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Sample records for dipolar fermi gas

  1. Free Expansion of a Weakly-Interacting Dipolar Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takushi Nishimura,; Tomoyuki Maruyama,

    2010-08-01

    We theoretically investigate a polarized dipolar Fermi gas in free expansion. The inter-particle dipolar interaction deforms phase-space distribution in trap and also in the expansion. We exactly predict the minimal quadrupole deformation in the expansion for the high-temperature Maxwell-Boltzmann and zero-temperature Thomas-Fermi gases in the Hartree-Fock and Landau-Vlasov approaches. In conclusion, we provide a proper approach to develop the time-of-flight method for the weakly-interacting dipolar Fermi gas and also reveal a scaling law associated with the Liouville’s theorem in the long-time behaviors of the both gases.

  2. Observation of Fermi surface deformation in a dipolar quantum gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, K.; Baier, S.; Frisch, A.; Mark, M.; Ravensbergen, C.; Ferlaino, F.

    2014-09-01

    In the presence of isotropic interactions, the Fermi surface of an ultracold Fermi gas is spherical. Introducing anisotropic interactions can deform the Fermi surface, but the effect is subtle and challenging to observe experimentally. Here, we report on the observation of a Fermi surface deformation in a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. The deformation is caused by the interplay between strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and the Pauli exclusion principle. We demonstrate the many-body nature of the effect and its tunability with the Fermi energy. Our observation provides a basis for future studies on anisotropic many-body phenomena in normal and superfluid phases.

  3. Weyl superfluidity in a three-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Yin, Lan; Liu, W Vincent

    2015-01-30

    Weyl superconductivity or superfluidity, a fascinating topological state of matter, features novel phenomena such as emergent Weyl fermionic excitations and anomalies. Here we report that an anisotropic Weyl superfluid state can arise as a low temperature stable phase in a 3D dipolar Fermi gas. A crucial ingredient of our model is a direction-dependent two-body effective attraction generated by a rotating external field. Experimental signatures are predicted for cold gases in radio-frequency spectroscopy. The finite temperature phase diagram of this system is studied and the transition temperature of the Weyl superfluidity is found to be within the experimental scope for atomic dipolar Fermi gases. PMID:25679898

  4. Quantum dynamics of a dipolar Fermi gas in free expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.; Maruyama, T.

    2010-05-01

    We presented our theoretical study on quantum dynamics of a polarized dipolar Fermi gas in free expansion. The dipole-dipolar interparticle interaction induces axisymmetrical deformation of the expanding gas not only in the spatial space but also in the momentum space, so that, in order to obtain proper results in the time-of-flight method for the dipolar Fermi gas, it is necessary to deal with time-evolution of the deformation. To solve the free expansion problem, we develop the Hartree-Fock and Landau-Vlasov approaches and a new time-evolution ansatz for the quantum dynamics. In conclusion, we obtain exact predictions for the minimal quadrupole deformation of the high-temperature Maxwell-Boltzmann and zero-temperature Thomas-Fermi gases in the week-interaction and small-deformation regime, and also reveal a scaling law associated with the Liouville’s theorem in the long-time behaviors of the MB and TF gases.

  5. A long-lived spin-orbit-coupled dipolar Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Nathaniel; Tang, Yijun; Kao, Wil; Lev, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    We report on the demonstration of spin-orbit coupling in a quantum degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of dysprosium. The T /TF = 0 . 4 gas has a lifetime as large as 0.4 s under Raman dressing at densities exceeding 1013 cm-3. The lifetime is limited not by spontaneous emission but by dipolar relaxation loss, and the effect of the dipolar interaction is also observed in the dephasing of Rabi oscillations. This spin-orbit-coupled dipolar gas will allow future studies of fermionic systems in the presence of synthetic gauge fields wherein long lifetimes are essential to observing collective effects.

  6. Quantum gases. Observation of Fermi surface deformation in a dipolar quantum gas.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, K; Baier, S; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Ravensbergen, C; Ferlaino, F

    2014-09-19

    In the presence of isotropic interactions, the Fermi surface of an ultracold Fermi gas is spherical. Introducing anisotropic interactions can deform the Fermi surface, but the effect is subtle and challenging to observe experimentally. Here, we report on the observation of a Fermi surface deformation in a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. The deformation is caused by the interplay between strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and the Pauli exclusion principle. We demonstrate the many-body nature of the effect and its tunability with the Fermi energy. Our observation provides a basis for future studies on anisotropic many-body phenomena in normal and superfluid phases. PMID:25237096

  7. Quantum Phases of a Two-Dimensional Dipolar Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruun, G. M.; Taylor, E.

    2008-12-12

    We examine the superfluid and collapse instabilities of a quasi-two-dimensional gas of dipolar fermions aligned by an orientable external field. It is shown that the interplay between the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interaction, the geometry of the system, and the p-wave symmetry of the superfluid order parameter means that the effective interaction for pairing can be made very large without the system collapsing. This leads to a broad region in the phase diagram where the system forms a stable superfluid. Analyzing the superfluid transition at finite temperatures, we calculate the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless temperature as a function of the dipole angle.

  8. Antiferromagnetism and superfluidity of a dipolar Fermi gas in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Bo; Yin Lan

    2011-10-15

    In a dipolar Fermi gas, the dipole-dipole interaction between fermions can be turned into a dipolar Ising interaction between pseudospins in the presence of an ac electric field. When trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice, this dipolar Fermi gas has a very rich phase diagram at zero temperature, due to the competition between antiferromagnetism and superfluidity. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic state is the favored ground state. The superfluid state appears as the ground state at a smaller filling factor. In between there is a phase-separated region. The order parameter of the superfluid state can display different symmetries depending on the filling factor and interaction strength, including the d-wave (d), the extended s-wave (xs), or their linear combination (xs+id). Implications for the current experiment are discussed.

  9. Density-wave instability in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Sogo, Takaaki; Ito, Toru; Miyakawa, Takahiko

    2010-07-15

    We consider a uniform dipolar Fermi gas in two dimensions (2D) where the dipole moments of fermions are aligned by an orientable external field. We obtain the ground state of the gas in the Hartree-Fock approximation and investigate random-phase-approximation stability against density fluctuations of finite momentum. It is shown that the density-wave instability takes place in a broad region where the system is stable against collapse. We also find that the critical temperature can be a significant fraction of Fermi temperature for a realistic system of polar molecules.

  10. Anisotropic relaxation dynamics in a dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, K; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Baier, S; Grimm, R; Bohn, J L; Jin, D S; Bruun, G M; Ferlaino, F

    2014-12-31

    We report on the observation of a large anisotropy in the rethermalization dynamics of an ultracold dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium. Our system consists of an ultracold sample of strongly magnetic 167Er fermions, spin polarized in the lowest Zeeman sublevel. In this system, elastic collisions arise purely from universal dipolar scattering. Based on cross-dimensional rethermalization experiments, we observe a strong anisotropy of the scattering, which manifests itself in a large angular dependence of the thermal relaxation dynamics. Our result is in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we measure the rethermalization rate as a function of temperature for different angles and find that the suppression of collisions by Pauli blocking is not influenced by the dipole orientation. PMID:25615326

  11. Anisotropic Relaxation Dynamics in a Dipolar Fermi Gas Driven Out of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, K.; Frisch, A.; Mark, M.; Baier, S.; Grimm, R.; Bohn, J. L.; Jin, D. S.; Bruun, G. M.; Ferlaino, F.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the observation of a large anisotropy in the rethermalization dynamics of an ultracold dipolar Fermi gas driven out of equilibrium. Our system consists of an ultracold sample of strongly magnetic Er 167 fermions, spin polarized in the lowest Zeeman sublevel. In this system, elastic collisions arise purely from universal dipolar scattering. Based on cross-dimensional rethermalization experiments, we observe a strong anisotropy of the scattering, which manifests itself in a large angular dependence of the thermal relaxation dynamics. Our result is in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we measure the rethermalization rate as a function of temperature for different angles and find that the suppression of collisions by Pauli blocking is not influenced by the dipole orientation.

  12. Long-Lived Spin-Orbit-Coupled Degenerate Dipolar Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Nathaniel Q.; Tang, Yijun; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the creation of a long-lived spin-orbit-coupled gas of quantum degenerate atoms using the most magnetic fermionic element, dysprosium. Spin-orbit coupling arises from a synthetic gauge field created by the adiabatic following of degenerate dressed states composed of optically coupled components of an atomic spin. Because of dysprosium's large electronic orbital angular momentum and large magnetic moment, the lifetime of the gas is limited not by spontaneous emission from the light-matter coupling, as for gases of alkali-metal atoms, but by dipolar relaxation of the spin. This relaxation is suppressed at large magnetic fields due to Fermi statistics. We observe lifetimes up to 400 ms, which exceeds that of spin-orbit-coupled fermionic alkali atoms by a factor of 10-100 and is close to the value obtained from a theoretical model. Elastic dipolar interactions are also observed to influence the Rabi evolution of the spin, revealing an interacting fermionic system. The long lifetime of this weakly interacting spin-orbit-coupled degenerate Fermi gas will facilitate the study of quantum many-body phenomena manifest at longer time scales, with exciting implications for the exploration of exotic topological quantum liquids.

  13. Low temperatures shear viscosity of a two-component dipolar Fermi gas with unequal population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsheshdar, E.; Yavari, H.; Zangeneh, Z.

    2016-07-01

    By using the Green's functions method and linear response theory we calculate the shear viscosity of a two-component dipolar Fermi gas with population imbalance (spin polarized) in the low temperatures limit. In the strong-coupling Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) region where a Feshbach resonance gives rise to tightly bound dimer molecules, a spin-polarized Fermi superfluid reduces to a simple Bose-Fermi mixture of Bose-condensed dimers and the leftover unpaired fermions (atoms). The interactions between dimer-atom, dimer-dimer, and atom-atom take into account to the viscous relaxation time (τη) . By evaluating the self-energies in the ladder approximation we determine the relaxation times due to dimer-atom (τDA) , dimer-dimer (τcDD ,τdDD) , and atom-atom (τAA) interactions. We will show that relaxation rates due to these interactions τDA-1 ,τcDD-1, τdDD-1, and τAA-1 have T2, T4, e - E /kB T (E is the spectrum of the dimer atoms), and T 3 / 2 behavior respectively in the low temperature limit (T → 0) and consequently, the atom-atom interaction plays the dominant role in the shear viscosity in this rang of temperatures. For small polarization (τDA ,τAA ≫τcDD ,τdDD), the low temperatures shear viscosity is determined by contact interaction between dimers and the shear viscosity varies as T-5 which has the same behavior as the viscosity of other superfluid systems such as superfluid neutron stars, and liquid helium.

  14. Effect of anisotropic exchange interactions and short-range phenomena on superfluidity in a homogeneous dipolar Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corro, I.; Martin, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a simple numerical method that allows us to calculate the BCS superfluid transition temperature Tc precisely for any interaction potential. We apply it to a polarized, ultracold Fermi gas with long-range, anisotropic, dipolar interactions and include the effects of anisotropic exchange interactions. We pay particular attention to the short-range behavior of dipolar gases and reexamine current renormalization methods. In particular, we find that dimerization of both atoms and molecules significantly hampers the formation of a superfluid. The end result is that at high density or interaction strengths, we find Tc is orders of magnitude lower than previous calculations.

  15. Reaching Fermi degeneracy via universal dipolar scattering.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, K; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Baier, S; Grimm, R; Ferlaino, F

    2014-01-10

    We report on the creation of a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. We force evaporative cooling in a fully spin-polarized sample down to temperatures as low as 0.2 times the Fermi temperature. The strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction enables elastic collisions between identical fermions even in the zero-energy limit. The measured elastic scattering cross section agrees well with the predictions from the dipolar scattering theory, which follow a universal scaling law depending only on the dipole moment and on the atomic mass. Our approach to quantum degeneracy proceeds with very high cooling efficiency and provides large atomic densities, and it may be extended to various dipolar systems. PMID:24483874

  16. Zero sound in dipolar Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ronen, Shai; Bohn, John L.

    2010-03-15

    We study the propagation of sound in a homogeneous dipolar gas at zero temperature, which is known as zero sound. We find that undamped zero sound propagation is possible only in a range of solid angles around the direction of polarization of the dipoles. Above a critical dipole moment, we find an unstable mode, by which the gas collapses locally perpendicular to the dipoles' direction.

  17. Cooling without contact in bilayer dipolar Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanatar, Bilal; Renklioglu, Basak; Oktel, M. Ozgur

    2016-05-01

    We consider two parallel layers of dipolar ultracold Fermi gases at different temperatures and calculate the heat transfer between them. The effective interactions describing screening and correlation effects between the dipoles in a single layer are modelled within the Euler-Lagrange Fermi-hypernetted chain approximation. The random-phase approximation is employed for the interactions across the layers. We investigate the amount of transferred power between the layers as a function of the temperature difference. Energy transfer proceeds via the long-range dipole-dipole interactions. A simple thermal model is developed to investigate the feasibility of using the contactless sympathetic cooling of the ultracold polar atoms/molecules. Our calculations indicate that dipolar heat transfer is effective for typical polar molecule experiments and may be utilized as a cooling process. Supported by TUBA and TUBITAK (112T974).

  18. Competing orders in a dipolar Bose-Fermi mixture on a square optical lattice: mean-field perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A.; Kain, Ben; Ling, Hong Y.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a mixture of a two-component Fermi gas and a single-component dipolar Bose gas in a square optical lattice and reduce it into an effective Fermi system where the Fermi-Fermi interaction includes the attractive interaction induced by the phonons of a uniform dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate. Focusing on this effective Fermi system in the parameter regime that preserves the symmetry of D4, the point group of a square, we explore, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theory, the phase competition among density wave orderings and superfluid pairings. We construct the matrix representation of the linearized gap equation in the irreducible representations of D4. We show that in the weak coupling regime, each matrix element, which is a four-dimensional (4D) integral in momentum space, can be put in a separable form involving a 1D integral, which is only a function of temperature and the chemical potential, and a pairing-specific "effective" interaction, which is an analytical function of the parameters that characterize the Fermi-Fermi interactions in our system. We analyze the critical temperatures of various competing orders as functions of different system parameters in both the absence and presence of the dipolar interaction. We find that close to half filling, the dx2 - y2-wave pairing with a critical temperature in the order of a fraction of Fermi energy (at half filling) may dominate all other phases, and at a higher filling factor, the p-wave pairing with a critical temperature in the order of a hundredth of Fermi energy may emerge as a winner. We find that tuning a dipolar interaction can dramatically enhance the pairings with dxy- and g-wave symmetries but not enough for them to dominate other competing phases.

  19. Pseudopotentials for an ultracold dipolar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, T. M.; Conduit, G. J.

    2016-02-01

    A gas of ultracold molecules interacting via the long-range dipolar potential offers a highly controlled environment in which to study strongly correlated phases. However, at particle coalescence the divergent 1 /r3 dipolar potential and associated pathological wave function hinder computational analysis. For a dipolar gas constrained to two dimensions we overcome these numerical difficulties by proposing a pseudopotential that is explicitly smooth at particle coalescence, resulting in a 2000-times speedup in diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. The pseudopotential delivers the scattering phase shifts of the dipolar interaction with an accuracy of 10-5 and predicts the energy of a dipolar gas to an accuracy of 10-4EF in a diffusion Monte Carlo calculation.

  20. Collective motion of polarized dipolar Fermi gases in the hydrodynamic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Aristeu R. P.; Pelster, Axel

    2010-02-15

    Recently, a seminal stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) experiment allowed the creation of {sup 40}K{sup 87}Rb molecules in the rovibrational ground state [K.-K. Ni et al., Science 322, 231 (2008)]. To describe such a polarized dipolar Fermi gas in the hydrodynamic regime, we work out a variational time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach. With this we calculate dynamical properties of such a system, for instance, the frequencies of the low-lying excitations and the time-of-flight expansion. We find that the dipole-dipole interaction induces anisotropic breathing oscillations in momentum space. In addition, after release from the trap, the momentum distribution becomes asymptotically isotropic, while the particle density becomes anisotropic.

  1. Nonequilibrium dynamics of an ultracold dipolar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, A. G.; Bohn, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    We study the relaxation and damping dynamics of an ultracold, but not quantum degenerate, gas consisting of dipolar particles. These simulations are performed using a direct simulation Monte Carlo method and employing the highly anisotropic differential cross section of dipoles in the Wigner threshold regime. We find that both cross-dimensional relaxation and damping of breathing modes occur at rates that are strongly dependent on the orientation of the dipole moments relative to the trap axis. The relaxation simulations are in excellent agreement with recent experimental results in erbium. The results direct our interest toward a less explored regime in dipolar gases where interactions are dominated by collision processes rather than mean-field interactions.

  2. Singlet and triplet superfluid competition in a mixture of two-component Fermi and one-component dipolar Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kain, Ben; Ling, Hong Y.

    2011-06-15

    We consider a mixture of two-component Fermi and (one-component) dipolar Bose gases in which both dipolar interaction and s-wave scattering between fermions of opposite spins are tunable. We show that in the long-wavelength limit, the anisotropy in the Fermi-Fermi interaction induced by phonons of the dipolar condensate can strongly enhance the scattering in the triplet channel. We investigate in detail the conditions for achieving optimal critical temperature at which the triplet superfluid begins to compete with the singlet superfluid.

  3. Ground-state and dynamical properties of two-dimensional dipolar Fermi liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Abedinpour, Saeed H.; Asgari, Reza; Tanatar, B.; Polini, Marco

    2014-01-15

    We study the ground-state properties of a two-dimensional spin-polarized fluid of dipolar fermions within the Euler–Lagrange Fermi-hypernetted-chain approximation. Our method is based on the solution of a scattering Schrödinger equation for the “pair amplitude” √(g(r)), where g(r) is the pair distribution function. A key ingredient in our theory is the effective pair potential, which includes a bosonic term from Jastrow–Feenberg correlations and a fermionic contribution from kinetic energy and exchange, which is tailored to reproduce the Hartree–Fock limit at weak coupling. Very good agreement with recent results based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations is achieved over a wide range of coupling constants up to the liquid-to-crystal quantum phase transition. Using the fluctuation–dissipation theorem and a static approximation for the effective inter-particle interactions, we calculate the dynamical density–density response function, and furthermore demonstrate that an undamped zero-sound mode exists for any value of the interaction strength, down to infinitesimally weak couplings. -- Highlights: •We have studied the ground state properties of a strongly correlated two-dimensional fluid of dipolar fermions. •We have calculated the effective inter-particle interaction and the dynamical density–density response function. •We have shown that an undamped zero sound mode exists at any value of the interaction strength.

  4. Anisotropic Superfluidity in a Dipolar Bose Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M.; Bohn, John L.

    2011-02-11

    We study the superfluid character of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (DBEC) in a quasi-two dimensional geometry. We consider the dipole polarization to have some nonzero projection into the plane of the condensate so that the effective interaction is anisotropic in this plane, yielding an anisotropic dispersion relation. By performing direct numerical simulations of a probe moving through the DBEC, we observe the sudden onset of drag or creation of vortex-antivortex pairs at critical velocities that depend strongly on the direction of the probe's motion. This anisotropy emerges because of the anisotropic manifestation of a rotonlike mode in the system.

  5. Anisotropic Expansion of a Thermal Dipolar Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Sykes, A. G.; Burdick, N. Q.; DiSciacca, J. M.; Petrov, D. S.; Lev, B. L.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the postexpansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases. Furthermore, we present a simple method to determine scattering lengths in dipolar gases, including near a Feshbach resonance, through observation of thermal gas expansion.

  6. Mixed parity pairing in a dipolar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruun, G. M.; Hainzl, C.; Laux, M.

    2016-10-01

    We show that fermionic dipoles in a two-layer geometry form Cooper pairs with both singlet and triplet components when they are tilted with respect to the normal of the planes. The mixed parity pairing arises because the interaction between dipoles in the two different layers is not inversion symmetric. We use an efficient eigenvalue approach to calculate the zero-temperature phase diagram of the system as a function of the dipole orientation and the layer distance. The phase diagram contains purely triplet as well as mixed singlet and triplet superfluid phases. We show in detail how the pair wave function for dipoles residing in different layers smoothly changes from singlet to triplet symmetry as the orientation of the dipoles is changed. Our results indicate that dipolar quantum gases can be used to unambiguously observe mixed parity pairing.

  7. Shear viscosity of quasi-2D dipolar Bose-Fermi mixtures with long-range 1/r interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsheshdar, E.; Yavari, H.; Moniri, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    Low-temperature shear viscosity of a spin polarized two-component quasi-2D dipolar Fermi gas with long-range 1/ r interaction in the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) limit, where the system can be considered as dimers and the unpaired fermions, is calculated by means of the Kubo formalism. By taking into account the dimer-atom, dimer-dimer, and atom-atom interactions in the self-energies the viscous relaxation time (τ_{η}= (τ_{DA}^{-1}+τ_{DD}^{-1}+ τ_{AA}^{-1})^{-1}) is determined. Since the relaxation rates due to these interactions τ_{DA}^{-1} , τ_{DD}^{ -1} and τ_{AA}^{-1} varies, respectively, as T , T2 , and T in the low-temperature limit T→0 , the dimer-atom and atom-atom interactions play the dominant role to the shear viscosity and the shear viscosity varies as T^{-1} . For small polarization the effect of dimer-dimer interaction is important (τ_{DA},τ_{AA}≫τ_{DD}) , and the shear viscosity changes as the standard T^{-2} behviour. In this case, the temperature behavior of the dimer relaxation rate unaffected by 1/ r interaction and the contact, dipole-dipole, and 1/ r interactions play the same role in the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity. Our results have important consequences for developing experiments and theoretical researches on the transport properties of ultracold gases with repulsive or attractive long range 1/ r interaction.

  8. Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L

    2010-11-04

    A quintessential feature of superfluidity is the ability to support dissipationless flow, for example, when an object moves through a superfluid and experiences no drag. This, however, only occurs when the object is moving below a certain critical velocity; when it exceeds this critical velocity it dissipates energy into excitations of the superfluid, resulting in a net drag force on the object and the breakdown of superfluid flow. In many superfluids, such as dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of atoms with contact interactions, this critical velocity is simply the speed of sound in the system, where the speed of sound is set by the density and the s-wave scattering length of the atoms. However, for other superfluids, such as liquid {sup 4}He, this is not the case. In {sup 4}He, the critical velocity is set by a roton mode, corresponding to a peak in the static structure factor of the system at some finite, non-zero momentum, with a characteristic velocity that is considerably less than the speed of sound in the liquid. This feature has been verified experimentally via measurements of ion-drift velocity in the fluid, thereby providing insight into the detailed structure of the system. Interestingly, a roton-like feature was predicted to exist in the dispersion relation of a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) dipolar BEC (DBEC) [16], or a BEC with dipole-dipole interactions. However, unlike the dispersion of {sup 4}He, the disperSion of a DBEC is highly tunable as a function of the condensate density or dipole-dipole interaction (ddi) strength. Additionally, the DBEC is set apart from liquid {sup 4}He in that its interactions depend on how the dipoles are oriented in space. Thus, the DBEC provides an ideal system to study the effects that anisotropies have on the bulk properties of a superfluid, such as the critical velocity. Here we consider a DBEC in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) geometry and allow for the dipoles to be polarized at a nonzero angle into the plane

  9. Competing Orders in a Dipolar Bose - Fermi Mixture on a Square Optical Lattice: Mean-Field Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hong; Scaramaazza, Jasen; Kain, Ben

    2015-05-01

    We study superfluid pairings of two-component fermions interacting by exchanging virtual phonons of a dipolar condensate in an optical lattice that preserves the symmetry of D4. We construct, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, the matrix representation of the linearized gap equation in the irreducible representations of D4. We find that each matrix element, which is a four-dimensional (4D) integral in momentum space, can be put in a separable form involving a 1D integral, which is only a function of temperature and the chemical potential, and a pairing-specific ``effective'' interaction, which is an analytical function of the parameters that characterize Fermi-Fermi interactions. We analyze the critical temperatures of various competing orders (superfluids with s-, dx2-y2-, dxy-, and g-wave symmetries and density waves) as functions of different system parameters in both the absence and presence of the dipolar interaction. We find that tuning a dipolar interaction can dramatically enhance various unconventional pairings. KITP, University of Santa Barbara; ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

  10. RF Spectroscopy on a Homogeneous Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenjie; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Patel, Parth; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Over the last two decades RF spectroscopy has been established as an indispensable tool to probe a large variety of fundamental properties of strongly interacting Fermi gases. This ranges from measurement of the pairing gap over tan's contact to the quasi-particle weight of Fermi polarons. So far, most RF spectroscopy experiments have been performed in harmonic traps, resulting in an averaged response over different densities. We have realized an optical uniform potential for ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms, which allows us to avoid the usual problems connected to inhomogeneous systems. Here we present recent results on RF spectroscopy of these homogeneous samples with a high signal to noise ratio. In addition, we report progress on measuring the contact of a unitary Fermi gas across the normal to superfluid transition.

  11. Dipolar Physics in an Erbium Quantum Gas Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Anne; Krahn, Aaron; Phelps, Gregory; Dickerson, Susannah; Greiner, Markus; Erbium Lab Team

    2016-05-01

    Erbium offers exciting possibilities for extending the single-site imaging work of current quantum gas microscopes. With a magnetic dipole moment of 7μB, the dipole-dipole interaction of erbium is 50 times that of alkali atoms. The long-range and anisotropic nature of the dipole interaction adds richness to the short-range interactions that dominate the physics of the ground-state alkali atoms commonly used in ultracold experiments today. Erbium has several abundant isotopes, giving the added flexibility of studying both bosonic and fermionic systems. We present proposed avenues of research for the dipolar microscope being developed, including studies of magnetism, the Einstein-de Haas effect, and quantum phase transitions with fractional filling factors.

  12. ABJM theory as a Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Marcos; Putrov, Pavel

    2012-03-01

    The partition function on the 3-sphere of many supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories reduces, by localization, to a matrix model. We develop a new method to study these models in the M-theory limit, but at all orders in the 1/N expansion. The method is based on reformulating the matrix model as the partition function of an ideal Fermi gas with a non-trivial, one-particle quantum Hamiltonian. This new approach leads to a completely elementary derivation of the N3/2 behavior for ABJM theory and {N}=3 quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories. In addition, the full series of 1/N corrections to the original matrix integral can be simply determined by a next-to-leading calculation in the WKB or semiclassical expansion of the quantum gas, and we show that, for several quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories, it is given by an Airy function. This generalizes a recent result of Fuji, Hirano and Moriyama for ABJM theory. It turns out that the semiclassical expansion of the Fermi gas corresponds to a strong coupling expansion in type IIA theory, and it is dual to the genus expansion. This allows us to calculate explicitly non-perturbative effects due to D0- and D2-brane instantons in the AdS background.

  13. Dark solitons in a superfluid Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Antezza, Mauro; Dalfovo, Franco; Stringari, Sandro; Pitaevskii, Lev P.

    2007-10-15

    We investigate the behavior of dark solitons in a superfluid Fermi gas along the BCS-BEC crossover by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and looking for real and odd solutions for the order parameter. We show that in the resonance unitary region, where the scattering length is large, the density profile of the soliton has a deep minimum, differently from what happens in the BCS regime. The superfluid gap is found to be significantly quenched by the presence of the soliton due to the occurrence of Andreev fermionic bound states localized near the nodal plane of the order parameter.

  14. Shear viscosity of a unitary Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr; Drut, Joaquín E

    2012-07-13

    We present an ab initio determination of the shear viscosity η of the unitary Fermi gas, based on finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo calculations and the Kubo linear-response formalism. We determine the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio η/s. The minimum of η/s appears to be located above the critical temperature for the superfluid-to-normal phase transition with the most probable value being (η/s)min≈0.2ℏ/k(B), which is close the Kovtun-Son-Starinets universal value ℏ/(4πk(B)).

  15. Orientifolding of the ABJ Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Kazumi

    2016-03-01

    The grand partition functions of ABJ theory can be factorized into even and odd parts under the reflection of fermion coordinate in the Fermi gas approach. In some cases, the even/odd part of ABJ grand partition function is equal to that of {N}=5O(n)× USp({n}^') theory, hence it is natural to think of the even/odd projection of grand partition function as an orientifolding of ABJ Fermi gas system. By a systematic WKB analysis, we determine the coefficients in the perturbative part of grand potential of such orientifold ABJ theory. We also find the exact form of the first few "half-instanton" corrections coming from the twisted sector of the reflection of fermion coordinate. For the Chern-Simons level k = 2 ,4 ,8 we find closed form expressions of the grand partition functions of orientifold ABJ theory, and for k = 2 , 4 we prove the functional relations among the grand partition functions conjectured in arXiv:1410.7658.

  16. Scaling in electron scattering from a relativistic Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Alberico; A. Molinari; T. William Donnelly; E. L. Kronenberg; Wally Van Orden

    1988-10-01

    Within the context of the relativistic Fermi gas model, the concept of ''y scaling'' for inclusive electron scattering from nuclei is investigated. Specific kinematic shifts of the single-nucleon response in the nuclear medium can be incorporated with this model. Suggested generalizations beyond the strict Fermi gas model, including treatments of separated longitudinal and transverse responses, are also explored.

  17. Metastable States of a Gas of Dipolar Bosons in a 2D Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Menotti, C.; Trefzger, C.; Lewenstein, M.

    2007-06-08

    We investigate the physics of dipolar bosons in a two-dimensional optical lattice. It is known that due to the long-range character of dipole-dipole interaction, the ground state phase diagram of a gas of dipolar bosons in an optical lattice presents novel quantum phases, like checkerboard and supersolid phases. In this Letter, we consider the properties of the system beyond its ground state, finding that it is characterized by a multitude of almost degenerate metastable states, often competing with the ground state. This makes dipolar bosons in a lattice similar to a disordered system and opens possibilities of using them as quantum memories.

  18. Exact results on the ABJM Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Okuyama, Kazumi

    2012-10-01

    We study the Fermi gas quantum mechanics associated to the ABJM matrix model. We develop a method to compute the grand partition function of the ABJM theory, and compute exactly the partition function Z( N) up to N = 9 with the Chern-Simons level k = 1. We find that the eigenvalue problem of this quantum mechanical system is reduced to the diagonalization of a certain Hankel matrix. In reducing the number of integrations by commuting coordinates and momenta, we find an exact relation concerning the grand partition function, which is interesting on its own right and very helpful for determining the partition function. We also study the TBA-type integral equations that allow us to compute the grand partition function numerically. Surprisingly, all of our exact partition functions are written in terms of polynomials of π -1 with rational coefficients.

  19. Critical superfluid velocity in a trapped dipolar gas.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ryan M; Ronen, Shai; Bohn, John L

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the superfluid properties of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a fully three-dimensional trap. Specifically, we estimate a superfluid critical velocity for this system by applying the Landau criterion to its discrete quasiparticle spectrum. We test this critical velocity by direct numerical simulation of condensate depletion as a blue-detuned laser moves through the condensate. In both cases, the presence of the roton in the spectrum serves to lower the critical velocity beyond a critical particle number. Since the shape of the dispersion, and hence the roton minimum, is tunable as a function of particle number, we thereby propose an experiment that can simultaneously measure the Landau critical velocity of a dipolar BEC and demonstrate the presence of the roton in this system.

  20. Spinor condensate of {sup 87}Rb as a dipolar gas

    SciTech Connect

    Swislocki, Tomasz; Gajda, Mariusz; RzaPzewski, Kazimierz

    2010-03-15

    We consider a spinor condensate of {sup 87}Rb atoms in the F=1 hyperfine state confined in an optical dipole trap. Putting initially all atoms in the m{sub F}=0 component, we find that the system evolves toward a state of thermal equilibrium with kinetic energy equally distributed among all magnetic components. We show that this process is dominated by the dipolar interaction of magnetic spins rather than spin-mixing contact potential. Our results show that because of a dynamical separation of magnetic components, the spin-mixing dynamics in the {sup 87}Rb condensate is governed by the dipolar interaction which plays no role in a single-component rubidium system in a magnetic trap.

  1. Suppression of Density Fluctuations in a Quantum Degenerate Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J.; Keshet, Aviv; Gommers, Ralf; Shin, Yong-il; Huang Wujie; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2010-07-23

    We study density profiles of an ideal Fermi gas and observe Pauli suppression of density fluctuations (atom shot noise) for cold clouds deep in the quantum degenerate regime. Strong suppression is observed for probe volumes containing more than 10 000 atoms. Measuring the level of suppression provides sensitive thermometry at low temperatures. After this method of sensitive noise measurements has been validated with an ideal Fermi gas, it can now be applied to characterize phase transitions in strongly correlated many-body systems.

  2. Collisional effects in the dynamics of a dipolar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this talk, we discuss the role of collisions in dipolar gases which are far from equilibrium. We compare and contrast collisional mechanisms with mean-field effects. We consider several cases of dynamical behaviour. We begin with cross-dimensional relaxation, where the time-scale of equilibration is studied following a quench in the trap parameters. We also discuss the damping of monopole and quadrupole excitations. Finally we discuss time-of-flight expansion dynamics. Our results demonstrate that collisions can play a significant role. We use these results to extract an estimate of the deca-heptuplet s-partial-wave scattering length of bosonic dysprosium, and to improve the accuracy of experimental time-of-flight expansion imaging. Financial support from the Marie Sklodowska-Curie H2020 framework program.

  3. Hydrodynamics in a Degenerate, Strongly Attractive Fermi Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John E.; Kinast, Joseph; Hemmer, Staci; Turlapov, Andrey; O'Hara, Ken; Gehm, Mike; Granade, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    In summary, we use all-optical methods with evaporative cooling near a Feshbach resonance to produce a strongly interacting degenerate Fermi gas. We observe hydrodynamic behavior in the expansion dynamics. At low temperatures, collisions may not explain the expansion dynamics. We observe hydrodynamics in the trapped gas. Our observations include collisionally-damped excitation spectra at high temperature which were not discussed above. In addition, we observe weakly damped breathing modes at low temperature. The observed temperature dependence of the damping time and hydrodynamic frequency are not consistent with collisional dynamics nor with collisionless mean field interactions. These observations constitute the first evidence for superfluid hydrodynamics in a Fermi gas.

  4. Ferromagnetism in a repulsive atomic Fermi gas with correlated disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilati, S.; Fratini, E.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas in the presence of a correlated random field that represents an optical speckle pattern. The density is tuned so that the (noninteracting) Fermi energy is close to the mobility edge of the Anderson localization transition. We employ quantum Monte Carlo simulations to determine various ground-state properties, including the equation of state, the magnetic susceptibility, and the energy of an impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi gas (repulsive polaron). In the weakly interacting limit, the magnetic susceptibility is found to be suppressed by disorder. However, it rapidly increases with the interaction strength, and it diverges at a much weaker interaction strength compared to the clean gas. Both the transition from the paramagnetic phase to the partially ferromagnetic phase, and the one from the partially to the fully ferromagnetic phase, are strongly favored by disorder, indicating a case of order induced by disorder.

  5. Suppression of density fluctuations in a quantum degenerate Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J; Keshet, Aviv; Gommers, Ralf; Shin, Yong-Il; Huang, Wujie; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2010-07-23

    We study density profiles of an ideal Fermi gas and observe Pauli suppression of density fluctuations (atom shot noise) for cold clouds deep in the quantum degenerate regime. Strong suppression is observed for probe volumes containing more than 10 000 atoms. Measuring the level of suppression provides sensitive thermometry at low temperatures. After this method of sensitive noise measurements has been validated with an ideal Fermi gas, it can now be applied to characterize phase transitions in strongly correlated many-body systems.

  6. Anomalous minimum in the shear viscosity of a Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E; Joseph, J A; Thomas, J E

    2014-07-11

    We measure the static shear viscosity η in a two-component Fermi gas near a broad collisional (Feshbach) resonance, as a function of interaction strength and energy. We find that η has both a quadratic and a linear dependence on the interaction strength 1/(k(FI)a), where a is the s-wave scattering length and k(FI) is the Fermi wave vector for an ideal gas at the trap center. For energies above the superfluid transition, the minimum in η as a function of interaction strength is significantly shifted toward the BEC side of resonance, to 1/(k(FI)a)≃0.25.

  7. Tkachenko modes in a superfluid Fermi gas at unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Gentaro |; Cozzini, Marco |; Stringari, Sandro

    2008-02-15

    We calculate the frequencies of the Tkachenko oscillations of a vortex lattice in a harmonically trapped superfluid Fermi gas. We use the elastohydrodynamic theory and properly account for the elastic constants, the Thomas-Fermi density profile of the atomic cloud, and the boundary conditions. Thanks to the Fermi pressure, which is responsible for larger cloud radii with respect to the case of dilute Bose-Einstein condensed gases, large vortex lattices are achievable in the unitary limit of infinite scattering length, even at relatively small angular velocities. This opens the possibility of experimentally observing vortex oscillations in the regime where the dispersion relation approaches the Tkachenko law for incompressible fluids and the mode frequency is almost comparable to the trapping frequencies.

  8. Dipolar quantum electrodynamics of the two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Yanko

    2015-03-01

    Similarly to a previous work on the homogeneous electron gas [Y. Todorov, Phys. Rev. B 89, 075115 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.075115], we apply the Power-Zienau-Wooley (PZW) formulation of the quantum electrodynamics to the case of an electron gas quantum confined by one-dimensional potential. We provide a microscopic description of all collective plasmon modes of the gas, oscillating both along and perpendicular to the direction of quantum confinement. Furthermore, we study the interaction of the collective modes with a photonic structure, planar metallic waveguide, by using the full expansion of the electromagnetic field into normal modes. We show how the boundary conditions for the electromagnetic field influence both the transverse light-matter coupling and the longitudinal particle-particle interactions. The PZW descriptions appear thus as a convenient tool to study semiconductor quantum optics in geometries where quantum-confined particles interact with strongly confined electromagnetic fields in microresonators, such as the ones used to achieve the ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime.

  9. Virial theorem and universality in a unitary fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J E; Kinast, J; Turlapov, A

    2005-09-16

    Unitary Fermi gases, where the scattering length is large compared to the interparticle spacing, can have universal properties, which are independent of the details of the interparticle interactions when the range of the scattering potential is negligible. We prepare an optically trapped, unitary Fermi gas of 6Li, tuned just above the center of a broad Feshbach resonance. In agreement with the universal hypothesis, we observe that this strongly interacting many-body system obeys the virial theorem for an ideal gas over a wide range of temperatures. Based on this result, we suggest a simple volume thermometry method for unitary gases. We also show that the observed breathing mode frequency, which is close to the unitary hydrodynamic value over a wide range of temperature, is consistent with a universal hydrodynamic gas with nearly isentropic dynamics.

  10. Virial theorem and universality in a unitary fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J E; Kinast, J; Turlapov, A

    2005-09-16

    Unitary Fermi gases, where the scattering length is large compared to the interparticle spacing, can have universal properties, which are independent of the details of the interparticle interactions when the range of the scattering potential is negligible. We prepare an optically trapped, unitary Fermi gas of 6Li, tuned just above the center of a broad Feshbach resonance. In agreement with the universal hypothesis, we observe that this strongly interacting many-body system obeys the virial theorem for an ideal gas over a wide range of temperatures. Based on this result, we suggest a simple volume thermometry method for unitary gases. We also show that the observed breathing mode frequency, which is close to the unitary hydrodynamic value over a wide range of temperature, is consistent with a universal hydrodynamic gas with nearly isentropic dynamics. PMID:16197054

  11. Correlations of a quasi-two-dimensional dipolar ultracold gas at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowski, Krzysztof; Bienias, Przemysław; Pfau, Tilman; Rzążewski, Kazimierz

    2013-04-01

    We study a quasi-two-dimensional dipolar gas at finite, but ultralow, temperatures using the classical field approximation. The method, already used for a contact interacting gas, is extended here to samples with a weakly interacting long-range interatomic potential. We present statistical properties of the system for the current experiment with chromium [Müller, Billy, Henn, Kadau, Griesmaier, Jona-Lasinio, Santos, and Pfau, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.84.053601 84, 053601 (2011)] and compare them with statistics for atoms with larger magnetic dipole moments. Significant enhancement of the third-order correlation function, relevant for the particle losses, is found.

  12. Exploring the thermodynamics of a universal Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Nascimbène, S; Navon, N; Jiang, K J; Chevy, F; Salomon, C

    2010-02-25

    One of the greatest challenges in modern physics is to understand the behaviour of an ensemble of strongly interacting particles. A class of quantum many-body systems (such as neutron star matter and cold Fermi gases) share the same universal thermodynamic properties when interactions reach the maximum effective value allowed by quantum mechanics, the so-called unitary limit. This makes it possible in principle to simulate some astrophysical phenomena inside the highly controlled environment of an atomic physics laboratory. Previous work on the thermodynamics of a two-component Fermi gas led to thermodynamic quantities averaged over the trap, making comparisons with many-body theories developed for uniform gases difficult. Here we develop a general experimental method that yields the equation of state of a uniform gas, as well as enabling a detailed comparison with existing theories. The precision of our equation of state leads to new physical insights into the unitary gas. For the unpolarized gas, we show that the low-temperature thermodynamics of the strongly interacting normal phase is well described by Fermi liquid theory, and we localize the superfluid transition. For a spin-polarized system, our equation of state at zero temperature has a 2 per cent accuracy and extends work on the phase diagram to a new regime of precision. We show in particular that, despite strong interactions, the normal phase behaves as a mixture of two ideal gases: a Fermi gas of bare majority atoms and a non-interacting gas of dressed quasi-particles, the fermionic polarons.

  13. Phase Separation in a Polarized Fermi Gas at Zero Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pilati, S.; Giorgini, S.

    2008-01-25

    We investigate the phase diagram of asymmetric two-component Fermi gases at zero temperature as a function of polarization and interaction strength. The equations of state of the uniform superfluid and normal phase are determined using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We find three different mixed states, where the superfluid and the normal phase coexist in equilibrium, corresponding to phase separation between (a) the polarized superfluid and the fully polarized normal gas, (b) the polarized superfluid and the partially polarized normal gas, and (c) the unpolarized superfluid and the partially polarized normal gas.

  14. Dipole Polarizability of a Trapped Superfluid Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Recati, A.; Carusotto, I.; Lobo, C.; Stringari, S.

    2006-11-10

    The polarization produced by the relative displacement of the potentials trapping two spin species of a dilute Fermi gas with N{sub {up_arrow}}=N{sub {down_arrow}} is calculated at unitarity by assuming phase separation between the superfluid and a polarized phase at zero temperature. Because of the energy cost associated with pair breaking, the dipole polarizability is strongly quenched and exhibits important deviations from the ideal gas behavior even for nonlinear displacements of the order of the size of the atomic cloud. The behavior in the presence of different trapping frequencies (monopole polarization) for the two spin species is also discussed. Our results suggest new experimental perspectives to explore the quantum phases of interacting Fermi gases.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of Rashba spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhen; Pu, Han; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a superfluid Fermi gas subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling and effective Zeeman field. We adopt a T -matrix scheme that takes beyond-mean-field effects, which are important for strongly interacting systems, into account. We focus on the calculation of two important quantities: the superfluid transition temperature and the isothermal compressibility. Our calculation shows very distinct influences of the out-of-plane and the in-plane Zeeman fields on the Fermi gas. We also confirm that the in-plane Zeeman field induces a Fulde-Ferrell superfluid below the critical temperature and an exotic finite-momentum pseudogap phase above the critical temperature.

  16. A Fermi gas in a homogeneous box potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Ku, Mark; Yan, Zhenjie; Patel, Parth; Guardado-Sanchez, Elmer; Yefsah, Tarik; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin; Zwierlein Group Team

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, bulk quantum gas experiments take place in inhomogeneous optical and/or magnetic traps. The properties of the homogeneous gas are in many cases masked by line-of-sight integration over the inhomogeneous sample. We report on the trapping of strongly interacting fermionic atoms (6Li) in a quasi-homogenous all-optical potential. We characterize the potential flatness through in-trap imaging, and discuss progress towards directly observing the momentum distribution of the fermions in a box, with the prospect to test predictions from Fermi liquid theory for interacting gases. In contrast to inhomogeneous traps, box potentials prepare a system in one particular point of the phase diagram, giving access to the properties of bulk matter with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This sets a new direction for the exploration of strongly interacting Fermi gases at finite temperature and in the presence of spin imbalance.

  17. The spectral problem of the ABJ Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Källén, Johan

    2015-10-01

    The partition function on the three-sphere of ABJ theory can be rewritten into a partition function of a non-interacting Fermi gas, with an accompanying one-particle Hamiltonian. We study the spectral problem defined by this Hamiltonian. We determine the exact WKB quantization condition, which involves quantities from refined topological string theory, and test it successfully against numerical calculations of the spectrum.

  18. Fermi acceleration in the randomized driven Lorentz gas and the Fermi-Ulam model.

    PubMed

    Karlis, A K; Papachristou, P K; Diakonos, F K; Constantoudis, V; Schmelcher, P

    2007-07-01

    Fermi acceleration of an ensemble of noninteracting particles evolving in a stochastic two-moving wall variant of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM) and the phase randomized harmonically driven periodic Lorentz gas is investigated. As shown in [A. K. Karlis, P. K. Papachristou, F. K. Diakonos, V. Constantoudis, and P. Schmelcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 194102 (2006)], the static wall approximation, which ignores scatterer displacement upon collision, leads to a substantial underestimation of the mean energy gain per collision. In this paper, we clarify the mechanism leading to the increased acceleration. Furthermore, the recently introduced hopping wall approximation is generalized for application in the randomized driven Lorentz gas. Utilizing the hopping approximation the asymptotic probability distribution function of the particle velocity is derived. Moreover, it is shown that, for harmonic driving, scatterer displacement upon collision increases the acceleration in both the driven Lorentz gas and the FUM by the same amount. On the other hand, the investigation of a randomized FUM, comprising one fixed and one moving wall driven by a sawtooth force function, reveals that the presence of a particular asymmetry of the driving function leads to an increase of acceleration that is different from that gained when symmetrical force functions are considered, for all finite number of collisions. This fact helps open up the prospect of designing accelerator devices by combining driving laws with specific symmetries to acquire a desired acceleration behavior for the ensemble of particles.

  19. Dynamics of nematic order in ultracold dipolar gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebling, Ulrich; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-05-01

    We study dynamcial properties of ultracold atoms with strong dipole-dipole interactions, such as rare-earth atoms like Erbium or Dysprosium. Dipole-dipole interactions are anisotropic and can lead to the appearance of two types of nematic order in such quantum gases. Orbital nematic order is related to spatial anisotropies such as the deformation of a Fermi surface of an ultracold dipolar Fermi gas. Spin nematic order is present only in systems with spin larger than 1/2 as a higher moment of the spin operators. We study the case of a not fully polarized dipolar gas, such that the intrinsic coupling of spin and orbital degrees of freedom can lead to an interplay between orbital and spin nematic order. We investigate how this interplay can lead to a transfer between orbital and spin nematicity, similar to the transfer of spin into orbital angular momentum predicted for dipolar gases.

  20. No evidence of gas-liquid coexistence in dipolar hard spheres.

    PubMed

    Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Russo, John; Sciortino, Francesco

    2011-12-01

    We report accurate calculations of the particle density of states in the dipolar hard-sphere fluid. Implementing efficient and tailored Monte Carlo algorithms, we are able to explore, in equilibrium, the low temperature region where a phase separation between a dilute gas of chain ends and a high-density liquid of chain junctions has been predicted to occur. Our data clearly show that the density of states remains always single peaked, definitively excluding the possibility of critical phenomena in the investigated temperature and density region. The analysis of the low temperature configurations shows that at low densities particles preferentially self-assemble into closed rings, strongly suppressing the chain ends concentration.

  1. Laser cooling of a trapped two-component Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Idziaszek, Z.; Santos, L.; Lewenstein, M.; Baranov, M.

    2003-04-01

    We study the collective Raman cooling of a trapped two-component Fermi gas using quantum master equation in the festina lente regime, where the heating due to photon reabsorption can be neglected. The Monte Carlo simulations show that three-dimensional temperatures of the order of 0.008T{sub F} can be achieved. We analyze the heating related to background losses, and show that our laser-cooling scheme can maintain the temperature of the gas without significant additional losses.

  2. Observation of a strongly interacting degenerate Fermi gas of atoms.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, K M; Hemmer, S L; Gehm, M E; Granade, S R; Thomas, J E

    2002-12-13

    We report on the observation of a highly degenerate, strongly interacting Fermi gas of atoms. Fermionic lithium-6 atoms in an optical trap are evaporatively cooled to degeneracy using a magnetic field to induce strong, resonant interactions. Upon abruptly releasing the cloud from the trap, the gas is observed to expand rapidly in the transverse direction while remaining nearly stationary in the axial direction. We interpret the expansion dynamics in terms of collisionless superfluid and collisional hydrodynamics. For the data taken at the longest evaporation times, we find that collisional hydrodynamics does not provide a satisfactory explanation, whereas superfluidity is plausible.

  3. Energy fluctuations of a finite free-electron Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Pekola, Jukka P; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Kupiainen, Antti; Galperin, Yuri M

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the energy distribution of free-electron Fermi-gas, a problem with a textbook solution of Gaussian energy fluctuations in the limit of a large system. We find that for a small system, characterized solely by its heat capacity C, the distribution can be solved analytically, and it is both skewed and it vanishes at low energies, exhibiting a sharp drop to zero at the energy corresponding to the filled Fermi sea. The results are relevant from the experimental point of view, since the predicted non-Gaussian effects become pronounced when C/k_{B}≲10^{3} (k_{B} is the Boltzmann constant), a regime that can be easily achieved for instance in mesoscopic metallic conductors at sub-kelvin temperatures.

  4. Energy fluctuations of a finite free-electron Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekola, Jukka P.; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Kupiainen, Antti; Galperin, Yuri M.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the energy distribution of free-electron Fermi-gas, a problem with a textbook solution of Gaussian energy fluctuations in the limit of a large system. We find that for a small system, characterized solely by its heat capacity C , the distribution can be solved analytically, and it is both skewed and it vanishes at low energies, exhibiting a sharp drop to zero at the energy corresponding to the filled Fermi sea. The results are relevant from the experimental point of view, since the predicted non-Gaussian effects become pronounced when C /kB≲103 (kB is the Boltzmann constant), a regime that can be easily achieved for instance in mesoscopic metallic conductors at sub-kelvin temperatures.

  5. Energy fluctuations of a finite free-electron Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Pekola, Jukka P; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Kupiainen, Antti; Galperin, Yuri M

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the energy distribution of free-electron Fermi-gas, a problem with a textbook solution of Gaussian energy fluctuations in the limit of a large system. We find that for a small system, characterized solely by its heat capacity C, the distribution can be solved analytically, and it is both skewed and it vanishes at low energies, exhibiting a sharp drop to zero at the energy corresponding to the filled Fermi sea. The results are relevant from the experimental point of view, since the predicted non-Gaussian effects become pronounced when C/k_{B}≲10^{3} (k_{B} is the Boltzmann constant), a regime that can be easily achieved for instance in mesoscopic metallic conductors at sub-kelvin temperatures. PMID:27627262

  6. Observation of Anomalous Spin Segregation in a Trapped Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Du, X.; Luo, L.; Clancy, B.; Thomas, J. E.

    2008-10-10

    We report the observation of spin segregation, i.e., time-dependent separation of the spin density profiles of two spin states, in a trapped, coherently prepared Fermi gas of {sup 6}Li with a magnetically tunable scattering length a{sub 12} close to zero. For |a{sub 12}|{approx_equal}5 bohr, as the cloud profiles evolve, the measured difference in the densities at the cloud center increases in 200 ms from 0 to {approx_equal}60% of the initial mean density and changes sign with a{sub 12}. The data are in disagreement in both amplitude and temporal evolution with a spin-wave theory for a Fermi gas. In contrast, for a Bose gas, an analogous theory has successfully described previous observations of spin segregation. The observed segregated atomic density profiles are far from equilibrium, yet they persist for {approx_equal}5 s, long compared to the axial trapping period of 6.9 ms. We find the zero crossing in a{sub 12}=0, where spin segregation ceases, at 527.5{+-}0.2 G.

