a similar dearth of negative autoregulation to that seen in S. cerevisiae. We then present a model demonstrating that this striking difference in the noise reduction strategies used amongst species can be explained by constraints on the evolution of negative autoregulation in diploids. We show that regulatory interactions between pairs of homologous genes within the same cell can lead to under-dominance--mutations which result in stronger autoregulation, and decrease noise in homozygotes, paradoxically can cause increased noise in heterozygotes. This severely limits a diploid's ability to evolve negative autoregulation as a noise reduction mechanism. Our work offers a simple and general explanation for a previously unexplained difference between the regulatory architectures of E. coli and yeast, Drosophila and humans. It also demonstrates that the effects of diploidy in gene networks can have counter-intuitive consequences that may profoundly influence the course of evolution.

  20. Genomic incompatibilities in the diploid and tetraploid offspring of the goldfish × common carp cross.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojun; Luo, Jing; Chai, Jing; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yubao; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Guoliang; Mai, Chao; Yuan, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Li, Tao; Qin, Qinbo; Feng, Hao; Luo, Kaikun; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Rurong; Duan, Wei; Song, Zhenyan; Wang, Yanqin; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Ding, Zhaoli; Du, Zhenglin; Lu, Xuemei; Gao, Yun; Murphy, Robert W; Liu, Yun; Meyer, Axel; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Polyploidy is much rarer in animals than in plants but it is not known why. The outcome of combining two genomes in vertebrates remains unpredictable, especially because polyploidization seldom shows positive effects and more often results in lethal consequences because viable gametes fail to form during meiosis. Fortunately, the goldfish (maternal) × common carp (paternal) hybrids have reproduced successfully up to generation 22, and this hybrid lineage permits an investigation into the genomics of hybridization and tetraploidization. The first two generations of these hybrids are diploids, and subsequent generations are tetraploids. Liver transcriptomes from four generations and their progenitors reveal chimeric genes (>9%) and mutations of orthologous genes. Characterizations of 18 randomly chosen genes from genomic DNA and cDNA confirm the chimera. Some of the chimeric and differentially expressed genes relate to mutagenesis, repair, and cancer-related pathways in 2nF1. Erroneous DNA excision between homologous parental genes may drive the high percentage of chimeric genes, or even more potential mechanisms may result in this phenomenon. Meanwhile, diploid offspring show paternal-biased expression, yet tetraploids show maternal-biased expression. These discoveries reveal that fast and unstable changes are mainly deleterious at the level of transcriptomes although some offspring still survive their genomic abnormalities. In addition, the synthetic effect of genome shock might have resulted in greatly reduced viability of 2nF2 hybrid offspring. The goldfish × common carp hybrids constitute an ideal system for unveiling the consequences of intergenomic interactions in hybrid vertebrate genomes and their fertility. PMID:26768847