NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Protsenko, I. E.; Uskov, A. V.; Zaimidoroga, O. A.; Samoilov, V. N.; O'Reilly, E. P.
2005-06-01
A “dipole” laser is proposed consisting of a nanoparticle and a two-level system with population inversion. If the threshold conditions are fulfilled, the dipole interaction between the two-level system and the nanoparticle leads to coherent oscillations in the polarization of the particles, even in the absence of an external electromagnetic field. The emitted radiation has a dipolar distribution. It does not need an optical cavity, and has a very small volume, ˜0.1μm3 , which can be important for applications in microelectronics. Estimates of the threshold conditions are carried out for a dipole laser composed of a quantum dot and a silver nanoparticle.
Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay
2006-11-01
The dipole moment of Earth's magnetic field has decreased by nearly 9% over the past 150 years and by about 30% over the past 2,000 years according to archeomagnetic measurements. Here, we explore the causes and the implications of this rapid change. Maps of the geomagnetic field on the core-mantle boundary derived from ground-based and satellite measurements reveal that most of the present episode of dipole moment decrease originates in the southern hemisphere. Weakening and equatorward advection of normal polarity magnetic field by the core flow, combined with proliferation and growth of regions where the magnetic polarity is reversed, are reducing the dipole moment on the core-mantle boundary. Growth of these reversed flux regions has occurred over the past century or longer and is associated with the expansion of the South Atlantic Anomaly, a low-intensity region in the geomagnetic field that presents a radiation hazard at satellite altitudes. We address the speculation that the present episode of dipole moment decrease is a precursor to the next geomagnetic polarity reversal. The paleomagnetic record contains a broad spectrum of dipole moment fluctuations with polarity reversals typically occurring during dipole moment lows. However, the dipole moment is stronger today than its long time average, indicating that polarity reversal is not likely unless the current episode of moment decrease continues for a thousand years or more.
Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab
2007-06-01
The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.
Laboratory Dipole Plasma Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesner, Jay
2011-10-01
Modern laboratory studies of plasma confined by a strong dipole magnet originated twenty years ago when it was learned that planetary magnetospheres have centrally-peaked plasma pressure profiles that form naturally when solar wind drives plasma circulation and heating. Unlike other internal rings devices, like spherators and octupoles, the magnetic flux tubes of the dipole field expand rapidly with radius. Unlike plasma confinement devices that obtain stability from magnetic shear and average good curvature, like tokamaks and levitrons, the dipole-confined plasma obtains stability from plasma compressibility. These two geometric characteristics of the dipole field have profound consequences: (i) plasma can be stable with local beta exceeding unity, (ii) fluctuations can drive either heat or particles inward to create stationary profiles that are strongly peaked, and (iii) the confinement of particles and energy can decouple. During the past decade, several laboratory dipole experiments and modeling efforts have lead to new understanding of interchange, centrifugal and entropy modes, nonlinear gyrokinetics, and plasma transport. Two devices, the LDX experiment at MIT and RT-1 at the University of Tokyo, operate with levitated superconducting dipole magnets. With a levitated dipole, not only is very high-beta plasma confined in steady state but, also, levitation produces high-temperature at low input power and demonstrates that toroidal magnetic confinement of plasma does not require a toroidal field. Modeling has explained many of the processes operative in these experiments, including the observation of a strong inward particle pinch. Turbulent low-frequency fluctuations in dipole confined plasma cause adiabatic transport and form a fundamental linkage between the radial variation of flux-tube volume and the centrally peaked density and pressure profiles. In collaboration with M.E. Mauel and D.T. Garnier; supported by DoE FG02-98ER54458.
Experiments with Dipole Antennas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2009-01-01
Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…
Geometrical Simplification of the Dipole-Dipole Interaction Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kocbach, Ladislav; Lubbad, Suhail
2010-01-01
Many students meet dipole-dipole potential energy quite early on when they are taught electrostatics or magnetostatics and it is also a very popular formula, featured in encyclopedias. We show that by a simple rewriting of the formula it becomes apparent that, for example, by reorienting the two dipoles, their attraction can become exactly twice…
Pygmy dipole resonance and dipole polarizability in 90Zr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwamoto, C.; Tamii, A.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Nakada, H.; Shima, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Yamagata, T.; Kawabata, T.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, H.; Shimbara, Y.; Nagashima, M.; Sakuda, M.; Mori, T.; Izumi, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kondo, T.; Lui, T.-W.; Bilgier, B.; Kozer, H. C.; Hatanaka, K.
2014-05-01
Electric dipole (E1) reduced transition probability B(E1) of 90Zr was obtained by the inelastic proton scattering near 0 degrees using a 295 MeV proton beam and multipole decomposition analysis of the angular distribution by the distorted-wave Born approximation with the Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation model and inclusion of El Coulomb excitation, and the E1 strength of the pygmy dipole resonance was found in the vicinity of the neutron threshold in the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. Using the data, we plan to determine the precise dipole polarizability αD which is defined as an inversely energy-weighted sum value of the elecrric dipole strength. The dipole polarizability is expected to constrain the symmetry energy term of the neutron matter equation of state. Thus systematical measurement of the dipole polarizability is important.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girwidz, Raimund V.
2016-11-01
The Hertzian dipole is fundamental to the understanding of dipole radiation. It provides basic insights into the genesis of electromagnetic waves and lays the groundwork for an understanding of half-wave antennae and other types. Equations for the electric and magnetic fields of such a dipole can be derived mathematically. However these are very abstract descriptions. Interpreting these equations and understanding travelling electromagnetic waves are highly limited in that sense. Visualizations can be a valuable supplement that vividly present properties of electromagnetic fields and their propagation. The computer simulation presented below provides additional instructive illustrations for university lectures on electrodynamics, broadening the experience well beyond what is possible with abstract equations. This paper refers to a multimedia program for PCs, tablets and smartphones, and introduces and discusses several animated illustrations. Special features of multiple representations and combined illustrations will be used to provide insight into spatial and temporal characteristics of field distributions—which also draw attention to the flow of energy. These visualizations offer additional information, including the relationships between different representations that promote deeper understanding. Finally, some aspects are also illustrated that often remain unclear in lectures.
Retardation effects in induced atomic dipole-dipole interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, S. D.; McGuirk, J. M.
2017-02-01
We present mean-field calculations of azimuthally averaged retarded dipole-dipole interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate induced by a laser, at both long and short wavelengths. Our calculations demonstrate that dipole-dipole interactions become significantly stronger at shorter wavelengths, by as much as 30-fold, due to retardation effects. This enhancement, along with the inclusion of the dynamic polarizability, indicate a method of inducing long-range interatomic interactions in neutral atom condensates at significantly lower intensities than previously realized.
Superconducting dipole electromagnet
Purcell, John R.
1977-07-26
A dipole electromagnet of especial use for bending beams in particle accelerators is wound to have high uniformity of magnetic field across a cross section and to decrease evenly to zero as the ends of the electromagnet are approached by disposing the superconducting filaments of the coil in the crescent-shaped nonoverlapping portions of two intersecting circles. Uniform decrease at the ends is achieved by causing the circles to overlap increasingly in the direction of the ends of the coil until the overlap is complete and the coil is terminated.
Lithium electric dipole polarizability
Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K.
2011-11-15
The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffman, Yehuda; Pomarède, Daniel; Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Hélène M.
2017-01-01
Our Local Group of galaxies is moving with respect to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with a velocity 1 of V CMB = 631 ± 20 km s‑1 and participates in a bulk flow that extends out to distances of ~20,000 km s‑1 or more 2-4 . There has been an implicit assumption that overabundances of galaxies induce the Local Group motion 5-7 . Yet underdense regions push as much as overdensities attract 8 , but they are deficient in light and consequently difficult to chart. It was suggested a decade ago that an underdensity in the northern hemisphere roughly 15,000 km s‑1 away contributes significantly to the observed flow 9 . We show here that repulsion from an underdensity is important and that the dominant influences causing the observed flow are a single attractor — associated with the Shapley concentration — and a single previously unidentified repeller, which contribute roughly equally to the CMB dipole. The bulk flow is closely anti-aligned with the repeller out to 16,000 ± 4,500 km s‑1. This 'dipole repeller' is predicted to be associated with a void in the distribution of galaxies.
Ferrofluid Photonic Dipole Contours
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, Michael; Frederick, Jonathan
2008-03-01
Understanding magnetic fields is important to facilitate magnetic applications in diverse fields in industry, commerce, and space exploration to name a few. Large electromagnets can move heavy loads of metal. Magnetic materials attached to credit cards allow for fast, accurate business transactions. And the Earth's magnetic field gives us the colorful auroras observed near the north and south poles. Magnetic fields are not visible, and therefore often hard to understand or characterize. This investigation describes and demonstrates a novel technique for the visualization of magnetic fields. Two ferrofluid Hele-Shaw cells have been constructed to facilitate the imaging of magnetic field lines [1,2,3,4]. We deduce that magnetically induced photonic band gap arrays similar to electrostatic liquid crystal operation are responsible for the photographed images and seek to mathematically prove the images are of exact dipole nature. We also note by comparison that our photographs are very similar to solar magnetic Heliosphere photographs.
Highly Automated Dipole EStimation (HADES)
Campi, C.; Pascarella, A.; Sorrentino, A.; Piana, M.
2011-01-01
Automatic estimation of current dipoles from biomagnetic data is still a problematic task. This is due not only to the ill-posedness of the inverse problem but also to two intrinsic difficulties introduced by the dipolar model: the unknown number of sources and the nonlinear relationship between the source locations and the data. Recently, we have developed a new Bayesian approach, particle filtering, based on dynamical tracking of the dipole constellation. Contrary to many dipole-based methods, particle filtering does not assume stationarity of the source configuration: the number of dipoles and their positions are estimated and updated dynamically during the course of the MEG sequence. We have now developed a Matlab-based graphical user interface, which allows nonexpert users to do automatic dipole estimation from MEG data with particle filtering. In the present paper, we describe the main features of the software and show the analysis of both a synthetic data set and an experimental dataset. PMID:21437232
Highly Automated Dipole EStimation (HADES).
Campi, C; Pascarella, A; Sorrentino, A; Piana, M
2011-01-01
Automatic estimation of current dipoles from biomagnetic data is still a problematic task. This is due not only to the ill-posedness of the inverse problem but also to two intrinsic difficulties introduced by the dipolar model: the unknown number of sources and the nonlinear relationship between the source locations and the data. Recently, we have developed a new Bayesian approach, particle filtering, based on dynamical tracking of the dipole constellation. Contrary to many dipole-based methods, particle filtering does not assume stationarity of the source configuration: the number of dipoles and their positions are estimated and updated dynamically during the course of the MEG sequence. We have now developed a Matlab-based graphical user interface, which allows nonexpert users to do automatic dipole estimation from MEG data with particle filtering. In the present paper, we describe the main features of the software and show the analysis of both a synthetic data set and an experimental dataset.
Magnetic Field of a Dipole and the Dipole-Dipole Interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2007-01-01
With a data-acquisition system and sensors commercially available, it is easy to determine magnetic fields produced by permanent magnets and to study the dipole-dipole interaction for different separations and angular positions of the magnets. For sufficiently large distances, the results confirm the 1/R[superscript 3] law for the magnetic field…
Observation of Stueckelberg oscillations in dipole-dipole interactions
Ditzhuijzen, C. S. E. van; Tauschinsky, Atreju; Van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.
2009-12-15
We have observed Stueckelberg oscillations in the dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg atoms with an externally applied radio-frequency field. The oscillating rf field brings the interaction between cold Rydberg atoms in two separated volumes into resonance. We observe multiphoton transitions when varying the amplitude of the rf field and the static electric field offset. The angular momentum states we use show a quadratic Stark shift, which leads to a fundamentally different behavior than linearly shifting states. Both cases are studied theoretically using the Floquet approach and are compared. The amplitude of the sidebands, related to the interaction strength, is given by the Bessel function in the linearly shifting case and by the generalized Bessel function in the quadratically shifting case. The oscillatory behavior of both functions corresponds to Stueckelberg oscillations, an interference effect described by the semiclassical Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg model. The measurements prove coherent dipole-dipole interaction during at least 0.6 mus.
BFKL approach and dipole picture
Fadin, V. S.
2009-03-23
Inter-relation of the BFKL approach and the colour dipole model is discussed. In the case of scattering of colourless objects the colour singlet BFKL kernel can be taken in the special representation called Moebius form. In the leading order (LO) it coincides with the kernel of the colour dipole model. In the next-to-leading order (NLO) the quark parts of the Moebius form and the colour dipole kernel are in accord with each other, but the gluon parts do not agree. Possible sources of this discrepancy are analyzed.
Fermion dipole moment and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulaxizi, Manuela; Rahman, Rakibur
2015-12-01
In the background of a charged AdS black hole, we consider a Dirac particle endowed with an arbitrary magnetic dipole moment. For non-zero charge and dipole coupling of the bulk fermion, we find that the dual boundary theory can be plagued with superluminal modes. Requiring consistency of the dual CFT amounts to constraining the strength of the dipole coupling by an upper bound. We briefly discuss the implications of our results for the physics of holographic non-Fermi liquids.
Dipole-dipole interaction between rubidium Rydberg atoms
Altiere, Emily; Fahey, Donald P.; Noel, Michael W.; Smith, Rachel J.; Carroll, Thomas J.
2011-11-15
Ultracold Rydberg atoms in a static electric field can exchange energy via the dipole-dipole interaction. The Stark effect shifts the energy levels of the atoms which tunes the energy exchange into resonance at specific values of the electric field (Foerster resonances). We excite rubidium atoms to Rydberg states by focusing either a 480 nm beam from a tunable dye laser or a pair of diode lasers into a magneto-optical trap. The trap lies at the center of a configuration of electrodes. We scan the electric field by controlling the voltage on the electrodes while measuring the fraction of atoms that interact. Dipole-dipole interaction spectra are presented for initially excited rubidium nd states for n=31 to 46 and for four different pairs of initially excited rubidium ns states. We also present the dipole-dipole interaction spectra for individual rubidium 32d (j, m{sub j}) fine structure levels that have been selectively excited. The data are compared to calculated spectra.
NONLINEAR DIAGNOSTICS USING AC DIPOLES.
PEGGS,S.
1999-03-29
There are three goals in the accurate nonlinear diagnosis of a storage ring. First, the beam must be moved to amplitudes many times the natural beam size. Second, strong and long lasting signals must be generated. Third, the measurement technique should be non-destructive. Conventionally, a single turn kick moves the beam to large amplitudes, and turn-by-turn data are recorded from multiple beam position monitors (BPMs) [1-6]. Unfortunately, tune spread across the beam causes the center of charge beam signal to ''decohere'' on a time scale often less than 100 turns. Filamentation also permanently destroys the beam emittance (in a hadron ring). Thus, the ''strong single turn kick'' technique successfully achieves only one out of the three goals. AC dipole techniques can achieve all three. Adiabatically excited AC dipoles slowly move the beam out to large amplitudes. The coherent signals then recorded last arbitrarily long. The beam maintains its original emittance if the AC dipoles are also turned off adiabatically, ready for further use. The AGS already uses an RF dipole to accelerate polarized proton beams through depolarizing resonances with minimal polarization loss [7]. Similar AC dipoles will be installed in the horizontal and vertical planes of both rings in RHIC [8]. The RHIC AC dipoles will also be used as spin flippers, and to measure linear optical functions [9].
Measuring the Forces between Magnetic Dipoles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gayetsky, Lisa E.; Caylor, Craig L.
2007-01-01
We describe a simple undergraduate lab in which students determine how the force between two magnetic dipoles depends on their separation. We consider the case where both dipoles are permanent and the case where one of the dipoles is induced by the field of the other (permanent) dipole. Agreement with theoretically expected results is quite good.
On the dipole polarisability and dipole sum rules of ozone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalugina, Yulia N.; Thakkar, Ajit J.
2015-10-01
Ab initio calculations of the dipole polarisability and other Cauchy moments of the dipole oscillator strength distribution (DOSD) of ozone are reported to help resolve discrepancies between theory and experiment. A number of coupled-cluster methods based on a Hartree-Fock reference function, multiconfiguration-reference configuration interaction methods, and perturbatively corrected, complete-active-space self-consistent field methods are used. The C DOSD of Kumar and Thakkar is probably preferable to their B1 distribution. Our best estimate of the mean polarisability is ? atomic units.
Dipole oscillations in fermionic mixtures
Chiacchiera, S.; Macri, T.; Trombettoni, A.
2010-03-15
We study dipole oscillations in a general fermionic mixture. Starting from the Boltzmann equation, we classify the different solutions in the parameter space through the number of real eigenvalues of the small oscillations matrix. We discuss how this number can be computed using the Sturm algorithm and its relation with the properties of the Laplace transform of the experimental quantities. After considering two components in harmonic potentials having different trapping frequencies, we study dipole oscillations in three-component mixtures. Explicit computations are done for realistic experimental setups using the classical Boltzmann equation without intraspecies interactions. A brief discussion of the application of this classification to general collective oscillations is also presented.
Coherent and incoherent dipole-dipole interactions between atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robicheaux, Francis
2016-05-01
Results will be presented on the collective interaction between atoms due to the electric dipole-dipole coupling between states of different parity on two different atoms. A canonical example of this effect is when the electronic state of one atom has S-character and the state of another atom has P-character. The energy difference between the two states plays an important role in the interaction since the change in energy determines the wave number of a photon that would cause a transition between the states. If the atoms are much closer than the wave length of this photon, then the dipole-dipole interaction is in the near field and has a 1 /r3 dependence on atomic separation. If the atoms are farther apart than the wave length, then the interaction is in the far field and has a 1 / r dependence. When many atoms interact, collective effects can dominate the system with the character of the collective effect depending on whether the atomic separation leads to near field or far field coupling. As an example of the case where the atoms are in the far field, the line broadening of transitions and strong deviations from the Beer-Lambert law in a diffuse gas will be presented. As an example of near field collective behavior, the radiative properties of a Rydberg gas will be presented. Based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1404419-PHY in collaboration with R.T. Sutherland.
Induced dipole-dipole interactions in light diffusion from point dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherroret, Nicolas; Delande, Dominique; van Tiggelen, Bart A.
2016-07-01
We develop a perturbative treatment of induced dipole-dipole interactions in the diffusive transport of electromagnetic waves through disordered atomic clouds. The approach is exact at order 2 in the atomic density and accounts for the vector character of light. It is applied to the calculations of the electromagnetic energy stored in the atomic cloud, which modifies the energy transport velocity, and of the light scattering and transport mean free paths. Results are compared to those obtained from a purely scalar model for light.
Dipole polarizabilities of charged pions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fil'kov, L. V.; Kashevarov, V. L.
2017-01-01
We discuss main experimental works, where dipole polarizabilities of charged pions have been determined. Possible reasons for the differences between the experimental data are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the account of the -meson gives a significant correction to the value of the polarizability obtained in the latest experiment of the COMPASS collaboration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schildknecht, Dieter
2017-03-01
We give a brief representation of the theoretical results from the color dipole picture, covering the total photoabsorption cross section, high-energy J/ψ photoproduction with respect to recent experimental data from the LHCb Collaboration at CERN, and ultra-high energy neutrino scattering, relevant for the ICE-CUBE experiment.
Matsumoto, E.; Nakayama, S.; Hayami, R.; Fushimi, K.; Kawasuso, H.; Yasuda, K.; Yamagata, T.; Akimune, H.; Ikemizu, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Yosoi, M.; Nakanishi, K.; Kawase, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Oota, T.; Sagara, K.; Kudoh, T.; Asaji, S.; Ishida, T.; Tanaka, M.
2007-02-26
We investigated the analogs of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) and spin-dipole resonance (SDR) of 4He by using the 4He(7Li,7Be) reaction at an incident energy of 455 MeV and at forward scattering angles. The {delta}S=0 and {delta}S=1 spectra for 4He were obtained by measuring the 0.43-MeV 7Be {gamma}-ray in coincidence with the scattered 7Be. From the {delta}S=0 and {delta}S=1 spectra thus obtained, the strength distributions of the GDR and SDR in 4He can be derived and the results are compared with the previous data.
Relativistic Dipole Matrix Element Zeros
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.
2002-05-01
There is a special class of relativistic high energy dipole matrix element zeros (RZ), whose positions with respect to photon energy ω , only depend on the bound state l quantum number according to ω^0=mc^2/(l_b+1) (independent of primary quantum number n, nuclear charge Z, central potential V and dipole retardation). These RZ only occur in (n,l_b,j_b)arrow (ɛ , l_b+1,j_b) transitions such as ns_1/2arrow ɛ p_1/2; np_3/2arrow ɛ d_3/2: nd_5/2arrow ɛ f_5/2 etc. The nonrelativistic limit of these matrix elements can be established explicitly in the Coulomb case. Within the general matrix element formalism (such as that in [1]); when |κ | is substituted for γ in analytic expressions for matrix elements, the zeros remain, but ω^0 now becomes dependent on n and Z. When the reduction to nonrelativistic form is completed by application of the low energy approximation ω mc^2 mc^2, the zeros disappear. This nonzero behavior was noted in nonrelativistic dipole Coulomb matrix elements by Fano and Cooper [2] and later proven by Oh and Pratt[3]. (J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 40), 3054 (1989 (U. Fano and J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40), 441 (1968). (D. Oh and R. H. Pratt, Phys. Rev. A 34), 2486 (1986); 37, 1524 (1988); 45, 1583 (1992).
Efficient treatment of induced dipoles
Simmonett, Andrew C.; Pickard, Frank C.; Shao, Yihan; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Brooks, Bernard R.
2015-01-01
Most existing treatments of induced dipoles in polarizable molecular mechanics force field calculations use either the self-consistent variational method, which is solved iteratively, or the “direct” approximation that is non-iterative as a result of neglecting coupling between induced dipoles. The variational method is usually implemented using assumptions that are only strictly valid under tight convergence of the induced dipoles, which can be computationally demanding to enforce. In this work, we discuss the nature of the errors that result from insufficient convergence and suggest a strategy that avoids such problems. Using perturbation theory to reintroduce the mutual coupling into the direct algorithm, we present a computationally efficient method that combines the precision of the direct approach with the accuracy of the variational approach. By analyzing the convergence of this perturbation series, we derive a simple extrapolation formula that delivers a very accurate approximation to the infinite order solution at the cost of only a few iterations. We refer to the new method as extrapolated perturbation theory. Finally, we draw connections to our previously published permanent multipole algorithm to develop an efficient implementation of the electric field and Thole terms and also derive some necessary, but not sufficient, criteria that force field parameters must obey. PMID:26298123
RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller
Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.
2011-03-28
The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.
Nanophotonic control of circular dipole emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Feber, B.; Rotenberg, N.; Kuipers, L.
2015-04-01
Controlling photon emission by single emitters with nanostructures is crucial for scalable on-chip information processing. Nowadays, nanoresonators can affect the lifetime of linear dipole emitters, while nanoantennas can steer the emission direction. Expanding this control to the emission of orbital angular momentum-changing transitions would enable a future coupling between solid state and photonic qubits. As these transitions are associated with circular dipoles, such control requires knowledge of the interaction of a complex dipole with optical eigenstates containing local helicity. We experimentally map the coupling of classical, circular dipoles to photonic modes in a photonic crystal waveguide. We show that, depending on the combination of the local helicity of the mode and the dipole helicity, circular dipoles can couple to left- or rightwards propagating modes with a near-unity directionality. The experimental maps are in excellent agreement with calculations. Our measurements, therefore, demonstrate the possibility of coupling the spin to photonic pathway.
Electric dipole polarizability from first principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miorelli, M.; Bacca, S.; Barnea, N.; Hagen, G.; Jansen, G. R.; Orlandini, G.; Papenbrock, T.
2016-09-01
The electric dipole polarizability quantifies the low-energy behavior of the dipole strength and is related to critical observables such as the radii of the proton and neutron distributions. Its computation is challenging because most of the dipole strength lies in the scattering continuum. In this paper we combine integral transforms with the coupled-cluster method and compute the dipole polarizability using bound-state techniques. Employing different interactions from chiral effective field theory, we confirm the strong correlation between the dipole polarizability and the charge radius, and study its dependence on three-nucleon forces. We find good agreement with data for the 4He,40Ca, and 16O nuclei, and predict the dipole polarizability for the rare nucleus 22O.
Electric dipole polarizability from first principles calculations
Miorelli, M.; Bacca, S.; Barnea, N.; Hagen, G.; Jansen, G. R.; Orlandini, G.; Papenbrock, T.
2016-09-19
The electric dipole polarizability quantifies the low-energy behavior of the dipole strength and is related to critical observables such as the radii of the proton and neutron distributions. Its computation is challenging because most of the dipole strength lies in the scattering continuum. In our paper we combine integral transforms with the coupled-cluster method and compute the dipole polarizability using bound-state techniques. Furthermore, employing different interactions from chiral effective field theory, we confirm the strong correlation between the dipole polarizability and the charge radius, and study its dependence on three-nucleon forces. Finally, we find good agreement with data for the ^{4}He, ^{40}Ca, and ^{16}O nuclei, and predict the dipole polarizability for the rare nucleus ^{22}O.
Electric dipole polarizability from first principles calculations
Miorelli, M.; Bacca, S.; Barnea, N.; ...
2016-09-19
The electric dipole polarizability quantifies the low-energy behavior of the dipole strength and is related to critical observables such as the radii of the proton and neutron distributions. Its computation is challenging because most of the dipole strength lies in the scattering continuum. In our paper we combine integral transforms with the coupled-cluster method and compute the dipole polarizability using bound-state techniques. Furthermore, employing different interactions from chiral effective field theory, we confirm the strong correlation between the dipole polarizability and the charge radius, and study its dependence on three-nucleon forces. Finally, we find good agreement with data for themore » 4He, 40Ca, and 16O nuclei, and predict the dipole polarizability for the rare nucleus 22O.« less
Electric dipole radiation near a mirror
Li Xin; Arnoldus, Henk F.
2010-05-15
The emission of radiation by a linearly oscillating electric dipole is drastically altered when the dipole is close to the surface of a mirror. The energy is not emitted along optical rays, as for a free dipole, but as a set of four optical vortices. The field lines of energy flow spiral around a set of two lines through the dipole. At a larger distance from the dipole, singularities and isolated vortices appear. It is shown that these interference vortices are due to the vanishing of the magnetic field at their centers. In the plane of the mirror there is a singular circle with a diameter which is proportional to the distance between the dipole and the mirror. Inside this circle, all energy flows to a singularity on the mirror surface.
Which dipole are you studying in lab?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binder, P.-M.; Tate, Reuben B.; Crowder, Callie K.
2017-01-01
We explore the similarities and differences between the electric dipole studied in introductory physics and the purportedly equivalent elementary experiment in which the electric potential is measured on a conductive sheet as a current flows. The former is a three-dimensional electrostatic dipole while the latter is a two-dimensional steady-state dipole. In spite of these differences, and as shown in this work, the potentials due to these dipoles look very similar. This may be misleading to either students or unaware instructors.
Spectral Distortions of the CMB Dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balashev, S. A.; Kholupenko, E. E.; Chluba, J.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Varshalovich, D. A.
2015-09-01
We consider the distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole anisotropy related to primordial recombination radiation (PRR) and primordial y- and μ-distortions. The signals arise due to our motion relative to the CMB restframe and appear as a frequency-dependent distortion of the CMB temperature dipole. To leading order, the expected relative distortion of the CMB dipole does not depend on the particular observation directions and reaches the level of 10-6 for the PRR- and μ-distortions and 10-5 for the y-distortion in the frequency range 1-700 GHz. The temperature differences arising from the dipole anisotropy of the relic CMB distortions depend on the observation directions. For mutually opposite directions, collinear to the CMB dipole axis, the temperature differences due to the PRR- and μ-dipole anisotropy attain values {{Δ }}T≃ 10 {nK} in the considered range. The temperature difference arising from the y-dipole anisotropy may reach values of up to 1 μ {{K}}. The key features of the considered effect are as follow: (i) an observation of the effect does not require absolute calibration; (ii) patches of sky with minimal foreground contamination can be chosen. Future measurements of the CMB dipole distortion thus will provide an alternative method for direct detection of the PRR-, y-, and μ-distortions. The y-distortion dipole may be detectable with PIXIE at a few standard deviations.
Hyperfine dipole-dipole broadening of selective reflection spectroscopy at the gas-solid interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Tengfei; Ji, Zhonghua; Zhao, Yanting; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang
2016-09-01
We theoretically and experimentally investigate hyperfine dipole-dipole broadening in the selective reflection (SR) spectroscopy at the gas-solid interface with the atomic density of 1014-1015 cm-3. The two-level SR theory considering pump beam and dipole-dipole interaction between excited-state atom and ground-state atom is presented. The numerical simulation of the SR spectrum is in agreement with experimental results. The reduction of spectral width is observed by introducing a pump beam which is an effective technique to improve the resolution of spectroscopy. We analyze the dependence of dipole-dipole broadening on atomic density and pump beam power. This study is helpful for the description of the SR spectroscopy at the gas-solid interface where the Doppler broadening is comparable with dipole-dipole broadening.
Testing of a Single 11 T $Nb_3Sn$ Dipole Coil Using a Dipole Mirror Structure
Zlobin, Alexander; Andreev, Nicolai; Barzi, Emanuela; Chlachidze, Guram; Kashikhin, Vadim; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Turrioni, Daniele; Karppinen, Mikko; Smekens, David
2014-07-01
FNAL and CERN are developing an 11 T Nb3Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. To optimize coil design parameters and fabrication process and study coil performance, a series of 1 m long dipole coils is being fabricated. One of the short coils has been tested using a dipole mirror structure. This paper describes the dipole mirror magnetic and mechanical designs, and reports coil parameters and test results.
Dipole Engineering for Conducting Polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClain, William Edward
A method for the growth of a TiO2 adhesion layer on PEDOT:PSS (poly[3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene]: poly[styrenesulfonate]) and for further functionalization with self-assembled monolayers of phosphonates (SAMPs) was developed. The TiO2 adhesion layer was grown via chemical vapor deposition using a titanium(IV) t-butoxide precursor, and was characterized by goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. TiO 2 grown on a model system, H-terminated silicon, indicated that the surface was t-butoxide terminated. Phenylphosphonic acids were synthesized with a variety of molecular dipoles and were used to change the work function of PEDOT:PSS through the formation of an aggregate surface dipole. Good correlation was found between the z-component of the molecular dipole and the change in work function, indicating that the film was well-ordered and dense. The magnitude of the changes in work function and goniometry measurements were similar to measurements on ITO, a substrate on which phosphonates form well-ordered monolayers. As-grown PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 electrodes showed a lower work function compared to PEDOT:PSS, which is attributed to residual t-butoxide groups on the TiO 2 surface. UPS measurements revealed that reductions in work function in the modified electrodes lowered the difference in energy between the Fermi energy (EF) of the conducting polymer and the LUMO of PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester). A reduction of this energy difference should translate into increased electron injection in electron-only diodes; however, devices with modified electrodes showed decreased current densities. UPS/IPES measurements show that TiO2 grown using this method has a much larger band gap than bulk or nanocrystalline TiO2, which is likely responsible for this decrease in device currents. At high bias, device currents increase dramatically, and the effects of the phosphonates or t-butoxide terminated TiO2 vanish. This is attributed to a reduction of the TiO2 to
Radiating dipoles in photonic crystals
Busch; Vats; John; Sanders
2000-09-01
The radiation dynamics of a dipole antenna embedded in a photonic crystal are modeled by an initially excited harmonic oscillator coupled to a non-Markovian bath of harmonic oscillators representing the colored electromagnetic vacuum within the crystal. Realistic coupling constants based on the natural modes of the photonic crystal, i.e., Bloch waves and their associated dispersion relation, are derived. For simple model systems, well-known results such as decay times and emission spectra are reproduced. This approach enables direct incorporation of realistic band structure computations into studies of radiative emission from atoms and molecules within photonic crystals. We therefore provide a predictive and interpretative tool for experiments in both the microwave and optical regimes.
How to Introduce the Magnetic Dipole Moment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.
2012-01-01
We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the…
Dipole Relaxation in an Electric Field.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neumann, Richard M.
1980-01-01
Derives an expression for the orientational entropy of a rigid rod (electric dipole) from Boltzmann's equation. Subsequent application of Newton's second law of motion produces Debye's classical expression for the relaxation of an electric dipole in a viscous medium. (Author/GS)
Magnetic dipole oscillations and radiation damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stump, Daniel R.; Pollack, Gerald L.
1997-01-01
We consider the problem of radiation damping for a magnetic dipole oscillating in a magnetic field. An equation for the radiation reaction torque is derived, and the damping of the oscillations is described. Also discussed are runaway solutions for a rotating magnetic dipole moving under the influence of the reaction torque, with no external torque.
Classical and quantum interaction of the dipole
Anandan
2000-08-14
A unified and fully relativistic treatment of the interaction of the electric and magnetic dipole moments of a particle with the electromagnetic field is given. New forces on the particle due to the combined effect of electric and magnetic dipoles are obtained. Several new experiments are proposed, which include observation of topological phase shifts.
Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment
Kesner, Jay; Mauel, Michael
2013-03-10
Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier et al., Physics of Plasmas, 13 (2006) 056111]. High- beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability made LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment operating in the U.S. fusion program. A significant measure of progress in the LDX research program was the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole and the resulting observations of confinement improvement. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements were made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma was created by multi frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 GHz, 6.4 GHz, 10.5 GHz and 28 GHz allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole was levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature was estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities to approach 1e18 m^{-3}. We have found that levitation causes a strong inwards density pinch [Boxer et al., Nature Physics, 6 (2010) 207] and we have observed the central plasma density increase dramatically indicating a significant improvement in the confinement of a thermal plasma species.
High-field dipoles for future accelerators
Wipf, S.L.
1984-09-01
This report presents the concept for building superconducting accelerator dipoles with record high fields. Economic considerations favor the highest possible current density in the windings. Further discussion indicates that there is an optimal range of pinning strength for a superconducting material and that it is not likely for multifilamentary conductors to ever equal the potential performance of tape conductors. A dipole design with a tape-wound, inner high-field winding is suggested. Methods are detailed to avoid degradation caused by flux jumps and to overcome problems with the dipole ends. Concerns for force support structure and field precision are also addressed. An R and D program leading to a prototype 11-T dipole is outlined. Past and future importance of superconductivity to high-energy physics is evident from a short historical survey. Successful dipoles in the 10- to 20-T range will allow interesting options for upgrading present largest accelerators.
Dipole oscillator strengths, dipole properties and dispersion energies for SiF4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Mukesh; Meath, William J.
2003-01-01
A recommended isotropic dipole oscillator strength distribution (DOSD) has been constructed for the silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) molecule through the use of quantum mechanical constraint techniques and experimental dipole oscillator strength data. The constraints are furnished by experimental molar refractivity data and the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. The DOSD is used to evaluate a variety of isotropic dipole oscillator strength sums, logarithmic dipole oscillator strength sums and mean excitation energies for the molecule. A pseudo-DOSD for SiF4 is also presented which is used to obtain reliable results for the isotropic dipole-dipole dispersion energy coefficients C6, for the interaction of SiF4 with itself and with 43 other species and the triple-dipole dispersion energy coefficient C9 for (SiF4)3.
Dumbbell dipole model and its application in UXO discrimination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, K.; O'Neill, K.; Barrowes, B. E.; Fernández, J. P.; Shubitidze, F.; Shamatava, I.; Paulsen, K. D.