  7. Controlling Spin Current in a Trapped Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Du, X.; Zhang, Y.; Petricka, J.; Thomas, J. E.

    2009-07-03

    We study fundamental features of spin current in a very weakly interacting Fermi gas of {sup 6}Li. By creating a spin current and then reversing its flow, we demonstrate control of the spin current. This reversal is predicted by a spin vector evolution equation in energy representation, which shows how the spin and energy of individual atoms become correlated in the nearly undamped regime of the experiments. The theory provides a simple physical description of the spin current and explains both the large amplitude and the slow temporal evolution of the data. Our results have applications in studying and controlling fundamental spin interactions and spin currents in ultracold gases.

  8. Observation of Shock Waves in a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, J. A.; Thomas, J. E.; Kulkarni, M.; Abanov, A. G.

    2011-04-15

    We study collisions between two strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas clouds. We observe exotic nonlinear hydrodynamic behavior, distinguished by the formation of a very sharp and stable density peak as the clouds collide and subsequent evolution into a boxlike shape. We model the nonlinear dynamics of these collisions by using quasi-1D hydrodynamic equations. Our simulations of the time-dependent density profiles agree very well with the data and provide clear evidence of shock wave formation in this universal quantum hydrodynamic system.

  9. Observation of shock waves in a strongly interacting Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J A; Thomas, J E; Kulkarni, M; Abanov, A G

    2011-04-15

    We study collisions between two strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas clouds. We observe exotic nonlinear hydrodynamic behavior, distinguished by the formation of a very sharp and stable density peak as the clouds collide and subsequent evolution into a boxlike shape. We model the nonlinear dynamics of these collisions by using quasi-1D hydrodynamic equations. Our simulations of the time-dependent density profiles agree very well with the data and provide clear evidence of shock wave formation in this universal quantum hydrodynamic system.

  10. Virial Expansion for a Strongly Correlated Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui

    2011-03-01

    Few-body physics can give considerable insight into the challenging many-body problem. A concrete example is the exact Tan relations linking the ``hard'' (few-body) physics at short distance, large-momentum and high frequency to the ``soft'' physics of the equation of state via a contact parameter. This has been demonstrated clearly using the operator product expansion (OPE) method which separates in a natural way few-body from many-body physics. In this talk, we present another example: the quantum virial expansion that bridges few-body and many-body physics. At large temperatures, the properties of a strongly correlated Fermi gas, either static or dynamic, can be expanded in terms of virial coefficients or expansion functions, calculable from the few-fermion solutions. For the equation of state in the resonant unitarity limit, we obtain for the first time an accurate third order virial coefficient. This has been experimentally verified in a measurement at ENS (Paris). For the single-particle spectral function, we demonstrate that an expansion up to second order is able to explain the main features of momentum-resolved RF spectroscopy in a resonantly interacting Fermi gas, as recently reported by JILA. We also obtain a virial expansion of the dynamic structure function, as measured at Swinburne University (Melbourne), and check that the second order expansion functions give the correct OPE coefficients in the limit of large momentum and frequency. The important feature of this expansion is the existence of a small parameter, the fugacity, even for strong interactions. In the future, we anticipate that higher-order virial expansions of dynamic properties such as the single-particle spectral function may provide useful insights into clarifying the debate on the pseudo-gap issue in resonantly interacting Fermi gases.

  11. Finite-temperature vortices in a rotating Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimin, S. N.; Tempere, J.; Verhelst, N.; Milošević, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Vortices and vortex arrays have been used as a hallmark of superfluidity in rotated, ultracold Fermi gases. These superfluids can be described in terms of an effective field theory for a macroscopic wave function representing the field of condensed pairs, analogous to the Ginzburg-Landau theory for superconductors. Here we establish how rotation modifies this effective field theory, by rederiving it starting from the action of Fermi gas in the rotating frame of reference. The rotation leads to the appearance of an effective vector potential, and the coupling strength of this vector potential to the macroscopic wave function depends on the interaction strength between the fermions, due to a renormalization of the pair effective mass in the effective field theory. The mass renormalization derived here is in agreement with results of functional renormalization-group theory. In the extreme Bose-Einstein condensate regime, the pair effective mass tends to twice the fermion mass, in agreement with the physical picture of a weakly interacting Bose gas of molecular pairs. Then we use our macroscopic-wave-function description to study vortices and the critical rotation frequencies to form them. Equilibrium vortex state diagrams are derived and they are in good agreement with available results of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory and with experimental data.

  12. Destroying Superfluidity by Rotating a Fermi Gas at Unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Bausmerth, I.; Recati, A.; Stringari, S.

    2008-02-22

    We study the effect of the rotation on a harmonically trapped Fermi gas at zero temperature under the assumption that vortices are not formed. We show that at unitarity the rotation produces a phase separation between a nonrotating superfluid (S) core and a rigidly rotating normal (N) gas. The interface between the two phases is characterized by a density discontinuity n{sub N}/n{sub S}=0.85, independent of the angular velocity. The depletion of the superfluid and the angular momentum of the rotating configuration are calculated as a function of the angular velocity. The conditions of stability are also discussed and the critical angular velocity for the onset of a spontaneous quadrupole deformation of the interface is evaluated.

  13. Progress towards a rapidly rotating ultracold Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Guang; van de Graaff, Michael; Cornell, Eric; Jin, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    We are designing an experiment with the goal of creating a rapidly rotating ultracold Fermi gas, which is promising system in which to study quantum Hall physics. We propose to use selective evaporation of a gas that has been initialized with a modest rotation rate to increase the angular momentum per particle in order to reach rapid rotation. We have performed simulations of this evaporation process for a model optical trap potential. Achieving rapid rotation will require a very smooth, very harmonic, and dynamically variable optical trap. We plan to use a setup consisting of two acousto-optical modulators to ``paint'' an optical dipole trapping potential that can be made smooth, radially symmetric, and harmonic. This project is supported by NSF, NIST, NASA.

  14. Rotating a Rashba-coupled Fermi gas in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doko, E.; Subaşı, A. L.; Iskin, M.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the interplay of adiabatic rotation and Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the BCS-BEC evolution of a harmonically trapped Fermi gas in two dimensions under the assumption that vortices are not excited. First, by taking the trapping potential into account via both the semiclassical and exact quantum-mechanical approaches, we firmly establish the parameter regime where the noninteracting gas forms a ring-shaped annulus. Then, by taking the interactions into account via the BCS mean-field approximation, we study the pair-breaking mechanism that is induced by rotation, i.e., the Coriolis effects. In particular, we show that the interplay allows for the possibility of creating either an isolated annulus of rigidly rotating normal particles that is disconnected from the central core of nonrotating superfluid pairs or an intermediate mediator phase where the superfluid pairs and normal particles coexist as a partially rotating gapless superfluid.

  15. High-density limit of quasi-two-dimensional dipolar Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastukhov, Volodymyr

    2016-09-01

    We consider a simple model of the quasi-two-dimensional dipolar Bose gas confined in the one-dimensional square well potential. All dipoles are assumed to be oriented along the confining axis. By means of hydrodynamic approach it is shown that the general structure of the low-lying excitations can be analyzed exactly. We demonstrate that the problem significantly simplifies in the high-density limit for which the density profile in the confined direction as well as the leading-order contribution to the ground-state energy and spectrum of elementary excitations are calculated. The low-temperature result for the damping rate of the phonon mode is also presented.

  16. Manifestly Hermitian semiclassical expansion for the one-particle density matrix of a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencheikh, K.; van Zyl, B. P.; Berkane, K.

    2016-08-01

    The semiclassical ℏ expansion of the one-particle density matrix for a two-dimensional Fermi gas is calculated within the Wigner transform method of B. Grammaticos and A. Voros [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 123, 359 (1979), 10.1016/0003-4916(79)90343-9], originally developed in the context of nuclear physics. The method of Grammaticos and Voros has the virtue of preserving both the Hermiticity and idempotency of the density matrix to all orders in the ℏ expansion. As a topical application, we use our semiclassical expansion to go beyond the local-density approximation for the construction of the total dipole-dipole interaction energy functional of a two-dimensional, spin-polarized dipolar Fermi gas. We find a finite, second-order gradient correction to the Hartree-Fock energy, which takes the form ɛ (∇ρ ) 2/√{ρ } , with ɛ being small (|ɛ |≪1 ) and negative. We test the quality of the corrected energy by comparing it with the exact results available for harmonic confinement. Even for small particle numbers, the gradient correction to the dipole-dipole energy provides a significant improvement over the local-density approximation.

  17. Normal State of a Polarized Fermi Gas at Unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, C.; Recati, A.; Giorgini, S.; Stringari, S.

    2006-11-17

    We study the Fermi gas at unitarity and at T=0 by assuming that, at high polarizations, it is a normal Fermi liquid composed of weakly interacting quasiparticles associated with the minority spin atoms. With a quantum Monte Carlo approach we calculate their effective mass and binding energy, as well as the full equation of state of the normal phase as a function of the concentration x=n{sub {down_arrow}}/n{sub {up_arrow}} of minority atoms. We predict a first order phase transition from normal to superfluid at x{sub c}=0.44 corresponding, in the presence of harmonic trapping, to a critical polarization P{sub c}=(N{sub {up_arrow}}-N{sub {down_arrow}})/(N{sub {up_arrow}}+N{sub {down_arrow}})=77%. We calculate the radii and the density profiles in the trap and predict that the frequency of the spin dipole mode will be increased by a factor of 1.23 due to interactions.

  18. Simulating strongly correlated electrons with a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John E.

    2013-05-28

    The quantum many-body physics of strongly-correlated fermions is studied in a degenerate, strongly- interacting atomic Fermi gas, first realized by our group with DOE support in 2002. This system, which exhibits strong spin pairing, is now widely studied and provides an important paradigm for testing predictions based on state-of-the-art many-body theory in fields ranging from nuclear matter to high temperature superfluidity and superconductivity. As the system is strongly interacting, both the superfluid and the normal fluid are nontrivial and of great interest. A central part of our program on Fermi gases is the connection between the study of thermodynamics, supported by DOE and the study of hydrodynamic transport, supported by NSF. This connection is especially interesting in view of a recent conjecture from the string theory community on the concept of nearly perfect normal fluids, which exhibit a minimum ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in strongly-interacting, scale-invariant systems.

  19. Low-lying excitations in a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Christopher; Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of the low-lying excitation spectrum of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover using Bragg spectroscopy. By focussing the Bragg lasers onto the central volume of the cloud we can probe atoms at near-uniform density allowing measurement of the homogeneous density-density response function. The Bragg wavevector is set to be approximately half of the Fermi wavevector to probe the collective response. Below the superfluid transition temperature the Bragg spectra dominated by the Bogoliubov-Anderson phonon mode. Single particle excitations become visible at energies greater than twice the pairing gap. As interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regime the phonon and single particle modes separate apart and both the pairing gap and speed of sound can be directly read off in certain regions of the crossover. Single particle pair-breaking excitations become heavily suppressed as interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regimes.

  20. Universal quantum viscosity in a unitary Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Cao, C; Elliott, E; Joseph, J; Wu, H; Petricka, J; Schäfer, T; Thomas, J E

    2011-01-01

    A Fermi gas of atoms with resonant interactions is predicted to obey universal hydrodynamics, in which the shear viscosity and other transport coefficients are universal functions of the density and temperature. At low temperatures, the viscosity has a universal quantum scale ħ n, where n is the density and ħ is Planck's constant h divided by 2π, whereas at high temperatures the natural scale is p(T)(3)/ħ(2), where p(T) is the thermal momentum. We used breathing mode damping to measure the shear viscosity at low temperature. At high temperature T, we used anisotropic expansion of the cloud to find the viscosity, which exhibits precise T(3/2) scaling. In both experiments, universal hydrodynamic equations including friction and heating were used to extract the viscosity. We estimate the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density and compare it with that of a perfect fluid. PMID:21148347

  1. Contact interaction in an unitary ultracold Fermi gas

    DOE PAGES

    Pessoa, Renato; Gandolfi, Stefano; Vitiello, S. A.; Schmidt, Kevin E.

    2015-12-16

    An ultracold Fermi atomic gas at unitarity presents universal properties that in the dilute limit can be well described by a contact interaction. By employing a guiding function with correct boundary conditions and making simple modifications to the sampling procedure we are able to calculate the properties of a true contact interaction with the diffusion Monte Carlo method. The results are obtained with small variances. Our calculations for the Bertsch and contact parameters are in excellent agreement with published experiments. The possibility of using a more faithful description of ultracold atomic gases can help uncover additional features of ultracold atomicmore » gases. In addition, this work paves the way to perform quantum Monte Carlo calculations for other systems interacting with contact interactions, where the description using potentials with finite effective range might not be accurate.« less

  2. Contact interaction in an unitary ultracold Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pessoa, Renato; Gandolfi, Stefano; Vitiello, S. A.; Schmidt, Kevin E.

    2015-12-16

    An ultracold Fermi atomic gas at unitarity presents universal properties that in the dilute limit can be well described by a contact interaction. By employing a guiding function with correct boundary conditions and making simple modifications to the sampling procedure we are able to calculate the properties of a true contact interaction with the diffusion Monte Carlo method. The results are obtained with small variances. Our calculations for the Bertsch and contact parameters are in excellent agreement with published experiments. The possibility of using a more faithful description of ultracold atomic gases can help uncover additional features of ultracold atomic gases. In addition, this work paves the way to perform quantum Monte Carlo calculations for other systems interacting with contact interactions, where the description using potentials with finite effective range might not be accurate.

  3. Universal quantum viscosity in a unitary Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Cao, C; Elliott, E; Joseph, J; Wu, H; Petricka, J; Schäfer, T; Thomas, J E

    2011-01-01

    A Fermi gas of atoms with resonant interactions is predicted to obey universal hydrodynamics, in which the shear viscosity and other transport coefficients are universal functions of the density and temperature. At low temperatures, the viscosity has a universal quantum scale ħ n, where n is the density and ħ is Planck's constant h divided by 2π, whereas at high temperatures the natural scale is p(T)(3)/ħ(2), where p(T) is the thermal momentum. We used breathing mode damping to measure the shear viscosity at low temperature. At high temperature T, we used anisotropic expansion of the cloud to find the viscosity, which exhibits precise T(3/2) scaling. In both experiments, universal hydrodynamic equations including friction and heating were used to extract the viscosity. We estimate the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density and compare it with that of a perfect fluid.

  4. Realization of a Strongly Interacting Bose-Fermi Mixture from a Two-Component Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shin Yongil; Schirotzek, Andre; Schunck, Christian H.; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2008-08-15

    We show the emergence of a strongly interacting Bose-Fermi mixture from a two-component Fermi mixture with population imbalance. By analyzing in situ density profiles of {sup 6}Li atoms in the BCS-BEC crossover regime, we identify a critical interaction strength, beyond which all minority atoms pair up with majority atoms and form a Bose condensate. This is the regime where the system can be effectively described as a boson-fermion mixture. We determine the dimer-fermion and dimer-dimer scattering lengths and beyond-mean-field contributions. Our study realizes a gedanken experiment of bosons immersed in a Fermi sea of one of their constituents, revealing the composite nature of the bosons.

  5. Collisional Properties of a Polarized Fermi Gas with Resonant Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruun, G. M.; Recati, A.; Stringari, S.; Pethick, C. J.; Smith, H.

    2008-06-20

    Highly polarized mixtures of atomic Fermi gases constitute a novel Fermi liquid. We demonstrate how information on thermodynamic properties may be used to calculate quasiparticle scattering amplitudes even when the interaction is resonant and apply the results to evaluate the damping of the spin dipole mode. We estimate that under current experimental conditions the mode would be intermediate between the hydrodynamic and collisionless limits.

  6. Exploring Few- and Many-Body Dipolar Quantum Phenomena with Ultracold Erbium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferlaino, Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Given their strong magnetic moment and exotic electronic configuration, rare-earth atoms disclose a plethora of intriguing phenomena in ultracold quantum physics with dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we report on the first degenerate Fermi gas of erbium atoms, based on direct cooling of identical fermions via dipolar collisions. We reveal universal scattering laws between identical dipolar fermions close to zero temperature, and we demonstrate the long-standing prediction of a deformed Fermi surface in dipolar gas. Finally, we present the first experimental study of an extended Bose-Hubbard model using bosonic Er atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice and we report on the first observation of nearest-neighbor interactions.

  7. Superfluid transition in a rotating fermi gas with resonant interactions.

    PubMed

    Veillette, Martin Y; Sheehy, Daniel E; Radzihovsky, Leo; Gurarie, Victor

    2006-12-22

    We study a rotating atomic Fermi gas near a narrow s-wave Feshbach resonance in a uniaxial trap with frequencies Omega perpendicular, Omega z. We predict the upper-critical angular velocity, omega c2(delta,T), as a function of temperature T and detuning delta across the BEC-BCS crossover. The suppression of superfluidity at omega c2 is distinct in the BCS and BEC regimes, with the former controlled by depairing and the latter by the dilution of bosonic molecules. At low T and Omega z < Omega perpendicular, in the BCS and crossover regimes of 0 less similar delta less similar delta c, omega c2 is implicitly given by [formula: see text], vanishing as omega c2 approximately Omega perpendicular(1 - delta/delta c)(1/2) near [formula: see text] (with Delta the BCS gap and gamma the resonance width), and extending the bulk result variant Planck's over 2pi omega c2 approximately 2Delta2/epsilonF to a trap. In the BEC regime of delta < 0 we find omega c2-->Omega perpendicular-, where molecular superfluidity is destroyed only by large quantum fluctuations associated with comparable boson and vortex densities. PMID:17280330

  8. Superfluid Transition in a Rotating Fermi Gas with Resonant Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillette, Martin Y.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo; Gurarie, Victor

    2006-12-01

    We study a rotating atomic Fermi gas near a narrow s-wave Feshbach resonance in a uniaxial trap with frequencies Ω⊥, Ωz. We predict the upper-critical angular velocity, ωc2(δ,T), as a function of temperature T and detuning δ across the BEC-BCS crossover. The suppression of superfluidity at ωc2 is distinct in the BCS and BEC regimes, with the former controlled by depairing and the latter by the dilution of bosonic molecules. At low T and Ωz≪Ω⊥, in the BCS and crossover regimes of 0≲δ≲δc, ωc2 is implicitly given by ℏωc22+Ω⊥2≈2ΔℏΩ⊥/γF, vanishing as ωc2˜Ω⊥(1-δ/δc)1/2 near δc≈2γF+(γ)/(2)γFln⁡(γF/ℏΩ⊥) (with Δ the BCS gap and γ the resonance width), and extending the bulk result ℏωc2≈2Δ2/γF to a trap. In the BEC regime of δ<0 we find ωc2→Ω⊥-, where molecular superfluidity is destroyed only by large quantum fluctuations associated with comparable boson and vortex densities.

  9. Exciting Quantized Vortex Rings in a Superfluid Unitary Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgac, Aurel

    2014-03-01

    In a recent article, Yefsah et al., Nature 499, 426 (2013) report the observation of an unusual quantum excitation mode in an elongated harmonically trapped unitary Fermi gas. After phase imprinting a domain wall, they observe collective oscillations of the superfluid atomic cloud with a period almost an order of magnitude larger than that predicted by any theory of domain walls, which they interpret as a possible new quantum phenomenon dubbed ``a heavy soliton'' with an inertial mass some 50 times larger than one expected for a domain wall. We present compelling evidence that this ``heavy soliton'' is instead a quantized vortex ring by showing that the main aspects of the experiment can be naturally explained within an extension of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to superfluid systems. The numerical simulations required the solution of some 260,000 nonlinear coupled time-dependent 3-dimensional partial differential equations and was implemented on 2048 GPUs on the Cray XK7 supercomputer Titan of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility.

  10. Dynamics of shock waves in a superfluid unitary Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Wen; Shui, Tiankun; Shan, Yafei; Zhu, Changping

    2015-09-01

    We study the formation and dynamics of shock waves initiated by a repulsive potential in a superfluid unitary Fermi gas by using the order-parameter equation. In the theoretical framework, the regularization process of shock waves mediated by the quantum pressure term is purely dispersive. Our results show good agreement with the experiment of Joseph et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 150401). We reveal that the boxlike-shaped density peak observed in the experiment consists of many vortex rings due to the transverse instability of the dispersive shock wave. In addition, we study the transition from a sound wave to subsonic shock waves as the strength of the repulsive potential increases and show a strong qualitative change in the propagation speed of the wavefronts. For a relatively small strength of the repulsive potential, the propagation speed decreases below the sound speed with the increase of the strength as a scaling behavior. For a large strength where the shock waves are formed by colliding two spatially separated clouds, the speed is still smaller than the sound speed, but remains almost unchanged as the strength increases, which can be interpreted as the same expansion speed of the proliferation of the vortex rings originated from the transverse instability.

  11. Viscosity and scale invariance in the unitary Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Enss, Tilman; Haussmann, Rudolf; Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2011-03-15

    We compute the shear viscosity of the unitary Fermi gas above the superfluid transition temperature, using a diagrammatic technique that starts from the exact Kubo formula. The formalism obeys a Ward identity associated with scale invariance which guarantees that the bulk viscosity vanishes identically. For the shear viscosity, vertex corrections and the associated Aslamazov-Larkin contributions are shown to be crucial to reproduce the full Boltzmann equation result in the high-temperature, low fugacity limit. The frequency dependent shear viscosity {eta}({omega}) exhibits a Drude-like transport peak and a power-law tail at large frequencies which is proportional to the Tan contact. The weight in the transport peak is given by the equilibrium pressure, in agreement with a sum rule due to Taylor and Randeria. Near the superfluid transition the peak width is of the order of 0.5T{sub F}, thus invalidating a quasiparticle description. The ratio {eta}/s between the static shear viscosity and the entropy density exhibits a minimum near the superfluid transition temperature whose value is larger than the string theory bound h/(4{pi}k{sub B}) by a factor of about seven.

  12. Spin Susceptibility and Effects of Inhomogeneous Strong Pairing Fluctuations in a Trapped Ultracold Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, H.; Hanai, R.; Ohashi, Y.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate magnetic properties of a unitary Fermi gas in a harmonic trap. Including strong pairing fluctuations within the framework of an extended T-matrix approximation, as well as effects of a trap potential within the local density approximation, we calculate the local spin susceptibility χ (T,r) above the superfluid phase transition temperature T_c. We show that the formation of preformed singlet Cooper pairs anomalously suppresses χ (T,r) in the trap center near T_c. We also point out that, in the unitarity limit, the spin-gap temperature in a uniform Fermi gas can be evaluated from the observation of the spatial variation of χ (T,r). Since a real ultracold Fermi gas is always in a trap potential, our results would be useful for the study of how this spatial inhomogeneity affects thermodynamic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region.

  13. Universal spin transport in a strongly interacting Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ariel; Ku, Mark; Roati, Giacomo; Zwierlein, Martin W

    2011-04-14

    Transport of fermions, particles with half-integer spin, is central to many fields of physics. Electron transport runs modern technology, defining states of matter such as superconductors and insulators, and electron spin is being explored as a new carrier of information. Neutrino transport energizes supernova explosions following the collapse of a dying star, and hydrodynamic transport of the quark-gluon plasma governed the expansion of the early Universe. However, our understanding of non-equilibrium dynamics in such strongly interacting fermionic matter is still limited. Ultracold gases of fermionic atoms realize a pristine model for such systems and can be studied in real time with the precision of atomic physics. Even above the superfluid transition, such gases flow as an almost perfect fluid with very low viscosity when interactions are tuned to a scattering resonance. In this hydrodynamic regime, collective density excitations are weakly damped. Here we experimentally investigate spin excitations in a Fermi gas of (6)Li atoms, finding that, in contrast, they are maximally damped. A spin current is induced by spatially separating two spin components and observing their evolution in an external trapping potential. We demonstrate that interactions can be strong enough to reverse spin currents, with components of opposite spin reflecting off each other. Near equilibrium, we obtain the spin drag coefficient, the spin diffusivity and the spin susceptibility as a function of temperature on resonance and show that they obey universal laws at high temperatures. In the degenerate regime, the spin diffusivity approaches a value set by [planck]/m, the quantum limit of diffusion, where [planck]/m is Planck's constant divided by 2π and m the atomic mass. For repulsive interactions, our measurements seem to exclude a metastable ferromagnetic state.

  14. Virial expansion for a strongly correlated Fermi gas with imbalanced spin populations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaji; Hu Hui

    2010-10-15

    Quantum virial expansion provides an ideal tool to investigate the high-temperature properties of a strongly correlated Fermi gas. Here, we construct the virial expansion in the presence of spin-population imbalance. Up to the third order, we calculate the high-temperature free energy of a unitary Fermi gas as a function of spin imbalance, with infinitely large attractive or repulsive interactions. In the latter repulsive case, we show that there is no itinerant ferromagnetism when quantum virial expansion is applicable. We therefore estimate an upper bound for the ferromagnetic transition temperature T{sub c}. For a harmonically trapped Fermi gas at unitarity, we find that (T{sub c}){sub upper}Fermi temperature at the center of the trap. Our result for the high-temperature equations of state may confront future high-precision thermodynamic measurements.

  15. Radio-frequency spectroscopy of a strongly imbalanced Feshbach-resonant Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillette, Martin; Moon, Eun Gook; Lamacraft, Austen; Radzihovsky, Leo; Sachdev, Subir; Sheehy, D. E.

    2008-09-01

    A sufficiently large species imbalance (polarization) in a two-component Feshbach resonant Fermi gas is known to drive the system into its normal state. We show that the resulting strongly interacting state is a conventional Fermi liquid, that is, however, strongly renormalized by pairing fluctuations. Using a controlled 1/N expansion, we calculate the properties of this state with a particular emphasis on the atomic spectral function, the momentum distribution functions displaying the Migdal discontinuity, and the radio frequency (rf) spectrum. We discuss the latter in the light of the recent experiments of [Schunck , Science 316, 867 (2007)] on such a resonant Fermi gas, and show that the observations are consistent with a conventional, but strongly renormalized Fermi-liquid picture.

  16. Evaporative depolarization and spin transport in a unitary trapped Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Meera M.; Huse, David A.

    2009-12-15

    We consider a partially spin-polarized atomic Fermi gas in a high-aspect-ratio trap, with a flux of predominantly spin-up atoms exiting the center of the trap. We argue that such a scenario can be produced by evaporative cooling, and we find that it can result in a substantially nonequilibrium polarization pattern for typical experimental parameters. We offer this as a possible explanation for the quantitative discrepancies in recent experiments on spin-imbalanced unitary Fermi gases.

  17. The role of causality in tunable Fermi gas condensates.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Lin, Chi-Yong; Lee, Da-Shin; Rivers, Ray J

    2013-10-01

    We develop a new formalism for the description of the condensates of cold Fermi atoms whose speed of sound can be tuned with the aid of a narrow Feshbach resonance. We use this to look for spontaneous phonon creation that mimics spontaneous particle creation in curved space-time in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and other model universes. PMID:24025481

  18. Crossover from 2D to 3D in a Weakly Interacting Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Dyke, P.; Kuhnle, E. D.; Hu, H.; Mark, M.; Hoinka, S.; Lingham, M.; Hannaford, P.; Vale, C. J.; Whitlock, S.

    2011-03-11

    We have studied the transition from two to three dimensions in a low temperature weakly interacting {sup 6}Li Fermi gas. Below a critical atom number N{sub 2D} only the lowest transverse vibrational state of a highly anisotropic oblate trapping potential is occupied and the gas is two dimensional. Above N{sub 2D} the Fermi gas enters the quasi-2D regime where shell structure associated with the filling of individual transverse oscillator states is apparent. This dimensional crossover is demonstrated through measurements of the cloud size and aspect ratio versus atom number.

  19. Scale invariance and viscosity of a two-dimensional Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Enrico; Feld, Michael; Fröhlich, Bernd; Pertot, Daniel; Koschorreck, Marco; Köhl, Michael

    2012-02-17

    We investigate collective excitations of a harmonically trapped two-dimensional Fermi gas from the collisionless (zero sound) to the hydrodynamic (first sound) regime. The breathing mode, which is sensitive to the equation of state, is observed with an undamped amplitude at a frequency 2 times the dipole mode frequency for a large range of interaction strengths and different temperatures. This provides evidence for a dynamical SO(2,1) scaling symmetry of the two-dimensional Fermi gas. Moreover, we investigate the quadrupole mode to measure the shear viscosity of the two-dimensional gas and study its temperature dependence.

  20. Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei

    2016-07-01

    We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup.

  1. Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei

    2016-07-15

    We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup. PMID:27472121

  2. Natural orbits of atomic Cooper pairs in a nonuniform Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pong, Y. H.; Law, C. K.

    2006-07-15

    We examine the basic mode structure of atomic Cooper pairs in an inhomogeneous Fermi gas. Based on the properties of Bogoliubov quasiparticle vacuum, the single particle density matrix and the anomalous density matrix share the same set of eigenfunctions. These eigenfunctions correspond to natural pairing orbits associated with the BCS ground state. We investigate these orbits for a Fermi gas in a spherical harmonic trap and construct the wave function of a Cooper pair in the form of Schmidt decomposition. The issue of spatial quantum entanglement between constituent atoms in a pair is addressed.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a strongly interacting two-dimensional Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jasmine; Mendoza, Miller; Young, Ryan E.; Romatschke, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present fully nonlinear dissipative fluid dynamics simulations of a strongly interacting trapped two-dimensional Fermi gas using a lattice Boltzmann algorithm. We are able to simulate nonharmonic trapping potentials, temperature-dependent viscosities, as well as a discretized version of the ballistic (noninteracting) behavior. Our approach lends itself to direct comparison with experimental data, opening up the possibility of a precision determination of transport coefficients in the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Furthermore, we predict the presence of a strongly damped ("nonhydrodynamic") component in the quadrupole mode, which should be observable experimentally.

  4. Condensate fraction of a two-dimensional attractive Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Salasnich, Luca

    2007-07-15

    We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of fermionic pairs in a two-dimensional uniform two-component Fermi superfluid obtaining an explicit formula for the condensate density as a function of the chemical potential and the energy gap. By using the mean-field extended Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, we analyze, as a function of the bound-state energy, the off-diagonal long-range order in the crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer state of weakly bound Cooper pairs to the Bose-Einstein condensate of strongly-bound molecular dimers.

  5. Comparison between theory and experiment for universal thermodynamics of a homogeneous, strongly correlated Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D.

    2011-06-15

    We compare the theoretical predictions for universal thermodynamics of a homogeneous, strongly correlated Fermi gas with the latest experimental measurements reported by the ENS group [S. Nascimbene et al., Nature (London) 463, 1057 (2010)] and the Tokyo group [M. Horikoshi et al., Science 327, 442 (2010)]. The theoretical results are obtained using two diagrammatic theories, together with a virial expansion theory combined with a Pade approximation. We find good agreement between theory and experiment. In particular, the virial expansion, using a Pade approximation up to third order, describes the experimental results extremely well down to the superfluid transition temperature, T{sub c{approx}}0.16T{sub F}, where T{sub F} is the Fermi temperature. The comparison in this work complements our previous comparative study on the universal thermodynamics of a strongly correlated but trapped Fermi gas. The comparison also raises interesting issues about the unitary entropy and the applicability of the Pade approximation.

  6. Creation of a strongly dipolar gas of ultracold ground-state 23 Na87 Rb molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Wang, Dajun; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    We report on successful creation of an ultracold sample of ground-state 23 Na87 Rb molecules with a large effective electric dipole moment. Through a carefully designed two-photon Raman process, we have successfully transferred the magneto-associated Feshbach molecules to the singlet ground state with high efficiency, obtaining up to 8000 23 Na87 Rb molecules with peak number density over 1011 cm-3 in their absolute ground-state level. With an external electric field, we have induced an effective dipole moment over 1 Debye, making 23 Na87 Rb the most dipolar ultracold particle ever achieved. Contrary to the expectation, we observed a rather fast population loss even for 23 Na87 Rb in the absolute ground state with the bi-molecular exchange reaction energetically forbidden. The origin for the short lifetime and possible ways of mitigating it are currently under investigation. Our achievements pave the way toward investigation of ultracold bosonic molecules with strong dipolar interactions. This work is supported by the Hong Kong RGC CUHK404712 and the ANR/RGC Joint Research Scheme ACUHK403/13.

  7. Comment on "Pairing and phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas".

    PubMed

    Zwierlein, Martin W; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2006-10-01

    Partridge et al. (Reports, 27 January 2006, p. 503) reported pairing and phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas. We argue that it is not possible to distinguish the superfluid from the normal regimes in the presented data, or to discern which clouds were phase-separated. Some of the reported conclusions are inconsistent with recent experiments.

  8. Strong Coupling Effects on the Specific Heat of an Ultracold Fermi Gas in the Unitarity Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk, P.; Tajima, H.; Hanai, R.; Ohashi, Y.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate strong-coupling corrections to the specific heat C_V in the normal state of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region. A recent experiment on a ^6Li unitary Fermi gas (Ku et. al. in Science 335:563 2012) shows that C_V is remarkably amplified near the superfluid phase transition temperature T_c, being similar to the well-known λ -structure observed in liquid ^4He. Including pairing fluctuations within the framework of the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that strong pairing fluctuations are sufficient to explain the anomalous behavior of C_V observed in a ^6Li unitary Fermi gas near T_c. We also show that there is no contribution from stable preformed Cooper pairs to C_V at the unitarity. This indicates that the origin of the observed anomaly is fundamentally different from the case of liquid 4He, where stable ^4He Bose atoms induce the λ -structure in C_V near the superfluid instability. Instead, the origin is the suppression of the entropy S, near T_c, due to the increase of metastable preformed Cooper pairs. Our results indicate that the specific heat is a useful quantity to study the effects of pairing fluctuations on the thermodynamic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region.

  9. Breathing modes of a fast rotating Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Antezza, Mauro; Stringari, Sandro; Cozzini, Marco

    2007-05-15

    We derive the frequency spectrum of the lowest compressional oscillations of a three-dimensional harmonically trapped Fermi superfluid in the presence of a vortex lattice, treated in the diffused vorticity approximation within a hydrodynamic approach. We consider the general case of a superfluid at T=0 characterized by a polytropic equation of state ({approx}n{sup {gamma}}), which includes both the Bose-Einstein condensed regime of dimers ({gamma}=1) and the unitary limit of infinite scattering length ({gamma}=2/3). Important limiting cases are considered, including the centrifugal limit, the isotropic trapping, and the cigar geometry. The conditions required to enter the lowest Landau level and quantum Hall regimes at unitarity are also discussed.

  10. Structure of a Quantized Vortex in Fermi Atom Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio

    2006-09-07

    In atomic Fermi gases, the pairing character changes from BCS-like to BEC-like when one decreases the threshold energy of the Feshbach resonance. With this crossover, the system enters the strong-coupling regime through the population enhancement of diatom molecules, and the vortex structure becomes much different from well-known core structures in BCS superfluid since the superfluid order parameter is given by a sum of BCS pairs and BEC molecular condensates. In this paper, we study the structure of a vortex by numerically solving the generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation derived from the fermion-boson model and clarify how the vortex structure changes with the threshold energy of the Feshbach resonance. We find that the diatom boson condensate enhances the matter density depletion inside the vortex core and the discreteness of localized quasi-particle spectrum.

  11. Shock Waves in the BEC to BCS Crossover of a Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Lorin; Joseph, James; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We observe shock waves in a Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance, using a micro-mirror array to create a spatially controlled, blue-detuned, repulsive optical potential. We separate an optically-trapped gas of 6 Li into two clouds with steep density profiles. When the repulsive potential beam is extinguished, the two halves of the cloud collide in the optical trap, producing shock waves. Using in-situ imaging, we find that the steep density gradients associated with shockwaves are most pronounced near resonance and become less pronounced as the magnetic field is tuned above resonance to create a weakly interacting Fermi gas or below resonance to create a weakly interacting Bose gas of dimers. Using this method, we study the crossover from dispersive to dissipative non-linear hydrodynamics as a function of interaction strength and temperature. Funding by: NSF, DOE, ARO, and AFOSR.

  12. Observation of a Rosensweig Instability and Stable Quantum Droplets in a Dipolar Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfau, Tilman; Ferrier Barbut, Igor; Kadau, Holger; Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Ferrofluids show unusual hydrodynamic effects due to the magnetic nature of their constituents. For increasing magnetization a classical ferrofluid undergoes a Rosensweig instability and creates self-organized ordered surface structures or droplet crystals. We observe a related instability in a Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipolar interactions resulting in surprisingly stable droplet crystals. We find that quantum fluctuations which are the origin of genuine quantum many-body effects cannot be neglected and provide a stabilizing mechanism. We study experimentally individual stable quantum droplets containing about 800 atoms which are expected to collapse at the mean-field level due to the essentially attractive interaction. By systematic measurements on individual droplets we demonstrate quantitatively that quantum fluctuations stabilize them against the mean-field collapse. We observe in addition interference of several droplets indicating that this stable many-body state is phase coherent.

  13. Half-Quantum Vortex Molecules in a Binary Dipolar Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, Wilbur E.; Anderson, Brandon M.; Clark, Charles W.; Wilson, Ryan M.

    2014-10-01

    We study the ground state phases of a rotating two-component, or binary, Bose-Einstein condensate, wherein one component possesses a large permanent magnetic dipole moment. A variety of nontrivial phases emerge in this system, including a half-quantum vortex (HQV) chain phase and a HQV molecule phase, where HQVs bind at short distances. We attribute these phases to the development of a minimum in the HQV interaction potential, which emerges without coherent coupling or attractive interactions between the components. Thus, we show that the presence of dipolar interactions in this system provides a unique mechanism for the formation of HQV molecules and results in a rich ground state phase diagram.

  14. Half-Quantum Vortex Molecules in a Binary Dipolar Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Ryan; Shirley, Wilbur; Anderson, Brandon; Clark, Charles

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the ground state phases of a rotating two-component, or binary Bose-Einstein condensate, wherein one component possesses a large permanent magnetic dipole moment. A variety of non-trivial phases emerge in this system, including a half-quantum vortex (HQV) chain phase and a HQV molecule phase, where HQVs bind at short distances. We attribute these phases to the development of a minimum in the HQV interaction potential, which emerges without coherent coupling or attractive interactions between the components. Thus, we show that the presence of dipolar interactions in this system provides a unique mechanism for the formation of HQV molecules and results in a rich ground state phase diagram.

  15. Half-quantum vortex molecules in a binary dipolar Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Wilbur E; Anderson, Brandon M; Clark, Charles W; Wilson, Ryan M

    2014-10-17

    We study the ground state phases of a rotating two-component, or binary, Bose-Einstein condensate, wherein one component possesses a large permanent magnetic dipole moment. A variety of nontrivial phases emerge in this system, including a half-quantum vortex (HQV) chain phase and a HQV molecule phase, where HQVs bind at short distances. We attribute these phases to the development of a minimum in the HQV interaction potential, which emerges without coherent coupling or attractive interactions between the components. Thus, we show that the presence of dipolar interactions in this system provides a unique mechanism for the formation of HQV molecules and results in a rich ground state phase diagram.

  16. Phase separation in a polarized Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, W.; Guo, G.-C.

    2011-09-15

    We study the phase separation of a spin-polarized Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling near a wide Feshbach resonance. As a result of the competition between spin-orbit coupling and population imbalance, the phase diagram for a uniform gas develops a rich structure of phase separation involving topologically nontrivial gapless superfluid states. We then demonstrate the phase separation induced by an external trapping potential and discuss the optimal parameter region for the experimental observation of the gapless superfluid phases.

  17. Radio-Frequency Spectroscopy of a Strongly Interacting Two-Dimensional Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, Bernd; Feld, Michael; Vogt, Enrico; Koschorreck, Marco; Koehl, Michael; Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2011-03-11

    We realize and study a strongly interacting two-component atomic Fermi gas confined to two dimensions in an optical lattice. Using radio-frequency spectroscopy we measure the interaction energy of the strongly interacting gas. We observe the confinement-induced Feshbach resonance on the attractive side of the 3D Feshbach resonance and find the existence of confinement-induced molecules in very good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  18. Vortex lattices in strongly interacting Fermi gas with crossed-beam dipole trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuping; Yao, Xingcan; Chen, Haoze; Liu, Xiangpei; Wang, Xiaoqiong

    2016-05-01

    We have built an experiment system to explore the dynamic and vortex in quantum degenerate Li6 gas. By using UV MOT and crossed-beam dipole trap, we obtained BEC of 2* 105 molecules. With a tightly focused 532nm laser beam as rotating bucket wall, We observed vortex formation in strongly interacting fermi superfluid. At suitable stirring frequency we produced the condensate of fermi pairs for which up to 10 vortices were simultaneously present. We produced vortex lattices in different magnetic fields (from BEC side to BCS side). Also we measured the lifetime of vortex lattices in different interaction region. This work was funded by CAS and USTC.

  19. Nonequilibrium dynamics and thermodynamics of a degenerate fermi gas across a feshbach resonance.

    PubMed

    Andreev, A V; Gurarie, V; Radzihovsky, L

    2004-09-24

    We consider a two-species degenerate Fermi gas coupled by a diatomic Feshbach resonance. We show that the resulting superfluid can exhibit a form of coherent BEC-to-BCS oscillations in response to a nonadiabatic change in the system's parameters, such as, for example, a sudden shift in the position of the Feshbach resonance. In the narrow resonance limit, the resulting solitonlike collisionless dynamics can be calculated analytically. In equilibrium, the thermodynamics can be accurately computed across the full range of BCS-BEC crossover, with corrections controlled by the ratio of the resonance width to the Fermi energy. PMID:15524684

  20. Nonequilibrium Dynamics and Thermodynamics of a Degenerate Fermi Gas Across a Feshbach Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Gurarie, V.; Radzihovsky, L.

    2004-09-01

    We consider a two-species degenerate Fermi gas coupled by a diatomic Feshbach resonance. We show that the resulting superfluid can exhibit a form of coherent BEC-to-BCS oscillations in response to a nonadiabatic change in the system’s parameters, such as, for example, a sudden shift in the position of the Feshbach resonance. In the narrow resonance limit, the resulting solitonlike collisionless dynamics can be calculated analytically. In equilibrium, the thermodynamics can be accurately computed across the full range of BCS-BEC crossover, with corrections controlled by the ratio of the resonance width to the Fermi energy.

  1. Thermodynamics of Ideal Fermi Gas Under Generic Power Law Potential in d-dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruk, M. M.; Bhuiyan, G. M.

    Thermodynamics of ideal Fermi gas trapped in an external generic power law potential $U=\\sum_{i=1} ^d c_i |\\frac{x_i}{a_i}|^{n_i}$ are investigated systematically from the grand thermodynamic potential in $d$ dimensional space. These properties are explored deeply in the degenerate limit ($\\mu>> K_BT$), where the thermodynamic properties are greatly dominated by Pauli exclusion principle. Pressure and energy along with the isothermal compressibilty is non zero at $T=0K$, denoting trapped Fermi system is quite live even at absolute zero temperature. The nonzero value of compressibilty denotes zero point pressure is not just a constant but depends on volume.

  2. Fermi liquid-to-Bose condensate crossover in a two-dimensional ultracold gas experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmashova, T. V.; Mart'yanov, K. A.; Makhalov, V. B.; Turlapov, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    By controling interparticle interactions, it is possible to transform a fermionic system into a bosonic system and vice versa, while preserving quantum degeneracy. Evidence of such a transformation may be found by monitoring the pressure and interference. The Fermi pressure is an indication of the fermion?ic character of a system, while the interference implies a nonzero order parameter and Bose condensation. Lowering from three to two spatial dimensions introduces new physics and makes the system more difficult to describe due to the increased fluctuations and the reduced applicability of mean field methods. An experiment with a two-dimensional ultracold atomic gas shows a crossover between the Bose and Fermi limits, as evident from the value of pressure and from the interference pattern, and provides data to test models of 2D Fermi and Bose systems, including the most-difficult-to-model strongly coupled systems.

  3. Collective mode damping and viscosity in a 1D unitary Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punk, M.; Zwerger, W.

    2006-08-01

    We calculate the damping of the Bogoliubov Anderson mode in a one-dimensional (1D) two-component attractive Fermi gas for arbitrary coupling strength within a quantum hydrodynamic approach. Using the Bethe-ansatz solution of the 1D BCS-BEC crossover problem, we derive analytic results for the viscosity covering the full range from a Luther Emery liquid of weakly bound pairs to a Lieb Liniger gas of strongly bound bosonic dimers. At the unitarity point, the system is a Tonks Girardeau gas with a universal constant αζ = 0.38 in the viscosity ζ = αζplanck n for T = 0. For the trapped case, we calculate the Q-factor of the breathing mode and show that the damping provides a sensitive measure of temperature in 1D Fermi gases.

  4. Universal thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas: theory versus experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia-Ji; Drummond, Peter D.

    2010-06-01

    Strongly interacting, dilute Fermi gases exhibit a scale-invariant, universal thermodynamic behavior. This is notoriously difficult to understand theoretically because of the absence of a small interaction parameter. Here, we present a systematic comparison of theoretical predictions from different quantum many-body theories with recent experimental data of Nascimbne et al (2010 Nature 463 1057). Our comparisons have no adjustable parameters, either theoretically or experimentally. All the model approximations seem to fluctuate rather than converge on the experimental data. It turns out that a simple Gaussian pair fluctuation theory gives the best quantitative agreement, except at the critical superfluid transition region. In the normal state, we also calculate the equation of state by using a quantum cluster expansion theory and explore in detail its applicability to low temperatures. Using the accurate experimental result for the thermodynamic function S(T), we determine the temperature T of a trapped Fermi gas at unitarity as a function of a non-interacting temperature Ti, which can be obtained by an adiabatic sweep to the free gas limit. By analyzing the recent experimental data, we find a characteristic temperature (T/TF)0=0.19±0.02 or (Ti/TF)0=0.16±0.02 in a harmonic trap, below which there are deviations from normal Fermi-liquid-like behavior that may be attributed to pairing effects. Here, TF is the Fermi temperature for a trapped ideal, non-interacting Fermi gas. Our thorough comparison may shed light on the further theoretical development of strongly interacting fermions.

  5. Creation of an Ultracold Gas of Ground-State Dipolar 23Na 87 Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier; Wang, Dajun

    2016-05-01

    We report the successful production of an ultracold sample of absolute ground-state 23Na 87Rb molecules. Starting from weakly bound Feshbach molecules formed via magnetoassociation, the lowest rovibrational and hyperfine level of the electronic ground state is populated following a high-efficiency and high-resolution two-photon Raman process. The high-purity absolute ground-state samples have up to 8000 molecules and densities of over 1011 cm-3 . By measuring the Stark shifts induced by external electric fields, we determined the permanent electric dipole moment of the absolute ground-state 23Na 87Rb and demonstrated the capability of inducing an effective dipole moment over 1 D. Bimolecular reaction between ground-state 23Na 87Rb molecules is endothermic, but we still observed a rather fast decay of the molecular sample. Our results pave the way toward investigation of ultracold molecular collisions in a fully controlled manner and possibly to quantum gases of ultracold bosonic molecules with strong dipolar interactions.

  6. Creation of an Ultracold Gas of Ground-State Dipolar ^{23}Na^{87}Rb Molecules.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingyang; Zhu, Bing; Lu, Bo; Ye, Xin; Wang, Fudong; Vexiau, Romain; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia; Quéméner, Goulven; Dulieu, Olivier; Wang, Dajun

    2016-05-20

    We report the successful production of an ultracold sample of absolute ground-state ^{23}Na^{87}Rb molecules. Starting from weakly bound Feshbach molecules formed via magnetoassociation, the lowest rovibrational and hyperfine level of the electronic ground state is populated following a high-efficiency and high-resolution two-photon Raman process. The high-purity absolute ground-state samples have up to 8000 molecules and densities of over 10^{11}  cm^{-3}. By measuring the Stark shifts induced by external electric fields, we determined the permanent electric dipole moment of the absolute ground-state ^{23}Na^{87}Rb and demonstrated the capability of inducing an effective dipole moment over 1 D. Bimolecular reaction between ground-state ^{23}Na^{87}Rb molecules is endothermic, but we still observed a rather fast decay of the molecular sample. Our results pave the way toward investigation of ultracold molecular collisions in a fully controlled manner and possibly to quantum gases of ultracold bosonic molecules with strong dipolar interactions. PMID:27258875

  7. A note on the Fermi energy of an ideal Fermi gas trapped under a generic power law potential in d-dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir

    2015-09-01

    The average energy per fermion in the case of a Fermi gas with any kinematic characteristic, trapped under the most general power law potential in d-dimension has been calculated at zero temperature. In a previous paper (Acharyya M 2010 Eur. J Phys. 31 L89) it was shown, in the case of a free ideal Fermi gas, as the dimension increases the average energy approaches the Fermi energy and in infinite dimension the average energy becomes equal to the Fermi energy at T = 0. In this letter it is shown that, for a trapped system at finite dimension the average energy depends on a power law exponent, but as the dimension tends to infinity the average energy coincides with the Fermi energy for any power law exponent. The result obtained in this manuscript is more general, as we can describe the free system as well as any trapped system with an appropriate choice of power law exponent, and is true for any kinematic parameter.

  8. Trapping effect on the sound velocity of a multilayer Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Patricia; Solís, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present the trapping effect on the behavior of the isothermal compressibility and sound velocity for an interactionless Fermi gas immersed in a periodic interconnected multilayer structure created by an external Dirac comb potential which can vary both in spacing and in the intensity that controls the impenetrability of the layer edge (the wall). At T = 0 , for a given layer width and respect to the free ideal Fermi gas values, the isothermal compressibility as a function of the impenetrability starts in one and then monotonically increases to reach a larger constant value which is width dependent. The sound velocity as a function of impenetrability starts in one and for a range of impenetrabilities shows a bump which suggests that the presence of the structure increases the speed. For a finite temperature, given a separation between the walls and several values of their impenetrabilities, both properties start their evolution in temperature from the ideal Fermi gas value, unfold at temperatures near and under TF, and then recover the behavior of a classical gas at higher temperatures. We acknowledge partial support from PAPIIT IN111613 and CONACyT 221030.

  9. Finite-temperature collective dynamics of a Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover.

    PubMed

    Wright, M J; Riedl, S; Altmeyer, A; Kohstall, C; Guajardo, E R Sánchez; Denschlag, J Hecker; Grimm, R

    2007-10-12

    We report on experimental studies on the collective behavior of a strongly interacting Fermi gas with tunable interactions and variable temperature. A scissors mode excitation in an elliptical trap is used to characterize the dynamics of the quantum gas in terms of hydrodynamic or near-collisionless behavior. We obtain a crossover phase diagram for collisional properties, showing a large region where a nonsuperfluid strongly interacting gas shows hydrodynamic behavior. In a narrow interaction regime on the BCS side of the crossover, we find a novel temperature-dependent damping peak, suggesting a relation to the superfluid phase transition. PMID:17995145

  10. Topological superfluid in a trapped two-dimensional polarized Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jing; Yi Wei; Zhang Wei

    2011-12-15

    We study the stability region of the topological superfluid phase in a trapped two-dimensional polarized Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling and across a BCS-BEC crossover. Due to the competition between polarization, pairing interaction, and spin-orbit coupling, the Fermi gas typically phase-separates in the trap. Employing a mean-field approach that guarantees the ground-state solution, we systematically study the structure of the phase separation and investigate in detail the optimal parameter region for the preparation of the topologically nontrivial superfluid phase. We then calculate the momentum space density distribution of the topological superfluid state and demonstrate that the existence of the phase leaves a unique signature in the trap integrated momentum space density distribution which can survive the time-of-flight imaging process.