2006-05-01
Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) is one of the most promising techniques for UXO discrimination. Target discrimination is usually formulated as an inverse problem typically requiring fast forward models for efficiency. The most successful and widely applied EMI forward model is the simple dipole model, which works well for simple objects when the observation points are not close to the target. For complicated cases, a single dipole is not sufficient and a number of dipoles (displaced dipoles) has been suggested. However, once more than one dipole is needed, it is difficult to infer a unique set of model parameters from measurement data, which is usually limited. Inspired by the displaced dipole model, we developed the dumbbell dipole model, which consists of a special combination of dipoles. We placed a center dipole and two anti-symmetric side dipoles on the target axis. The center dipole functions like the traditional single dipole model and the two side dipoles provide the non-symmetric response of the target. When the distance between dipoles is small, this model is essentially a dipole plus a quadrupole. The advantage of the dumbbell model is that the model parameters can be inferred more easily from measurement data. The center dipole represents the main response of the target, the side dipoles act as additional backup in case a simple dipole is not sufficient. Regularization terms are applied so that the dumbbell dipole model automatically reduces to the simple dipole model in degenerate cases. Preliminary test shows that the dumbbell model can fit the measurement data better than the simple dipole model, and the inferred model parameters are unique for a given UXO. This suggests that the model parameters can be used as a discriminator for UXO. In this paper the dumbbell dipole model is introduced and its performance is compared with that of both the simple dipole model and the displaced dipole model.
Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment
Kesner, Jay; Mauel, Michael
2013-03-10
Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier, Phys. Plasmas, v13, p. 056111, 2006]. High-beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability makes LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment now operating in the U.S. fusion program. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements are made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole is levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature is estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities reach 1.0E18 (1/m3). Several significant discoveries resulted from the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole. For the first time, toroidal plasma with pressure approaching the pressure of the confining magnetic field was well-confined in steady-state without a toroidal magnetic field. Magnetic levitation proved to be reliable and is now routine. The dipole's cryostat allows up to three hours of "float time" between re-cooling with liquid helium and providing scientists unprecedented access to the physics of magnetizd plasma. Levitation eliminates field-aligned particle sources and sinks and results in a toroidal, magnetically-confined plasma where profiles are determined by cross
Dipole strength from first principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miorelli, Mirko; Bacca, Sonia; Barnea, Nir; Hagen, Gaute; Jansen, Gustav R.; Papenbrock, Thomas; Orlandini, Giuseppina
2016-09-01
The electric dipole polarizability quantifies the low-energy behavior of the dipole strength. It is related to the proton and neutron distributions of the nucleus, and thereby can be used to constrain the neutron equation of state and the physics of neutron stars. Only recently however, new developments in ab initio methods finally allowed first principles studies of the dipole strength in medium-mass nuclei. Using the Lorentz integral transform coupled cluster method with the newly developed chiral interaction NNLOsat we study the low energy behavior of the dipole strength in 4He, 16O and 22O. For the exotic 22O we observe large contributions to the dipole strength at very low energy, indicating the presence of a pygmy dipole resonance, in agreement with what experimentally found by Leistenschneider et al.. We then study correlations between the electric dipole polarizability and the charge radius in 16O and 40Ca using a variety of realistic Hamiltonians, showing the importance of three-nucleon forces. We aknowledge NRC and NSERC.
A Method to Calculate Protein Dipole Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mellor, Brett; Mazzeo, Brian
2009-10-01
The electric dipole moments of globular proteins, determined experimentally by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, contribute to both protein function and structure. Numerical computations of dipole moments can be obtained from structures in the Protein Data Bank. However, previous computations in literature have agreed with experimental results for only a limited number of proteins. This paper presents a method to compute the pH-dependent dipole moment. The protein molecule is considered as an array of electrical point charges in aqueous solution. The dipole moment is calculated as the vector sum of two components: (1)the core dipole moment which emerges from the unequal sharing of electrons in covalent bonds; (2)the surface charge dipole moment resulting from pH-dependent side chain partial charges. pKa shifts for each side chain amino acid are determined by the H++ server employing the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The net charge and dipole moment over a range of pH are calculated. The Oncley equation is used to predict the dielectric increment at arbitrary pH, temperature, and protein concentration.
Axion induced oscillating electric dipole moments
Hill, Christopher T.
2015-06-24
In this study, the axion electromagnetic anomaly induces an oscillating electric dipole for any magnetic dipole. This is a low energy theorem which is a consequence of the space-time dependent cosmic background field of the axion. The electron will acquire an oscillating electric dipole of frequency ma and strength ~ 10-32 e-cm, within four orders of magnitude of the present standard model DC limit, and two orders of magnitude above the nucleon, assuming standard axion model and dark matter parameters. This may suggest sensitive new experimental venues for the axion dark matter search.
Axion induced oscillating electric dipole moments
Hill, Christopher T.
2015-06-24
In this study, the axion electromagnetic anomaly induces an oscillating electric dipole for any magnetic dipole. This is a low energy theorem which is a consequence of the space-time dependent cosmic background field of the axion. The electron will acquire an oscillating electric dipole of frequency m_{a} and strength ~ 10^{-32} e-cm, within four orders of magnitude of the present standard model DC limit, and two orders of magnitude above the nucleon, assuming standard axion model and dark matter parameters. This may suggest sensitive new experimental venues for the axion dark matter search.
Formation number for vortex dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadri, Vahid; Krueger, Paul S.
2016-11-01
This investigation considers the axisymmetric formation of two opposite sign concentric vortex rings from jet ejection between concentric cylinders. This arrangement is similar to planar flow in that the vortex rings will travel together when the gap between the cylinders is small, similar to a vortex dipole, but it has the advantage that the vortex motion is less constrained than the planar case (vortex stretching and vortex line curvature is allowed). The flow was simulated numerically at a jet Reynolds number of 1,000 (based on ΔR and the jet velocity), jet pulse length-to-gap ratio (L / ΔR) in the range 10-20, and gap-to-outer radius ratio (ΔR /Ro) in the range 0.01-0.1. Small gap ratios were chosen for comparison with 2D results. In contrast with 2D results, the closely paired vortices in this study exhibited pinch-off from the generating flow and finite formation numbers. The more complex flow evolution afforded by the axisymmetric model and its influence on the pinch-off process will be discussed. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1133876 and SMU. This supports are gratefully acknowledged.
Coupled and uncoupled dipole models of nonlinear scattering.
Balla, Naveen K; Yew, Elijah Y S; Sheppard, Colin J R; So, Peter T C
2012-11-05
Dipole models are one of the simplest numerical models to understand nonlinear scattering. Existing dipole model for second harmonic generation, third harmonic generation and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering assume that the dipoles which make up a scatterer do not interact with one another. Thus, this dipole model can be called the uncoupled dipole model. This dipole model is not sufficient to describe the effects of refractive index of a scatterer or to describe scattering at the edges of a scatterer. Taking into account the interaction between dipoles overcomes these short comings of the uncoupled dipole model. Coupled dipole model has been primarily used for linear scattering studies but it can be extended to predict nonlinear scattering. The coupled and uncoupled dipole models have been compared to highlight their differences. Results of nonlinear scattering predicted by coupled dipole model agree well with previously reported experimental results.
Dipole-dipole induced global motion of Rydberg-dressed atom clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genkin, M.; Wüster, S.; Möbius, S.; Eisfeld, A.; Rost, J. M.
2014-05-01
We consider two clouds of ground-state alkali atoms in two distinct hyperfine ground states. Each level is far off-resonantly coupled to a Rydberg state, which leads to dressed ground states with a weak admixture of the Rydberg state properties. Due to this admixture, for a proper choice of the Rydberg states, the atoms experience resonant dipole-dipole interactions that induce mechanical forces acting on all atoms within both clouds. This behaviour is in contrast to the dynamics predicted for bare dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg superatoms, where only a single atom per cloud is subject to dipole-dipole induced motion (Möbius et al 2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 012716).
Magnetic dipole moments for composite dark matter
Aranda, Alfredo; Barajas, Luis; Cembranos, Jose A.R. E-mail: luisedua@buffalo.edu
2016-03-01
We study neutral dark matter candidates with a nonzero magnetic dipole moment. We assume that they are composite states of new fermions related to the strong phase of a new gauge interaction. In particular, invoking a dark flavor symmetry, we analyze the composition structure of viable candidates depending on the assignations of hypercharge and the multiplets associated to the fundamental constituents of the extended sector. We determine the magnetic dipole moments for the neutral composite states in terms of their constituents masses.
On the dipole moment of CO/+/.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Certain, P. R.; Woods, R. C.
1973-01-01
Results of self-consistent field calculations on neutral CO, its positive ion, and on neutral CN to verify an earlier estimate of the dipole moment of CO(+) in its ground super 2 Sigma state. Based on the above-mentioned calculations, direct evidence is obtained that the dipole moment (relative to the center of mass) is approximately 2.5 plus or minus 0.5 C, as previously determined by Kopelman and Klemperer (1962).
LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY WITH PARASITIC ELEMENTS
The design and measured characteristics of dipole and monopole versions of a log periodic array with parasitic elements are discussed. In a dipole...for the elements to obtain log periodic performance of the anntenna. This design with parasitic elements lends itself to a monopole version of the...antenna which has a simplified feeding configuration. The result is a log periodic antenna design that can be used from high frequencies through microwave frequencies.
Magnetic dipole interactions in crystals
Johnston, David
2016-01-13
The influence of magnetic dipole interactions (MDIs) on the magnetic properties of local-moment Heisenberg spin systems is investigated. A general formulation is presented for calculating the eigenvalues λ and eigenvectors μ ˆ of the MDI tensor of the magnetic dipoles in a line (one dimension, 1D), within a circle (2D) or a sphere (3D) of radius r surrounding a given moment μ → i for given magnetic propagation vectors k for collinear and coplanar noncollinear magnetic structures on both Bravais and non-Bravais spin lattices. Results are calculated for collinear ordering on 1D chains, 2D square and simple-hexagonal (triangular) Bravais lattices,more » 2D honeycomb and kagomé non-Bravais lattices, and 3D cubic Bravais lattices. The λ and μ ˆ values are compared with previously reported results. Calculations for collinear ordering on 3D simple tetragonal, body-centered tetragonal, and stacked triangular and honeycomb lattices are presented for c/a ratios from 0.5 to 3 in both graphical and tabular form to facilitate comparison of experimentally determined easy axes of ordering on these Bravais lattices with the predictions for MDIs. Comparisons with the easy axes measured for several illustrative collinear antiferromagnets (AFMs) are given. The calculations are extended to the cycloidal noncollinear 120 ° AFM ordering on the triangular lattice where λ is found to be the same as for collinear AFM ordering with the same k. The angular orientation of the ordered moments in the noncollinear coplanar AFM structure of GdB 4 with a distorted stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland spin-lattice geometry is calculated and found to be in disagreement with experimental observations, indicating the presence of another source of anisotropy. Similar calculations for the undistorted 2D and stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland lattices are reported. The thermodynamics of dipolar magnets are calculated using the Weiss molecular field theory for quantum spins, including the magnetic
Magnetic dipole interactions in crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, David C.
2016-01-01
The influence of magnetic dipole interactions (MDIs) on the magnetic properties of local-moment Heisenberg spin systems is investigated. A general formulation is presented for calculating the eigenvalues λ and eigenvectors μ ̂ of the MDI tensor of the magnetic dipoles in a line (one dimension, 1D), within a circle (2D) or a sphere (3D) of radius r surrounding a given moment μ⃗i for given magnetic propagation vectors k for collinear and coplanar noncollinear magnetic structures on both Bravais and non-Bravais spin lattices. Results are calculated for collinear ordering on 1D chains, 2D square and simple-hexagonal (triangular) Bravais lattices, 2D honeycomb and kagomé non-Bravais lattices, and 3D cubic Bravais lattices. The λ and μ ̂ values are compared with previously reported results. Calculations for collinear ordering on 3D simple tetragonal, body-centered tetragonal, and stacked triangular and honeycomb lattices are presented for c /a ratios from 0.5 to 3 in both graphical and tabular form to facilitate comparison of experimentally determined easy axes of ordering on these Bravais lattices with the predictions for MDIs. Comparisons with the easy axes measured for several illustrative collinear antiferromagnets (AFMs) are given. The calculations are extended to the cycloidal noncollinear 120∘ AFM ordering on the triangular lattice where λ is found to be the same as for collinear AFM ordering with the same k. The angular orientation of the ordered moments in the noncollinear coplanar AFM structure of GdB4 with a distorted stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland spin-lattice geometry is calculated and found to be in disagreement with experimental observations, indicating the presence of another source of anisotropy. Similar calculations for the undistorted 2D and stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland lattices are reported. The thermodynamics of dipolar magnets are calculated using the Weiss molecular field theory for quantum spins, including the magnetic transition
Magnetic dipole interactions in crystals
Johnston, David
2016-01-13
The influence of magnetic dipole interactions (MDIs) on the magnetic properties of local-moment Heisenberg spin systems is investigated. A general formulation is presented for calculating the eigenvalues λ and eigenvectors μ ˆ of the MDI tensor of the magnetic dipoles in a line (one dimension, 1D), within a circle (2D) or a sphere (3D) of radius r surrounding a given moment μ ^{→}_{ i} for given magnetic propagation vectors k for collinear and coplanar noncollinear magnetic structures on both Bravais and non-Bravais spin lattices. Results are calculated for collinear ordering on 1D chains, 2D square and simple-hexagonal (triangular) Bravais lattices, 2D honeycomb and kagomé non-Bravais lattices, and 3D cubic Bravais lattices. The λ and μ ˆ values are compared with previously reported results. Calculations for collinear ordering on 3D simple tetragonal, body-centered tetragonal, and stacked triangular and honeycomb lattices are presented for c/a ratios from 0.5 to 3 in both graphical and tabular form to facilitate comparison of experimentally determined easy axes of ordering on these Bravais lattices with the predictions for MDIs. Comparisons with the easy axes measured for several illustrative collinear antiferromagnets (AFMs) are given. The calculations are extended to the cycloidal noncollinear 120 ° AFM ordering on the triangular lattice where λ is found to be the same as for collinear AFM ordering with the same k. The angular orientation of the ordered moments in the noncollinear coplanar AFM structure of GdB _{4} with a distorted stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland spin-lattice geometry is calculated and found to be in disagreement with experimental observations, indicating the presence of another source of anisotropy. Similar calculations for the undistorted 2D and stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland lattices are reported. The thermodynamics of dipolar magnets are calculated using the Weiss molecular field theory for quantum spins
A Dipole Assisted IEC Neutron Source
Prajakti Joshi Shrestha
2005-11-28
A potential opportunity to enhance Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion exists by augmenting it with a magnetic dipole configuration. The theory is that the dipole fields will enhance the plasma density in the center region of the IEC and the combined IEC and dipole confinement properties will reduce plasma losses. To demonstrate that a hybrid Dipole-IEC configuration can provide an improved neutron source vs. a stand alone IEC, a first model Dipole-IEC experiment was benchmarked against a reference IEC. A triple Langmuir probe was used to find the electron temperature and density. It was found that the magnetic field increases the electron density by a factor of 16, the electron temperature decreases in the presence of a magnetic field, the discharge voltage decreases in the presence of a magnetic field, the potential of the dipole strongly influences the densities obtained in the center. The experimental set-up and plasma diagnostics are discussed in detail, as well as the results, and the developmental issues.
Dipole-moment-driven cooperative supramolecular polymerization.
Kulkarni, Chidambar; Bejagam, Karteek K; Senanayak, Satyaprasad P; Narayan, K S; Balasubramanian, S; George, Subi J
2015-03-25
While the mechanism of self-assembly of π-conjugated molecules has been well studied to gain control over the structure and functionality of supramolecular polymers, the intermolecular interactions underpinning it are poorly understood. Here, we study the mechanism of self-assembly of perylene bisimide derivatives possessing dipolar carbonate groups as linkers. It was observed that the combination of carbonate linkers and cholesterol/dihydrocholesterol self-assembling moieties led to a cooperative mechanism of self-assembly. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of an assembly in explicit solvent strongly suggest that the dipole-dipole interaction between the carbonate groups imparts a macro-dipolar character to the assembly. This is confirmed experimentally through the observation of a significant polarization in the bulk phase for molecules following a cooperative mechanism. The cooperativity is attributed to the presence of dipole-dipole interaction in the assembly. Thus, anisotropic long-range intermolecular interactions such as dipole-dipole interaction can serve as a way to obtain cooperative self-assembly and aid in rationalizing and predicting the mechanisms in various synthetic supramolecular polymers.
electric dipole superconductor in bilayer exciton system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Qing-Dong; Bao, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, X. C.
Recently, it was reported that the bilayer exciton systems could exhibit many new phenomena, including the large bilayer counterflow conductivity, the Coulomb drag, etc. These phenomena imply the formation of exciton condensate superfluid state. On the other hand, it is now well known that the superconductor is the condensate superfluid state of the Cooper pairs, which can be viewed as electric monopoles. In other words, the superconductor state is the electric monopole condensate superfluid state. Thus, one may wonder whether there exists electric dipole superfluid state. In this talk, we point out that the exciton in a bilayer system can be considered as a charge neutral electric dipole. And we derive the London-type and Ginzburg-Landau-type equations of electric dipole superconductivity. From these equations, we discover the Meissner-type effect (against spatial variation of magnetic fields), and the dipole current Josephson effect. The frequency in the AC Josephson effect of the dipole current is equal to that in the normal (monopole) superconductor. These results can provide direct evidence for the formation of exciton superfluid state in the bilayer systems and pave new ways to obtain the electric dipole current. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by NBRP of China (2012CB921303 and 2015CB921102) and NSF-China under Grants Nos. 11274364 and 11574007.
Direct summation of dipole-dipole interactions using the Wolf formalism.
Stenqvist, Björn; Trulsson, Martin; Abrikosov, Alexei I; Lund, Mikael
2015-07-07
We present an expanded Wolf formalism for direct summation of long-range dipole-dipole interactions and rule-of-thumbs how to choose optimal spherical cutoff (Rc) and damping parameter (α). This is done by comparing liquid radial distribution functions, dipole-dipole orientation correlations, particle energies, and dielectric constants, with Ewald sums and the Reaction field method. The resulting rule states that ασ < 1 and αRc > 3 for reduced densities around ρ(∗) = 1 where σ is the particle size. Being a pair potential, the presented approach scales linearly with system size and is applicable to simulations involving point dipoles such as the Stockmayer fluid and polarizable water models.
Plasmon-Induced Resonant Energy Transfer: a coherent dipole-dipole coupling mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bristow, Alan D.; Cushing, Scott K.; Li, Jiangtian; Wu, Nianqiang
Metal-insulator-semiconductor core-shell nanoparticles have been used to demonstrate a dipole-dipole coupling mechanism that is entirely dependent on the dephasing time of the localized plasmonic resonance. Consequently, the short-time scale of the plasmons leads to broad energy uncertainty that allows for excitation of charge carriers in the semiconductor via stimulation of photons with energies below the energy band gap. In addition, this coherent energy transfer process overcomes interfacial losses often associated with direct charge transfer. This work explores the efficiency of the energy transfer process, the dipole-dipole coupling strength with dipole separation, shell thickness and plasmonic resonance overlap. We demonstrate limits where the coherent nature of the coupling is switched off and charge transfer processes can dominate. Experiments are performed using transient absorption spectroscopy. Results are compared to calculations using a quantum master equation. These nanostructures show strong potential for improving solar light-harvesting for power and fuel generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roostaei, B.; Ermler, W. C.
2012-03-01
A procedure for calculating electric dipole transition moments and permanent dipole moments from spin-orbit configuration interaction (SOCI) wave functions has been developed in the context of the COLUMBUS ab initio electronic structure programs. The SOCI procedure requires relativistic effective core potentials and their corresponding spin-orbit coupling operators to define the molecular Hamiltonian, electric dipole transition moment and permanent dipole moment matrices. The procedure can be used for any molecular system for which the COLUMBUS SOCI circuits are applicable. Example applications are reported for transition moments and dipole moments for a series of electronic states of LiBe and LiSr defined in diatomic relativistic ωω-coupling.
Sound scattering by a vortex dipole.
Naugolnykh, Konstantin
2013-04-01
Sound scattering by a system of two counter-rotating vortices (Lamb dipole) is considered, using the effective approach of Pitaevskii [J. Exp. Theor. Phys (USSR) 35, 1271-1275 (1958); Sov. Phys. JETP 85, 888-890 (1959)], based on application of the asymptotic representation of the scattering Green function, the Dirac delta function modeling of the vortex, and the Fourier transformation of the vector of scattering. The sound frequency is supposed to be low. The directivity pattern of the radiation, scattered by the Lamb dipole is obtained. There is no singularity in scattering field in this case as it must be for the vorticity with zero circulation, so the dipole is a more appropriate object for the approximation used.
Bunched beam longitudinal instability: Coherent dipole motion
Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.
1993-04-23
In this paper, the authors present a new formulation for the longitudinal coherent dipole motion, where a quadrature response of the environmental impedance is shown to be the effective longitudinal impedance for the beam instability. The Robinson-Pedersen formulation for the longitudinal dipole motion is also presented, the difference of the two approaches is discussed in the comparison. The results by using the Sacherer integral equation for the coherent dipole motion can generate the same results as by using the other two approaches, except for a scaling difference. The formulation is further generalized to the rigid bunch motion using signal analysis method, where a form factor shows up naturally. Finally, the formulation is applied to solve the coupled bunch instabilities. Examples of the AGS Booster and the AGS coupled bunch instabilities are used to illustrate the applications of the formulation.
Thermodynamics of systems of aligned dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daily, K. M.; Blume, D.
2013-05-01
The high-temperature thermodynamics of two-component Fermi gases with interspecies s-wave scattering length is well described by the virial equation of state. This work determines the virial equation of state of weakly-interacting dipolar Bose and Fermi gases under external spherically symmetric confinement. The second-order virial coefficients for two identical dipolar bosons, two identical dipolar fermions and two distinguishable dipoles are calculated from the trap energy spectra. Away from resonance, we employ the Born approximation and find that the virial coefficient for two identical fermions depends quadratically on the dipole length. This suggests that dipolar effects are suppressed in the high temperature limit. Fine tuning the scattering properties of two identical fermions, we identify conditions in which the second-order virial coefficient depends linearly on the dipole length. Analytical expressions are derived and corroborated by numerical calculations. We acknowledge support from the NSF.
Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Luu, Minh Vu; Reno, Mary Hall
2014-11-01
Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the parametrizations of F 2(ξ = x or W 2 , Q 2) by Donnachie-Landshoff and Block et al., we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way reproduces the original structure function within about 10% for 0 .1 GeV2 ≤ Q 2 ≤10 GeV2. We discuss the dipole cross section at large and small dipole sizes and compare our results with other parametrizations.
Photoelectron spectroscopy and the dipole approximation
Hemmers, O.; Hansen, D.L.; Wang, H.
1997-04-01
Photoelectron spectroscopy is a powerful technique because it directly probes, via the measurement of photoelectron kinetic energies, orbital and band structure in valence and core levels in a wide variety of samples. The technique becomes even more powerful when it is performed in an angle-resolved mode, where photoelectrons are distinguished not only by their kinetic energy, but by their direction of emission as well. Determining the probability of electron ejection as a function of angle probes the different quantum-mechanical channels available to a photoemission process, because it is sensitive to phase differences among the channels. As a result, angle-resolved photoemission has been used successfully for many years to provide stringent tests of the understanding of basic physical processes underlying gas-phase and solid-state interactions with radiation. One mainstay in the application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is the well-known electric-dipole approximation for photon interactions. In this simplification, all higher-order terms, such as those due to electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole interactions, are neglected. As the photon energy increases, however, effects beyond the dipole approximation become important. To best determine the range of validity of the dipole approximation, photoemission measurements on a simple atomic system, neon, where extra-atomic effects cannot play a role, were performed at BL 8.0. The measurements show that deviations from {open_quotes}dipole{close_quotes} expectations in angle-resolved valence photoemission are observable for photon energies down to at least 0.25 keV, and are quite significant at energies around 1 keV. From these results, it is clear that non-dipole angular-distribution effects may need to be considered in any application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy that uses x-ray photons of energies as low as a few hundred eV.
Waves in space plasma dipole antenna subsystem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomson, Mark
1993-01-01
The Waves In Space Plasma (WISP) flight experiment requires a 50-meter-long deployable dipole antenna subsystem (DASS) to radiate radio frequencies from the STS Orbiter cargo bay. The transmissions are to excite outer ionospheric plasma between the dipole and a free-flying receiver (Spartan) for scientific purposes. This report describes the singular DASS design requirements and how the resulting design satisfies them. A jettison latch is described in some detail. The latch releases the antenna in case of any problems which might prevent the bay doors from closing for re-entry and landing of the Orbiter.
The viscous modulation of Lamb's dipole vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Fliert, B. W.
1996-07-01
A description of the adiabatic decay of the Lamb dipolar vortex is motivated by a variational characterization of the dipole. The parameters in the description are the values of the entrophy and linear momentum integrals, which change in time due to the dissipation. It is observed that the dipole dilates during the decay process [radius R˜(νt)1/2], while the amplitude of the vortex and its translation speed diminish in time proportional to (νt)-3/2 and (νt)-1.
Dipole-dipole interaction in a quantum dot and metallic nanorod hybrid system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Mahi R.; Schindel, Daniel G.; Hatef, Ali
2011-10-01
We have studied quantum coherence and interference phenomena in a quantum dot (QD)-metallic nanorod (MNR) hybrid system. Probe and control laser fields are applied to the hybrid system. Induced dipole moments are created in the QD and the MNR, and they interact with each other via the dipole-dipole interaction. Using the density matrix method, it was found that the power spectrum of MNR has two transparent, states and they can be switched to one transparent state by the control field. Ultrafast switching and sensing nanodevices could be produced using this model.
Electromagnetic Force on a Moving Dipole
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Missevitch, Oleg V.; Yarman, T.
2011-01-01
We analyse the force acting on a moving dipole due to an external electromagnetic field and show that the expression derived in Vekstein (1997 "Eur. J. Phys." 18 113) is erroneous and suggest the correct equation for the description of this force. We also discuss the physical meaning of the relativistic transformation of current for a closed…
The Case of the Disappearing Magnetic Dipole
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gough, W.
2008-01-01
The problem of an oscillating magnetic dipole at the centre of a lossless dielectric spherical shell is considered. For simplicity, the free-space wavelength is taken to be much greater than the shell radii, but the relative permittivity [epsilon][subscript r] of the shell is taken as much greater than unity, so the wavelength in the shell could…
Hertzian Dipole Radiation over Isotropic Magnetodielectric Substrates
2015-03-01
public release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This report investigates dipole antennas printed on grounded...engineering of thin planar antennas . Since these materials often require complicated constitutive equations to describe their properties rigorously, the...material properties and substrate thickness. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Magnetodielectrics, planar antennas , boundary value problems, contour integration, branch
A Microstrip Reflect Array Using Crossed Dipoles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pozar, David M.; Targonski, Stephen D.
1998-01-01
Microstrip reflect arrays offer a flat profile and light weight, combined with many of the electrical characteristics of reflector antennas. Previous work [1]-[7] has demonstrated a variety of microstrip reflect arrays, using different elements at a range of frequencies. In this paper we describe the use of crossed dipoles as reflecting elements in a microstrip reflectarray. Theory of the solution will be described, with experimental results for a 6" square reflectarray operating at 28 GHz. The performance of crossed dipoles will be directly compared with microstrip patches, in terms of bandwidth and loss. We also comment on the principle of operation of reflectarray elements, including crossed dipoles, patches of variable length, and patch elements with tuning stubs. This research was prompted by the proposed concept of overlaying a flat printed reflectarray on the surface of a spacecraft solar panel. Combining solar panel and antenna apertures in this way would lead to a reduction in weight and simpler deployment, with some loss of flexibility in independently pointing the solar panel and the antenna. Using crossed dipoles as reflectarray elements will minimize the aperture blockage of the solar cells, in contrast to the use of elements such as microstrip patches.
Conceptual design of Dipole Research Experiment (DREX)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qingmei, XIAO; Zhibin, WANG; Xiaogang, WANG; Chijie, XIAO; Xiaoyi, YANG; Jinxing, ZHENG
2017-03-01
A new terrella-like device for laboratory simulation of inner magnetosphere plasmas, Dipole Research Experiment, is scheduled to be built at the Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), China, as a major state scientific research facility for space physics studies. It is designed to provide a ground experimental platform to reproduce the inner magnetosphere to simulate the processes of trapping, acceleration, and transport of energetic charged particles restrained in a dipole magnetic field configuration. The scaling relation of hydromagnetism between the laboratory plasma of the device and the geomagnetosphere plasma is applied to resemble geospace processes in the Dipole Research Experiment plasma. Multiple plasma sources, different kinds of coils with specific functions, and advanced diagnostics are designed to be equipped in the facility for multi-functions. The motivation, design criteria for the Dipole Research Experiment experiments and the means applied to generate the plasma of desired parameters in the laboratory are also described. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11505040, 11261140326 and 11405038), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Nos. 2016M591518, 2015M570283) and Project Supported by Natural Scientific Research Innovation Foundation in Harbin Institute of Technology (No. 2017008).
Conductor Development for High Field Dipole Magnets
Scanlan, R.M.; Dietderich, D.R.; Higley, H.C.
2000-03-01
Historically, improvements in dipole magnet performance have been paced by improvements in the superconductor available for use in these magnets. The critical conductor performance parameters for dipole magnets include current density, piece length, effective filament size, and cost. Each of these parameters is important for efficient, cost effective dipoles, with critical current density being perhaps the most important. Several promising magnet designs for the next hadron collider or a muon collider require fields of 12 T or higber, i.e. beyond the reach of NbTi. The conductor options include Nb{sub 3}Sn, Nb{sub 3}Al, or the high temperature superconductors. Although these conductors have the potential to provide the combination of performance and cost required, none of them have been developed sufficiently at this point to satisfy all the requirements. This paper will review the status of each class of advanced conductor and discuss the remaining problems that require solutions before these new conductors can be considered as practical. In particular, the plans for a new program to develop Nb{sub 3}Sn and Nb{sub 3}Al conductors for high energy physics applications will be presented. Also, the development of a multikiloamp Bi-2212 cable for dipole magnet applications will be reported.
Whistler-Mode Radiation from a Dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, H. G.
1999-01-01
Bistatic observations of an active dipole in a space plasma were made during the suborbital tethered experiment OEDIPUS C, carried out on a sounding rocket flight in late 1995. Throughout the flight, whistler-mode waves were transmitted at 25 kHz from a 19-m dipole on the forward payload to a 13-m dipole on the aft payload. This frequency was very much less than the plasma frequency fp, which in turn lay well below the gyrofrequency fc for most of the flight. The change of fp with time caused the receiver position to be swept through the 25-kHz group resonance cone during a segment of the flight. Signal strengths were found to be enhanced along the group cone, as predicted by theory. Observed radiated levels are about a hundred times greater than theoretical predictions based on independent estimates of the driving-point current. The modulation of the received signal caused by the spin of the receiving dipole was consistent with the theoretical expectation that the quasielectrostatic electric field is polarized predominantly along the wave-vector direction
Dipole nano-laser: Theory and properties
Ghannam, T.
2014-03-31
In this paper we outline the main quantum properties of the system of nano-based laser called Dipole Nano-Laser emphasizing mainly on its ability to produce coherent light and for different configurations such as different embedding materials and subjecting it to an external classical electric field.
BKT phase transition in a 2D system with long-range dipole-dipole interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedichev, P. O.; Men'shikov, L. I.
2012-01-01
We consider phase transitions in 2D XY-like systems with long-range dipole-dipole interactions and demonstrate that BKT-type phase transition always occurs separating the ordered (ferroelectric) and the disordered (paraelectric) phases. The low-temperature phase corresponds to a thermal state with bound vortex-antivortex pairs characterized by linear attraction at large distances. Using the Maier-Schwabl topological charge model, we show that bound vortex pairs polarize and screen the vortex-antivortex interaction, leaving only the logarithmic attraction at sufficiently large separations between the vortices. At higher temperatures the pairs dissociate and the phase transition similar to BKT occurs, though at a larger temperature than in a system without the dipole-dipole interaction.
Master equation with quantized atomic motion including dipole-dipole interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damanet, François; Braun, Daniel; Martin, John
2016-05-01
We derive a markovian master equation for the internal dynamics of an ensemble of two-level atoms including all effects related to the quantization of their motion. Our equation provides a unifying picture of the consequences of recoil and indistinguishability of atoms beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime on both their dissipative and conservative dynamics, and is relevant for experiments with ultracold trapped atoms. We give general expressions for the decay rates and the dipole-dipole shifts for any motional states, and we find analytical formulas for a number of relevant states (Gaussian states, Fock states and thermal states). In particular, we show that the dipole-dipole interactions and cooperative photon emission can be modulated through the external state of motion. The effects predicted should be experimentally observable with Rydberg atoms. FD would like to thank the F.R.S.-FNRS for financial support. FD is a FRIA Grant holder of the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique-FNRS.
Competition between finite-size effects and dipole-dipole interactions in few-atom systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damanet, François; Martin, John
2016-11-01
In this paper, we study the competition between finite-size effects (i.e. discernibility of particles) and dipole-dipole interactions in few-atom systems coupled to the electromagnetic field in vacuum. We consider two hallmarks of cooperative effects, superradiance and subradiance, and compute for each the rate of energy radiated by the atoms and the coherence of the atomic state during the time evolution. We adopt a statistical approach in order to extract the typical behaviour of the atomic dynamics and average over random atomic distributions in spherical containers with prescribed {k}0R with k 0 the radiation wavenumber and R the average interatomic distance. Our approach allows us to highlight the tradeoff between finite-size effects and dipole-dipole interactions in superradiance/subradiance. In particular, we show the existence of an optimal value of {k}0R for which the superradiant intensity and coherence pulses are the less affected by dephasing effects induced by dipole-dipole interactions and finite-size effects.
The Antarctic dipole and its predictability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Xiaojun; Martinson, Douglas G.
This study investigates the nature of interannual variability of Antarctic sea ice and its relationship with the tropical climate. We find that the dominant interannual variance structure in the sea ice edge and surface air temperature fields is organized as a quasi-stationary wave which we call the “Antarctic Dipole” (ADP). It is characterized by an out-of-phase relationship between the ice and temperature anomalies in the central/eastern Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Antarctic. The dipole consists of a strong standing mode and a weaker propagating motion within each basin's ice field. It has the same wavelength as the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave (ACW) and dominates the ACW variance. The dipole is clearly associated with tropical ENSO events; it can be predicted with moderate skill using linear regression involving surface temperature two to four months ahead. The prediction performs better in extreme warm/cold years, and best in La Niña years.
Generation of squeezing: magnetic dipoles on cantilevers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seok, Hyojun; Singh, Swati; Steinke, Steven; Meystre, Pierre
2011-05-01
We investigate the generation of motional squeezed states in a nano-mechanical cantilever. Our model system consists of a nanoscale cantilever - whose center-of-mass motion is initially cooled to its quantum mechanical ground state - magnetically coupled a classically driven mechanical tuning fork. We show that the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction can produce significant phonon squeezing of the center-of-mass motion of the cantilever, and evaluate the effect of various dissipation channels, including the coupling of the cantilever to a heat bath and phase and amplitude fluctuations in the oscillating field driving the tuning fork. US National Science Foundation, the US Army Research Office, DARPA ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.
Revisiting the NVSS number count dipole
Tiwari, Prabhakar; Nusser, Adi E-mail: adi@physics.technion.ac.il
2016-03-01
We present a realistic modeling of the dipole component of the projected sky distribution of NVSS radio galaxies. The modeling relies on mock catalogs generated within the context of ΛCDM cosmology, in the linear regime of structure formation. After removing the contribution from the solar motion, the mocks show that the remaining observed signal is mostly (70%) due to structures within z ∼< 0.1. The amplitude of the model signal depends on the bias factor b of the NVSS mock galaxies. For sources with flux density, S > 15 mJy, the bias recipe inferred from higher order moments is consistent with the observed dipole signal at 2.12σ. Flux thresholds above 20 mJy yield a disagreement close to the 3σ level. A constant high bias, b = 3 is needed to mitigate the tension to the ∼ 2.3σ level.
The midpoint between dipole and parton showers
Höche, Stefan; Prestel, Stefan
2015-09-28
We present a new parton-shower algorithm. Borrowing from the basic ideas of dipole cascades, the evolution variable is judiciously chosen as the transverse momentum in the soft limit. This leads to a very simple analytic structure of the evolution. A weighting algorithm is implemented that allows one to consistently treat potentially negative values of the splitting functions and the parton distributions. Thus, we provide two independent, publicly available implementations for the two event generators PYTHIA and SHERPA.
Pygmy dipole response in 238U nucleus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guliyev, Ekber; Kuliev, Ali Akbar; Quliyev, Huseynqulu
2017-02-01
The presence of the El pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in the actinide nucleus 238U was shown via QRPA. Below the particle threshold energy, 24 excitation states were calculated. The calculations, is demonstrating the presence of a PDR with evidence for K splitting. The calculations further suggest that the PDR in 238U is predominantly K=0. The obtained results show universality of the PDR in atomic nuclei.
Toroidal Dipole Moment of a Massless Neutrino
Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.; Mondragon, M.; Perez, E. Reyes
2009-04-20
We obtain the toroidal dipole moment of a massless neutrino {tau}{sub v{sub I}}{sup M} using the results for the anapole moment of a massless Dirac neutrino a{sub v{sub I}}{sup D}, which was obtained in the context of the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions (SM)SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y}.
Electric dipole moment of light nuclei
Gibson, Benjamin; Afnan, I R
2010-01-01
We examine the sensitivity of the deuteron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) to variation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In particular, we write the EDM as a sum of two terms, one depends on the target wave function, the second on intermediate multiple scattering states in the {sup 3}P{sub 1} channel. This second contribution is sensitive to off-shell behavior of the {sup 3}P{sub 1} amplitude.
Single-layer high field dipole magnets
Vadim V. Kashikhin and Alexander V. Zlobin
2001-07-30
Fermilab is developing high field dipole magnets for post-LHC hadron colliders. Several designs with a nominal field of 10-12 T, coil bore size of 40-50 mm based on both shell-type and block-type coil geometry are currently under consideration. This paper presents a new approach to magnet design, based on simple and robust single-layer coils optimized for the maximum field, good field quality and minimum number of turns.
Search for the electron electric dipole moment
De Mille, D.; Bickman, S.; Hamilton, P.; Jiang, Y.; Prasad, V.; Kawall, D.; Paolino, R.
2006-07-11
Extensions to the Standard Model (SM) typically include new heavy particles and new mechanisms for CP violation. These underlying phenomena can give rise to electric dipole moments of the electron and other particles. Tabletop-scale experiments used to search for these effects are described. Present experiments are already sensitive to new physics at the TeV scale, and new methods could extend this range dramatically. Such experiments could be among the first to show evidence for physics beyond the SM.
Trapped field internal dipole superconducting motor generator
Hull, John R.
2001-01-01
A motor generator including a high temperature superconductor rotor and an internally disposed coil assembly. The motor generator superconductor rotor is constructed of a plurality of superconductor elements magnetized to produce a dipole field. The coil assembly can be either a conventional conductor or a high temperature superconductor. The superconductor rotor elements include a magnetization direction and c-axis for the crystals of the elements and which is oriented along the magnetization direction.
Local electric dipole moments: A generalized approach.
Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen
2016-09-30
We present an approach for calculating local electric dipole moments for fragments of molecular or supramolecular systems. This is important for understanding chemical gating and solvent effects in nanoelectronics, atomic force microscopy, and intensities in infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the nonzero partial charge of most fragments, "naively" defined local dipole moments are origin-dependent. Inspired by previous work based on Bader's atoms-in-molecules (AIM) partitioning, we derive a definition of fragment dipole moments which achieves origin-independence by relying on internal reference points. Instead of bond critical points (BCPs) as in existing approaches, we use as few reference points as possible, which are located between the fragment and the remainder(s) of the system and may be chosen based on chemical intuition. This allows our approach to be used with AIM implementations that circumvent the calculation of critical points for reasons of computational efficiency, for cases where no BCPs are found due to large interfragment distances, and with local partitioning schemes other than AIM which do not provide BCPs. It is applicable to both covalently and noncovalently bound systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dynamics of two-dimensional dipole systems
Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Hartmann, Peter; Donko, Zoltan
2010-09-15
Using a combined analytical/molecular dynamics approach, we study the current fluctuation spectra and longitudinal and transverse collective mode dispersions of the classical two-dimensional (point) dipole system (2DDS) characterized by the {phi}{sub D}(r)={mu}{sup 2}/r{sup 3} repulsive interaction potential; {mu} is the electric dipole strength. The interest in the 2DDS is twofold. First, the quasi-long-range 1/r{sup 3} interaction makes the system a unique classical many-body system, with a remarkable collective mode behavior. Second, the system may be a good model for a closely spaced semiconductor electron-hole bilayer, a system that is in the forefront of current experimental interest. The longitudinal collective excitations, which are of primary interest for the liquid phase, are acoustic at long wavelengths. At higher wave numbers and for sufficiently high coupling strength, we observe the formation of a deep minimum in the dispersion curve preceded by a sharp maximum; this is identical to what has been observed in the dispersion of the zero-temperature bosonic dipole system, which in turn emulates so-called roton-maxon excitation spectrum of the superfluid {sup 4}He. The analysis we present gives an insight into the emergence of this apparently universal structure, governed by strong correlations. We study both the liquid and the crystalline solid state. We also observe the excitation of combination frequencies, resembling the roton-roton, roton-maxon, etc. structures in {sup 4}He.
Sextupole correction coils for SSC model dipoles
Rechen, J.B.; Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.V.
1985-05-01
Local correction of the sextupole error field is proposed for the dipoles of the SSC. This requirement is imposed on the design by the high field quality required both during injection at low fields and during colliding beam operation at high fields. Error fields in the main dipole windings due to superconductor magnetization and conductor misplacements and unwanted sextupole and decapole magnetic field terms. To correct the sextupole error field we have constructed sextupole coils made of a single layer of superconducting wire and have mounted them with high precision on the stainless steel bore tube. These correction coils have been operated with 1 meter long SSC model dipoles in both the self-powered and externally-powered modes. The sextupole field in the bore has been reduced by as much as a factor of 50. The level of correction depends strongly on the angular alignment of the correction coil with respect to the sextupole error field it is to correct. Results of tests, performance of the correction coils and alignment requirements for the system are presented.
Bent Solenoids with Superimposed Dipole Fields
Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.
2000-03-21
A conceptual design and manufacturing technique were developed for a superconducting bent solenoid magnet with a superimposed dipole field that would be used as a dispersion device in the cooling channel of a future Muon Collider. The considered bent solenoid is equivalent to a 180° section of a toroid with a major radius of ~610 mm and a coil aperture of ~416 mm. The required field components of this magnet are 4 tesla for the solenoid field and 1 tesla for the superimposed dipole field. A magnet of this size and shape, operating at these field levels, has to sustain large Lorentz forces resulting in a maximum magnetic pressure of about 2,000 psi. A flexible round mini-cable with 37 strands of Cu-NbTi was selected as the superconductor. Detailed magnetic analysis showed that it is possible to obtain the required superimposed dipole field by tilting the winding planes of the solenoid by ~25°. A complete structural analysis of the coil support system and the helium containment vessel under thermal, pressure, and Lorentz force loads was carried out using 3D finite element models of the structures. The main technical issues were studied and solutions were worked out so that a highly reliable magnet of this type can be produced at an affordable cost.
Joint inversion of Wenner and dipole-dipole data to study a gasoline-contaminated soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Vega, Matías; Osella, Ana; Lascano, Eugenia
2003-11-01
The goal of this work was to study a contaminated soil due to a gasoline spill produced by fissures in a concrete purge chamber located along a gas transmission line. A monitoring well drilled 16 m down gradient from the purge chamber revealed the presence of a gasoline layer of 0.5 m thick at 1.5 m depth, floating on top of the water table. A second well, drilled 30 m away from the first well, and in the same direction, did not show any evidence of contamination. To investigate this problem, a geoelectrical survey was conducted, combining dipole-dipole and Wenner arrays. First, four dipole-dipole profiles in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis joining the wells were carried out. The electrical tomographies obtained from the 2D inversion of the data showed that the contaminated region was characterized by a resistive plume located at a depth between 1 to 2 m and had lateral extent of about 6-8 m. The longitudinal extension was less than 20 m, since the last profile located 30 m farther from the chamber did not show this kind of anomaly. To better determine the longitudinal extension, we performed a dipole-dipole profile along a line in this direction. The inverse model confirmed that the extension of the contaminated section was about 16 m. To complete the study of the deeper layer, we carried out Wenner soundings. The results of the inversion process indicated that to a depth of 20 m the soil was very conductive, because of the presence of clays as the main constituents, which confine the contaminant within this impermeable surrounding. To improve the inverse model, we performed a joint inversion of dipole-dipole and Wenner data. Analysis of the depth of penetration showed that it increased to 25 m and comparing the resulting model with the ones obtained from each array separately, we concluded that the joint inversion improves the depth obtained by the survey, while maintaining the shallow lateral resolution.
Passive synchronization of finite dipoles in a doubly periodic domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou; Kanso, Eva
2012-11-01
We consider the interaction dynamics of finite dipoles in a doubly periodic domain. A finite dipole is a pair of equal and opposite strength point vortices separated by a finite distance throughout its time evolution. The finite dipole dynamical system has been proposed as a model that captures the far-field hydrodynamics interactions in fish schools or collections of swimming bodies in an inviscid fluid. In this work, we formulate the equations of motion governing the dynamics of finite dipoles in a doubly periodic domain. We show that a single dipole in a doubly-periodic box exhibits either regular or chaotic behavior, depending on the initial angle of orientation of the dipole. In the case of the two dipoles, we identify a variety of interesting interaction modes including collision, switching, and passive synchronization of the dipoles. In the case of three dipoles, we observe the formation of relative equilibrium in finite time when the dipoles move together in a way reminiscent to that of flocking behavior.
Probing the Lipid Membrane Dipole Potential by Atomic Force Microscopy
Yang, Yi; Mayer, Kathryn M.; Wickremasinghe, Nissanka S.; Hafner, Jason H.
2008-01-01
The electrostatic properties of biological membranes can be described by three parameters: the transmembrane potential, the membrane surface potential, and the membrane dipole potential. The first two are well characterized in terms of their magnitudes and biological effects. The dipole potential, however, is not well characterized. Various methods to measure the membrane dipole potential indirectly yield different values, and there is not even agreement on the source of the membrane dipole moment. This ambiguity impedes investigations into the biological effects of the membrane dipole moment, which should be substantial considering the large interfacial fields with which it is associated. Electrostatic analysis of phosphatidylcholine lipid membranes with the atomic force microscope reveals a repulsive force between the negatively charged probe tips and the zwitterionic lipids. This unexpected interaction has been analyzed quantitatively to reveal that the repulsion is due to a weak external field created by the internal membrane dipole potential. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported phosphatidylcholine membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole moment in a noninvasive manner with nanometer scale spatial resolution will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. PMID:18805919
Multilayer Microstrip Slot And Dipole Array Antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tulintseff, Ann N.
1994-01-01
Multilayer antenna structure contains interleaved linear subarrays of microstrip dipole and slot radiating antenna elements to provide compact, dual-band antenna. Structure also contains associated microstrip transmission lines, plus high-power amplifiers for transmission and low-noise amplifiers for reception. Overall function is to transmit in horizontal polarization at frequency of 29.634 GHz and receive in vertical polarization at 19.914 GHz, in direction 44 degrees from broadside to antenna. Antenna structure is part of apparatus described in "Steerable K/Ka-band Antenna for Land-Mobile Satellite Applications," NPO-18772.
Deuteron dipole polarizabilities and sum rules
Friar, J.L.; Payne, G.L.
2005-07-01
The scalar, vector, and tensor components of the (generalized) deuteron electric dipole polarizability are calculated, as well as their logarithmic modifications. Several of these quantities arise in the treatment of the nuclear corrections to the deuterium Lamb shift and the deuterium hyperfine structure. A variety of second-generation potential models are used, and a (subjective) error is assigned to the calculations. The zero-range approximation is used to analyze a subset of the results, and a simple relativistic version of this approximation is developed.
A plasmonic dipole optical antenna coupled quantum dot infrared photodetector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mojaverian, Neda; Gu, Guiru; Lu, Xuejun
2015-12-01
In this paper, we report a full-wavelength plasmonic dipole optical antenna coupled quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). The plasmonic dipole optical antenna can effectively modify the EM wave distribution and convert free-space propagation infrared light to localized surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) within the nanometer (nm) gap region of the full-wavelength dipole antenna. The plasmonic dipole optical antenna coupled QDIP shows incident-angle-dependent photocurrent enhancement. The angular dependence follows the far-field pattern of a full-wavelength dipole antenna. The directivity of the plasmonic dipole optical antenna is measured to be 1.8 dB, which agrees well with the antenna simulation. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of the antenna far-field and directivity measurement. The agreement of the detection pattern and the directivity with antenna theory confirms functions of an optical antenna are similar to that of a RF antenna.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Thakkar, Ajit J.
2011-08-01
Dipole oscillator strength distributions (DOSDs) for ozone are constructed from experimental photoabsorption cross-sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule, the high-energy behavior of the dipole-oscillator-strength density, and molar refractivity data. A lack of photoabsorption data in the intermediate energy region from 24 to 524 eV necessitates the use of a mixture rule in that region. For this purpose, a DOSD for O2 is constructed first. The dipole properties for O2 are essentially the same as those obtained in earlier work even though most of the input data is from more recent experiments. A discrepancy is found between the refractivity data and photoabsorption data in the 10-20.6 eV range for ozone. A reliable ozone DOSD of the sort obtained for many other species remains out of reach. However, it is suggested that the true dipole properties of ozone lie between those predicted by two distributions that we present.
Angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine based on coherent dipole-dipole coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Shan-He; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jin-Can; Sun, Chang-Pu
2016-08-01
Electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule have been widely observed in biological systems and exhibit broad application for molecular structural studies. Quantum delocalization of molecular dipole moments has inspired researchers to explore new avenues to utilize this physical effect for energy harvesting devices. Herein, we propose a simple model of the angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine which seeks to facilitate the conversion of heat to work. Unlike previous studies, the adiabatic processes are accomplished by varying only the directions of the magnetic field. We show that the heat engine continues to generate power when the angle relative to the vector r joining the centres of coupled dipoles departs from the magic angle θm where the static coupling vanishes. A significant improvement in the device performance has to be attributed to the presence of the quantum delocalized levels associated with the coherent dipole-dipole coupling. These results obtained may provide a promising model for the biomimetic design and fabrication of quantum energy generators.
Mutual impedance of nonplanar-skew sinusoidal dipoles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richmond, J. H.; Geary, N. H.
1975-01-01
The mutual impedance expressions for parallel dipoles in terms of sine-integrals and cosine-integrals have been published by King (1957). The investigation reported provides analogous expressions for nonparallel dipoles. The expressions presented are most useful when the monopoles are close together. The theory of moment methods shows an approach for employing the mutual impedance of filamentary sinusoidal dipoles to calculate the impedance and scattering properties of straight and bent wires with small but finite diameter.
Vanishing of dipole matrix elements at level crossings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kocher, C. A.
1972-01-01
Demonstration that the vanishing of certain coupling matrix elements at level crossings follow from angular momentum commutation relations. A magnetic dipole transition having delta M = plus or minus 1, induced near a crossing of the levels in a nonzero magnetic field, is found to have a dipole matrix element comparable to or smaller than the quotient of the level separation and the field. This result also applies in the analogous electric field electric dipole case.
Hybrid of Quantum Phases for Induced Dipole Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Kai
2016-09-01
The quantum phase effects for induced electric and magnetic dipole moments are investigated. It is shown that the phase shift received by induced electric dipole has the same form with the one induced by magnetic dipole moment, therefore the total phase is a hybrid of these two types of phase. This feature indicates that in order to have a decisive measurement on either one of these two phases, it is necessary to measure the velocity dependence of the observed phase.
Lunar magnetic field - Permanent and induced dipole moments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, C. T.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Schubert, G.
1974-01-01
Apollo 15 subsatellite magnetic field observations have been used to measure both the permanent and the induced lunar dipole moments. Although only an upper limit of 1.3 x 10 to the 18th gauss-cubic centimeters has been determined for the permanent dipole moment in the orbital plane, there is a significant induced dipole moment which opposes the applied field, indicating the existence of a weak lunar ionosphere.
Propagation of magnetic dipole radiation through a medium.
Arnoldus, Henk F; Xu, Zhangjin
2016-05-01
An oscillating magnetic dipole moment emits radiation. We assume that the dipole is embedded in a medium with relative permittivity ϵ_{r} and relative permeability μ_{r}, and we have studied the effects of the surrounding material on the flow lines of the emitted energy. For a linear dipole moment in free space the flow lines of energy are straight lines, coming out of the dipole. When located in a medium, these field lines curve toward the dipole axis, due to the imaginary part of μ_{r}. Some field lines end on the dipole axis, giving a nonradiating contribution to the energy flow. For a rotating dipole moment in free space, each field line of energy flow lies on a cone around the axis perpendicular to the plane of rotation of the dipole moment. The field line pattern is an optical vortex. When embedded in a material, the cone shape of the vortex becomes a funnel shape, and the windings are much less dense than for the pattern in free space. This is again due to the imaginary part of μ_{r}. When the real part of μ_{r} is negative, the field lines of the vortex swirl around the dipole axis opposite to the rotation direction of the dipole moment. For a near-single-negative medium, the spatial extent of the vortex becomes huge. We compare the results for the magnetic dipole to the case of an embedded electric dipole.
Projected Dipole Model for Quantum Plasmonics.
Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Asger Mortensen, N
2015-09-25
Quantum effects of plasmonic phenomena have been explored through ab initio studies, but only for exceedingly small metallic nanostructures, leaving most experimentally relevant structures too large to handle. We propose instead an effective description with the computationally appealing features of classical electrodynamics, while quantum properties are described accurately through an infinitely thin layer of dipoles oriented normally to the metal surface. The nonlocal polarizability of the dipole layer-the only introduced parameter-is mapped from the free-electron distribution near the metal surface as obtained with 1D quantum calculations, such as time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), and is determined once and for all. The model can be applied in two and three dimensions to any system size that is tractable within classical electrodynamics, while capturing quantum plasmonic aspects of nonlocal response and a finite work function with TDDFT-level accuracy. Applying the theory to dimers, we find quantum corrections to the hybridization even in mesoscopic dimers, as long as the gap itself is subnanometric.
Dipole Alignment in Rotating MHD Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.; Fu, Terry; Morin, Lee
2012-01-01
We present numerical results from long-term CPU and GPU simulations of rotating, homogeneous, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, and discuss their connection to the spherically bounded case. We compare our numerical results with a statistical theory of geodynamo action that has evolved from the absolute equilibrium ensemble theory of ideal MHD turbulence, which is based on the ideal MHD invariants are energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity. However, for rotating MHD turbulence, the cross helicity is no longer an exact invariant, although rms cross helicity becomes quasistationary during an ideal MHD simulation. This and the anisotropy imposed by rotation suggests an ansatz in which an effective, nonzero value of cross helicity is assigned to axisymmetric modes and zero cross helicity to non-axisymmetric modes. This hybrid statistics predicts a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field due to broken ergodicity , as well as dipole vector alignment with the rotation axis, both of which are observed numerically. We find that only a relatively small value of effective cross helicity leads to the prediction of a dipole moment vector that is closely aligned (less than 10 degrees) with the rotation axis. We also discuss the effect of initial conditions, dissipation and grid size on the numerical simulations and statistical theory.
Progress toward 10 tesla accelerator dipoles
Hassenzahl, W.; Gilbert, G.; Taylor, C.; Meuser, R.
1983-08-01
A 9.1 T central field has been achieved in a Nb-Ti dipole operating in pressurized helium II at 1.8 K. Three different Nb-Ti dipoles, without iron yokes, have achieved central fields of 8.0, 8.6, and 9.1 T - all short sample performance for the conductors at 1.8 K. In helium I, at 4.3 K, the maximum central fields are from 1.5 to 2.0 T lower. Ten-tesla magnets have been designed for both Nb-Ti operating at 1.8 K and Nb/sub 3/Sn operating at 4.2 K. They are based on a very small beam aperture, (40 to 45 mm), very high current density in the superconductors (over 1000 A/mm/sup 2/), and a very low ratio of stabilizing copper to superconductor (about 1). Both layer and block designs have been developed that utilize Rutherford Cable. Magnet cycling from 0 to 6 T has been carried out for field change rate up to 1 T/s; the cyclic heating at 1 T/s is 36 W per meter. At a more representative rate of 0.2 T/s the heating rate is only 2 W/m. Progress in the program to use Nb/sub 3/Sn and NbTi superconductor, in 10 T accelerator magnets is also discussed.
Mesoscopic supersolid of dipoles in a trap
Golomedov, A. E.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Lozovik, Yu. E.
2011-09-15
A mesoscopic system of dipolar bosons trapped by a harmonic potential is considered. The system has a number of physical realizations including dipole excitons, atoms with large dipolar moment, polar molecules, and Rydberg atoms in inhomogeneous electric field. We carry out a diffusion Monte Carlo simulation to define the quantum properties of a two-dimensional system of trapped dipoles at zero temperature. In dimensionless units the system is described by two control parameters, namely, the number of particles and the strength of the interparticle interaction. We have shown that when the interparticle interaction is strong enough a mesoscopic crystal is formed. As the strength of interactions is decreased a multistage melting takes place. Off-diagonal order in the system is tested using natural-orbitals analysis. We have found that the system might be Bose condensed even in the case of strong interparticle interactions. There is a set of parameters for which a spatially ordered structure is formed while simultaneously the fraction of Bose-condensed particles is nonzero. This might be considered as a realization of a mesoscopic supersolid.
SPEAR3 Gradient Dipole Core Fabrication
Li, Nanyang
2003-07-29
Traditional means of core fabrication are to glue the laminations or weld them to form the yoke structure. These means result in good yoke assemblies for shorter (<0.6m) magnets. However, because of weld distortions or mechanical strength limitations, welding and/or gluing techniques are difficult to gain high mechanical precision for longer cores. The SPEAR3 gradient dipoles are up to 1.45m long and require distortions of <0.05mm. Therefore, the SPEAR3 gradient dipole core design incorporated an assembly technique, originally devised for the PEPII insertion quadrupoles and later adapted for the ALS gradient magnets. This technique involved fabricating a rigid frame for the core, precisely stacking and compressing the laminations using hydraulic jacks and granite surfaces and straight edges, and fixing the laminations in the frame by filling the grooves between the laminations and frame using steel loaded epoxy. Although this technique has been used in the past, it has never been fully described and published. This paper is written to provide a detailed description of the procedure and to present measurement data demonstrating the mechanical precision and stiffness of the resulting product.
International geomagnetic reference field 1965.0 in dipole coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mead, G. D.
1970-01-01
Computer program transforming spherical harmonic coefficients into arbitrarily tilted coordinate systems, tabulating coefficients of International Geomagnetic Reference Field 1965 in dipole coordinate system
New Insight into the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in Stable Nuclei
Neumann-Cosel, P. von
2008-11-11
Two examples of recent work on the structure of low-energy electric dipole modes are presented. The first part discusses the systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in stable tin isotopes deduced from high-resolution ({gamma},{gamma}') experiments. These help to distinguish between microscopic QRPA calculations based on either a relativistic or a nonrelativistic mean-field description, predicting significantly different properties of the PDR. The second part presents attempts to unravel the structure of dipoles modes at energies below the giant dipole resonance (GDR) in {sup 208}Pb with a high-resolution measurement of the (p-vector,p-vector') reaction under 0 deg.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panahi, M.; Solookinejad, G.; Ahmadi Sangachin, E.; Hossein Asadpour, Seyyed
2016-07-01
The impact of the dipole-dipole interaction on the Goo-Hänchen (GH) shifts in reflected and transmitted lights is investigated. A weak probe beam is incident on a cavity containing the donor and acceptor quantum dots embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal. We deduced that the GH shifts can be easily adjusted via controlling the corresponding parameters of the system in the presence or absence of dipole-dipole interaction. Our proposed model may be useful to developing the all-optical devices based on photonic materials doped with nanoparticles.
Active flutter suppression using dipole filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinathkumar, S.; Waszak, Martin R.
1992-01-01
By using traditional control concepts of gain root locus, the active suppression of a flutter mode of a flexible wing is examined. It is shown that the attraction of the unstable mode towards a critical system zero determines the degree to which the flutter mode can be stabilized. For control situations where the critical zero is adversely placed in the complex plane, a novel compensation scheme called a 'Dipole' filter is proposed. This filter ensures that the flutter mode is stabilized with acceptable control energy. The control strategy is illustrated by designing flutter suppression laws for an active flexible wing (AFW) wind-tunnel model, where minimal control effort solutions are mandated by control rate saturation problems caused by wind-tunnel turbulence.
BEAM MANIPULATION WITH AN RF DIPOLE.
BAI,M.
1999-03-29
Coherent betatron motion adiabatically excited by an RF dipole has been successfully employed to overcome strong intrinsic spin depolarization resonances in the AGS, while a solenoid partial snake has been used to correct imperfection spin resonances. The experimental results showed that a full spin flip was obtained in passing through an intrinsic spin resonance when all the beam particles were forced to oscillate coherently at a large amplitude without diluting the beam emittance. With this method, we have successfully accelerated polarized beam up to 23.5 GeV/c. A new type of second order spin resonances was also discovered. As a non-destructive manipulation, this method can also be used for nonlinear beam dynamics studies and beam diagnosis such as measuring phase advance and betatron amplitude function.
Nonlinear light scattering by a dipole monolayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averbukh, B. B.; Averbukh, I. B.
2013-08-01
Scattering of a strong p-polarized monochromatic field by a dipole monolayer is considered. It is shown that a triplet should be observed at incident angles (between the wave vector of the incident wave and the normal to the monolayer surface) not too close to π/2 in the spectrum of the scattered radiation. For grazing incidence of a strong field on the monolayer, waves with frequencies of the strong field and the high-frequency component of the triplet scatter forward and backward. In this case, radiation with frequency of the low-frequency component of the triplet propagates in the form of two inhomogeneous waves along the monolayer on both sides of it, exponentially decaying with distance from the monolayer.
Magnetic field decay in model SSC dipoles
Gilbert, W.S.; Althaus, R.F.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Green, M.A.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.
1988-08-01
We have observed that some of our model SSC dipoles have long time constant decays of the magnetic field harmonics with amplitudes large enough to result in significant beam loss, if they are not corrected. The magnets were run at constant current at the SSC injection field level of 0.3 tesla for one to three hours and changes in the magnetic field were observed. One explanation for the observed field decay is time dependent superconductor magnetization. Another explanation involves flux creep or flux flow. Data are presented on how the decay changes with previous flux history. Similar magnets with different Nb-Ti filament spacings and matrix materials have different long time field decay. A theoretical model using proximity coupling and flux creep for the observed field decay is discussed. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Roll measurement of Tevatron dipoles and quadrupoles
Volk, J.T.; Elementi, L.; Gollwitzer, K.; Jostlein, H.; Nobrega, F.; Shiltsev, V.; Stefanski, R.
2006-09-01
In 2003 a simple digital level system was developed to allow for rapid roll measurements of all dipoles and quadrupoles in the Tevatron. The system uses a Mitutoyo digital level and a PC running MS WINDOWS XP and LAB VIEW to acquire data on the upstream and downstream roll of each magnet. The system is sufficiently simple that all 1,000 magnets in the Tevatron can be measured in less than 3 days. The data can be quickly processed allowing for correction of rolled magnets by the Fermilab alignment group. Data will be presented showing the state of the Tevatron in 2003 and the changes in rolls as measured in each shutdown since then.
Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Patrick K.
2003-01-01
This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective magnetic dipole moment model. The model is most accurate with the earth s geomagnetic field cancelled in a spherical region bounded by the measurement magnetometers with a minimum radius large enough to enclose the magnetic source. Considerably enhanced spacecraft magnetic testing is offered by using this technique in conjunction with a computer-controlled magnetic field measurement system. Such a system, with real-time magnetic field display capabilities, has been incorporated into other existing magnetic measurement facilities and is also used at remote locations where transport to a magnetics test facility is impractical.
Concentric Titled Double-Helix Dipole Magnets
Rainer Meinke, Ph.D; Carl Goodzeit; Millicent Ball, Ph.D
2003-09-05
The high magnetic fields required for future accelerator magnets can only be achieved with Nb3Sn, other A15 or HTS type conductors, which are brittle and sensitive to mechanical strain. The traditional ''cosine-theta'' dipole configuration has intrinsic drawbacks that make it difficult and expensive to employ such conductors in these designs. Some of these problems involve (1) difficulty in applying enough pre-stress to counteract Lorentz forces without compromising conductor performance; (2) small minimum bend radii of the conductor necessitating the intricate wind-and-react coil fabrication; (3) complex spacers in particular for coil ends and expensive tooling for coil fabrication; (4) typically only 2/3 of the coil aperture can be used with achievable field uniformity.
SSC collider dipole magnets field angle data
Kuchnir, M.; Bleadon, M.; Schmidt, E.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.W.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Ozelis, J.; Strait, J.; Wake, M. ); DiMarco, J.; Devred, A.; Kuzminski, J.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H. ); Ogitsu, T. (Superconducting Super Collider
1992-09-01
In the fabrication of both 40 and 50 mm collider dipole superconducting magnets, surveys of the direction of the magnetic field along their length have been taken. This data besides being used for certifying compliance with the specifications for the finished magnet, yields interesting information on the straightness and rigidity of the coil placement between some stages in their manufacture and testing. A discussion on the measuring equipment and procedures is given. All of the 40 mm magnets that were built or cryostat at Fermilab have at least one of these surveys, and a summary of the data on them is presented. Most of the 50 mm magnets built and cold tested at Fermilab have been surveyed before and after insertion in the cryostat and before and after being cold tested. A summary of this data is also presented.
Electric dipole moments: A global analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chupp, Timothy; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael
2015-03-01
We perform a global analysis of searches for the permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) of the neutron, neutral atoms, and molecules in terms of six leptonic, semileptonic, and nonleptonic interactions involving photons, electrons, pions, and nucleons. By translating the results into fundamental charge-conjugation-parity symmetry (CP) violating effective interactions through dimension six involving standard model particles, we obtain rough lower bounds on the scale of beyond the standard model CP-violating interactions ranging from 1.5 TeV for the electron EDM to 1300 TeV for the nuclear spin-independent electron-quark interaction. We show that planned future measurements involving systems or combinations of systems with complementary sensitivities to the low-energy parameters may extend the mass reach by an order of magnitude or more.
Pygmy Dipole Strength and Neutron Skins in Exotic Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimkiewicz, A.; Paar, N.; Adrich, P.; Fallot, M.; Boretzky, K.; Aumann, T.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Pramanik, U. Datta; Elze, Th. W.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Hellström, M.; Jones, K. L.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Nociforo, C.; Palit, R.; Simon, H.; Surówka, G.; Sümmerer, K.; Vretenar, D.; Waluś, W.
2008-05-01
Dipole strength distributions were determined for the neutron-rich nuclei 129-132Sn and 133,134Sb from electromagnetic excitation in an experiment using the FRS-LAND setup. For all nuclei, a sizeable fraction of ``pygmy'' dipole strength at excitation energies well below the giant dipole resonance was observed. The integrated low-lying dipole strength of the nuclei with low neutron separation energies can be compared to results for stable nuclei (e.g. N = 82 isotopes) determined for the energy regime of 5-9 MeV. A clear increase of the dipole strength with increasing asymmetry of the nuclei is observed. Comparing the ratio of the low-lying dipole over the giant dipole strength to recent relativistic mean field calculations, values for the parameters a4 and p0 of the symmetry energy and for the neutron skin thickness are derived. Averaged over 130Sn and 132Sn we extract a4 = 31.8+/-1.3 MeV and p0 = 2.2+/-0.5 MeV/fm3. The neutron skin sizes are determined to Rn-Rp = 0.23+/-0.03 fm and 0.24+/-0.03 fm for 130Sn and 132Sn, respectively. For 208Pb a neutron skin thickness of Rn-Rp = 0.18+/-0.035 fm follows, when applying the same method and using earlier published experimental findings on the dipole strength.
Plasma expansion in the presence of a dipole magnetic field
Winske, D.; Omidi, N.
2005-07-15
Simulations of the initial expansion of a plasma injected into a stationary magnetized background plasma in the presence of a dipole magnetic field are carried out in two dimensions with a kinetic ion, massless fluid electron (hybrid) electromagnetic code. For small values of the magnetic dipole, the injected ions have large gyroradii compared to the scale length of the dipole field and are essentially unmagnetized. As a result, these ions expand, excluding the ambient magnetic field and plasma to form a diamagnetic cavity. However, for stronger magnetic dipoles, the ratio of the gyroradii of the injected ions to the dipole field scale length is small so that they remain magnetized, and hence trapped in the dipole field, as they expand. The trapping and expansion then lead to additional plasma currents and resulting magnetic fields that not only exclude the background field but also interact with the dipole field in a more complex manner that stretches the closed dipole field lines. A criterion to distinguish between the two regimes is derived and is then briefly discussed in the context of applying the results to the plasma sail scheme for the propulsion of small spacecraft in the solar wind.
Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade
Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.
1992-12-31
The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far.
Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade
Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J. ); Murray, J. )
1992-01-01
The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far.
Microstrip Dipoles for EHF and Millimeter Wave Applications.
1986-08-26
in the areas of: (a) Substrate- superstrate effects on printed circuit antennas (b) Mo- deling electromingnetically coupled microstrip dipoles in a...0067. The research performed during the duration of this grant has made an impact in the areas of: (a) Substrate- superstrate effects on printed...circuit antennas (b) Modeling electromagnetically coupled microstrip dipoles in a substrate- superstrate configuration (c) Modeling Mcrostrip Discontinuities
Helical dipole magnets for polarized protons in RHIC
Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.
1997-07-01
Superconducting helical dipole magnets will be used in the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to maintain polarization of proton beams and to perform localized spin rotations at the two major experimental detector regions. Requirements for the helical dipole system are discussed, and magnet prototype work is reported.
Electric dipole moment of the electron and of the neutron
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, S. M.; Zee, A.
1990-01-01
It is shown that if Higgs-boson exchange mediates CP violation a significant electric dipole moment for the electron can result. Analogous effects can contribute to the neutron's electric dipole moment at a level competitive with Weinberg's three-gluon operator.
Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole
Miyamoto, Ryoichi
2008-08-01
The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f ~ 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.
Simulations of the angular dependence of the dipole-dipole interaction among Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bigelow, Jacob L.; Hollingsworth, Jacob; Paul, Jacob T.; Peleg, Matan; Sanford, Veronica L.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.
2016-05-01
The dipole-dipole interaction between two Rydberg atoms depends on the relative orientation of the atoms and on the change in the magnetic quantum number. We simulate the effect of this anisotropy on the energy transport in an amorphous many atom system of ultracold Rydberg atoms subject to a homogeneous applied electric field. We consider two experimentally feasible geometries and find that the effects should be measurable in current generation imaging experiments. We also examine evidence for Anderson localization. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1205895 and No. 1205897 and used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number OCI-1053575.
Effects of dipole magnet inhomogeneities on the beam ellipsoid
Tsoupas, N.; Colman, J.; Levine, M.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.; Ward, T.; Grand, P.
1986-01-01
The RAYTRACE computer code has been modified to accept magnetic fields measured in the median plane of a dipole magnet. This modification allows one to study the effects of a non-ideal dipole magnet on the beam ellipsoid (as defined by the TRANSPORT code manual). The effects on the beam ellipsoid are due to: field inhomogeneities in the interior region of the dipole, and discrepancies from design conditions of the magnetic field values in the fringe field region. The results of the RAYTRACE code calculations based on experimentally measured fields will be compared with the results derived using both an ideal (no inhomogeneities) dipole with SCOFF boundaries and an ideal dipole with perfect (according to design) fringe fields.
Dipole-Dipole Interactions of High-spin Paramagnetic Centers in Disordered Systems
Maryasov, Alexander G.; Bowman, Michael K.; Tsvetkov, Yuri D.