  11. Propagation of second sound in a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitary limit

    SciTech Connect

    Arahata, Emiko; Nikuni, Tetsuro

    2009-10-15

    We study sound propagation in a uniform superfluid gas of Fermi atoms in the unitary limit. The existence of normal and superfluid components leads to appearance of two sound modes in the collisional regime, referred to as first and second sounds. The second sound is of particular interest as it is a clear signal of a superfluid component. Using Landau's two-fluid hydrodynamic theory, we calculate hydrodynamic sound velocities and these weights in the density response function. The latter is used to calculate the response to a sudden modification of the external potential generating pulse propagation. The amplitude of a pulse which is proportional to the weight in the response function is calculated, the basis of the approach of Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink for the BCS-BEC. We show that, in a superfluid Fermi gas at unitarity, the second-sound pulse is excited with an appreciate amplitude by density perturbations.

  12. Perfect-fluid behavior of a dilute Fermi gas near unitary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Quan, Wei; Bulgac, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    We present an ab initio calculation of the shear viscosity as a function of interaction strength in a two-component unpolarized Fermi gas near the unitary limit, within a finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) framework and using the Kubo linear-response formalism. The shear viscosity decreases as we tune the interaction strength 1/a kF from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer side of the Feshbach resonance towards Bose-Einstein condensation limit and it acquires the smallest value for 1/a kF ≈0.4 , with a minimum value of |η/s|η/s min≈0.2 ℏ/kB , which is about twice as small as the value reported for experiments in quark-gluon plasma QGP ≲0.4 ℏ/kB . The Fermi gas near unitarity thus emerges as the most "perfect fluid" observed so far in nature. The clouds of dilute Fermi gas near unitarity exhibit the unusual attribute that, for the sizes realized so far in the laboratory, or larger (less than 109 atoms), can sustain quantum turbulence below the critical temperature, but at the same time the classical turbulence is suppressed in the normal phase.

  13. Spectral zeta function and non-perturbative effects in ABJM Fermi-gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki

    2015-11-01

    The exact partition function in ABJM theory on three-sphere can be regarded as a canonical partition function of a non-interacting Fermi-gas with an unconventional Hamiltonian. All the information on the partition function is encoded in the discrete spectrum of this Hamiltonian. We explain how (quantum mechanical) non-perturbative corrections in the Fermi-gas system appear from a spectral consideration. Basic tools in our analysis are a Mellin-Barnes type integral representation and a spectral zeta function. From a consistency with known results, we conjecture that the spectral zeta function in the ABJM Fermi-gas has an infinite number of "non-perturbative" poles, which are invisible in the semi-classical expansion of the Planck constant. We observe that these poles indeed appear after summing up perturbative corrections. As a consequence, the perturbative resummation of the spectral zeta function causes non-perturbative corrections to the grand canonical partition function. We also present another example associated with a spectral problem in topological string theory. A conjectured non-perturbative free energy on the resolved conifold is successfully reproduced in this framework.

  14. Topological Fulde-Ferrell superfluids of a spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2015-12-01

    Topological Fermi superfluids have played the central role in various fields of physics. However, all previous studies focus on the cases where Cooper pairs have zero center-of-mass momenta (i.e., normal superfluids). The topology of Fulde-Ferrell (FF) superfluids with nonzero momentum pairings have never been explored until recent findings that FF superfluids in a spin-orbit (SO) coupled Fermi gas can accommodate Majorana fermions in real space in low dimensions and Weyl fermions in momentum space in three dimension. In this review, we first discuss the mechanism of pairings in SO coupled Fermi gases in optical lattices subject to Zeeman fields, showing that SO coupling as well as Zeeman fields enhance FF states while suppress Larkin-Ovchinnikov states. We then present the low temperature phase diagram including both FF superfluids and topological FF superfluids phases in both two dimension and three dimension. In one dimension, Majorana fermions as well as phase dependent order parameter are visualized. In three dimension, we show the properties of Weyl fermions in momentum space such as anisotropic linear dispersion, Fermi arch, and gaplessness away from k⊥ = 0. Finally, we discuss some possible methods to probe FF superfluids and topological FF superfluids in cold atom systems.

  15. Itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting Fermi gas with mass imbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Keyserlingk, C. W. von; Conduit, G. J.

    2011-05-15

    We study the emergence of itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas with a variable mass ratio between the up- and down-spin species. Mass imbalance breaks the SU(2) spin symmetry, leading to a modified Stoner criterion. We first elucidate the phase behavior in both the grand canonical and canonical ensembles. Second, we apply the formalism to a harmonic trap to demonstrate how a mass imbalance delivers unique experimental signatures of ferromagnetism. These could help future experiments to better identify the putative ferromagnetic state. Furthermore, we highlight how a mass imbalance suppresses the three-body loss processes that handicap the formation of a ferromagnetic state. Finally, we study the time-dependent formation of the ferromagnetic phase following a quench in the interaction strength.

  16. Tunable Artificial Graphene with an Ultracold Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greif, Daniel; Uehlinger, Thomas; Jotzu, Gregor; Messer, Michael; Desbuquois, Remi; Hofstetter, Walter; Bissbort, Ulf; Esslinger, Tilman

    2014-05-01

    The engineering of systems that share their key properties with graphene, like Dirac fermions and a hexagonal structure, is gaining interest in an increasing number of disciplines in physics. The motivation for engineering graphene-like band structures is to explore regimes that are not, or not yet, accessible to research with graphene or similar materials. We create an artificial graphene system with tunable interactions by loading a two-component ultracold fermionic quantum gas into an optical lattice with hexagonal structure. We study the crossover from the metallic to the Mott insulating regime for increasing inter-particle interactions. For strong repulsive interactions, we observe a suppression of double occupancy and measure a gapped excitation spectrum. A quantitative comparison between our measurements and theory is additionally presented, making use of a novel numerical method to obtain Wannier functions for complex lattice structures. Furthermore, we will show recent results on alternative methods of accessing insulating phases, for example by controlling the tunneling structure.

  17. Itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting Fermi gas with mass imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Conduit, G. J.

    2011-05-01

    We study the emergence of itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas with a variable mass ratio between the up- and down-spin species. Mass imbalance breaks the SU(2) spin symmetry, leading to a modified Stoner criterion. We first elucidate the phase behavior in both the grand canonical and canonical ensembles. Second, we apply the formalism to a harmonic trap to demonstrate how a mass imbalance delivers unique experimental signatures of ferromagnetism. These could help future experiments to better identify the putative ferromagnetic state. Furthermore, we highlight how a mass imbalance suppresses the three-body loss processes that handicap the formation of a ferromagnetic state. Finally, we study the time-dependent formation of the ferromagnetic phase following a quench in the interaction strength.

  18. Momentum distribution of a trapped Fermi gas with large scattering length

    SciTech Connect

    Viverit, L.; Giorgini, S.; Stringari, S.; Pitaevskii, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    Using a scattering length parametrization of the crossover from a BCS state to a Bose-Einstein condensate as well as the local density approximation for the density profile, we calculate the momentum distribution of a harmonically trapped atomic Fermi gas at zero temperature. Various interaction regimes are considered, including the BCS phase, the unitarity limit, and the molecular regime. We show that the relevant parameter which characterizes the crossover is given by the dimensionless combination N{sup 1/6}a/a{sub ho}, where N is the number of atoms, a is the scattering length, and a{sub ho} is the oscillator length. The width of the momentum distribution is shown to depend in a crucial way on the value and sign of this parameter. Our predictions can be relevant for experiments on ultracold atomic Fermi gases near a Feshbach resonance.

  19. Polaron-molecule transitions in a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Meera M.

    2011-05-15

    We address the problem of a single 'spin-down' impurity atom interacting attractively with a spin-up Fermi gas in two dimensions (2D). We consider the case where the mass of the impurity is greater than or equal to the mass of a spin-up fermion. Using a variational approach, we resolve the questions raised by previous studies and show that there is, in fact, a transition between polaron and molecule (dimer) ground states in 2D. For the molecule state, we use a variational wave function with a single particle-hole excitation on the Fermi sea and we find that its energy matches that of the exact solution in the limit of infinite impurity mass. Thus, we expect the variational approach to provide a reliable tool for investigating 2D systems.

  20. Criteria for two-dimensional kinematics in an interacting Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, P.; Fenech, K.; Peppler, T.; Lingham, M. G.; Hoinka, S.; Zhang, W.; Peng, S.-G.; Mulkerin, B.; Hu, H.; Liu, X.-J.; Vale, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold Fermi gases subject to tight transverse confinement offer a highly controllable setting to study the two-dimensional (2D) BCS to Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless superfluid crossover. Achieving the 2D regime requires confining particles to their transverse ground state which presents challenges in interacting systems. Here, we establish the conditions for an interacting Fermi gas to display 2D kinematics. Transverse excitations are detected by measuring the transverse expansion rate which displays a sudden increase when the atom number exceeds a critical value N2 D signifying a density driven departure from 2D kinematics. For weak interactions N2 D is set by the aspect ratio of the trap. Close to a Feshbach resonance, however, the stronger interactions reduce N2 D and excitations appear at lower density.

  1. Cooper pairing above the critical temperature in a unitary Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr; Drut, Joaquín E; Bulgac, Aurel; Roche, Kenneth J

    2013-03-01

    We present an ab initio determination of the spin response of the unitary Fermi gas. Based on finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo calculations and the Kubo linear-response formalism, we determine the temperature dependence of the spin susceptibility and the spin conductivity. We show that both quantities exhibit suppression above the critical temperature of the superfluid-to-normal phase transition due to Cooper pairing. The spin diffusion transport coefficient does not display a minimum in the vicinity of the critical temperature and drops to very low values D(s)≈0.8ħ/m in the superfluid phase. All these spin observables show a smooth and monotonic behavior with temperature when crossing the critical temperature T(c), until the Fermi liquid regime is attained at the temperature T(*), above which the pseudogap regime disappears.

  2. Finite-size and particle-number effects in an ultracold Fermi gas at unitarity

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Jens; Diehl, Sebastian; Scherer, Michael M.

    2011-12-15

    We investigate an ultracold Fermi gas at unitarity confined in a periodic box V=L{sup 3} using renormalization group techniques. Within this approach we can quantitatively assess the long-range bosonic order parameter fluctuations, which dominate finite-size effects. We determine the finite-size and particle-number dependence of universal quantities, such as the Bertsch parameter and the fermion gap. Moreover, we analyze how these universal observables respond to the variation of an external pairing source. Our results indicate that the Bertsch parameter saturates rather quickly to its value in the thermodynamic limit as a function of increasing box size. On the other hand, we observe that the fermion gap shows a significantly stronger dependence on the box size, in particular for small values of the pairing source. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of finite-size and particle-number effects present in Monte Carlo simulations of ultracold Fermi gases.

  3. One-dimensional multicomponent Fermi gas in a trap: quantum Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, N.; Astrakharchik, G. E.

    2016-06-01

    A one-dimensional world is very unusual as there is an interplay between quantum statistics and geometry, and a strong short-range repulsion between atoms mimics Fermi exclusion principle, fermionizing the system. Instead, a system with a large number of components with a single atom in each, on the opposite acquires many bosonic properties. We study the ground-state properties of a multicomponent repulsive Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic trap by a fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method. The interaction between all components is considered to be the same. We investigate how the energetic properties (energy, contact) and correlation functions (density profile and momentum distribution) evolve as the number of components is changed. It is shown that the system fermionizes in the limit of strong interactions. Analytical expressions are derived in the limit of weak interactions within the local density approximation for an arbitrary number of components and for one plus one particle using an exact solution.

  4. Shear viscosity of a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitarity limit

    SciTech Connect

    Rupak, Gautam; Schaefer, Thomas

    2007-11-15

    We compute the shear viscosity of a superfluid atomic Fermi gas in the unitarity limit. The unitarity limit is characterized by a divergent scattering length between the atoms, and it has been argued that this will result in a very small viscosity. We show that in the low temperature T limit the shear viscosity scales as {xi}{sup 5}/T{sup 5}, where the universal parameter {xi} relates the chemical potential and the Fermi energy, {mu}={xi}{epsilon}{sub F}. Combined with the high temperature expansions of the viscosity our results suggest that the viscosity has a minimum near the critical temperature T{sub c}. A naieve extrapolation indicates that the minimum value of the ratio of viscosity over entropy density is within a factor of {approx}5 of the proposed bound {eta}/s{>=}({Dirac_h}/2{pi})/(4{pi}k{sub B})

  5. Phase Separation and Pair Condensation in a Spin-Imbalanced 2D Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Debayan; Brown, Peter T.; Schauß, Peter; Kondov, Stanimir S.; Bakr, Waseem S.

    2016-08-01

    We study a two-component quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gas with imbalanced spin populations. We probe the gas at different interaction strengths and polarizations by measuring the density of each spin component in the trap and the pair momentum distribution after time of flight. For a wide range of experimental parameters, we observe in-trap phase separation characterized by the appearance of a spin-balanced core surrounded by a polarized gas. Our momentum space measurements indicate pair condensation in the imbalanced gas even for large polarizations where phase separation vanishes, pointing to the presence of a polarized pair condensate. Our observation of zero momentum pair condensates in 2D spin-imbalanced gases opens the way to explorations of more exotic superfluid phases that occupy a large part of the phase diagram in lower dimensions.

  6. Phase Separation and Pair Condensation in a Spin-Imbalanced 2D Fermi Gas.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Debayan; Brown, Peter T; Schauß, Peter; Kondov, Stanimir S; Bakr, Waseem S

    2016-08-26

    We study a two-component quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gas with imbalanced spin populations. We probe the gas at different interaction strengths and polarizations by measuring the density of each spin component in the trap and the pair momentum distribution after time of flight. For a wide range of experimental parameters, we observe in-trap phase separation characterized by the appearance of a spin-balanced core surrounded by a polarized gas. Our momentum space measurements indicate pair condensation in the imbalanced gas even for large polarizations where phase separation vanishes, pointing to the presence of a polarized pair condensate. Our observation of zero momentum pair condensates in 2D spin-imbalanced gases opens the way to explorations of more exotic superfluid phases that occupy a large part of the phase diagram in lower dimensions. PMID:27610853

  7. Phase Separation and Pair Condensation in a Spin-Imbalanced 2D Fermi Gas.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Debayan; Brown, Peter T; Schauß, Peter; Kondov, Stanimir S; Bakr, Waseem S

    2016-08-26

    We study a two-component quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gas with imbalanced spin populations. We probe the gas at different interaction strengths and polarizations by measuring the density of each spin component in the trap and the pair momentum distribution after time of flight. For a wide range of experimental parameters, we observe in-trap phase separation characterized by the appearance of a spin-balanced core surrounded by a polarized gas. Our momentum space measurements indicate pair condensation in the imbalanced gas even for large polarizations where phase separation vanishes, pointing to the presence of a polarized pair condensate. Our observation of zero momentum pair condensates in 2D spin-imbalanced gases opens the way to explorations of more exotic superfluid phases that occupy a large part of the phase diagram in lower dimensions.

  8. Stoner ferromagnetism of a strongly interacting Fermi gas in the quasirepulsive regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lianyi; Liu, Xia-Ji; Huang, Xu-Guang; Hu, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in rapidly quenched ultracold atomic Fermi gases near a Feshbach resonance have brought about a number of interesting problems in the context of observing the long-sought Stoner ferromagnetic phase transition. The possibility of experimentally obtaining a "quasirepulsive" regime in the upper branch of the energy spectrum due to the rapid quench is currently being debated, and the Stoner transition has mainly been investigated theoretically by using perturbation theory or at high polarization due to the limited theoretical approaches in the strongly repulsive regime. In this work, we present a nonperturbative theoretical approach to the quasirepulsive upper branch of a Fermi gas near a broad Feshbach resonance, and we determine the finite-temperature phase diagram for the Stoner instability. Our results agree well with the known quantum Monte Carlo simulations at zero temperature, and we recover the known virial expansion prediction at high temperature for arbitrary interaction strengths. At resonance, we find that the Stoner transition temperature becomes of the order of the Fermi temperature, around which the molecule formation rate becomes vanishingly small. This suggests a feasible way to observe Stoner ferromagnetism in the nondegenerate temperature regime.

  9. Semiclassical theory of gaseous dipolar media with application to the gas laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acampora, A. S.; Serafim, P. E.

    1980-06-01

    A new semiclassical model of the active medium of a gas laser and a description of its interaction with a classical electromagnetic field are reported. The model is based upon an exact microscopic formulation of the density of the active medium in a suitably defined semiclassical state space. Field-medium interaction mechanisms are studied by coupling the equation describing the dynamics of this density with Maxwell's field equations and the Schroedinger wave equation. Coupled stochastic nonlinear equations are formulated and quasilinear techniques are employed to effect their solutions. Wave-dipole correlations, the dominant nonlinearity, is shown to effect stability, produce the phenomena of hole burning, mode coupling, and frequency conversion, and to provide the mechanism whereby nonresonant pump field energy is converted into resonant laser oscillations.

  10. Observation of ShockWaves in a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, M.; Joseph, J.A.; Thomas, J.E.; Abanov, A.G.

    2011-04-11

    We study collisions between two strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas clouds. We observe exotic nonlinear hydrodynamic behavior, distinguished by the formation of a very sharp and stable density peak as the clouds collide and subsequent evolution into a boxlike shape. We model the nonlinear dynamics of these collisions by using quasi-1D hydrodynamic equations. Our simulations of the time-dependent density profiles agree very well with the data and provide clear evidence of shock wave formation in this universal quantum hydrodynamic system.

  11. Low-temperature thermodynamics of the unitary Fermi gas: Superfluid fraction, first sound, and second sound

    SciTech Connect

    Salasnich, Luca

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the low-temperature thermodynamics of the unitary Fermi gas by introducing a model based on the zero-temperature spectra of both bosonic collective modes and fermonic single-particle excitations. We calculate the Helmholtz free energy and from it we obtain the entropy, the internal energy, and the chemical potential as a function of the temperature. By using these quantities and the Landau's expression for the superfluid density we determine analytically the superfluid fraction, the critical temperature, the first sound velocity, and the second sound velocity. We compare our analytical results with other theoretical predictions and experimental data of ultracold atoms and dilute neutron matter.

  12. Exact Solution for a Trapped Fermi Gas with Population Imbalance and BCS Pairing

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Zujian; Cuoco, Mario; Noce, Canio; Zhou Huanqiang

    2008-04-11

    The problem of a two-component Fermi gas in a harmonic trap, with an imbalanced population and a pairing interaction of zero total momentum, is mapped onto the exactly solvable reduced BCS model. For a one-dimensional trap, the complete ground state diagram is determined with various topological features in ground state energy spectra. In addition to the conventional two-shell density profile of a paired core and polarized outer wings, a three-shell structure as well as a double-peak superfluid distribution are unveiled.

  13. Shear Viscosity of a Unitary Fermi Gas Near the Superfluid Phase Transition.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J A; Elliott, E; Thomas, J E

    2015-07-10

    We measure the shear viscosity for a resonantly interacting Fermi gas as a function of temperature from nearly the ground state through the superfluid phase transition into the high temperature regime. Further, we demonstrate an iterative method to estimate the local shear viscosity coefficient α(S)(θ) versus reduced temperature θ from the cloud-averaged measurements ⟨α(S)⟩, and compare α(S) to several microscopic theories. We find that α(S) reveals features that were previously hidden in ⟨α(S)⟩.

  14. The electromagnetic response of a relativistic Fermi gas at finite temperatures: Applications to condensed-matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Gómez, E.; Oliveira, L. E.; de Carvalho, C. A. A.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic response of a relativistic Fermi gas at finite temperatures. Our theoretical results are first-order in the fine-structure constant. The electromagnetic permittivity and permeability are introduced via general constitutive relations in reciprocal space, and computed for different values of the gas density and temperature. As expected, the electric permittivity of the relativistic Fermi gas is found in good agreement with the Lindhard dielectric function in the low-temperature limit. Applications to condensed-matter physics are briefly discussed. In particular, theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the plasmon energy in graphite and tin oxide, as functions of both the temperature and wave vector. We stress that the present electromagnetic response of a relativistic Fermi gas at finite temperatures could be of potential interest in future plasmonic and photonic investigations.

  15. Quantum anomaly, universal relations, and breathing mode of a two-dimensional Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Johannes

    2012-05-01

    In this Letter, we show that the classical SO(2,1) symmetry of a harmonically trapped Fermi gas in two dimensions is broken by quantum effects. The anomalous correction to the symmetry algebra is given by a two-body operator that is well known as the contact. Taking into account this modification, we are able to derive the virial theorem for the system and a universal relation for the pressure of a homogeneous gas. The existence of an undamped breathing mode is associated with the classical symmetry. We provide an estimate for the anomalous frequency shift of this oscillation at zero temperature and compare the result with a recent experiment by [E. Vogt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 070404 (2012)]. Discrepancies are attributed to finite temperature effects.

  16. Itinerant Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pilati, S.; Troyer, M.; Bertaina, G.; Giorgini, S.

    2010-07-16

    We investigate the phase diagram of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas at T=0 by means of quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Both purely repulsive and resonant attractive model potentials are considered in order to analyze the limits of the universal regime where the details of interatomic forces can be neglected. The equation of state of both balanced and unbalanced systems is calculated as a function of the interaction strength and the critical density for the onset of ferromagnetism is determined. The energy of the strongly polarized gas is calculated and parametrized in terms of the physical properties of repulsive polarons, which are relevant for the stability of the fully ferromagnetic state. Finally, we analyze the phase diagram in the interaction-polarization plane under the assumption that only phases with homogeneous magnetization can be produced.

  17. Shear viscosity and spin diffusion in a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enss, Tilman; Küppersbusch, Carolin; Fritz, Lars

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity and spin diffusion in a two-dimensional Fermi gas with contact interactions, as realized in ultracold atomic gases. We describe the transport coefficients in terms of a Boltzmann equation and present a full numerical solution for the degenerate gas. In contrast to previous works we take the medium effects due to finite density fully into account. This effect reduces the viscosity-to-entropy ratio η/s by a factor of 3, and similarly for spin diffusion. The trap-averaged viscosity agrees well with recent measurements by Vogt [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.070404 108, 070404 (2012)].

  18. Spontaneous separation of large-spin Fermi gas in the harmonic trap: a density functional study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zongli; Gu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The component separation of the trapped large-spin Fermi gas is studied within density functional theory. The ground state and ferromagnetic transition in the gas, with and without the spin mixing collision, are calculated. In the absence of spin mixing, two patterns of separation are observed as the interaction between atoms increases, whereas only one of them corresponds to a ferromagnetic transition. The phase diagram suggests that the pattern which the system chooses depends on the interaction strength in the collision channels. With the presence of spin mixing, the distribution of phase region changes because of the interplay between different collision channels. Specifically, the spin exchange benefits the FM transition, while it suppresses the component separation of CS-II pattern. PMID:27549012

  19. Multiple period states of the superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sukjin; Dalfovo, Franco; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Watanabe, Gentaro

    2016-02-01

    We study multiple period states of a two-component unpolarized superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice along the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover. The existence of states whose period is a multiple of the lattice spacing is a direct consequence of the nonlinear behavior of the gas, which is due to the presence of the order parameter associated with superfluidity. By solving Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for a superfluid flow with finite quasimomentum, we find that, in the BCS side of the crossover, the multiple period states can be energetically favorable compared to the normal Bloch states and their survival time against dynamical instability drastically increases, suggesting that these states can be accessible in current experiments, in sharp contrast to the situation in BECs.

  20. Spontaneous separation of large-spin Fermi gas in the harmonic trap: a density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zongli; Gu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    The component separation of the trapped large-spin Fermi gas is studied within density functional theory. The ground state and ferromagnetic transition in the gas, with and without the spin mixing collision, are calculated. In the absence of spin mixing, two patterns of separation are observed as the interaction between atoms increases, whereas only one of them corresponds to a ferromagnetic transition. The phase diagram suggests that the pattern which the system chooses depends on the interaction strength in the collision channels. With the presence of spin mixing, the distribution of phase region changes because of the interplay between different collision channels. Specifically, the spin exchange benefits the FM transition, while it suppresses the component separation of CS-II pattern.

  1. Quantum anomaly, universal relations, and breathing mode of a two-dimensional Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Johannes

    2012-05-01

    In this Letter, we show that the classical SO(2,1) symmetry of a harmonically trapped Fermi gas in two dimensions is broken by quantum effects. The anomalous correction to the symmetry algebra is given by a two-body operator that is well known as the contact. Taking into account this modification, we are able to derive the virial theorem for the system and a universal relation for the pressure of a homogeneous gas. The existence of an undamped breathing mode is associated with the classical symmetry. We provide an estimate for the anomalous frequency shift of this oscillation at zero temperature and compare the result with a recent experiment by [E. Vogt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 070404 (2012)]. Discrepancies are attributed to finite temperature effects. PMID:22681087

  2. Spin Drag in an Ultracold Fermi Gas on the Verge of Ferromagnetic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Polini, Marco; Vignale, G.

    2010-06-04

    Recent experiments [Jo et al., Science 325, 1521 (2009)] have presented evidence of ferromagnetic correlations in a two-component ultracold Fermi gas with strong repulsive interactions. Motivated by these experiments we consider spin drag, i.e., frictional drag due to scattering of particles with opposite spin, in such systems. We show that when the ferromagnetic state is approached from the normal side, the spin drag relaxation rate is strongly enhanced near the critical point. We also determine the temperature dependence of the spin diffusion constant. In a trapped gas the spin drag relaxation rate determines the damping of the spin dipole mode, which therefore provides a precursor signal of the ferromagnetic phase transition that may be used to experimentally determine the proximity to the ferromagnetic phase.

  3. Spontaneous separation of large-spin Fermi gas in the harmonic trap: a density functional study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zongli; Gu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The component separation of the trapped large-spin Fermi gas is studied within density functional theory. The ground state and ferromagnetic transition in the gas, with and without the spin mixing collision, are calculated. In the absence of spin mixing, two patterns of separation are observed as the interaction between atoms increases, whereas only one of them corresponds to a ferromagnetic transition. The phase diagram suggests that the pattern which the system chooses depends on the interaction strength in the collision channels. With the presence of spin mixing, the distribution of phase region changes because of the interplay between different collision channels. Specifically, the spin exchange benefits the FM transition, while it suppresses the component separation of CS-II pattern. PMID:27549012

  4. Breakdown of hydrodynamics in the radial breathing mode of a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kinast, J.; Turlapov, A.; Thomas, J.E.

    2004-11-01

    We measure the magnetic-field dependence of the frequency and damping time for the radial breathing mode of an optically trapped Fermi gas of {sup 6}Li atoms near a Feshbach resonance. The measurements address the apparent discrepancy between the results of Kinast et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 150402 (2004)] and those of Bartenstein et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 203201 (2004)]. Over the range of magnetic field from 770 to 910 G, the measurements confirm the results of Kinast et al. Close to resonance, the measured frequencies are in excellent agreement with predictions for a unitary hydrodynamic gas. At a field of 925 G, the measured frequency begins to decrease below predictions. For fields near 1080 G, we observe a breakdown of hydrodynamic behavior, which is manifested by a sharp increase in frequency and damping rate. The observed breakdown is in qualitative agreement with the sharp transition observed by Bartenstein et al. at 910 G.

  5. Specific heat and effects of pairing fluctuations in the BCS-BEC-crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk, Pieter; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the specific heat at constant volume CV in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein-condensate (BCS-BEC)-crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas above the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc. Within the framework of the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that this thermodynamic quantity is sensitive to the stability of preformed Cooper pairs. That is, while CV(T ≳Tc) in the unitary regime is remarkably enhanced by metastable preformed Cooper pairs or pairing fluctuations, it is well described by that of an ideal Bose gas of long-lived stable molecules in the strong-coupling BEC regime. Using these results, we identify the region where the system may be viewed as an almost ideal Bose gas of stable pairs, as well as the pseudogap regime where the system is dominated by metastable preformed Cooper pairs, in the phase diagram of an ultracold Fermi gas with respect to the strength of a pairing interaction and the temperature. We also show that the calculated specific heat agrees with the recent experiment on a 6Li unitary Fermi gas. Since the formation of preformed Cooper pairs is a crucial key in the BCS-BEC-crossover phenomenon, our results would be helpful in considering how fluctuating preformed Cooper pairs appear in a Fermi gas to eventually become stable as one passes through the BCS-BEC-crossover region.

  6. Universal High-Momentum Asymptote and Thermodynamic Relations in a Spinless Fermi Gas with a Resonant p-Wave Interaction.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shuhei M; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-09-25

    We investigate universal relations in a spinless Fermi gas near a p-wave Feshbach resonance, and show that the momentum distribution n_{k} has an asymptote proportional to k^{-2} with the proportionality constant-the p-wave contact-scaling with the number of closed-channel molecules. We prove the adiabatic sweep theorem for a p-wave resonance which reveals the thermodynamic implication of the p-wave contact. In contrast to the unitary Fermi gas in which Tan's contact is universal, the p-wave contact depends on the short-range details of the interaction.

  7. Strong-coupling ansatz for the one-dimensional Fermi gas in a harmonic potential

    PubMed Central

    Levinsen, Jesper; Massignan, Pietro; Bruun, Georg M.; Parish, Meera M.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in modern physics is to accurately describe strongly interacting quantum many-body systems. One-dimensional systems provide fundamental insights because they are often amenable to exact methods. However, no exact solution is known for the experimentally relevant case of external confinement. We propose a powerful ansatz for the one-dimensional Fermi gas in a harmonic potential near the limit of infinite short-range repulsion. For the case of a single impurity in a Fermi sea, we show that our ansatz is indistinguishable from numerically exact results in both the few- and many-body limits. We furthermore derive an effective Heisenberg spin-chain model corresponding to our ansatz, valid for any spin-mixture, within which we obtain the impurity eigenstates analytically. In particular, the classical Pascal’s triangle emerges in the expression for the ground-state wave function. As well as providing an important benchmark for strongly correlated physics, our results are relevant for emerging quantum technologies, where a precise knowledge of one-dimensional quantum states is paramount. PMID:26601220

  8. The Interaction of the Fermi Bubbles with the Milky Way’s Hot Gas Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-09-01

    The Fermi bubbles are two lobes filled with non-thermal particles that emit gamma rays, extend ≈ 10 {{kpc}} vertically from the Galactic center, and formed from either nuclear star formation or accretion activity on Sgr A*. Simulations predict a range of shock strengths as the bubbles expand into the surrounding hot gas halo ({T}{halo}≈ 2× {10}6 K), but with significant uncertainties in the energetics, age, and thermal gas structure. The bubbles should contain thermal gas with temperatures between 106 and 108 K, with potential X-ray signatures. In this work, we constrain the bubbles’ thermal gas structure by modeling O vii and O viii emission line strengths from archival XMM-Newton and Suzaku data. Our emission model includes a hot thermal volume-filled bubble component cospatial with the gamma-ray region, and a shell of compressed material. We find that a bubble/shell model with n≈ 1× {10}-3 cm-3 and with log(T) ≈ 6.60-6.70 is consistent with the observed line intensities. In the framework of a continuous Galactic outflow, we infer a bubble expansion rate, age, and energy injection rate of {490}-77+230 km s-1, {4.3}-1.4+0.8 Myr, and {2.3}-0.9+5.1× {10}42 erg s-1. These estimates are consistent with the bubbles forming from a Sgr A* accretion event rather than from nuclear star formation.

  9. Few-Body Precursor of the Higgs Mode in a Fermi Gas.

    PubMed

    Bjerlin, J; Reimann, S M; Bruun, G M

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate that an undamped few-body precursor of the Higgs mode can be investigated in a harmonically trapped Fermi gas. Using exact diagonalization, the lowest monopole mode frequency is shown to depend nonmonotonically on the interaction strength, having a minimum in a crossover region. The minimum deepens with increasing particle number, reflecting that the mode is the few-body analogue of a many-body Higgs mode in the superfluid phase, which has a vanishing frequency at the quantum phase transition point to the normal phase. We show that this mode mainly consists of coherent excitations of time-reversed pairs, and that it can be selectively excited by modulating the interaction strength, using, for instance, a Feshbach resonance in cold atomic gases.

  10. Multiple Period States of the Superfluid Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Gentaro; Yoon, Sukjin; Dalfovo, Franco; Nakatsukasa, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    We study multiple period states (i.e., states whose period is a multiple of the lattice constant) of a two-component unpolarized superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice along the crossover between the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) states. By solving Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for a superfluid flow with finite quasimomentum, we find that, in the BCS side of the crossover, the multiple period states can be energetically favorable compared to the normal Bloch states and their survival time against dynamical instability drastically increases, suggesting that these states can be accessible in current experiments. This is in sharp contrast to the situation in BECs.

  11. Nonequilibrium Spin Dynamics in a Trapped Fermi Gas with Effective Spin-Orbit Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Stanescu, Tudor D.; Zhang Chuanwei; Galitski, Victor

    2007-09-14

    We consider a trapped atomic system in the presence of spatially varying laser fields. The laser-atom interaction generates a pseudospin degree of freedom (referred to simply as spin) and leads to an effective spin-orbit coupling for the fermions in the trap. Reflections of the fermions from the trap boundaries provide a physical mechanism for effective momentum relaxation and nontrivial spin dynamics due to the emergent spin-orbit coupling. We explicitly consider evolution of an initially spin-polarized Fermi gas in a two-dimensional harmonic trap and derive nonequilibrium behavior of the spin polarization. It shows periodic echoes with a frequency equal to the harmonic trapping frequency. Perturbations, such as an asymmetry of the trap, lead to the suppression of the spin echo amplitudes. We discuss a possible experimental setup to observe spin dynamics and provide numerical estimates of relevant parameters.

  12. Bulk Viscosity and Conformal Symmetry Breaking in the Dilute Fermi Gas near Unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusling, Kevin; Schäfer, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The dilute Fermi gas at unitarity is scale invariant and its bulk viscosity vanishes. We compute, in the high temperature limit, the leading contribution to the bulk viscosity when the scattering length is not infinite. A measure of scale breaking is provided by the ratio (P-2/3E)/P, where P is the pressure and E is the energy density. At high temperature this ratio scales as zλ/a, where z is the fugacity, λ is the thermal wavelength, and a is the scattering length. We show that the bulk viscosity ζ scales as the second power of this parameter, ζ˜(zλ/a)2λ-3.

  13. Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena Wilson Loops in the Fermi Gas Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, Albrecht; Mariño, Marcos; Soroush, Masoud

    2013-02-01

    The matrix model of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory can be formulated in terms of an ideal Fermi gas with a non-trivial one-particle Hamiltonian. We show that, in this formalism, vacuum expectation values (vevs) of Wilson loops correspond to averages of operators in the statistical-mechanical problem. This makes it possible to calculate these vevs at all orders in 1/N, up to exponentially small corrections, and for arbitrary Chern-Simons coupling, by using the Wentzel- Kramer-Brillouin expansion.We present explicit results for the vevs of 1/6 and the 1/2 Bogomolnyi- Prasad-Sommerfield Wilson loops, at any winding number, in terms of Airy functions. Our expressions are shown to reproduce the low genus results obtained previously in the 't Hooft expansion.

  14. Trapping Effect of Periodic Structures on the Thermodynamic Properties of a Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, P.; Solís, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    We report the thermodynamic properties of an ideal Fermi gas immersed in periodic structures such as penetrable multilayers or multitubes simulated by one (planes) or two perpendicular (tubes) external Dirac comb potentials, while the particles are allowed to move freely in the remaining directions. In contrast to what happens to the bosonic chemical potential, which is a constant for T< T c , a non decreasing with temperature anomalous behavior of the fermionic chemical potential is confirmed and monitored as the tube bundle goes from 3D to 1D when the wall impenetrability overcomes a threshold value. In the specific heat curves dimensional crossovers are very noticeable at high temperatures, where the system behavior goes from 3D to 2D for multilayers or from 3D to 1D for multitubes, as the wall impenetrability is increased.

  15. Universal Relations for a Fermi Gas Close to a p-Wave Interaction Resonance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhua; Thywissen, Joseph H; Zhang, Shizhong

    2015-09-25

    We investigate the properties of a spinless Fermi gas close to a p-wave interaction resonance. We show that the effects of interaction near a p-wave resonance are captured by two contacts, which are related to the variation of energy with the p-wave scattering volume v and with the effective range R in two adiabatic theorems. Exact pressure and virial relations are derived. We show how the two contacts determine the leading and subleading asymptotic behavior of the momentum distribution (∼1/k^{2} and ∼1/k^{4}) and how they can be measured experimentally by radio-frequency and photoassociation spectroscopies. Finally, we evaluate the two contacts at high temperature with a virial expansion.

  16. Universal Relations for a Fermi Gas Close to a p -Wave Interaction Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Thywissen, Joseph H.; Zhang, Shizhong

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the properties of a spinless Fermi gas close to a p -wave interaction resonance. We show that the effects of interaction near a p -wave resonance are captured by two contacts, which are related to the variation of energy with the p -wave scattering volume v and with the effective range R in two adiabatic theorems. Exact pressure and virial relations are derived. We show how the two contacts determine the leading and subleading asymptotic behavior of the momentum distribution (˜1 /k2 and ˜1 /k4) and how they can be measured experimentally by radio-frequency and photoassociation spectroscopies. Finally, we evaluate the two contacts at high temperature with a virial expansion.

  17. Induced interaction in a Fermi gas with a BEC-BCS crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Zengqiang; Huang Kun; Yin Lan

    2009-05-15

    We study the effect of the induced interaction on the superfluid transition temperature of a Fermi gas with a Bose-Einstein condensation-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BEC-BCS) crossover. The Gorkov-Melik-Barkhudarov theory about the induced interaction is extended from the BCS side to the entire crossover and the pairing fluctuation is treated in the approach by Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink. At unitarity, the induced interaction reduces the transition temperature by about 20%. In the BCS limit, the transition temperature is reduced by a factor of about 2.22, as found by Gorkov and Melik-Barkhudarov. Our result shows that the effect of the induced interaction is important both on the BCS side and in the unitary region.

  18. Superconformal Chern-Simons partition functions of affine D-type quiver from Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Sanefumi; Nosaka, Tomoki

    2015-09-01

    We consider the partition function of the superconformal Chern-Simons theories with the quiver diagram being the affine D-type Dynkin diagram. Rewriting the partition function into that of a Fermi gas system, we show that the perturbative expansions in 1 /N are summed up to an Airy function, as in the ABJM theory or more generally the theories of the affine A-type quiver. As a corollary, this provides a proof for the previous proposal in the large N limit. For special values of the Chern-Simons levels, we further identify three species of the membrane instantons and also conjecture an exact expression of the overall constant, which corresponds to the constant map in the topological string theory. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Measuring Spin-Charge Separation in a 1D Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jacob A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-05-01

    We present progress on measurement of spin-charge separation in a two-component, strongly interacting, 1D gas of fermionic lithium. A characteristic feature of interacting 1D Fermi gases is that the velocity of a charge excitation propagates faster than a spin excitation. We create an excitation by applying a dipole force at the center of the cloud using a sheet of light. Depending on the detuning of this beam, we can either excite both spin species equally (charge excitation) or preferentially (spin excitation). Once this beam is turned off, the excitations propagate to the edges of the atomic cloud at a velocity determined by coupling strength. A magnetically tuned Feshbach resonance enables us to vary this coupling and map out the velocities of spin and charge excitations. Supported by an ARO MURI Grant, NSF, and The Welch Foundation

  20. Bulk viscosity and conformal symmetry breaking in the dilute Fermi gas near unitarity.

    PubMed

    Dusling, Kevin; Schäfer, Thomas

    2013-09-20

    The dilute Fermi gas at unitarity is scale invariant and its bulk viscosity vanishes. We compute, in the high temperature limit, the leading contribution to the bulk viscosity when the scattering length is not infinite. A measure of scale breaking is provided by the ratio (P-2πħ/3ε)/P, where P is the pressure and E is the energy density. At high temperature this ratio scales as zλ/a, where z is the fugacity, λ is the thermal wavelength, and a is the scattering length. We show that the bulk viscosity ζ scales as the second power of this parameter, ζ~(zλ/a)(2)λ(-3).

  1. Elliptic flow of the dilute Fermi gas: From kinetics to hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dusling, K.; Schaefer, T.

    2011-07-15

    We use the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation-time approximation to study the expansion of a dilute Fermi gas at unitarity. We focus, in particular, on the approach to the hydrodynamic limit. Our main findings are the following: (i) In the regime that has been studied experimentally hydrodynamic effects beyond the Navier-Stokes approximation are small. (ii) Mean-field corrections to the Boltzmann equation are not important. (iii) Experimental data imply that freezeout occurs very late, which means that the relaxation time remains smaller than the expansion time during the entire evolution of the system. (iv) The experimental results also imply that the bulk viscosity is significantly smaller than the shear viscosity of the system.

  2. Dissipative fluid dynamics for the dilute Fermi gas at unitarity: Free expansion and rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, T.

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the expansion dynamics of a dilute Fermi gas at unitarity in the context of dissipative fluid dynamics. Our aim is to quantify the effects of shear viscosity on the time evolution of the system. We compare exact numerical solutions of the equations of viscous hydrodynamics to various approximations that have been proposed in the literature. Our main findings are (i) shear viscosity leads to characteristic features in the expansion dynamics; (ii) a quantitative description of these effects has to include reheating; (iii) dissipative effects are not sensitive to the equation of state P(n,T) as long as the universal relation P=(2/3)E is satisfied; (iv) the expansion dynamics mainly constrains the cloud average of the shear viscosity.

  3. Phonon contribution to the shear viscosity of a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitarity limit

    SciTech Connect

    Mannarelli, Massimo; Manuel, Cristina; Tolos, Laura

    2013-09-15

    We present a detailed analysis of the contribution of small-angle Nambu–Goldstone boson (phonon) collisions to the shear viscosity, η, in a superfluid atomic Fermi gas close to the unitarity limit. We show that the experimental values of the shear viscosity coefficient to entropy ratio, η/s, obtained at the lowest reached temperature can be reproduced assuming that phonons give the leading contribution to η. The phonon contribution is evaluated considering 1↔2 processes and taking into account the finite size of the experimental system. In particular, for very low temperatures, T≲0.1T{sub F}, we find that phonons are ballistic and the contribution of phonons to the shear viscosity is determined by the processes that take place at the interface between the superfluid and the normal phase. This result is independent of the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law and leads to two testable predictions: the shear viscosity should correlate with the size of the optical trap and it should decrease with decreasing temperature. For higher temperatures the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law becomes relevant and, within our model, we find that the experimental data for η/s can be reproduced assuming that phonons have an anomalous dispersion law. -- Highlights: •We study the contribution of phonons to shear viscosity of a cold Fermi gas at unitary. •The shear viscosity to entropy ratio (η/s) is reproduced for T<∼0.1T{sub F}. •For very low temperatures η/s correlates with the size of the optical trap. •We explain η/s for T>∼0.1T{sub F} assuming an anomalous dispersion law for phonons.

  4. Pairing fluctuations and an anisotropic pseudogap phenomenon in an ultracold superfluid Fermi gas with plural p -wave superfluid phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inotani, Daisuke; Ohashi, Yoji

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the superfluid properties of a one-component Fermi gas with a uniaxially anisotropic p -wave pairing interaction, Ux>Uy=Uz [where Ui(i =x ,y ,z ) is a pi-wave pairing interaction]. This type of interaction is considered to be realized in a 40K Fermi gas. Including pairing fluctuations within a strong-coupling T -matrix theory, we determine the px-wave superfluid phase transition temperature Tcpx, as well as the other phase transition temperature Tcpx+i py(Fermi superfluid with a nodal superfluid order parameter. Since the p -wave Fermi superfluid is the most promising non-s -wave pairing state in an ultracold Fermi gas, our results would contribute to understanding how the anisotropic pairing fluctuations, as well as the existence of plural superfluid phases, affect many-body properties of this unconventional Fermi superfluid.

  5. The rapid control of interactions in a two-component Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stites, Ronald William Donald

    In this dissertation, we describe a variety of experiments having application to ultra-cold atomic gases. While the majority of the experimental results focus on the development of a novel laser source for cooling and manipulating a gas of fermionic 6Li atoms, we also report on a preliminary investigation of rapidly controlling interactions in a two-component Fermi gas. One of the primary tools for our ultra-cold atomic physics experiments is 671 nm laser light nearly resonant with the D1 and D2 spectroscopic lines of ultracold fermionic 6Li atoms. Traditionally, this light is generated using dye lasers or tapered amplifier systems. Here we describe a diode pumped solid state ring laser system utilizing a Nd:YVO 4 gain crystal. Nd:YVO4 has a 4F 3/2 → 4I13/2 emission line at 1342 nm. This wavelength is double the 671 nm needed for our experiments. As a part of this investigation, we also measured the Verdet constant of undoped Y3Al5O12 in the near infrared for constructing a Faraday rotator used to drive unidirectional operation of our ring laser. As an alternative method to achieve unidirectional, single-frequency operation of the laser, we developed a novel scheme of "self-injection locking" where a small portion of the output beam is coupled back into the cavity to break the symmetry. This technique is useful for high-power, single-frequency operation of a ring laser because lossy elements needed for frequency selection and unidirectional operation of the laser can be removed from the internal cavity. In addition to our laser experiments, we also drive Raman transitions between different magnetic hyperfine states within 6Li atoms. For atoms in the two lowest hyperfine states, there exists a broad Feshbach resonance at 834.1 Gauss whereby the s-wave scattering length diverges, resulting in strong interactions between the two species. By using two phase locked lasers to drive a transition from a strongly interacting state to a weakly interacting state, we can

  6. Self-energy of an impurity in an ideal Fermi gas to second order in the interaction strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefzger, Christian; Castin, Yvan

    2014-09-01

    We study in three dimensions the problem of a spatially homogeneous zero-temperature ideal Fermi gas of spin-polarized particles of mass m perturbed by the presence of a single distinguishable impurity of mass M. The interaction between the impurity and the fermions involves only the partial s wave through the scattering length a and has negligible range b compared to the inverse Fermi wave number 1/kF of the gas. Through the interactions with the Fermi gas the impurity gives birth to a quasiparticle, which will be here a Fermi polaron (or more precisely a monomeron). We consider the general case of an impurity moving with wave vector K ≠0: Then the quasiparticle acquires a finite lifetime in its initial momentum channel because it can radiate particle-hole pairs in the Fermi sea. A description of the system using a variational approach, based on a finite number of particle-hole excitations of the Fermi sea, then becomes inappropriate around K =0. We rely thus upon perturbation theory, where the small and negative parameter kFa→0- excludes any branches other than the monomeronic one in the ground state (as, e.g., the dimeronic one), and allows us a systematic study of the system. We calculate the impurity self-energy Σ(2)(K,ω) up to second order included in a. Remarkably, we obtain an analytical explicit expression for Σ(2)(K,ω), allowing us to study its derivatives in the plane (K,ω). These present interesting singularities, which in general appear in the third-order derivatives ∂3Σ(2)(K,ω). In the special case of equal masses, M =m, singularities appear already in the physically more accessible second-order derivatives ∂2Σ(2)(K,ω); using a self-consistent heuristic approach based on Σ(2) we then regularize the divergence of the second-order derivative ∂K2ΔE(K) of the complex energy of the quasiparticle found in Trefzger and Castin [Europhys. Lett. 104, 50005 (2013), 10.1209/0295-5075/104/50005] at K =kF, and we predict an interesting scaling

  7. Contact Tensor in a p-Wave Fermi Gas with Anisotropic Feshbach Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shuhei M.; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-05-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations have revealed that a Fermi gas with a p-wave Feshbach resonance has universal relations between the system's high-momentum behavior and thermodynamics. A new feature introduced by the p-wave interaction is anisotropy in the Feshbach resonances; three degenerate p-wave resonances split according to the magnetic quantum number of the closed-channel molecules | m | due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we investigate the consequences of the anisotropy. We show that the momentum distribution has a high-momentum asymptote nk ~k-2 ∑ m, m' = - 1 1 >Cm, m'Y1m * (\\kcirc)Y1m' (\\kcirc) , in which we introduce the p-wave contact tensor Cm ,m'. In contrast to the previous studies, it has nine components. We identify them as the number, angular momentum, and nematicity of the closed-channel molecules. We also discuss two examples, the anisotropic p-wave superfluid and a gas confined in a cigar-shaped trap, which exhibit a nematicity component in the p-wave contact tensor.

  8. Collective mode evidence of high-spin bosonization in a trapped one-dimensional atomic Fermi gas with tunable spin

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xia-Ji Hu, Hui

    2014-11-15

    We calculate the frequency of collective modes of a one-dimensional repulsively interacting Fermi gas with high-spin symmetry confined in harmonic traps at zero temperature. This is a system realizable with fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms such as {sup 173}Yb, which displays an exact SU(κ) spin symmetry with κ⩾2 and behaves like a spinless interacting Bose gas in the limit of infinite spin components κ→∞, namely high-spin bosonization. We solve the homogeneous equation of state of the high-spin Fermi system by using Bethe ansatz technique and obtain the density distribution in harmonic traps based on local density approximation. The frequency of collective modes is calculated by exactly solving the zero-temperature hydrodynamic equation. In the limit of large number of spin-components, we show that the mode frequency of the system approaches that of a one-dimensional spinless interacting Bose gas, as a result of high-spin bosonization. Our prediction of collective modes is in excellent agreement with a very recent measurement for a Fermi gas of {sup 173}Yb atoms with tunable spin confined in a two-dimensional tight optical lattice.

  9. Solution of the Problem of the Couette Flow for a Fermi Gas with Almost Specular Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrikova, E. A.; Latyshev, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    A solution of the Couette problem for a Fermi gas is constructed. The kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation is used. Almost specular boundary conditions are considered. Formulas for the mass flux and the heat flux of the gas are obtained. These fluxes are proportional to the difference of the tangential momentum accommodation coefficients of the molecules. An expression for the viscous drag force acting on the walls of the channel is also found. An analysis of the macroparameters of the gas is performed. The limit to classical gases is taken. The obtained results are found to go over to the known results in this limit.

  10. Topological states in a one-dimensional fermi gas with attractive interaction.

    PubMed

    Ruhman, Jonathan; Berg, Erez; Altman, Ehud

    2015-03-13

    We describe a novel topological superfluid state, which forms in a one-dimensional Fermi gas with Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling, a Zeeman field, and intrinsic attractive interactions. In spite of total number conservation and the presence of gapless excitations, Majorana-like zero modes appear in this system and can be linked with interfaces between two distinct phases that naturally form at different regions of the harmonic trap. As a result, the low lying collective excitations of the system, including the dipole oscillations and the long-wavelength phonons are all doubly degenerate. While backscattering from point impurities can lead to a splitting of the degeneracies that scales algebraically with the system size, the smooth confining potential can only cause an exponentially small splitting. We show that the topological state can be uniquely probed by a pumping effect induced by a slow sweep of the Zeeman field from a high initial value down to zero. The effect is expected to be robust to introducing a finite temperature as long as it is much smaller than the interaction induced single particle gap in the final state of the sweep. PMID:25815908

  11. Clock shifts in a Fermi gas interacting with a minority component: A soluble model

    SciTech Connect

    Bruun, G. M.; Pethick, C. J.; Yu Zhenhua

    2010-03-15

    We consider the absorption spectrum of a Fermi gas mixed with a minority species when majority fermions are transferred to another internal state by an external probe. In the limit when the minority species is much more massive than the majority one, we show that the minority species may be treated as static impurities and the problem can be solved in closed form. The analytical results bring out the importance of vertex corrections, which change qualitatively the nature of the absorption spectrum. It is demonstrated that large line shifts are not associated with resonant interactions in general. We also show that the commonly used ladder approximation fails when the majority component is degenerate for large mass ratios between the minority and majority species and that bubble diagrams, which correspond to the creation of many particle-hole pairs, must be taken into account. We carry out detailed numerical calculations, which confirm the analytical insights, and we point out the connection to shadowing phenomena in nuclear physics.