2007-09-13
Dipole-dipole interactions between distant paramagnetic centers (PCs) where at least one PC has spin S>1/2 are examined. The results provide a basis for the application of pulsed DEER or PELDOR methods to the measurement of distances between PC involving high-spin species. A projection operator technique based on spectral decomposition of the secular Hamiltonian is used to calculate EPR line splitting caused by the dipole coupling. This allows calculation of operators projecting arbitrary wavefunction onto high PC eigenstates when the eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian are not known. The effective spin vectors-that is, the expectation values for vector spin operators in the PC eigenstates-are calculated. The dependence of these effective spin vectors on the external magnetic field is calculated. There is a qualitative difference between pairs having at least one integer spin (non Karmers PC) and pairs of two half-integer (Kramers PC) spins. With the help of these effective spin vectors, the dipolar lineshape of EPR lines is calculated. Analytical relations are obtained for PCs with spin S=1/2 and 1. The dependence of Pake patterns on variations of zero field splitting, Zeeman energy, temperature and dipolar coupling are illustrated.
Structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in 124Sn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Krücken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Scheck, M.; Schlüter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.
2012-06-01
Background: In atomic nuclei, a concentration of electric dipole strength around the particle threshold, commonly denoted as pygmy dipole resonance, may have a significant impact on nuclear structure properties and astrophysical scenarios. A clear identification of these states and the structure of this resonance is still under discussion.Purpose: We present an experimental and theoretical study of the isospin character of the pygmy dipole resonance and investigation of a splitting of the electric dipole strength previously observed in experiments on N=82 nuclei.Method: The pygmy dipole resonance has been studied in the semi-magic Z=50 nucleus 124Sn by means of the (α,α'γ) coincidence method at Eα=136MeV using the Big-Bite Spectrometer at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The Netherlands.Results: A splitting of the low-energy part of the electric dipole strength was identified in 124Sn by comparing the differential cross sections measured in (α,α'γ) to results stemming from (γ,γ') photon-scattering experiments. While an energetically lower-lying group of states is observed in both kinds of experiments, a higher-lying group of states is only excited in the (γ,γ') reaction. In addition, theoretical calculations using the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation and the quasiparticle-phonon model have been performed. Both calculations show a qualitative agreement with the experimental data and predict a low-lying isoscalar component that is dominated by neutron-skin oscillations as expected for the pygmy dipole resonance. Furthermore, the states at higher energies show a pronounced isovector component and a different radial dependence of the corresponding transition densities as expected for the tail of the giant dipole resonance.Conclusions: An experimental signature of the neutron-skin oscillation of the pygmy dipole resonance has been corroborated. The combination of the presented reactions might make it
Rotational auto-detachment of dipole-bound anions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ard, S. G.; Compton, R. N.; Garrett, W. R.
2016-04-01
Rotational auto-detachment of acetonitrile, trimethyl-acetonitrile, acetone, and cyclobutanone dipole-bound anions was studied under varying conditions in a Rydberg electron transfer (RET) time-of-flight apparatus. Varying amounts of auto-detachment was observed for anions with similar electron affinity and dipole moment, but different moments of inertia. These results were found to be consistent with predictions based on the calculated rotational spectra for these anions, highlighting the importance of critical binding properties in understanding the stability and lifetime of dipole bound systems.
Propagation of the Lissajous singularity dipole in free space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Haitao; Gao, Zenghui; Zou, Xuefang; Xiao, Xi; Wang, Fanhou; Yang, Huajun
2014-01-01
The propagation properties of a pair of Lissajous singularities with opposite singularity indexes called the Lissajous singularity dipole (LSD) in free space are studied analytically and illustrated numerically. It is shown that the motion, creation, annihilation and change in the degree of polarization of the LSD, and change in the shape of Lissajous figures take place by suitably varying the waist width, off-axis distance or propagation distance. In particular, the creation and shift to infinity of a single Lissajous singularity may appear. A comparison with the free-space propagation of an optical vortex dipole and a C-dipole is also made.
CONSTRAINT ON LIGHT DIPOLE DARK MATTER FROM HELIOSEISMOLOGY
Lopes, Ilídio; Kadota, Kenji; Silk, Joseph E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk
2014-01-10
We investigate the effects of a magnetic dipole moment of asymmetric dark matter (DM) in the evolution of the Sun. The dipole interaction can lead to a sizable DM scattering cross section even for light DM, and asymmetric DM can lead to a large DM number density in the Sun. We find that solar model precision tests, using as diagnostic the sound speed profile obtained from helioseismology data, exclude dipolar DM particles with a mass larger than 4.3 GeV and magnetic dipole moment larger than 1.6 × 10{sup –17} e cm.
Genetic algorithms for dipole location of fetal magnetocardiography.
Escalona-Vargas, D; Murphy, P; Lowery, C L; Eswaran, H
2016-08-01
In this paper, we explore the use of Maximum Likelihood (ML) method with Genetic Algorithms (GA) as global optimization procedure for source reconstruction in fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) data. A multiple equivalent current dipole (ECD) model was used for sources active in different time samples. Inverse solutions across time were obtained for a single-dipole approximation to estimate the trajectory of the dipole position. We compared the GA and SIMPLEX methods in a simulation environment under noise conditions. Methods are applied on a real fMCG data. Results show robust estimators of the cardiac sources when GA is used as optimization technique.
Need for remeasurements of nuclear magnetic dipole moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gustavsson, Martin G.; Mårtensson-Pendrill, Ann-Marie
1998-11-01
The need for a reassessment of nuclear magnetic dipole moments is prompted by recent experiments on the ground-state hyperfine structure in highly charged hydrogenlike systems which are sufficiently sensitive to probe QED effects. This work gives an overview of the magnetic dipole moments for the nuclei of interest, i.e., 165Ho, 185,187Re, 203,205Tl, 207Pb, and 209Bi. It is found that the present uncertainties in the nuclear magnetic dipole moment limit the interpretation of the accurate experimental hyperfine structures for these systems.
NLO evolution of color dipoles in N=4 SYM
Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Balitsky, Ian
2009-07-04
Here, high-energy behavior of amplitudes in a gauge theory can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the conformally invariant BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In QCD, the next-to-leading order BK equation has both conformal and non-conformal parts, the latter providing the running of the coupling constant. To separate the conformally invariant effects from the running-coupling effects, we calculate the NLO evolution of the color dipoles in the conformal ${\\cal N}$=4 SYM theory. We define the "composite dipole operator" with the rapidity cutoff preserving conformal invariance.
Electric dipole moments of Escherichia coli HB 101.
Stoylov, Stoyl P; Gyurova, Anna Y; Bunin, Viktor; Angersbach, Alexander; Georgieva, Ralitsa N; Danova, Svetla T
2009-04-01
The theoretical and experimental studies of the particles' electric dipole moments in the microscopic and submicroscopic size range show that in the case of polar and conductive media the interfacial components of the dipole moments are of greatest importance. While in the range of manometer's sizes there seems to be no important problems in the identification and in the estimation of the values of the dipole moments at present, in the micrometer range there are serious problems. In this communication these problems are considered and illustrated by electro-optic investigations of Escherichia coli HB 101.
Acoustic monopoles, dipoles, and quadrupoles: An experiment revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, Daniel A.; Titlow, Joseph P.; Bemmen, Ya-Juan
1999-08-01
A simple and inexpensive demonstration of acoustic monopole, dipole, and quadrupole sources utilizes four 4-in. boxed loudspeakers and a homemade switch box. The switch box allows the speakers to be driven in any combination of phase relationships. Placing the speakers on a rotating stool allows students to measure directivity patterns for monopole, dipole, and quadrupole speaker combinations. Stacking the speakers in a square, all facing the same direction, allows students to aurally compare the frequency and amplitude dependence of sound radiation from monopoles, dipoles, and quadrupoles.
A study of microtubule dipole lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandi, Shubhendu
Microtubules are cytoskeletal protein polymers orchestrating a host of important cellular functions including, but not limited to, cell support, cell division, cell motility and cell transport. In this thesis, we construct a toy-model of the microtubule lattice composed of vector Ising spins representing tubulin molecules, the building block of microtubules. Nearest-neighbor and next-to-nearest neighbor interactions are considered within an anisotropic dielectric medium. As a consequence of the helical topology, we observe that certain spin orientations render the lattice frustrated with nearest neighbor ferroelectric and next-to-nearest neighbor antiferroelectric bonds. Under these conditions, the lattice displays the remarkable property of stabilizing certain spin patterns that are robust to thermal fluctuations. We model this behavior in the framework of a generalized Ising model known as the J1 - J2 model and theoretically determine the set of stable patterns. Employing Monte-Carlo methods, we demonstrate the stability of such patterns in the microtubule lattice at human physiological temperatures. This suggests a novel biological mechanism for storing information in living organisms, whereby the tubulin spin (dipole moment) states become information bits and information gets stored in microtubules in a way that is robust to thermal fluctuations.
Magnetic dipole discharges. I. Basic properties
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Teodorescu-Soare, C. T.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.
2013-08-15
A simple discharge is described which uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode and the metallic chamber wall as an anode. The magnet's equator is biased strongly negative, which produces secondary electrons due to the impact of energetic ions. The emitted electrons are highly confined by the strong dipolar magnetic field and the negative potential in the equatorial plane of the magnet. The emitted electrons ionize near the sheath and produce further electrons, which drift across field lines to the anode while the nearly unmagnetized ions are accelerated back to the magnet. A steady state discharge is maintained at neutral pressures above 10{sup −3} mbar. This is the principle of magnetron discharges, which commonly use cylindrical and planar cathodes rather than magnetic dipoles as cathodes. The discharge properties have been investigated in steady state and pulsed mode. Different magnets and geometries have been employed. The role of a background plasma has been investigated. Various types of instabilities have been observed such as sheath oscillations, current-driven turbulence, relaxation instabilities due to ionization, and high frequency oscillations created by sputtering impulses, which are described in more detail in companion papers. The discharge has also been operated in reactive gases and shown to be useful for sputtering applications.
Pulsar Magnetospheres: Beyond the Flat Spacetime Dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Philippov, Alexander
2016-12-01
Most studies of the pulsar magnetosphere have assumed a pure magnetic dipole in flat spacetime. However, recent work suggests that the effects of general relativity are in fact of vital importance and that realistic pulsar magnetic fields will have a significant nondipolar component. We introduce a general analytical method for studying the axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere of a slowly rotating star of arbitrary magnetic field, mass, radius, and moment of inertia, including all the effects of general relativity. We confirm that spacelike current is generically present in the polar caps (suggesting a pair production region), irrespective of the stellar magnetic field. We show that general relativity introduces a ∼ 60 % correction to the formula for the dipolar component of the surface magnetic field inferred from spindown. Finally, we show that the location and shape of the polar caps can be modified dramatically by even modestly strong higher moments. This can affect emission processes occurring near the star and may help explain the modified beam characteristics of millisecond pulsars.
Electric dipole moments of light nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mereghetti, Emanuele
2017-01-01
Electric dipole moments (EDMs) are extremely sensitive probes of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). A vibrant experimental program is in place, with the goal to improve the existing neutron EDM bound by one/two orders of magnitude, and to test new ideas for the measurement of EDMs of light ions, such as deuteron and helium, at a comparable level. The success of this program, and its implications for physics beyond the SM, relies on the precise calculation of the EDMs in terms of the couplings of CP-violating operators. In light of the non-perturbative nature both of QCD at low energy and of the nuclear interactions, these calculations have proven difficult, and are affected by large theoretical uncertainties. In this talk I will review the progress that in recent years has been achieved on different aspects of the calculation of hadronic and nuclear EDMs. In particular, I will discuss how the interplay between lattice QCD and Chiral Effective Field Theory (EFT) has allowed to reduce a set of hadronic uncertainties. Finally, I will discuss how the measurements of th EDMs of one, two and three nucleon systems can be used to discriminate between various possible mechanisms of time-reversal violation at high energy.
Electric dipole moment enhancement factor of thallium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porsev, Sergey; Safronova, Marianna; Kozlov, Mikhail
2012-06-01
A number of extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict electric dipole moments (EDM) of particles that may be observable with the present state-of-the art experiments. The EDMs arise from the violations of both parity and time-reversal invariance. The electron EDM is enhanced in certain atomic and molecular systems. One of the most stringent limits on the electron EDM de was obtained from the experiments with ^205Tl: de<1.6 10-27e cm [Regan et al., PRL 88, 071805 (2002)]. This result crucially depend on the calculated value of the effective electric field on the valence electron. In the case of Tl this effective field is proportional to the applied field E0, Eeff= K,0. The goal of this work is to resolve the present controversy in the value of the EDM enhancement factor K in Tl. We have carried out several calculations by different high-precision methods, studied previously omitted corrections, as well as tested our methodology on other parity conserving quantities. We find the EDM enhancement factor of Tl to be equal to -573(20). This value is 20% larger than the recently published result of Nataraj et al. [PRL 106, 200403 (2011)] but agrees very well with several earlier results.
Two flavors of the Indian Ocean Dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endo, Satoru; Tozuka, Tomoki
2016-06-01
The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is known as a climate mode in the tropical Indian Ocean accompanied by negative (positive) sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the eastern (western) pole during its positive phase. However, the western pole of the IOD is not always covered totally by positive SST anomalies. For this reason, the IOD is further classified into two types in this study based on SST anomalies in the western pole. The first type (hereafter "canonical IOD") is associated with negative (positive) SST anomalies in the eastern (central to western) tropical Indian Ocean. The second type (hereafter "IOD Modoki"), on the other hand, is associated with negative SST anomalies in the eastern and western tropical Indian Ocean and positive SST anomalies in the central tropical Indian Ocean. Based on composite analyses, it is found that easterly wind anomalies cover the whole equatorial Indian Ocean in the canonical IOD, and as a result, positive rainfall anomalies are observed over East Africa. Also, due to the basin-wide easterly wind anomalies, the canonical IOD is accompanied by strong sea surface height (SSH) anomalies. In contrast, zonal wind anomalies converge in the central tropical Indian Ocean in the IOD Modoki, and no significant precipitation anomalies are found over East Africa. Also, only weak SSH anomalies are seen, because equatorial downwelling anomalies induced by westerly wind anomalies in the west are counteracted by equatorial upwelling anomalies caused by easterly wind anomalies in the east.
Strongly magnetized rotating dipole in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pétri, J.
2016-10-01
Context. Electromagnetic waves arise in many areas of physics. Solutions are difficult to find in the general case. Aims: We numerically integrate Maxwell equations in a 3D spherical polar coordinate system. Methods: Straightforward finite difference methods would lead to a coordinate singularity along the polar axis. Spectral methods are better suited for such artificial singularities that are related to the choice of a coordinate system. When the radiating object rotates like a star, for example, special classes of solutions to Maxwell equations are worthwhile to study, such as quasi-stationary regimes. Moreover, in high-energy astrophysics, strong gravitational and magnetic fields are present especially around rotating neutron stars. Results: To study such systems, we designed an algorithm to solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations in spherical polar coordinates including general relativity and quantum electrodynamical corrections to leading order. As a diagnostic, we computed the spin-down luminosity expected for these stars and compared it to the classical or non-relativistic and non-quantum mechanical results. Conclusions: Quantum electrodynamics leads to an irrelevant change in the spin-down luminosity even for a magnetic field of about the critical value of 4.4 × 109 T. Therefore the braking index remains close to its value for a point dipole in vacuum, namely n = 3. The same conclusion holds for a general-relativistic quantum electrodynamically corrected force-free magnetosphere.
WHT, DIPOL-2 polarimetry of Nova Sgr 2015b
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harvey, Eamonn; Berdyugin, Andrei; Redman, Matt
2015-09-01
We report polarimetry data from three nights observing of Nova Sgr 2015b (also PNV J18365700-2855420 or V5668 Sgr) with the William Herschel Telescope in the BVR passbands using the DIPOL-2 instrument.
Gyre-driven decay of the Earth's magnetic dipole
Finlay, Christopher C.; Aubert, Julien; Gillet, Nicolas
2016-01-01
Direct observations indicate that the magnitude of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole has decreased over the past 175 years; it is now 9% weaker than it was in 1840. Here we show how the rate of dipole decay may be controlled by a planetary-scale gyre in the liquid metal outer core. The gyre's meridional limbs on average transport normal polarity magnetic flux equatorward and reverse polarity flux poleward. Asymmetry in the geomagnetic field, due to the South Atlantic Anomaly, is essential to the proposed mechanism. We find that meridional flux advection accounts for the majority of the dipole decay since 1840, especially during times of rapid decline, with magnetic diffusion making an almost steady contribution generally of smaller magnitude. Based on the morphology of the present field, and the persistent nature of the gyre, the current episode of dipole decay looks set to continue, at least for the next few decades. PMID:26814368
Ocular dominance affects magnitude of dipole moment: an MEG study.
Shima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nomura, Motohiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Ozaki, Yuzo; Kawai, Jun; Higuchi, Masanori; Kado, Hisashi
2010-08-23
To investigate whether the ocular dominance affects laterality in the activity of the primary visual cortex, we examined the relationship between the ocular dominance and latency or dipole moment measured by checkerboard-pattern and magnetoencephalography in 11 right-handed healthy male participants. Participants with left-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 21.5+/-6.1 nAm with left-eye stimulation and 16.1+/-3.6 nAm with right, whereas those with right-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 18.0+/-5.2 and 21.5+/-2.7 nAm with left-eye and right-eye stimulation of the infero-medial quadrant visual field, respectively. Thus, the dipole moment was higher when the dominant eye was stimulated, which implies that ocular dominance is regulated by the ipsilateral occipital lobe.
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment from Gauge-String Duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartolini, Lorenzo; Bigazzi, Francesco; Bolognesi, Stefano; Cotrone, Aldo L.; Manenti, Andrea
2017-03-01
We compute the electric dipole moment of nucleons in the large Nc QCD model by Witten, Sakai, and Sugimoto with Nf=2 degenerate massive flavors. Baryons in the model are instantonic solitons of an effective five-dimensional action describing the whole tower of mesonic fields. We find that the dipole electromagnetic form factor of the nucleons, induced by a finite topological θ angle, exhibits complete vector meson dominance. We are able to evaluate the contribution of each vector meson to the final result—a small number of modes are relevant to obtain an accurate estimate. Extrapolating the model parameters to real QCD data, the neutron electric dipole moment is evaluated to be dn=1.8 ×10-16θ e cm . The electric dipole moment of the proton is exactly the opposite.
Gyre-driven decay of the Earth's magnetic dipole.
Finlay, Christopher C; Aubert, Julien; Gillet, Nicolas
2016-01-27
Direct observations indicate that the magnitude of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole has decreased over the past 175 years; it is now 9% weaker than it was in 1840. Here we show how the rate of dipole decay may be controlled by a planetary-scale gyre in the liquid metal outer core. The gyre's meridional limbs on average transport normal polarity magnetic flux equatorward and reverse polarity flux poleward. Asymmetry in the geomagnetic field, due to the South Atlantic Anomaly, is essential to the proposed mechanism. We find that meridional flux advection accounts for the majority of the dipole decay since 1840, especially during times of rapid decline, with magnetic diffusion making an almost steady contribution generally of smaller magnitude. Based on the morphology of the present field, and the persistent nature of the gyre, the current episode of dipole decay looks set to continue, at least for the next few decades.
Electron capture by an electric dipole in two dimensions
Glasser, M. L.; Nieto, L. M.
2007-06-15
The question of the existence of a nonzero minimum dipole moment D{sub 0} that can sustain an electron bound state for an electric dipole in two dimensions is examined both classically and quantum mechanically. The results suggest that in the latter case, D{sub 0}{<=}0.209 compared to the Fermi-Teller value 0.904 for three dimensions (in atomic units)
Dipole model analysis of high precision HERA data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luszczak, A.; Kowalski, H.
2014-04-01
We analyze, within a dipole model, the inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross section data, obtained from the combination of the measurements of the H1 and ZEUS experiments performed at the HERA collider. We show that these high precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework, which is complemented with valence quark structure functions. We discuss the properties of the gluon density obtained in this way.
Electromagnetic Dipole Strength in 124,128,134Xe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Junghans, A. R.
2014-05-01
The electromagnetic dipole strength in several even nuclei in the chain of Xenon isotopes has been investigated at the bremsstrahlung facility of the ELBE accelerator in Dresden, Germany and at the HIγS facility in Durham, USA. The goal of these measurements is to extend the knowledge about the general behavior of the dipole strength in the energy region below the neutron separation energy under the aspect of neutron excess and nuclear deformation.
Simulation of Whistler Chorus in a Compressed Dipole Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, S.; Denton, R. E.; Hudson, M.
2015-12-01
Earth's dipole magnetic field is constantly compressed by the solar wind and the compression is enhanced during magnetic storm. We simulate whistler chorus in a compressed dipole field using a hybrid code. The hybrid code uses the particle-in-cell technique in generalized orthogonal coordinates. In the hybrid code, a small fraction of electrons are treated as particles with anisotropic temperature that leads to the whistler instability. Other electrons are treated as a cold fluid without mass. The density of the fluid electrons is large such that the plasma frequency exceeds the electron gyro frequency. Ions serve as a fixed background. We model the compressed dipole field by adding a constant magnetic field component to the dipole field. The direction of the compressed component is the same as that of the dipole field at the equator. This model of the compressed dipole field yields a magnetic field with off-equator minima and smaller inhomogeneity than the dipole field near the equator. The distribution of hot anisotropic electrons along the magnetic field is a function of adiabatic invariants that satisfies MHD force balance. In the compressed dipole field, the hot electron anisotropy, hot electron density and plasma beta in the direction parallel to the background magnetic field are the maximum at the minimum magnetic field. In our simulation, whistler chorus are generated at the minimum magnetic field with a peak frequency in agreement with the prediction by WHAMP, a local dispersion relation solver. The waves propagate in both directions along the magnetic field. Waves that propagate to higher magnetic latitude are damped at the boundary by the artificial resistive layers, while waves that propagate to lower latitude towards the equator continue to grow.
Transition dipole moments of the Qy band in photosynthetic pigments.
Oviedo, M Belén; Sánchez, Cristián G
2011-11-10
From studying the time evolution of the single electron density matrix within a density functional tight-binding formalism we calculate the Q(y) transition dipole moments vector direction and strength for a series of important photosynthetic pigments. We obtain good agreement with first-principles and experimental results and provide insights into the detailed nature of these excitations from the time evolving populations of molecular orbitals involved as well as correlations between pigment chemistry and dipole strength.
OEDIPUS: Onium Evolution, Dipole Interaction and Perturbative Unitarisation Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salam, G. P.
1997-09-01
OEDIPUS is a Monte Carlo simulation program which can be used to determine the small- x evolution of a heavy onium using Mueller's colour dipole formulation, giving the full distribution of dipoles in rapidity and impact parameter. Routines are also provided which calculate onium-onium scattering amplitudes between individual pairs of onium configurations, making it possible to establish the contribution of multiple pomeron exchange terms to onium-onium scattering (the unitarisation corrections).
Historical variation of the geomagnetic axial dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finlay, Christopher C.
2008-09-01
The geomagnetic axial dipole (hereinafter denoted g10) is the largest component of our planet's magnetic field. Its magnitude determines the morphology of solar-terrestrial electrical current systems and it is the most fundamental diagnostic property of the core-generated geodynamo. Elucidating past and future variations of g10(t) is consequently of central importance in geomagnetism. Previous historical geomagnetic field models, such as gufm1 of Jackson et al. [Jackson, A., Jonkers, A.R.T., Walker, M.R., 2000. Four centuries of geomagnetic secular variation from historical records. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 358, 957-990], used direct observations to constrain g10(t) only after 1840 A.D.; before this time a crude linear extrapolation of the post-1840 A.D. rate of change (15 nT/year) was employed. In this contribution I construct historical field models with g10(t) instead constrained from 1590 A.D. to 1840 A.D. by an archaeointensity dataset compiled by Korte et al. [Korte, M., Genevey, A., Constable, C.G., Frank, U., Schnepp, E., 2005. Continuous geomagnetic field models for the past 7 millennia. 1. A new global data compilation. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6, doi:10.1029/2004GC000800]. A range of possible linear models of the form g10(t)=g10(1840)+β(t-1840) are first explored; β=2.74±42.32 nT/year is found to explain the archaeointensity dataset with maximum likelihood, consistent with the recent findings of Gubbins et al. [Gubbins, D., Jones, A.L., Finlay, C.C., 2006. Fall in Earth's magnetic field is erratic. Science 312, 900-902]. Relaxing the linear constraint in an effort to find more physically plausible models, I find it is necessary to artificially increase the weight given to the archaeointensity data in order to obtain acceptable models. Despite satisfactorily explaining both the historical and archaeointensity data, and possessing reasonable spatial and temporal complexity, such free evolution models perform worse than the simpler linearly
Photoconductive dipole antennas for efficient terahertz receiver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Truong Khang; Kim, Won Tae; Kang, Bong Joo; Bark, Hyeon Sang; Kim, Kangho; Lee, Jaejin; Park, Ikmo; Jeon, Tae-In; Rotermund, Fabian
2017-01-01
We designed various photoconductive antennas applicable to efficient terahertz (THz) receivers and experimentally investigated their detection characteristics. Three different antennas based on Grischkowsky (H-), I-, and bowtie shapes were fabricated on a 1.2-μm-thick low-temperature GaAs layer that was grown on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate and subsequently attached to extended hemispherical silicon lenses. The experimental results showed different characteristics for detection responsivity and agreed well with the theoretical prediction. Measurements of the peak-to-peak amplitudes of the detected THz photocurrent were approximately 67, 42, and 59 nA for the H-shaped, I-shaped, and bowtie-shaped antennas, respectively. The I- and bowtie-shaped antennas provided higher THz detection sensitivities than the H-shaped antenna in the low-frequency region, i.e., below 0.6 THz. At a frequency of 0.2 THz, the I- and bowtie-shaped antennas offered an approximately 3.6-fold and 6-fold enhancement, respectively, in THz detection sensitivity compared to the H-shaped antenna. The bowtie-shaped antenna produced better peak amplitude and a wider spectral bandwidth than the I-shaped antenna. The observed detection peak frequencies of the I-shaped and bowtie-shaped antennas possessing very long dipole arms indicate that the lowest limit of the frequency detected in a typical THz-TDS using a GaAs photoconductive antenna as emitter/detector is around 0.2 THz.
Classification of Uxo by Principal Dipole Polarizability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kappler, K. N.
2010-12-01
Data acquired by multiple-Transmitter, multiple-receiver time-domain electromagnetic devices show great potential for determining the geometric and compositional information relating to near surface conductive targets. Here is presented an analysis of data from one such system; the Berkeley Unexploded-ordnance Discriminator (BUD) system. BUD data are succinctly reduced by processing the multi-static data matrices to obtain magnetic dipole polarizability matrices for data from each time gate. When viewed over all time gates, the projections of the data onto the principal polar axes yield so-called polarizability curves. These curves are especially well suited to discriminating between subsurface conductivity anomalies which correspond to objects of rotational symmetry and irregularly shaped objects. The curves have previously been successfully employed as library elements in a pattern recognition scheme aimed at discriminating harmless scrap metal from dangerous intact unexploded ordnance. However, previous polarizability-curve matching methods have only been applied at field sites which are known a priori to be contaminated by a single type of ordnance, and furthermore, the particular ordnance present in the subsurface was known to be large. Thus signal amplitude was a key element in the discrimination process. The work presented here applies feature-based pattern classification techniques to BUD field data where more than 20 categories of object are present. Data soundings from a calibration grid at the Yuma, AZ proving ground are used in a cross validation study to calibrate the pattern recognition method. The resultant method is then applied to a Blind Test Grid. Results indicate that when lone UXO are present and SNR is reasonably high, Polarizability Curve Matching successfully discriminates UXO from scrap metal when a broad range of objects are present.
High-energy hadron-hadron (dipole-dipole) scattering from lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, Matteo; Meggiolaro, Enrico
2008-10-01
In this paper the problem of high-energy hadron-hadron (dipole-dipole) scattering is approached (for the first time) from the point of view of lattice QCD, by means of Monte Carlo numerical simulations. In the first part, we give a brief review of how high-energy scattering amplitudes can be reconstructed, using a functional-integral approach, in terms of certain correlation functions of two Wilson loops, and we also briefly recall some relevant analyticity and crossing-symmetry properties of these loop-loop correlation functions, when going from Euclidean to Minkowskian theory. In the second part, we shall see how these (Euclidean) loop-loop correlation functions can be evaluated in lattice QCD, and we shall compare our numerical results with some nonperturbative analytical estimates that appeared in the literature, discussing, in particular, the question of the analytic continuation from Euclidean to Minkowskian theory and its relation to the still unsolved problem of the asymptotic s dependence of the hadron-hadron total cross sections.
Interstrand dipole-dipole interactions can stabilize the collagen triple helix.
Shoulders, Matthew D; Raines, Ronald T
2011-07-01
The amino acid sequence of collagen is composed of GlyXaaYaa repeats. A prevailing paradigm maintains that stable collagen triple helices form when (2S)-proline (Pro) or Pro derivatives that prefer the C(γ)-endo ring pucker are in the Xaa position and Pro derivatives that prefer the C(γ)-exo ring pucker are in the Yaa position. Anomalously, an amino acid sequence in an invertebrate collagen has (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (Hyp), a C(γ)-exo-puckered Pro derivative, in the Xaa position. In certain contexts, triple helices with Hyp in the Xaa position are now known to be hyperstable. Most intriguingly, the sequence (GlyHypHyp)(n) forms a more stable triple helix than does the sequence (GlyProHyp)(n). Competing theories exist for the physicochemical basis of the hyperstability of (GlyHypHyp)(n) triple helices. By synthesizing and analyzing triple helices with different C(γ)-exo-puckered proline derivatives in the Xaa and Yaa positions, we conclude that interstrand dipole-dipole interactions are the primary determinant of their additional stability. These findings provide a new framework for understanding collagen stability.
Superradiant laser: Effect of long-range dipole-dipole interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jen, H. H.
2016-11-01
We theoretically investigate the effect of long-range dipole-dipole interaction (LRDDI) on a superradiant laser (SL). This effect is induced from the atom-photon interaction in the dissipation process. In the bad-cavity limit usually performed to initiate SL, we demonstrate that cavity photon number oscillates as an interparticle distance of the atoms varies. Similarly the atom-atom coherence alternates with signs, showing critical transitions alternatively in SL operations. This suggests a complexity of the collective effect emerging in a large ensemble of atoms. Therefore this effect in a SL cannot be simply interpreted by only a part of the whole ensemble. We numerically solve for a steady-state SL including the spatially dependent LRDDI, and locate the maximal cavity photon number and the minimal spectral linewidth respectively at the optimal atomic separations in the setting of an equidistant atomic array. The scaling of a finite number of atoms shows that a steady-state SL outperforms the one without LRDDI, which allows for probing narrow atomic transitions and is potentially useful for precision measurements and next-generation optical clocks.
Constraints on Exotic Dipole-Dipole Couplings between Electrons at the Micrometer Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotler, Shlomi; Ozeri, Roee; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson
2015-08-01
New constraints on exotic dipole-dipole interactions between electrons at the micrometer scale are established, based on a recent measurement of the magnetic interaction between two trapped 88Sr+ ions. For light bosons (mass≤0.1 eV ) we obtain a 90% confidence interval for an axial-vector-mediated interaction strength of |gAegAe/4 π ℏc | ≤1.2 ×10-17 . Assuming C P T invariance, this constraint is compared to that on anomalous electron-positron interactions, derived from positronium hyperfine spectroscopy. We find that the electron-electron constraint is 6 orders of magnitude more stringent than the electron-positron counterpart. Bounds on pseudoscalar-mediated interaction as well as on torsion gravity are also derived and compared with previous work performed at different length scales. Our constraints benefit from the high controllability of the experimental system which contained only two trapped particles. It therefore suggests a useful new platform for exotic particle searches, complementing other experimental efforts.
Modeling Barkhausen Noise in magnetic glasses with dipole-dipole interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubey, Awadhesh K.; Hentschel, H. George E.; Jaiswal, Prabhat K.; Mondal, Chandana; Procaccia, Itamar; Gupta, Bhaskar Sen
2015-10-01
Long-ranged dipole-dipole interactions in magnetic glasses give rise to magnetic domains having labyrinthine patterns on the scale of about 1 micron. Barkhausen Noise then results from the movement of domain boundaries which is modeled by the motion of elastic membranes with random pinning. Here we propose that on the nanoscale new sources of Barkhausen Noise can arise. We propose an atomistic model of magnetic glasses in which we measure the Barkhausen Noise which results from the creation of new domains and the movement of domain boundaries on the nanoscale. The statistics of the Barkhausen Noise found in our simulations is in striking disagreement with the expectations in the literature. In fact we find exponential statistics without any power law, stressing the fact that Barkhausen Noise can belong to very different universality classes. In the present model the essence of the phenomenon is the fact that the spin response Green's function is decaying too rapidly for having sufficiently large magnetic jumps. A theory is offered in excellent agreement with the measured data without any free parameter.
Contribution of dipole-dipole interactions to the stability of the collagen triple helix.
Improta, Roberto; Berisio, Rita; Vitagliano, Luigi
2008-05-01
Unveiling sequence-stability and structure-stability relationships is a major goal of protein chemistry and structural biology. Despite the enormous efforts devoted, answers to these issues remain elusive. In principle, collagen represents an ideal system for such investigations due to its simplified sequence and regular structure. However, the definition of the molecular basis of collagen triple helix stability has hitherto proved to be a difficult task. Particularly puzzling is the decoding of the mechanism of triple helix stabilization/destabilization induced by imino acids. Although the propensity-based model, which correlates the propensities of the individual imino acids with the structural requirements of the triple helix, is able to explicate most of the experimental data, it is unable to predict the rather high stability of peptides embedding Gly-Hyp-Hyp triplets. Starting from the available X-ray structures of this polypeptide, we carried out an extensive quantum chemistry analysis of the mutual interactions established by hydroxyproline residues located at the X and Y positions of the Gly-X-Y motif. Our data clearly indicate that the opposing rings of these residues establish significant van der Waals and dipole-dipole interactions that play an important role in triple helix stabilization. These findings suggest that triple helix stabilization can be achieved by distinct structural mechanisms. The interplay of these subtle but recurrent effects dictates the overall stability of this widespread structural motif.
Electron dipole-dipole ESEEM in field-step ELDOR of nitroxide biradicals.
Kulik, L V; Grishin, Yu A; Dzuba, S A; Grigoryev, I A; Klyatskaya, S V; Vasilevsky, S F; Tsvetkov, Yu D
2002-07-01
The use of a rapid stepping of the magnetic field for investigation of electron dipole-dipole ESEEM in pulsed X-band ELDOR is described. The magnetic field jump, synchronized with a microwave pumping pulse, is positioned between the second and the third pulses of the stimulated echo pulse sequence. This echo is measured as a function of the delay between the first and the second pulses. The data are analyzed for a Fourier transform resulting in a Pake resonance pattern. To remove the electron-nuclear contributions to ESEEM, time traces with pumping were divided by those without. This resulted in complete elimination of electron-nuclear contributions, which is seen from the absence of peaks at nuclear frequencies and the similarity of results for protonated and deuterated solvents. For increasing the electron-electron modulation depth, a scanning of the magnetic field during the microwave pumping is proposed. The interspin distances and their distribution are determined for two long-chained (ca. 2 nm) nitroxide biradicals in glassy toluene and in frozen nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentyl-biphenyl. For the latter solvent, the alignment of the axis connecting two nitroxides in biradicals is quantitatively analyzed.
Electron Dipole-Dipole ESEEM in Field-Step ELDOR of Nitroxide Biradicals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulik, L. V.; Grishin, Yu. A.; Dzuba, S. A.; Grigoryev, I. A.; Klyatskaya, S. V.; Vasilevsky, S. F.; Tsvetkov, Yu. D.
2002-07-01
The use of a rapid stepping of the magnetic field for investigation of electron dipole-dipole ESEEM in pulsed X-band ELDOR is described. The magnetic field jump, synchronized with a microwave pumping pulse, is positioned between the second and the third pulses of the stimulated echo pulse sequence. This echo is measured as a function of the delay between the first and the second pulses. The data are analyzed for a Fourier transform resulting in a Pake resonance pattern. To remove the electron-nuclear contributions to ESEEM, time traces with pumping were divided by those without. This resulted in complete elimination of electron-nuclear contributions, which is seen from the absence of peaks at nuclear frequencies and the similarity of results for protonated and deuterated solvents. For increasing the electron-electron modulation depth, a scanning of the magnetic field during the microwave pumping is proposed. The interspin distances and their distribution are determined for two long-chained (ca. 2 nm) nitroxide biradicals in glassy toluene and in frozen nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentyl-biphenyl. For the latter solvent, the alignment of the axis connecting two nitroxides in biradicals is quantitatively analyzed.
Yurkin, Maxim A; Min, Michiel; Hoekstra, Alfons G
2010-09-01
We compared three formulations of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for simulation of light scattering by particles with refractive indices m=10+10i , 0.1+i , and 1.6+0.01i . These formulations include the filtered coupled dipoles (FCD), the lattice dispersion relation (LDR) and the radiative reaction correction. We compared the number of iterations required for the convergence of the iterative solver (proportional to simulation time) and the accuracy of final results. We showed that the LDR performance for m=10+10i is especially bad, while the FCD is a good option for all cases studied. Moreover, we analyzed the detailed structure of DDA errors and the spectrum of the DDA interaction matrix to understand the performance of the FCD. In particular, this spectrum, obtained with the FCD for particles smaller than the wavelength, falls into the bounds, physically implied for the spectrum of the infinite-dimensional integral scattering operator, contrary to two other DDA formulations. Finally, such extreme refractive indices can now be routinely simulated using modern desktop computers using the publicly available ADDA code, which includes an efficient implementation of the FCD.
Performance characterization of flexible dipole rectennas for smart actuator use
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jaehwan; Yang, Sang Yeol; Song, Kyo D.; Jones, Sean; Choi, Sang H.
2006-06-01
The concept of power transmission by a microwave is envisioned as the best option for alleviating the complexity associated with hard-wired control circuitry in controlling smart actuators and robots such as micro-aerial vehicles, biomimetic robots and space vehicles to produce remotely maneuverable capability. A flexible dipole rectenna array is conformably adaptable on the complex structure of vehicles used for practical applications of wireless power. For these applications, various flexible dipole rectennas and arrays were designed, fabricated and characterized over a frequency range of 9-12 GHz with 20 W and 200 W amplifiers through laboratory testing. The irradiance of the microwave power was measured. Also the irradiated power, the output power and the efficiency of the rectenna arrays were evaluated along with the microwave power and frequency. The maximum voltage of 65 VDC was observed from a series connected dipole rectenna array and the maximum current of 2.50 mA was obtained from a parallel connected rectenna array. The efficiency of dipole rectenna arrays ranges from 20% to 50% depending on the input power and the pole configuration. It was also demonstrated that the voltage, current and power output from a dipole rectenna array can be tailored by configuring the dipole rectenna elements in serial and parallel mode connections.
Preferential Rotation of Chiral Dipoles in Isotropic Turbulence.
Kramel, Stefan; Voth, Greg A; Tympel, Saskia; Toschi, Federico
2016-10-07
We introduce a new particle shape which shows preferential rotation in three dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence. We call these particles chiral dipoles because they consist of a rod with two helices of opposite handedness, one at each end. 3D printing is used to fabricate these particles with a length in the inertial range and their rotations are tracked in a turbulent flow between oscillating grids. High aspect ratio chiral dipoles preferentially align with their long axis along the extensional eigenvectors of the strain rate tensor, and the helical ends respond to the extensional strain rate with a mean spinning rate that is nonzero. We use Stokesian dynamics simulations of chiral dipoles in pure strain flow to quantify the dependence of spinning on particle shape. Based on the known response to pure strain, we build a model that gives the spinning rate of small chiral dipoles using velocity gradients along Lagrangian trajectories from high resolution direct numerical simulations. The statistics of chiral dipole spinning determined with this model show surprisingly good agreement with the measured spinning of much larger chiral dipoles in the experiments.
Space Propulsion Based on Dipole Assisted IEC System
Miley, George H.; Thomas, Robert; Takeyama, Yoshikazu; Momota, Hiromu; Shrestha, Prajakti J.
2006-01-20
A potential opportunity to enhance Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion propulsion exists by introducing a magnetic dipole into the IEC chamber. The dipole fields should increase the plasma density, hence fusion rate, in the center region of the IEC and the combined IEC and dipole confinement properties will reduce plasma losses. To demonstrate that a hybrid Dipole-IEC (DaIEC) configuration can provide improved confinement vs. a stand alone IEC, a first model DaIEC experiment has been benchmarked against a reference IEC. A triple Langmuir probe was used to measure the electron temperature and density. It was confirmed that the magnetic field increases the electron density by an order of magnitude and the addition of a controlled electrical potential to the dipole structure allows control of space charge buildup in the dense core region. This paper describes the dipole assisted IEC concept, its advantages, and soon missions it is well suited for. Here the present status of DaIEC experiments are described, the issues for scale up are discussed, and a conceptual plan for a power unit development is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakhshiev, N. G.
2003-09-01
We suggest a semiempirical approach to describing the influence of local nonlinear dipole-dipole interactions on the formation of van der Waals complexes of 1: 1 composition in the gas phase. Based on this approach, we quantitatively interpret the experimental data on the patterns of the shift in the electronic (complexes of a 3-aminophthalimide molecule with water and methanol molecules) and vibrational (complexes of a HCl molecule with acetone and acetonitrile molecules) absorption spectra attributable to the processes of complex formation. We confirm the conclusion that a nonlinear dipole-dipole interaction should be considered as one of the most important physical mechanisms that result in the association of molecules both in the gas phase and, under certain conditions, in the condensed state.
Wilt, M.; Beyer, J.H.; Goldstein, N.E.
1980-05-01
A comparison is made between the dipole-dipole resistivity method and electromagnetic sounding method based on surveys over a geothermal anomaly near Panther Canyon, Grass Valley, Nevada. Dipole-dipole data were taken in conjunction with large-scale geothermal studies in the area. Two orthogonal lines were measured over the heat flow anomaly and two-dimensional modeling was performed on the data. EM sounding data were taken with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory EM-60 system which is a large-moment, frequency-domain, horizontal-loop system. Relative to single 50-meter-radius transmitter coil, eight soundings were made with detectors at distances of 0.5 to 1.6 km from the loop. Interpreted results from the two surveys indicate substantial agreement in the depth to and thickness of a conductive zone that may be associated with the thermal anomaly. The dipole-dipole method is inherently better for resolving resistive basement beneath the conductive anomaly, and dc resistivity interpretation techniques are presently better to handle the complex two-dimensional geology. However, the EM method is far less labor intensive, requiring only one-third the field time for similar areal coverage.
de Torres, Juan; Mivelle, Mathieu; Moparthi, Satish Babu; Rigneault, Hervé; Van Hulst, Niek F; García-Parajó, María F; Margeat, Emmanuel; Wenger, Jérôme
2016-10-12
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) plays a key role in biochemistry, organic photovoltaics, and lighting sources. FRET is commonly used as a nanoruler for the short (nanometer) distance between donor and acceptor dyes, yet FRET is equally sensitive to the mutual dipole orientation. The orientation dependence complicates the FRET analysis in biological samples and may even lead to the absence of FRET for perpendicularly oriented donor and acceptor dipoles. Here, we exploit the strongly inhomogeneous and localized fields in plasmonic nanoantennas to open new energy transfer routes, overcoming the limitations from the mutual dipole orientation to ultimately enhance the FRET efficiency. We demonstrate that the simultaneous presence of perpendicular near-field components in the nanoantenna sets favorable energy transfer routes that increase the FRET efficiency up to 50% for nearly perpendicular donor and acceptor dipoles. This new facet of plasmonic nanoantennas enables dipole-dipole energy transfer that would otherwise be forbidden in a homogeneous environment. As such, our approach further increases the applicability of single-molecule FRET over diffraction-limited approaches, with the additional benefits of higher sensitivities and higher concentration ranges toward physiological levels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rustaee, N.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Daneshmand, R.
2017-01-01
In this paper we study the interaction between two two-level atoms with a two-mode quantized field in the presence of damping. Dipole-dipole interaction between the two atoms and the correlation between the two modes of field are also taken into account. To solve the model, using appropriate transformations, we reduce the considered model to a well-known Jaynes-Cummings model. After finding the analytical solution for the atom-field system, the effects of damping, field-field correlation and atomic dipole-dipole interaction on the entanglement between atoms and population inversion are investigated, numerically. It is observed that the dynamical behavior of the degree of entanglement for damped systems, in relatively large domains of time, takes a low but constant value adequately far from the beginning of the interaction. In addition, it is found that the value of population inversion after the initial oscillations takes negative values for damped systems and eventually vanishes by increasing time. Also, it is seen that simultaneous presence of both dipole-dipole interaction and field-field correlation provides typical collapse-revival phenomenon in the time-behavior of atomic inversion.
Neutron electric dipole moment from lattice QCD
Shintani, E.; Kanaya, K.; Aoki, S.; Ishizuka, N.; Kuramashi, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.; Kikukawa, Y.; Okawa, M.
2005-07-01
We carry out a feasibility study for the lattice QCD calculation of the neutron electric dipole moment (NEDM) in the presence of the {theta} term. We develop the strategy to obtain the nucleon EDM from the CP-odd electromagnetic form factor F{sub 3} at small {theta}, in which NEDM is given by lim{sub q{sup 2}}{sub {yields}}{sub 0}{theta}F{sub 3}(q{sup 2})/(2m{sub N}), where q is the momentum transfer and m{sub N} is the nucleon mass. We first derive a formula which relates F{sub 3}, a matrix element of the electromagnetic current between nucleon states, with vacuum expectation values of nucleons and/or the current. In the expansion of {theta}, the parity-odd part of the nucleon-current-nucleon three-point function contains contributions not only from the parity-odd form factors but also from the parity-even form factors multiplied by the parity-odd part of the nucleon two-point function, and, therefore, the latter contribution must be subtracted to extract F{sub 3}. We then perform an explicit lattice calculation employing the domain-wall quark action with the renormalization group improved gauge action in quenched QCD at a{sup -1}{approx_equal}2 GeV on a 16{sup 3}x32x16 lattice. At the quark mass m{sub f}a=0.03, corresponding to m{sub {pi}}/m{sub {rho}}{approx_equal}0.63, we accumulate 730 configurations, which allow us to extract the parity-odd part in both two- and three-point functions. Employing two different Dirac {gamma} matrix projections, we show that a consistent value for F{sub 3} cannot be obtained without the subtraction described above. We obtain F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.58 GeV{sup 2})/(2m{sub N})=-0.024(5)e{center_dot}fm for the neutron and F{sub 3}(q{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.58 GeV{sup 2})/(2m{sub N})=0.021(6)e{center_dot}fm for the proton.
Meta-aromatic polyurea with high dipole moment and dipole density for energy storage capacitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shan; Lin, Minren; Burlingame, Quinn; Zhang, Q. M.
2014-02-01
A dielectric polymer, i.e., meta-aromatic polyurea(meta-PU) was developed and investigated for high energy density, low loss energy storage capacitors. Modifications to the molecular structure can tune the dipolar density and dipole moment in the polyurea systems to improve the dielectric properties. Meta-PU was synthesized via a green synthetic route with a higher volume dipolar density than the aromatic polyurea previously reported. The meta-PU has an enhanced dielectric constant, higher energy density, and a high electrical breakdown. A high storage electrical energy density of 13 J/cm3 and energy storage efficiency of 91% can be achieved at 670 MV/electric field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saalwächter, Kay
2014-08-01
A recent implementation of a double-quantum (DQ) recoupling solid-state NMR experiment, dubbed DQ-DRENAR, provides a quantitative measure of homonuclear dipole-dipole coupling constants in multispin-1/2 systems. It was claimed to be more robust than another, previously known experiment relying on the recording of point-by-point normalized DQ build-up curves. Focusing on the POST-C7 and BaBa-xy16 DQ pulse sequences, I here present an in-depth comparison of both approaches based upon spin-dynamics simulations, stressing that they are based upon very similar principles and that they are largely equivalent when no imperfections are present. With imperfections, it is found that DQ-DRENAR/POST-C7 does not fully compensate for additional signal dephasing related to chemical shifts (CS) and their anisotropy (CSA), which over-compensates the intrinsic CS(A)-related efficiency loss of the DQ Hamiltonian and leads to an apparent cancellation effect. The simulations further show that the CS(A)-related dephasing in DQ-DRENAR can be removed by another phase cycle step or an improved super-cycled wideband version. Only the latter, or the normalized DQ build-up, are unaffected by CS(A)-related signal loss and yield clean pure dipolar-coupling information subject to unavoidable, pulse sequence specific performance reduction related to higher-order corrections of the dipolar DQ Hamiltonian. The intrinsically super-cycled BaBa-xy16 is shown to exhibit virtually no CS(A) related imperfection terms, but its dipolar performance is somewhat more challenged by CS(A) effects than POST-C7, which can however be compensated when applied at very fast MAS (>50 kHz). Practically, DQ-DRENAR uses a clever phase cycle separation to achieve a significantly shorter experimental time, which can also be beneficially employed in normalized DQ build-up experiments.
Dipole-dipole resonance line shapes in a cold Rydberg gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richards, B. G.; Jones, R. R.
2016-04-01
We have explored the dipole-dipole mediated, resonant energy transfer reaction, 32 p3 /2+32 p3 /2→32 s +33 s , in an ensemble of cold 85Rb Rydberg atoms. Stark tuning is employed to measure the population transfer probability as a function of the total electronic energy difference between the initial and final atom-pair states over a range of Rydberg densities, 2 ×108≤ρ ≤3 ×109 cm-3. The observed line shapes provide information on the role of beyond nearest-neighbor interactions, the range of Rydberg atom separations, and the electric field inhomogeneity in the sample. The widths of the resonance line shapes increase approximately linearly with the Rydberg density and are only a factor of 2 larger than expected for two-body, nearest-neighbor interactions alone. These results are in agreement with the prediction [B. Sun and F. Robicheaux, Phys. Rev. A 78, 040701(R) (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.040701] that beyond nearest-neighbor exchange interactions should not influence the population transfer process to the degree once thought. At low densities, Gaussian rather than Lorentzian line shapes are observed due to electric field inhomogeneities, allowing us to set an upper limit for the field variation across the Rydberg sample. At higher densities, non-Lorentzian, cusplike line shapes characterized by sharp central peaks and broad wings reflect the random distribution of interatomic distances within the magneto-optical trap (MOT). These line shapes are well reproduced by an analytic expression derived from a nearest-neighbor interaction model and may serve as a useful fingerprint for characterizing the position correlation function for atoms within the MOT.
IS THE TWO MICRON ALL SKY SURVEY CLUSTERING DIPOLE CONVERGENT?
Bilicki, Maciej; Chodorowski, Michal; Jarrett, Thomas; Mamon, Gary A.
2011-11-01
There is a long-standing controversy about the convergence of the dipole moment of the galaxy angular distribution (the so-called clustering dipole). Is the dipole convergent at all, and if so, what is the scale of the convergence? We study the growth of the clustering dipole of galaxies as a function of the limiting flux of the sample from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Contrary to some earlier claims, we find that the dipole does not converge before the completeness limit of the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog, i.e., up to 13.5 mag in the near-infrared K{sub s} band (equivalent to an effective distance of 300 Mpc h{sup -1}). We compare the observed growth of the dipole with the theoretically expected, conditional one (i.e., given the velocity of the Local Group relative to the cosmic microwave background), for the {Lambda}CDM power spectrum and cosmological parameters constrained by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The observed growth turns out to be within 1{sigma} confidence level of its theoretical counterpart once the proper observational window of the 2MASS flux-limited catalog is included. For a contrast, if the adopted window is a top hat, then the predicted dipole grows significantly faster and converges (within the errors) to its final value for a distance of about 300 Mpc h{sup -1}. By comparing the observational windows, we show that for a given flux limit and a corresponding distance limit, the 2MASS flux-weighted window passes less large-scale signal than the top-hat one. We conclude that the growth of the 2MASS dipole for effective distances greater than 200 Mpc h{sup -1} is only apparent. On the other hand, for a distance of 80 Mpc h{sup -1} (mean depth of the 2MASS Redshift Survey) and the {Lambda}CDM power spectrum, the true dipole is expected to reach only {approx}80% of its final value. Eventually, since for the window function of 2MASS the predicted growth is consistent with the observed one, we can compare the two to evaluate
Role of dipole elongation in orientationally ordered liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Dong-Qing; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Jiao; Yan, Li-Wei; Hu, Jin-He; Chen, Lang; Gong, Zi-Zheng; Guo, Yong-Xin; Han, Yu
2011-06-01
A recent study shows that the dipole elongation in the extended dipole model plays a significant role in the phase transitions of liquid crystal phases. In this paper, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for the dipole model with different distances between the two charges keeping the total dipole moment the same. The potential energy consists of the Lennard-Jones potential and the site-site electrostatic contribution of partial charges. Detailed analyses were made with respect to the average order parameters
Properties of the superconductor in accelerator dipole magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teravest, Derk
Several aspects of the application of superconductors to high field dipole magnets for particle accelerators are discussed. The attention is focused on the 10 tesla (1 m model) magnet that is envisaged for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The basic motivation behind the study is the intention of employing superconductors to their utmost performance. An overview of practical supercomputers, their applications and their impact on high field dipole magnets used for particle accelerators, is presented. The LHC reference design for the dipole magnets is outlined. Several models were used to study the influence of a number of factors in the shape and in particular, the deviation from the shape that is due to the flux flow state. For the investigated extrinsic and intrinsic factors, a classification can be made with respect to the effect on the shape of the characteristic of a multifilamentary wire. The optimization of the coil structure for high field dipole magnets, with respect to the field quality is described. An analytical model for solid and hollow filaments, to calculate the effect of filament magnetization in the quality of the dipole field, is presented.
On the orientation of the backbone dipoles in native folds
Ripoll, Daniel R.; Vila, Jorge A.; Scheraga, Harold A.
2005-01-01
The role of electrostatic interactions in determining the native fold of proteins has been investigated by analyzing the alignment of peptide bond dipole moments with the local electrostatic field generated by the rest of the molecule with and without solvent effects. This alignment was calculated for a set of 112 native proteins by using charges from a gas phase potential. Most of the peptide dipoles in this set of proteins are on average aligned with the electrostatic field. The dipole moments associated with α-helical conformations show the best alignment with the electrostatic field, followed by residues in β-strand conformations. The dipole moments associated with other secondary structure elements are on average better aligned than in randomly generated conformations. The alignment of a dipole with the local electrostatic field depends on both the topology of the native fold and the charge distribution assumed for all of the residues. The influences of (i) solvent effects, (ii) different sets of charges, and (iii) the charge distribution assumed for the whole molecule were examined with a subset of 22 proteins each of which contains <30 ionizable groups. The results show that alternative charge distribution models lead to significant differences among the associated electrostatic fields, whereas the electrostatic field is less sensitive to the particular set of the adopted charges themselves (empirical conformational energy program for peptides or parameters for solvation energy). PMID:15894608
Radiation from an off-centred rotating dipole in vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pétri, J.
2016-12-01
When a neutron star forms, after the collapse of its progenitor, a strong magnetic field survives in its interior. This magnetic topology is usually assumed to be well approximated by a dipole located right at the centre of the star. However, there is no particular reason why this dipole should be attached to this very special point. A slight shift from the stellar centre could have strong implications for the surrounding electromagnetic field configuration leading to clear observational signatures. We study the effect of the most general off-centred dipole anchored in the neutron star interior. Exact analytical solutions are given in vacuum outside the star to any order of accuracy in the small parameter ɛ = d/R, where d is the displacement of the dipole from the stellar centre and R the neutron star radius. As a simple diagnostic of this decentred dipole, the spin-down luminosity and the torque exerted on its crust are computed to the lowest leading order in ɛ. Results are compared to earlier works and a discussion on repercussions on pulsar braking index and multiwavelength light curves is proposed.
Polarized emission from an off-centred dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pétri, J.
2017-03-01
Radio polarization measurements of pulsed emission from pulsars offer a valuable insight into the basic geometry of the neutron star: inclination angle between the magnetic and rotation axis and inclination of the line of sight. So far, all studies about radio polarization focused on the standard rotating vector model with the underlying assumption of a centred dipole. In this Letter, we extend this model to the most general off-centred dipole configuration and give an exact closed analytic expression for the phase-resolved polarization angle. It is shown that contrary to the rotating vector model, for an off-centred dipole, the polarization angle also depends on the emission altitude. Although the fitting parameter space increases from two to six (position of the dipole, altitude and shift of the zero phase), statistical analysis should remain tractable. Observations revealing an evolution of the polarization angle with frequency would undeniably furnish a strong hint for the presence of a decentred magnetic dipole in neutron stars.
The optimised sc dipole of SIS100 for series production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roux, Christian; Mierau, Anna; Bleile, Alexander; Fischer, Egbert; Kaether, Florian; Körber, Boris; Schnizer, Pierre; Sugita, Kei; Szwangruber, Piotr
2017-02-01
At the international facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, an accelerator complex is developed for fundamental research in various fields of modern physics. In the SIS100 heavy-ion synchrotron, the main accelerator of FAIR, superconducting dipoles are used to bend the particle beam. The fast ramped dipoles are 3 m long super-ferric curved magnets operated at 4.5 K. The demands on field homogeneity required for sufficient beam stability are given by ΔB/B ≤ ±6 · 10‑4. An intense measurement program of the First of Series (FoS) dipole showed excellent quench behavior and lower than expected AC losses yielding the main load on the SIS100 cryoplant. The FoS is capable to provide a field strength of 1.9 T. However, with sophisticated measurement systems slight distortions of the dipole field were detected. Those effects were tracked down to mechanical inaccuracies of the yoke proven by appropriate geometrical measurements and simulations. After a survey on alternative fabrication techniques a magnet with a new yoke was built with substantial changes to improve the mechanical accuracy. Its characteristics concerning cryogenic losses, cold geometry and the resulting magnetic-field quality are presented and an outlook on the series production of superconducting dipoles for SIS100 is given.
Plasmonic interferometry: Probing launching dipoles in scanning-probe plasmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mollet, Oriane; Bachelier, Guillaume; Genet, Cyriaque; Huant, Serge; Drezet, Aurélien
2014-03-01
We develop a semi-analytical method for analyzing surface plasmon interferometry using scanning-probe tips as SP launchers. We apply our approach to Young double-hole interferometry experiments in a scanning tunneling microscope discussed recently in the literature as well as to new experiments—reported here—with an aperture near-field scanning optical microscope source positioned near a ring-like aperture slit in a thick gold film. In both experimental configurations, the agreement between experiments and model is very good. Our work reveals the role of the launching dipole orientations and magnetic versus electric dipole contributions to the interference imaging process. It also stresses the different orientations of the effective dipoles associated with the two different scanning-probe techniques.
NLO evolution of color dipoles in N=4 SYM
Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Balitsky, Ian
2009-07-04
Here, high-energy behavior of amplitudes in a gauge theory can be reformulated in terms of the evolution of Wilson-line operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the conformally invariant BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In QCD, the next-to-leading order BK equation has both conformal and non-conformal parts, the latter providing the running of the coupling constant. To separate the conformally invariant effects from the running-coupling effects, we calculate the NLO evolution of the color dipoles in the conformalmore » $${\\cal N}$$=4 SYM theory. We define the "composite dipole operator" with the rapidity cutoff preserving conformal invariance.« less
Diabatization based on the dipole and quadrupole: The DQ method
Hoyer, Chad E.; Xu, Xuefei; Ma, Dongxia; Gagliardi, Laura E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu; Truhlar, Donald G. E-mail: truhlar@umn.edu
2014-09-21
In this work, we present a method, called the DQ scheme (where D and Q stand for dipole and quadrupole, respectively), for transforming a set of adiabatic electronic states to diabatic states by using the dipole and quadrupole moments to determine the transformation coefficients. It is more broadly applicable than methods based only on the dipole moment; for example, it is not restricted to electron transfer reactions, and it works with any electronic structure method and for molecules with and without symmetry, and it is convenient in not requiring orbital transformations. We illustrate this method by prototype applications to two cases, LiH and phenol, for which we compare the results to those obtained by the fourfold-way diabatization scheme.
Magnetic field properties of Fermilab Energy-Saver dipoles
Hanft, R.; Brown, B.C.; Cooper, W.E.; Gross, D.A.; Michelotti, L.; Schmidt, E.E.; Turkot, F.
1983-03-01
At Fermilab we have operated a production line for the fabrication of 901 21 foot long superconducting dipoles for use in the Energy Saver/Doubler. At any one time 772 of these dipoles are installed in the accelerator and 62 in beamlines; the remainder are spares. Magnetic field data are now available for most of these dipoles; in this paper we present some of these data which show that we have been able to maintain the necessary consistency in field quality throughout the production process. Specifically we report harmonic field coefficients, showing that the mechanical design permits substantial reduction of the magnitudes of the normal and skew quadrupole harmonic coefficients; field shape profiles; integral field data; and field angle data.
Atom-Pair Kinetics with Strong Electric-Dipole Interactions.
Thaicharoen, N; Gonçalves, L F; Raithel, G
2016-05-27
Rydberg-atom ensembles are switched from a weakly to a strongly interacting regime via adiabatic transformation of the atoms from an approximately nonpolar into a highly dipolar quantum state. The resultant electric dipole-dipole forces are probed using a device akin to a field ion microscope. Ion imaging and pair-correlation analysis reveal the kinetics of the interacting atoms. Dumbbell-shaped pair-correlation images demonstrate the anisotropy of the binary dipolar force. The dipolar C_{3} coefficient, derived from the time dependence of the images, agrees with the value calculated from the permanent electric-dipole moment of the atoms. The results indicate many-body dynamics akin to disorder-induced heating in strongly coupled particle systems.
Reply to "Comment on `Axion Induced Oscillating Electric Dipole Moments' "
Hill, Christopher T.
2015-10-19
A recent paper of Flambaum, Roberts and Stadnik, [1], claims there is no induced oscillating electric dipole moment (OEDM), eg, for the electron, arising from the oscillating cosmic axion background via the anomaly. This claim is based upon the assumption that electric dipoles always be defined by their coupling to static (constant in time) electric fields. The relevant Feynman diagram, as computed by [1], then becomes a total divergence, and vanishes in momentum space. However, an OEDM does arise from the anomaly, coupled to time dependent electric fields. It shares the decoupling properties with the anomaly. The full action, in an arbitrary gauge, was computed in [2], [3]. It is nonvanishing with a time dependent outgoing photon, and yields physics, eg, electric dipole radiation of an electron immersed in a cosmic axion field.
Hadron production at LHC in dipole momentum space
Basso, E. A.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; De Oliveira, E. G.
2013-03-25
The dipole color approach is the framework that considers the quark-antiquark pair scattering off the target. The rapidity evolution of color dipoles is given by the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation, for which analytical solutions are not yet known. A good way to explore the asymptotic BK solutions is through the traveling wave method of QCD, that uses a correspondence between the BK evolution equation in momentum space and reaction-diffusion physics. Using the traveling wave based AGBS model for the dipole amplitude in momentum space, and within the k{sub t}-factorization formalism, we describe the LHC data on single inclusive hadron yield for p-p collisions.
Deciphering the Dipole Anisotropy of Galactic Cosmic Rays.
Ahlers, Markus
2016-10-07
Recent measurements of the dipole anisotropy in the arrival directions of Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) indicate a strong energy dependence of the dipole amplitude and phase in the TeV-PeV range. We argue here that these observations can be well understood within standard diffusion theory as a combined effect of (i) one or more local sources at Galactic longitude 120°≲l≲300° dominating the CR gradient below 0.1-0.3 PeV, (ii) the presence of a strong ordered magnetic field in our local environment, (iii) the relative motion of the solar system, and (iv) the limited reconstruction capabilities of ground-based observatories. We show that an excellent candidate of the local CR source responsible for the dipole anisotropy at 1-100 TeV is the Vela supernova remnant.
Infinite geometric frustration in a cubic dipole cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schönke, Johannes; Schneider, Tobias M.; Rehberg, Ingo
2015-01-01
The geometric arrangement of interacting (magnetic) dipoles is a question of fundamental importance in physics, chemistry, and engineering. Motivated by recent progress concerning the self-assembly of magnetic structures, the equilibrium orientation of eight interacting dipoles in a cubic cluster is investigated in detail. Instead of discrete equilibria we find a type of ground state consisting of infinitely many orientations. This continuum of energetically degenerate states represents a yet unknown form of magnetic frustration. The corresponding dipole rotations in the flat potential valley of this Goldstone mode enable the construction of frictionless magnetic couplings. Using computer-assisted algebraic geometry methods, we moreover completely enumerate all equilibrium configurations. The seemingly simple cubic system allows for exactly 9536 unstable discrete equilibria falling into 183 distinct energy families.
Diabatization based on the dipole and quadrupole: The DQ method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoyer, Chad E.; Xu, Xuefei; Ma, Dongxia; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G.
2014-09-01
In this work, we present a method, called the DQ scheme (where D and Q stand for dipole and quadrupole, respectively), for transforming a set of adiabatic electronic states to diabatic states by using the dipole and quadrupole moments to determine the transformation coefficients. It is more broadly applicable than methods based only on the dipole moment; for example, it is not restricted to electron transfer reactions, and it works with any electronic structure method and for molecules with and without symmetry, and it is convenient in not requiring orbital transformations. We illustrate this method by prototype applications to two cases, LiH and phenol, for which we compare the results to those obtained by the fourfold-way diabatization scheme.
Statistical thermodynamics of fluids with both dipole and quadrupole moments.
Benavides, Ana L; Delgado, Francisco J García; Gámez, Francisco; Lago, Santiago; Garzón, Benito
2011-06-21
New Gibbs ensemble simulation data for a polar fluid modeled by a square-well potential plus dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole, and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are presented. This simulation data is used in order to assess the applicability of the multipolar square-well perturbation theory [A. L. Benavides, Y. Guevara, and F. del Río, Physica A 202, 420 (1994)] to systems where more than one term in the multipole expansion is relevant. It is found that this theory is able to reproduce qualitatively well the vapor-liquid phase diagram for different multipolar moment strengths, corresponding to typical values of real molecules, except in the critical region. Hence, this theory is used to model the behavior of substances with multiple chemical bonds such as carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide and we found that with a suitable choice of the values of the intermolecular parameters, the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these species is adequately estimated.
Nonlinear dynamics of dipoles in microtubules: Pseudospin model.
Nesterov, Alexander I; Ramírez, Mónica F; Berman, Gennady P; Mavromatos, Nick E
2016-06-01
We perform a theoretical study of the dynamics of the electric field excitations in a microtubule by taking into consideration the realistic cylindrical geometry, dipole-dipole interactions of the tubulin-based protein heterodimers, the radial electric field produced by the solvent, and a possible degeneracy of energy states of individual heterodimers. The consideration is done in the frame of the classical pseudospin model. We derive the system of nonlinear dynamical partial differential equations of motion for interacting dipoles and the continuum version of these equations. We obtain the solutions of these equations in the form of snoidal waves, solitons, kinks, and localized spikes. Our results will help to achieve a better understanding of the functional properties of microtubules including the motor protein dynamics and the information transfer processes. Our considerations are based on classical dynamics. Some speculations on the role of possible quantum effects are also made.
Nonlinear dynamics of dipoles in microtubules: Pseudospin model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nesterov, Alexander I.; Ramírez, Mónica F.; Berman, Gennady P.; Mavromatos, Nick E.
2016-06-01
We perform a theoretical study of the dynamics of the electric field excitations in a microtubule by taking into consideration the realistic cylindrical geometry, dipole-dipole interactions of the tubulin-based protein heterodimers, the radial electric field produced by the solvent, and a possible degeneracy of energy states of individual heterodimers. The consideration is done in the frame of the classical pseudospin model. We derive the system of nonlinear dynamical partial differential equations of motion for interacting dipoles and the continuum version of these equations. We obtain the solutions of these equations in the form of snoidal waves, solitons, kinks, and localized spikes. Our results will help to achieve a better understanding of the functional properties of microtubules including the motor protein dynamics and the information transfer processes. Our considerations are based on classical dynamics. Some speculations on the role of possible quantum effects are also made.
SUPERCONDUCTING RF-DIPOLE DEFLECTING AND CRABBING CAVITIES
Delayen, Jean; De Silva, Paygalage Subashini
2013-09-01
Recent interests in designing compact deflecting and crabbing structures for future accelerators and colliders have initiated the development of novel rf structures. The superconducting rf-dipole cavity is one of the first compact designs with attractive properties such as higher gradients, higher shunt impedance, the absence of lower order modes and widely separated higher order modes. Two rf-dipole designs of 400 MHz and 499 MHz have been designed, fabricated and tested as proof-of-principle designs of compact deflecting and crabbing cavities for the LHC high luminosity upgrade and Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade. The first rf tests have been performed on the rf-dipole geometries at 4.2 K and 2.0 K in a vertical test assembly with excellent results. The cavities have achieved high gradients with high intrinsic quality factors, and multipacting levels were easily processed.
Investigations of dipole localization accuracy in MEG using the bootstrap.
Darvas, F; Rautiainen, M; Pantazis, D; Baillet, S; Benali, H; Mosher, J C; Garnero, L; Leahy, R M
2005-04-01
We describe the use of the nonparametric bootstrap to investigate the accuracy of current dipole localization from magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies of event-related neural activity. The bootstrap is well suited to the analysis of event-related MEG data since the experiments are repeated tens or even hundreds of times and averaged to achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The set of repetitions or epochs can be viewed as a set of independent realizations of the brain's response to the experiment. Bootstrap resamples can be generated by sampling with replacement from these epochs and averaging. In this study, we applied the bootstrap resampling technique to MEG data from somatotopic experimental and simulated data. Four fingers of the right and left hand of a healthy subject were electrically stimulated, and about 400 trials per stimulation were recorded and averaged in order to measure the somatotopic mapping of the fingers in the S1 area of the brain. Based on single-trial recordings for each finger we performed 5000 bootstrap resamples. We reconstructed dipoles from these resampled averages using the Recursively Applied and Projected (RAP)-MUSIC source localization algorithm. We also performed a simulation for two dipolar sources with overlapping time courses embedded in realistic background brain activity generated using the prestimulus segments of the somatotopic data. To find correspondences between multiple sources in each bootstrap, sample dipoles with similar time series and forward fields were assumed to represent the same source. These dipoles were then clustered by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) clustering algorithm using their combined normalized time series and topographies as feature vectors. The mean and standard deviation of the dipole position and the dipole time series in each cluster were computed to provide estimates of the accuracy of the reconstructed source locations and time series.
Late kinetic decoupling of light magnetic dipole dark matter
Gondolo, Paolo; Kadota, Kenji
2016-06-07
We study the kinetic decoupling of light (≲10 GeV) magnetic dipole dark matter (DM). We find that present bounds from collider, direct DM searches, and structure formation allow magnetic dipole DM to remain in thermal equilibrium with the early universe plasma until as late as the electron-positron annihilation epoch. This late kinetic decoupling leads to a minimal mass for the earliest dark protohalos of thousands of solar masses, in contrast to the conventional weak scale DM scenario where they are of order 10{sup −6} solar masses.
The dipole moment function and vibrational transition intensities of OH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nelson, David D., Jr.; Schiffman, Aram; Nesbitt, David J.
1989-05-01
Flash-kinetic IR absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the relative intensities of nine pairs of rovibrational transitions of OH in the v=1-0 fundamental. These intensities are found to be strongly J-dependent in a way that furnishes detailed data on the shape of the OH dipole moment function, and therefore of the absolute IR transition strengths. The rotationless Einstein A coefficient for the OH fundamental is determined on the basis of the dipole moment function to be 16.7(19) Hz; this is noted to be in substantial disagreement with most other experimental and theoretical results.
All-dielectric hollow nanodisk for tailoring magnetic dipole emission.