  12. Equivalence between local Fermi gas and shell models in inclusive muon capture from nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, J. E.; Maieron, C.; Nieves, J.; Valverde, M.

    2005-06-01

    Motivated by recent studies of inclusive neutrino nucleus processes and muon capture within a correlated local Fermi gas model (LFG), we discuss the relevance of nuclear finite-size effects in these reactions at low energy, in particular for muon capture. To disentangle these effects from others coming from the reaction dynamics we employ here a simple uncorrelated shell model that embodies the typical finite-size content of the problem. The integrated decay widths of muon atoms calculated with this shell model are then compared for several nuclei with those obtained within the uncorrelated LFG, using in both models exactly the same theoretical ingredients and parameters. We find that the two predictions are in quite good agreement, within 1-7%, when the shell model density and the correct energy balance is used as input in the LFG calculation. The present study indicates that, despite the low excitation energies involved in the reaction, integrated inclusive observables, like the total muon capture width, are quite independent of the fine details of the nuclear wave functions.

  13. Numerical analysis of spin-orbit-coupled one-dimensional Fermi gas in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y. H.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the density-matrix renormalization group and the infinite time-evolving block decimation methods we study the interacting spin-orbit-coupled 1D Fermi gas in a transverse magnetic field. We find that the system with an attractive interaction can have a polarized insulator phase, a superconducting (SC) phase, a Luther-Emery (LE) phase, and a band insulator phase as we vary the chemical potential and the strength of the magnetic field. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) enhances the triplet pairing order at zero momentum in both the SC and the LE phase, which leads to an algebraically decaying correlation with the same exponent as that of the singlet pairing one. In contrast to the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase found in the spin imbalanced system without SOC, pairings at finite momentum in these two phases have larger exponents hence do not dictate the long-range behavior. We also test for the presence of Majorana fermions in this system. Unlike results from the mean-field study, we do not find positive evidence of Majorana fermions.

  14. Observing the 1D-3D Crossover in a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-05-01

    Trapped two-component Fermi gases phase separate into superfluid and normal phases when their spin populations are imbalanced. In 3D, a balanced superfluid core is surrounded by shells of partially polarized and normal phases, while in 1D, the balanced superfluid occupies the low density wings. We explored the crossover from 3D to 1D using a two-spin component ultracold atomic gas of 6 Li prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels, where the interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. The atoms are confined to 1D tubes where the tunneling rate t between tubes is varied by changing the depth of a 2D optical lattice. We observe the transition from 1D to 3D-like phase separation by varying t and interaction strength which changes the pair binding energy ɛB. We find a universal scaling of the dimensional crossover with t /ɛB , in agreement with previous theory. The crossover region is believed to be the most promising to find the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by the NSF and the Welch Foundation.

  15. Topological States in a One-Dimensional Fermi Gas with Attractive Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhman, Jonathan; Berg, Erez; Altman, Ehud

    2015-03-01

    We describe a novel topological superfluid state, which forms in a one-dimensional Fermi gas with Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling, a Zeeman field, and intrinsic attractive interactions. In spite of total number conservation and the presence of gapless excitations, Majorana-like zero modes appear in this system and can be linked with interfaces between two distinct phases that naturally form at different regions of the harmonic trap. As a result, the low lying collective excitations of the system, including the dipole oscillations and the long-wavelength phonons are all doubly degenerate. While backscattering from point impurities can lead to a splitting of the degeneracies that scales algebraically with the system size, the smooth confining potential can only cause an exponentially small splitting. We show that the topological state can be uniquely probed by a pumping effect induced by a slow sweep of the Zeeman field from a high initial value down to zero. The effect is expected to be robust to introducing a finite temperature as long as it is much smaller than the interaction induced single particle gap in the final state of the sweep.

  16. Topological States in a One-Dimensional Fermi Gas with Attractive Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhman, Jonathan; Berg, Erez; Altman, Ehud

    2015-03-01

    We show that a single one-dimensional Fermi gas with Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling, a Zeeman field and intrinsic attractive interactions exhibits a novel topological superfluid state, which forms in spite of total number conservation and the absence of a single particle gap. Topological ground state degeneracy is associated with interfaces between two distinct phases that naturally form in the harmonic confining potential due to the spatial variations of the chemical potential. We find that backscattering by impurities, or simply by the interfaces themselves, effects a splitting in the topological degeneracy which generally scales as 1 /L K / 2 , where L is the size of the system and K is the Luttinger parameter. However, when the interfaces are sufficiently smooth, as in the case of a harmonic confining potential, the splitting becomes exponentially small in the system size. We also discuss the experimental implications of the novel ground state degeneracy, as manifest for example in the response to simple dipole modulations of the harmonic trap potential.

  17. Second sound and the superfluid fraction in a Fermi gas with resonant interactions.

    PubMed

    Sidorenkov, Leonid A; Tey, Meng Khoon; Grimm, Rudolf; Hou, Yan-Hua; Pitaevskii, Lev; Stringari, Sandro

    2013-06-01

    Superfluidity is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon occurring in systems as diverse as liquid helium and neutron stars. It occurs below a critical temperature and leads to peculiar behaviour such as frictionless flow, the formation of quantized vortices and quenching of the moment of inertia. Ultracold atomic gases offer control of interactions and external confinement, providing unique opportunities to explore superfluid phenomena. Many such (finite-temperature) phenomena can be explained in terms of a two-fluid mixture comprising a normal component, which behaves like an ordinary fluid, and a superfluid component with zero viscosity and zero entropy. The two-component nature of a superfluid is manifest in 'second sound', an entropy wave in which the superfluid and the non-superfluid components oscillate with opposite phases (as opposed to ordinary 'first sound', where they oscillate in phase). Here we report the observation of second sound in an ultracold Fermi gas with resonant interactions. The speed of second sound depends explicitly on the value of the superfluid fraction, a quantity that is sensitive to the spectrum of elementary excitations. Our measurements allow us to extract the temperature dependence of the superfluid fraction, a previously inaccessible quantity that will provide a benchmark for theories of strongly interacting quantum gases. PMID:23676679

  18. Parity-violating electron scattering from the pion-correlated relativistic Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, M. B.; De Pace, A.; Donnelly, T. W.; Molinari, A.

    1994-03-01

    Parity-violating quasielastic electron scattering is studied within the context of the relativistic Fermi gas and its extensions to include the effects of pionic correlations and meson-exchange currents. The work builds on previous studies using the same model; here the part of the parity-violating asymmetry that contains axial-vector hadronic currents is developed in detail using those previous studies and a link is provided to the transverse vector-isovector response. Various integrated observables are constructed from the differential asymmetry. These include an asymmetry averaged over the quasielastic peak, as well as the difference of the asymmetry integrated to the left and right of the peak — the latter is shown to be optimal for bringing out the nature of the pionic correlations. Special weighted integrals involving the differential asymmetry and electromagnetic cross section, based on the concepts of y-scaling and sum rules, are constructed and shown to be suited to studies of the single-nucleon form factor content in the problem, in particular, to determinations of the isovector/axial-vector and electric strangeness form factors. Comparisons are also made with recent predictions made on the basis of relativistic mean-field theory.

  19. Asymmetric dipolar ring

    DOEpatents

    Prosandeev, Sergey A.; Ponomareva, Inna V.; Kornev, Igor A.; Bellaiche, Laurent M.

    2010-11-16

    A device having a dipolar ring surrounding an interior region that is disposed asymmetrically on the ring. The dipolar ring generates a toroidal moment switchable between at least two stable states by a homogeneous field applied to the dipolar ring in the plane of the ring. The ring may be made of ferroelectric or magnetic material. In the former case, the homogeneous field is an electric field and in the latter case, the homogeneous field is a magnetic field.

  20. Sound propagation and oscillations of a superfluid Fermi gas in the presence of a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Pitaevskii, L.P.; Stringari, S.; Orso, G.

    2005-05-15

    We develop the hydrodynamic theory of Fermi superfluids in the presence of a periodic potential. The relevant parameters governing the propagation of sound (compressibility and effective mass) are calculated in the weakly interacting BCS limit. The conditions of stability of the superfluid motion with respect to creation of elementary excitations are discussed. We also evaluate the frequency of the center-of-mass oscillation when the superfluid gas is additionally confined by a harmonic trap.

  1. Strong-coupling corrections to spin susceptibility in the BCS-BEC-crossover regime of a superfluid Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the uniform spin susceptibility χ in the superfluid phase of an ultracold Fermi gas in the region of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein-condensate (BCS-BEC) crossover. In our previous paper [H. Tajima et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 033617 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.033617], including pairing fluctuations within an extended T -matrix approximation (ETMA), we showed that strong pairing fluctuations cause the so-called spin-gap phenomenon, where χ is anomalously suppressed even in the normal state near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc. In this paper, we extend this work to the superfluid phase below Tc, to clarify how this many-body phenomenon is affected by the superfluid order. From the comparison of the ETMA χ with the Yosida function describing the spin susceptibility in a weak-coupling BCS superfluid, we identify the region where pairing fluctuations crucially affect this magnetic quantity below Tc in the phase diagram with respect to the strength of a pairing interaction and the temperature. This spin-gap regime is found to be consistent with the previous pseudogap regime determined from the pseudogapped density of states. We also compare our results with a recent experiment on a 6Li Fermi gas. Since the spin susceptibility is sensitive to the formation of spin-singlet preformed pairs, our results would be useful for the study of pseudogap physics in an ultracold Fermi gas on the viewpoint of the spin degrees of freedom.

  2. Effect of phase fluctuations on the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state in a three-dimensional Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devreese, Jeroen P. A.; Tempere, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In ultracold Fermi gases, the effect of spin imbalance on superfluidity has been the subject of intense study. One of the reasons for this is that spin imbalance frustrates the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid pairing mechanism, in which fermions in different spin states combine into Cooper pairs with zero momentum. In 1964, it was proposed that an exotic superfluid state called the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, in which the Cooper pairs have nonzero momentum, could exist in a spin-imbalanced Fermi gas. At the saddle-point (mean-field) level, it has been shown that the FFLO state only occupies a very small sliver in the ground-state phase diagram of a three-dimensional (3D) Fermi gas. However, a question that remains to be investigated is as follows: What is the influence of phase fluctuations on the FFLO state? In this work, we show that phase fluctuations only lead to relatively small quantitative corrections to the presence of the FFLO state in the saddle-point phase diagram of a 3D spin-imbalanced Fermi gas. Starting from the partition function of the system, we calculate the effective action within the path-integral adiabatic approximation. The action is then expanded up to second order in the fluctuation field around the saddle point, leading to the fluctuation free energy. Using this free energy, we calculate corrections due to phase fluctuations to the BCS-FFLO transition in the saddle-point phase diagram. At temperatures at which the FFLO state exists, we find only small corrections to the size of the FFLO area. Our results suggest that fluctuations of the phase of the FFLO order parameter, which can be interpreted as an oscillation of its momentum vector, do not cause an instability of the FFLO state with respect to the BCS state.

  3. Magnetic excitations and spin-gap phenomenon in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Hiroyuki; Kashimura, Takashi; Hanai, Ryo; Watanabe, Ryota; Ohashi, Yoji

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the uniform spin susceptibility χ and strong-coupling corrections in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas. Within the framework of an extended T-matrix theory,[2] we show that χ exhibits non-monotonic temperature dependence in the normal state, and is suppressed near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc. This spin-gap phenomenon is found to be deeply related to the pseudogap phenomenon appearing in the single-particle density of states. To characterize this magnetic phenomenon, we introduce the spin-gap temperature Ts as the temperature at which χ takes a maximum value. Determining Ts in the entire BCS-BEC crossover region, we identify the spin-gap regime in the phase diagram of a Fermi gas with respect to the temperature and the strength of a pairing interaction. Since the spin-gap is crucial key phenomenon in high-Tc cuprates, our results would be useful for the study of this many-body phenomenon using ultracold Fermi gases, as well as in observing the pseudogap phenomenon through the spin-gap phenomenon. H. T. was supported by the Research Grant of Keio Leading-edge Laboratory of Science & Technology.

  4. Cold Fermi gas with inverse square interaction in a harmonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Manas; Abanov, Alexander G.

    2011-05-01

    We study equilibrium density and spin density profiles for a model of cold one-dimensional spin 1/2 fermions interacting via inverse square interaction and exchange in an external harmonic trap. This model is the well-known spin-Calogero model (sCM) and its fully nonlinear collective field theory description is known. We extend the field theory description to the presence of an external harmonic trap and obtain analytic results for statics and dynamics of the system. For instance, we find how the equilibrium density profile changes upon tuning the interaction strength. The results we obtain for equilibrium configurations are very similar to the ones obtained recently by Ma and Yang (2010) [1] for a model of fermions with short ranged interactions. Our main approximation is the neglect of the terms of higher order in spatial derivatives in equations of motion - gradientless approximation (Kulkarni et al., 2009) [2]. Within this approximation the hydrodynamic equations of motion can be written as a set of decoupled forced Riemann-Hopf equations for the dressed Fermi momenta of the model. This enables us to write analytical solutions for the dynamics of spin and charge. We describe the time evolution of the charge density when an initial non-equilibrium profile is created by cooling the gas with an additional potential in place and then suddenly removing the potential. We present our results as a simple "single-particle" evolution in the phase space reminiscing a similar description of the dynamics of noninteracting one-dimensional fermions.

  5. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W entanglement witnesses for the noninteracting Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Habibian, Hessam; Clark, John W.; Behbood, Naeimeh; Hingerl, Kurt

    2010-03-15

    The existence and nature of tripartite entanglement of a noninteracting Fermi gas (NIFG) is investigated. Three classes of parametrized entanglement witnesses (EWs) are introduced with the aim of detecting genuine tripartite entanglement in the three-body reduced density matrix and discriminating between the presence of the two types of genuine tripartite entanglement, W/B and GHZ/W (the convex set of B states is comprised of mixed states of product and biseparable states; that of W states is comprised of mixed states of B states and W-type pure entangled states; and the GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) set contains generic mixtures of any kind for a tripartite system). By choosing appropriate EW operators, the problem of finding GHZ and W EWs is reduced to linear programming. Specifically, we devise W EWs based on a spin-chain model with periodic boundary conditions, and we construct a class of parametrized GHZ EWs by linearly combining projection operators corresponding to all the different state-vector types arising for a three-fermion system. A third class of EWs is provided by a GHZ stabilizer operator capable of distinguishing W/B from GHZ/B entanglement, which is not possible with W EWs. Implementing these classes of EWs, it is found that all states containing genuine tripartite entanglement are of W type, and hence states containing GHZ/W genuine tripartite entanglement do not arise. Some genuine tripartite entangled states that have a positive partial transpose (PPT) with respect to some bipartition are detected. Finally, it is demonstrated that a NIFG does not exhibit 'pure'W/B genuine tripartite entanglement: three-party entanglement without any separable or biseparable admixture does not occur.

  6. All-optical pump-and-probe detection of two-time correlations in a Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Dao, T.-L.; Kollath, C.; Carusotto, I.; Koehl, M.

    2010-04-15

    We propose an all-optical scheme to probe the dynamical correlations of a strongly interacting gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice potential. The proposed technique is based on a pump-and-probe scheme: a coherent light pulse is initially converted into an atomic coherence and later retrieved after a variable storage time. The efficiency of the proposed method to measure the two-time one-particle Green function of the gas is validated by numerical and analytical calculations of the expected signal for the two cases of a normal Fermi gas and a BCS superfluid state. Protocols to extract the superfluid gap and the full quasiparticle dispersions are discussed.

  7. Equation of State and Collective Frequencies of a Trapped Fermi Gas Along the BEC-Unitarity Crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Astrakharchik, G.E.; Combescot, R.; Leyronas, X.; Stringari, S.

    2005-07-15

    We show that the study of the collective oscillations in a harmonic trap provides a very sensitive test of the equation of state of a Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance. Using a scaling approach, whose high accuracy is proven by comparison with exact hydrodynamic solutions, the frequencies of the lowest compressional modes are calculated at T=0 in terms of a dimensionless parameter characterizing the equation of state. The predictions for the collective frequencies, obtained from the equations of state of mean-field BCS theory and of recent Monte Carlo calculations, are discussed in detail.

  8. Condensate fraction of a resonant Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling in three and two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Anna, L.; Mazzarella, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2011-09-15

    We study the effects of laser-induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling along the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensate (BCS-BEC) crossover of a Feshbach resonance for a two-spin-component Fermi gas. We calculate the condensate fraction in three and two dimensions and find that this quantity characterizes the crossover better than other quantities, like the chemical potential or the pairing gap. By considering both the singlet and the triplet pairings, we calculate the condensate fraction and show that a large-enough spin-orbit interaction enhances the singlet condensate fraction in the BCS side while suppressing it on the BEC side.

  9. Large-scale behaviour of local and entanglement entropy of the free Fermi gas at any temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschke, Hajo; Sobolev, Alexander V.; Spitzer, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The leading asymptotic large-scale behaviour of the spatially bipartite entanglement entropy (EE) of the free Fermi gas infinitely extended in multidimensional Euclidean space at zero absolute temperature, T = 0, is by now well understood. Here, we present and discuss the first rigorous results for the corresponding EE of thermal equilibrium states at T\\gt 0. The leading large-scale term of this thermal EE turns out to be twice the first-order finite-size correction to the infinite-volume thermal entropy (density). Not surprisingly, this correction is just the thermal entropy on the interface of the bipartition. However, it is given by a rather complicated integral derived from a semiclassical trace formula for a certain operator on the underlying one-particle Hilbert space. But in the zero-temperature limit T\\downarrow 0, the leading large-scale term of the thermal EE considerably simplifies and displays a {ln}(1/T)-singularity which one may identify with the known logarithmic enhancement at T = 0 of the so-called area-law scaling. birthday of the ideal Fermi gas.

  10. Finite vortex numbers and symmetric vortex structures in a rotating trapped Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, T. L.; Ma, Y. L.

    2011-08-01

    The ground state of a three-dimensional (3D) rotating trapped superfluid Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover is mapped to finite N v -body vortex states by a simple ansatz. The total vortex energy is measured from the ground-state energy of the system in the absence of the vortices. The vortex state is stable since the vortex potential and rotation energies are attractive while the vortex kinetic energy and interaction between vortices are repulsive. By combining the analytical and numerical works for the minimal vortex energy, the 2D configurations of N v vortices are studied by taking into account of the finite size effects both on xy-plane and on z-direction. The calculated vortex numbers as a function of the interaction strength are appropriate to the renew experimental results by Zwierlein in [ High-temperature superfluidity in a ultracold Fermi gas, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006]. The numerical results show that there exist two types of vortex structures: the trap center is occupied and unoccupied by a vortex, even in the case of N v < 10 with regular polygon and in the case of N v ≥ 10 with finite triangle lattice. The rotation frequency dependent vortex numbers with different interaction strengths are also discussed.

  11. Single-particle spectral density of the unitary Fermi gas: Novel approach based on the operator product expansion, sum rules and the maximum entropy method

    SciTech Connect

    Gubler, Philipp; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Nishida, Yusuke

    2015-05-15

    Making use of the operator product expansion, we derive a general class of sum rules for the imaginary part of the single-particle self-energy of the unitary Fermi gas. The sum rules are analyzed numerically with the help of the maximum entropy method, which allows us to extract the single-particle spectral density as a function of both energy and momentum. These spectral densities contain basic information on the properties of the unitary Fermi gas, such as the dispersion relation and the superfluid pairing gap, for which we obtain reasonable agreement with the available results based on quantum Monte-Carlo simulations.

  12. Induced Interactions and the Superfluid Transition Temperature in a Three-Component Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Martikainen, J.-P.; Kinnunen, J. J.; Toermae, P.; Pethick, C. J.

    2009-12-31

    We study many-body contributions to the effective interaction between fermions in a three-component Fermi mixture. We find that effective interactions induced by the third component can lead to a phase diagram different from that predicted if interactions with the third component are neglected. As a result, in a confining potential a superfluid shell structure can arise even for equal populations of the components. We also find a critical temperature for the BCS transition in a {sup 6}Li mixture which can deviate strongly from the one in a weakly interacting two-component system.

  13. Three-component Fulde-Ferrell superfluids in a two-dimensional Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fang; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the pairing physics of a three-component spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas in two spatial dimensions. The three atomic hyperfine states of the system are coupled by the recently realized synthetic spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which mixes different hyperfine states into helicity branches in a momentum-dependent manner. As a consequence, the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and the hyperfine-state-dependent interactions leads to the emergence of Fulde-Ferrell (FF) pairing states with finite center-of-mass momenta even in the absence of the Fermi-surface asymmetry that is usually mandatory to stabilize an SOC-induced FF state. We show that, for different combinations of spin-dependent interactions, the ground state of the system can either be the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer pairing state with zero center-of-mass momentum or be the FF pairing states. Of particular interest here is the existence of a three-component FF pairing state in which every two out of the three components form FF pairing. We map out the phase diagram of the system and characterize the properties of the three-component FF state, such as the order parameters, the gapless contours, and the momentum distributions. Based on these results, we discuss possible experimental detection schemes for the interesting pairing states in the system.

  14. Three-component Fulde-Ferrell super uids in a two- dimensional Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fang; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; WeiYi's Team Team; Wei Zhang's Team Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the pairing physics of a three-component spin-orbit coupled (SOC) Fermi gas in two spatial dimensions. The three atomic hyperfine states of the system are coupled by the recently realized synthetic SOC, which mixes different hyperfine states into helicity branches in a momentum-dependent manner. As a consequence, the interplay of SOC and the hyperfine-state dependent interactions leads to the emergence of Fulde-Ferrell (FF) pairing states with finite center-of-mass (COM) momenta even in the absence of the Fermi-surface asymmetry that is usually mandatory to stabilize an SOC-induced FF state. We show that, for different combinations of spin-dependent interactions, the ground state of the system can either be the conventional BCS pairing state with zero COM momentum or be the FF pairing states. Of particular interest here is the existence of a three-component FF pairing state in which every two out of the three components form FF pairing. We map out the phase diagram of the system and characterize the properties of the three-component FF state, such as the order parameters, the gapless contours and the momentum distributions. Based on these results, we discuss possible experimental detection schemes for the interesting pairing states in the system.

  15. Three-component Fulde-Ferrell superfluids in a two-dimensional Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fang; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Wei Yi's Team Team; Wei Zhang's Team Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the pairing physics of a three-component spin-orbit coupled (SOC) Fermi gas in two spatial dimensions. The three atomic hyperfine states of the system are coupled by the recently realized synthetic SOC, which mixes different hyperfine states into helicity branches in a momentum-dependent manner. As a consequence, the interplay of SOC and the hyperfine-state dependent interactions leads to the emergence of Fulde-Ferrell (FF) pairing states with finite center-of-mass (COM) momenta even in the absence of the Fermi-surface asymmetry that is usually mandatory to stabilize an SOC-induced FF state. We show that, for different combinations of spin-dependent interactions, the ground state of the system can either be the conventional BCS pairing state with zero COM momentum or be the FF pairing states. Of particular interest here is the existence of a three-component FF pairing state in which every two out of the three components form FF pairing. We map out the phase diagram of the system and characterize the properties of the three-component FF state, such as the order parameters, the gapless contours and the momentum distributions. Based on these results, we discuss possible experimental detection schemes for the interesting pairing states in the system.

  16. Path-Integral Monte Carlo Determination of the Fourth-Order Virial Coefficient for a Unitary Two-Component Fermi Gas with Zero-Range Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2016-06-01

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b4 of such a strongly interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b4 , our b4 agrees within error bars with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly antisymmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions.

  17. Path integral Monte Carlo determination of the fourth-order virial coefficient for unitary two-component Fermi gas with zero-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.

    2016-05-01

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astro physics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b4 of such a strongly-interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab inito path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b4, our b4 agrees with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly anti-symmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions. We gratefully acknowledge support by the NSF.

  18. Path-Integral Monte Carlo Determination of the Fourth-Order Virial Coefficient for a Unitary Two-Component Fermi Gas with Zero-Range Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D

    2016-06-10

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b_{4} of such a strongly interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b_{4}, our b_{4} agrees within error bars with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly antisymmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions. PMID:27341213

  19. Thermodynamics of the two-component Fermi gas with unequal masses at unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daily, K. M.; Blume, D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider mass-imbalanced two-component Fermi gases for which the unequal-mass atoms interact via a zero-range model potential with a diverging s-wave scattering length as, that is, with 1/as=0. The high-temperature thermodynamics of the harmonically trapped and homogeneous systems are examined using a virial expansion approach up to third order in the fugacity. We find that the universal part of the third-order virial coefficient associated with two light atoms and one heavy atom is negative, while that associated with two heavy and one light atom changes sign from negative to positive as the mass ratio κ increases and diverges when Efimov physics sets in at κ=13.61. By examining the Helmholtz free energy, we find that the equilibrium polarization of the trapped and homogeneous systems is 0 for κ=1, but finite for κ≠1 (with a majority of heavy particles). Compared to the equilibrium polarization of the noninteracting system, the equilibrium polarization at unitarity is increased for the trapped system and decreased for the homogeneous system. We find that unequal-mass Fermi gases are stable for all polarizations.

  20. Kohn-Sham approach to Fermi gas superfluidity: The bilayer of fermionic polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancilotto, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    By using a well-established "ab initio" theoretical approach developed in the past to quantitatively study the superconductivity of condensed matter systems, based on the Kohn-Sham density functional theory, I study the superfluid properties and the BCS-BEC crossover of two parallel bi-dimensional layers of fermionic dipolar molecules, where the pairing mechanism leading to superfluidity is provided by the interlayer coupling between dipoles. The finite temperature superfluid properties of both the homogeneous system and one where the fermions in each layer are confined by a square optical lattice are studied at half filling conditions, and for different values of the strength of the confining optical potential. The T = 0 results for the homogeneous system are found to be in excellent agreement with diffusion Monte Carlo results. The superfluid transition temperature in the BCS region is found to increase, for a given interlayer coupling, with the strength of the confining optical potential. A transition occurs at sufficiently small interlayer distances, where the fermions becomes localized within the optical lattice sites in a square geometry with an increased effective lattice constant, forming a system of localized composite bosons. This transition should be signaled by a sudden drop in the superfluid fraction of the system.

  1. Quantum Monte Carlo Study of the Ground-State Properties of a Fermi Gas in the BCS-BEC Crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgini, S.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.

    2006-11-07

    The ground-state properties of a two-component Fermi gas with attractive short-range interactions are calculated using the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method. The interaction strength is varied over a wide range by tuning the value of the s-wave scattering length of the two-body potential. We calculate the ground-state energy per particle and we characterize the equation of state of the system. Off-diagonal long-range order is investigated through the asymptotic behavior of the two-body density matrix. The condensate fraction of pairs is calculated in the unitary limit and on both sides of the BCS-BEC crossover.

  2. The Phases of an Interacting Spin-1/2 Fermi Gas as seen from a New Variational Ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sangwoo; Sun, Kuei; Bolech, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Since its introduction, the continuous matrix product states (cMPS) have demonstrated success in predicting low energy properties of repulsive one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas systems. We have extended those efforts to nonrelativistic fermions and shown that the cMPS, moreover, is able to correctly describe the ground-state superfluid and magnetic properties of interacting Fermi gases in 1D. This includes the signatures of a partially polarized superfluid regime, in agreement with the large amount of theoretical and experimental work from recent years by the cold-atoms community. The new type of ansatz promises to be ideally posed to be able to describe atomic gases in optical lattices economically but without making a lattice-model (tight-binding) approximation. Funding for this work was provided by the University of Cincinnati and by the DARPA OLE program through ARO W911NF-07-1-0464; parallel computing resources were from the Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC).

  3. Trap- and population-imbalanced two-component Fermi gas in the Bose-Einstein-condensate limit

    SciTech Connect

    Silotri, S. A.

    2010-01-15

    We study equal mass population imbalanced two-component atomic Fermi gas with unequal trap frequencies (omega{sub a}rrow upnot =omega{sub a}rrow down) at zero temperature using the local density approximation (LDA). We consider the strongly attracting Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) limit where polarized (gapless) superfluid is stable. The system exhibits shell structure: unpolarized superfluid->polarized superfluid->normal state. Compared to the trap symmetric case, when the majority component is tightly confined the gapless superfluid shell grows in size leading to reduced threshold polarization to form a polarized (gapless) superfluid core. In contrast, when the minority component is tightly confined, we find that the superfluid phase is dominated by the unpolarized superfluid phase with the gapless phase forming a narrow shell. The shell radii for various phases as a function of polarization at different values of trap asymmetry are presented and the features are explained using the phase diagram.

  4. Cascade of Solitonic Excitations in a Superfluid Fermi gas: From Planar Solitons to Vortex Rings and Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Mark J. H.; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    We follow the time evolution of a superfluid Fermi gas of resonantly interacting 6 atoms after a phase imprint. Via tomographic imaging, we observe the formation of a planar dark soliton, its subsequent snaking, and its decay into a vortex ring, which, in turn, breaks to finally leave behind a single solitonic vortex. In intermediate stages, we find evidence for an exotic structure resembling the Φ soliton, a combination of a vortex ring and a vortex line. Direct imaging of the nodal surface reveals its undulation dynamics and its decay via the puncture of the initial soliton plane. The observed evolution of the nodal surface represents dynamics beyond superfluid hydrodynamics, calling for a microscopic description of unitary fermionic superfluids out of equilibrium.

  5. Universal properties of a trapped two-component fermi gas at unitarity.

    PubMed

    Blume, D; von Stecher, J; Greene, Chris H

    2007-12-01

    We treat the trapped two-component Fermi system, in which unlike fermions interact through a two-body short-range potential having no bound state but an infinite scattering length. By accurately solving the Schrödinger equation for up to N=6 fermions, we show that no many-body bound states exist other than those bound by the trapping potential, and we demonstrate unique universal properties of the system: Certain excitation frequencies are separated by 2variant Planck's over 2piomega, the wave functions agree with analytical predictions and a virial theorem is fulfilled. Further calculations up to N=30 determine the excitation gap, an experimentally accessible universal quantity, and it agrees with recent predictions based on a density functional approach.

  6. Non-linear superflow of a unitary Fermi gas through a quantum point contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrat, Martin; Husmann, Dominik; Uchino, Shun; Krinner, Sebastian; Häusler, Samuel; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Giamarchi, Thierry; Esslinger, Tilman

    2016-05-01

    Point contacts provide simple connections between macroscopic particle reservoirs. In electric circuits, strong links between metals, semiconductors, or superconductors have applications for fundamental condensed-matter physics as well as quantum information processing. However, for complex, strongly correlated materials, links have been largely restricted to weak tunnel junctions. We studied resonantly interacting Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms connected by a tunable, ballistic quantum point contact, finding a nonlinear current-bias relation. At low temperature, our observations agree quantitatively with a theoretical model in which the current originates from multiple Andreev reflections. In a wide contact geometry, the competition between superfluidity and thermally activated transport leads to a conductance minimum. Our system offers a controllable platform for the study of mesoscopic devices based on strongly interacting matter.

  7. Universal properties of a trapped two-component fermi gas at unitarity.

    PubMed

    Blume, D; von Stecher, J; Greene, Chris H

    2007-12-01

    We treat the trapped two-component Fermi system, in which unlike fermions interact through a two-body short-range potential having no bound state but an infinite scattering length. By accurately solving the Schrödinger equation for up to N=6 fermions, we show that no many-body bound states exist other than those bound by the trapping potential, and we demonstrate unique universal properties of the system: Certain excitation frequencies are separated by 2variant Planck's over 2piomega, the wave functions agree with analytical predictions and a virial theorem is fulfilled. Further calculations up to N=30 determine the excitation gap, an experimentally accessible universal quantity, and it agrees with recent predictions based on a density functional approach. PMID:18233361

  8. The role of multiparticle correlations and Cooper pairing in the formation of molecules in an ultracold gas of Fermi atoms with a negative scattering length

    SciTech Connect

    Babichenko, V. S. Kagan, Yu.

    2012-11-15

    The influence of multiparticle correlation effects and Cooper pairing in an ultracold Fermi gas with a negative scattering length on the formation rate of molecules is investigated. Cooper pairing is shown to cause the formation rate of molecules to increase, as distinct from the influence of Bose-Einstein condensation in a Bose gas on this rate. This trend is retained in the entire range of temperatures below the critical one.

  9. Heat transfer through dipolar coupling: Sympathetic cooling without contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renklioglu, B.; Tanatar, B.; Oktel, M. Ã.-.

    2016-02-01

    We consider two parallel layers of dipolar ultracold Fermi gases at different temperatures and calculate the heat transfer between them. The effective interactions describing screening and correlation effects between the dipoles in a single layer are modeled within the Euler-Lagrange Fermi-hypernetted-chain approximation. The random-phase approximation is used for the interactions across the layers. We investigate the amount of transferred power between the layers as a function of the temperature difference. Energy transfer arises due to the long-range dipole-dipole interactions. A simple thermal model is established to investigate the feasibility of using the contactless sympathetic cooling of the ultracold polar atoms and molecules. Our calculations indicate that dipolar heat transfer is effective for typical polar molecule experiments and may be utilized as a cooling process.

  10. Observing the drop of resistance in the flow of a superfluid Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Stadler, David; Krinner, Sebastian; Meineke, Jakob; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman

    2012-11-29

    The ability of particles to flow with very low resistance is characteristic of superfluid and superconducting states, leading to their discovery in the past century. Although measuring the particle flow in liquid helium or superconducting materials is essential to identify superfluidity or superconductivity, no analogous measurement has been performed for superfluids based on ultracold Fermi gases. Here we report direct measurements of the conduction properties of strongly interacting fermions, observing the well-known drop in resistance that is associated with the onset of superfluidity. By varying the depth of the trapping potential in a narrow channel connecting two atomic reservoirs, we observed variations of the atomic current over several orders of magnitude. We related the intrinsic conduction properties to the thermodynamic functions in a model-independent way, by making use of high-resolution in situ imaging in combination with current measurements. Our results show that, as in solid-state systems, current and resistance measurements in quantum gases provide a sensitive probe with which to explore many-body physics. Our method is closely analogous to the operation of a solid-state field-effect transistor and could be applied as a probe for optical lattices and disordered systems, paving the way for modelling complex superconducting devices. PMID:23192151

  11. Interaction energy and itinerant ferromagnetism in a strongly interacting Fermi gas in the absence of molecule formation

    DOE PAGES

    He, Lianyi

    2014-11-26

    In this study, we investigate the interaction energy and the possibility of itinerant ferromagnetism in a strongly interacting Fermi gas at zero temperature in the absence of molecule formation. The interaction energy is obtained by summing the perturbative contributions of Galitskii-Feynman type to all orders in the gas parameter. It can be expressed by a simple phase-space integral of an in-medium scattering phase shift. In both three and two dimensions (3D and 2D), the interaction energy shows a maximum before reaching the resonance from the Bose-Einstein condensate side, which provides a possible explanation of the experimental measurements of the interactionmore » energy. This phenomenon can be theoretically explained by the qualitative change of the nature of the binary interaction in the medium. The appearance of an energy maximum has significant effects on the itinerant ferromagnetism. In 3D, the ferromagnetic transition is reentrant and itinerant ferromagnetism exists in a narrow window around the energy maximum. In 2D, the present theoretical approach suggests that itinerant ferromagnetism does not exist, which reflects the fact that the energy maximum becomes much lower than the energy of the fully polarized state.« less

  12. Interaction energy and itinerant ferromagnetism in a strongly interacting Fermi gas in the absence of molecule formation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lianyi

    2014-11-26

    In this study, we investigate the interaction energy and the possibility of itinerant ferromagnetism in a strongly interacting Fermi gas at zero temperature in the absence of molecule formation. The interaction energy is obtained by summing the perturbative contributions of Galitskii-Feynman type to all orders in the gas parameter. It can be expressed by a simple phase-space integral of an in-medium scattering phase shift. In both three and two dimensions (3D and 2D), the interaction energy shows a maximum before reaching the resonance from the Bose-Einstein condensate side, which provides a possible explanation of the experimental measurements of the interaction energy. This phenomenon can be theoretically explained by the qualitative change of the nature of the binary interaction in the medium. The appearance of an energy maximum has significant effects on the itinerant ferromagnetism. In 3D, the ferromagnetic transition is reentrant and itinerant ferromagnetism exists in a narrow window around the energy maximum. In 2D, the present theoretical approach suggests that itinerant ferromagnetism does not exist, which reflects the fact that the energy maximum becomes much lower than the energy of the fully polarized state.

  13. First hyperpolarizabilities of dipolar, bis-dipolar, and octupolar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Si Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol; Jeon, Seung-Joon; Asselberghs, Inge; Clays, Koen; Persoons, André; Cho, Bong Rae

    2005-02-01

    A series of dipolar ( 1), bis-dipolar ( 2), and octupolar molecules ( 3) containing 1, 2, and 6 dipolar units within a molecule has been synthesized and their hyperpolarizabilities were analyzed. The βHRS increases in the order, 1 < 2 < 3. The 'monomeric' βzzz increases by approximately twofold from 1 to 2, whereas βzzz of 2 and βxxx of 3 are similar. Noteworthy is the parallel increase in the hyperpolarizability tensor with the λmax.

  14. Mechanism of charge transfer and its impacts on Fermi-level pinning for gas molecules adsorbed on monolayer WS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Changjie; Zhu, Huili; Yang, Weihuang

    2015-06-07

    Density functional theory calculations were performed to assess changes in the geometric and electronic structures of monolayer WS{sub 2} upon adsorption of various gas molecules (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO). The most stable configuration of the adsorbed molecules, the adsorption energy, and the degree of charge transfer between adsorbate and substrate were determined. All evaluated molecules were physisorbed on monolayer WS{sub 2} with a low degree of charge transfer and accept charge from the monolayer, except for NH{sub 3}, which is a charge donor. Band structure calculations showed that the valence and conduction bands of monolayer WS{sub 2} are not significantly altered upon adsorption of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, and CO, whereas the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of O{sub 2}, NO, and NO{sub 2} are pinned around the Fermi-level when these molecules are adsorbed on monolayer WS{sub 2}. The phenomenon of Fermi-level pinning was discussed in light of the traditional and orbital mixing charge transfer theories. The impacts of the charge transfer mechanism on Fermi-level pinning were confirmed for the gas molecules adsorbed on monolayer WS{sub 2}. The proposed mechanism governing Fermi-level pinning is applicable to the systems of adsorbates on recently developed two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides.

  15. Stability of spinor Fermi gases in tight waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, A. del; Muga, J. G.; Girardeau, M. D.

    2007-07-15

    The two- and three-body correlation functions of the ground state of an optically trapped ultracold spin-(1/2) Fermi gas (SFG) in a tight waveguide [one-dimensional (1D) regime] are calculated in the plane of even- and odd-wave coupling constants, assuming a 1D attractive zero-range odd-wave interaction induced by a 3D p-wave Feshbach resonance, as well as the usual repulsive zero-range even-wave interaction stemming from 3D s-wave scattering. The calculations are based on the exact mapping from the SFG to a 'Lieb-Liniger-Heisenberg' model with delta-function repulsions depending on isotropic Heisenberg spin-spin interactions, and indicate that the SFG should be stable against three-body recombination in a large region of the coupling constant plane encompassing parts of both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. However, the limiting case of the fermionic Tonks-Girardeau gas, a spin-aligned 1D Fermi gas with infinitely attractive p-wave interactions, is unstable in this sense. Effects due to the dipolar interaction and a Zeeman term due to a resonance-generating magnetic field do not lead to shrinkage of the region of stability of the SFG.

  16. Speckle imaging of spin fluctuations in a strongly interacting Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J; Keshet, Aviv; Huang, Wujie; Gillen, Jonathon; Gommers, Ralf; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Spin fluctuations and density fluctuations are studied for a two-component gas of strongly interacting fermions along the Bose-Einstein condensate-BCS crossover. This is done by in situ imaging of dispersive speckle patterns. Compressibility and magnetic susceptibility are determined from the measured fluctuations. This new sensitive method easily resolves a tenfold suppression of spin fluctuations below shot noise due to pairing, and can be applied to novel magnetic phases in optical lattices.

  17. Speckle Imaging of Spin Fluctuations in a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J.; Keshet, Aviv; Huang Wujie; Gillen, Jonathon; Gommers, Ralf; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2011-01-07

    Spin fluctuations and density fluctuations are studied for a two-component gas of strongly interacting fermions along the Bose-Einstein condensate-BCS crossover. This is done by in situ imaging of dispersive speckle patterns. Compressibility and magnetic susceptibility are determined from the measured fluctuations. This new sensitive method easily resolves a tenfold suppression of spin fluctuations below shot noise due to pairing, and can be applied to novel magnetic phases in optical lattices.

  18. Dynamical instability of a spin spiral in an interacting Fermi gas as a probe of the Stoner transition

    SciTech Connect

    Conduit, G. J.; Altman, E.

    2010-10-15

    We propose an experiment to probe ferromagnetic phenomena in an ultracold Fermi gas, while alleviating the sensitivity to three-body loss and competing many-body instabilities. The system is initialized in a small pitch spin spiral, which becomes unstable in the presence of repulsive interactions. To linear order the exponentially growing collective modes exhibit critical slowing down close to the Stoner transition point. Also, to this order, the dynamics are identical on the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic sides of the transition. However, we show that scattering off the exponentially growing modes qualitatively alters the collective mode structure. The critical slowing down is eliminated and in its place a new unstable branch develops at large wave vectors. Furthermore, long-wavelength instabilities are quenched on the paramagnetic side of the transition. We study the experimental observation of the instabilities, specifically addressing the trapping geometry and how phase-contrast imaging will reveal the emerging domain structure. These probes of the dynamical phenomena could allow experiments to detect the transition point and distinguish between the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic regimes.

  19. Transition and Damping of Collective Modes in a Trapped Fermi Gas between BCS and Unitary Limits near the Phase Transition

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hang; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhou, Li; Ma, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the transition and damping of low-energy collective modes in a trapped unitary Fermi gas by solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation in a scaled form, which is combined with both the T-matrix fluctuation theory in normal phase and the mean-field theory in order phase. In order to connect the microscopic and kinetic descriptions of many-body Feshbach scattering, we adopt a phenomenological two-fluid physical approach, and derive the coupling constants in the order phase. By solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov steady-state equation in a variational form, we calculate two viscous relaxation rates with the collision probabilities of fermion’s scattering including fermions in the normal fluid and fermion pairs in the superfluid. Additionally, by considering the pairing and depairing of fermions, we get results of the frequency and damping of collective modes versus temperature and s-wave scattering length. Our theoretical results are in a remarkable agreement with the experimental data, particularly for the sharp transition between collisionless and hydrodynamic behaviour and strong damping between BCS and unitary limits near the phase transition. The sharp transition originates from the maximum of viscous relaxation rate caused by fermion-fermion pair collision at the phase transition point when the fermion depair, while the strong damping due to the fast varying of the frequency of collective modes from BCS limit to unitary limit. PMID:26522094

  20. Quantenphysik Hochtemperatur-Supraflüssigkeit in ultrakaltem Fermi-Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwierlein, Martin

    2005-09-01

    Ultrakalte atomare Gase, eine Million mal dünner als Luft, bieten die faszinierende Möglichkeit, das Phänomen der Supraflüssigkeit in seiner Reinstform zu beobachten. Bisher ist dies nur für Gase aus Bosonen, Teilchen mit ganzzahligem Spin, gelungen. Nun wurde auch in einem rotierenden Gas aus Fermionen, Teilchen mit halbzahligem Spin, der Nachweis für Supraflüssigkeit erbracht: Es gelang die Beobachtung regelmäßig angeordneter Vortices [1]. Diese neue Form der Supraflüssigkeit würde, skaliert auf die Dichte von Elektronen im Festkörper, bereits oberhalb der Zimmertemperatur eintreten.

  1. Effect of three-body loss on itinerant ferromagnetism in an atomic Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Conduit, G. J.; Altman, E.

    2011-04-15

    A recent experiment has provided tentative evidence for itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas. However, the interpretation of the results is complicated by significant atom losses. We argue that during the loss process the system gradually heats up but remains in local equilibrium.To quantify the consequences of atom loss on the putative ferromagnetic transition we adopt an extended Hertz-Millis theory. The losses damp quantum fluctuations, thus increasing the critical interaction strength needed to induce ferromagnetism and revert the transition from being first order to second order. This effect may resolve a discrepancy between the experiment and previous theoretical predictions. We further illuminate the impact of loss by studying the collective spin excitations in the ferromagnet. Even in the fully polarized state, where loss is completely suppressed, spin waves acquire a decay rate proportional to the three-body loss coefficient.

  2. Conserving approximations for response functions of the Fermi gas in a random potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiš, Václav; Kolorenč, Jindřich

    2016-07-01

    One- and two-electron Green functions are simultaneously needed to determine the response functions of the electron gas in a random potential. Reliable approximations must retain consistency between the two types of Green functions expressed via Ward identities so that their output is compliant with macroscopic symmetries and conservation laws. Such a consistency is not directly guaranteed when summing nonlocal corrections to the local (dynamical) mean field. We analyze the reasons for this failure and show how the full Ward identity can generically be implemented in the diagrammatic approach to the vertex functions without breaking the analytic properties of the self-energy. We use the low-energy asymptotics of the conserving two-particle vertex determining the singular part of response and correlation functions to derive an exact representation of the diffusion constant in terms of Green functions of the perturbation theory. We then calculate explicitly the leading vertex corrections to the mean-field diffusion constant due to maximally-crossed diagrams.

  3. Measuring the Speed of Sound in a 1D Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jacob; Revelle, Melissa; Hulet, Randall

    2016-05-01

    We report measurements of the speed of sound in a two-spin component, 1D gas of fermionic lithium. The 1D system is an array of one-dimensional tubes created by a 2D optical lattice. By increasing the lattice depth, the tunneling between tubes is sufficiently small to make each an independent 1D system. To measure the speed of sound, we create a density notch at the center of the atom cloud using a sheet of light tuned far from resonance. The dipole force felt by both spin states will be equivalent, so this notch can be thought of as a charge excitation. Once this beam is turned off, the notch propagates to the edge of the atomic cloud with a velocity that depends on the strength of interatomic interactions. We control interactions using a magnetically tuned Feshbach resonance, allowing us to measure the speed of sound over a wide range of interaction. This method may be used to extract the Luttinger parameter vs. interaction strength. Supported by an ARO MURI Grant, NSF, and The Welch Foundation.

  4. Remembering Fermi

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, James

    2005-03-30

    A combination of the discovery of nuclear fission and the circumstances of the 2nd World War brought Enrico Fermi to Chicago, where he led the team that produced the first controlled, self-sustained nuclear chain reaction. Following the war in 1945 Chancellor Hutchins, William Zachariasen, and Walter Bartky convinced Fermi to accept a professorship at the University of Chicago, where the Institute for Nuclear Studies was established. Fermi served as the leading figure in surely the greatest collection of scientists the world has ever seen. Fermi's tenure at Chicago was cut short by his death in 1954. My talk will concentrate on the years 1945-54. Examples of his research notebooks, his speeches, his teaching, and his correspondence will be discussed.

  5. Quantum phase transitions and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless temperature in a two-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devreese, Jeroen P. A.; Tempere, Jacques; Sá de Melo, Carlos A. R.

    2015-10-01

    We study the effect of spin-orbit coupling on both the zero-temperature and nonzero-temperature behavior of a two-dimensional Fermi gas. We include a generic combination of Rashba and Dresselhaus terms into the system Hamiltonian, which allows us to study both the experimentally relevant equal-Rashba-Dresselhaus (ERD) limit and the Rashba-only (RO) limit. At zero temperature, we derive the phase diagram as a function of the two-body binding energy and Zeeman field. In the ERD case, this phase diagram reveals several topologically distinct uniform superfluid phases, classified according to the nodal structure of the quasiparticle excitation energies. Furthermore, we use a momentum-dependent SU(2) rotation to transform the system into a generalized helicity basis, revealing that spin-orbit coupling induces a triplet pairing component of the order parameter. At nonzero temperature, we study the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition by including phase fluctuations of the order parameter up to second order. We show that the superfluid density becomes anisotropic due to the presence of spin-orbit coupling (except in the RO case). This leads both to elliptic vortices and antivortices, and to anisotropic sound velocities. The latter prove to be sensitive to quantum phase transitions between topologically distinct phases. We show further that at a fixed nonzero Zeeman field, the BKT critical temperature is increased by the presence of ERD spin-orbit coupling. Subsequently, we demonstrate that the Clogston limit becomes infinite: TBKT remains nonzero at all finite values of the Zeeman field. We conclude by extending the quantum phase transition lines to nonzero temperature, using the nodal structure of the quasiparticle spectrum, thus connecting the BKT critical temperature with the zero-temperature results.

  6. Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling, Strong Interactions, and the BCS-BEC Crossover in the Ground State of the Two-Dimensional Fermi Gas.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hao; Rosenberg, Peter; Chiesa, Simone; Zhang, Shiwei

    2016-07-22

    The recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases provides a unique opportunity to study the interplay between strong interaction and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a tunable, disorder-free system. We present here precision ab initio numerical results on the two-dimensional, unpolarized, uniform Fermi gas with attractive interactions and Rashba SOC. Using the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method and incorporating recent algorithmic advances, we carry out exact calculations on sufficiently large system sizes to provide accurate results systematically as a function of experimental parameters. We obtain the equation of state, the momentum distributions, the pseudospin correlations, and the pair wave functions. Our results help illuminate the rich pairing structure induced by SOC, and provide benchmarks for theory and guidance to future experimental efforts. PMID:27494461

  7. Dark High Density Dipolar Liquid of Excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Kobi; Shilo, Yehiel; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren; Rapaport, Ronen

    2016-06-01

    The possible phases and the nano-scale particle correlations of two-dimensional interacting dipolar particles is a long-sought problem in many-body physics. Here we observe a spontaneous condensation of trapped two-dimensional dipolar excitons with internal spin degrees of freedom from an interacting gas into a high density, closely packed liquid state made mostly of dark dipoles. Another phase transition, into a bright, highly repulsive plasma is observed at even higher excitation powers. The dark liquid state is formed below a critical temperature $T_c \\approx 4.8K$, and it is manifested by a clear spontaneous spatial condensation to a smaller and denser cloud, suggesting an attractive part to the interaction which goes beyond the purely repulsive dipole-dipole forces. Contributions from quantum mechanical fluctuations are expected to be significant in this strongly correlated, long living dark liquid. This is a new example of a two-dimensional atomic-like interacting dipolar quantum liquid, but where the coupling of light to its internal spin degrees of freedom plays a crucial role in the dynamical formation and the nature of resulting ground state.

  8. Dark High Density Dipolar Liquid of Excitons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Kobi; Shilo, Yehiel; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren; Rapaport, Ronen

    2016-06-01

    The possible phases and the nanoscale particle correlations of two-dimensional interacting dipolar particles is a long-sought problem in many-body physics. Here we observe a spontaneous condensation of trapped two-dimensional dipolar excitons with internal spin degrees of freedom from an interacting gas into a high density, closely packed liquid state made mostly of dark dipoles. Another phase transition, into a bright, highly repulsive plasma, is observed at even higher excitation powers. The dark liquid state is formed below a critical temperature Tc ≈ 4.8 K, and it is manifested by a clear spontaneous spatial condensation to a smaller and denser cloud, suggesting an attractive part to the interaction which goes beyond the purely repulsive dipole-dipole forces. Contributions from quantum mechanical fluctuations are expected to be significant in this strongly correlated, long living dark liquid. This is a new example of a two-dimensional atomic-like interacting dipolar liquid, but where the coupling of light to its internal spin degrees of freedom plays a crucial role in the dynamical formation and the nature of resulting condensed dark ground state.

  9. Ground states of dipolar gases in quasi-one-dimensional ring traps

    SciTech Connect

    Zoellner, Sascha

    2011-12-15

    We compute the ground state of dipoles in a quasi-one-dimensional ring trap using few-body techniques combined with analytical arguments. The effective interaction between two dipoles depends on their center-of-mass coordinate and can be tuned by varying the angle between dipoles and the plane of the ring. For sufficiently weak interactions, the state resembles a weakly interacting Fermi gas or a (inhomogeneous) Lieb-Liniger gas. A mapping between the Lieb-Liniger-gas parameters and the dipolar-gas parameters in and beyond the Born approximation is established, and we discuss the effect of inhomogeneities based on a local-density approximation. For strongly repulsive interactions, the system exhibits a crystal-like localization of the particles. Their inhomogeneous distribution may be understood in terms of a simple few-body model as well as a local-density approximation. In the case of partially attractive interactions, clustered states form for sufficiently strong coupling, and the dependence of the state on particle number and orientation angle of the dipoles is discussed analytically.

  10. Interaction-driven Lifshitz transition with dipolar fermions in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, E. G. C. P.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Chomaz, L.; Lemeshko, M.

    2016-05-01

    Anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions between ultracold dipolar fermions break the symmetry of the Fermi surface and thereby deform it. Here we demonstrate that such a Fermi surface deformation induces a topological phase transition—the so-called Lifshitz transition—in the regime accessible to present-day experiments. We describe the impact of the Lifshitz transition on observable quantities such as the Fermi surface topology, the density-density correlation function, and the excitation spectrum of the system. The Lifshitz transition in ultracold atoms can be controlled by tuning the dipole orientation and, in contrast to the transition studied in crystalline solids, is completely interaction driven.

  11. Multi-gas interaction modeling on decorated semiconductor interfaces: A novel Fermi distribution-based response isotherm and the inverse hard/soft acid/base concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laminack, William; Gole, James

    2015-12-01

    A unique MEMS/NEMS approach is presented for the modeling of a detection platform for mixed gas interactions. Mixed gas analytes interact with nanostructured decorating metal oxide island sites supported on a microporous silicon substrate. The Inverse Hard/Soft acid/base (IHSAB) concept is used to assess a diversity of conductometric responses for mixed gas interactions as a function of these nanostructured metal oxides. The analyte conductometric responses are well represented using a combination diffusion/absorption-based model for multi-gas interactions where a newly developed response absorption isotherm, based on the Fermi distribution function is applied. A further coupling of this model with the IHSAB concept describes the considerations in modeling of multi-gas mixed analyte-interface, and analyte-analyte interactions. Taking into account the molecular electronic interaction of both the analytes with each other and an extrinsic semiconductor interface we demonstrate how the presence of one gas can enhance or diminish the reversible interaction of a second gas with the extrinsic semiconductor interface. These concepts demonstrate important considerations in the array-based formats for multi-gas sensing and its applications.

  12. Fluctuations and phase transitions in Larkin-Ovchinnikov liquid-crystal states of a population-imbalanced resonant Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2011-08-01

    Motivated by a realization of imbalanced Feshbach-resonant atomic Fermi gases, we formulate a low-energy theory of the Fulde-Ferrell and the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) states and use it to analyze fluctuations, stability, and phase transitions in these enigmatic finite momentum-paired superfluids. Focusing on the unidirectional LO pair-density-wave state, which spontaneously breaks the continuous rotational and translational symmetries, we show that it is characterized by two Goldstone modes, corresponding to a superfluid phase and a smectic phonon. Because of the liquid-crystalline “softness” of the latter, at finite temperature the three-dimensional state is characterized by a vanishing LO order parameter, quasi-Bragg peaks in the structure and momentum distribution functions, and a “charge”-4, paired-Cooper-pairs, off-diagonal long-range order, with a superfluid-stiffness anisotropy that diverges near a transition into a nonsuperfluid state. In addition to conventional integer vortices and dislocations, the LO superfluid smectic exhibits composite half-integer vortex-dislocation defects. A proliferation of defects leads to a rich variety of descendant states, such as the charge-4 superfluid and Fermi-liquid nematics and topologically ordered nonsuperfluid states, that generically intervene between the LO state and the conventional superfluid and the polarized Fermi liquid at low and high imbalance, respectively. The fermionic sector of the LO gapless superconductor is also quite unique, exhibiting a Fermi surface of Bogoliubov quasiparticles associated with the Andreev band of states, localized on the array of the LO domain walls.

  13. Fluctuations and phase transitions in Larkin-Ovchinnikov liquid-crystal states of a population-imbalanced resonant Fermi gas

    SciTech Connect

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2011-08-15

    Motivated by a realization of imbalanced Feshbach-resonant atomic Fermi gases, we formulate a low-energy theory of the Fulde-Ferrell and the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) states and use it to analyze fluctuations, stability, and phase transitions in these enigmatic finite momentum-paired superfluids. Focusing on the unidirectional LO pair-density-wave state, which spontaneously breaks the continuous rotational and translational symmetries, we show that it is characterized by two Goldstone modes, corresponding to a superfluid phase and a smectic phonon. Because of the liquid-crystalline ''softness'' of the latter, at finite temperature the three-dimensional state is characterized by a vanishing LO order parameter, quasi-Bragg peaks in the structure and momentum distribution functions, and a ''charge''-4, paired-Cooper-pairs, off-diagonal long-range order, with a superfluid-stiffness anisotropy that diverges near a transition into a nonsuperfluid state. In addition to conventional integer vortices and dislocations, the LO superfluid smectic exhibits composite half-integer vortex-dislocation defects. A proliferation of defects leads to a rich variety of descendant states, such as the charge-4 superfluid and Fermi-liquid nematics and topologically ordered nonsuperfluid states, that generically intervene between the LO state and the conventional superfluid and the polarized Fermi liquid at low and high imbalance, respectively. The fermionic sector of the LO gapless superconductor is also quite unique, exhibiting a Fermi surface of Bogoliubov quasiparticles associated with the Andreev band of states, localized on the array of the LO domain walls.

  14. Energy Fluctuation of Ideal Fermi Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential U=\\sum_{i=1}^{d} c_i\\vert x_{i}/a_{i}\\vert^{n_{i} } in d Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Muktadir Rahman, Md.; Debnath, Dwaipayan; Sakhawat Hossain Himel, Md.

    2016-04-01

    Energy fluctuation of ideal Fermi gas trapped under generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1d ci \\vertxi/ai \\vert n_i has been calculated in arbitrary dimensions. Energy fluctuation is scrutinized further in the degenerate limit μ ≫ KBT with the help of Sommerfeld expansion. The dependence of energy fluctuation on dimensionality and power law potential is studied in detail. Most importantly our general result can not only exactly reproduce the recently published result regarding free and harmonically trapped ideal Fermi gas in d = 3 but also can describe the outcome for any power law potential in arbitrary dimension.

  15. Vertically coupled dipolar exciton molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Kobi; Khodas, Maxim; Laikhtman, Boris; Santos, Paulo V.; Rapaport, Ronen

    2016-06-01

    While the interaction potential between two dipoles residing in a single plane is repulsive, in a system of two vertically adjacent layers of dipoles it changes from repulsive interaction in the long range to attractive interaction in the short range. Here we show that for dipolar excitons in semiconductor heterostructures, such a potential may give rise to bound states if two such excitons are excited in two separate layers, leading to the formation of vertically coupled dipolar exciton molecules. Our calculations prove the existence of such bound states and predict their binding energy as a function of the layers separation as well as their thermal distributions. We show that these molecules should be observed in realistic systems such as semiconductor coupled quantum well structures and the more recent van der Waals bound heterostructures. Formation of such molecules can lead to new effects such as a collective dipolar drag between layers and new forms of multiparticle correlations, as well as to the study of dipolar molecular dynamics in a controlled system.

  16. Enrico Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Enrico Fermi was, of all the great physicists of the 20th century, among the most respected and admired. He was respected and admired because of his contributions to both theoretical and experimental physics, because of his leadership in discovering for mankind a powerful new source of energy, and above all, because of his personal character. He was always reliable and trustworthy. He had both of his feet on the ground all the time. He had great strength, but never threw his weight around. He did not play to the gallery. He did not practise one-up-manship. He exemplified, I always believe, the perfect Confucian gentleman...

  17. Quantum liquid crystals in an imbalanced Fermi gas: fluctuations and fractional vortices in Larkin-Ovchinnikov states.

    PubMed

    Radzihovsky, Leo; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2009-07-01

    We develop a low-energy model of an unidirectional Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) state. Because the underlying rotational and translational symmetries are broken spontaneously, this gapless superfluid is a smectic liquid crystal, that exhibits fluctuations that are qualitatively stronger than in a conventional superfluid, thus requiring a fully nonlinear description of its Goldstone modes. Consequently, at nonzero temperature the LO superfluid is an algebraic phase even in 3D. It exhibits half-integer vortex-dislocation defects, whose unbinding leads to transitions to a superfluid nematic and other phases. In 2D at nonzero temperature, the LO state is always unstable to a nematic superfluid. We expect this superfluid liquid-crystal phenomenology to be realizable in imbalanced resonant Fermi gases trapped isotropically. PMID:19659128

  18. Quantum Liquid Crystals in an Imbalanced Fermi Gas: Fluctuations and Fractional Vortices in Larkin-Ovchinnikov States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2009-07-01

    We develop a low-energy model of an unidirectional Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) state. Because the underlying rotational and translational symmetries are broken spontaneously, this gapless superfluid is a smectic liquid crystal, that exhibits fluctuations that are qualitatively stronger than in a conventional superfluid, thus requiring a fully nonlinear description of its Goldstone modes. Consequently, at nonzero temperature the LO superfluid is an algebraic phase even in 3D. It exhibits half-integer vortex-dislocation defects, whose unbinding leads to transitions to a superfluid nematic and other phases. In 2D at nonzero temperature, the LO state is always unstable to a nematic superfluid. We expect this superfluid liquid-crystal phenomenology to be realizable in imbalanced resonant Fermi gases trapped isotropically.

  19. Quantum Liquid Crystals in an Imbalanced Fermi Gas: Fluctuations and Fractional Vortices in Larkin-Ovchinnikov States

    SciTech Connect

    Radzihovsky, Leo; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2009-07-03

    We develop a low-energy model of an unidirectional Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) state. Because the underlying rotational and translational symmetries are broken spontaneously, this gapless superfluid is a smectic liquid crystal, that exhibits fluctuations that are qualitatively stronger than in a conventional superfluid, thus requiring a fully nonlinear description of its Goldstone modes. Consequently, at nonzero temperature the LO superfluid is an algebraic phase even in 3D. It exhibits half-integer vortex-dislocation defects, whose unbinding leads to transitions to a superfluid nematic and other phases. In 2D at nonzero temperature, the LO state is always unstable to a nematic superfluid. We expect this superfluid liquid-crystal phenomenology to be realizable in imbalanced resonant Fermi gases trapped isotropically.

  20. Level density of a Fermi gas and integer partitions: A Gumbel-like finite-size correction

    SciTech Connect

    Roccia, Jerome; Leboeuf, Patricio

    2010-04-15

    We investigate the many-body level density of a gas of noninteracting fermions. We determine its behavior as a function of the temperature and the number of particles. As the temperature increases, and beyond the usual Sommerfeld expansion that describes the degenerate gas behavior, corrections due to a finite number of particles lead to Gumbel-like contributions. We discuss connections with the partition problem in number theory, extreme value statistics, and differences with respect to the Bose gas.

  1. Pitch-Angle Distribution for Electrons at Dipolarization Sites: Field Aligned Anisotropy and Isotropization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Lin, C. H.; Hada, T.; Nishimura, T.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lee, W. J.; Lang, Z. R.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation of Earth's radiation environment is important not only because of its geophysical significance but also because it can inform the design of future satellites. The observed dipolarization effects on pitch-angle distributions (PAD) of electrons at the tailside in the inner plasmasheet during geomagnetic activity identified by AL index has been studied via analyzing data from THEMIS mission. We have shown that cigar distributions below about 1keV tend to become isotropized at the fronts at the dipolarization sites whereas isotropic distributions above 1keV tend to become more cigar-shaped (i.e., fluxes peak at pitch-angle of 0o and 180o). We have previously suggested that the ineffectiveness of Fermi acceleration below 1keV could be the factor causing this difference. We examine the dependence of this effect on radial distance from Earth taking place at or near dipolarization sites during times of geomagnetic activity. Because both the field line length and the properties of dipolarizations vary with radial distance. We anticipate significant dependence of this effect on radial distance. Our study contributes to our understanding of the electron environment during dipolarizations in Earth's magnetosphere.

  2. Unconventional pairings of spin-orbit coupled attractive degenerate Fermi gas in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Junjun; Zhou, Xiaofan; Chui, Pak Hong; Zhang, Kuang; Gu, Shi-jian; Gong, Ming; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang

    2015-01-01

    Understanding novel pairings in attractive degenerate Fermi gases is crucial for exploring rich superfluid physics. In this report, we reveal unconventional pairings induced by spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a one-dimensional optical lattice, using a state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group method. When both bands are partially occupied, we find a strong competition between the interband Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) and intraband Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) pairings. In particular, for the weak and moderate SOC strengths, these two pairings can coexist, giving rise to a new phase called the FFLO-BCS phase, which exhibits a unique three-peak structure in pairing momentum distribution. For the strong SOC strength, the intraband BCS pairing always dominates in the whole parameter regime, including the half filling. We figure out the whole phase diagrams as functions of filling factor, SOC strength, and Zeeman field. Our results are qualitatively different from recent mean-field predictions. Finally, we address that our predictions could be observed in a weaker trapped potential. PMID:26443006

  3. Energetic ions in dipolarization events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birn, J.; Runov, A.; Hesse, M.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate ion acceleration in dipolarization events in the magnetotail, using the electromagnetic fields of an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection and flow bursts as basis for test particle tracing. The simulation results are compared with "Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms" observations. We provide quantitative answers to the relative importance of source regions and source energies. Flux decreases at proton energies up to 10-20 keV are found to be due to sources of lobe or plasma sheet boundary layer particles that enter the near tail via reconnection. Flux increases result from both thermal and suprathermal ion sources. Comparable numbers of accelerated protons enter the acceleration region via cross-tail drift from the dawn flanks of the near-tail plasma sheet and via reconnection of field lines extending into the more distant tail. We also demonstrate the presence of earthward plasma flow and accelerated suprathermal ions ahead of a dipolarization front. The flow acceleration stems from a net Lorentz force, resulting from reduced pressure gradients within a pressure pile-up region ahead of the front. Suprathermal precursor ions result from, typically multiple reflections at the front. Low-energy ions also become accelerated due to inertial drift in the direction of the small precursor electric field.

  4. The sum rule for dipolar absorptions and rotational kinetic energy of wate and some dipolar molecules in condensed phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, Shun-ichi; Yamazaki, Shuichi; Kimura, Masao

    1981-06-01

    Another form of the sum rule for dipolar absorptions has been derived by means of quantum statistics. The difference between this and usually used form results from a quantum effect on the molecular rotational motion. By the joint use of the two forms, average rotational kinetic energies of water molec in the liquid and solid phases and some dipolar molecules in solutions have been estimated. It has been shown that the average rotational kinetic energ larger than the value expected from the classical equipartition rule, with an increase in the hindering potential for the rotational motion of the mole The dipole moments of water molecules in liquid and solid water have been estimated. These are considerably smaller than the gas-phase value.

  5. Fermi Pulsar Analysis

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation illustrates how analysis of Fermi data reveals new pulsars. Fermi's LAT records the precise arrival time and approximate direction of the gamma rays it detects, but to identify a pul...

  6. The Cosmic-Ray and Gas Content of the Cygnus Region as Measured in Gamma Rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Thompson, D. J.; Troja, E.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The Cygnus region hosts a giant molecular-cloud complex which actively forms massive stars. Interactions of cosmic rays with interstellar gas and radiation fields make it shine at y-ray energies. Several gamma-ray pulsars and other energetic sources are seen in this direction. Aims. In this paper we analyse the gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the energy range from 100 Me V to 100 Ge V in order to probe the gas and cosmic-ray content over the scale of the whole Cygnus complex. The gamma-ray emission on the scale of the central massive stellar clusters and from individual sources is addressed elsewhere. Methods. The signal from bright pulsars is largely reduced by selecting photons in their off-pulse phase intervals. We compare the diffuse gamma-ray emission with interstellar gas maps derived from radio/mm-wave lines and visual extinction data. and a global model of the region, including other pulsars and gamma-ray sources, is sought. Results. The integral H I emissivity above 100 MeV averaged over the whole Cygnus complex amounts to 12.06 +/- 0.11 (stat.) (+0.15 -0.84) (syst.J] x 10(exp -26) photons /s / sr / H-atom, where the systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty on the H I opacity to calculate its column densities. The integral emissivity and its spectral energy distribution are both consistent within the systematics with LAT measurements in the interstellar space near the solar system. The average X(sub co) N(H2)/W(sub co) ratio is found to be [1.68 +/- 0.05 (stat.) (H I opacity)] x 1020 molecules cm-2 (K km/s /r, consistent with other LAT measurements in the Local Arm. We detect significant gamma-ray emission from dark neutral gas for a mass corresponding to approx 40% of that traced by CO. The total interstellar mass in the Cygnus complex inferred from its gamma-ray emission amounts to 8(+5 -1) x 10(exp 6) Solar M at a distance of 1.4 kpc. Conclusions. Despite the conspicuous star formation activity and large

  7. Quantum-tunneling dynamics of a spin-polarized Fermi gas in a double-well potential

    SciTech Connect

    Salasnich, L.; Mazzarella, G.; Toigo, F.; Salerno, M.

    2010-02-15

    We study the exact dynamics of a one-dimensional spin-polarized gas of fermions in a double-well potential at zero and finite temperature. Despite the system being made of noninteracting fermions, its dynamics can be quite complex, showing strongly aperiodic spatio-temporal patterns during the tunneling. The extension of these results to the case of mixtures of spin-polarized fermions interacting with self-trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) at zero temperature is considered as well. In this case we show that the fermionic dynamics remains qualitatively similar to that observed in the absence of BEC but with the Rabi frequencies of fermionic excited states explicitly depending on the number of bosons and on the boson-fermion interaction strength. From this, the possibility of controlling quantum fermionic dynamics by means of Feshbach resonances is suggested.

  8. Model-Independent Determination of the Shear Viscosity of a Trapped Unitary Fermi gas: Application to High-Temperature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluhm, M.; Schäfer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Determinations of the shear viscosity of trapped ultracold gases suffer from systematic, uncontrolled uncertainties related to the treatment of the dilute part of the gas cloud. In this work we present an analysis of expansion experiments based on a new method, anisotropic fluid dynamics, that interpolates between Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics at the center of the cloud and ballistic behavior in the dilute corona. We validate the method using a comparison between anisotropic fluid dynamics and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation. We then apply anisotropic fluid dynamics to the expansion data reported by Cao et al. In the high-temperature limit we find η =0.282 (m T )3 /2 , which agrees within about 5% with the theoretical prediction η =0.269 (m T )3/2.

  9. Model-Independent Determination of the Shear Viscosity of a Trapped Unitary Fermi gas: Application to High-Temperature Data.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, M; Schäfer, T

    2016-03-18

    Determinations of the shear viscosity of trapped ultracold gases suffer from systematic, uncontrolled uncertainties related to the treatment of the dilute part of the gas cloud. In this work we present an analysis of expansion experiments based on a new method, anisotropic fluid dynamics, that interpolates between Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics at the center of the cloud and ballistic behavior in the dilute corona. We validate the method using a comparison between anisotropic fluid dynamics and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation. We then apply anisotropic fluid dynamics to the expansion data reported by Cao et al. In the high-temperature limit we find η=0.282(mT)^{3/2}, which agrees within about 5% with the theoretical prediction η=0.269(mT)^{3/2}. PMID:27035308

  10. Model-Independent Determination of the Shear Viscosity of a Trapped Unitary Fermi gas: Application to High-Temperature Data.

    PubMed

    Bluhm, M; Schäfer, T

    2016-03-18

    Determinations of the shear viscosity of trapped ultracold gases suffer from systematic, uncontrolled uncertainties related to the treatment of the dilute part of the gas cloud. In this work we present an analysis of expansion experiments based on a new method, anisotropic fluid dynamics, that interpolates between Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics at the center of the cloud and ballistic behavior in the dilute corona. We validate the method using a comparison between anisotropic fluid dynamics and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation. We then apply anisotropic fluid dynamics to the expansion data reported by Cao et al. In the high-temperature limit we find η=0.282(mT)^{3/2}, which agrees within about 5% with the theoretical prediction η=0.269(mT)^{3/2}.

  11. In-flight and collisional dissipation as a mechanism to suppress Fermi acceleration in a breathing Lorentz gas.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego F M; Leonel, Edson D

    2012-06-01

    Some dynamical properties for a time dependent Lorentz gas considering both the dissipative and non dissipative dynamics are studied. The model is described by using a four-dimensional nonlinear mapping. For the conservative dynamics, scaling laws are obtained for the behavior of the average velocity for an ensemble of non interacting particles and the unlimited energy growth is confirmed. For the dissipative case, four different kinds of damping forces are considered namely: (i) restitution coefficient which makes the particle experiences a loss of energy upon collisions; and in-flight dissipation given by (ii) F=-ηV(2); (iii) F=-ηV(μ) with μ≠1 and μ≠2 and; (iv) F=-ηV, where η is the dissipation parameter. Extensive numerical simulations were made and our results confirm that the unlimited energy growth, observed for the conservative dynamics, is suppressed for the dissipative case. The behaviour of the average velocity is described using scaling arguments and classes of universalities are defined.

  12. Induced interactions in a superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, J. J.; Bruun, G. M.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) mixed with a superfluid two-component Fermi gas in the whole BCS-BEC crossover. Using a quasiparticle random-phase approximation combined with Beliaev theory to describe the Fermi superfluid and the BEC, respectively, we show that the single-particle and collective excitations of the Fermi gas give rise to an induced interaction between the bosons, which varies strongly with momentum and frequency. It diverges at the sound mode of the Fermi superfluid, resulting in a sharp avoided crossing feature and a corresponding sign change of the interaction energy shift in the excitation spectrum of the BEC. In addition, the excitation of quasiparticles in the Fermi superfluid leads to damping of the excitations in the BEC. Besides studying induced interactions themselves, we can use these prominent effects to systematically probe the strongly interacting Fermi gas.

  13. Unveiling Unidentified Fermi Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lizhong; South Pole Telescope

    2016-01-01

    The Fermi γ-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) has surveyed the entire sky at the highest-energy band of the electromagnetic spectrum. The majority of Fermi sources have counterpart identifications from multi-wavelength large-area surveys, particularly in the radio and x-ray bands. However, around 35% of Fermi sources remain unidentified, a problem exasperated by the low resolution of the telescope. Understanding the nature of unidentified Fermi sources is one of the most pressing problems in γ-ray astronomy. The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has completed a survey covering a 2500 square degrees of the southern extragalactic sky with arcminute resolution at millimeter wavelengths. The mm wavelength is the most efficient means to identify blazars and unidentified Fermi sources. Our analysis shows that the SPT point source catalog provides candidate associations for 40% of the unidentified Fermi sources, showing them to be flat-spectrum radio quasars which are extraordinarily bright at millimeter (mm) wavelengths.

  14. Dynamic density and spin responses of a superfluid Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover: Path integral formulation and pair fluctuation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lianyi

    2016-10-01

    We present a standard field theoretical derivation of the dynamic density and spin linear response functions of a dilute superfluid Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover in both three and two dimensions. The derivation of the response functions is based on the elegant functional path integral approach which allows us to calculate the density-density and spin-spin correlation functions by introducing the external sources for the density and the spin density. Since the generating functional cannot be evaluated exactly, we consider two gapless approximations which ensure a gapless collective mode (Goldstone mode) in the superfluid state: the BCS-Leggett mean-field theory and the Gaussian-pair-fluctuation (GPF) theory. In the mean-field theory, our results of the response functions agree with the known results from the random phase approximation. We further consider the pair fluctuation effects and establish a theoretical framework for the dynamic responses within the GPF theory. We show that the GPF response theory naturally recovers three kinds of famous diagrammatic contributions: the Self-Energy contribution, the Aslamazov-Lakin contribution, and the Maki-Thompson contribution. We also show that unlike the equilibrium state, in evaluating the response functions, the linear (first-order) terms in the external sources as well as the induced order parameter perturbations should be treated carefully. In the superfluid state, there is an additional order parameter contribution which ensures that in the static and long wavelength limit, the density response function recovers the result of the compressibility (compressibility sum rule). We expect that the f-sum rule is manifested by the full number equation which includes the contribution from the Gaussian pair fluctuations. The dynamic density and spin response functions in the normal phase (above the superfluid critical temperature) are also derived within the Nozières-Schmitt-Rink (NSR) theory.

  15. Quantum fluctuations in dipolar Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Aristeu R. P.; Pelster, Axel

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the influence of quantum fluctuations upon dipolar Bose gases by means of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. Thereby, we make use of the local density approximation to evaluate the dipolar exchange interaction between the condensate and the excited particles. This allows to obtain the Bogoliubov spectrum analytically in the limit of large particle numbers. After discussing the condensate depletion and the ground-state energy correction, we derive quantum-corrected equations of motion for harmonically trapped dipolar Bose gases by using superfluid hydrodynamics. These equations are subsequently applied to analyze the equilibrium configuration, the low-lying oscillation frequencies, and the time-of-flight dynamics. We find that both atomic magnetic and molecular electric dipolar systems offer promising scenarios for detecting beyond mean-field effects.

  16. Dipolar Nanodomains in Protein Hydration Shells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel R; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2015-02-01

    The network of hydrogen bonds characteristic of bulk water is significantly disturbed at the protein-water interface, where local fields induce mutually frustrated dipolar domains with potentially novel structure and dynamics. Here the dipolar susceptibility of hydration shells of lysozyme is studied by molecular dynamics simulations in a broad range of temperatures, 140-300 K. The real part of the susceptibility passes through a broad maximum as a function of temperature. The maximum shifts to higher temperatures with increasing frequency of the dielectric experiment. This phenomenology is consistent with that reported for bulk relaxor ferroelectrics, where it is related to the formation of dipolar nanodomains. Nanodomains in the hydration shell extend 12-15 Å from the protein surface into the bulk. Their dynamics are significantly slower than the dynamics of bulk water. The domains dynamically freeze into a ferroelectric glass below 160 K, at which point the Arrhenius plot of the dipolar relaxation time becomes significantly steeper.

  17. Two-dimensional dipolar nematic colloidal crystals.

    PubMed

    Skarabot, M; Ravnik, M; Zumer, S; Tkalec, U; Poberaj, I; Babic, D; Osterman, N; Musevic, I

    2007-11-01

    We study the interactions and directed assembly of dipolar nematic colloidal particles in planar nematic cells using laser tweezers. The binding energies for two stable configurations of a colloidal pair with homeotropic surface alignment are determined. It is shown that the orientation of the dipolar colloidal particle can efficiently be controlled and changed by locally quenching the nematic liquid crystal from the laser-induced isotropic phase. The interaction of a single colloidal particle with a single colloidal chain is determined and the interactions between pairs of colloidal chains are studied. We demonstrate that dipolar colloidal chains self-assemble into the two-dimensional (2D) dipolar nematic colloidal crystals. An odd-even effect is observed with increasing number of colloidal chains forming the 2D colloidal crystal. PMID:18233658

  18. Compensation of dipolar-exciton spin splitting in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, A. V.; Timofeev, V. B.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetoluminescence of spatially indirect dipolar excitons in 25 nm GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well collected within a lateral potential trap has been studied in Faraday geometry. The paramagnetic spin splitting of the luminescence line of the heavy-hole excitons in the trap centre is completely compensated at magnetic field below critical value ≈2 Т. The effect of spin splitting compensation is caused by the exchange interaction in dense exciton Bose gas which is in qualitative agreement with the existing theoretical concepts.

  19. Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.

    PubMed

    Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M

    2004-07-01

    We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory. PMID:15278693

  20. Dipolar correlations in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Cui; Galli, Giulia

    2014-08-28

    We present an analysis of the dipolar correlations in water as a function of temperature and density and in the presence of simple ionic solutes, carried out using molecular dynamics simulations and empirical potentials. We show that the dipole-dipole correlation function of the liquid exhibits sizable oscillations over nanodomains of about 1.5 nm radius, with several isosbestic points as a function of temperature; the size of the nanodomains is nearly independent on temperature and density, between 240 and 400 K and 0.9 and 1.3 g/cm{sup 3}, but it is substantially affected by the presence of solvated ions. In the same range of thermodynamic conditions, the decay time (τ) of the system dipole moment varies by a factor of about 30 and 1.5, as a function of temperature and density, respectively. At 300 K, we observed a maximum in τ as a function of density, and a corresponding shallow maximum in the tetrahedral order parameter, in a range where the diffusion coefficient, the pressure and the dielectric constant increase monotonically.

  1. Independent EEG Sources Are Dipolar

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Arnaud; Palmer, Jason; Onton, Julie; Oostenveld, Robert; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) and blind source separation (BSS) methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG) and other electrophysiological recordings. We compared results of decomposing thirteen 71-channel human scalp EEG datasets by 22 ICA and BSS algorithms, assessing the pairwise mutual information (PMI) in scalp channel pairs, the remaining PMI in component pairs, the overall mutual information reduction (MIR) effected by each decomposition, and decomposition ‘dipolarity’ defined as the number of component scalp maps matching the projection of a single equivalent dipole with less than a given residual variance. The least well-performing algorithm was principal component analysis (PCA); best performing were AMICA and other likelihood/mutual information based ICA methods. Though these and other commonly-used decomposition methods returned many similar components, across 18 ICA/BSS algorithms mean dipolarity varied linearly with both MIR and with PMI remaining between the resulting component time courses, a result compatible with an interpretation of many maximally independent EEG components as being volume-conducted projections of partially-synchronous local cortical field activity within single compact cortical domains. To encourage further method comparisons, the data and software used to prepare the results have been made available (http://sccn.ucsd.edu/wiki/BSSComparison). PMID:22355308

  2. Dipolar ferromagnets and glasses (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, T.F.; Wu, W.; Ellman, B.; Yang, J. ); Aeppli, G. ); Reich, D.H. )

    1991-11-15

    What is the ground state and what are the dynamics of 10{sup 23} randomly distributed Ising spins We have attempted to answer these questions through magnetic susceptibility, calorimetric, and neutron scattering studies of the randomly diluted dipolar-coupled Ising magnet LiHo{sub {ital x}}Y{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}F{sub 4}. The material is ferromagnetic for dipole concentrations at least as low as {ital x}=0.46, with a Curie temperature obeying mean-field scaling relative to that of pure LiHoF{sub 4}. In the dilute spin limit, an {ital x}=0.045 crystal shows very unusual glassy properties characterized by {ital decreasing} barriers to relaxation as {ital T}{r arrow}0. Its properties are consistent with a single low degeneracy ground state with a large gap for excitations. A slightly more concentrated {ital x}=0.167 sample, however, supports a complex ground state with no appreciable gap, in accordance with prevailing theories of spin glasses. The underlying causes of such disparate behavior are discussed in terms of random clusters as probed by neutron studies of the {ital x}=0.167 sample. In addition to tracing the evolution of the glassy and ferromagnetic states with dipole concentration, we investigate the effects of a transverse magnetic field on the Ising spin glass, LiHo{sub 0.167}Y{sub 0.833}F{sub 4}. The transverse field mixes the eigenfunctions of the ground-state Ising doublet with the otherwise inaccessible excited-state levels. We observe a rapid decrease in the characteristic relaxation times, large changes in the spectral form of the relaxation, and a depression of the spin-glass transition temperature with the addition of quantum fluctuations.

  3. Dipolarization front and current disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    2016-10-01

    The modification of current density on the dawn-dusk cross section of the magnetotail with the earthward approach of a dipolarization front (DF) is examined through the recently published results of a three-dimensional (3-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that the current density intensifies by 37% abruptly within 1.5 ion gyrotime as the DF approaches and shows localized regions with north-south extrusions. After reaching its peak value, it undergoes a drastic current reduction (DCR) by 65% within 2 ion gyrotime. Breakdown of the frozen-in condition occurs in the neutral sheet region in association with DCR, demonstrating the non-MHD behavior of the phenomenon. The evolution of current density from this 3-D PIC simulation bears several similarities to those observed for the current disruption (CD) phenomenon, such as explosive growth and disruption of the current density leading to a breakdown of the frozen-in condition. The evolution is also similar to those from a previous two-dimensional (2-D) PIC simulation specially designed to investigate the nonlinear evolution of the cross-field current instability for CD. One interpretation of these findings is that CD and substorm triggering can be associated with earthward intrusion of a DF into the near-Earth plasma sheet as indicated by previous Cluster and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. An alternative interpretation is that both DF and CD are consequences of a global evolution from an ion-tearing-like instability of the magnetotail.

  4. On the formation of dipolar magnetic fields in the central regions of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasyan, R. R.

    A model of the formation of large-scale magnetic fields of dipolar configuration in the central regions of active galaxies is studied. It is assumed that these regions contain a rapidly rotating partly ionized gas. Ionized matter escapes with a high velocity from the center of this region and is entrained by the rotation of the surrounding medium. Biermann's "battery" effect (L.Biermann, Z. Naturforsch., 5a, 65, 1950) operates under such conditions, and circular electric curents are generated in the medium, which amplify the dipolar magnetic fields. Dipolar magnetic fields of opposite orientation with respect to the angular momentum of the central engine can be amplified where there is accretion of gaseous matter onto the rotating central part of a galaxy. The direction of the "Halo" magnetic field of our Galaxy is in accordance with the first model.

  5. Numerical method for evolving the dipolar projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakie, P. B.; Ticknor, C.; Bradley, A. S.; Martin, A. M.; Davis, M. J.; Kawaguchi, Y.

    2009-07-01

    We describe a method for evolving the projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation (PGPE) for an interacting Bose gas in a harmonic-oscillator potential, with the inclusion of a long-range dipolar interaction. The central difficulty in solving this equation is the requirement that the field is restricted to a small set of prescribed modes that constitute the low-energy c -field region of the system. We present a scheme, using a Hermite-polynomial-based spectral representation, which precisely implements this mode restriction and allows an efficient and accurate solution of the dipolar PGPE. We introduce a set of auxiliary oscillator states to perform a Fourier transform necessary to evaluate the dipolar interaction in reciprocal space. We extensively characterize the accuracy of our approach and derive Ehrenfest equations for the evolution of the angular momentum.

  6. Spatial density oscillations in trapped dipolar condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, H.-Y.; Zhang, J.-N.; Qiu, R.-Z.; Yi, S.; Lu, H.; Pu, H.

    2010-08-15

    We investigated the ground-state wave function and the free expansion of a trapped dipolar condensate. We find that dipolar interaction may induce both biconcave and dumbbell density profiles in the pancake- and cigar-shaped traps, respectively. In the parameter plane of the interaction strengths, the oscillating density profile in a harmonically trapped dipolar condensate occurs only when the interaction parameters fall into certain isolated areas. The relation between the positions of these areas and the trap geometry is explored. When a box potential is used to confine the condensate, spatial density oscillation becomes a generic feature. By studying the free expansion of the condensate with an oscillating density profile, we show that the spatial density oscillation is detectable from the time-of-flight image.

  7. Planar dipolar polymer brush: field theoretical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalik, Jyoti; Kumar, Rajeev; Sumpter, Bobby

    2015-03-01

    Physical properties of polymer brushes bearing monomers with permanent dipole moments and immersed in a polar solvent are investigated using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). It is found that mismatch between the permanent dipole moments of the monomer and the solvent plays a significant role in determining the height of the polymer brush. Sign as well as magnitude of the mismatch determines the extent of collapse of the polymer brush. The mismatch in the dipole moments also affects the force-distance relations and interpenetration of polymers in opposing planar brushes. In particular, an attractive force between the opposing dipolar brushes is predicted for stronger mismatch parameter. Furthermore, effects of added monovalent salt on the structure of dipolar brushes will also be presented. This investigation highlights the significance of dipolar interactions in affecting the physical properties of polymer brushes. Csmd division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

  8. Ordered phases in a bilayer system of dipolar fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zyl, B. P.; Ferguson, W.

    2016-05-01

    The liquid-to-ordered phase transition in a bilayer system of fermions is studied within the context of our recently proposed density-functional theory [B. P. van Zyl, W. Kirkby, and W. Ferguson, Phys. Rev. A 92, 023614 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.023614]. In each two-dimensional layer, the fermions interact via a repulsive, isotropic dipolar interaction. The presence of a second layer introduces an attractive interlayer interaction, thereby allowing the presence of inhomogeneous density phases which would otherwise be energetically unfavorable. For any fixed layer separation, we find an instability to a commensurate one-dimensional stripe phase in each layer, which always precedes the formation of a triangular Wigner crystal. However, at a certain fixed coupling, tuning the separation can lead to the system favoring a commensurate triangular Wigner crystal, or one-dimensional stripe phase, completely bypassing the Fermi liquid state. While other crystalline symmetries, with energies lower than the liquid phase can be found, they are never allowed to form owing to their high energetic cost relative to the triangular Wigner crystal and stripe phase.

  9. On the interaction of dipolar filaments.

    PubMed

    Messina, René; Spiteri, Ludovic

    2016-08-01

    The interactions of dipolar filaments such as magnetic needles and chains in strong homogeneous magnetic/electric field are investigated theoretically. Revisiting the case of uniformly magnetized/polarized parallel needles of finite size L and separated by a distance R , all the relevant regimes of attraction and/or repulsion are properly addressed and discussed. At short inter-needle separation ( R/L ≲ 0.2, the repuive pair potential of two facing needles is governed by R(-1) in strong contrast with R(-3) at long separations (R/L ≳ 2.5). This softening is attributed to an efficient long-range screening owing to the relatively long needle extension in this regime. This whole understanding of dipolar needles effective interaction is then used to grasp that of dipolar chains made up of spherical dipolar beads. When excluded-volume correlations are weak (i.e., the chains are a few beads apart), chains and needles possess virtually the same effective interaction. However, at short separation there is a remarkable hardening upon approaching two chains in registry in qualitative contrast to the needles case. PMID:27562832

  10. Natural 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Baunach, Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-10-19

    [3+2] in the wild: Biomimetic natural product syntheses and theoretical considerations have indicated that 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions take place in nature. Now, the structure, biosynthesis, and function of a heavily modified prenylated flavin cofactor have been elucidated. In the azomethine ylide form, it undergoes [3+2] cycloadditions with aromatic acids and promotes their decarboxylation. PMID:26465651

  11. Fermi at Six Months

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's first 6 months in operation is provided. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, formerly called GLAST, is a mission to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy rage 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV to 30 MeV. It contains a Large Area Telescope capable of viewing the entire sky every 3 hours and a Gamma-ray Burst Monitor for viewing the entire unocculted sky. Since its launch on June 11, 2008 Fermi has provided information on pulsars, gamma ray bursts, relativistic jets, the active galactic nucleus, and a globular star cluster. This presentation describes Fermi's development, mission, instruments and recent findings.

  12. Fermi, Szilard and Trinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Herbert L.

    1974-01-01

    The final installment of the author's recollections of his work with physicists Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard and others in developing the first controlled nuclear chain reaction and in preparing the test explosion of the first atomic bomb. (GS)

  13. Fermi Galactic Center Zoom

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation zooms into an image of the Milky Way, shown in visible light, and superimposes a gamma-ray map of the galactic center from NASA's Fermi. Raw data transitions to a view with all known...

  14. Traveling dark solitons in superfluid Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim

    2011-04-15

    Families of dark solitons exist in superfluid Fermi gases. The energy-velocity dispersion and number of depleted particles completely determine the dynamics of dark solitons on a slowly varying background density. For the unitary Fermi gas, we determine these relations from general scaling arguments and conservation of local particle number. We find solitons to oscillate sinusoidally at the trap frequency reduced by a factor of 1/{radical}(3). Numerical integration of the time-dependent Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation determines spatial profiles and soliton-dispersion relations across the BEC-BCS crossover, and proves consistent with the scaling relations at unitarity.

  15. Speed of Sound of a Spin-Balanced Fermi Gas with s- and d-Wave Pairings Across the BCS-BEC Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Phys Rev A 87:013613, 2013) argued that in fermionic systems with d-wave pairing the speed of sound is nonanalytic across the BCS-BEC crossover at the point where the chemical potential vanishes, regardless of the specific details of the interaction potential. On the contrary, the numerical results reported here suggest that the speed of sound across the BCS-BEC evolution of atomic Fermi gases with s- and d-wave pairings in two-dimensional square lattices is a smooth analytic function at the vanishing chemical potential.

  16. Pseudogap Pairing in Ultracold Fermi Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D.; Dong Hui

    2010-06-18

    The Bose-Einstein condensate to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer crossover in ultracold Fermi gases creates an ideal environment to enrich our knowledge of many-body systems. It is relevant to a wide range of fields from condensed matter to astrophysics. The nature of pairing in strongly interacting Fermi gases can be readily studied. This aids our understanding of related problems in high-T{sub c} superconductors, whose mechanism is still under debate due to the large interaction parameter. Here, we calculate the dynamical properties of a normal, trapped strongly correlated Fermi gas, by developing a quantum cluster expansion. Our calculations for the single-particle spectral function agree with recent rf spectroscopy measurements, and clearly demonstrate pseudogap pairing in the strongly interacting regime.

  17. Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Dipolar Antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Babkevich, P; Jeong, M; Matsumoto, Y; Kovacevic, I; Finco, A; Toft-Petersen, R; Ritter, C; Månsson, M; Nakatsuji, S; Rønnow, H M

    2016-05-13

    We report ac susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements on a dipolar-coupled antiferromagnet LiYbF_{4}. For the thermal transition, the order-parameter critical exponent is found to be 0.20(1) and the specific-heat critical exponent -0.25(1). The exponents agree with the 2D XY/h_{4} universality class despite the lack of apparent two-dimensionality in the structure. The order-parameter exponent for the quantum phase transitions is found to be 0.35(1) corresponding to (2+1)D. These results are in line with those found for LiErF_{4} which has the same crystal structure, but largely different T_{N}, crystal field environment and hyperfine interactions. Our results therefore experimentally establish that the dimensional reduction is universal to quantum dipolar antiferromagnets on a distorted diamond lattice. PMID:27232040

  18. Quantum spin glass and the dipolar interaction.

    PubMed

    Schechter, Moshe; Laflorencie, Nicolas

    2006-09-29

    Anisotropic dipolar systems are considered. Such systems in an external magnetic field are expected to be a good experimental realization of the transverse field Ising model. With random interactions, this model yields a spin glass to paramagnet phase transition as a function of the transverse field. We show that the off-diagonal dipolar interaction, although effectively reduced, induces a finite correlation length and thus destroys the spin-glass order at any finite transverse field. We thus explain the behavior of the nonlinear susceptibility in the experiments on LiHo(x)Y(1-x)F(4), and argue that a crossover to the paramagnetic phase, and not quantum criticality, is observed.

  19. Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Dipolar Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkevich, P.; Jeong, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kovacevic, I.; Finco, A.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Ritter, C.; Mânsson, M.; Nakatsuji, S.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2016-05-01

    We report ac susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements on a dipolar-coupled antiferromagnet LiYbF4 . For the thermal transition, the order-parameter critical exponent is found to be 0.20(1) and the specific-heat critical exponent -0.25 (1 ) . The exponents agree with the 2D X Y /h4 universality class despite the lack of apparent two-dimensionality in the structure. The order-parameter exponent for the quantum phase transitions is found to be 0.35(1) corresponding to (2 +1 )D . These results are in line with those found for LiErF4 which has the same crystal structure, but largely different TN, crystal field environment and hyperfine interactions. Our results therefore experimentally establish that the dimensional reduction is universal to quantum dipolar antiferromagnets on a distorted diamond lattice.

  20. Magnetic relaxation in dipolar magnetic nanoparticle clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovorka, Ondrej; Barker, Joe; Chantrell, Roy; Friedman, Gary; York-Drexel Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the role of dipolar interactions on thermal relaxation in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) systems is of fundamental importance in magnetic recording, for optimizing the hysteresis heating contribution in the hyperthermia cancer treatment in biomedicine, or for biological and chemical sensing, for example. In this talk, we discuss our related efforts to quantify the influence of dipolar interactions on thermal relaxation in small clusters of MNPs. Setting up the master equation and solving the associated eigenvalue problem, we identify the observable relaxation time scale spectra for various types of MNP clusters, and demonstrate qualitatively different spectral characteristics depending on the point group of symmetries of the particle arrangement within the cluster - being solely a dipolar interaction effect. Our findings provide insight into open questions related to magnetic relaxation in bulk MNP systems, and may prove to be also of practical relevance, e.g., for improving robustness of methodologies in biological and chemical sensing. OH gratefully acknowledges support from a Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme under grant agreement PIEF-GA-2010-273014

  1. Sharper Fermi LAT Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo, Stephen; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has a point spread function with large tails, consisting of events affected by tracker ineffiencies, inactive volumes, and hard scattering; these tails can make source confusion a limiting factor. The parameter CTBCORE, available in the publicly available Extended Fermi LAT data, estimates the quality of each event's direction reconstruction; by implementing a cut in this parameter, the tails of the point spread function can be suppressed at the cost of losing effective area. We implement cuts on CTBCORE and present updated instrument response functions derived from the Fermi LAT data itself, along with all-sky maps generated with these cuts. Having shown the effectiveness of these cuts, especially at low energies, we encourage their use in analyses where angular resolution is more important than Poisson noise.

  2. Stripe glass and stripe supersolid of two-dimensional dipolar bosons in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscilde, Tommaso; Boninsegni, Massimo

    2010-03-01

    Making use of mean-field theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the zero-temperature phase diagram of dipolar bosons (with hardcore on-site interactions) on a square and triangular lattice. We consider dipoles forming an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the lattice plane, so that the dipolar interaction takes a spatially anisotropic nature, and it is attractive along the dipole direction and repulsive perpendicular to it. In the case of the square lattice, the attractive part of the interaction leads to the collapse of the dipolar gas and phase separation. On the contrary, in the case of the triangular lattice a stripe crystal is stabilized at most commensurate fillings of the form n/L, where 1 < n < L and L is the linear size. Yet, dislocations in the stripe crystal give rise to highly metastable states, which can be systematically studied at the mean-field level. Metastability is most pronounced close to half filling, and it leads to a strong tendency towards the formation of a ``stripe glass,'' which exhibits a characteristic signature in the structure factor. For higher fillings crystal phase exhibits strong quantum fluctuations, and it hosts a superfluid fraction for sufficiently low strength of the dipolar potential, resulting in a stripe supersolid phase.

  3. FermiGrid

    SciTech Connect

    Yocum, D.R.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Chadwick, K.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Timm, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    As one of the founding members of the Open Science Grid Consortium (OSG), Fermilab enables coherent access to its production resources through the Grid infrastructure system called FermiGrid. This system successfully provides for centrally managed grid services, opportunistic resource access, development of OSG Interfaces for Fermilab, and an interface to the Fermilab dCache system. FermiGrid supports virtual organizations (VOs) including high energy physics experiments (USCMS, MINOS, D0, CDF, ILC), astrophysics experiments (SDSS, Auger, DES), biology experiments (GADU, Nanohub) and educational activities.

  4. Lederman wins Fermi award

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Leon Lederman has received the 1992 Enrico Fermi Award, presented in recognition of a lifetime of achievement in nuclear energy. This article briefly details Lederman's award-winning work (1988 Nobel Proze in Physics) in high-energy physics -- his discovery of the upsilon particle and the muon neutrino. His leadership in the creation of the superconducting accelerator at Fermilab and his leadership in science education of society are also cited with respect to the Enrico Fermi Award. Specifics on the award and its presentation are included in this article.

  5. Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgini, Stefano; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro

    2008-10-15

    The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.

  6. Nested-Fermi-liquid theory

    SciTech Connect

    Virosztek, A.; Ruvalds, J. )

    1990-09-01

    The susceptibility and quasiparticle self-energy are found to exhibit anomalous behavior in nested-Fermi-liquid (NFL) systems that have nearly parallel sections of the Fermi surface. Electron-electron scattering yields damping much stronger than the conventional electron-gas result and predicts a linear temperature variation of the resistivity. The susceptibility {chi}{sub NFL}{sup {prime}{prime}}({bold q},{omega}) for nested fermions is calculated at {bold q}{approx equal}{bold Q}, where {bold Q} is a typical nesting wave vector. The NFL susceptibility is linear in frequency up to a crossover region near {omega}{approx equal}4{ital T} where a saturation to a constant value occurs. The above features, as well as various theoretical constraints, are highly sensitive to the strength of the electron-electron coupling and to the degree of nesting. The relevance of the NFL results to superconducting oxides is briefly examined, with emphasis on the resistivity and the photoemission data, which supports the calculated damping {Gamma}({omega}{gt}{ital T}){approx equal}{alpha}{omega} with an intermediate on-site Coulomb coupling.

  7. Bragg spectroscopy of strongly interacting Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingham, M. G.; Fenech, K.; Peppler, T.; Hoinka, S.; Dyke, P.; Hannaford, P.; Vale, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    This article provides an overview of recent developments and emerging topics in the study of two-component Fermi gases using Bragg spectroscopy. Bragg scattering is achieved by exposing a gas to two intersecting laser beams with a slight frequency difference and measuring the momentum transferred to the atoms. By varying the Bragg laser detuning, it is possible to measure either the density or spin response functions which characterize the basic excitations present in the gas. Specifically, one can measure properties such as the dynamic and static structure factors, Tan's universal contact parameter and observe signatures for the onset of pair condensation locally within a gas.

  8. Wave-particle interaction during a dipolarization front event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Hwang, K.; Klimas, A. J.; Schriver, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Vinas, A. F.

    2013-12-01

    We present Cluster observations of wave-particle interactions during an earthward-propagating dipolarization front (DF) and associated fast plasma bulk flows detected at the central current sheet in Earth's magnetotail. During this period, flux tubes behind a DF frequently contain more energetic or hotter ions than did the pre-existing flux tubes ahead of the DF. On the other hand, electrons within the DF flux tubes heat less, or are even colder, than were the pre-existing populations, and are often accompanied by superposed isolated beams. At the same time, electrostatic emissions are strongly enhanced over a wide range of frequencies (up to several times the electron cyclotron frequency). The lower-frequency (below about several tenths of the electron cyclotron frequency) electrostatic wave power is well correlated with ion energization. From linear theory, we find two wave modes: a high-frequency beam mode and a low-frequency whistler mode that are associated with the electron beam component. We attribute the generation of whistlers to electron beams that persist for a while before undergoing rapid thermalization. The existence of isolated beam components behind DFs detected during the 4-sec Cluster spin period indicates that DFs either provide a continuous source of electron beams or facilitate a physical process that maintains the beams against rapid thermalization. Our analysis suggests that the earthward motion of the DF flux tube, via Fermi acceleration related to a shortening of the magnetic field lines, leads to the generation or sustenance of the electron beams that can generate whistler mode waves, which can in turn heat ions. This scenario, by which free energy in electron beams generates waves that then heat ions, accounts for Cluster observations of the different energization behaviors between electrons and ions behind DFs. Our PIC simulations qualitatively reproduce the Cluster observations.

  9. Fermi TGF detection map

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fermi’s Gamma-ray Burst Monitor detected 130 TGFs from August 2008 to the end of 2010. Thanks to instrument tweaks, the team has been able to improve the detection rate to several TGFs per week. ...