Feng, Tianhua; Xu, Yi; Liang, Zixian; Zhang, Wei
2016-11-01
We propose a silicon hollow nanodisk for enhancing magnetic dipole (MD) emission. The Purcell factor can be more than 300, which is one order of magnitude larger than the silicon nanosphere case. It is demonstrated that the silicon hollow nanodisk resembles the function of an azimuthally polarized beam for tailoring the magnetic and electric dipole (ED) emission. It is shown that MD emission can be significantly enhanced, while ED emission will be suppressed when emitters are located in the hollow of the nanodisk. The dependence of the Purcell factor on the geometry parameters is also studied. Our results might facilitate the on-chip engineering of magnetic light emission.
Multiple Magnetic Dipole Modeling Coupled with a Genetic Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lientschnig, G.
2012-05-01
Magnetic field measurements of scientific spacecraft can be modelled successfully with the multiple magnetic dipole method. The existing GANEW software [1] uses a modified Gauss-Newton algorithm to find good magnetic dipole models. However, this deterministic approach relies on suitable guesses of the initial parameters which require a lot of expertise and time-consuming interaction of the user. Here, the use of probabilistic methods employing genetic algorithms is put forward. Stochastic methods like these are well- suited for providing good initial starting points for GANEW. Furthermore a computer software is reported upon that was successfully tested and used for a Cluster II satellite.
Role of dipole charges in black hole thermodynamics
Copsey, Keith; Horowitz, Gary T.
2006-01-15
Modern derivations of the first law of black holes appear to show that the only charges that arise are monopole charges that can be obtained by surface integrals at infinity. However, the recently discovered five dimensional black ring solutions empirically satisfy a first law in which dipole charges appear. We resolve this contradiction and derive a general form of the first law for black rings. Dipole charges do appear together with a corresponding potential. We also include theories with Chern-Simons terms and generalize the first law to other horizon topologies and more generic local charges.
Quantum Electromagnetic Nonlinearity Affecting Charges and Dipole Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M.; Shabad, A. E.; Shishmarev, A. A.
2017-03-01
Due to the nonlinearity of QED, a static charge becomes a magnetic dipole if placed in a magnetic field, and a magnetic monopole on the background is a combination of constant electric and magnetic fields. Already without external field, the cubic Maxwell equation for the field of a point charge has a soliton solution with a finite field energy and finite potential, the energy-momentum vector of a moving soliton being the same as that of a point massive particle. Equations are given for self-coupling dipole moments. Any theoretically found value for a multipole moment of a baryon or a meson should be subjected to nonlinear renormalization.
SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipole coil production tooling
Carson, J.A.; Barczak, E.J.; Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Smith, G.A.
1989-03-01
Superconducting Super Collider dipole coils must be produced to high precision to ensure uniform prestress and even conductor distribution within the collared coil assembly. Tooling is being prepared at Fermilab for the production of high precision 1M and 16.6M SSC dipole coils suitable for mass production. The design and construction methods builds on the Tevatron tooling and production experience. Details of the design and construction methods and measured coil uniformity of 1M coils will be presented. 4 refs., 10 figs.
Supersolid phase in atomic gases with magnetic dipole interaction
Buehler, Adam; Buechler, Hans Peter
2011-08-15
A major obstacle for the experimental realization of a supersolid phase with cold atomic gases in an optical lattice is the weakness of the nearest-neighbor interactions achievable via magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. In this paper, we show that by using a large filling of atoms within each well, the characteristic energy scales are strongly enhanced. Within this regime, the system is well described by the rotor model, and the qualitative behavior of the phase diagram derives from mean-field theory. We find a stable supersolid phase for realistic parameters with chromium atoms.
Possible benefits from shuffling dipoles in the RHIC
Ohnuma, S.
1986-01-06
An example is given which demonstrates how dipole shuffling can be done to minimize various effects of magnetic errors. The concepts of ''global'' and ''local'' compensation are explained. With a Gaussian distribution, it is found to be possible to achieve an improvement of factor four or five over the statistically expected values without too much sacrifice in nonlinear distortion. There was no difference found in the performance between shuffling eight dipoles and shuffling twelve, and the tune dependence of the performance is found to be acceptable when the change in tune is less than about 0.5. (LEW)
Circular current loops, magnetic dipoles and spherical harmonic analysis.
Alldredge, L.R.
1980-01-01
Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) is the most used method of describing the Earth's magnetic field, even though spherical harmonic coefficients (SHC) almost completely defy interpretation in terms of real sources. Some moderately successful efforts have been made to represent the field in terms of dipoles placed in the core in an effort to have the model come closer to representing real sources. Dipole sources are only a first approximation to the real sources which are thought to be a very complicated network of electrical currents in the core of the Earth. -Author
Dipole-dipole interactions in the computational micromagnetism of iron (1955-2010) (invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arrott, Anthony S.
2011-04-01
Basic treatment of magnetically soft ferromagnetic metals has been a long struggle during the 55 years of the MMM conferences. At the first conference, Charles Bean brought on stage a four-foot-long mechanical analog of a domain wall. Landau, twenty years earlier had shown that the wall exists to minimize the magnetostatic self-energy of the dipole moments that accompany the spins responsible for ferromagnetism, but no one could calculate the energy of the simple structure that Landau used to illustrate his conjecture. The structure itself was not adequately described. Today, computer programs use the full power of micromagnetics to properly describe the vortex structure that was hidden in Landau's model. Vortices terminate in swirls that can be manipulated by small bias fields (mT) or currents (mA). The swirls carry external fields of 0.5 T and can oscillate (driven or freely) over distances of tens of nm in times of tenths of ns, providing new tools for scientific and technical advances on the atomic scale. That this could have been overlooked for so long is evidence of the difficulty of visualizing the consequence of what for all these years has been called the pole-avoidance principle.
Cold Rydberg atoms in a CO2 optical dipole trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonçalves, Luis; Kondo, Jorge; Cabral, Jader; Marcassa, Luis
2012-06-01
There has been increasing interest in cold Rydberg atoms over the last several years. The primary reason for this attention is that interactions between Rydberg atoms are strong and lead to many interesting and useful phenomena, which require high atomic density samples. In this work, we have built an experimental setup to investigate cold Rydberg atom collision in a CO2 optical dipole trap. Briefly, we have loaded a Rb standard magneto-optical trap from an atomic vapor provided by a dispenser. Then we turn on 100W CO2 dipole trap and we apply a loading phase, in which the repumper light intensity is reduced and the trapping frequency is detuned to the red. After this phase, the trapping and repumper laser beams are turned off and we wait 100ms for the atoms, that were not trapped, to fall off the dipole trap region due to gravity. Finally, we turn off the dipole trap and excite the Rydberg state using a two photon transition. The Rydberg atoms are detected using pulsed field ionization technique. During the presentation we shall present preliminary results involving collisions between nD states.
Cold Rydberg atom collisions in a dipole trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabral, Jader; Gonçalves, Luis; Kondo, Jorge; Marcassa, Luis
2011-05-01
We have built a new experimental setup to investigate cold Rydberg atom collision in a high atomic density sample in a CO2 dipole trap. Briefly, we load a Rb standard magneto-optical trap from an atomic vapor provided by a dispenser. Then we turn on 100W CO2 dipole trap and we apply a loading phase, in which the repumper light intensity is reduced. After this phase, the trapping and repumper laser beams are turned off and we wait 100 ms for the atoms that were not trapped to fall off the dipole trap region due to gravity. Finally, we turn off the dipole trap and excite the Rydberg state using a two photon transition. The Rydberg atoms are detected using pulsed field ionization technique. In this new setup, we can image the ions onto a MCP detector to study the spatial distribution. The electrons maybe detected also by another MCP. During the presentation we shall present preliminary results involving the excitation of nD+nD states. We acknowledge financial support from FAPESP, CNPq, INCT-IQ, AFOSR (FA9550-09-1-0503)
Backward dilepton production in color dipole and parton models
Gay Ducati, Maria Beatriz; Graeve de Oliveira, Emmanuel
2010-03-01
The Drell-Yan dilepton production at backward rapidities is studied in proton-nucleus collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and LHC energies by comparing two different approaches: the k{sub T} factorization at next-to-leading order with intrinsic transverse momentum and the same process formulated in the target rest frame, i.e., the color dipole approach. Our results are expressed in terms of the ratio between p(d)-A and p-p collisions as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity. Three nuclear parton distribution functions are used: EKS (Eskola, Kolhinen, and Ruuskanen), EPS08, and EPS09 and, in both approaches, dileptons show sensitivity to nuclear effects, specially regarding the intrinsic transverse momentum. Also, there is room to discriminate between formalisms: the color dipole approach lacks soft effects introduced by the intrinsic k{sub T}. Geometric scaling GBW (Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff) and BUW (Boer, Utermann, and Wessels) color dipole cross section models and also a DHJ (Dumitru, Hayashigaki, and Jalilian-Marian) model, which breaks geometric scaling, are used. No change in the ratio between collisions is observed, showing that this observable is not changed by the particular shape of the color dipole cross section. Furthermore, our k{sub T} factorization results are compared with color glass condensate results at forward rapidities: the results agree at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider although disagree at LHC, mainly due to the different behavior of target gluon and quark shadowing.
Detail of the base of dipole antenna element with graduated ...
Detail of the base of dipole antenna element with graduated pole, note the arms supporting the vertical wires away from the mast and the metal mesh covering the concrete base, view facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI
Detail of dipole antenna element (right) and 94' lowband reflector ...
Detail of dipole antenna element (right) and 94' low-band reflector screen poles (left), note the guy wires from the antenna element, view facing north northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI
Electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions in carbon isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Hagino, Kouichi
2003-07-01
We carry out shell model calculations to study electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions of C isotopes. We point out the configuration dependence of the quadrupole and magnetic moments of the odd C isotopes, which will be useful to find out the deformations and the spin parities of the ground states of these nuclei. We also study the electric dipole states of C isotopes, focusing on the interplay between low energy pigmy strength and giant dipole resonances. As far as the energies of the resonances are concerned, reasonable agreement is obtained with available experimental data for the photoreaction cross sections in 12C, 13C, and 14C, both in the low energy region below ħω=14 MeV and in the high energy giant resonance region (14 MeV <ħω⩽30 MeV). The calculated transition strength below the giant dipole resonance (ħω⩽14 MeV) in C isotopes heavier than 15C is found to exhaust about 12 16 % of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule value and 50 80 % of the cluster sum rule value.
Generating intrinsic dipole anisotropy in the large scale structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Shamik
2014-03-01
There have been recent reports of unexpectedly large velocity dipole in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) data. We investigate whether the excess in the NVSS dipole reported can be of cosmological origin. We assume a long wavelength inhomogeneous scalar perturbation of the form αsin(κz) and study its effects on the matter density contrasts. Assuming an ideal fluid model, we calculate, in the linear regime, the contribution of the inhomogeneous mode to the density contrast. We calculate the expected dipole in the large scale structure (LSS) for two cases, first assuming that the mode is still superhorizon everywhere, and second assuming the mode is subhorizon but has crossed the horizon deep in matter domination and is subhorizon everywhere in the region of the survey (NVSS). In both cases, we find that such an inhomogeneous scalar perturbation is sufficient to generate the reported values of dipole anisotropy in LSS. For the superhorizon modes, we find values which are consistent with both cosmic microwave background and NVSS results. We also predict signatures for the model which can be tested by future observations.
Four Centuries of the Geocentric Axial Dipole Hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tauxe, L.; Kent, D. V.
2004-12-01
William Gilbert first articulated what has come to be known as the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis. The GAD hypothesis is the principle on which paleogeographic reconstructions rely to constrain paleolatitude. For decades there have been calls for permanent non-dipole contributions to the time averaged field. Recently, these have demanded large contributions of the axial octupole, which, if valid, would call into question the general utility of the GAD hypothesis. In the process of geological recording of the geomagnetic field, ``Earth filters'' distort the directions. Many processes, for example, sedimentary inclination error and random tilting lead to a net shallowing of the observed direction. Therefore inclinations that are shallower than expected from GAD can be explained by recording biases, northward transport, or non-dipole geomagnetic fields. Using paleomagnetic data from the last five million years from well constrained lava flow data allows the construction of a statistical geomagnetic field model. Such a model can predict not only the average expected direction for a given latitude, but also the shape of the distribution of directions produced by secular variation. This allows us to differentiate among the possible explanations for shallow bias. We find no compelling reason to abandon the geocentric dipole hypothesis that has served us well for four centuries.
Investigation of pygmy dipole resonance in 154Sm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quliyev, Huseynqulu; Zenginerler, Zemine; Guliyev, Ekber; Kuliev, Ali Akbar
2017-02-01
In this paper, an investigation of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 154Sm nucleus has been performed using quasi particle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Analysis of the numerical results indicates that both ΔK=1 and ΔK=0 branches plays significant role in formation of PDR.
Semiclassical Quantization of the Electron-Dipole System.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turner, J. E.
1979-01-01
This paper presents a derivation of the number given by Fermi in 1925, in his semiclassical treatment of the motion of an electron in the field of two stationary positive charges, for Bohr quantization of the electron orbits when the stationary charges are positive, and applies it to an electron moving in the field of a stationary dipole.…
Enhancement of the electron electric dipole moment in gadolinium garnets
Mukhamedjanov, T.N.; Dzuba, V.A.; Sushkov, O.P.
2003-10-01
Effects caused by the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) in gadolinium garnets are considered. Experimental studies of these effects could improve the current upper limit on the electron EDM by several orders of magnitude. We suggest a consistent theoretical model and perform calculations of observable effects in gadolinium gallium garnet and gadolinium iron garnet. Our calculation accounts for both direct and exchange diagrams.
Cholesterol effect on the dipole potential of lipid membranes.
Starke-Peterkovic, Thomas; Turner, Nigel; Vitha, Mark F; Waller, Mark P; Hibbs, David E; Clarke, Ronald J
2006-06-01
The effect of cholesterol removal by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin on the dipole potential, psi(d), of membrane vesicles composed of natural membrane lipids extracted from the kidney and brain of eight vertebrate species was investigated using the voltage-sensitive fluorescent probe di-8-ANEPPS. Cyclodextrin treatment reduced cholesterol levels by on average 80% and this was associated with an average reduction in psi(d) of 50 mV. Measurements of the effect of a range of cholesterol derivatives on the psi(d) of DMPC lipid vesicles showed that the magnitude of the effect correlated with the component of the sterol's dipole moment perpendicular to the membrane surface. The changes in psi(d) observed could not be accounted for solely by the electric field originating from the sterols' dipole moments. Additional factors must arise from sterol-induced changes in lipid packing, which changes the density of dipoles in the membrane, and changes in water penetration into the membrane, which changes the effective dielectric constant of the interfacial region. In DMPC membranes, the cholesterol-induced change in psi(d) was biphasic, i.e., a maximum in psi(d) was observed at approximately 35-45 mol %, after which psi(d) started to decrease. We suggest that this could be associated with a maximum in the strength of DMPC-cholesterol intermolecular forces at this composition.
Collectivity of dipole bands in {sup 196}Pb
Carpenter, M.P.; Liang, Y.; Janssens, R.V.F.
1995-08-01
The region of nuclei with mass {approximately} 190 was studied extensively over the last few years following the discovery of superdeformation in {sup 190}Hg. More recently, considerable interest in the neutron-deficient Pb isotopes developed with the discover of a number of bands at high spin connected by dipole transitions in both even {sup 192-200}Pb and odd {sup 197-201}Pb nuclei. The majority of the dipole bands are regular in character (i.e. transition energies increase smoothly with spin) while the remaining bands are referred to as irregular in character, due to the fact that the transition energies do not increase smoothly with spin. The properties of the dipole bands were interpreted in terms of high-K, moderately-deformed oblate states built on configurations involving high-J, shape-driving quasiproton excitations coupled to rotation-aligned quasineutrons. It was suggested that the difference between the regular and irregular dipole sequences is related to the deformation where the irregular sequences are thought to be less collective than their regular counterparts.
Shell Model Estimate of Electric Dipole Moments for Xe Isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teruya, Eri; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji
The nuclear Schiff moments of Xe isotopes which induce electric dipole moments of neutral Xe atoms is theoretically estimated. Parity and time-reversal violating two-body nuclear interactions are assumed. The nuclear wave functions are calculated in terms of the nuclear shell model. Influences of core excitations on the Schiff moments in addition to the over-shell excitations are discussed.
Improved limit on the Ra225 electric dipole moment
Bishof, Michael; Parker, Richard H.; Bailey, Kevin G.; ...
2016-08-03
In this study, octupole-deformed nuclei, such as that of 225Ra, are expected to amplify observable atomic electric dipole moments (EDMs) that arise from time-reversal and parity-violating interactions in the nuclear medium. In 2015 we reported the first “proof-of-principle” measurement of the 225Ra atomic EDM.
FOHI-D: An iterative Hirshfeld procedure including atomic dipoles
Geldof, D.; Blockhuys, F.; Van Alsenoy, C.; Krishtal, A.
2014-04-14
In this work, a new partitioning method based on the FOHI method (fractional occupation Hirshfeld-I method) will be discussed. The new FOHI-D method uses an iterative scheme in which both the atomic charge and atomic dipole are calculated self-consistently. In order to induce the dipole moment on the atom, an electric field is applied during the atomic SCF calculations. Based on two sets of molecules, the atomic charge and intrinsic atomic dipole moment of hydrogen and chlorine atoms are compared using the iterative Hirshfeld (HI) method, the iterative Stockholder atoms (ISA) method, the FOHI method, and the FOHI-D method. The results obtained are further analyzed as a function of the group electronegativity of Boyd et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 4182 (1988); Boyd et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 1652 (1992)] and De Proft et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 97, 1826 (1993)]. The molecular electrostatic potential (ESP) based on the HI, ISA, FOHI, and FOHI-D charges is compared with the ab initio ESP. Finally, the effect of adding HI, ISA, FOHI, and FOHI-D atomic dipoles to the multipole expansion as a function of the precision of the ESP is analyzed.
Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component
Praeg, W.F.
1983-08-31
An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.
Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component
Praeg, Walter F.
1985-01-01
An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.
DESIGN OF AN AC-DIPOLE FOR USE IN RHIC.
PARKER,B.; BAI,M.; JAIN,A.; MCINTYRE,G.; METH,M.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SANDERS,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.
1999-03-29
We present two options for implementing a pair of AC-dipoles in RHIC for spin flipping, measuring linear optical functions and nonlinear diagnostics. AC-dipoles are magnets that can be adiabatically excited and de-excited with a continuous sine-wave in order to coherently move circulating beam out to large betatron amplitudes without incurring emittance blow up [1]. The AGS already uses a similar device for getting polarized proton beams through depolarizing resonances [2]. By placing the magnets in the IP4 common beam region, two AC-dipoles are sufficient to excite both horizontal and vertical motion in both RHIC rings. While we initially investigated an iron-dominated magnet design using available steel tape cores; we now favor a new air coil plus ferrite design featuring mechanical frequency tuning, in order to best match available resources to demanding frequency sweeping requirements. Both magnet designs are presented here along with model magnet test results. The challenge is to make AC-dipoles available for year 2000 RHIC running.
Dipole-Potential-Mediated Effects on Ion Pump Kinetics
Clarke, Ronald J.
2015-01-01
The kinetics of conformational changes of P-type ATPases necessary for the occlusion or deocclusion of transported ions are known to be sensitive to the composition of the surrounding membrane, e.g., phospholipid content, mole percentage of cholesterol, and the presence of lipid-bound anions. Research has shown that many membrane components modify the dipole potential of the lipid head-group region. Based on the observation that occlusion/deocclusion reactions of ion pumps perturb the membrane surrounding the protein, a mechanism is suggested whereby dipole potential modifiers induce preferential stabilization or destabilization of occluded or nonoccluded states of the protein, leading to changes in the forward and backward rate constants for the transition. The mechanism relies on the assumption that conformational changes of the protein are associated with changes in its hydrophobic thickness that requires a change in local lipid packing density to allow hydrophobic matching with the membrane. The changes in lipid packing density cause changes in local lipid dipole potential that are responsible for the dependence of conformational kinetics on dipole potential modifiers. The proposed mechanism has the potential to explain effects of lipid composition on the kinetics of any membrane protein undergoing significant changes in its membrane cross-sectional area during its activity. PMID:26488640
Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice.
Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F; Sun, Young
2016-02-04
Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics.
The evolution of a dipole in a periodic forced flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Hernandez Zapata, Sergio
2015-11-01
In a tidal induced flow between a channel and an open domain a pair of counter-rotating vortices is produced during each cycle. Such pair of vortices is known as a dipole. The Strouhal number (S) is the parameter determining if dipole escapes or is sucked during the stage of negative flowrate. Some years ago an analytical model has been proposed to determine the evolution of the vortices. This model agrees with experimental and observational data when S is close to the critical value 0.13. However, no realistic predictions are given for small values of S. In this work we present a modification of this model to take into account some details not considered before. In particular the fact that not all vorticity created into the channel is incorporates into the dipole. This fact leads to have a lower translational velocity and also to the formation of a vorticity band behind the vortices. Our results have a better agreement with numerical simulations and experimental data. Finally we study the influence of the Reynolds number in the evolution of the vortices and the interaction between dipoles produced in subsequent cycles. Authors akknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN115315 ``Ondas y estrcturas coherentes en dinamica de fluidos.''
The Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Field through the Hamiltonian Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Likar, A.; Razpet, N.
2009-01-01
The dipole radiation from an oscillating charge is treated using the Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics where the concept of cavity modes plays a central role. We show that the calculation of the radiation field can be obtained in a closed form within this approach by emphasizing the role of coherence between the cavity modes, which is…
Report of the SSC Collider Dipole Review Panel
Voss, G.; Kirk, T.
1989-06-01
This report contains the following review on the SSC dipole magnets: subpanel on the R&D program and industrialization; subpanel on magnet measurement; subpanel on cold mass mechanics; subpanel on superconductor; subpanel on cryogenics; subpanel on quench protection; and subpanel on bore tube corrector coils.
Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting
Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji
2015-01-01
We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime. PMID:26323493
An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin
2004-01-01
In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.
Emittance growth due to dipole ripple and sextupole
Shih, H.J.; Ellison, J.A.; Syphers, M.J.; Newberger, B.S.
1993-05-01
Ripple in the power supplies for storage ring magnets can have adverse effects on the circulating beams: orbit distortion and emittance growth from dipole ripple, tune modulation and dynamic aperture reduction from quadrupole ripple, etc. In this paper, we study the effects of ripple in the horizontal bending field of the SSC in the presence of nonlinearity, in particular, the growth in beam emittance.
Singular Behaviour of the Electrodynamic Fields of an Oscillating Dipole
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leung, P. T.
2008-01-01
The singularity of the exact electromagnetic fields is derived to include the "source terms" for harmonically oscillating electric (and magnetic) dipoles, so that the fields will be consistent with the full Maxwell equations with a source. It is shown explicitly, as somewhat expected, that the same [delta]-function terms for the case of static…
An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization.
Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin
2004-01-21
In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.
A velocity dipole in the distribution of radio galaxies.
Blake, Chris; Wall, Jasper
2002-03-14
The motion of our Galaxy through the Universe is reflected in a systematic shift in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background-because of the Doppler effect, the temperature of the background is about 0.1 per cent higher in the direction of motion, with a correspondingly lower temperature in the opposite direction. This effect is known as dipole anisotropy. If our standard cosmological model is correct, a related dipole effect should also be present as an enhancement in the surface density of distant galaxies in the direction of motion. The main obstacle to finding this signal is the uneven distribution of galaxies in the local supercluster, which drowns out the small cosmological signal. Here we report a detection of the expected cosmological dipole anisotropy in the distribution of galaxies. We use a survey of radio galaxies that are mainly located at cosmological distances, so the contamination from nearby clusters is small. When local radio galaxies are removed from the sample, the resulting dipole is in the same direction as the temperature anisotropy of the microwave background, and close to the expected amplitude. The result therefore confirms the standard cosmological interpretation of the microwave background.
Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F.; Sun, Young
2016-02-01
Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics.
Quantum electric-dipole liquid on a triangular lattice
Shen, Shi-Peng; Wu, Jia-Chuan; Song, Jun-Da; Sun, Xue-Feng; Yang, Yi-Feng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Scott, James F.; Sun, Young
2016-01-01
Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations may prohibit the formation of long-range ordering even at the lowest temperature, and therefore liquid-like ground states could be expected. A good example is the quantum spin liquid in frustrated magnets. Geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations can happen beyond magnetic systems. Here we propose that quantum electric-dipole liquids, analogues of quantum spin liquids, could emerge in frustrated dielectrics where antiferroelectrically coupled electric dipoles reside on a triangular lattice. The quantum paraelectric hexaferrite BaFe12O19 with geometric frustration represents a promising candidate for the proposed electric-dipole liquid. We present a series of experimental lines of evidence, including dielectric permittivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity measured down to 66 mK, to reveal the existence of an unusual liquid-like quantum phase in BaFe12O19, characterized by itinerant low-energy excitations with a small gap. The possible quantum liquids of electric dipoles in frustrated dielectrics open up a fresh playground for fundamental physics. PMID:26843363
Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations
Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G.; García-Berro, E. E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar E-mail: kepler@if.ufrgs.br
2014-08-01
Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μ{sub ν}) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pidot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pidot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μ{sub ν} ∼< 10{sup -11} μ{sub B}. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.
Dipole response of neutron-rich Sn isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimkiewicz, A.; Adrich, P.; Boretzky, K.; Fallot, M.; Aumann, T.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Elze, Th. W.; Emling, H.; Geissel, H.; Hellstroem, M.; Jones, K. L.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Leifels, Y.; Nociforo, C.; Palit, R.; Simon, H.; Surowka, G.; Sümmerer, K.; Typel, S.; Walus, W.
2007-05-01
The neutron-rich isotopes 129-133Sn were studied in a Coulomb excitation experiment at about 500 AMeV using the FRS-LAND setup at GSI. From the exclusive measurement of all projectile-like particles following the excitation and decay of the projectile in a high-Z target, the energy differential cross section can be extracted. At these beam energies dipole transitions are dominating, and within the semi-classical approach the Coulomb excitation cross sections can be transformed into photoabsorption cross sections. In contrast to stable Sn nuclei, a substantial fraction of dipole strength is observed at energies below the giant dipole resonance (GDR). For 130Sn and 132Sn this strength is located in a peak-like structure around 10 MeV excitation energy and exhibits a few percent of the Thomas-Reiche Kuhn (TRK) sum-rule strength. Several calculations predict the appearance of dipole strength at low excitation energies in neutron-rich nuclei. This low-lying strength is often referred to as pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) and, in a macroscopic picture, is discussed in terms of a collective oscillation of excess neutrons versus the core nucleons. Moreover, a sharp rise is observed at the neutron separation threshold around 5 MeV for the odd isotopes. A possible contribution of 'threshold strength', which can be described within the direct-breakup model is discussed. The results for the neutron-rich Sn isotopes are confronted with results on stable nuclei investigated in experiments using real photons.
Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Kepler, S. O.; García-Berro, E.
2014-08-01
Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μν) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pi dot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pi dot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μν lesssim 10-11 μB. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.
Do bacteria have an electric permanent dipole moment?
Stoylov, S P; Gyurova, A; Georgieva, R; Danova, S
2008-07-15
In the scientific literature in the last 40 years, some data for the permanent dipole moment and the electric polarizability of Escherichia coli can be found [S.P. Stoylov, Colloid Electro-Optics - Theory, Techniques and Application, Academic Press, London, 1991]. In this paper the data based mainly on electro-optic investigation is considered as much as some dipolophoretic (most often called dielectrophoretic) studies. Serious grounds are found to doubt the conclusions made for the electric dipole moments of bacteria by one of the authors of this paper (SPS) and by some other researchers. This concerns both the permanent dipole moment and the electric charge dependent polarizabilities of E. coli. Here, along with the discussion of the old experimental data, new experimental data are shown for a strain of E. coli HB101. The conclusions from the analysis of the old and the new experimental data is that they do not provide correct evidence for the presence of a permanent dipole moment. It seems that all statements for the existence of electric permanent dipole moment in bacteria [S.P. Stoylov, Colloid Electro-Optics - Theory, Techniques and Application, Academic Press, London, 1991; S.P. Stoylov, S. Sokerov, I. Petkanchin, N. Ibroshev, Dokl. AN URSS 180 (1968) 1165; N.A. Tolstoy, A.A. Spartakov, A.A. Trusov, S.A. Schelkunova, Biofizika 11 (1966) 453; V. Morris, B. Jennings, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 71 (1975) 1948; V. Morris, B. Jennings, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 55 (1978) 313; S.P. Stoylov, V.N. Shilov, S.S. Dukhin, S. Sokerov, I. Petkanchin, in: S.S. Dukhin (Ed.), Electro-optics of Colloids, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1977 (in Russian).] based on electro-optic studies are result of incorrect interpretation. Therefore, they should be further ignored.
An Insightful Problem Involving the Electromagnetic Radiation from a Pair of Dipoles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Glenn S.
2010-01-01
The time-average power radiated by a pair of infinitesimal dipoles is examined as their spacing is varied. The results elucidate the effect of the interaction of the dipoles on their radiation. (Contains 4 figures.)
Energy-driven pattern formation in planar dipole-dipole systems in the presence of weak noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent-Dobias, Jaron; Bernoff, Andrew J.
2015-03-01
We study pattern formation in planar fluid systems driven by intermolecular cohesion (which manifests as a line tension) and dipole-dipole repulsion, which are observed in physical systems including ferrofluids in Hele-Shaw cells and Langmuir layers. When the dipolar repulsion is sufficiently strong, domains undergo forked branching reminiscent of viscous fingering. A known difficulty with these models is that the energy associated with dipole-dipole interactions is singular at small distances. Following previous work, we demonstrate how to ameliorate this singularity and show that in the macroscopic limit only the scale of the microscopic details relative to the macroscopic extent of a system is relevant and develop an expression for the system energy that depends only on a generalized line tension Λ that in turn depends logarithmically on that scale. We conduct numerical studies that use energy minimization to find equilibrium states. Following the subcritical bifurcations from the circle, we find a few highly symmetric stable shapes, but nothing that resembles the observed diversity of experimental and dynamically simulated domains. The application of a weak random background to the energy landscape stabilizes a wide range of domain morphologies recovering the diversity observed experimentally. With this technique, we generate a large sample of qualitatively realistic shapes and use them to create an empirical model for extracting Λ with high accuracy using only a shape's perimeter and morphology.
Nuclear electric dipole moments for the lowest 1/2+ states in Xe and Ba isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshinaga, N.; Higashiyama, K.; Arai, R.; Teruya, E.
2014-04-01
The electric dipole moments for the lowest 1/2+ states of Xe and Ba isotopes are calculated in terms of the nuclear shell model, which includes two-body nucleon interactions violating parity and time-reversal invariance. Using the wave functions thus obtained, the nuclear electric dipole moments arising from the intrinsic nucleon electric dipole moments and also from asymmetric charge distribution are calculated. The upper limits for the nuclear electric dipole moments of Xe and Ba isotopes are estimated.
Visualizing Special Relativity: The Field of An Electric Dipole Moving at Relativistic Speed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Glenn S.
2011-01-01
The electromagnetic field is determined for a time-varying electric dipole moving with a constant velocity that is parallel to its moment. Graphics are used to visualize this field in the rest frame of the dipole and in the laboratory frame when the dipole is moving at relativistic speed. Various phenomena from special relativity are clearly…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
César, Paulo H.; Faria, Sérgio H. D. M.; da Silva, João V.; Haiduke, R. L. A.; Bruns, Roy E.
2005-10-01
The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) has been used to decompose dipole moment derivatives and fundamental infrared intensities of the AB 3 (A = N,P; B = H,F) molecules into charge-charge flux-dipole flux (CCFDF) contributions. Calculations were carried out at the MP2(FC)/6-311++G(3d,3p) level. Infrared intensities calculated from the AIM atomic charges and atomic dipoles are within 13.8 km mol -1 of the experimental values not considering the NH 3 and PH 3 stretching vibrations for which the experimental bands are severely overlapped. Group V atomic dipoles are very important in determining the molecular dipole moments of NF 3, PH 3 and PF 3 although the atomic charges account for almost all of the NH 3 molecular moment. Dipole fluxes on the Group V atom are important in determining the stretching band intensities of all molecules whereas they make small contributions to the bending mode intensities. Consideration of dipole flux contributions from the terminal atoms must also be made for accurately describing the intensities of all these molecules. As expected from a simple bond moment model, charge contributions dominate for most of the NH 3, NF 3, and PF 3 dipole moment derivatives and intensities. Charge flux and dipole flux contributions are very substantial for all the PH 3 vibrations, cancelling each other for the stretching modes and reinforcing one another for the bending modes.
Restoring the skew quadrupole moment in the Tevatron dipoles
Harding, D.J.; Bauer, P.C.; Blowers, J.N.; DiMarco, J.; Glass, H.D.; Hanft, R.W.; Carson, J.A.; Robotham, W.F.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Tompkins, J.C.; Velev, G.; /Fermilab
2005-05-01
In early 2003 it was realized that mechanical changes in the Tevatron dipoles had led to a deterioration of the magnetic field quality that was hindering operation of the accelerator. After extensive study, a remediation program was started in late 2003 that will continue through 2005. The mechanical and magnetic effects are discussed. The readjustment process and experience are reported, along with other observations on aging magnets. In January 2003 two lines of inquiry converged, leading to the recognition that the severe betatron coupling that was hindering operation of the Tevatron could be explained by a systematic shift on the skew quadrupole field in the dipole magnets of the same size expected from observed mechanical movement of the coils inside the magnet yokes [1]. This paper reports on subsequent magnet studies that were conducted in parallel with additional beam studies and accelerator modeling [2] exploring the feasibility of the eventual remediation effort [3].
Dipole corrector magnets for the LBNE beam line
Yu, M.; Velev, G.; Harding, D.; /Fermilab
2011-03-01
The conceptual design of a new dipole corrector magnet has been thoroughly studied. The planned Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) beam line will require correctors capable of greater range and linearity than existing correctors, so a new design is proposed based on the horizontal trim dipole correctors built for the Main Injector synchrotron at Fermilab. The gap, pole shape, length, and number of conductor turns remain the same. To allow operation over a wider range of excitations without overheating, the conductor size is increased, and to maintain better linearity, the back leg thickness is increased. The magnetic simulation was done using ANSYS to optimize the shape and the size of the yoke. The thermal performance was also modeled and analyzed.
Spin waves in rings of classical magnetic dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Heinz-Jürgen; Schröder, Christian; Luban, Marshall
2017-03-01
We theoretically and numerically investigate spin waves that occur in systems of classical magnetic dipoles that are arranged at the vertices of a regular polygon and interact solely via their magnetic fields. There are certain limiting cases that can be analyzed in detail. One case is that of spin waves as infinitesimal excitations from the system’s ground state, where the dispersion relation can be determined analytically. The frequencies of these infinitesimal spin waves are compared with the peaks of the Fourier transform of the thermal expectation value of the autocorrelation function calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. In the special case of vanishing wave number an exact solution of the equations of motion is possible describing synchronized oscillations with finite amplitudes. Finally, the limiting case of a dipole chain with N\\longrightarrow ∞ is investigated and completely solved.
A dipole loudspeaker with a balanced directivity pattern.
Mellow, Tim; Kärkkäinen, Leo
2010-11-01
Analytical equations describing radiation characteristics of an oscillating ring in a circular finite baffle are derived, including the limiting case of a dipole point source at the center. An oscillating sphere would represent the ideal dipole source, having a constant directivity pattern at all frequencies, but would be inconvenient to realize especially in portable devices. It is found that a planar piston with uniform surface velocity but variable phase arranged to emulate the sphere does not have such a smooth on-axis response as the sphere. Instead a planar piston with the same phase distribution but uniform pressure represents an ideal planar source with a smooth on-axis response and near constant directivity. The surface velocity is plotted and it is then shown that a similar response can be achieved using a finite number of concentric rings based on this velocity distribution.
Helical Dipole Magnets for Polarized Protons in RHIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Luccio, A.; Mariam, F.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Willen, E.; Katayama, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Okamura, M.; Tominaka, T.; Wu, H.; Ptitsin, V.; Shatunov, Y.