  10. Probing and Manipulating Ultracold Fermi Superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei

    Ultracold Fermi gas is an exciting field benefiting from atomic physics, optical physics and condensed matter physics. It covers many aspects of quantum mechanics. Here I introduce some of my work during my graduate study. We proposed an optical spectroscopic method based on electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) as a generic probing tool that provides valuable insights into the nature of Fermi paring in ultracold Fermi gases of two hyperfine states. This technique has the capability of allowing spectroscopic response to be determined in a nearly non-destructive manner and the whole spectrum may be obtained by scanning the probe laser frequency faster than the lifetime of the sample without re-preparing the atomic sample repeatedly. Both quasiparticle picture and pseudogap picture are constructed to facilitate the physical explanation of the pairing signature in the EIT spectra. Motivated by the prospect of realizing a Fermi gas of 40K atoms with a synthetic non-Abelian gauge field, we investigated theoretically BEC-HCS crossover physics in the presence of a Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a system of two-component Fermi gas with and without a Zeeman field that breaks the population balance. A new bound state (Rashba pair) emerges because of the spin-orbit interaction. We studied the properties of Rashba pairs using a standard pair fluctuation theory. As the two-fold spin degeneracy is lifted by spin-orbit interaction, bound pairs with mixed singlet and triplet pairings (referred to as rashbons) emerge, leading to an anisotropic superfluid. We discussed in detail the experimental signatures for observing the condensation of Rashba pairs by calculating various physical observables which characterize the properties of the system and can be measured in experiment. The role of impurities as experimental probes in the detection of quantum material properties is well appreciated. Here we studied the effect of a single classical impurity in trapped ultracold Fermi

  11. Interaction quenches of Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, Goetz S.

    2009-12-15

    It is shown that the jump in the momentum distribution of Fermi gases evolves smoothly for small and intermediate times once an interaction between the fermions is suddenly switched on. The jump does not vanish abruptly. The loci in momentum space where the jumps occur are those of the noninteracting Fermi sea. No relaxation of the Fermi surface geometry takes place.

  12. Ultracold Dipolar Molecules Composed of Strongly Magnetic Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, A.; Mark, M.; Aikawa, K.; Baier, S.; Grimm, R.; Petrov, A.; Kotochigova, S.; Quéméner, G.; Lepers, M.; Dulieu, O.; Ferlaino, F.

    2015-11-01

    In a combined experimental and theoretical effort, we demonstrate a novel type of dipolar system made of ultracold bosonic dipolar molecules with large magnetic dipole moments. Our dipolar molecules are formed in weakly bound Feshbach molecular states from a sample of strongly magnetic bosonic erbium atoms. We show that the ultracold magnetic molecules can carry very large dipole moments and we demonstrate how to create and characterize them, and how to change their orientation. Finally, we confirm that the relaxation rates of molecules in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry can be reduced by using the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interaction and that this reduction follows a universal dipolar behavior.

  13. Thermodynamics of a trapped Bose-Fermi mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia-Ji

    2003-08-01

    By using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations within the Popov approximation, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of a dilute binary Bose-Fermi mixture confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. For mixtures with an attractive Bose-Fermi interaction, we find a sizable enhancement of the condensate fraction and of the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation with respect to the predictions for a pure interacting Bose gas. Conversely, the influence of the repulsive Bose-Fermi interaction is less pronounced. The possible relevance of our results in current experiments on trapped {sup 87}Rb-{sup 40}K mixtures is discussed.

  14. Aging solitons in photorefractive dipolar glasses.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, J; Pierangeli, D; Di Mei, F; Conti, C; Agranat, A J; DelRe, E

    2013-12-16

    We study experimentally the aging of optical spatial solitons in a dipolar glass hosted by a nanodisordered sample of photorefractive potassium-sodium-tantalate-niobate (KNTN). As the system ages, the waves erratically explore varying strengths of the nonlinear response, causing them to break up and scatter. We show that this process can still lead to solitons, but in a generalized form for which the changing response is compensated by changing the normalized wave size and intensity so as to maintain fixed the optical waveform.

  15. Two dipolar atoms in a harmonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ołdziejewski, Rafał; Górecki, Wojciech; Rzążewski, Kazimierz

    2016-05-01

    Two identical dipolar atoms moving in a harmonic trap without an external magnetic field are investigated. Using the algebra of angular momentum we reduce the problem to a simple numerics. We show that the internal spin-spin interactions between the atoms couple to the orbital angular momentum causing an analogue of the Einstein-de Haas effect. We show a possibility of adiabatically pumping our system from the s-wave to the d-wave relative motion. The effective spin-orbit coupling occurs at anti-crossings of the energy levels.

  16. Lifshitz transitions and crystallization of fully polarized dipolar fermions in an anisotropic two-dimensional lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Sam T.; Quintanilla, Jorge; Betouras, Joseph J.

    2010-07-15

    We consider a two-dimensional model of noninteracting chains of spinless fermions weakly coupled via a small interchain hopping and a repulsive interchain interaction. The phase diagram of this model has a surprising feature: an abrupt change in the Fermi surface as the interaction is increased. We study in detail this metanematic transition and show that the well-known 2(1/2)-order Lifshitz transition is the critical end point of this first-order quantum phase transition. Furthermore, in the vicinity of the end point, the order parameter has a nonperturbative BCS-type form. We also study a competing crystallization transition in this model and derive the full phase diagram. This physics can be demonstrated experimentally in dipolar ultracold atomic or molecular gases. In the presence of a harmonic trap, it manifests itself as a sharp jump in the density profile.

  17. Virial expansion for a strongly correlated Fermi system and its application to ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xia-Ji

    2013-03-01

    A strongly correlated Fermi system plays a fundamental role in very different areas of physics, from neutron stars, quark-gluon plasmas, to high temperature superconductors. Despite the broad applicability, it is notoriously difficult to be understood theoretically because of the absence of a small interaction parameter. Recent achievements of ultracold trapped Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance have ushered in enormous changes. The unprecedented control of interaction, geometry and purity in these novel systems has led to many exciting experimental results, which are to be urgently understood at both low and finite temperatures. Here we review the latest developments of virial expansion for a strongly correlated Fermi gas and their applications on ultracold trapped Fermi atoms. We show remarkable, quantitative agreements between virial predictions and various recent experimental measurements at about the Fermi degenerate temperature. For equations of state, we discuss a practical way of determining high-order virial coefficients and use it to calculate accurately the long-sought third-order virial coefficient, which is now verified firmly in experiments at ENS and MIT. We discuss also virial expansion of a new many-body parameter-Tan’s contact. We then turn to less widely discussed issues of dynamical properties. For dynamic structure factors, the virial prediction agrees well with the measurement at the Swinburne University of Technology. For single-particle spectral functions, we show that the expansion up to the second order accounts for the main feature of momentum-resolved rf-spectroscopy for a resonantly interacting Fermi gas, as recently reported by JILA. In the near future, more practical applications with virial expansion are possible, owing to the ever-growing power in computation.

  18. Attractive and repulsive Fermi polarons in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Vogt, Enrico; Fröhlich, Bernd; Feld, Michael; Köhl, Michael

    2012-05-31

    The dynamics of a single impurity in an environment is a fundamental problem in many-body physics. In the solid state, a well known case is an impurity coupled to a bosonic bath (such as lattice vibrations); the impurity and its accompanying lattice distortion form a new entity, a polaron. This quasiparticle plays an important role in the spectral function of high-transition-temperature superconductors, as well as in colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. For impurities in a fermionic bath, studies have considered heavy or immobile impurities which exhibit Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe and the Kondo effect. More recently, mobile impurities have moved into the focus of research, and they have been found to form new quasiparticles known as Fermi polarons. The Fermi polaron problem constitutes the extreme, but conceptually simple, limit of two important quantum many-body problems: the crossover between a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate and a superfluid with BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) pairing with spin-imbalance for attractive interactions, and Stoner's itinerant ferromagnetism for repulsive interactions. It has been proposed that such quantum phases (and other elusive exotic states) might become realizable in Fermi gases confined to two dimensions. Their stability and observability are intimately related to the theoretically debated properties of the Fermi polaron in a two-dimensional Fermi gas. Here we create and investigate Fermi polarons in a two-dimensional, spin-imbalanced Fermi gas, measuring their spectral function using momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. For attractive interactions, we find evidence for a disputed pairing transition between polarons and tightly bound dimers, which provides insight into the elementary pairing mechanism of imbalanced, strongly coupled two-dimensional Fermi gases. Additionally, for repulsive interactions, we study novel quasiparticles--repulsive polarons--the lifetime of which determines the

  19. Nonlocal order in elongated dipolar gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhman, J.; Dalla Torre, E. G.; Huber, S. D.; Altman, E.

    2012-03-01

    Dipolar particles in an elongated trap are expected to undergo a quantum phase transition from a linear to a zigzag structure with decreasing transverse confinement. We derive the low-energy effective theory of the transition showing that in the presence of quantum fluctuations the zigzag phase can be characterized by a long-ranged string order, while the local Ising correlations decay as a power law. This is also confirmed using density matrix renormalization group calculations on a microscopic model. The nonlocal order in the bulk gives rise to zero energy states localized at the interface between the ordered and disordered phases. Such an interface naturally arises when the particles are subject to a weak harmonic confinement along the tube axis. We compute the signature of the edge states in the single-particle tunneling spectra pointing to differences between a system with bosonic versus fermionic particles. Finally we assess the magnitude of the relevant quantum fluctuations in realistic systems of dipolar particles, including ultracold polar molecules as well as alkali atoms weakly dressed by a Rydberg excitation.

  20. Liquid crystal phases of two-dimensional dipolar gases and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless melting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhigang; Block, Jens K; Bruun, Georg M

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystals are phases of matter intermediate between crystals and liquids. Whereas classical liquid crystals have been known for a long time and are used in electro-optical displays, much less is known about their quantum counterparts. There is growing evidence that quantum liquid crystals play a central role in many electron systems including high temperature superconductors, but a quantitative understanding is lacking due to disorder and other complications. Here, we analyse the quantum phase diagram of a two-dimensional dipolar gas, which exhibits stripe, nematic and supersolid phases. We calculate the stiffness constants determining the stability of the nematic and stripe phases, and the melting of the stripes set by the proliferation of topological defects is analysed microscopically. Our results for the critical temperatures of these phases demonstrate that a controlled study of the interplay between quantum liquid and superfluid phases is within experimental reach for the first time, using dipolar gases. PMID:26750156

  1. Liquid crystal phases of two-dimensional dipolar gases and Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless melting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhigang; Block, Jens K.; Bruun, Georg M.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystals are phases of matter intermediate between crystals and liquids. Whereas classical liquid crystals have been known for a long time and are used in electro-optical displays, much less is known about their quantum counterparts. There is growing evidence that quantum liquid crystals play a central role in many electron systems including high temperature superconductors, but a quantitative understanding is lacking due to disorder and other complications. Here, we analyse the quantum phase diagram of a two-dimensional dipolar gas, which exhibits stripe, nematic and supersolid phases. We calculate the stiffness constants determining the stability of the nematic and stripe phases, and the melting of the stripes set by the proliferation of topological defects is analysed microscopically. Our results for the critical temperatures of these phases demonstrate that a controlled study of the interplay between quantum liquid and superfluid phases is within experimental reach for the first time, using dipolar gases. PMID:26750156

  2. Particle correlations in a Fermi superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Lamacraft, A.

    2006-01-15

    We discuss the correlations between particles of different momentum in a superfluid Fermi gas, accessible through noise measurements of the absorption images of the expanded gas. We include two elements missing from the simplest treatment, based on the BCS wavefunction: the explicit use of a conserving approximation satisfying particle number conservation and the inclusion of the contribution from Cooper pairs at finite momentum. We expect the latter to be a significant issue in the strongly correlated state emerging in the BCS-Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover.

  3. Breakdown of the Fermi Liquid Description for Strongly Interacting Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, Yoav; Drake, Tara E.; Paudel, Rabin; Chapurin, Roman; Jin, Deborah S.

    2015-02-01

    The nature of the normal state of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover regime is an intriguing and controversial topic. While the many-body ground state remains a condensate of paired fermions, the normal state must evolve from a Fermi liquid to a Bose gas of molecules as a function of the interaction strength. How this occurs is still largely unknown. We explore this question with measurements of the distribution of single-particle energies and momenta in a nearly homogeneous gas above Tc . The data fit well to a function that includes a narrow, positively dispersing peak that corresponds to quasiparticles and an "incoherent background" that can accommodate broad, asymmetric line shapes. We find that the quasiparticle's spectral weight vanishes abruptly as the strength of interactions is modified, which signals the breakdown of a Fermi liquid description. Such a sharp feature is surprising in a crossover.

  4. Study of superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Sebastien; Delehaye, Marion; Jin, Shuwei; Pierce, Matthieu; Yefsah, Tarik; Chevy, Frederic; Salomon, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Using fermionic and bosonic isotopes of lithium we produce and study ultracold Bose-Fermi mixtures. First in a low temperature counterflow experiment, we measure the critical velocity of the system in the BEC-BCS crossover. Around unitarity, we observe a remarkably high superfluid critical velocity which reaches the sound velocity of the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Second, when we increase the temperature of the system slightly above the superfluid transitions we observe an unexpected phase locking of the oscillations of the clouds induced by dissipation. Finally, as suggested in, we explore the nature of the superfluid phase when we impose a spin polarization in the situation where the mean field potential created by the bosons on the fermions tends to cancel out the trapping potential of the latter.

  5. Freezing in relaxor ferroelectrics and dipolar glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirc, Raša; Kutnjak, Zdravko

    2015-03-01

    A recently proposed semi-phenomenological model of freezing in relaxor ferroelectrics, based on the concept of polar nanoregions (PNRs) embedded in a polarizable medium, is reviewed. A generalized Landau-type free energy for the medium is discussed, where the medium polarization couples linearly to the PNR polarization. When the fourth-order Landau coefficient is negative (b < 0), the correlation radius rc, which measures the PNR size, depends on the temperature T and the applied field E. As T is lowered or E increased, rc increases and the volume of a cluster of PNRs grows until the percolation limit is reached. This leads to a generalized expression for the Vogel-Fulcher (VF) relaxation time with a field-dependent VF freezing temperature T0(E). The case b > 0, in which the percolation mechanism cannot be realized, is considered to be appropriate for dipolar glasses.

  6. Crystallization of a dilute atomic dipolar condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisset, Russell; Blakie, Blair

    2016-05-01

    A recent experiment found that a dilute BEC of highly-magnetic dysprosium atoms may spontaneously break up into a crystal of droplets, a process reminiscent of the Rosensweig instability [ArXiv:1508.05007]. We dynamically simulate this scenario and find that the standard dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) cannot explain such a droplet crystal. Indeed, the GPE predicts too much heating during the violent droplet formation, and a droplet lifetime that is much shorter than observed in the experiment. We investigate the requisite properties of the unknown stabilization mechanism, and find that an effective repulsive interaction with a higher order density dependence than the usual two-body interactions is required to quantitatively reproduce the experimental results.

  7. Topological flat bands from dipolar spin systems.

    PubMed

    Yao, N Y; Laumann, C R; Gorshkov, A V; Bennett, S D; Demler, E; Zoller, P; Lukin, M D

    2012-12-28

    We propose and analyze a physical system that naturally admits two-dimensional topological nearly flat bands. Our approach utilizes an array of three-level dipoles (effective S=1 spins) driven by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. The dipolar interactions produce arbitrary uniform background gauge fields for an effective collection of conserved hard-core bosons, namely, the dressed spin flips. These gauge fields result in topological band structures, whose band gap can be larger than the corresponding bandwidth. Exact diagonalization of the full interacting Hamiltonian at half-filling reveals the existence of superfluid, crystalline, and supersolid phases. An experimental realization using either ultracold polar molecules or spins in the solid state is considered.

  8. Dielectric Metamaterials with Toroidal Dipolar Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharin, Alexey A.; Kafesaki, Maria; Economou, Eleftherios N.; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Savinov, Vassili; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-01-01

    Toroidal multipoles are the terms missing in the standard multipole expansion; they are usually overlooked due to their relatively weak coupling to the electromagnetic fields. Here, we propose and theoretically study all-dielectric metamaterials of a special class that represent a simple electromagnetic system supporting toroidal dipolar excitations in the THz part of the spectrum. We show that resonant transmission and reflection of such metamaterials is dominated by toroidal dipole scattering, the neglect of which would result in a misunderstanding interpretation of the metamaterials' macroscopic response. Because of the unique field configuration of the toroidal mode, the proposed metamaterials could serve as a platform for sensing or enhancement of light absorption and optical nonlinearities.

  9. GRB Studies with Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) with the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. Included are pictures of the observatory, with illustrations of the Large Area Telescope (LAT), and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) including information about both their capabilities. Graphs showing the GBM count rate over time after the GBM trigger for three GRBs, preliminary charts showing the multiple detector light curves the spectroscopy of the main LAT peak and the spectral evolution of GRB 080916C Burst Temporally-extended LAT emission.

  10. Renormalization group and the superconducting susceptibility of a Fermi liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.; Shankar, R.

    2010-11-15

    A free Fermi gas has, famously, a superconducting susceptibility that diverges logarithmically at zero temperature. In this paper we ask whether this is still true for a Fermi liquid and find that the answer is that it does not. From the perspective of the renormalization group for interacting fermions, the question arises because a repulsive interaction in the Cooper channel is a marginally irrelevant operator at the Fermi liquid fixed point and thus is also expected to infect various physical quantities with logarithms. Somewhat surprisingly, at least from the renormalization group viewpoint, the result for the superconducting susceptibility is that two logarithms are not better than one. In the course of this investigation we derive a Callan-Symanzik equation for the repulsive Fermi liquid using the momentum-shell renormalization group, and use it to compute the long-wavelength behavior of the superconducting correlation function in the emergent low-energy theory. We expect this technique to be of broader interest.

  11. New physics of metals: fermi surfaces without Fermi liquids.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P W

    1995-01-01

    I relate the historic successes, and present difficulties, of the renormalized quasiparticle theory of metals ("AGD" or Fermi liquid theory). I then describe the best-understood example of a non-Fermi liquid, the normal metallic state of the cuprate superconductors. PMID:11607559

  12. Vortex Lattices in Rotating Atomic Bose Gases with Dipolar Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N.R.; Rezayi, E.H.; Simon, S.H.

    2005-11-11

    We show that dipolar interactions have dramatic effects on the ground states of rotating atomic Bose gases in the weak-interaction limit. With increasing dipolar interaction (relative to the net contact interaction), the mean field, or high filling factor, ground state undergoes a series of transitions between vortex lattices of different symmetries: triangular, square, 'stripe', and 'bubble' phases. We also study the effects of dipolar interactions on the quantum fluids at low filling factors. We show that the incompressible Laughlin state at filling factor {nu}=1/2 is replaced by compressible stripe and bubble phases.

  13. Conformal Fermi Coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Liang; Pajer, Enrico; Schmidt, Fabian E-mail: Enrico.pajer@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC) are a useful frame for isolating the locally observable, physical effects of a long-wavelength spacetime perturbation. Their cosmological application, however, is hampered by the fact that they are only valid on scales much smaller than the horizon. We introduce a generalization that we call Conformal Fermi Coordinates (CFC). CFC preserve all the advantages of FNC, but in addition are valid outside the horizon. They allow us to calculate the coupling of long- and short-wavelength modes on all scales larger than the sound horizon of the cosmological fluid, starting from the epoch of inflation until today, by removing the complications of the second order Einstein equations to a large extent, and eliminating all gauge ambiguities. As an application, we present a calculation of the effect of long-wavelength tensor modes on small scale density fluctuations. We recover previous results, but clarify the physical content of the individual contributions in terms of locally measurable effects and ''projection'' terms.

  14. Large N expansion for superfluid Fermi gases at unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillette, Martin Y.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2007-03-01

    We study an s-wave resonant Fermi gas near the unitarity point. We treat this problem by generalizing the Fermi gas to a model with 2N hyperfine states (with Sp(2N) symmetry). We show that for N=∞, the model can be solved exactly by the BEC-BCS mean field solution. In order to address the physically relevant problem (N=1), we perform a systematic 1/N loop expansion around the BEC-BCS solution. For N=1, we obtain a variety of thermodynamic quantities, including the energy, the pairing gap, and the upper critical polarization. We compare our results to experimental data and other theoretical approaches.

  15. Quantum dynamics and topological excitations in interacting dipolar particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Ana

    2016-05-01

    Dipole-dipole interactions, long-range and anisotropic interactions that arise due to the virtual exchange of photons, are of fundamental importance in optical physics, and are enabling a range of new quantum technologies including quantum networks and optical lattice atomic clocks. In this talk I will first discuss how arrays of dipolar particles with a simple J = 0- J = 1 internal level structure can naturally host topological and chiral excitations including Weyl quasi-particles. Weyl fermions were first predicted to exist in the context of high energy physics but only recently have been observed in solid state systems. I will discuss a proposal of using Mott insulators of Sr atoms to observe and probe the Weyl excitation spectrum and its non-trivial chirality. Finally I will report on a recent experiment done at JILA which validates the underlying microscopic model that predicts the existence of these excitations. The experiment measured the collective emission from a coherently driven gas of ultracold 88 Sr atoms and observed a highly directional and anisotropic emission intensity and a substantial broadening of the atomic spectral lines. All of the measurements are well reproduced by the theoretical model. These investigations open the door for the exploration of novel quantum many-body systems involving strongly interacting atoms and photons, and are useful guides for further developments of optical atomic clocks and other applications involving dense atomic ensembles. AFOSR, MURI-AFOSR, ARO,NSF-PHY-1521080, JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844.

  16. Diffraction cancellation over multiple wavelengths in photorefractive dipolar glasses.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, J; Di Mei, F; Conti, C; Agranat, A J; DelRe, E

    2011-11-21

    We report the simultaneous diffraction cancellation for beams of different wavelengths in out-of-equilibrium dipolar glass. The effect is supported by the photorefractive diffusive nonlinearity and scale-free optics, and can find application in imaging and microscopy.

  17. ORIGIN OF THE FERMI BUBBLE

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K.-S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C.-M.; Ip, W.-H.

    2011-04-10

    Fermi has discovered two giant gamma-ray-emitting bubbles that extend nearly 10 kpc in diameter north and south of the Galactic center. The existence of the bubbles was first evidenced in X-rays detected by ROSAT and later WMAP detected an excess of radio signals at the location of the gamma-ray bubbles. We propose that periodic star capture processes by the galactic supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, with a capture rate 3 x 10{sup -5} yr{sup -1} and energy release {approx}3 x 10{sup 52} erg per capture can produce very hot plasma {approx}10 keV with a wind velocity {approx}10{sup 8} cm s{sup -1} injected into the halo and heat up the halo gas to {approx}1 keV, which produces thermal X-rays. The periodic injection of hot plasma can produce shocks in the halo and accelerate electrons to {approx}TeV, which produce radio emission via synchrotron radiation and gamma rays via inverse Compton scattering with the relic and the galactic soft photons.

  18. Soft modes, freezing, and nonlinear response of a dipolar glass

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.B.; Fleury, P.A.; Chou, H.; Kjems, J.; Shapiro, S.; Rytz, D.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Hughes Research Labs., Malibu, CA )

    1989-01-01

    A careful study of the polarization dynamics near the dipolar glass transition, utilizing both neutron and light scattering reveals a dichotomy in the behavior, on the one hand suggesting ordered domains of macroscopic extent and on the other clearly indicating dynamic cluster behavior in the same temperature region. An examination of this evidence leads us to suggest a percolated cluster model for the dipolar glass phase in KTN. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Artificial Kagome Arrays of Nanomagnets: A Frozen Dipolar Spin Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougemaille, N.; Montaigne, F.; Canals, B.; Duluard, A.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Belkhou, R.; Fruchart, O.; El Moussaoui, S.; Bendounan, A.; Maccherozzi, F.

    2011-02-01

    Magnetic frustration effects in artificial kagome arrays of nanomagnets are investigated using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy and Monte Carlo simulations. Spin configurations of demagnetized networks reveal unambiguous signatures of long range, dipolar interaction between the nanomagnets. As soon as the system enters the spin ice manifold, the kagome dipolar spin ice model captures the observed physics, while the short range kagome spin ice model fails.

  20. Heat capacity and sound velocities of low dimensional Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, P.; Solis, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    We report the heat capacity ratio and sound velocities for an interactionless Fermi gas immersed in periodic structures such as penetrable multilayers or multitubes created by one (planes) or two perpendicular (tubes) external Dirac comb potentials. The isobaric specific heat of the fermion gas presents the dimensional crossover previously observed in the isochoric specific heat - from 3D to 2D or to 1D -. The quotient between the two quantities has a prominent bump related to the confinement, and as the temperature increases, it goes towards the monoatomic classical gas value 5/3. We present the isothermal and the adiabatic sound velocities of the fermion gas which show anomalous behavior at temperatures below TF due to the dimensionality of the system, while at higher temperatures again we recover the behavior of a classical Fermi gas. Furthermore, as the temperature goes to zero the sound velocity has a finite value, as expected.

  1. Metastability in spin-polarized Fermi gases.

    PubMed

    Liao, Y A; Revelle, M; Paprotta, T; Rittner, A S C; Li, Wenhui; Partridge, G B; Hulet, R G

    2011-09-30

    We study the role of particle transport and evaporation on the phase separation of an ultracold, spin-polarized atomic Fermi gas. We show that the previously observed deformation of the superfluid paired core is a result of evaporative depolarization of the superfluid due to a combination of enhanced evaporation at the center of the trap and the inhibition of spin transport at the normal-superfluid phase boundary. These factors contribute to a nonequilibrium jump in the chemical potentials at the phase boundary. Once formed, the deformed state is highly metastable, persisting for times of up to 2 s. PMID:22107209

  2. Self-replication with magnetic dipolar colloids.

    PubMed

    Dempster, Joshua M; Zhang, Rui; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-10-01

    Colloidal self-replication represents an exciting research frontier in soft matter physics. Currently, all reported self-replication schemes involve coating colloidal particles with stimuli-responsive molecules to allow switchable interactions. In this paper, we introduce a scheme using ferromagnetic dipolar colloids and preprogrammed external magnetic fields to create an autonomous self-replication system. Interparticle dipole-dipole forces and periodically varying weak-strong magnetic fields cooperate to drive colloid monomers from the solute onto templates, bind them into replicas, and dissolve template complexes. We present three general design principles for autonomous linear replicators, derived from a focused study of a minimalist sphere-dimer magnetic system in which single binding sites allow formation of dimeric templates. We show via statistical models and computer simulations that our system exhibits nonlinear growth of templates and produces nearly exponential growth (low error rate) upon adding an optimized competing electrostatic potential. We devise experimental strategies for constructing the required magnetic colloids based on documented laboratory techniques. We also present qualitative ideas about building more complex self-replicating structures utilizing magnetic colloids.

  3. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-12-14

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  4. Self-replication with magnetic dipolar colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, Joshua M.; Zhang, Rui; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-10-01

    Colloidal self-replication represents an exciting research frontier in soft matter physics. Currently, all reported self-replication schemes involve coating colloidal particles with stimuli-responsive molecules to allow switchable interactions. In this paper, we introduce a scheme using ferromagnetic dipolar colloids and preprogrammed external magnetic fields to create an autonomous self-replication system. Interparticle dipole-dipole forces and periodically varying weak-strong magnetic fields cooperate to drive colloid monomers from the solute onto templates, bind them into replicas, and dissolve template complexes. We present three general design principles for autonomous linear replicators, derived from a focused study of a minimalist sphere-dimer magnetic system in which single binding sites allow formation of dimeric templates. We show via statistical models and computer simulations that our system exhibits nonlinear growth of templates and produces nearly exponential growth (low error rate) upon adding an optimized competing electrostatic potential. We devise experimental strategies for constructing the required magnetic colloids based on documented laboratory techniques. We also present qualitative ideas about building more complex self-replicating structures utilizing magnetic colloids.

  5. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia E-mail: laviniah@kth.se

    2015-12-01

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  6. Formation mechanisms of magnetotail dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huishan

    2016-07-01

    Dipolarization fronts (DFs) are frequently detected in the Earth's magnetotail. How these DFs are formed is still poorly understood. Three possible mechanisms have been suggested in previous simulations: (1) jet braking, (2) transient reconnection, and (3) spontaneous formation. Among these three mechanisms, the first has been verified by using spacecraft observation, while the second and third have not. In this study, we show Cluster observation of DFs inside reconnection diffusion region. This observation provides in situ evidence of the second mechanism: transient reconnection can produce DFs. We suggest that the DFs detected in the near-Earth region (XGSM > -10 RE) are primarily attributed to jet braking, while the DFs detected in the mid- or far-tail region (XGSM < -15 RE) are primarily attributed to transient reconnection or spontaneous formation. In the jet-braking mechanism, the high-speed flow 'pushes' the pre-existing plasmas to produce the DF, so that there is causality between high-speed flow and DF. In the transient-reconnection mechanism, there is no causality between high-speed flow and DF, because the frozen-in condition is violated.

  7. Observations and Effects of Dipolarization Fronts Observed in Earth's Magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Dipolarization fronts in Earth's magnetotail are characterized by sharp jumps in magnetic field, a drop in density, and often follow earthward fast plasma flow. They are commonly detected near the equatorial plane of Earth s tail plasma sheet. Sometimes, but not always, dipolarization fronts are associated with global substorms and auroral brightenings. Both Cluster, THEMIS, and other spacecraft have detected dipolarization fronts in a variety of locations in the magnetotail. Using multi-spacecraft analyses together with simulations, we have investigated the propagation and evolution of some dipolarization events. We have also investigated the acceleration of electrons and ions that results from such magnetic-field changes. In some situations, the velocities of fast earthward flows are comparable to the Alfven speed, indicating that the flow bursts might have been generated by bursty reconnection that occurred tailward of the spacecraft. Based on multi-spacecraft timing analysis, dipolarization fronts are found to propagate mainly earthward at 160-335 km/s and have thicknesses of 900-1500 km, which corresponds to the ion inertial length or gyroradius scale. Following the passage of dipolarization fronts, significant fluctuations are observed in the x and y components of the magnetic field. These peaks in the magnetic field come approximately 1-2 minutes after passage of the dipolarization front. These Bx and By fluctuations propagate primarily dawnward and earthward. Field-aligned electron beams are observed coincident with those magnetic field fluctuations. Non-Maxwellian electron and ion distributions are observed that are associated with the dipolarization that may be unstable to a range of electrostatic and/or whistler instabilities. Enhanced electrostatic broadband noise at frequencies below and near the lower-hybrid frequency is also observed at or very close to these fronts. This broadband noise is thought to play a role in further energizing the particles

  8. The Statistical Fermi Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, C.

    In this paper is provided the statistical generalization of the Fermi paradox. The statistics of habitable planets may be based on a set of ten (and possibly more) astrobiological requirements first pointed out by Stephen H. Dole in his book Habitable planets for man (1964). The statistical generalization of the original and by now too simplistic Dole equation is provided by replacing a product of ten positive numbers by the product of ten positive random variables. This is denoted the SEH, an acronym standing for “Statistical Equation for Habitables”. The proof in this paper is based on the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) of Statistics, stating that the sum of any number of independent random variables, each of which may be ARBITRARILY distributed, approaches a Gaussian (i.e. normal) random variable (Lyapunov form of the CLT). It is then shown that: 1. The new random variable NHab, yielding the number of habitables (i.e. habitable planets) in the Galaxy, follows the log- normal distribution. By construction, the mean value of this log-normal distribution is the total number of habitable planets as given by the statistical Dole equation. 2. The ten (or more) astrobiological factors are now positive random variables. The probability distribution of each random variable may be arbitrary. The CLT in the so-called Lyapunov or Lindeberg forms (that both do not assume the factors to be identically distributed) allows for that. In other words, the CLT "translates" into the SEH by allowing an arbitrary probability distribution for each factor. This is both astrobiologically realistic and useful for any further investigations. 3. By applying the SEH it is shown that the (average) distance between any two nearby habitable planets in the Galaxy may be shown to be inversely proportional to the cubic root of NHab. This distance is denoted by new random variable D. The relevant probability density function is derived, which was named the "Maccone distribution" by Paul Davies in

  9. The fermi paradox is neither Fermi's nor a paradox.

    PubMed

    Gray, Robert H

    2015-03-01

    The so-called Fermi paradox claims that if technological life existed anywhere else, we would see evidence of its visits to Earth--and since we do not, such life does not exist, or some special explanation is needed. Enrico Fermi, however, never published anything on this topic. On the one occasion he is known to have mentioned it, he asked "Where is everybody?"--apparently suggesting that we do not see extraterrestrials on Earth because interstellar travel may not be feasible, but not suggesting that intelligent extraterrestrial life does not exist or suggesting its absence is paradoxical. The claim "they are not here; therefore they do not exist" was first published by Michael Hart, claiming that interstellar travel and colonization of the Galaxy would be inevitable if intelligent extraterrestrial life existed, and taking its absence here as proof that it does not exist anywhere. The Fermi paradox appears to originate in Hart's argument, not Fermi's question. Clarifying the origin of these ideas is important, because the Fermi paradox is seen by some as an authoritative objection to searching for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence--cited in the U.S. Congress as a reason for killing NASA's SETI program on one occasion. But evidence indicates that it misrepresents Fermi's views, misappropriates his authority, deprives the actual authors of credit, and is not a valid paradox. PMID:25719510

  10. The fermi paradox is neither Fermi's nor a paradox.

    PubMed

    Gray, Robert H

    2015-03-01

    The so-called Fermi paradox claims that if technological life existed anywhere else, we would see evidence of its visits to Earth--and since we do not, such life does not exist, or some special explanation is needed. Enrico Fermi, however, never published anything on this topic. On the one occasion he is known to have mentioned it, he asked "Where is everybody?"--apparently suggesting that we do not see extraterrestrials on Earth because interstellar travel may not be feasible, but not suggesting that intelligent extraterrestrial life does not exist or suggesting its absence is paradoxical. The claim "they are not here; therefore they do not exist" was first published by Michael Hart, claiming that interstellar travel and colonization of the Galaxy would be inevitable if intelligent extraterrestrial life existed, and taking its absence here as proof that it does not exist anywhere. The Fermi paradox appears to originate in Hart's argument, not Fermi's question. Clarifying the origin of these ideas is important, because the Fermi paradox is seen by some as an authoritative objection to searching for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence--cited in the U.S. Congress as a reason for killing NASA's SETI program on one occasion. But evidence indicates that it misrepresents Fermi's views, misappropriates his authority, deprives the actual authors of credit, and is not a valid paradox.

  11. Surface tension in unitary fermi gases with population imbalance.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Theja N; Mueller, Erich J

    2006-08-18

    We study the effects of surface tension between normal and superfluid regions of a trapped Fermi gas at unitarity. We find that surface tension causes notable distortions in the shape of large aspect ratio clouds. Including these distortions in our theories resolves many of the apparent discrepancies among different experiments and between theory and experiments.

  12. Fermi's New Pulsar Detection Technique

    NASA Video Gallery

    To locate a pulsar in Fermi LAT data requires knowledge of the object’s sky position, its pulse period, and how the pulse rate slows over time. Computers check many different combinations of posi...

  13. Jet Dipolarity: Top Tagging with Color Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Jankowiak, Martin; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    A new jet observable, dipolarity, is introduced that can distinguish whether a pair of subjets arises from a color singlet source. This observable is incorporated into the HEPTopTagger and is shown to improve discrimination between top jets and QCD jets for moderate to high p{sub T}. The impressive resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors means that a typical QCD jet at the LHC deposits energy in {Omicron}(10-100) calorimeter cells. Such fine-grained calorimetry allows for jets to be studied in much greater detail than previously, with sophisticated versions of current techniques making it possible to measure more than just the bulk properties of jets (e.g. event jet multiplicities or jet masses). One goal of the LHC is to employ these techniques to extend the amount of information available from each jet, allowing for a broader probe of the properties of QCD. The past several years have seen significant progress in developing such jet substructure techniques. A number of general purpose tools have been developed, including: (i) top-tagging algorithms designed for use at both lower and higher p{sub T} as well as (ii) jet grooming techniques such as filtering, pruning, and trimming, which are designed to improve jet mass resolution. Jet substructure techniques have also been studied in the context of specific particle searches, where they have been shown to substantially extend the reach of traditional search techniques in a wide variety of scenarios, including for example boosted Higgses, neutral spin-one resonances, searches for supersymmetry, and many others. Despite these many successes, however, there is every reason to expect that there remains room for refinement of jet substructure techniques.

  14. Formation of Bose-Einstein magnon condensate via dipolar and exchange thermalization channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhko, D. A.; Clausen, P.; Chumak, A. V.; Kobljanskyj, Yu. V.; Hillebrands, B.; Serga, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Thermalization of a parametrically driven magnon gas leading to the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate at the bottom of a spin-wave spectrum was studied by time- and wavevector-resolved Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Two distinct channels of the thermalization process related on dipolar and exchange parts of a magnon gas spectrum are clearly determined. It has been found that the magnon population in these thermalization channels strongly depends on applied microwave pumping power. The observed magnon redistribution between the channels is caused by the downward frequency shift of the magnon gas spectrum due to the decrease of the saturation magnetization in the course of injection of parametrically pumped magnons.

  15. Anisotropic Non-Fermi Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik

    We study non-Fermi liquids that arise at quantum critical points associated with spin (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) transitions in metals with twofold rotational symmetry. We use the `codimensional' regularization scheme, where a one-dimensional Fermi surface is embedded in 3 - ɛ dimensional momentum space. In three dimensions, quasilocal marginal Fermi liquids arise at the SDW and CDW critical points. Below three dimensions, a perturbative anisotropic non-Fermi liquid state is realized at the SDW critical point, where not only time but also different spatial coordinates develop distinct anomalous dimensions. The stable non-Fermi liquid exhibits an emergent algebraic nesting as the patches of the Fermi surface are deformed into a universal power-law shape near the hot spots. Due to the anisotropic scaling, the energy of spin fluctuations disperse with different power laws in different momentum directions. In contrast, at the CDW critical point, the perturbative expansion breaks down immediately below three dimensions as the interaction renormalizes the speed of charge fluctuations to zero within a finite renormalization group scale.

  16. Pairing and condensation in a resonant Bose-Fermi mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Fratini, Elisa; Pieri, Pierbiagio

    2010-05-15

    We study by diagrammatic means a Bose-Fermi mixture, with boson-fermion coupling tuned by a Fano-Feshbach resonance. For increasing coupling, the growing boson-fermion pairing correlations progressively reduce the boson condensation temperature and make it eventually vanish at a critical coupling. Such quantum critical point depends very weakly on the population imbalance and, for vanishing boson densities, coincides with that found for the polaron-molecule transition in a strongly imbalanced Fermi gas, thus bridging two quite distinct physical systems.

  17. From fractional exclusion statistics back to Bose and Fermi distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Dragoş-Victor

    2013-12-01

    Fractional exclusion statistics (FES) is a generalization of the Bose and Fermi statistics. Typically, systems of interacting particles are described as ideal FES systems and the properties of the FES systems are calculated from the properties of the interacting systems. In this Letter I reverse the process and I show that a FES system may be described in general as a gas of quasiparticles which obey Bose or Fermi distributions; the energies of the newly defined quasiparticles are calculated starting from the FES equations for the equilibrium particle distribution. In the end I use a system in the effective mass approximation as an example to show how the procedure works.

  18. Beliaev damping in quasi-two-dimensional dipolar condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Ryan M.; Natu, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    We study the effects of quasiparticle interactions in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D), zero-temperature Bose-Einstein condensate of dipolar atoms, which can exhibit a roton-maxon feature in its quasiparticle spectrum. Our focus is the Beliaev damping process, in which a quasiparticle collides with the condensate and resonantly decays into a pair of quasiparticles. Remarkably, the rate for this process exhibits a highly nontrivial dependence on the quasiparticle momentum and the dipolar interaction strength. For weak interactions, low-energy phonons experience no damping, and higher-energy quasiparticles undergo anomalously weak damping. In contrast, the Beliaev damping rates become anomalously large for stronger dipolar interactions, as rotons become energetically accessible as final states. When the dipoles are tilted off the axis of symmetry, the damping rates acquire an anisotropic character. Surprisingly, this anisotropy does not simply track the anisotropy of the dipolar interactions, rather, the mechanisms for damping are qualitatively modified in the anisotropic case. Our study reveals the unconventional nature of Beliaev damping in dipolar condensates, and has important implications for ongoing studies of equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics in these systems. Further, our results are relevant for other 2D superfluids with roton excitations, including spin-orbit-coupled Bose gases, magnon condensates, and 4He films.

  19. Evidence for two types of dipolarization in the earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    2014-08-01

    There is a long history in the study of current-disruptions/dipolarizations (CDDs) in the Earth's magnetotail. A recent trend for this topic is the focus on very transient (~1-2 min) positive pulses of the Bz component in the magnetotail coined as dipolarization fronts (DFs). We reviewed several salient features of CDDs reported previously and compare them with those of DFs. We find several major differences between them. First, their temporal profiles differ significantly-DFs have pulse-like form while CDDs have the sustained dipolarization lasting for many minutes. Second, CDDs are typically associated with initial large magnetic fluctuations having the characteristics of turbulence while DFs are not. Third, DFs typically propagate Earthward while CDDs spread tailward. Fourth, DFs are mainly spatial structures acting as discontinuities to separate the regions ahead and behind them with a north-south oriented thin current sheet. On the other hand, CDDs are mainly temporal manifestations of a local dynamic process that reduces the east-west cross-tail current near the neutral sheet. There is indication that CDDs in the near-Earth region (within the downstream distance of ~15 RE) occur prior to substorm onset and DFs are typically found in the midtail region after substorm onsets. These differences justify renaming DFs as dipolarization pulses so that the fronts of CDDs can be distinguished from dipolarization pulses without the confusion brought about by the present terminology.

  20. Resonance activation and collision-induced-dissociation of ions using rectangular wave dipolar potentials in a digital ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuxing; Wang, Liang; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2014-04-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of ions by resonance activation in a quadrupole ion trap is usually accomplished by resonance exciting the ions to higher kinetic energy, whereby the high kinetic energy ions collide with a bath gas, such as helium or argon, inside the trap and dissociate to fragments. A new ion activation method using a well-defined rectangular wave dipolar potential formed by dividing down the trapping rectangular waveform is developed and examined herein. The mass-selected parent ions are resonance excited to high kinetic energies by simply changing the frequency of the rectangular wave dipolar potential and dissociation proceeds. A relationship between the ion mass and the activation waveform frequency is also identified and described. This highly efficient (CID) procedure can be realized by simply changing the waveform frequency of the dipolar potential, which could certainly simplify tandem mass spectrometry analysis methods.

  1. Strong photoassociation in a degenerate fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rvachov, Timur; Jamison, Alan; Jing, Li; Son, Hyungmok; Ebadi, Sepehr; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Despite many studies there remain open questions about strong photoassociation in ultracold gases. We study the effects of strong photoassociation in ultracold fermions. Photoassociation occurs only at short range and thus can be used as a tool to probe and control the two-body correlation function in an interacting many-body system. We study the effects of strong photoassociation in 6 Li, the onset of saturation, and its effects on spin polarized and interacting spin-mixtures. This work was funded by the NSF, ARO-MURI, SAMSUNG, and NSERC.

  2. Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermi Gases across a Feshbach Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zeng-Qiang; Zhai, Hui

    2011-11-01

    In this Letter we study both ground state properties and the superfluid transition temperature of a spin-1/2 Fermi gas across a Feshbach resonance with a synthetic spin-orbit coupling, using the mean-field theory and the exact solution of two-body problem. We show that a strong spin-orbit coupling can significantly enhance the pairing gap for negative scattering length as, due to increased density of state at Fermi surface. Strong spin-orbit coupling can also significantly enhance the superfluid transition temperature Tc to a sizable fraction of Fermi temperature when as≲0, while it suppresses Tc slightly for positive as. The interaction energy and pair size at resonance are also discussed.

  3. Quantum phases of dipolar soft-core bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmer, D.; Safavi-Naini, A.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Söyler, Ş. G.

    2014-10-01

    We study the phase diagram of a system of soft-core dipolar bosons confined to a two-dimensional optical lattice layer. We assume that dipoles are aligned perpendicular to the layer such that the dipolar interactions are purely repulsive and isotropic. We consider the full dipolar interaction and perform path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations using the worm algorithm. Besides a superfluid phase, we find various solid and supersolid phases. We show that, unlike what was found previously for the case of nearest-neighbor interaction, supersolid phases are stabilized by doping the solids not only with particles but with holes as well. We further study the stability of these quantum phases against thermal fluctuations. Finally, we discuss pair formation and the stability of the pair checkerboard phase formed in a bilayer geometry, and we suggest experimental conditions under which the pair checkerboard phase can be observed.

  4. Evanescent Wave-Assisted Symmetry Breaking of Gold Dipolar Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Symmetry-breaking and scattering cancellation were observed in the dark-mode resonance of dipolar gold nanoantennas (NAs) on glass substrates coupled with oblique incidence and total internal reflection. With the assistance of evanescent waves, the coupling efficiency was twice as strong when the incidence angle was larger than the critical angle. The Hamiltonian equation and absorption spectra were used to analyze the hybridization model of symmetric dipolar gold NAs. The antibonding mode could be coupled successfully by both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarizations to NAs when the dimers orientation is parallel to the propagation direction of evanescent waves.

  5. Evanescent Wave-Assisted Symmetry Breaking of Gold Dipolar Nanoantennas

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Symmetry-breaking and scattering cancellation were observed in the dark-mode resonance of dipolar gold nanoantennas (NAs) on glass substrates coupled with oblique incidence and total internal reflection. With the assistance of evanescent waves, the coupling efficiency was twice as strong when the incidence angle was larger than the critical angle. The Hamiltonian equation and absorption spectra were used to analyze the hybridization model of symmetric dipolar gold NAs. The antibonding mode could be coupled successfully by both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarizations to NAs when the dimers orientation is parallel to the propagation direction of evanescent waves. PMID:27581766

  6. Magnetic order and energetics of dipolar coupling in magnetic superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Redi, Martha; Anderson, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    The exact (not just nearest-neighbor) dipolar coupling energy densities for the observed structures of the rare earth Chevrel compounds are calculated by the method of Luttinger and Tisza. The dipolar coupling energy density for the most probable spin configuration is comparable to the observed magnetic transition temperature, TM, but the most probable ground state is not found experimentally. The discrepancy between the observed magnetic ground state and that predicted from dipole coupling may arise from conduction electron effects or possibly from some strong crystal field effect and should be included in any electronic theory of the superconductive state below TM. PMID:16592947

  7. Realizing dipolar spin models with arrays of superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmonte, M.; Mirzaei, S. I.; Muppalla, P. R.; Marcos, D.; Zoller, P.; Kirchmair, G.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a platform for quantum many body simulations of dipolar spin models using current circuit QED technology. Our basic building blocks are 3D transmon qubits where we use the naturally occurring dipolar interactions to realize interacting spin systems. This opens the way toward the realization of a broad class of tunable spin models in both two- and one-dimensional geometries. We illustrate the potential offered by these systems in the context of dimerized Majumdar-Ghosh-type phases, archetypical examples of quantum magnetism, showing how such phases are robust against disorder and decoherence and could be observed within state-of-the-art experiments.

  8. Evanescent Wave-Assisted Symmetry Breaking of Gold Dipolar Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Symmetry-breaking and scattering cancellation were observed in the dark-mode resonance of dipolar gold nanoantennas (NAs) on glass substrates coupled with oblique incidence and total internal reflection. With the assistance of evanescent waves, the coupling efficiency was twice as strong when the incidence angle was larger than the critical angle. The Hamiltonian equation and absorption spectra were used to analyze the hybridization model of symmetric dipolar gold NAs. The antibonding mode could be coupled successfully by both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarizations to NAs when the dimers orientation is parallel to the propagation direction of evanescent waves. PMID:27581766

  9. Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey

    2014-07-16

    We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics. PMID:24920153

  10. Evanescent Wave-Assisted Symmetry Breaking of Gold Dipolar Nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jhen-Hong; Chen, Kuo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Symmetry-breaking and scattering cancellation were observed in the dark-mode resonance of dipolar gold nanoantennas (NAs) on glass substrates coupled with oblique incidence and total internal reflection. With the assistance of evanescent waves, the coupling efficiency was twice as strong when the incidence angle was larger than the critical angle. The Hamiltonian equation and absorption spectra were used to analyze the hybridization model of symmetric dipolar gold NAs. The antibonding mode could be coupled successfully by both transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) polarizations to NAs when the dimers orientation is parallel to the propagation direction of evanescent waves.

  11. Large- N expansion for unitary superfluid Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillette, Martin Y.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2007-04-01

    We analyze strongly interacting Fermi gases in the unitary regime by considering the generalization to an arbitrary number N of spin- 1/2 fermion flavors with Sp(2N) symmetry. For N→∞ this problem is exactly solved by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensate mean-field theory, with corrections small in the parameter 1/N . The large- N expansion provides a systematic way to determine corrections to mean-field predictions, allowing the calculation of a variety of thermodynamic quantities at (and in proximity to) unitarity, including the energy, the pairing gap, and the upper-critical polarization (in the case of a polarized gas) for the normal to superfluid instability. For the physical case of N=1 , among other quantities, we predict in the unitarity regime, the energy of the gas to be ξ=0.28 times that for the noninteracting gas and the pairing gap to be 0.52 times the Fermi energy.

  12. Superradiant phase transition of Fermi gases in a cavity across a Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Zhai, Hui; Yu, Zhenhua

    2015-02-01

    We consider the superradiant phase transition of a two-component Fermi gas in a cavity across a Feshbach resonance. It is known that quantum statistics plays a crucial role for the superradiant phase transition in atomic gases; in contrast to bosons, in a Fermi gas this transition exhibits strong density dependence. We show that across a Feshbach resonance, while the two-component Fermi gas passes through the BEC-BCS crossover, the superradiant phase transition undergoes a corresponding crossover from a fermionic behavior on the weakly interacting BCS side, to a bosonic behavior on the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) side. This intricate statistics crossover makes the superradiance maximally enhanced either in the unitary regime for low densities, in the BCS regime for moderate densities close to Fermi surface nesting, or in the BEC regime for high densities.

  13. From ultracold Fermi Gases to Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Ultracold dilute atomic gases can be considered as model systems to address some pending problem in Many-Body physics that occur in condensed matter systems, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. We have developed a general method to probe with high precision the thermodynamics of locally homogeneous ultracold Bose and Fermi gases [1,2,3]. This method allows stringent tests of recent many-body theories. For attractive spin 1/2 fermions with tunable interaction (^6Li), we will show that the gas thermodynamic properties can continuously change from those of weakly interacting Cooper pairs described by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to those of strongly bound molecules undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. First, we focus on the finite-temperature Equation of State (EoS) of the unpolarized unitary gas. Surprisingly, the low-temperature properties of the strongly interacting normal phase are well described by Fermi liquid theory [3] and we localize the superfluid phase transition. A detailed comparison with theories including recent Monte-Carlo calculations will be presented. Moving away from the unitary gas, the Lee-Huang-Yang and Lee-Yang beyond-mean-field corrections for low density bosonic and fermionic superfluids are quantitatively measured for the first time. Despite orders of magnitude difference in density and temperature, our equation of state can be used to describe low density neutron matter such as the outer shell of neutron stars. [4pt] [1] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, K. Jiang, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Nature 463, 1057 (2010) [0pt] [2] N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, S. Pilati, F. Chevy, S. Giorgini, A. Georges, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 215303 (2011)

  14. Thomas-Fermi molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Clerouin, J.; Pollock, E.L. ); Zerah, G. )

    1992-10-15

    A three-dimensional density-functional molecular-dynamics code is developed for the Thomas-Fermi density functional as a prototype for density functionals using only the density. Following Car and Parrinello (Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)), the electronic density is treated as a dynamical variable. The electronic densities are verified against a multi-ion Thomas-Fermi algorithm due to Parker (Phys. Rev. A 38, 2205 (1988)). As an initial application, the effect of electronic polarization in enhancing ionic diffusion in strongly coupled plasmas is demonstrated.

  15. Lasing in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kochereshko, Vladimir P.; Durnev, Mikhail V.; Besombes, Lucien; Mariette, Henri; Sapega, Victor F.; Askitopoulos, Alexis; Savenko, Ivan G.; Liew, Timothy C. H.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Platonov, Alexey V.; Tsintzos, Simeon I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Kalevich, Vladimir K.; Afanasiev, Mikhail M.; Lukoshkin, Vladimir A.; Schneider, Christian; Amthor, Matthias; Metzger, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Hoefling, Sven; Lagoudakis, Pavlos; Kavokin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, well-known for revolutionising photonic science, has been realised primarily in fermionic systems including widely applied diode lasers. The prerequisite for fermionic lasing is the inversion of electronic population, which governs the lasing threshold. More recently, bosonic lasers have also been developed based on Bose-Einstein condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. These electrically neutral bosons coexist with charged electrons and holes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the charged particles are bound to their cyclotron orbits, while the neutral exciton-polaritons move freely. We demonstrate how magnetic fields affect dramatically the phase diagram of mixed Bose-Fermi systems, switching between fermionic lasing, incoherent emission and bosonic lasing regimes in planar and pillar microcavities with optical and electrical pumping. We collected and analyzed the data taken on pillar and planar microcavity structures at continuous wave and pulsed optical excitation as well as injecting electrons and holes electronically. Our results evidence the transition from a Bose gas to a Fermi liquid mediated by magnetic fields and light-matter coupling. PMID:26822483

  16. Evidence of Fermi bubbles around M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshirkov, M. S.; Vasiliev, V. V.; Postnov, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    Gamma-ray haloes can exist around galaxies due to the interaction of escaping galactic cosmic rays with the surrounding gas. We have searched for such a halo around the nearby giant spiral Andromeda galaxy M31 using almost 7 yr of Fermi LAT data at energies above 300 MeV. The presence of a diffuse gamma-ray halo with total photon flux 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10-9 cm-2 s-1, corresponding to a luminosity (0.3-100 GeV) of (3.2 ± 0.6) × 1038 erg s-1 (for a distance of 780 kpc) was found at a 5.3σ confidence level. The halo form does not correspond to the extended baryonic H I disc of M31, as would be expected in hadronic production of gamma photons from cosmic ray interaction, nor it is spherically symmetric, as could be in the case of dark matter annihilation. The best-fitting halo template corresponds to two 6-7.5 kpc bubbles symmetrically located perpendicular to the M31 galactic disc, similar to the `Fermi bubbles' found around the Milky Way centre, which suggests the past activity of the central supermassive black hole or a star formation burst in M31.

  17. Lasing in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochereshko, Vladimir P.; Durnev, Mikhail V.; Besombes, Lucien; Mariette, Henri; Sapega, Victor F.; Askitopoulos, Alexis; Savenko, Ivan G.; Liew, Timothy C. H.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Platonov, Alexey V.; Tsintzos, Simeon I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Kalevich, Vladimir K.; Afanasiev, Mikhail M.; Lukoshkin, Vladimir A.; Schneider, Christian; Amthor, Matthias; Metzger, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Hoefling, Sven; Lagoudakis, Pavlos; Kavokin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, well-known for revolutionising photonic science, has been realised primarily in fermionic systems including widely applied diode lasers. The prerequisite for fermionic lasing is the inversion of electronic population, which governs the lasing threshold. More recently, bosonic lasers have also been developed based on Bose-Einstein condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. These electrically neutral bosons coexist with charged electrons and holes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the charged particles are bound to their cyclotron orbits, while the neutral exciton-polaritons move freely. We demonstrate how magnetic fields affect dramatically the phase diagram of mixed Bose-Fermi systems, switching between fermionic lasing, incoherent emission and bosonic lasing regimes in planar and pillar microcavities with optical and electrical pumping. We collected and analyzed the data taken on pillar and planar microcavity structures at continuous wave and pulsed optical excitation as well as injecting electrons and holes electronically. Our results evidence the transition from a Bose gas to a Fermi liquid mediated by magnetic fields and light-matter coupling.

  18. Asymptotic behavior of local dipolar fields in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, G. J.; Stenning, G. B. G.; van der Laan, G.

    2016-10-01

    A simple method, based on layer by layer direct summation, is used to determine the local dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films. The results show that the dipolar constants converge ~1/m where the number of spins in a square film is given by (2m+1)2. Dipolar field results for sc, bcc, fcc, and hexagonal lattices are presented and discussed. The results can be used to calculate local dipolar fields in films with either ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spiral, exponential decay behavior, provided the magnetic order only changes normal to the film. Differences between the atomistic (local fields) and macroscopic fields (Maxwellian) are also examined. For the latter, the macro B-field inside the film is uniform and falls to zero sharply outside, in accord with Maxwell boundary conditions. In contrast, the local field for the atomistic point dipole model is highly non-linear inside and falls to zero at about three lattice spacing outside the film. Finally, it is argued that the continuum field B (used by the micromagnetic community) and the local field Bloc(r) (used by the FMR community) will lead to differing values for the overall demagnetization energy.

  19. Dipolar Vortices and Dark Solitons in Quantum Ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Nick; Bland, Thomas; Edmonds, Matthew; Proukakis, Nick; Martin, Andrew; O'Dell, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    The experimental achievement of Bose-condensed gases of atoms with large magnetic dipole moments has realized a quantum ferrofluid, which combines both superfluid and ferrofluid properties. Here the conventional isotropic and short-range atom-atom interactions become supplemented by long-range and anisotropic dipolar interactions, enriching the physical properties of the system. Here we discuss how the dipolar interactions modify quantized vortices, the fundamental nonlinear excitations of superfluids in two and three dimensions. As well as distorting the vortex profile, the dipolar interactions cause each vortex to approximate a macroscopic dipole; the vortex-vortex interaction then develops a novel anisotropic and long-range contribution. This is shown to significantly modify the two-vortex dynamics, and has implications for multi-vortex states. We also extend our analysis to dark solitons, the one-dimensional analogs of vortices, where dipolar interactions support unconventional dark soliton bound states. This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK (Grant No. EP/M005127/1).

  20. Fermi Finds Youthful Pulsar Among Ancient Stars

    NASA Video Gallery

    In three years, NASA's Fermi has detected more than 100 gamma-ray pulsars, but something new has appeared. Among a type of pulsar with ages typically numbering a billion years or more, Fermi has fo...

  1. Lectures of Fermi liquid theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, K.S.

    1993-07-01

    The Fermi liquid theory was first introduced by Landau in 1956 to provide a theoretical basis for the properties of strongly correlated Fermi systems. This theory has proven to be crucial for our understanding of a broad range of materials. These include liquid {sup 3}He, {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixtures, simple metals, heavy-fermions, and nuclear matter to name a few. In the high temperature superconductors questions have been raised regarding the applicability of Fermi liquid theory to the normal state behavior of these materials. I will not address this issue in these lectures. My focus will be to summarize the foundations of this theory and to explore the consequences. These lectures are in part a summary of the excellent review article by Baym and Pethick and the books by Pines and Nozieres and Baym and Pethick. They include as well a summary of some articles that I have authored and co-authored. In the main body of the lectures I will not make any additional references to the books or articles. In the absence of reading the original materials, my lectures should provide the essentials of a mini-course in Fermi liquid theory.

  2. Lectures of Fermi liquid theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Fermi liquid theory was first introduced by Landau in 1956 to provide a theoretical basis for the properties of strongly correlated Fermi systems. This theory has proven to be crucial for our understanding of a broad range of materials. These include liquid [sup 3]He, [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He mixtures, simple metals, heavy-fermions, and nuclear matter to name a few. In the high temperature superconductors questions have been raised regarding the applicability of Fermi liquid theory to the normal state behavior of these materials. I will not address this issue in these lectures. My focus will be to summarize the foundations of this theory and to explore the consequences. These lectures are in part a summary of the excellent review article by Baym and Pethick and the books by Pines and Nozieres and Baym and Pethick. They include as well a summary of some articles that I have authored and co-authored. In the main body of the lectures I will not make any additional references to the books or articles. In the absence of reading the original materials, my lectures should provide the essentials of a mini-course in Fermi liquid theory.

  3. Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fermi’s Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the spacecraft’s main scientificinstrument. This animation shows a gamma ray (purple) entering the LAT,where it is converted into an electron (red) and a...

  4. CCC and the Fermi paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurzadyan, V. G.; Penrose, R.

    2016-01-01

    Within the scheme of conformal cyclic cosmology (CCC), information can be transmitted from aeon to aeon. Accordingly, the "Fermi paradox" and the SETI programme --of communication by remote civilizations-- may be examined from a novel perspective: such information could, in principle, be encoded in the cosmic microwave background. The current empirical status of CCC is also discussed.

  5. Fermi, Enrico (1901-54)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Italian physicist, created the first controlled chain reaction, founded Argonne National Laboratory. His work on the properties of electrons (spin-half particles like electrons are called fermions after him, and the study of their properties is called Fermi-Dirac statistics) enabled the pressure source in white dwarf stars to be identified, and white dwarf star properties to be calculated by CHAN...

  6. Fermi's β-DECAY Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Throughout his lifetime Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) had considered his 1934 β-decay theory as his most important contribution to theoretical physics. E. Segrè (1905-1989) had vividly written about an episode at the inception of that paper:1...

  7. Dipolar energy of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnets in magnetization reversal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtori, Hiroyuki; Iwano, Kaoru; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Yano, Masao; Kato, Akira; Shoji, Tetsuya; Manabe, Akira; Ono, Kanta

    2014-05-01

    We analyzed the dipolar energy of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnets in magnetization reversal process through visualizing magnetic dipolar interaction. We obtained magnetization distribution images experimentally by using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The magnetic dipolar interaction was calculated by the interaction between the magnetization at each point and those at the other points on the STXM image. We showed the dipolar energy in the nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets and compared it with the exchange energy at various applied fields. Our results indicated the significance of the dipolar energy in magnetization reversal process.

  8. Stability of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S.; Billy, J.; Henn, E. A. L.; Kadau, H.; Griesmaier, A.; Pfau, T.; Jona-Lasinio, M.; Santos, L.

    2011-11-15

    We show that in contrast with contact interacting gases, an optical lattice changes drastically the stability properties of a dipolar condensate, inducing a crossover from dipolar destabilization to dipolar stabilization for increasing lattice depths. Performing stability measurements on a {sup 52}Cr Bose-Einstein condensate in an interaction-dominated regime, repulsive dipolar interaction balances negative scattering lengths down to -17 Bohr radii. Our findings are in excellent agreement with mean-field calculations, revealing the important destabilizing role played by intersite dipolar interactions in deep lattices.

  9. Universal Fermi gases in mixed dimensions.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yusuke; Tan, Shina

    2008-10-24

    We investigate a two-species Fermi gas in which one species is confined in a two-dimensional plane (2D) or one-dimensional line (1D) while the other is free in the three-dimensional space (3D). We discuss the realization of such a system with the interspecies interaction tuned to resonance. When the mass ratio is in the range 0.0351

  10. Universal Fermi Gases in Mixed Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Yusuke; Tan, Shina

    2008-10-24

    We investigate a two-species Fermi gas in which one species is confined in a two-dimensional plane (2D) or one-dimensional line (1D) while the other is free in the three-dimensional space (3D). We discuss the realization of such a system with the interspecies interaction tuned to resonance. When the mass ratio is in the range 0.0351

  11. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems

    DOE PAGES

    Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.

    2014-10-16

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions, protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe and 208Pb targets show that, even in heavy neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few body systems to neutron starsmore » and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin state, ultra-cold atomic gas systems.« less

  12. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.

    2014-10-16

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions, protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe and 208Pb targets show that, even in heavy neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin state, ultra-cold atomic gas systems.

  13. Landau-Ginzburg perspective of finite-temperature phase diagrams of a two-component Fermi-Bose mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, Michael; Ling, Hong Y.

    2010-10-15

    We consider a mixture of two-component Fermi and (one-component) Bose gases under the repulsive Bose-Fermi and attractive Fermi-Fermi interactions. We perform a systematic study of the finite-temperature phase diagrams in the chemical potential space, identifying, using the Landau-Ginzburg theory, the features generic to the phase diagrams within the validity of our model. We apply the theory to explore the physics of correlated BCS pairing among fermions in a tightly confined trap surrounded by a large Bose-Einstein condensate gas.

  14. Beyond the Fermi liquid paradigm: hidden Fermi liquids.

    PubMed

    Jain, J K; Anderson, P W

    2009-06-01

    An intense investigation of possible non-Fermi liquid states of matter has been inspired by two of the most intriguing phenomena discovered in the past quarter century, namely, high-temperature superconductivity and the fractional quantum Hall effect. Despite enormous conceptual strides, these two fields have developed largely along separate paths. Two widely employed theories are the resonating valence bond theory for high-temperature superconductivity and the composite fermion theory for the fractional quantum Hall effect. The goal of this perspective article is to note that they subscribe to a common underlying paradigm: They both connect these exotic quantum liquids to certain ordinary Fermi liquids residing in unphysical Hilbert spaces. Such a relation yields numerous nontrivial experimental consequences, exposing these theories to rigorous and definitive tests.

  15. Pressure profiles of nonuniform two-dimensional atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiyanov, Kirill; Barmashova, Tatiana; Makhalov, Vasiliy; Turlapov, Andrey

    2016-06-01

    Spatial profiles of the pressure have been measured in atomic Fermi gases with primarily two-dimensional (2D) kinematics. The in-plane motion of the particles is confined by a Gaussian-shape potential. The two-component deeply degenerate Fermi gases are prepared at different values of the s -wave attraction. The pressure profile is found using the force-balance equation, from the measured density profile and the trapping potential. The pressure is compared to zero-temperature models within the local density approximation. In the weakly interacting regime, the pressure lies above a Landau Fermi-liquid theory and below the ideal-Fermi-gas model, whose prediction coincides with that of the Cooper-pair mean-field theory. The values closest to the data are provided by the approach where the mean field of Cooper pairs is supplemented with fluctuations. In the regime of strong interactions, in response to the increasing attraction, the pressure shifts below this model reaching lower values calculated within Monte Carlo methods. Comparison to models shows that interaction-induced departure from 2D kinematics is either small or absent. In particular, comparison with a lattice Monte Carlo suggests that kinematics is two dimensional in the strongly interacting regime.

  16. Fermi resonance in optical microcavities.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Lee, Ji-Won; Kim, Chil-Min

    2015-04-01

    Fermi resonance is a phenomenon of quantum mechanical superposition, which most often occurs between normal and overtone modes in molecular systems that are nearly coincident in energy. We find that scarred resonances in deformed dielectric microcavities are the very phenomenon of Fermi resonance, that is, a pair of quasinormal modes interact with each other due to coupling and a pair of resonances are generated through an avoided resonance crossing. Then the quantum number difference of a pair of quasinormal modes, which is a consequence of quantum mechanical superposition, equals periodic orbits, whereby the resonances are localized on the periodic orbits. We derive the relation between the quantum number difference and the periodic orbits and confirm it in an elliptic, a rectangular, and a stadium-shaped dielectric microcavity.

  17. Transients with the Fermi GBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Michelle; Fermi GBM Team

    2016-03-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is an all-sky monitoring instrument sensitive to energies from 8 keV to 40 MeV. Its primary science objective is observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in support of the Large Area Telescope, which are both part of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Over the past 7 years of operation, the GBM has detected over 240 GRBs per year and provided timely GCN notices for follow-up observations. In addition to GRBs, Galactic transients, solar flares, and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes have also been observed. With several instruments coming online recently, such as the gravitational wave detectors Advanced LIGO/Virgo and the very high energy surveying instrument HAWC, now is an opportune time for multi-messenger collaboration in counterpart search of gravitational waves and GRBs.

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of kagome lattices with magnetic dipolar interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumer, Martin; Holden, Mark; Way, Andrew; Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Southern, Byron

    Monte Carlo simulations of classical spins on the two-dimensional kagome lattice with only dipolar interactions are presented. In addition to revealing the sixfold-degenerate ground state, the nature of the finite-temperature phase transition to long-range magnetic order is discussed. Low-temperature states consisting of mixtures of degenerate ground-state configurations separated by domain walls can be explained as a result of competing exchange-like and shape-anisotropy-like terms in the dipolar coupling. Fluctuations between pairs of degenerate spin configurations are found to persist well into the ordered state as the temperature is lowered until locking in to a low-energy state. Results suggest that the system undergoes a continuous phase transition at T ~ 0 . 43 in agreement with previous MC simulations but the nature of the ordering process differs. Preliminary results which extend this analysis to the 3D fcc ABC-stacked kagome systems will be presented.

  19. Demixing in binary mixtures of apolar and dipolar hard spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarza, N. G.; Lomba, E.; Martín, C.; Gallardo, A.

    2008-12-01

    We study the demixing transition of mixtures of equal size hard spheres and dipolar hard spheres using computer simulation and integral equation theories. Calculations are carried out at constant pressure, and it is found that there is a strong correlation between the total density and the composition. The critical temperature and the critical total density are found to increase with pressure. The critical mole fraction of the dipolar component on the contrary decreases as pressure is augmented. These qualitative trends are reproduced by the theoretical approaches that on the other hand overestimate by far the value of the critical temperature. Interestingly, the critical parameters for the liquid-vapor equilibrium extrapolated from the mixture results in the limit of vanishing neutral hard sphere concentration agree rather well with recent estimates based on the extrapolation of charged hard dumbbell phase equilibria when dumbbell elongation shrinks to zero [G. Ganzenmüller and P. J. Camp, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 191104 (2007)].

  20. Magnetization plateaus of dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Y. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2014-05-07

    Unlike spin ice on pyrochlore lattice, the spin ice structure on kagome lattice retains net magnetic charge, indicating non-negligible dipolar interaction in modulating the spin ice states. While it is predicted that the dipolar spin ice on kagome lattice exhibits a ground state with magnetic charge order and √3 × √3 spin order, our work focuses on the magnetization plateau of this system. By employing the Wang-Landau algorithm, it is revealed that the lattice exhibits the fantastic three-step magnetization in response to magnetic field h along the [10] and [01] directions, respectively. For the h//[1 0] case, an additional √3/6M{sub s} step, where M{sub s} is the saturated magnetization, is observed in a specific temperature range, corresponding to a new state with charge order and short-range spin order.

  1. Current Driven Magnetic Damping in Dipolar-Coupled Spin System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Chul; Pi, Ung Hwan; Kim, Keewon; Kim, Kwang Seok; Shin, Jaikwang; -in Chung, U.

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic damping of the spin, the decay rate from the initial spin state to the final state, can be controlled by the spin transfer torque. Such an active control of damping has given birth to novel phenomena like the current-driven magnetization reversal and the steady spin precession. The spintronic devices based on such phenomena generally consist of two separate spin layers, i.e., free and pinned layers. Here we report that the dipolar coupling between the two layers, which has been considered to give only marginal effects on the current driven spin dynamics, actually has a serious impact on it. The damping of the coupled spin system was greatly enhanced at a specific field, which could not be understood if the spin dynamics in each layer was considered separately. Our results give a way to control the magnetic damping of the dipolar coupled spin system through the external magnetic field.

  2. Manipulating microwaves with magnetic-dipolar-mode vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenetskii, E. O.; Sigalov, M.; Shavit, R.

    2010-05-15

    There has been a surge of interest in the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields. It is well known that, in optics, subwavelength confinement can be obtained from surface plasmon (quasielectrostatic) oscillations. In this article, we propose to realize subwavelength confinement in microwaves by using dipolar-mode (quasimagnetostatic) magnon oscillations in ferrite particles. Our studies of interactions between microwave electromagnetic fields and small ferrite particles with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations show strong localization of electromagnetic energy. MDM oscillations in a ferrite disk are at the origin of topological singularities resulting in Poynting vector vortices and symmetry breakings of the microwave near fields. We show that new subwavelength microwave structures can be realized based on a system of interacting MDM ferrite disks. Wave propagation of electromagnetic signals in such structures is characterized by topological phase variations. Interactions of microwave fields with an MDM ferrite disk and MDM-disk arrays open a perspective for creating engineered electromagnetic fields with unique symmetry properties.

  3. Coherent manipulation of dipolar coupled spins in an anisotropic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibekov, E. I.; Gafurov, M. R.; Zverev, D. G.; Kurkin, I. N.; Malkin, B. Z.; Barbara, B.

    2014-11-01

    We study coherent dynamics in a system of dipolar coupled spin qubits diluted in a solid and subjected to a driving microwave field. In the case of rare earth ions, an anisotropic crystal background results in anisotropic g tensor and thus modifies the dipolar coupling. We develop a microscopic theory of spin relaxation in a transient regime for the frequently encountered case of axially symmetric crystal field. The calculated decoherence rate is nonlinear in the Rabi frequency. We show that the direction of a static magnetic field that corresponds to the highest spin g factor is preferable in order to obtain a higher number of coherent qubit operations. The results of calculations are in excellent agreement with our experimental data on Rabi oscillations recorded for a series of CaW O4 crystals with different concentrations of N d3 + ions.

  4. Quantum filaments in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächtler, F.; Santos, L.

    2016-06-01

    Collapse in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates may be arrested by quantum fluctuations. Due to the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interactions, the dipole-driven collapse induced by soft excitations is compensated by the repulsive Lee-Huang-Yang contribution resulting from quantum fluctuations of hard excitations, in a similar mechanism as that recently proposed for Bose-Bose mixtures. The arrested collapse results in self-bound filamentlike droplets, providing an explanation for the intriguing results of recent dysprosium experiments. Arrested instability and droplet formation are general features directly linked to the nature of the dipole-dipole interactions, and should hence play an important role in all future experiments with strongly dipolar gases.

  5. Dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates with weak disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Krumnow, Christian; Pelster, Axel

    2011-08-15

    A homogeneous polarized dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate is considered in the presence of weak quenched disorder within mean-field theory at zero temperature. By first solving perturbatively the underlying Gross-Pitaevskii equation and then performing disorder ensemble averages for physical observables, it is shown that the anisotropy of the two-particle interaction is passed on to both the superfluid density and the sound velocity.

  6. Thermal entanglement and teleportation in a dipolar interacting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Duarte, O. S.; Pires, D. P.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Reis, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum teleportation, which depends on entangled states, is a fascinating subject and an important branch of quantum information processing. The present work reports the use of a dipolar spin thermal system as a noisy quantum channel to perform quantum teleportation. Non-locality, tested by violation of Bell's inequality and thermal entanglement, measured by negativity, shows that for the present model all entangled states, even those that do not violate Bell's inequality, are useful for teleportation.

  7. Fermi Timing and Synchronization System

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, R.; Staples, J.; Doolittle, L.; Byrd, J.; Ratti, A.; Kaertner, F.X.; Kim, J.; Chen, J.; Ilday, F.O.; Ludwig, F.; Winter, A.; Ferianis, M.; Danailov, M.; D'Auria, G.

    2006-07-19

    The Fermi FEL will depend critically on precise timing of its RF, laser and diagnostic subsystems. The timing subsystem to coordinate these functions will need to reliably maintain sub-100fs synchronicity between distant points up to 300m apart in the Fermi facility. The technology to do this is not commercially available, and has not been experimentally demonstrated in a working facility. Therefore, new technology must be developed to meet these needs. Two approaches have been researched by different groups working with the Fermi staff. At MIT, a pulse transmission scheme has been developed for synchronization of RF and laser devices. And at LBL, a CW transmission scheme has been developed for RF and laser synchronization. These respective schemes have advantages and disadvantages that will become better understood in coming years. This document presents the work done by both teams, and suggests a possible system design which integrates them both. The integrated system design provides an example of how choices can be made between the different approaches without significantly changing the basic infrastructure of the system. Overall system issues common to any synchronization scheme are also discussed.

  8. Enrico Fermi and the Dolomites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battimelli, Giovanni; de Angelis, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Summer vacations in the Dolomites were a tradition among the professors of the Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences at the University of Roma since the end of the XIX century. Beyond the academic walls, people like Tullio Levi-Civita, Federigo Enriques and Ugo Amaldi sr., together with their families, were meeting friends and colleagues in Cortina, San Vito, Dobbiaco, Vigo di Fassa and Selva, enjoying trekking together with scientific discussions. The tradition was transmitted to the next generations, in particular in the first half of the XX century, and the group of via Panisperna was directly connected: Edoardo Amaldi, the son of the mathematician Ugo sr., rented at least during two summers, in 1925 and in 1949, and in the winter of 1960, a house in San Vito di Cadore, and almost every year in the Dolomites; Enrico Fermi was a frequent guest. Many important steps in modern physics, in particular the development of the Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Fermi theory of beta decay, are related to scientific discussions held in the region of the Dolomites.

  9. Band-selective homonuclear dipolar recoupling in rotating solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohwy, M.; Rienstra, C. M.; Griffin, R. G.

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce approaches to band-selective homonuclear dipolar recoupling with the SPC-5 sequence described previously [Hohwy [et al.], J. Chem. Phys. 110, 7983 (1999)]. The technique, denoted SPC-53, restores the homonuclear dipolar coupling during magic angle spinning (MAS) and introduces a fifth-order residual offset term of controllable magnitude. The fifth order term truncates the dipolar coupling to spins that fall outside the operational bandwidth of the experiment. It is shown with high-order average Hamiltonian theory, multiple-spin simulations, and experiments, that polarization within a spin cluster can be propagated to destination spins with improved efficiency using this approach. Further, we show that a spin system subjected to band-selective recoupling obeys the equation of motion of the reduced spin cluster and that modeling of the polarization transfer process is simplified. Thus, in the important case of peptides and proteins, all of the backbone and side-chain carbonyl spins as well as aromatic spins can be neglected, leading to enhanced transfer efficiency among Calpha, Cbeta, Cgamma, etc. Experimental spectra of U-13C,15N-threonine and formyl-U-13C,15N-Met-Leu-Phe-OH, indicate that the backbone carbonyl and sidechain aromatic spins can be neglected in the polarization transfer equations. This leads to enhanced transfer efficiencies of up to a factor of approx2.

  10. Propagating Dipolarization Fronts Earthward of 6 Earth Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, D.; Andersson, L.; Ergun, R.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R. M.; Larsen, B.

    2014-12-01

    During geomagnetically active conditions, the Van Allen Probes observe magnetic dipolarizations associated with enhancements in > 1 keV electron energy flux and the presence of nonlinear electric field structures (e.g. double layers and phase space holes) in the inner magnetosphere (4-6 Re). These dipolarization events are observed most frequently between dusk and midnight, though some appear between midnight and dawn. In some cases, nonlinear electric field power shows abrupt onset that is nearly simultaneous with electron energy flux enhancements across a range of energies. By comparing magnetic field, electric field, and particle data from both spacecraft, recorded when the twin Van Allen Probes are in close proximity, it is found that some of these abrupt onset features can be identified as earthward-propagating fonts with speeds on the order of 30 km/s. The presence of coherent propagating dipolarization fronts well inside the nominal flow breaking region (9 - 12 Re) suggests that earthward plasma flows may influence the magnetospheric plasma environment at the radial distances associated with the ring current and radiation belts. Possible mechanisms for this influence include the localized injection of particles adiabatically energized by their earthward transport, and wave-particle interactions related to the high amplitude parallel electric fields associated with the nonlinear electric field structures observed near these propagating fronts.

  11. Coherent matter waves of a dipolar condensate in two-dimensional optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Aixia; Xue Jukui

    2010-07-15

    The coherent matter waves of a dipolar condensate in deep two-dimensional (2D) tilted and nontilted optical lattices are studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that, in tilted lattices, by properly designing the sign and the magnitude of the contact interaction and the dipolar interaction, it is possible to control the decoherence of Bloch oscillations. Contrary to the usual short-range interacting Bose system, long-lived Bloch oscillations of the dipolar condensate are achieved when the dipolar interaction, the contact interaction, and the lattice dimension satisfy an analytical condition. Furthermore, we predict that, in untilted lattices, stable coherent 2D moving soliton and breather states of the dipolar condensate exist. This fact is very different from the purely short-range interacting Bose system (where the moving soliton cannot be stabilized in high-dimensional lattices). The dipolar interaction can lead to some novel phenomena that can not appear in short-range interacting BEC system.

  12. Landau Theory of Helical Fermi Liquids.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Rex; Maciejko, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We construct a phenomenological Landau theory for the two-dimensional helical Fermi liquid found on the surface of a three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulator. In the presence of rotation symmetry, interactions between quasiparticles are described by ten independent Landau parameters per angular momentum channel, by contrast with the two (symmetric and antisymmetric) Landau parameters for a conventional spin-degenerate Fermi liquid. We project quasiparticle states onto the Fermi surface and obtain an effectively spinless, projected Landau theory with a single projected Landau parameter per angular momentum channel that captures the spin-momentum locking or nontrivial Berry phase of the Fermi surface. As a result of this nontrivial Berry phase, projection to the Fermi surface can increase or lower the angular momentum of the quasiparticle interactions. We derive equilibrium properties, criteria for Fermi surface instabilities, and collective mode dispersions in terms of the projected Landau parameters. We briefly discuss experimental means of measuring projected Landau parameters.

  13. Animating Fermi - Science Outreach through Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbet, Robin; Arcadias, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    Animation students at the Maryland Institute College of Art working with scientists in the Fermi team at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center produced five short animations (and an associated game) related to science discoveries and operations of the Fermi satellite. The topics animated were the Fermi bubbles, dark matter, binary stars, the discovery of cosmic rays, and space debris. We describe the process, show examples of the animations, and discuss the potential of art/science collaborations for public outreach and education.

  14. Hard-core Bose-Fermi mixture in one-dimensional split traps

    SciTech Connect

    Lue Xiaolong; Zhang Yunbo; Yin Xiangguo

    2010-04-15

    We consider a strongly interacting one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Fermi mixture confined in a hard-wall trap or a harmonic oscillator trap with a tunable {delta}-function barrier at the trap center. The mixture consists of a 1D Bose gas with repulsive interactions and of a 1D noninteracting spin-aligned Fermi gas, with both species interacting through hard-core interactions. Using a generalized Bose-Fermi mapping, we calculate the reduced single-particle density matrix and the momentum distribution of the gas as a function of barrier strength and the parity of particle number. The secondary peaks in the momentum distribution show remarkable correlation between particles on the two sides of the split.

  15. Momentum-resolved spectroscopy of a Fermi liquid.

    PubMed

    Doggen, Elmer V H; Kinnunen, Jami J

    2015-01-01

    We consider a recent momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy experiment, in which Fermi liquid properties of a strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas were studied. Here we show that by extending the Brueckner-Goldstone model, we can formulate a theory that goes beyond basic mean-field theories and that can be used for studying spectroscopies of dilute atomic gases in the strongly interacting regime. The model hosts well-defined quasiparticles and works across a wide range of temperatures and interaction strengths. The theory provides excellent qualitative agreement with the experiment. Comparing the predictions of the present theory with the mean-field Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory yields insights into the role of pair correlations, Tan's contact, and the Hartree mean-field energy shift. PMID:25941948

  16. Wilson Ratio of Fermi Gases in One Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.-W.; Yin, X.-G.; Foerster, A.; Batchelor, M. T.; Lee, C.-H.; Lin, H.-Q.

    2013-09-01

    We calculate the Wilson ratio of the one-dimensional Fermi gas with spin imbalance. The Wilson ratio of attractively interacting fermions is solely determined by the density stiffness and sound velocity of pairs and of excess fermions for the two-component Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid phase. The ratio exhibits anomalous enhancement at the two critical points due to the sudden change in the density of states. Despite a breakdown of the quasiparticle description in one dimension, two important features of the Fermi liquid are retained; namely, the specific heat is linearly proportional to temperature, whereas the susceptibility is independent of temperature. In contrast to the phenomenological Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid parameter, the Wilson ratio provides a powerful parameter for testing universal quantum liquids of interacting fermions in one, two, and three dimensions.

  17. Propagation of collective modes in non-overlapping dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallemi, A.; Guilleumas, M.; Mayol, R.; Pi, M.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate long-range effects of the dipolar interaction in Bose-Einstein condensates by solving the time-dependent 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We study the propagation of excitations between non-overlapping condensates when a collective mode is excited in one of the condensates. We obtain the frequency shifts due to the long-range character of the dipolar coupling for the bilayer and also the trilayer system when the dipolar mode is excited in one condensate. The propagation of the monopolar and quadrupolar modes are also investigated. The coupled-pendulum model is proposed to qualitatively explain the long range effects of the dipolar coupling.

  18. Berry curvature on the fermi surface: anomalous Hall effect as a topological fermi-liquid property.

    PubMed

    Haldane, F D M

    2004-11-12

    The intrinsic anomalous Hall effect in metallic ferromagnets is shown to be controlled by Berry phases accumulated by adiabatic motion of quasiparticles on the Fermi surface, and is purely a Fermi-liquid property, not a bulk Fermi sea property like Landau diamagnetism, as has been previously supposed. Berry phases are a new topological ingredient that must be added to Landau Fermi-liquid theory in the presence of broken inversion or time-reversal symmetry.

  19. Bioterrorism and the Fermi Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    We proffer a contemporary solution to the so-called Fermi Paradox, which is concerned with conflict between Copernicanism and the apparent paucity of evidence for intelligent alien civilizations. In particular, we argue that every community of organisms that reaches its space-faring age will (1) almost immediately use its rocket-building computers to reverse-engineer its genetic chemistry and (2) self-destruct when some individual uses said technology to design an omnicidal pathogen. We discuss some of the possible approaches to prevention with regard to Homo sapiens' vulnerability to bioterrorism, particularly on a short-term basis.

  20. Dipolar Rings of Microscopic Ellipsoids: Magnetic Manipulation and Cell Entrapment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Cebers, Andrejs; Tierno, Pietro

    2016-09-01

    We study the formation and the dynamics of dipolar rings composed by microscopic ferromagnetic ellipsoids, which self-assemble in water by switching the direction of the applied field. We show how to manipulate these fragile structures and control their shape via the application of external static and oscillating magnetic fields. We introduce a theoretical framework which describes the ring deformation under an applied field, allowing us to understand the underlying physical mechanism. Our microscopic rings are finally used to capture, entrap, and later release a biological cell via a magnetic command, i.e., performing a simple operation which can be implemented in other microfluidic devices which make use of ferromagnetic particles.

  1. Confocal shift interferometry of coherent emission from trapped dipolar excitons

    SciTech Connect

    Repp, J.; Schinner, G. J.; Schubert, E.; Rai, A. K.; Wieck, A. D.; Reuter, D.; Wurstbauer, U.; Holleitner, A. W.; and others

    2014-12-15

    We introduce a confocal shift-interferometer based on optical fibers. The presented spectroscopy allows measuring coherence maps of luminescent samples with a high spatial resolution even at cryogenic temperatures. We apply the spectroscopy onto electrostatically trapped, dipolar excitons in a semiconductor double quantum well. We find that the measured spatial coherence length of the excitonic emission coincides with the point spread function of the confocal setup. The results are consistent with a temporal coherence of the excitonic emission down to temperatures of 250 mK.

  2. Quantum melting of a crystal of dipolar bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, Christophe; Parcollet, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the behavior of dipolar bosons in two dimensions. We describe the large density crystalline limit analytically while we use quantum Monte Carlo to study the melting toward the Bose-Einstein condensate. We find strong evidence for a first order transition. We characterize the window of experimentally accessible parameters in the context of ultracold bosons and show that observing the quantum melting should be within grasp once one is able to form cold heteronuclear molecules. Close to the melting, we cannot conclude on the existence of a supersolid phase due to an insufficient overlap of our variational Bijl-Jastrow ansatz with the actual ground state.

  3. Stochastic dipolar recoupling in nuclear magnetic resonance of solids.

    PubMed

    Tycko, Robert

    2007-11-01

    I describe a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, called stochastic dipolar recoupling (SDR), that permits continuous experimental control of the character of spin dynamics between coherent and incoherent limits in a system of magnetic dipole-coupled nuclei. In the fully incoherent limit of SDR, spin polarization transfers occur at distance-dependent rates without the quantum mechanical interferences among pairwise dipole-dipole couplings that often limit the feasibility or precision of structural studies of solids by NMR. In addition to facilitating structural studies, SDR represents a possible route to experimental studies of effects of decoherence on the dynamics of quantum many-body systems.

  4. On the rigidity of polynorbornenes with dipolar pendant groups.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Murugesh, Modachur G; Sudhakar, Sundarraj; Yang, Hsiao-Ching; Tai, Hwan-Ching; Chang, Chia-Seng; Liu, Yi-Hung; Wang, Yu; Chen, I-Wen Peter; Chen, Chun-Hsien; Luh, Tien-Yau

    2005-12-16

    A range of polynorbornenes (PNBs) with fused dipolar pendant groups at C-5,6 positions was synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization catalyzed by a ruthenium carbene complex (Grubbs I). Photophysical studies, EFISH measurements, and atomic force microscopy images have been used to investigate the structures and morphology of these polymers. These results suggest that the polymers may adopt rigid rod-like structures. The presence of the double bonds in PNBs appeared to be indispensable for the rigidity of the polymers. Interaction between unsaturated pendant groups may result in coherent alignment leading to a rod-like structure.

  5. Freezing transition of a strongly dipolar simple fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, G. T.; Zeng, X. C.

    2000-03-01

    The freezing transition of a strongly dipolar Lennard-Jones fluid is investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the system undergoes a ferroelectric liquid-to-solid transition when cooled under a constant pressure. Near the triple point the stable solid phase is a body-centered orthorhombic ferroelectric crystal; a metastable ferroelectric solid phase with distorted hexagonal lattice structure is also discovered. To locate the freezing point, Gibbs free energies of the solid and liquid phase are determined using a thermodynamic integration method.

  6. Density functional theory for strongly-correlated ultracold dipolar gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malet Giralt, Francesc; Reimann, Stephanie; Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Lund University Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    We address quasi-one-dimensional strongly-correlated dipolar ultracold gases by means of density functional theory. We make use of an approximation for the Hartree-exchange-correlation that has been shown to be very accurate for electronic systems with coulombic interactions. We show that this approach allows to treat systems with very large particle numbers at relatively low computational cost. This work has been supported by a VIDI grant of the NWO and a Marie Curie grant within the FP7 programme.

  7. Stochastic Dipolar Recoupling in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, Robert

    2007-11-02

    I describe a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, called stochastic dipolar recoupling (SDR), that permits continuous experimental control of the character of spin dynamics between coherent and incoherent limits in a system of magnetic dipole-coupled nuclei. In the fully incoherent limit of SDR, spin polarization transfers occur at distance-dependent rates without the quantum mechanical interferences among pairwise dipole-dipole couplings that often limit the feasibility or precision of structural studies of solids by NMR. In addition to facilitating structural studies, SDR represents a possible route to experimental studies of effects of decoherence on the dynamics of quantum many-body system000.

  8. Stochastic dipolar recoupling in nuclear magnetic resonance of solids

    PubMed Central

    Tycko, Robert

    2008-01-01

    I describe a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, called stochastic dipolar recoupling (SDR), that permits continuous experimental control of the character of spin dynamics between coherent and incoherent limits in a system of magnetic dipole-coupled nuclei. In the fully incoherent limit of SDR, spin polarization transfers occur at distance-dependent rates without the quantum mechanical interferences among pairwise dipole-dipole couplings that often limit the feasibility or precision of structural studies of solids by NMR. In addition to facilitating structural studies, SDR represents a possible route to experimental studies of effects of decoherence on the dynamics of quantum many-body systems. PMID:17995438

  9. Synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators through dipolar interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hao-Hsuan Wu, Jong-Ching Horng, Lance; Lee, Ching-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ray Chang, Jui-Hang

    2014-04-07

    In an array of spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that combine a perpendicular polarized fixed layer with strong in-plane anisotropy in the free layers, magnetic dipolar interactions can effectively phase-lock the array, thus further enhancing the power of the output microwave signals. We perform a qualitative analysis of the synchronization of an array based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, with a spin-transfer torque that assumes strong in-plane anisotropy. Finally, we present the numerical results for four coupled STNOs to provide further evidence for the proposed theory.

  10. Heisenberg-scaled magnetometer with dipolar spin-1 condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Haijun; Wang, Anbang; Tan, Qing-Shou; Zhang, Wenxian; Yi, Su

    2016-04-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a Heisenberg-scaled magnetometer using dipolar spin-1 condensates. The input state of magnetometer is prepared by slowly sweeping a transverse magnetic field to zero, which yields a highly entangled spin state of N atoms. We show that this process is protected by a parity symmetry such that the state preparation time is within the reach of the current experiment. We also propose a parity measurement with a Stern-Gerlach apparatus which is shown to approach the optimal measurement in the large atom number limit. Finally, we show that the phase estimation sensitivity of the proposed scheme roughly follows the Heisenberg scaling.

  11. Fermi surface of YBCO by DHVA

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Hults, W.L.; King, J.C.; Mueller, F.M.

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings demonstrate how far scientist have come in the last four years of high temperature superconductivity. Knowledge of the energy bands and Fermi surfaces from experiment has come rather late. Photoemission, first showed proof of the validity of the energy band calculations. Positron annihilation, presented by West, after a rough start, is now giving evidence of the Fermi surface. Both of these techniques involve electronic excitations and hence, although they show the Fermi surface, do not put as severe a constraint on various models for superconductivity as does the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect. This is a true measurement of the electronic ground state in an applied magnetic field where the frequency of oscillatory magnetization yields extremal cross-sectional areas of the Fermi surface. The authors have already reported some of their Fermi surface work at two conferences but present here discussion of several more important aspects of the work. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  12. A Hadronic Model of the Fermi Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacinti, Gwenael; Taylor, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    We present a self-consistent model of the Fermi Bubbles, described as a decelerating outflow of gas and non-thermal particles produced within the Galactic center region, on a O(100) Myr timescale. Motivated by observations, we use an outflow with velocity O(100) km/s, which is slower than velocities used in models describing the Bubbles as a recent outburst (˜Myr ago). We take into account cosmic ray (CR) energy losses due to pp interactions, and calculate the resulting γ-ray emission. Our model can reproduce both the spatial morphology and the spectra of the Bubbles, on a range of different scales. Finally, we study which imprints a local outflow (or Galactic wind) would leave on the CR spectrum and boron-to-carbon ratio at Earth. We investigate the different types of breaks and/or inflections that can be generated in the CR spectrum, for different wind velocity profiles. Both accelerating and decelerating outflows are considered.

  13. Dynamical simulation of dipolar Janus colloids: dynamical properties.

    PubMed

    Hagy, Matthew C; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2013-05-14

    The dynamical properties of dipolar Janus particles are studied through simulation using our previously-developed detailed pointwise (PW) model and an isotropically coarse-grained (CG) model [M. C. Hagy and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044505 (2012)]. The CG model is found to have accelerated dynamics relative to the PW model over a range of conditions for which both models have near identical static equilibrium properties. Physically, this suggests dipolar Janus particles have slower transport properties (such as diffusion) in comparison to isotropically attractive particles. Time rescaling and damping with Langevin friction are explored to map the dynamics of the CG model to that of the PW model. Both methods map the diffusion constant successfully and improve the velocity autocorrelation function and the mean squared displacement of the CG model. Neither method improves the distribution of reversible bond durations f(tb) observed in the CG model, which is found to lack the longer duration reversible bonds observed in the PW model. We attribute these differences in f(tb) to changes in the energetics of multiple rearrangement mechanisms. This suggests a need for new methods that map the coarse-grained dynamics of such systems to the true time scale. PMID:23676070

  14. Sensing with magnetic dipolar resonances in semiconductor nanospheres.

    PubMed

    García-Cámara, Braulio; Gómez-Medina, Raquel; Sáenz, Juan José; Sepúlveda, Borja

    2013-10-01

    In this work we propose two novel sensing principles of detection that exploit the magnetic dipolar Mie resonance in high-refractive-index dielectric nanospheres. In particular, we theoretically investigate the spectral evolution of the extinction and scattering cross sections of these nanospheres as a function of the refractive index of the external medium (next). Unlike resonances in plasmonic nanospheres, the spectral position of magnetic resonances in high-refractive-index nanospheres barely shifts as next changes. Nevertheless, there is a drastic reduction in the extinction cross section of the nanospheres when next increases, especially in the magnetic dipolar spectral region, which is accompanied with remarkable variations in the radiation patterns. Thanks to these changes, we propose two new sensing parameters, which are based on the detection of: i) the intensity variations in the transmitted or backscattered radiation by the dielectric nanospheres at the magnetic dipole resonant frequency, and ii) the changes in the radiation pattern at the frequency that satisfies Kerker's condition of near-zero forward radiation. To optimize the sensitivity, we consider several semiconductor materials and particles sizes.

  15. A comparative study of dipolarization fronts at MMS and Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, D.; Nakamura, R.; Volwerk, M.; Plaschke, F.; Narita, Y.; Baumjohann, W.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Eichelberger, H. U.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Leinweber, H. K.; Le, G.; Bromund, K. R.; Anderson, B. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, E. L.

    2016-06-01

    We present a statistical study of dipolarization fronts (DFs), using magnetic field data from MMS and Cluster, at radial distances below 12 RE and 20 RE, respectively. Assuming that the DFs have a semicircular cross section and are propelled by the magnetic tension force, we used multispacecraft observations to determine the DF velocities. About three quarters of the DFs propagate earthward and about one quarter tailward. Generally, MMS is in a more dipolar magnetic field region and observes larger-amplitude DFs than Cluster. The major findings obtained in this study are as follows: (1) At MMS ˜57 % of the DFs move faster than 150 km/s, while at Cluster only ˜35 %, indicating a variable flux transport rate inside the flow-braking region. (2) Larger DF velocities correspond to higher Bz values directly ahead of the DFs. We interpret this as a snow plow-like phenomenon, resulting from a higher magnetic flux pileup ahead of DFs with higher velocities.

  16. Rotational friction of dipolar colloids measured by driven torsional oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Gabi; Gemming, Sibylle; Erbe, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Despite its prominent role in the dynamics of soft materials, rotational friction remains a quantity that is difficult to determine for many micron-sized objects. Here, we demonstrate how the Stokes coefficient of rotational friction can be obtained from the driven torsional oscillations of single particles in a highly viscous environment. The idea is that the oscillation amplitude of a dipolar particle under combined static and oscillating fields provides a measure for the Stokes friction. From numerical studies we derive a semi-empirical analytic expression for the amplitude of the oscillation, which cannot be calculated analytically from the equation of motion. We additionally demonstrate that this expression can be used to experimentally determine the rotational friction coefficient of single particles. Here, we record the amplitudes of a field-driven dipolar Janus microsphere with optical microscopy. The presented method distinguishes itself in its experimental and conceptual simplicity. The magnetic torque leaves the local environment unchanged, which contrasts with other approaches where, for example, additional mechanical (frictional) or thermal contributions have to be regarded. PMID:27680399

  17. Dissipative effects in dipolar, quantum many-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Capogrosso-Sansone, Barbara; Rey, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    We use Quantum Monte Carlo simulations, by the Worm algorithm, to study the ground state phase diagram of two-dimensional, dipolar lattice bosons where each site is coupled, via density operators, to an external reservoir. A recent related study of the XXZ model with ohmic coupling to an external reservoir reported the existence of a bath-induced Bose metal phase in the ground state phase diagram away from half filling, and a Luttinger liquid and a charge density wave at half-filling. Our work extends this methodology to higher dimensional systems with long-range interactions. In the case of hard-core bosons, our method can be applied to experimental systems featuring dipolar fermionic molecules in the presence of losses. This work utilized the Janus supercomputer, which is supported by the NSF (award number CNS-0821794) and the University of Colorado Boulder, and is a joint effort with the University of Colorado Denver and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, as well as OU Supercomputing Center for Education and Research (OSCER) at the University of Oklahoma. NIST, JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, NSF-PHY11-25915, ARO, ARO-DARPA-OLE, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  18. Self-assembly of strongly dipolar molecules on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Donna A.; Hooper, James; Simpson, Scott; Miller, Daniel P.; Routaboul, Lucie; Braunstein, Pierre; Doudin, Bernard; Beniwal, Sumit; Dowben, Peter; Skomski, Ralph; Zurek, Eva; Enders, Axel

    2015-03-01

    The role of dipole-dipole interactions in the self-assembly of dipolar organic molecules on surfaces is investigated. As a model system, strongly dipolar model molecules, p-benzoquinonemonoimine zwitterions (ZI) of type C6H2(⋯ NHR)2(⋯ O)2 on crystalline coinage metal surfaces were investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy and first principles calculations. Depending on the substrate, the molecules assemble into small clusters, nano gratings, and stripes, as well as in two-dimensional islands. The alignment of the molecular dipoles in those assemblies only rarely assumes the lowest electrostatic energy configuration. Based on calculations of the electrostatic energy for various experimentally observed molecular arrangements and under consideration of computed dipole moments of adsorbed molecules, the electrostatic energy minimization is ruled out as the driving force in the self-assembly. The structures observed are mainly the result of a competition between chemical interactions and substrate effects. The substrate's role in the self-assembly is to (i) reduce and realign the molecular dipole through charge donation and back donation involving both the molecular HOMO and LUMO, (ii) dictate the epitaxial orientation of the adsorbates, specifically so on Cu(111), and (iii) inhibit attractive forces between neighboring chains in the system ZI/Cu(111), which results in regularly spaced molecular gratings.

  19. Field-induced ordering in dipolar spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Wen-Han; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.; Kao, Ying-Jer

    2016-05-01

    We present numerical studies of dipolar spin ice in the presence of a magnetic field slightly tilted away from the [111] axis. We find a first-order transition from a kagome ice to a q =X state when the external field is tilted toward the [11 2 ¯] direction. This is consistent with the anomalous critical scattering previously observed in the neutron scattering experiment on the spin ice material Ho2Ti2O7 in a tilted field [T. Fennell et al., Nat. Phys. 3, 566 (2007), 10.1038/nphys632]. We show that this ordering originates from the antiferromagnetic alignment of spin chains on the kagome planes. The residual entropy of the kagome ice is fully recovered. Our result captures the features observed in the experiments and points to the importance of the dipolar interaction in determining ordered states in the spin ice materials. We place our results in the context of recent susceptibility measurements on Dy2Ti2O7 , showing two features for a [111] field.

  20. Rotational friction of dipolar colloids measured by driven torsional oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, Gabi; Gemming, Sibylle; Erbe, Artur

    2016-09-01

    Despite its prominent role in the dynamics of soft materials, rotational friction remains a quantity that is difficult to determine for many micron-sized objects. Here, we demonstrate how the Stokes coefficient of rotational friction can be obtained from the driven torsional oscillations of single particles in a highly viscous environment. The idea is that the oscillation amplitude of a dipolar particle under combined static and oscillating fields provides a measure for the Stokes friction. From numerical studies we derive a semi-empirical analytic expression for the amplitude of the oscillation, which cannot be calculated analytically from the equation of motion. We additionally demonstrate that this expression can be used to experimentally determine the rotational friction coefficient of single particles. Here, we record the amplitudes of a field-driven dipolar Janus microsphere with optical microscopy. The presented method distinguishes itself in its experimental and conceptual simplicity. The magnetic torque leaves the local environment unchanged, which contrasts with other approaches where, for example, additional mechanical (frictional) or thermal contributions have to be regarded.

  1. Visualization of magnetic dipolar interaction based on scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtori, Hiroyuki; Iwano, Kaoru; Mitsumata, Chiharu; Takeichi, Yasuo; Yano, Masao; Kato, Akira; Miyamoto, Noritaka; Shoji, Tetsuya; Manabe, Akira; Ono, Kanta

    2014-04-01

    Using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), in this report we visualized the magnetic dipolar interactions in nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets and imaged their magnetization distributions at various applied fields. We calculated the magnetic dipolar interaction by analyzing the interaction between the magnetization at each point and those at the other points on the STXM image.