1997-05-01
The Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will be able to support experiments using polarized proton beams. Siberian Snakes are used to maintain polarization in this high energy superconducting collider. To make efficient use of available space while taking advantage of high field superconducting magnets, 4 Tesla helical dipole magnets will be used. These magnets generate a central dipole field in which the field direction rotates through 360^circ about the longitudinal axis over the length of the device. An arrangement of four such magnets can produce the desired change in the spin direction while keeping the proton orbit outside of the ``Snake'' unaltered. Similar magnet arrangements will be used to produce longitudinal polarization at the two major interaction points in RHIC. The basic requirements and layout of these magnets are described, as well as tolerances on field quality and integrated field strengths. First results of tests of prototype helical magnets will be discussed.
CMB dipole asymmetry from a fast roll phase
Mazumdar, Anupam; Wang, Lingfei
2013-10-01
The observed CMB (cosmic microwave background) dipole asymmetry cannot be explained by a single field model of inflation - it inevitably requires more than one field where one of the fields is responsible for amplifying the super-Hubble fluctuations beyond the pivot scale. Furthermore the current constraints on f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} require that such an amplification cannot produce large non-Gaussianity. In this paper we propose a model to explain this dipole asymmetry from a spectator field, which is responsible for generating all the curvature perturbations, but has a temporary fast roll phase before the Hubble exit of the pivot scale. The current data prefers spectator scenario because it leaves no isocurvature perturbations. The spectator model will also satisfy the well-known constraints arising from quasars, and the quadrupole and octupole of the CMB.
Pair Cascades and Deathlines in Offset Magnetic Dipole Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harding, Alice; Muslimov, Alex
2010-01-01
We investigate electron-positron pair cascades in a dipole magnetic field whose axis is offset from the neutron star center. In such a field geometry, the polar cap is displaced from the neutron star symmetry axis and the field line radius of curvature is modified. Using the modified parallel electric field near the polar cap of an offset dipole, we simulate pair cascades to determine the pair deathlines and pair multiplicities as a function of the offset parameter. We find that the pair multiplicity can change dramatically with a modest offset, with a significant increase on one side of the polar cap. Lower pair deathlines allow a larger fraction of the pulsar population, that include old and millisecond pulsars, to produce cascades with high multiplicity.
Role of the Permanent Dipole Moment in Coulomb Explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cai-Ping; Miao, Xiang-Yang
2013-10-01
By numerically solving the non-Born—Oppenheimer time-dependent Schrödinger equation in a few-cycle chirped laser field (5-fs, 800-nm), the effect of the permanent dipole moment on the Coulomb explosion is studied by the kinetic-energy-release spectra with the “virtual detector" method. The results indicate that with the effect of the permanent dipole moment, different multiphoton processes for heteronuclear and homonuclear diatomic molecular ions may take place when the wave packets transit from the ground state (1sσg) to the first excited state (2pσu), and then move along the excited potential curve, and finally charge-resonant enhanced ionization occurs at critical internuclear distance. As a result, despite the similar ionization probabilities for these two systems at higher vibrational level with larger chirp parameter β, the structure of the Coulomb explosion spectrum for the former is prominently different from that for the latter.
Capillary-induced giant elastic dipoles in thin nematic films
Jeridi, Haifa; Gharbi, Mohamed A.; Othman, Tahar; Blanc, Christophe
2015-01-01
Directed and true self-assembly mechanisms in nematic liquid crystal colloids rely on specific interactions between microparticles and the topological defects of the matrix. Most ordered structures formed in thin nematic cells are thus based on elastic multipoles consisting of a particle and nearby defects. Here, we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the existence of giant elastic dipoles arising from particles dispersed in free nematic liquid crystal films. We discuss the role of capillarity and film thickness on the dimensions of the dipoles and explain their main features with a simple 2D model. Coupling of capillarity with nematic elasticity could offer ways to tune finely the spatial organization of complex colloidal systems. PMID:26554001
Bistability between equatorial and axial dipoles during magnetic field reversals.
Gissinger, Christophe; Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel
2012-06-08
Numerical simulations of the geodynamo in the presence of heterogeneous heating are presented. We study the dynamics and the structure of the magnetic field when the equatorial symmetry of the flow is broken. If the symmetry breaking is sufficiently strong, the m=0 axial dipolar field is replaced by a hemispherical magnetic field, dominated by an oscillating m=1 magnetic field. Moreover, for moderate symmetry breaking, a bistability between the axial and the equatorial dipole is observed. In this bistable regime, the axial magnetic field exhibits chaotic switches of its polarity, involving the equatorial dipole during the transition period. This new scenario for magnetic field reversals is discussed within the framework of Earth's dynamo.
Radiation properties of slot and dipole elements on layered substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, R. L.; Neikirk, D. P.
1989-06-01
Calculation results are presented for the radiation properties of slot and dipole antennas on electrically thick grounded dielectric substrates, with application to the development of mm-wave and far-IR imaging arrays. Factors considered in the selection of dieletric layers include the beam patterns, surface waves losses, and the type of element used. The effects of dielectric and ground plane losses are taken into account for the case of high-gain structures. Results for the efficiencies and beam patterns of three and five layer structures show that, in combination with a twin element configuration, both slot and dipole antennas can overcome the problem of losses to surface waves in the substrate and be made to efficiently radiate to air on these layered dielectric structures.
Excited state dipole moments of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawski, A.; Kukliński, B.; Bojarski, P.
2007-11-01
The effect of various polar solvents on the location of absorption and dual fluorescence (short wavelength emission, SE, and long wavelength emission, LE) of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde (DMABA) at room temperature was investigated. It was found that the fluorescence intensities ratio LE/SE is constant for concentrations ranging from 10 -5 M to 10 -1 M, which evidences that the LE-band is not of excimer origin. Based on the batochromic shift of electronic spectra of DMABA and Bilot-Kawski theory the values of excited state dipole moments in SE: μeSE=7.6D and the Onsager radius a = 4.3 Å were found using the known from literature value of ground state dipole moment μg = 5.6 D. For the emitting twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) excited state the value of μeLE=12D was found.
Developmentof the 15 T Nb3Sn dipole HD2
Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.W.; Dietderich, D.R.; Hafalia, A.R.; Hannaford, C.R.; Higley, H.; Lietzke, A.F.; Lizarazo, J.; McInturff, A.D.; Sabbi, G.; Ferracin, P.
2008-06-01
The Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is continuing the development of HD2, a 1 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole generating a dipole field of 15 T in a 36 mm clear bore. With tilted (flared) ends to avoid obstructing the beam path, HD2 represents a step towards the development of cost effective accelerator quality magnets. The design has been optimized to minimize geometric harmonics and to address iron saturation and conductor magnetization effects. The support structure is based on an external aluminum shell, pre-tensioned with pressurized bladders and interference keys. Aluminum axial rods and stainless steel end plates provide longitudinal support to the coil ends during magnet excitation. This paper reports on field quality optimization and magnet parameters. The design and fabrication of the coil and structure components, and results from coil winding, reaction, and potting are also presented.
Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole
Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Fowler, T.K. ); Hasegawa, A. ); Santarius, J.F. . Fusion Technology Inst.)
1991-04-12
A conceptual design is discussed for a fusion rocket propulsion system based on the magnetic dipole configuration. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Example parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of 1 kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in a year, and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 years. This is about 10 times better specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as in an approach to implementing the concept through proof-testing on the moon. 21 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.
Space propulsion by fusion in a magnetic dipole
Teller, E.; Glass, A.J.; Fowler, T.K. ); Hasegawa, A. ); Santarius, J.F. . Fusion Technology Inst.)
1991-07-15
The unique advantages of fusion rocket propulsion systems for distant missions are explored using the magnetic dipole configurations as an example. The dipole is found to have features well suited to space applications. Parameters are presented for a system producing a specific power of kW/kg, capable of interplanetary flights to Mars in 90 days and to Jupiter in a year, and of extra-solar-system flights to 1000 astronomical units (the Tau mission) in 20 years. This is about 10 times better specific power performance than nuclear electric fission systems. Possibilities to further increase the specific power toward 10 kW/kg are discussed, as is an approach to implementing the concept through proof-testing on the moon. 20 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.
Demonstration of using crossed dipole GPR antennae for site characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guy, Erich D.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Radzevicius, Stanley J.; Vendl, Mark A.
Crossed dipole (cross-pole) and parallel dipole (co-pole) GPR data were acquired at an industrial site that formerly operated as a creosote wood treating facility in order to locate buried pipes and tanks or other possible contaminant-filled subsurface structures. Cross-pole data are not typically considered during GPR field studies, but proved essential for accurate site characterization at this location, as images produced using co-pole data had a poor signal to noise ratio. Data interpretations were confirmed through exploratory trenching conducted subsequent to this study. The GPR data proved successful in locating back-filled trenches that contained creosote-filled drainage tile, as well as vaults and a pit filled with pure creosote product at the site.
New experiment to measure the electron electric dipole moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kittle, M.; Burton, T.; Feeney, L.; Heinzen, D. J.
2004-05-01
We are building a new experiment to measure the electric dipole moment (edm) of the electron. The experiment will use laser-cooled Cs atoms trapped in two, side-by-side, standing wave, far-off resonance optical dipole force traps. High voltage electrodes will apply opposite polarity electric fields to the two traps. The signature of an edm would be a first-order electric field shift of the atomic Zeeman levels. The traps will be loaded inside a titanium vacuum chamber with atoms captured in optical molasses from a 2D MOT cold atom source. We have paid special attention to the magnetic noise generated by Johnson noise currents of conductors in the design of this apparatus. The apparatus is designed to be sensitive to an electron edm as small as 10-29 e cm. In this presentation, we will discuss the design of our experiment and our experimental progress.
Longitudinal Gradient Dipole Magnet Prototype for APS at ANL
Kashikhin, V. S.; Borland, M.; Chlachidze, G.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; DiMarco, J.; Doose, C. L.; Gardner, T. J.; Harding, D. J.; Jaski, M. S.; Kerby, J. S.; Makarov, A. V.
2016-01-26
We planned an upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The main goal of the upgrade is to improve the storage ring performance based on more advanced optics. One of the key magnet system elements is bending dipole magnets having a field strength change along the electron beam path. Moreover, a prototype of one such longitudinal gradient dipole magnet has been designed, built, and measured in a collaborative effort of ANL and Fermilab. Our paper discusses various magnetic design options, the selected magnet design, and the fabrication technology. The prototype magnet has been measured by rotational coils, a stretched wire, and a Hall probe. Measurement results are discussed and compared with simulations.
Longitudinal Gradient Dipole Magnet Prototype for APS at ANL
Kashikhin, V. S.; Borland, M.; Chlachidze, G.; ...
2016-01-26
We planned an upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The main goal of the upgrade is to improve the storage ring performance based on more advanced optics. One of the key magnet system elements is bending dipole magnets having a field strength change along the electron beam path. Moreover, a prototype of one such longitudinal gradient dipole magnet has been designed, built, and measured in a collaborative effort of ANL and Fermilab. Our paper discusses various magnetic design options, the selected magnet design, and the fabrication technology. The prototype magnet has been measured by rotationalmore » coils, a stretched wire, and a Hall probe. Measurement results are discussed and compared with simulations.« less
Pulsar Pair Cascades in a Distorted Magnetic Dipole Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.
2010-01-01
We investigate the effect of a distorted neutron star dipole magnetic field on pulsar pair cascade multiplicity and pair death lines. Using a simple model for a distorted dipole field that produces an offset polar cap (PC), we derive the accelerating electric field above the PC in space-charge-limited flow. We find that even a modest azimuthally asymmetric distortion can significantly increase the accelerating electric field on one side of the PC and, combined with a smaller field line radius of curvature, leads to larger pair multiplicity. The death line for producing pairs by curvature radiation moves downward in the P-P-dot diagram, allowing high pair multiplicities in a larger percentage of the radio pulsar population. These results could have important implications for the radio pulsar population, high energy pulsed emission, and the pulsar contribution to cosmic ray positrons.
The permanent and induced magnetic dipole moment of the moon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, C. T.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Lichtenstein, B. R.; Schubert, G.
1974-01-01
Magnetic field observations with the Apollo 15 subsatellite have been used to deduce the components of both the permanent and induced lunar dipole moments in the orbital plane. The present permanent lunar magnetic dipole moment in the orbital plane is less than 1.3 times ten to the eighteenth power gauss-cu cm. Any uniformly magnetized near surface layer is therefore constrained to have a thickness-magnetization product less than 2.5 emu-cm per g. The induced moment opposes the external field, implying the existence of a substantial lunar ionosphere with a permeability between 0.63 and 0.85. Combining this with recent measures of the ratio of the relative field strength at the ALSEP and Explorer 35 magnetometers indicates that the global lunar permeability relative to the plasma in the geomagnetic tail lobes is between 1.008 and 1.03.
Mercury monohalides: suitability for electron electric dipole moment searches.
Prasannaa, V S; Vutha, A C; Abe, M; Das, B P
2015-05-08
Heavy polar diatomic molecules are the primary tools for searching for the T-violating permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM). Valence electrons in some molecules experience extremely large effective electric fields due to relativistic interactions. These large effective electric fields are crucial to the success of polar-molecule-based eEDM search experiments. Here we report on the results of relativistic ab initio calculations of the effective electric fields in a series of molecules that are highly sensitive to an eEDM, the mercury monohalides (HgF, HgCl, HgBr, and HgI). We study the influence of the halide anions on E_{eff}, and identify HgBr and HgI as attractive candidates for future electric dipole moment search experiments.
Generating accurate dipole moment surfaces using modified Shepard interpolation.
Morris, Michael; Jordan, Meredith J T
2014-05-28
We outline an approach for building molecular dipole moment surfaces using modified Shepard interpolation. Our approach is highly automated, requires minimal parameterization, and is iteratively improvable. Using the water molecule as a test case, we investigate how different aspects of the interpolation scheme affect the rate of convergence of calculated IR spectral line intensities. It is found that the interpolation scheme is sensitive to coordinate singularities present at linear geometries. Due to the generally monotonic nature of the dipole moment surface, the one-part weight function is found to be more effective than the more complicated two-part variant, with first-order interpolation also giving better-than-expected results. Almost all sensible schemes for choosing interpolation reference data points are found to exhibit acceptable convergence behavior.
Electron Cloud Trapping in Recycler Combined Function Dipole Magnets
Antipov, Sergey A.; Nagaitsev, S.
2016-10-04
Electron cloud can lead to a fast instability in intense proton and positron beams in circular accelerators. In the Fermilab Recycler the electron cloud is confined within its combined function magnets. We show that the field of combined function magnets traps the electron cloud, present the results of analytical estimates of trapping, and compare them to numerical simulations of electron cloud formation. The electron cloud is located at the beam center and up to 1% of the particles can be trapped by the magnetic field. Since the process of electron cloud build-up is exponential, once trapped this amount of electrons significantly increases the density of the cloud on the next revolution. In a Recycler combined function dipole this multiturn accumulation allows the electron cloud reaching final intensities orders of magnitude greater than in a pure dipole. The multi-turn build-up can be stopped by injection of a clearing bunch of 1010 p at any position in the ring.
Multipacting optimization of a 750 MHz rf dipole
Delayen, Jean R.; Castillo, Alejandro
2014-12-01
Crab crossing schemes have been proposed to re-instate luminosity degradation due to crossing angles at the interaction points in next generation colliders to avoid the use of sharp bending magnets and their resulting large synchrotron radiation generation, highly undessirable in the detector region. The rf dipole has been considered for a different set of applications in several machines, both rings and linear colliders. We present in this paper a study of the effects on the multipacting levels and location depending on geometrical variations on the design for a crabbing/deflecting application in a high current (3/0.5 A), high repetition (750 MHz) electron/proton collider, as a matter to provide a comparison point for similar applications of rf dipoles.
Leading neutron production at HERA in the color dipole approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalho, F.; Gonçalves, V. P.; Spiering, D.; Navarra, F. S.
2016-03-01
In this work we study leading neutron production in e + p → e + n + X collisions at high energies and calculate the Feynman xL distribution of these neutrons. The differential cross section is written in terms of the pion flux and of the photon-pion total cross section. We describe this process using the color dipole formalism and, assuming the validity of the additive quark model, we relate the dipole-pion with the well determined dipoleproton cross section. In this formalism we can estimate the impact of the QCD dynamics at high energies as well as the contribution of gluon saturation effects to leading neutron production. With the parameters constrained by other phenomenological information, we are able to reproduce the basic features of the recently released H1 leading neutron spectra.
Bond length, dipole moment, and harmonic frequency of CO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, Leslie A.; Liu, Bowen; Lindh, Roland
1993-01-01
A detailed comparison of some properties of CO is given, at the modified coupled-pair functional, single and double excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD), and CCSD(T) levels of theory (including a perturbational estimate for connected triple excitations), using a variety of basis sets. With very large one-particle basis sets, the CCSD(T) method gives excellent results for the bond distance, dipole moment, and harmonic frequency of CO. In a (6s 5p 4d 3f 2g 1h) + (1s 1p 1d) basis set, the bond distance is about 0.005a0 too large, the dipole moment about 0.005 a.u. too small, and the frequency about 6/cm too small, when compared with experimental results.
Discrete dipole approximation simulation of bead enhanced diffraction grating biosensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arif, Khalid Mahmood
2016-08-01
We present the discrete dipole approximation simulation of light scattering from bead enhanced diffraction biosensor and report the effect of bead material, number of beads forming the grating and spatial randomness on the diffraction intensities of 1st and 0th orders. The dipole models of gratings are formed by volume slicing and image processing while the spatial locations of the beads on the substrate surface are randomly computed using discrete probability distribution. The effect of beads reduction on far-field scattering of 632.8 nm incident field, from fully occupied gratings to very coarse gratings, is studied for various bead materials. Our findings give insight into many difficult or experimentally impossible aspects of this genre of biosensors and establish that bead enhanced grating may be used for rapid and precise detection of small amounts of biomolecules. The results of simulations also show excellent qualitative similarities with experimental observations.
Investigating the Pygmy Dipole Resonance Using β Decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheck, M.; Mishev, S.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Chapman, R.; Gaffney, L. P.; Gregor, E. T.; Pietralla, N.; Spagnoletti, P.; Savran, D.; Simpson, G. S.
2016-04-01
In this contribution it is explored whether γ -ray spectroscopy following β decay with high Q values from mother nuclei with low ground-state spin can be exploited as a probe for the pygmy dipole resonance. The suitability of this approach is demonstrated by a comparison between data from photon scattering, 136Xe (γ ,γ') , and 136I [J0π=(1-)]→136Xe* β -decay data. It is demonstrated that β decay populates 1- levels associated with the pygmy dipole resonance, but only a fraction of those. The complementary insight into the wave functions probed by β decay is elucidated by calculations within the quasiparticle phonon model. It is demonstrated that β decay dominantly populates complex configurations, which are only weakly excited in inelastic scattering experiments.
Isospin properties of electric dipole excitations in 48Ca
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derya, V.; Savran, D.; Endres, J.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hergert, H.; Kelley, J. H.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Roth, R.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wörtche, H. J.; Zilges, A.
2014-03-01
Two different experimental approaches were combined to study the electric dipole strength in the doubly-magic nucleus 48Ca below the neutron threshold. Real-photon scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung up to 9.9 MeV and nearly mono-energetic linearly polarized photons with energies between 6.6 and 9.51 MeV provided strength distribution and parities, and an (α,α‧γ) experiment at Eα=136 MeV gave cross sections for an isoscalar probe. The unexpected difference observed in the dipole response is compared to calculations using the first-order random-phase approximation and points to an energy-dependent isospin character. A strong isoscalar state at 7.6 MeV was identified for the first time supporting a recent theoretical prediction.
Electromagnetic design of superconducting dipoles based on sector coils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, L.; Todesco, Ezio
2007-11-01
We study the coil layouts of superconducting dipoles for particle accelerators based on the sector geometry. We show that a simple model based on a sector coil with a wedge allows us to derive an equation giving the short sample field as a function of the aperture, coil width, cable properties, and superconducting material. The equation agrees well with the actual results of several dipole coils that have been built in the past 30 years. The improvements due to the grading technique and the iron yoke are also studied. The proposed equation can be used as a benchmark to judge the efficiency of the coil design, and to carry out a global optimization of an accelerator layout.
Mercury Monohalides: Suitability for Electron Electric Dipole Moment Searches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasannaa, V. S.; Vutha, A. C.; Abe, M.; Das, B. P.
2015-05-01
Heavy polar diatomic molecules are the primary tools for searching for the T -violating permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM). Valence electrons in some molecules experience extremely large effective electric fields due to relativistic interactions. These large effective electric fields are crucial to the success of polar-molecule-based eEDM search experiments. Here we report on the results of relativistic ab initio calculations of the effective electric fields in a series of molecules that are highly sensitive to an eEDM, the mercury monohalides (HgF, HgCl, HgBr, and HgI). We study the influence of the halide anions on Eeff, and identify HgBr and HgI as attractive candidates for future electric dipole moment search experiments.
Real-time ECG emulation: a multiple dipole model for electrocardiography simulation.
Abkai, Ciamak; Hesser, Jürgen
2009-01-01
A new model for describing electrocardiography (ECG) is presented, which is based on multiple dipoles compared to standard single dipole approaches in vector electrocardiography. The multiple dipole parameters are derived from real data (e.g. four dipoles from 12-channel ECG) by solving the backward problem of ECG numerically. Results are transformed to a waveform description based on Gaussian mixture for every dimension of each dipole. These compact parameterized descriptors are used for a very realistic real-time simulation applying the forward solution of the proposed model.
Minimum emittance in electron storage rings with uniform or nonuniform dipoles.
Wang, C.-x.; Accelerator Systems Division
2009-06-01
A simple treatment of minimum emittance theory in storage rings is presented, favoring vector and matrix forms for a more concise picture. Both conventional uniform dipoles and nonuniform dipoles with bending radius variation are treated. Simple formulas are given for computing the minimum emittance, optimal lattice parameters, as well as effects of nonoptimal parameters. For nonuniform dipoles, analytical results are obtained for a three-piece sandwich dipole model. Minimization of the effective emittance for light sources is given in detail. Usefulness of gradient and/or nonuniform dipoles for reducing the effective emittance is addressed.
Quench Performance of the First Twin-aperture 11 T Dipole for LHC upgrades
Zlobin, A. V.; Andreev, N.; Apollinari, G.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Nobrega, A.; Novitski, I.; Stoynev, S.; Turrioni, D.; Auchmann, B.; Izquierdo Bermudez, S.; Karppinen, M.; Rossi, L.; Savary, F.; Smekens, D.
2015-06-01
FNAL and CERN are developing a twin-aperture 11 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. A single-aperture 2-m long dipole demonstrator and two 1-m long dipole models have been fabricated and tested at FNAL in 2012-2014. The two 1 m long collared coils were then assembled into the first twin-aperture $Nb_{3}Sn$ demonstrator dipole and tested. Test results of this twin-aperture $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole model are reported and discussed.
Light-induced dipole moment modulation in diarylethenes: a fundamental study.
Bianco, Andrea; Ferrari, Giorgio; Castagna, Rossella; Rossi, Andrea; Carminati, Marco; Pariani, Giorgio; Tommasini, Matteo; Bertarelli, Chiara
2016-11-16
The dipole moment of photochromic diarylethenes is determined in solution for both the coloured and uncoloured forms by measuring the capacitance of a capacitor filled with a photochromic solution as a dielectric material. Diarylethenes with different substituents are investigated and the modulation of the dipole moment is related to their chemical structures. We determine a modulation of the dipole moment up to 4 Debye. We discuss the model used to obtain the dipole moment from the capacitance measurements and we compare the experimental results with the outcomes from DFT calculations. The results highlight the importance of conformational effects in the description of the dipole moment of diarylethenes.
Tilted dipole model for bias-dependent photoluminescence pattern
Fujieda, Ichiro Suzuki, Daisuke; Masuda, Taishi
2014-12-14
In a guest-host system containing elongated dyes and a nematic liquid crystal, both molecules are aligned to each other. An external bias tilts these molecules and the radiation pattern of the system is altered. A model is proposed to describe this bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns. It divides the liquid crystal/dye layer into sub-layers that contain electric dipoles with specific tilt angles. Each sub-layer emits linearly polarized light. Its radiation pattern is toroidal and is determined by the tilt angle. Its intensity is assumed to be proportional to the power of excitation light absorbed by the sub-layer. This is calculated by the Lambert-Beer's Law. The absorption coefficient is assumed to be proportional to the cross-section of the tilted dipole moment, in analogy to the ellipsoid of refractive index, to evaluate the cross-section for each polarized component of the excitation light. Contributions from all the sub-layers are added to give a final expression for the radiation pattern. Self-absorption is neglected. The model is simplified by reducing the number of sub-layers. Analytical expressions are derived for a simple case that consists of a single layer with tilted dipoles sandwiched by two layers with horizontally-aligned dipoles. All the parameters except for the tilt angle can be determined by measuring transmittance of the excitation light. The model roughly reproduces the bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns of a cell containing 0.5 wt. % coumarin 6. It breaks down at large emission angles. Measured spectral changes suggest that the discrepancy is due to self-absorption and re-emission.
Sum Rule for a Schiff-Like Dipole Moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raduta, A. A.; Budaca, R.
The energy-weighted sum rule for an electric dipole transition operator of a Schiff type differs from the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule by several corrective terms which depend on the number of system components, N. For illustration the formalism was applied to the case of Na clusters. One concludes that the random phase approximation (RPA) results for Na clusters obey the modified TRK sum rule.
West Ford Dipole Belt: Optical Detection at Palomar.
Sandage, A; Kowal, C
1963-08-30
Optical detection of the West Ford orbiting dipole belt was accomplished on at least four occasions during the second week in May 1963. The maxi-mum surface brightness was about 4 percent of the night sky radiation at an effective wavelength of lambda = 4400 A The density of the belt has evidently decreased because it was not detected in a second observation period during the third week in June.
Prospects for studying vacuum polarisation using dipole and synchrotron radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilderton, Anton; Marklund, Mattias
2016-04-01
> The measurement of vacuum polarisation effects, in particular vacuum birefringence, using combined optical and X-ray laser pulses are now actively pursued. Here we briefly examine the feasibility of two alternative set-ups. The first utilises an alternative target, namely a converging dipole pulse, and the second uses an alternative probe, namely the synchrotron-like emission from highly energetic particles, themselves interacting with a laser pulse. The latter set-up has been proposed for experiments at ELI-NP.
Theoretical Dipole Moment for the X211 State of NO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The dipole moment function for the X(sup 2)II state of NO is studied as a function of the completeness in both the one- and n-particle spaces. Einstein coefficients are presented that are significantly more accurate than previous tabulations for the higher vibrational levels. The theoretical values give considerable insight into the limitations of recently published ratios of Einstein coefficients measured by spectrally resolved infrared chemiluminescence.
Electromagnetic braking revisited with a magnetic point dipole model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Land, Sara; McGuire, Patrick; Bumb, Nikhil; Mann, Brian P.; Yellen, Benjamin B.
2016-04-01
A theoretical model is developed to predict the trajectory of magnetized spheres falling through a copper pipe. The derive magnetic point dipole model agrees well with the experimental trajectories for NdFeB spherical magnets of varying diameter, which are embedded inside 3D printed shells with fixed outer dimensions. This demonstration of electrodynamic phenomena and Lenz's law serves as a good laboratory exercise for physics, electromagnetics, and dynamics classes at the undergraduate level.
A finite different field solver for dipole modes
Nelson, E.M.
1992-08-01
A finite element field solver for dipole modes in axisymmetric structures has been written. The second-order elements used in this formulation yield accurate mode frequencies with no spurious modes. Quasi-periodic boundaries are included to allow travelling waves in periodic structures. The solver is useful in applications requiring precise frequency calculations such as detuned accelerator structures for linear colliders. Comparisons are made with measurements and with the popular but less accurate field solver URMEL.
Infinite Phased Array of Microstrip Dipoles in Two Layers
1989-01-01
Green’s function appropriate to the two-layer substrate- superstrate structure was used in the formulation of the method of moMents - (continued on back) 20...analysis is presented for an infinite phased array of microstrip dipoles embedded within a two layer substrate structure (sub- strate- superstrate ...characterization of input impedance as a function of phase scan angle. Results for several sub- strate- superstrate structures illustrate the utility of the single
Average Description of Dipole Gamma Transitions in Hot Atomic Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plujko, V. A.; Gorbachenko, O. M.; Rovenskykh, E. P.; Zheltonozhskii, V. A.
2014-04-01
A new version of the modified Lorentzian approach for radiative strength function is proposed. It is based on renewed systematics for giant dipole resonance (GDR) parameters. The gamma-decay strength functions are calculated using new GDR parameters and compared with experimental data. It is demonstrated that closed-form approaches with energy-dependent width of the gamma strength, as a rule, provide a reliable simple method for description of gamma-decay processes.
Analytical Study of Tunable Bilayered-Graphene Dipole Antenna
2011-03-03
can be opened up in a bilayer graphene ( BLG ) using an external bias [3]. Recently, theoretical models and experiments have shown that bilayer graphene...of a MOSFET transistor, this high impedance layer and ground plane will provide a vertical electric field to create a bandgap in the BLG layer...This study will use bandgap tuning in the BLG to provide theoretical data on tuning a dipole antenna in different sequences along the antenna length
Giant dipole resonance parameters with uncertainties from photonuclear cross sections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plujko, V. A.; Capote, R.; Gorbachenko, O. M.
2011-09-01
Updated values and corresponding uncertainties of isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR or GDR) model parameters are presented that are obtained by the least-squares fitting of theoretical photoabsorption cross sections to experimental data. The theoretical photoabsorption cross section is taken as a sum of the components corresponding to excitation of the GDR and quasideuteron contribution to the experimental photoabsorption cross section. The present compilation covers experimental data as of January 2010.
Spatiotemporal Bayesian inference dipole analysis for MEG neuroimaging data.
Jun, Sung C; George, John S; Paré-Blagoev, Juliana; Plis, Sergey M; Ranken, Doug M; Schmidt, David M; Wood, C C
2005-10-15
Recently, we described a Bayesian inference approach to the MEG/EEG inverse problem that used numerical techniques to estimate the full posterior probability distributions of likely solutions upon which all inferences were based [Schmidt, D.M., George, J.S., Wood, C.C., 1999. Bayesian inference applied to the electromagnetic inverse problem. Human Brain Mapping 7, 195; Schmidt, D.M., George, J.S., Ranken, D.M., Wood, C.C., 2001. Spatial-temporal bayesian inference for MEG/EEG. In: Nenonen, J., Ilmoniemi, R. J., Katila, T. (Eds.), Biomag 2000: 12th International Conference on Biomagnetism. Espoo, Norway, p. 671]. Schmidt et al. (1999) focused on the analysis of data at a single point in time employing an extended region source model. They subsequently extended their work to a spatiotemporal Bayesian inference analysis of the full spatiotemporal MEG/EEG data set. Here, we formulate spatiotemporal Bayesian inference analysis using a multi-dipole model of neural activity. This approach is faster than the extended region model, does not require use of the subject's anatomical information, does not require prior determination of the number of dipoles, and yields quantitative probabilistic inferences. In addition, we have incorporated the ability to handle much more complex and realistic estimates of the background noise, which may be represented as a sum of Kronecker products of temporal and spatial noise covariance components. This reduces the effects of undermodeling noise. In order to reduce the rigidity of the multi-dipole formulation which commonly causes problems due to multiple local minima, we treat the given covariance of the background as uncertain and marginalize over it in the analysis. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) was used to sample the many possible likely solutions. The spatiotemporal Bayesian dipole analysis is demonstrated using simulated and empirical whole-head MEG data.
The effects of dipole tilt on magnetotail structure and dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Raymond J.; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Ogino, Tatsuki
1989-01-01
A three-dimensional time-dependent global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere has been used to study the effects of dipole tilt on the structure and dynamics of the magnetotail. The location of the tail neutral sheet shifts in the north-south direction following changes in the dipole tilt. When the northern edge of the geomagnetic dipole is tilted toward the sun (positive tilt), it is above the geocentric solar magnetosphere (GSM) equator, while for negative tilt, it is below. The neutral sheet forms an arc across the tail in the y-z plane for nonzero tilt. For positive tilt, the neutral sheet rises above the GSM equatorial plane near the noon-midnight meridian and returns to the equator near the magnetopause. The position and shape of the neutral sheet result from the requirement that the earthward magnetic flux equals the tailward flux and can be well explained by a simple analytical model.
Dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments in fullerene-based magnets.
Kambe, Takashi; Oshima, Kokichi
2014-09-19
We report here the direct evidence of the existence of a permanent electric dipole moment in both crystal phases of a fullerene-based magnet--the ferromagnetic α-phase and the antiferromagnetic α'-phase of tetra-kis-(dimethylamino)-ethylene-C60 (TDAE-C60)--as determined by dielectric measurements. We propose that the permanent electric dipole originates from the pairing of a TDAE molecule with surrounding C60 molecules. The two polymorphs exhibit clear differences in their dielectric responses at room temperature and during the freezing process with dynamically fluctuating electric dipole moments, although no difference in their room-temperature structures has been previously observed. This result implies that two polymorphs have different local environment around the molecules. In particular, the ferromagnetism of the α-phase is founded on the homogeneous molecule displacement and orientational ordering. The formation of the different phases with respect to the different rotational states in the Jahn-Teller distorted C60s is also discussed.
Low-cost dipole hydrophone for use in towed arrays
Abraham, B.M.
1996-04-01
The design, fabrication, and testing of a low-cost acoustic particle velocity sensor are described. The primary design parameters for the dipole hydrophone are low-cost, low-mass, and small size. The sensor uses commercially available geophones to locally measure one or more components of the acoustic particle velocity field. The geophones are encapsulated in a syntactic foam to reduce their average density and hence increase their acoustic sensitivity. This method of fabrication greatly reduces costs compared to conventional methods which use machined cases. The on-axis voltage sensitivity was measured experimentally using two methods. The first used a uniaxial vibration shaker to estimate the intrinsic velocity sensitivity of the encapsulated geophone with the case fixed to the shaker head. The second measured the {ital in} {ital situ} acoustic sensitivity in water. Theoretical models of the voltage sensitivity for these two cases are developed and the results compare very well with the experimental data. Additionally, rotator tests were performed at frequencies of 100, 500, 600, and 1000 Hz to measure the quality of the dipole directivity pattern in water. Near-theoretical dipole patterns, with nulls better than 30 dB, were measured. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
DEA material enhancement with dipole grafted PDMS networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Risse, Sebastian; Kussmaul, Björn; Krüger, Hartmut; Waché, Rémi; Kofod, Guggi
2011-04-01
Silicone elastomers are highly suitable for application in the field of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) due to their unique material properties (e.g. low glass temperature, thermal stability, large capability of chemical tailoring). The elastomer forming Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) employed for this study consists of chains with vinyl termination and is cross linked via hydrosilylation to a cross linking molecule in the presence of platinum catalyst. Here, dipole molecules (N-Allyl-N-methyl-4-nitroaniline) were specifically synthesized such that they could chemically graft to the silicone network. The most prominent advantage of this approach is the achievement of a homogeneous distribution of dipoles in the PDMS matrix and a suppression of phase separation due to the grafting to the junction points of the rubber network. Several films with dipole contents ν ranging from 0 %wt up to 10.9 %wt were prepared. The films were investigated to determine their mechanical (tensile testing), dielectric (dielectric relaxation spectroscopy) and electrical (electrical breakdown) properties. This new approach for composites on the molecular level leads to homogeneous films with enhanced material properties for DEA applications. An increase in permittivity from 3.3 to 6.0, a decrease in electrical breakdown from 130 V/μm to 50 V/μm and a lowering of the mechanical stiffness from 1700 kPa to 300 kPa was observed.