  2. Fermi acceleration of auroral particles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Heikkila, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Review of a number of nighttime acceleration mechanisms proposed in the literature for the role of producing the keV nighttime auroral-particle fluxes. Parallel electric fields are rejected for several reasons, but particularly because of the observed simultaneous precipitation of electrons and protons. Acceleration in the neutral sheet is inadequate for producing the particle energies, the observed field-aligned pitch-angle distribution at high latitudes, and the spectral hardening toward lower latitudes. Neutral point mechanisms, although often suggested in principle, have never been demonstrated satisfactorily in theory or in practice. Pitch-angle scattering from a trapped population produced by transverse adiabatic compression is also incapable of producing the field-aligned distribution. It is therefore suggested that longitudinal or Fermi acceleration, which results from the known magnetospheric convection, is the main nighttime auroral acceleration mechanism. The argument is supported by data obtained with the soft-particle spectrometer on Isis 1.

  3. Pair Excitations in Fermi Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, Helga M.; Krotscheck, Eckhard; Schörkhuber, Karl; Springer, Josef

    2006-09-01

    We present a theory of multi-pair excitations in strongly interacting Fermi systems. Based on an equations-of-motion approach for time-dependent pair correlations it leads to a qualitatively new structure of the density-density response function. Our theory reduces to both, i) the "correlated" random-phase approximation (RPA) for fermions if the two-pair excitations are ignored, and ii) the correlated Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory for bosons in the appropriate limit. The theory preserves the two first energy-weighted sum rules. A familiar problem of the standard RPA is that its zero-sound mode is energetically much higher than found in experiments. The popular cure of introducing an average effective mass in the Lindhard function violates sum rules and describes the physics incorrectly. We demonstrate that the inclusion of correlated pair excitations gives the correct dispersion. As in 4He, a modification of the effective mass is unnecessary also in 3He.

  4. Coherent zero-field magnetization resonance in a dipolar spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxian; Yi, S.; Chapman, M. S.; You, J. Q.

    2015-08-01

    With current magnetic-field shielding and high-precision detection in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates, it is possible to experimentally detect the low- or zero-field nonsecular dipolar dynamics. Here we analytically investigate the zero-field nonsecular magnetic dipolar interaction effect, with an emphasis on magnetization dynamics in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate under the single spatial mode approximation within the mean-field theory. Due to the biaxial nature of the dipolar interaction, a novel resonance occurs in the condensate magnetization oscillation, in contrast to the previous assumption of a conserved magnetization in strong magnetic fields. Furthermore, we propose a dynamical-decoupling detection method for such a resonance, which cancels the stray magnetic fields in experiment but restores the magnetization dynamics. Our results shed light on the dipolar systems and may find potential applications beyond cold atoms.

  5. Homonuclear dipolar recoupling techniques for structure determination in uniformly 13C-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2009-11-01

    In solid-state NMR magic angle spinning is often used to remove line broadening associated with anisotropic interactions, such as chemical shift anisotropy and dipolar couplings. Dipolar recoupling refers to sequences of pulses designed to reintroduce dipolar interactions that are otherwise averaged by magic angle spinning. One of the key applications of homonuclear (and heteronuclear) dipolar recoupling is for the purpose of protein structure determination. Recoupling experiments, originally designed for applications in spin-pair labeled samples, have been revised in recent years for applications in samples with extensive or uniform incorporation of isotopic labels. In these samples multiple internuclear distances can in principle be probed simultaneously, but the dipolar truncation effects (i.e. attenuation of the effects of weak couplings by strong ones) circumvent such measurements. In this article we review some of the recent developments in homonuclear recoupling methods that allow overcoming this problem.

  6. Parameter maps of 1H residual dipolar couplings in tendon under mechanical load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechete, R.; Demco, D. E.; Blümich, B.

    2003-11-01

    Proton multipolar spin states associated with dipolar encoded longitudinal magnetization (DELM) and double-quantum (DQ) coherences of bound water are investigated for bovine and sheep Achilles tendon under mechanical load. DELM decay curves and DQ buildup and decay curves reveal changes of the 1H residual dipolar couplings for tendon at rest and under local compression forces. The multipolar spin states are used to design dipolar contrast filters for NMR 1H images of heterogeneous tendon. Heterogeneities in tendon samples were artificially generated by local compression parallel and perpendicular to the tendon plug axis. Quotient images obtained from DQ-filtered images by matched and mismatched excitation/reconversion periods are encoded only by the residual dipolar couplings. Semi-quantitative parameter maps of the residual dipolar couplings of bound water were obtained from these quotient images using a reference elastomer sample. This method can be used to quantify NMR imaging of injured ordered tissues.

  7. Engineering quantum magnetism in one-dimensional trapped Fermi gases with p -wave interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Guan, Xiwen; Cui, Xiaoling

    2016-05-01

    The highly controllable ultracold atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) trap provide a new platform for the ultimate simulation of quantum magnetism. In this regard, the Néel antiferromagnetism and the itinerant ferromagnetism are of central importance and great interest. Here we show that these magnetic orders can be achieved in the strongly interacting spin-1/2 trapped Fermi gases with additional p -wave interactions. In this strong-coupling limit, the 1D trapped Fermi gas exhibits an effective Heisenberg spin X X Z chain in the anisotropic p -wave scattering channels. For a particular p -wave attraction or repulsion within the same species of fermionic atoms, the system displays ferromagnetic domains with full spin segregation or the antiferromagnetic spin configuration in the ground state. Such engineered magnetisms are likely to be probed in a quasi-1D trapped Fermi gas of 40K atoms with very close s -wave and p -wave Feshbach resonances.

  8. Pauli blocking in low-dimensional Fermi systems at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, Francisco J.; Fortes, M.; Solis, M. A.

    2010-03-01

    The chemical potential of an ideal Fermi gas for dimensions d<2 increases with temperature up to a maximum value [1], in sharp contrast with the monotonic decreasing behavior in the d=3 case [2]. The origin of this anomaly is examined in systems of non interacting fermions described by a more general energy-momentum dispersion relation ɛk^s. We show that the abnormal behavior is caused by the interplay of the density of states as a function of d/s and the exclusion principle producing a Pauli-blocking effect at finite temperatures. In the one-dimensional ideal Fermi gas, the effect is manifest up to temperatures as large as the Fermi temperature.[4pt] [1] M. Grether, M. de Llano, and M.A. Sol'is, Eur. Phys. J. D 25, 287 (2003).[0pt] [2] G. Cook and R.H. Dickerson, Am. J. Phys. 63 (8), 737 (1995).

  9. Trimers, Molecules, and Polarons in Mass-Imbalanced Atomic Fermi Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mathy, Charles J. M.; Parish, Meera M.; Huse, David A.

    2011-04-22

    We consider the ground state of a single ''spin-down'' impurity atom interacting attractively with a ''spin-up'' atomic Fermi gas. By constructing variational wave functions for polarons, molecules, and trimers, we perform a detailed study of the transitions between these dressed bound states as a function of mass ratio r=m{sub {up_arrow}}/m{sub {down_arrow}} and interaction strength. Crucially, we find that the presence of a Fermi sea enhances the stability of the p-wave trimer, which can be viewed as a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov molecule that has bound an additional majority atom. For sufficiently large r, we find that the transitions lie outside the region of phase separation of the imbalanced Fermi gas and should thus be observable in experiment, unlike the well-studied equal-mass case.

  10. Transdimensional equivalence of universal constants for Fermi gases at unitarity.

    PubMed

    Endres, Michael G

    2012-12-21

    I present lattice Monte Carlo calculations for a universal four-component Fermi gas confined to a finite box and to a harmonic trap in one spatial dimension. I obtain the values ξ(1D) = 0.370(4) and ξ(1D) = 0.372(1), respectively, for the Bertsch parameter, a nonperturbative universal constant defined as the (square of the) energy of the untrapped (trapped) system measured in units of the free gas energy. The Bertsch parameter obtained for the one-dimensional system is consistent to within ~1% uncertainties with the most recent numerical and experimental estimates of the analogous Bertsch parameter for a three-dimensional spin-1/2 Fermi gas at unitarity. The finding suggests the intriguing possibility that there exists a universality between two conformal theories in different dimensions. To lend support to this study, I also compute ground state energies for four and five fermions confined to a harmonic trap and demonstrate the restoration of a virial theorem in the continuum limit. The continuum few-body energies obtained are consistent with exact analytical calculations to within ~1.0% and ~0.3% statistical uncertainties, respectively.

  11. Transdimensional equivalence of universal constants for Fermi gases at unitarity.

    PubMed

    Endres, Michael G

    2012-12-21

    I present lattice Monte Carlo calculations for a universal four-component Fermi gas confined to a finite box and to a harmonic trap in one spatial dimension. I obtain the values ξ(1D) = 0.370(4) and ξ(1D) = 0.372(1), respectively, for the Bertsch parameter, a nonperturbative universal constant defined as the (square of the) energy of the untrapped (trapped) system measured in units of the free gas energy. The Bertsch parameter obtained for the one-dimensional system is consistent to within ~1% uncertainties with the most recent numerical and experimental estimates of the analogous Bertsch parameter for a three-dimensional spin-1/2 Fermi gas at unitarity. The finding suggests the intriguing possibility that there exists a universality between two conformal theories in different dimensions. To lend support to this study, I also compute ground state energies for four and five fermions confined to a harmonic trap and demonstrate the restoration of a virial theorem in the continuum limit. The continuum few-body energies obtained are consistent with exact analytical calculations to within ~1.0% and ~0.3% statistical uncertainties, respectively. PMID:23368437

  12. Relaxation dynamics in the Fermi-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenchao; McGehee, William; Morong, William; Demarco, Brian; DeMarco Group Team

    2015-05-01

    We report measurements of spin-excitation relaxation rates for ultracold 40 K atoms trapped in an optical lattice in the metallic regime of the Hubbard model. A spin-polarized gas is prepared in a well-defined state in a cubic optical lattice. Via a quasimomentum-selective Raman pulse, atoms are transferred into another spin state with non-zero center-of-mass momentum. The timescale for relaxation of this excitation is measured as the temperature and lattice potential depth are varied. Non-Fermi liquid behavior is revealed in both the temperature and interaction-strength dependence.

  13. Rashba spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Lei; Pu Han; Liu Xiaji; Hu Hui

    2011-12-15

    We investigate theoretically BEC-BCS crossover physics in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a system of a two-component Fermi gas with and without a Zeeman field that breaks the population balance between the two components. A bound state (Rashba pair) emerges because of the spin-orbit interaction. We study the properties of Rashba pairs using standard pair fluctuation theory. At zero temperature, the Rashba pairs condense into a macroscopic mixed-spin state. We discuss in detail the experimental signatures for observing the condensation of Rashba pairs by calculating various physical observables which characterize the properties of the system and can be measured in experiment.

  14. Probing upper branch physics in strongly interacting Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Taylor, Edward; Schneider, William; Randeria, Mohit

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment at MIT, we consider the collision of two clouds of spin-polarized atomic Fermi gases close to a Feshbach resonance. We explain why two dilute gas clouds, with attractive interactions between its constituents, bounce off each other as if they were billiard balls. Our hydrodynamic analysis, in excellent agreement with experiment, gives strong evidence for a novel metastable many-body state, the so-called upper branch, with repulsive effective interactions. We also propose another experiment, measuring spin decoherence rates, to study the physics of the upper branch.

  15. PHOTOMETRICALLY TRIGGERED KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF FERMI BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.

    2013-11-01

    We report on Keck spectra of 10 Fermi blazars. J0622+3326, previously unobserved, is shown to be a flat-spectrum radio quasar at redshift z = 1.062. The others are known BL Lac type objects that have resisted previous attempts to secure redshifts. Using a photometric monitoring campaign with the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory, we identified epochs when the relativistic jet emission was fainter than usual, thus triggering the Keck spectroscopy. This strategy gives improved sensitivity to stars and ionized gas in the host galaxy, thereby providing improved redshift constraints for seven of these sources.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of quadrupolar nuclei and dipolar field effects

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Jeffry Todd

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research conducted in two areas in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented: (1) studies of the coherent quantum-mechanical control of the angular momentum dynamics of quadrupolar (spin I > 1/2) nuclei and its application to the determination of molecular structure; and (2) applications of the long-range nuclear dipolar field to novel NMR detection methodologies.The dissertation is organized into six chapters. The first two chapters and associated appendices are intended to be pedagogical and include an introduction to the quantum mechanical theory of pulsed NMR spectroscopy and the time dependent theory of quantum mechanics. The third chapter describes investigations of the solid-state multiple-quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS) NMR experiment applied to I = 5/2 quadrupolar nuclei. This work reports the use of rotary resonance-matched radiofrequency irradiation for sensitivity enhancement of the I = 5/2 MQMAS experiment. These experiments exhibited certain selective line narrowing effects which were investigated theoretically.The fourth chapter extends the discussion of multiple quantum spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to a mostly theoretical study of the feasibility of enhancing the resolution of nitrogen-14 NMR of large biomolecules in solution via double-quantum spectroscopy. The fifth chapter continues to extend the principles of multiple quantum NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei to make analogies between experiments in NMR/nuclear quadrupolar resonance (NQR) and experiments in atomic/molecular optics (AMO). These analogies are made through the Hamiltonian and density operator formalism of angular momentum dynamics in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.The sixth chapter investigates the use of the macroscopic nuclear dipolar field to encode the NMR spectrum of an analyte nucleus indirectly in the magnetization of a sensor nucleus. This technique could potentially serve as an

  17. Quantum data bus in dipolar coupled nuclear spin qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingfu; Ditty, Michael; Ryan, Colm A.; Laforest, Martin; Moussa, Osama; Baugh, Jonathan; Burgarth, Daniel; Chandrashekar, C. M.; Laflamme, Raymond

    2009-07-15

    We implement an iterative quantum state transfer exploiting the natural dipolar couplings in a spin chain of a liquid-crystal NMR system. During each iteration, a finite part of the amplitude of the state is transferred and, by applying an external operation on only the last two spins, the transferred state is made to accumulate on the spin at the end point. The transfer fidelity reaches one asymptotically through increasing the number of iterations. We also implement the inverted version of the scheme which can transfer an arbitrary state from the end point to any other position of the chain and entangle any pair of spins in the chain, acting as a full quantum data bus.

  18. Time of flight transients in the dipolar glass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, S. V.; Tyutnev, A. P.; Schein, L. B.

    2012-07-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulation we investigated time of flight current transients predicted by the dipolar glass model for a random spatial distribution of hopping centers. Behavior of the carrier drift mobility was studied at room temperature over a broad range of electric field and sample thickness. A flat plateau followed by j∝t-2 current decay is the most common feature of the simulated transients. Poole-Frenkel mobility field dependence was confirmed over 5-200 V/μm as well as its independence of the sample thickness. Universality of transients with respect to both field and sample thickness has been observed. A simple phenomenological model to describe simulated current transients has been proposed. Simulation results agree well with the reported Poole-Frenkel slope and shape of the transients for a prototype molecularly doped polymer.

  19. Resonance and localization effects at a dipolar organic semiconductor interface

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Mary P.; Kelly, Leah L.; Ilyas, Nahid; Monti, Oliver L.A.

    2011-01-01

    The image state manifold of the dipolar organic semiconductor vanadyl naphthalocyanine (VONc) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is investigated by angle-resolved two-photon photoemission (AR-TPPE) spectroscopy in the 0 – 1 monolayer regimes. Interfacial charge-transfer from the image potential state of clean graphite populates a near-resonant VONc anion level, identifiable by the graphite image potential state by its distinct momentum dispersion obtained from AR-TPPE. This affinity level is subject to depolarization by the neighboring molecules, resulting in stabilization of this state with coverage. Near a coverage of one monolayer, a hybrid image potential/anion state is also formed, showing progressive localization with coverage. Intensities for all these features develop rather differently with molecular coverage, pointing towards the different types of charge-transfer interactions at play at this interface.

  20. Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice.

    PubMed

    Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-05-13

    Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin-charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism.

  1. Plasmonic Toroidal Dipolar Response under Radially Polarized Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yanjun; Zhu, Xing; Fang, Zheyu

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic toroidal resonance has attracted growing interests because of its low loss electromagnetic properties and potential high sensitive nanophotonic applications. However, the realization in a metamaterial requires three-dimensional complicated structural design so far. In this paper, we design a simple metal-dielectric-metal (MIM) sandwich nanostructure, which exhibits a strong toroidal dipolar resonance under radially polarized excitation. The toroidal dipole moment as the dominant contribution for the scattering is demonstrated by the mirror-image method and further analyzed by Lagrangian hybridization model. The proposed toroidal configuration also shows a highly tolerant for misalignment between the structure center and the incident light focus. Our study proves the way for the toroidal plasmonic application with the cylindrical vector beams. PMID:26114966

  2. Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin-charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism.

  3. Scaling laws in NMR scattering via dipolar fields.

    PubMed

    Brown, S M; Sen, P N; Cory, D G

    2002-01-01

    Breaking translational symmetry in magnetostatics imparts a scale dependence that is commonly investigated in physics (W. Warren et al., 1993, Science 262, 2005-2008). An interesting and important example arises in nuclear magnetic resonance studies involving the dipolar mean field of adjacent nuclear spins where the scattering (transfer of spatial spin gratings) via intermolecular macroscopic fields carries a signature of the local spatial distribution of the spin density. For arbitrary geometry, the inverse problem of extracting this spin distribution from experiments is intractable. Here we point out a simple, universal crossover in the scaling behavior at the sample's characteristic length scale, xi, of the species fluctuations in the sample along the measurement direction. This behavior is observed experimentally in an oil-water emulsion, an important representation of complex, heterogeneous, soft matter. PMID:11820836

  4. Shielding ultracold dipolar molecular collisions with electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John

    2016-05-01

    The prospect for shielding ultracold dipolar molecules from inelastic and reactive collisions is investigated. Molecules placed in their first rotationally excited states are found to exhibit effective long-range repulsion for applied electric fields above a certain critical value. This repulsion can safely allow the molecules to scatter while reducing the risk of inelastic or chemically reactive collisions. Several molecular species of molecules of experimental interest such as NaRb, NaK, RbSr, SrF, BaF, and YO, are considered and all are shown to exhibit orders of magnitude suppression in quenching rates in a sufficiently strong laboratory electric field. We acknowledge the financial support of the COPOMOL project (ANR-13-IS04-0004) from Agence Nationale de la Recherche and the ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476.

  5. Shielding 2Σ ultracold dipolar molecular collisions with electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéméner, Goulven; Bohn, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The prospects for shielding ultracold, paramagnetic, dipolar molecules from inelastic and chemical collisions are investigated. Molecules placed in their first rotationally excited states are found to exhibit effective long-range repulsion for applied electric fields above a certain critical value, as previously shown for nonparamagnetic molecules. This repulsion can safely allow the molecules to scatter while reducing the risk of inelastic or chemically reactive collisions. Several molecular species of 2Σ molecules of experimental interest—RbSr, SrF, BaF, and YO—are considered, and all are shown to exhibit orders of magnitude suppression in quenching rates in a sufficiently strong laboratory electric field. It is further shown that, for these molecules described by Hund's coupling case (b), electronic and nuclear spins play the role of spectator with respect to the shielding.

  6. Enhanced phase segregation induced by dipolar interactions in polymer blends

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Muthukumar, Murugappan; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2013-01-01

    We present a generalized theory for studying phase separation in polymer blends containing dipoles on their backbone. The theory is used to construct co-existence curves and study the effects of dipolar interactions on interfacial tension for a planar interface between the coexisting phases. It is shown that mismatch in monomeric dipole moments leads to destabilization of homogeneous phase. Corrections to the Flory-Huggins phase diagram are predicted using the theory. Furthermore, it is found that interfacial tension increases with an increase in the mismatch. Density profiles and interfacial tensions are constructed for diffuse and sharp polymer-polymer interfaces by extending Cahn-Hilliard and Helfand-Tagami-Sapse s treatment, respectively. Correlating dipole moments with the dielectric constant of pure phases, it is demonstrated that effects of mismatch between the dipole moments of the two monomers is equivalent to the dielectric mismatch between the polymers.

  7. CHARGED TORI IN SPHERICAL GRAVITATIONAL AND DIPOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Slany, P.; Kovar, J.; Stuchlik, Z.; Karas, V.

    2013-03-01

    A Newtonian model of non-conductive, charged, perfect fluid tori orbiting in combined spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields is presented and stationary, axisymmetric toroidal structures are analyzed. Matter in such tori exhibits a purely circulatory motion and the resulting convection carries charges into permanent rotation around the symmetry axis. As a main result, we demonstrate the possible existence of off-equatorial charged tori and equatorial tori with cusps that also enable outflows of matter from the torus in the Newtonian regime. These phenomena qualitatively represent a new consequence of the interplay between gravity and electromagnetism. From an astrophysical point of view, our investigation can provide insight into processes that determine the vertical structure of dusty tori surrounding accretion disks.

  8. Toroidal dipolar excitation and macroscopic electromagnetic properties of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savinov, V.; Fedotov, V. A.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2014-05-01

    The toroidal dipole is a peculiar electromagnetic excitation that can not be presented in terms of standard electric and magnetic multipoles. A static toroidal dipole has been shown to lead to violation of parity in atomic spectra and many other unusual electromagnetic phenomena. The existence of electromagnetic resonances of toroidal nature was experimentally demonstrated only recently, first in the microwave metamaterials, and then at optical frequencies, where they could be important in spectroscopy analysis of a wide class of media with constituents of toroidal symmetry, such as complex organic molecules, fullerenes, bacteriophages, etc. Despite the experimental progress in studying toroidal resonances, no direct link has yet been established between microscopic toroidal excitations and macroscopic scattering characteristics of the medium. To address this essential gap in the electromagnetic theory, we have developed an analytical approach for calculating the transmissivity and reflectivity of thin slabs of materials that exhibit toroidal dipolar excitations.

  9. Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice.

    PubMed

    Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin-charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism. PMID:27173154

  10. Magnetic Orders and Fluctuations in the Dipolar Pyrochlore Antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepas, Olivier; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2005-03-01

    While the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the pyrochlore lattice does not order, we will discuss, from a theoretical standpoint, possible magnetic phases induced by the dipole-dipole interactions. Such interactions play a role in systems such as Gd2Ti2O7 or Gd2Sn2O7 in stabilizing exotic forms of magnetic order, a subject of current debate. We will also argue that the external magnetic field induces multiple transitions, one of which is associated with no obvious broken symmetry, but can be characterized by a disorder parameter. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations and Landau-Ginzburg expansion show that the dipolar Heisenberg model exhibits a fluctuation-induced first-order transition, thanks to the frustration and a continuous set of soft modes.

  11. Fragmentation of magnetism in artificial kagome dipolar spin ice

    PubMed Central

    Canals, Benjamin; Chioar, Ioan-Augustin; Nguyen, Van-Dai; Hehn, Michel; Lacour, Daniel; Montaigne, François; Locatelli, Andrea; Menteş, Tevfik Onur; Burgos, Benito Santos; Rougemaille, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Geometrical frustration in magnetic materials often gives rise to exotic, low-temperature states of matter, such as the ones observed in spin ices. Here we report the imaging of the magnetic states of a thermally active artificial magnetic ice that reveal the fingerprints of a spin fragmentation process. This fragmentation corresponds to a splitting of the magnetic degree of freedom into two channels and is evidenced in both real and reciprocal space. Furthermore, the internal organization of both channels is interpreted within the framework of a hybrid spin–charge model that directly emerges from the parent spin model of the kagome dipolar spin ice. Our experimental and theoretical results provide insights into the physics of frustrated magnets and deepen our understanding of emergent fields through the use of tailor-made magnetism. PMID:27173154

  12. 1,3-Dipolar cycloadditions of azomethine imines.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Carmen; Sansano, José M; Yus, Miguel

    2015-08-28

    Azomethine imines are considered 1,3-dipoles of the aza-allyl type which are transient intermediates and should be generated in situ but can also be stable and isolable compounds. They react with electron-rich and electron-poor olefins as well as with acetylenic compounds and allenoates mainly by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition but they can also take part in [3 + 3], [4 + 3], [3 + 2 + 2] and [5 + 3] with different dipolarophiles. These 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions (1,3-DC) can be performed not only under thermal or microwave conditions but also using metallo- and organocatalytic systems. In recent years enantiocatalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions have been extensively considered and applied to the synthesis of a great variety of dinitrogenated heterocycles with biological activity. Acyclic azomethine imines derived from mono and disubstituted hydrazones could be generated by prototropy under heating or by using Lewis or Brønsted acids to give, after [3 + 2] cycloadditions, pyrazolidines and pyrazolines. Cyclic azomethine imines, incorporating a C-N bond in a ring, such as isoquinolinium imides are the most widely used dipoles in normal and inverse-electron demand 1,3-DC allowing the synthesis of tetrahydro-, dihydro- and unsaturated pyrazolo[1,5-a]isoquinolines in racemic and enantioenriched forms with interesting biological activity. Pyridinium and quinolinium imides give the corresponding pyrazolopyridines and indazolo[3,2-a]isoquinolines, respectively. In the case of cyclic azomethine imines with an N-N bond incorporated into a ring, N-alkylidene-3-oxo-pyrazolidinium ylides are the most popular stable and isolated dipoles able to form dinitrogen-fused saturated and unsaturated pyrazolopyrazolones as racemic or enantiomerically enriched compounds present in many pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and other useful chemicals.

  13. 1,3-Dipolar cycloadditions of azomethine imines.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Carmen; Sansano, José M; Yus, Miguel

    2015-08-28

    Azomethine imines are considered 1,3-dipoles of the aza-allyl type which are transient intermediates and should be generated in situ but can also be stable and isolable compounds. They react with electron-rich and electron-poor olefins as well as with acetylenic compounds and allenoates mainly by a [3 + 2] cycloaddition but they can also take part in [3 + 3], [4 + 3], [3 + 2 + 2] and [5 + 3] with different dipolarophiles. These 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions (1,3-DC) can be performed not only under thermal or microwave conditions but also using metallo- and organocatalytic systems. In recent years enantiocatalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions have been extensively considered and applied to the synthesis of a great variety of dinitrogenated heterocycles with biological activity. Acyclic azomethine imines derived from mono and disubstituted hydrazones could be generated by prototropy under heating or by using Lewis or Brønsted acids to give, after [3 + 2] cycloadditions, pyrazolidines and pyrazolines. Cyclic azomethine imines, incorporating a C-N bond in a ring, such as isoquinolinium imides are the most widely used dipoles in normal and inverse-electron demand 1,3-DC allowing the synthesis of tetrahydro-, dihydro- and unsaturated pyrazolo[1,5-a]isoquinolines in racemic and enantioenriched forms with interesting biological activity. Pyridinium and quinolinium imides give the corresponding pyrazolopyridines and indazolo[3,2-a]isoquinolines, respectively. In the case of cyclic azomethine imines with an N-N bond incorporated into a ring, N-alkylidene-3-oxo-pyrazolidinium ylides are the most popular stable and isolated dipoles able to form dinitrogen-fused saturated and unsaturated pyrazolopyrazolones as racemic or enantiomerically enriched compounds present in many pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and other useful chemicals. PMID:26140443

  14. Evolution of dipolarization fronts observed by Cluster and MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Daniel; Nakamura, Rumi; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Volwerk, Martin; Narita, Yasuhito; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Magnes, Werner; Fischer, David; Tobert, Roy; Russel, Christopher T.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Leinweber, Hannes; Bormund, Kenneth; Anderson, Brian J.; Le, Guan; Chutter, Mark; Slavin, James A.; Kepko, Larry; Moldwin, Mark; LeContel, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Dipolarization fronts (DFs) are characterized by a rapid increase in the northward magnetic field component (B_z) and play a crucial role in the energy and magnetic flux transport in the magnetotail. Multispacecraft observations of DFs in a large portion of the magnetotail by e.g. Geotail, Cluster and THEMIS have been reported for over three decades. During the commissioning phase of MMS the spacecraft observed DFs in a string of pearl configuration at radial distances within 12 Re, and hence events within the flow braking region are also included. We present a statistical study of DFs, using magnetic field data from both MMS and Cluster at radial distances between 12-20 Re and interspacecraft distances less than 200 km.The amplitude of the DFs observed by MMS is larger compared to similar events observed by Cluster further down the tail as expected from flow braking. Both spacecraft flotillas found that DFs with velocities greater than 100 km/s are observed when the field is in a more dipolar field configuration (higher average B_z), are temporally shorter and spatially larger, compared to slow propagating DFs (velocities smaller than 100 km/s). This relationship between velocity and Bz indicates a higher flux transport rate when the ambient Bz is larger and is not expected when the flow is simply stopping in a near-Earth dipole region. It suggest rather that the flow with high flux transport rate causes an enhanced magnetic flux pileup ahead of the front or importance of additional processes such as rebound (bouncing) of the DF at the magnetic dipole-dominated near-Earth plasma sheet.

  15. Two states of magnetotail dipolarization fronts: A statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, D.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Volwerk, M.; Baumjohann, W.

    2015-12-01

    We study the ion density and temperature in the predipolarization and postdipolarization plasma sheets in the Earth's magnetotail using 9 years (2001-2009) of Cluster data. For our study we selected cases when Cluster observed dipolarization fronts (DFs) with an earthward plasma flow greater than 150km/s. We perform a statistical study of the temperature and density variations during the DF crossings. Earlier studies concluded that on average, the temperature increases while the density decreases across the DF. Our statistical results show a more diverse picture: While ˜54% of the DFs follow this pattern (category A), for ˜28% the temperature decreases while the density increases across the DF (category B). We found an overall decrease in thermal pressure for category A DFs with a more pronounced decrease at the DF duskside, while DFs of category B showed no clear pattern in the pressure change. Both categories are associated with earthward plasma flows but with some difference: (1) category A flows are faster than category B flows, (2) the observations indicate that category B flows are directed perpendicular to the current in the near-Earth current sheet while category A flows are tilted slightly duskward from this direction, and (3) the background Bz of category B is higher than that of category A. Based on these results, we hypothesize that after reconnection takes place, a bursty bulk flow emerges with category A characteristics, and as it travels earthward, it further evolves into category B characteristics, which is in a more dipolarized region with slower plasma flow (closer to the flow-braking region).

  16. Two states of magnetotail dipolarization fronts: A statistical study

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, D; Nakamura, R; Plaschke, F; Volwerk, M; Baumjohann, W

    2015-01-01

    We study the ion density and temperature in the predipolarization and postdipolarization plasma sheets in the Earth's magnetotail using 9 years (2001–2009) of Cluster data. For our study we selected cases when Cluster observed dipolarization fronts (DFs) with an earthward plasma flow greater than 150km/s. We perform a statistical study of the temperature and density variations during the DF crossings. Earlier studies concluded that on average, the temperature increases while the density decreases across the DF. Our statistical results show a more diverse picture: While ∼54% of the DFs follow this pattern (category A), for ∼28% the temperature decreases while the density increases across the DF (category B). We found an overall decrease in thermal pressure for category A DFs with a more pronounced decrease at the DF duskside, while DFs of category B showed no clear pattern in the pressure change. Both categories are associated with earthward plasma flows but with some difference: (1) category A flows are faster than category B flows, (2) the observations indicate that category B flows are directed perpendicular to the current in the near-Earth current sheet while category A flows are tilted slightly duskward from this direction, and (3) the background Bz of category B is higher than that of category A. Based on these results, we hypothesize that after reconnection takes place, a bursty bulk flow emerges with category A characteristics, and as it travels earthward, it further evolves into category B characteristics, which is in a more dipolarized region with slower plasma flow (closer to the flow-braking region). PMID:26167443

  17. Fermi Sees Antimatter-Hurling Thunderstorms

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected beams of antimatter launched by thunderstorms. Acting like enormous particle accelerators, the storms can emit gamma-ray flashes, called TGFs, an...

  18. Fermi Proves Supernova Remnants Make Cosmic Rays

    NASA Video Gallery

    The husks of exploded stars produce some of the fastest particles in the cosmos. New findings by NASA's Fermi show that two supernova remnants accelerate protons to near the speed of light. The pro...

  19. Fermi's Conundrum: Proliferation and Closed Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teller, Wendy; Westfall, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    On January 1, 1946 Emily Taft Douglas, a freshman Representative at Large for Illinois, sent a letter to Enrico Fermi. She wanted to know whether, if atomic energy was used for peaceful purposes, it might be possible to clandestinely divert some material for bombs. Douglas first learned about the bomb not quite five months before when Hiroshima was bombed. Even though she was not a scientist she identified a key problem of the nuclear age. Fermi responded with requirements to allow peaceful uses of atomic energy and still outlaw nuclear weapons. First, free interchange of information between people was required, and second, people who reported possible violations had to be protected. Fermi had lived in Mussolini's Italy and worked under the war time secrecy restrictions of the Manhattan Project. He was not optimistic that these conditions could be met. This paper discusses how Douglas came to recognize the proliferation issue and what led Fermi to his solution and his pessimism about its practicality.

  20. Fermi discovers giant bubbles in Milky Way

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, scientists have recently discovered a gigantic, mysterious structure in our galaxy. This feature looks like a pair of bubbles extending above...

  1. Nonhydrodynamic Transport in Trapped Unitary Fermi Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Jasmine; Romatschke, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Many strongly coupled fluids are known to share similar hydrodynamic transport properties. In this work we argue that this similarity could extend beyond hydrodynamics to transient dynamics through the presence of nonhydrodynamic modes. We review nonhydrodynamic modes in kinetic theory and gauge-gravity duality and discuss their signatures in trapped Fermi gases close to unitarity. Reanalyzing previously published experimental data we find hints of nonhydrodynamic modes in cold Fermi gases in two and three dimensions.

  2. A Fermi golden rule for quantum graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minjae; Zworski, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    We present a Fermi golden rule giving rates of decay of states obtained by perturbing embedded eigenvalues of a quantum graph. To illustrate the procedure in a notationally simpler setting, we first describe a Fermi golden rule for boundary value problems on surfaces with constant curvature cusps. We also provide a resonance existence result which is uniform on compact sets of energies and metric graphs. The results are illustrated by numerical experiments.

  3. Symmetry break in ferromagnetic electrocrystallization: the interplay between dipolar interactions and Laplacian growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, S. G.; Braga, F. L.; Martins, M. L.

    2007-10-01

    Electrochemical ferromagnetic deposits grown under a planar magnetic field exhibit a striking morphological symmetry breaking. The present paper demonstrate through two-dimensional off-lattice simulations of an extended diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model that the competition between magnetic dipolar interactions and electric forces can impose locally the experimentally observed angle selection in a two-dimensional extended DLA model. The long-range correlations in the orientation of dipoles interacting with the applied and dipolar fields preserve this order over a macroscopic scale. Hence, the magnetic dipolar interactions alone cannot impose the field-induced symmetry breaking observed in ferromagnetic electrochemical deposition (ECD).

  4. Van Allen Probes observations of dipolarization and its associated O+ flux variations in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, M.; Keika, K.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R. J.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent study employing the MDS-1 satellite reveals that magnetic field dipolarization in the deep inner magnetosphere is not unusual. When the MDS-1 satellite was located at L=3.5-5.0 near the auroral onset longitude (MLT difference of ≤2.5 h), the occurrence probability of local dipolarization was about 16%. Surprisingly, an event was found at L~3.6, far inside the geosynchronous altitude. It was also shown that after the dipolarization, the oxygen ENA flux in the nightside ring current region measured by the IMAGE satellite was predominantly enhanced by a factor of 2-5 and stayed at an enhanced level for more than 1 h, while clear enhancement was scarcely seen in the hydrogen ENA flux. To better understand mechanisms of the selective acceleration of O+ ions during dipolarization, an in-situ measurement of ion fluxes is needed. However, there are few studies investigating H+ and O+ flux variations during dipolarization in the deep inner magnetosphere. In this study we investigate magnetic field dipolarization and its associated ion flux variations in the deep inner magnetosphere, using magnetic field and ion flux data obtained by the Van Allen Probes. From the magnetic field data recorded on the nightside (1800-0600 MLT) in the inner magnetosphere (L=3.0-6.6) in VDH coordinates, we select substorm-related dipolarization events in which the H component increases by more than 20 nT and the absolute value of the V component decreases by more than 8 nT in 5 minutes. About 150 dipolarization events are identified from 1 October 2012 to 30 June 2015. We find that the dipolarization mostly occurs at L=4.5-6.5 in the premidnight sector (2100-0000 MLT). No events are found at L<4.0. Some dipolarization events are accompanied by O+ flux enhancements in the energy range higher than a few keV, which have the pitch angle distribution peaked around 45 or 135 degrees. We also find that low energy O+ ions often appear after dipolarization with an energy dispersion starting from

  5. Measuring (13)C-(2)D dipolar couplings with a universal REDOR dephasing curve

    PubMed

    Gullion

    2000-09-01

    A (13)C-observe REDOR experiment is described which allows (13)C-(2)D dipolar couplings to be obtained by a universal dipolar dephasing curve. Previous (13)C-observe REDOR experiments on (13)C-(2)D spin pairs generally relied on numerical simulations to obtain the dipolar coupling. The REDOR experiment described in this article is based on a deuterium composite pulse, and the data analysis eliminates the need for numerical simulations and is the same as the traditional REDOR analysis performed on pairs of spin-12 nuclei. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10968975

  6. The influence of dimensionality on the behavior of magnetic dipolar soft spheres: calculation of the pressure.

    PubMed

    Minina, E; Kantorovich, S

    2013-04-17

    We investigate the influence of dimensionality of a sample on the properties of magnetic dipolar soft spheres. Molecular dynamics simulations and diagram expansion are employed to analyze the pressure and microscopic structure of model monodisperse magnetic fluids in a bulk and in a monolayer. We found that, for a broad range of densities and dipolar interaction strengths, strong geometrical confinement weakens the influence of the dipole-dipole interaction on the pressure and, as a result, steric repulsion of dipolar particles provides the main contribution to the thermodynamic properties of ferrofluids in strong confinement. PMID:23515201

  7. Fermion production in dipolar electric field on de Sitter expanding universe

    SciTech Connect

    Băloi, Mihaela-Andreea Crucean, Cosmin

    2015-12-07

    The production of fermions in dipolar electric fields on de Sitter universe is studied. The amplitude and probability of pair production are computed using the exact solution of the Dirac equation in de Sitter spacetime. The form of the dipolar fields is established using the conformal invariance of the Maxwell equations. We obtain that the momentum conservation law is broken in the process of pair production in dipolar electric fields. Also we establish that there are nonvanishing probabilities for processes in which the helicity is conserved/nonconserved. The Minkowski limit is recovered when the expansion factor becomes zero.

  8. Probing the Dipolar Coupling in a Heterospin Endohedral Fullerene-Phthalocyanine Dyad.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shen; Yamamoto, Masanori; Briggs, G Andrew D; Imahori, Hiroshi; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos

    2016-02-01

    Paramagnetic endohedral fullerenes and phthalocyanine (Pc) complexes are promising building blocks for molecular quantum information processing, for which tunable dipolar coupling is required. We have linked these two spin qubit candidates together and characterized the resulting electron paramagnetic resonance properties, including the spin dipolar coupling between the fullerene spin and the copper spin. Having interpreted the distance-dependent coupling strength quantitatively and further discussed the antiferromagnetic aggregation effect of the CuPc moieties, we demonstrate two ways of tuning the dipolar coupling in such dyad systems: changing the spacer group and adjusting the solution concentration. PMID:26745202

  9. Some aspects of singular interactions in condensed Fermi systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamp, P. C. E.

    1993-02-01

    This article gives a fairly detailed survey of some of the problems raised when the interaction energy f^{σ σ'}_{k k'} between 2 fermionic quasiparticles (in 2 dimensions) is singular when |k-k'|to 0. Before dealing with singular interactions, it is shown how a non-singular f^{σ σ'}_{k k'} leads to a 2-dimensional Fermi liquid theory, which is internally consistent, at least as far as its infrared properties are concerned. The quasiparticle properties are calculated in detail. The question of whether singular interactions arise for the dilute Fermi gas, with short-range repulsive interactions, is investigated perturbatively. One finds a weak singularity in f^{σ σ'}_{k k'}, when the dimensionality D = 2, but it does not destabilize the Fermi liquid. A more sophisticated analysis is then given, to all orders in the interaction, using the Lippman-Schwinger equation as well as a phase shift analysis for a finite box. The conclusion is that any breakdown of Fermi liquid theory must come from non-perturbative effects. An examination is then made of some of the consequences arising if a singular interaction is introduced — the form proposed by Anderson is used as an example. A hierarchy of singular terms arise in all quantities — this is shown for the self-energy, and also the 3 point and 4 point scattering functions. These may be summed in a perfectly consistent manner. Most attention is given to the particle-hole channel, since it appears to lead to results different from those of Anderson. Nevertheless it appears that it is possible to derive a sensible theory starting from a singular effective Hamiltonian — although Fermi Liquid theory breaks down, all fermionic quantities may be calculated consistently. Finally, the effect of a magnetic field (which cuts off the infrared divergences) is investigated, and the de Haas-van Alphen amplitude calculated, for such a singular Fermionic system.

  10. Thermal conductivity and sound attenuation in dilute atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, Matt; Chao Jingyi; Schaefer, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    We compute the thermal conductivity and sound attenuation length of a dilute atomic Fermi gas in the framework of kinetic theory. Above the critical temperature for superfluidity, T{sub c}, the quasiparticles are fermions, whereas below T{sub c}, the dominant excitations are phonons. We calculate the thermal conductivity in both cases. We find that at unitarity the thermal conductivity {kappa} in the normal phase scales as {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 3/2}. In the superfluid phase we find {kappa}{proportional_to}T{sup 2}. At high temperature the Prandtl number, the ratio of the momentum and thermal diffusion constants, is 2/3. The ratio increases as the temperature is lowered. As a consequence we expect sound attenuation in the normal phase just above T{sub c} to be dominated by shear viscosity. We comment on the possibility of extracting the shear viscosity of the dilute Fermi gas at unitarity using measurements of the sound absorption length.

  11. Microscopic description of anisotropic low-density dipolar Bose gases in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macia, A.; Mazzanti, F.; Boronat, J.; Zillich, R. E.

    2011-09-01

    A microscopic description of the zero-energy two-body ground state and many-body static properties of anisotropic homogeneous gases of bosonic dipoles in two dimensions at low densities is presented and discussed. By changing the polarization angle with respect to the plane, we study the impact of the anisotropy, present in the dipole-dipole interaction, on the energy per particle, comparing the results with mean-field predictions. We restrict the analysis to the regime where the interaction is always repulsive, although the strength of the repulsion depends on the orientation with respect to the polarization field. We present a series expansion of the solution of the zero-energy two-body problem, which allows us to find the scattering length of the interaction and to build a suitable Jastrow factor that we use as a trial wave function for both a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo simulation of the infinite system. We find that the anisotropy has an almost negligible impact on the ground-state properties of the many-body system in the universal regime where the scattering length governs the physics of the system. We also show that scaling in the gas parameter persists in the dipolar case up to values where other isotropic interactions with the same scattering length yield different predictions.

  12. Microscopic description of anisotropic low-density dipolar Bose gases in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Macia, A.; Mazzanti, F.; Boronat, J.; Zillich, R. E.

    2011-09-15

    A microscopic description of the zero-energy two-body ground state and many-body static properties of anisotropic homogeneous gases of bosonic dipoles in two dimensions at low densities is presented and discussed. By changing the polarization angle with respect to the plane, we study the impact of the anisotropy, present in the dipole-dipole interaction, on the energy per particle, comparing the results with mean-field predictions. We restrict the analysis to the regime where the interaction is always repulsive, although the strength of the repulsion depends on the orientation with respect to the polarization field. We present a series expansion of the solution of the zero-energy two-body problem, which allows us to find the scattering length of the interaction and to build a suitable Jastrow factor that we use as a trial wave function for both a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo simulation of the infinite system. We find that the anisotropy has an almost negligible impact on the ground-state properties of the many-body system in the universal regime where the scattering length governs the physics of the system. We also show that scaling in the gas parameter persists in the dipolar case up to values where other isotropic interactions with the same scattering length yield different predictions.

  13. Fermi-surface measurements on the low-carrier density ferromagnet Ca1-xLaxB6 and SrB6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Donavan; Young, D. P.; Fisk, Z.; Murphy, T. P.; Palm, E. C.; Teklu, A.; Goodrich, R. G.

    2001-12-01

    Recently it has been discovered that weak ferromagnetism of a dilute three-dimensional electron gas develops on the energy scale of the Fermi temperature in some of the hexaborides; that is, the Curie temperature approximately equals the Fermi temperature. We report the results of de Haas-van Alphen experiments on two concentrations of La-doped CaB6 as well as Ca-deficient Ca1-δB6 and Sr-deficient Sr1-δB6. The results show that a Fermi surface exists in each case and that there are significant electron-electron interactions in the low-density electron gas.

  14. Optical spectroscopy shows that the normal state of URu2Si2 is an anomalous Fermi liquid.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Urmas; Uleksin, Taaniel; Rõõm, Toomas; Lobo, Ricardo P S M; Lejay, Pascal; Homes, Christopher C; Hall, Jesse S; Kinross, Alison W; Purdy, Sarah K; Munsie, Tim; Williams, Travis J; Luke, Graeme M; Timusk, Thomas

    2012-11-20

    Fermi showed that, as a result of their quantum nature, electrons form a gas of particles whose temperature and density follow the so-called Fermi distribution. As shown by Landau, in a metal the electrons continue to act like free quantum mechanical particles with enhanced masses, despite their strong Coulomb interaction with each other and the positive background ions. This state of matter, the Landau-Fermi liquid, is recognized experimentally by an electrical resistivity that is proportional to the square of the absolute temperature plus a term proportional to the square of the frequency of the applied field. Calculations show that, if electron-electron scattering dominates the resistivity in a Landau-Fermi liquid, the ratio of the two terms, b, has the universal value of b = 4. We find that in the normal state of the heavy Fermion metal URu(2)Si(2), instead of the Fermi liquid value of 4, the coefficient b = 1 ± 0.1. This unexpected result implies that the electrons in this material are experiencing a unique scattering process. This scattering is intrinsic and we suggest that the uranium f electrons do not hybridize to form a coherent Fermi liquid but instead act like a dense array of elastic impurities, interacting incoherently with the charge carriers. This behavior is not restricted to URu(2)Si(2). Fermi liquid-like states with b ≠ 4 have been observed in a number of disparate systems, but the significance of this result has not been recognized.

  15. Optical spectroscopy shows that the normal state of URu2Si2 is an anomalous Fermi liquid

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Urmas; Uleksin, Taaniel; Rõõm, Toomas; Lobo, Ricardo P. S. M.; Lejay, Pascal; Homes, Christopher C.; Hall, Jesse S.; Kinross, Alison W.; Purdy, Sarah K.; Munsie, Tim; Williams, Travis J.; Luke, Graeme M.; Timusk, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Fermi showed that, as a result of their quantum nature, electrons form a gas of particles whose temperature and density follow the so-called Fermi distribution. As shown by Landau, in a metal the electrons continue to act like free quantum mechanical particles with enhanced masses, despite their strong Coulomb interaction with each other and the positive background ions. This state of matter, the Landau–Fermi liquid, is recognized experimentally by an electrical resistivity that is proportional to the square of the absolute temperature plus a term proportional to the square of the frequency of the applied field. Calculations show that, if electron-electron scattering dominates the resistivity in a Landau–Fermi liquid, the ratio of the two terms, b, has the universal value of b = 4. We find that in the normal state of the heavy Fermion metal URu2Si2, instead of the Fermi liquid value of 4, the coefficient b = 1 ± 0.1. This unexpected result implies that the electrons in this material are experiencing a unique scattering process. This scattering is intrinsic and we suggest that the uranium f electrons do not hybridize to form a coherent Fermi liquid but instead act like a dense array of elastic impurities, interacting incoherently with the charge carriers. This behavior is not restricted to URu2Si2. Fermi liquid-like states with b ≠ 4 have been observed in a number of disparate systems, but the significance of this result has not been recognized. PMID:23115333

  16. Renormalization group analysis of ultracold Fermi gases with two-body attractive interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoyong; Chi, Zimeng; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zaijun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new functional renormalization group (RG) strategy to investigate the many-body physics of interacting ultracold Fermi gases. By mapping the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) action of Fermi gases onto a complex φ4-model, we can obtain the closed flow equation in the one-loop approximation. An analysis of the emerging RG flow gives the ground state behavior. The Hamiltonian of a Fermi gas with a two-body attractive interaction is used as a demonstration to clarify our treatment. The fixed point structure reveals not only the condensation phase transition, but also the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover. The effect of the imaginary time renormalization is also discussed. It is shown that for the dynamical field configuration our RG procedure can reproduce the well known theoretical results of BCS-BEC crossover, while under a static approximation the phase transition takes place at a higher critical temperature.

  17. FFLO Superfluids in 2D Spin-Orbit Coupled Fermi Gases

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhen; Gong, Ming; Zhang, Yichao; Zou, Xubo; Zhang, Chuanwei; Guo, Guangcan

    2014-01-01

    We show that the combination of spin-orbit coupling and in-plane Zeeman field in a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas can lead to a larger parameter region for Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phases than that using spin-imbalanced Fermi gases. The resulting FFLO superfluids are also more stable due to the enhanced energy difference between FFLO and conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) excited states. We clarify the crucial role of the symmetry of Fermi surface on the formation of finite momentum pairing. The phase diagram for FFLO superfluids is obtained in the BCS-BEC crossover region and possible experimental observations of FFLO phases are discussed. PMID:25288379

  18. Gradient corrections to the local-density approximation for trapped superfluid Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Csordas, Andras; Almasy, Orsolya; Szepfalusy, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Two species superfluid Fermi gas is investigated on the BCS side up to the Feshbach resonance. Using the Greens's function technique gradient corrections are calculated to the generalized Thomas-Fermi theory including Cooper pairing. Their relative magnitude is found to be measured by the small parameter (d/R{sub TF}){sup 4}, where d is the oscillator length of the trap potential and R{sub TF} is the radial extension of the density n in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. In particular, at the Feshbach resonance the universal corrections to the local density approximation are calculated and a universal prefactor {kappa}{sub W}=7/27 is derived for the von Weizsaecker-type correction {kappa}{sub W}(({h_bar}/2{pi}){sup 2}/2m)({nabla}{sup 2}n{sup 1/2}/n{sup 1/2}).

  19. ac susceptibility of an assembly of nanomagnets: Combined effects of surface anisotropy and dipolar interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernay, F.; Sabsabi, Z.; Kachkachi, H.

    2014-09-01

    We compute the ac susceptibility of a weakly dipolar-interacting monodisperse assembly of magnetic nanoclusters with oriented anisotropy. For this purpose, we first compute the relaxation rate in a longitudinal magnetic field of a single nanomagnet taking account of both dipolar interactions in the case of dilute assemblies and surface anisotropy. We then study the behavior of the real and imaginary components of the ac susceptibility as functions of temperature, frequency, surface anisotropy, and interparticle interactions. We find that the surface anisotropy induces an upward shift of the temperature at the maximum of the ac susceptibility components and that its effects may be tuned so as to screen out the effects of interactions. The phenomenological Vogel-Fulcher law for the effect of dipolar interaction on the relaxation rate is revisited within our formalism and a semianalytical expression is given for the effective temperature in terms of inter alia the applied field, surface anisotropy, and dipolar interaction.

  20. Modification of roton instability due to the presence of a second dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Asad-uz-Zaman, M.; Blume, D.

    2011-03-15

    We study the behavior of two coupled purely dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), each located in a cylindrically symmetric pancake-shaped external confining potential, as the separation b between the traps along the tight confining direction is varied. The solutions of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii and Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, which account for the full dynamics, show that the system behavior is modified by the presence of the second dipolar BEC. For sufficiently small b, the presence of the second dipolar BEC destabilizes the system dramatically. In this regime, the coupled system collapses through a mode that is notably different from the radial roton mode that induces the collapse of the uncoupled system. Finally, we comment on the shortcomings of an approach that employs a separable wavefunction, which is assumed to be a good approximation for highly pancake-shaped dipolar BECs in the literature.