Theoretical study of the dipole-bound anion (HF)2 -
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutowski, Maciej; Skurski, Piotr
1997-08-01
It has long been assumed that dipole-bound anionic states possess two properties; (i) the electron binding energy is dominated by the electrostatic electron-dipole interaction, and (ii) the geometrical distortion of the polar molecule upon attachment of a distant electron is negligible. Our results indicate, however, that the dispersion interaction between the loosely bound electron and the electrons of the neutral dimer is as important as the electrostatic electron-dipole stabilization. In addition, the hydrogen bond in (HF)2 is susceptible to a deformation upon attachment of a distant electron. This deformation enhances both the electrostatic and dispersion components of the electron binding energy. The calculated Franck-Condon factors indicate that neutral dimers formed in electron photodetachment experiments may be vibrationally excited in both stiff intramolecular HF stretching modes and soft intermolecular modes. The predicted value of the adiabatic electron detachment energy for (HF)2- is 396 cm-1 and the theoretical photoelectron spectrum is in remarkable agreement with the experimental data of Bowen et al. J. H. Hendricks, H. L. de Clercq, S. A. Lyapustina, and K. H. Bowen, Jr. [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 2962 (1997)].
Anomalous center of mass shift: gravitational dipole moment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, Eue Jin
1997-02-01
The anomalous, energy dependent shift of the center of mass of an idealized, perfectly rigid, uniformly rotating hemispherical shell which is caused by the relativistic mass increase effect is investigated in detail. It is shown that a classical object on impact which has the harmonic binding force between the adjacent constituent particles has the similar effect of the energy dependent, anomalous shift of the center of mass. From these observations, the general mode of the linear acceleration is suggested to be caused by the anomalous center of mass shift whether it's due to classical or relativistic origin. The effect of the energy dependent center of mass shift perpendicular to the plane of rotation of a rotating hemisphere appears as the non zero gravitational dipole moment in general relativity. Controlled experiment for the measurement of the gravitational dipole field and its possible links to the cylindrical type line formation of a worm hole in the extreme case are suggested. The jets from the black hole accretion disc and the observed anomalous red shift from far away galaxies are considered to be the consequences of the two different aspects of the dipole gravity.
Precision Cosmology with the 2MASS Clustering Dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilicki, Maciej; Chodorowski, Michał Hellwing, Wojciech; Jarrett, Thomas; Mamon, Gary
2015-01-01
Comparison of peculiar velocities of galaxies with their gravitational accelerations (induced by the density field) is one of the methods to constrain the redshift distortion parameter β = Ω _m^{0.55} /b, where Ωm is the non-relativistic matter density parameter and b is the linear bias. In particular, one can use the motion of the Local Group (LG) for that purpose. Its peculiar velocity is known from the dipole component of the cosmic microwave background, whereas its acceleration can be estimated with the use of an all-sky galaxy catalog, from the so-called clustering dipole. At the moment, the biggest dataset of that kind is the Two Micron All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog (2MASS XSC) containing almost 1 million galaxies and complete up to 300 Mpc/h. We applied 2MASS data to measure LG acceleration and used two methods to estimate the beta parameter. Both of them yield β ≃ 0.4 with an error of several per cent, which is the most precise determination of this parameter from the clustering dipole to date.
Hydrophobic ion hydration and the magnitude of the dipole potential.
Schamberger, Jens; Clarke, Ronald J
2002-01-01
The magnitude of the dipole potential of lipid membranes is often estimated from the difference in conductance between the hydrophobic ions, tetraphenylborate, and tetraphenylarsonium or tetraphenylphosphonium. The calculation is based on the tetraphenylarsonium-tetraphenylborate hypothesis that the magnitude of the hydration energies of the anions and cations are equal (i.e., charge independent), so that their different rates of transport across the membrane are solely due to differential interactions with the membrane phase. Here we investigate the validity of this assumption by quantum mechanical calculations of the hydration energies. Tetraphenylborate (Delta G(hydr) = -168 kJ mol(-1)) was found to have a significantly stronger interaction with water than either tetraphenylarsonium (Delta G(hydr) = -145 kJ mol(-1)) or tetraphenylphosphonium (Delta G(hydr) = -157 kJ mol(-1)). Taking these differences into account, literature conductance data were recalculated to yield values of the dipole potential 57 to 119 mV more positive in the membrane interior than previous estimates. This may partly account for the discrepancy of at least 100 mV generally observed between dipole potential values calculated from lipid monolayers and those determined on bilayers. PMID:12023231
An apparent paradox concerning the field of an ideal dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Edward
2017-03-01
The electric or magnetic field of an ideal dipole is known to have a Dirac delta function at the origin. The usual textbook derivation of this delta function is rather ad hoc and cannot be used to calculate the delta-function structure for higher multipole moments. Moreover, a naive application of Gauss’s law to the ideal dipole field appears to give an incorrect expression for the dipole’s effective charge density. We derive a general result for the delta-function structure at the origin of an arbitrary ideal multipole field without using any advanced techniques from distribution theory. We find that the divergence of a singular vector field can contain a derivative of a Dirac delta function even if the field itself does not contain a delta function. We also argue that a physical interpretation of the delta function in the dipole field previously given in the literature is perhaps misleading and may require clarification. Both the explanation of and the resolution to this ‘paradox’ should be accessible to someone who has taken a graduate- or advanced undergraduate-level course in classical electrodynamics.
Precessional forced evolution of the Indian Ocean Dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yue; Jian, ZhiMin; Zhao, Ping; Chen, JunMing; Xiao, Dong
2015-05-01
In a transient accelerated simulation of a coupled climate model, we identified a zonal dipole-like pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean, which is forced by precessional insolation changes since 300 ka and named as the paleo-IOD (Indian Ocean Dipole). A positive paleo-IOD mean state at 23 kyr precessional band exhibits warmer and wetter conditions over the western Indian Ocean and cooler and drier conditions over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean from August to October. This zonal thermal seesaw at the sea surface can extend downward to the subsurface ocean between 60 and 80 m and accompanies stronger oceanic upwelling in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. The associated boreal summer-autumn tropospheric circulation anomalies are characterized by anomalous ascent over the western Indian Ocean and anomalous descent over the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean, with anomalous easterlies at the surface along the equatorial Indian Ocean. The positive paleo-IOD largely originates from local air-sea interactions that are induced by the increased summer insolation, and is also contributed by the reduced boreal winter insolation through an oceanic "heat memory effect." Our simulated dipole mode index (DMI) of SST is qualitatively consistent with the paleoceanographic reconstructed DMI based on the UK37 proxy of SST at precessional band and provides a possible explanation for the in-phase precessional variation between boreal winter insolation and the UK37 proxy of SST in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean.
Retraining of the 1232 Main Dipole Magnets in the LHC
Verweij, A.; Auchmann, B.; Bednarek, M.; Bottura, L.; Charifoulline, Z.; Feher, S.; Hagen, P.; Modena, M.; Le Naour, S.; Romera, I.; Siemko, A.; Steckert, J.; Tock, J. Ph; Todesco, E.; Willering, G.; Wollmann, D.
2016-01-05
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) contains eight main dipole circuits, each of them with 154 dipole magnets powered in series. These 15-m-long magnets are wound from Nb-Ti superconducting Rutherford cables, and have active quench detection triggering heaters to quickly force the transition of the coil to the normal conducting state in case of a quench, and hence reduce the hot spot temperature. During the reception tests in 2002-2007, all these magnets have been trained up to at least 12 kA, corresponding to a beam energy of 7.1 TeV. After installation in the accelerator, the circuits have been operated at reduced currents of up to 6.8 kA, from 2010 to 2013, corresponding to a beam energy of 4 TeV. After the first long shutdown of 2013-2014, the LHC runs at 6.5 TeV, requiring a dipole magnet current of 11.0 kA. A significant number of training quenches were needed to bring the 1232 magnets up to this current. In this paper, the circuit behavior in case of a quench is presented, as well as the quench training as compared to the initial training during the reception tests of the individual magnets.
Statistical thermodynamics of fluids with both dipole and quadrupole moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benavides, Ana L.; García Delgado, Francisco J.; Gámez, Francisco; Lago, Santiago; Garzón, Benito
2011-06-01
New Gibbs ensemble simulation data for a polar fluid modeled by a square-well potential plus dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole, and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are presented. This simulation data is used in order to assess the applicability of the multipolar square-well perturbation theory [A. L. Benavides, Y. Guevara, and F. del Río, Physica A 202, 420 (1994), 10.1016/0378-4371(94)90469-3] to systems where more than one term in the multipole expansion is relevant. It is found that this theory is able to reproduce qualitatively well the vapor-liquid phase diagram for different multipolar moment strengths, corresponding to typical values of real molecules, except in the critical region. Hence, this theory is used to model the behavior of substances with multiple chemical bonds such as carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide and we found that with a suitable choice of the values of the intermolecular parameters, the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these species is adequately estimated.
Goldfish and oscars have comparable responsiveness to dipole stimuli
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nauroth, Ines Eva; Mogdans, Joachim
2009-12-01
The relative roles of the fish lateral line and inner ear for the perception of hydrodynamic stimuli are poorly investigated. Here, we studied responsiveness to a 100 Hz vibrating sphere (dipole stimulus) of goldfish and oscars, two species that differ in peripheral lateral line morphology, inner ear morphology, mechanical linkage between inner ear and swim bladder, and inner ear sensitivity. We measured unconditioned dipole-evoked changes in breathing activity in still water and in the presence of a 5-cm s-1 background flow. In still water, individuals from both species responded to sound pressure levels (SPLs) between 92 and 109 dB SPL re 1 μPaRMS. Responsiveness was not affected by background flow or by temporary inactivation of the lateral line. The data suggest that fish with different lateral line and inner ear morphologies have similar sensitivities to vibrating sphere stimuli and can detect and respond to dipole sources equally well in still water and in moderate background flows. Moreover, behavioral responses were not dependent on a functional lateral line, suggesting that in this type of experiment, the inner ear is the dominant sense organ for the perception of hydrodynamic stimuli.
Calculations of the dynamic dipole polarizabilities for the Li+ ion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yong-Hui; Tang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xian-Zhou; Shi, Ting-Yun
2016-10-01
The B-spline configuration-interaction method is applied to the investigations of dynamic dipole polarizabilities for the four lowest triplet states (2 3S, 33S, 23P, and 33P) of the Li+ ion. The accurate energies for the triplet states of n 3S, n 3P, and n 3D, the dipole oscillator strengths for 23S(33S) → n 3P, 23P(33P) → n 3S, and 23P(33P) → n 3D transitions, with the main quantum number n up to 10 are tabulated for references. The dynamic dipole polarizabilities for the four triplet states under a wide range of photon energy are also listed, which provide input data for analyzing the Stark shift of the Li+ ion. Furthermore, the tune-out wavelengths in the range from 100 nm to 1.2 μm for the four triplet states, and the magic wavelengths in the range from 100 nm to 600 nm for the 23S → 33S, 23S → 23P, and 23S → 33P transitions are determined accurately for the experimental design of the Li+ ion. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821305) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474319, 11274348, and 91536102).
Chemical Properties of Dipole-Bound Negative Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y.
2005-05-01
In dipole bound negative ions the extra electron is weakly bound by the dipole potential of the neutral molecule in a diffuse orbital localized near the positive end of the dipole. In consequence, it is reasonable to expect that such species will be highly reactive and possess chemical properties similar to those of Rydberg atoms, which also contain a weakly-bound electron in a diffuse orbital. These properties are being examined using a negative ion Penning trap. Data for electron transfer in collisions with attaching targets such as SF6 show that the rate constants for this process are large, ˜ 10-7 cm^3 s-1, and similar to those for free electron attachment. This suggests that collisions can be described in terms of an essentially-free electron model. This is further reinforced by the observation that rotational energy transfer in collisions with polar molecules can lead to rapid electron detachment, again with large rate constants of ˜ 10 -7 cm^3 s-1. Results for several target species will be presented and discussed in light of a free electron model.
Dipole oscillator strength properties and dispersion energies for SiH 4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Mukesh; Meath, William J.
2003-01-01
A recommended isotropic dipole oscillator strength distribution (DOSD) has been constructed for the silane (SiH 4) molecule through the use of quantum mechanical constraint techniques and experimental dipole oscillator strength data. The constraints are furnished by experimental molar refractivity data and the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. The DOSD is used to evaluate a variety of isotropic dipole oscillator strength sums, logarithmic dipole oscillator strength sums, and mean excitation energies for the molecule. A pseudo-DOSD for SiH 4 is also presented which is used to obtain reliable results for the isotropic dipole-dipole dispersion energy coefficients C 6, for the interaction of silane with itself and with forty-four other species, and the triple-dipole dispersion energy coefficient C 9 for (SiH 4) 3.
Dipole angular entropy techniques for intron-exon segregation in DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, Nithya; Bose, R.
2012-04-01
We propose techniques for computing the angular entropies of DNA sequences, based on the orientations of the dipole moments of the nucleotide bases. The angles of the dipole moment vectors of the bases are used to compute the dipole angular entropy and the Fourier harmonics of the angles are used to compute the dipole angular spectral entropy for a given sequence. We also show that the coding (exons) and noncoding (introns) regions of the DNA can be segregated based on their dipole angular entropies and dipole angular spectral entropies. Segregation using these techniques is found to be computationally faster and more accurate than the previously reported methods. The proposed techniques can also be improvised to use the magnitude of the dipole moments of the bases in addition to the angles.
Dipole-quadrupole Förster resonance in cesium Rydberg gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maineult, Wilfried; Pelle, Bruno; Faoro, Riccardo; Arimondo, Ennio; Pillet, Pierre; Cheinet, Patrick
2016-11-01
The resonant energy transfer between two close particles, also known as Förster resonance in atomic or biological systems, is usually associated with dipole-dipole interaction. In Rydberg atoms, it is a widely used tool to enhance the interactions between particles. Here, we observe a resonant energy transfer between Rydberg atoms that cannot be attributed to a dipole-dipole interaction, owing to selection rules, and comes instead from an efficient dipole-quadrupole process. We compare the measured probability transfer with a theoretical model including quadrupolar terms and find very good agreement with our measurement. Further studies of those multipolar resonances should probe their dependences on various parameters (quantum numbers, relative orientation of the atoms), and may find some applications in quantum procedures where dipole-dipole resonance cannot be used, for instance where the states of interest have a difference in angular momentum of two.
Dual frequency, dual polarized, multi-layered microstrip slot and dipole array antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tulintseff, Ann N. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
An antenna array system is disclosed which uses subarrays of slots and subarrays of dipoles on separate planes. The slots and dipoles respectively are interleaved, which is to say there is minimal overlap between them. Each subarray includes a microstrip transmission line and a plurality of elements extending perpendicular thereto. The dipoles form the transmission elements and the slots form the receive elements. The plane in which the slots are formed also forms a ground plane for the dipoles--hence the feed to the dipole is on the opposite side of this ground plane as the feed to the slots. HPAs are located adjacent the dipoles on one side of the substrate and LNAs are located adjacent the slots on the other side of the substrate. The dipoles and slots are tuned by setting different offsets between each element and the microstrip transmission line.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sweeney, J. J.; Felske, D.
2013-12-01
There is little experience with application of electrical methods that can be applied during the continuation period of an on-site inspection (OSI), one of the verification methods of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In order add to such experience, we conducted controlled source audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT), dipole-dipole resistivity, and induced polarization electrical measurements along three survey lines over and near to ground zero of an historic nuclear explosion. The presentation will provide details and results of the surveys, an assessment of application of the method toward the purposes of an OSI, and an assessment of the manpower and time requirements for data collection and processing that will impact OSI inspection team operations. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Direct measurement of dipole-dipole/CSA cross-correlated relaxation by a constant-time experiment
Liu, Yizhou; Prestegard, James H.
2008-01-01
Relaxation rates in NMR are usually measured by intensity modulation as a function of a relaxation delay during which the relaxation mechanism of interest is effective. Other mechanisms are often suppressed during the relaxation delay by pulse sequences which eliminate their effects, or cancel their effects when two data sets with appropriate combinations of relaxation rate effects are added. Cross-correlated relaxation (CCR) involving dipole-dipole and CSA interactions differ from auto-correlated relaxation (ACR) in that the signs of contributions can be changed by inverting the state of one spin involved in the dipole-dipole interaction. This property has been exploited previously using CPMG sequences to refocus CCR while ACR evolves. Here we report a new pulse scheme that instead eliminates intensity modulation by ACR and thus allows direct measurement of CCR. The sequence uses a constant time relaxation period for which the contribution of ACR does not change. An inversion pulse is applied at various points in the sequence to effect a decay that depends on CCR only. A 2-D experiment is also described in which chemical shift evolution in the indirect dimension can share the same constant period. This improves sensitivity by avoiding the addition of a separate indirect dimension acquisition time. We illustrate the measurement of residue specific CCR rates on the non-myristoylated yeast ARF1 protein and compare the results to those obtained following the conventional method of measuring the decay rates of the slow and fast-relaxing 15N doublets. The performances of the two methods are also quantitatively evaluated by simulation. The analysis shows that the shared constant-time CCR (SCT-CCR) method significantly improves sensitivity. PMID:18406649
Multiple dipole modeling and localization from spatio-temporal MEG data
Mosher, J.C. ); Lewis, P.S. ); Leahy, R. )
1992-06-01
An array of biomagnetometers may be used to measure the spatio-temporal neuromagnetic field or magnetoencephalogram (MEG) produced by neural activity in the brain. A popular model for the neural activity produced in response to a given sensory stimulus is a set of current dipoles, where each dipole represents the primary current associated with the combined activation of a large number of neutrons located in a small volume of the brain. An important problem in the interpretation of MEG data from evoked response experiments is the localization of these neural current dipoles. The authors present here a linear algebraic framework for three common spatio-temporal dipole models: (i) unconstrained dipoles, (ii) dipoles with a fixed location, and (iii) dipoles with a fixed orientation and location. In all cases, they assume that the location, orientation, and magnitude of the dipoles are unknown. With a common model, they show how the parameter estimation problem may be decomposed into the estimation of the time invariant parameter using nonlinear least-squares minimization, followed by linear estimation of the associated time varying parameters. A subspace formulation is presented and used to derive a suboptimal least-squares subspace scanning method. The resulting algorithm is a special case of the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) method, in which the solution (multiple dipole locations) is found by scanning potential locations using a simple one dipole model.
Determination of the dipole moments of RNAse SA wild type and a basic mutant.
Chari, Ravi; Singh, Shubhadra N; Yadav, Sandeep; Brems, David N; Kalonia, Devendra S
2012-04-01
In this study, we report the effects of acidic to basic residue point mutations (5K) on the dipole moment of RNAse SA at different pHs. Dipole moments were determined by measuring solution capacitance of the wild type (WT) and the 5K mutant with an impedance analyzer. The dipole moments were then (1) compared with theoretically calculated dipole moments, (2) analyzed to determine the effect of the point mutations, and (3) analyzed for their contribution to overall protein-protein interactions (PPI) in solution as quantitated by experimentally derived second virial coefficients. We determined that experimental and calculated dipoles were in reasonable agreement. Differences are likely due to local motions of residue side chains, which are not accounted for by the calculated dipole. We observed that the proteins' dipole moments increase as the pH is shifted further from their isoelectric points and that the wild-type dipole moments were greater than those of the 5K. This is likely due to an increase in the proportion of one charge (either negative or positive) relative to the other. A greater charge disparity corresponded to a larger dipole moment. Finally, the larger dipole moments of the WT resulted in greater attractive overall PPI for that protein as compared to the 5K.
Morita, Takaumi; Katoh, Keiichi; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro
2013-12-02
Using a fused phthalocyaninato ligand to control the spatial arrangement of Tb(III) moieties in Tb(III) single-molecule magnets (SMMs), we could control the dipole-dipole interactions in the molecules and prepared the first tetranuclear Tb(III) SMM complex. [Tb(obPc)2]Tb(Fused-Pc)Tb[Tb(obPc)2] (abbreviated as [Tb4]; obPc = 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octabutoxyphthalocyaninato, Fused-Pc = bis{7(2),8(2),12(2),13(2),17(2),18(2)-hexabutoxytribenzo[g,l,q]-5,10,15,20-tetraazaporphirino}[b,e]benzenato). In direct-current magnetic susceptibility measurements, ferromagnetic interactions among the four Tb(3+) ions were observed. In [Tb4], there are two kinds of magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. One is strong interactions in the triple-decker moieties, which dominate the magnetic relaxations, and the other is the weak one through the fused phthalocyaninato (Pc) ligand linking the two triple-decker complexes. In other words, [Tb4] can be described as a weakly ferromagnetically coupled dimer of triple-decker Tb2(obPc)3 complexes with strong dipole-dipole interactions in the triple-decker moieties and weak ones through the fused phthalocyaninato ligand linking the two triple-decker complexes. For [Tb4], dual magnetic relaxation processes were observed similar to other dinuclear Tb(III)Pc complexes. The relaxation processes are due to the anisotropic centers. This is clear evidence that the magnetic relaxation mechanism depends heavily on the dipole-dipole (f-f) interactions between the Tb(3+) ions in the systems. Through a better understanding of the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions obtained in these studies, we have developed a new strategy for preparing Tb(III) SMMs. Our work shows that the SMM properties can be fine-tuned by introducing weak intermolecular magnetic interactions in a controlled SMM spatial arrangement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Thakkar, Ajit J.
2011-11-01
Experimental photoabsorption cross-sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule and the high-energy behavior of the dipole-oscillator-strength density are used to construct dipole oscillator strength distributions for buckminsterfullerene (C60). The distributions are used to predict dipole sum rules Sk, mean excitation energies Ik, the frequency dependent polarizability, and C6 coefficients for the long-range dipole-dipole interactions of C60 with a variety of atoms and molecules.
Soft dipole resonance and halo structure of 11Li
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanungo, Rituparna
2016-03-01
The discovery of the nuclear halo in rare isotopes has ushered a new era in nuclear science breaking the boundaries of conventional concepts. The halo properties elucidate new features that till date remain a challenge to decipher from fundamental principles. Our knowledge on the halo is still gradually unfolding and reaching new levels of precision as efforts continue towards new experimental developments. In recent times, low-energy reactions in inverse kinematics have become possible providing a wealth of new structure information. In this presentation we will introduce a new reaction spectroscopy facility, IRIS, with a novel thin windowless solid H2/D2 target for studying transfer and inelastic scattering reactions of rare isotopes with very low yields. It was postulated that the loosely bound halo of two neutrons may lead to a core-halo oscillation resulting in dipole resonance(s) at very low excitation energy, called soft dipole resonance. Despite decades of search for this new phenomenon using various techniques, such as, no firm conclusion was reached. The presentation will discuss new results from IRIS that shows evidence of a soft dipole resonance state and further unveils its isoscalar character. New results of neutron transfer from 11Li will be presented showing resonance state(s) in the neutron unbound 10Li subsystem hence facilitating a description of the wavefunction of 11Li. NSERC, Canada Foundation for Innovation, Nova Scotia Research and Innovation Trust, grant-in-aid program of the Japanese government under Contract No. 23224008, US DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
The Electric Dipole Moment of Iridium Monosilicide, IrSi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le, Anh; Steimle, Timothy C.; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F.
2013-06-01
The optical spectrum of iridium monosilicide (IrSi) was recently observed using REMPI spectroscopy in the range 17200 to 23850 cm^{-1}. The observation was supported by an ab initio calculation which predicted a X^{2}Δ_{5/2} state. Here, we report on the analysis of the optical Stark effect for the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and [16.0]1.5 (v=6) states. The (6,0)[16.0]1.5 - X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and the (7,0)[16.0]3.5- X^{2}Δ_{5/2} bands of IrSi have been recorded using high-resolution laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The observed optical Stark shifts for the ^{193}IrSi and ^{191}IrSi isotopologues were analyzed to produce the electric dipole moments of -0.4139(64)D and 0.7821(63)D for the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and [16.0]1.5 (v=6) states, respectively. The negative sign of electric dipole moment of the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} state is supported by high-level quantum-chemical calculations employing all-electron scalar-relativistic CCSD(T) method augmented with spin-orbit corrections as well as corrections due to full triple excitations. In particular, electron-correlation effects have been shown to be essential in the prediction of the negative sign of the dipole moment. A comparison with other iridium containing molecules will be made. Maria A. Garcia, Carolin Vietz, Fernando Ruipérez, Michael D. Morse, and Ivan Infante, Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko. J. Chem. Phys., (submitted)
Reappraisal of the Electric Dipole Moment Enhancement Factor for Thallium
Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.
2011-05-20
The electric dipole moment (EDM) enhancement factor of atomic Tl is of considerable interest as it has been used in determining the most accurate limit on the electron EDM to date. However, its value varies from -179 to -1041 in different approximations. In view of the large uncertainties associated with many of these calculations, we perform an accurate calculation employing the relativistic coupled-cluster theory and obtain -466, which in combination with the most accurate measurement of Tl EDM [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002)] yields a new limit for the electron EDM: |d{sub e}|<2.0x10{sup -27}e cm.
Magnetic dipole moment determination by near-field analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eichhorn, W. L.
1972-01-01
A method for determining the magnetic moment of a spacecraft from magnetic field data taken in a limited region of space close to the spacecraft. The spacecraft's magnetic field equations are derived from first principles. With measurements of this field restricted to certain points in space, the near-field equations for the spacecraft are derived. These equations are solved for the dipole moment by a least squares procedure. A method by which one can estimate the magnitude of the error in the calculations is also presented. This technique was thoroughly tested on a computer. The test program is described and evaluated, and partial results are presented.
Hex-Sided Rounded Dipole Antenna (HSRDA) For UWB Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singhal, Sarthak; Verma, Nand Kishor; Singh, Amit Kumar
2016-03-01
A hex-sided rounded dipole antenna (HSRDA) for UWB applications is presented. It is designed by the addition of semi-elliptical patch sections at the edges of a square bow-tie antenna. The antenna structure is fed by a modified microstrip feedline for better impedance matching. An impedance bandwidth of 2.9-11.4 GHz is achieved. The antenna structure has quasi omnidirectional radiation patterns and reasonable gain over the same frequency range. A good agreement between the experimental and simulation results is observed. The proposed antenna structure has miniaturized size for the same bandwidth as compared to already reported antenna structures.
On minimal energy dipole moment distributions in regular polygonal agglomerates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosa, Adriano Possebon; Cunha, Francisco Ricardo; Ceniceros, Hector Daniel
2017-01-01
Static, regular polygonal and close-packed clusters of spherical magnetic particles and their energy-minimizing magnetic moments are investigated in a two-dimensional setting. This study focuses on a simple particle system which is solely described by the dipole-dipole interaction energy, both without and in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. For a regular polygonal structure of n sides with n ≥ 3 , and in the absence of an external field, it is proved rigorously that the magnetic moments given by the roots of unity, i.e. tangential to the polygon, are a minimizer of the dipole-dipole interaction energy. Also, for zero external field, new multiple local minima are discovered for the regular polygonal agglomerates. The number of found local extrema is proportional to [ n / 2 ] and these critical points are characterized by the presence of a pair of magnetic moments with a large deviation from the tangential configuration and whose particles are at least three diameters apart. The changes induced by an in-plane external magnetic field on the minimal energy, tangential configurations are investigated numerically. The two critical fields, which correspond to a crossover with the linear chain minimal energy and with the break-up of the agglomerate, respectively are examined in detail. In particular, the numerical results are compared directly with the asymptotic formulas of Danilov et al. (2012) [23] and a remarkable agreement is found even for moderate to large fields. Finally, three examples of close-packed structures are investigated: a triangle, a centered hexagon, and a 19-particle close packed cluster. The numerical study reveals novel, illuminating characteristics of these compact clusters often seen in ferrofluids. The centered hexagon is energetically favorable to the regular hexagon and the minimal energy for the larger 19-particle cluster is even lower than that of the close packed hexagon. In addition, this larger close packed agglomerate has two
Inclination flattening and the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis [rapid communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tauxe, Lisa
2005-05-01
William Gilbert first articulated what has come to be known as the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis. The GAD hypothesis is the principle on which paleogeographic reconstructions rely to constrain paleolatitude. For decades, there have been calls for permanent non-dipole contributions to the time-averaged field. Recently, these have demanded large contributions of the axial octupole, which, if valid, would call into question the general utility of the GAD hypothesis. In the process of geological recording of the geomagnetic field, "Earth filters" distort the directions. Many processes, for example, sedimentary inclination flattening and random tilting, can lead to a net shallowing of the observed direction. Therefore, inclinations that are shallower than expected from GAD can be explained by recording biases, northward transport, or non-dipole geomagnetic fields. Using paleomagnetic data from the last 5 million years from well-constrained lava flow data allows the construction of a statistical geomagnetic field model. Such a model can predict not only the average expected direction for a given latitude, but also the shape of the distribution of directions produced by secular variation. The elongation of predicted directions varies as a function of latitude (from significantly elongate in the up/down direction at the equator to circularly symmetric at the poles). Sedimentary inclination flattening also works in a predictable manner producing elongations that are stretched side to side and the degree of flattening depending on the inclination of the applied field and a "flattening factor" f. The twin tools of the predicted elongation/inclination relationship characteristic of the geomagnetic field for the past 5 million years and the distortion of the directions predicted from sedimentary inclination flattening allows us to find the flattening factor that yields corrected directions with an elongation and average inclination consistent with the statistical field
Complete Electric Dipole Strength and Neutron Skin in 208Pb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Poltoraska, I.; Tamii, A.
2013-03-01
Small-angle polarized proton scattering including 0° on 208Pb has been studied at the RCNP cyclotron with high energy resolution of the order 25 -- 30 keV (FWHM). The complete E1 strength distribution from 5 to 20 MeV could be extracted from the data. The total E1 polarizability as well as the properties of the pygmy dipole resonance can be extracted with high precision providing important experimental constraints on the neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and the symmetry energy of neutron matter.
Scan blindness in infinite phased arrays of printed dipoles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.
1984-01-01
A comprehensive study of infinite phased arrays of printed dipole antennas is presented, with emphasis on the scan blindness phenomenon. A rigorous and efficient moment method procedure is used to calculate the array impedance versus scan angle. Data are presented for the input reflection coefficient for various element spacings and substrate parameters. A simple theory, based on coupling from Floquet modes to surface wave modes on the substrate, is shown to predict the occurrence of scan blindness. Measurements from a waveguide simulator of a blindness condition confirm the theory.
Coupling between Two Arbitrarily Oriented Dipoles through Multilayered Shields.
1983-06-01
Appendix I) (xyz) fId e j a(x-x’)+B(y-y’)+Y(z-z’)J dad (21)z 2 /k _a2 _ 2A~(x~~z - - . e ada(1 From Maxwell’s equation we have H -Az E 1 gHX A z = -y x...that the z-oriented magnetic dipole placed at the z-axis can only couple the z-component of the magnetic field. From Maxwell’s equation we have Hz
Propagation of the Lissajous singularity dipole through an astigmatic lens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Haitao; Gao, Zenghui; Zou, Xuefang; Huang, Weigang; Wang, Fanhou
2013-11-01
The propagation was investigated of a pair of Lissajous singularities of opposite singularity index called the Lissajous singularity dipole (LSD) through an astigmatic lens. It is shown that after passing through the lens the positions of the singularities are inverted and more than two LSDs occur. Changes in the degree of polarization of the LSDs as well as in the shape of the Lissajous figures also occur. In addition, Lissajous singularities may take place at the focal plane, and a single Lissajous singularity may appear and vanish under certain conditions. The results are compared with those of previous work.
The permanent electric dipole moment of chromium monoxide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steimle, Timothy C.; Nachman, David F.; Shirley, Jeffrey E.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1989-01-01
The permanent electric dipole moments for the X 5Pi and B 5pi states of gas-phase CrO have been experimentally determined using the sub-Doppler optical technique of intermodulated fluorescence spectroscopy in conjunction with the Stark effect. The measured values are 3.88 + or - 0.13 and 4.1 + or - 1.8 D for the X and B states, respectively. The theoretical values determined for the X state using multireference CI iterative-natural-orbital and finite-field calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental value.
Beam induced electron cloud resonances in dipole magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvey, J. R.; Hartung, W.; Makita, J.; Venturini, M.
2016-07-01
The buildup of low energy electrons in an accelerator, known as electron cloud, can be severely detrimental to machine performance. Under certain beam conditions, the beam can become resonant with the cloud dynamics, accelerating the buildup of electrons. This paper will examine two such effects: multipacting resonances, in which the cloud development time is resonant with the bunch spacing, and cyclotron resonances, in which the cyclotron period of electrons in a magnetic field is a multiple of bunch spacing. Both resonances have been studied directly in dipole fields using retarding field analyzers installed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. These measurements are supported by both analytical models and computer simulations.
Measurement of AC electrical characteristics of SSC superconducting dipole magnets
Smedley, K M; Shafer, R E
1992-01-01
Experiments were conducted to measure the AC electrical characteristics of SSC superconducting dipole magnets over the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz. A magnet equivalent circuit representing the magnet DC inductance, eddy current losses, coil-to-ground and turn-to-turn capacitance, was synthesized from the experimental data. This magnet equivalent circuit can be used to predict the current ripple distribution along the superconducting magnet string and can provide dynamic information for the design of the collider current regulation loop.
A high gain microstrip array adopting EMC dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russo, P.; Ruggieri, M.
1988-10-01
The design and operation of microstrip antenna arrays based on commercial feed boards and electromagnetically coupled (EMC) dipoles are described and illustrated with extensive drawings, graphs, and diagrams. The analysis of the radiating element and feeder network is outlined, and a 4 x 1 H-plane array and a 4 x 4 array operating at 11.7-12.5 GHz in linear or circular polarization are characterized in detail. With uniform illumination the latter array had directivity 21.75-22.08 db, gain 20.85-21.27 dB, voltage/standing-wave ratio 1.35-1.55:1, and efficiency 79-85 percent.
Full length SSC R and D dipole magnet test results
Strait, J.; Bleadon, M.; Brown, B.C.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peoples, J.
1989-03-01
Four full scale SSC development dipole magnets have been tested for mechanical and quench behavior. Two are of a design similar to previous magnets but contain a number of improvements, including more uniform coil size, higher pre-stress and a redesigned inner-outer coil splice. One exceeds the SSC operating current on the second quench but the other appears to be limited by damaged superconductor to a lower current. The other two magnets are of alternate designs. One trains erratically and fails to reach a plateau and the other reaches plateau after four quenches. 12 refs., 4 figs.
Parity-violating electric-dipole transitions in helium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hiller, J.; Sucher, J.; Bhatia, A. K.; Feinberg, G.
1980-01-01
The paper examines parity-violating electric-dipole transitions in He in order to gain insight into the reliability of approximate calculations which are carried out for transitions in many-electron atoms. The contributions of the nearest-lying states are computed with a variety of wave functions, including very simple product wave functions, Hartree-Fock functions and Hylleraas-type wave functions with up to 84 parameters. It is found that values of the matrix elements of the parity-violating interaction can differ considerably from the values obtained from the good wave functions, even when these simple wave functions give accurate values for the matrix elements in question
Air-cooled trim dipoles for the Fermilab Main Injector
Harding, D. J.; Chester, N. S.; Garvey, J. D.; Krafczyk, G. E.; Makarov, A. I.; Terechkine, I.; Yarba, V. A.
1997-05-01
New horizontal and vertical trim dipoles have been designed for the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) and are being assembled in the Fermilab Technical Division. Magnets are 42.6 cm in length (30.5 cm steel length) and have similar cross-section dimensions. The horizontal (vertical) magnet gap is 50.8 mm (127 mm) and the target integrated strength is 0.072 T*m (0.029 T*m). The major design effort lay in making air cooling possible for these magnets. This report presents the magnets` thermal and magnetic properties and discusses the limitation on excitation current.
Excitation-energy dependence of the giant dipole resonance width
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enders, G.; Berg, F. D.; Hagel, K.; Kühn, W.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Pfeiffer, M.; Schwalb, O.; Charity, R. J.; Gobbi, A.; Freifelder, R.; Henning, W.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Holzmann, R.; Mayer, R. S.; Simon, R. S.; Wessels, J. P.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Stefanini, A. A.
1992-07-01
High-energy γ rays have been measured in coincidence with heavy fragents in deeply inelastic reactions of 136Xe+48Ti at 18.5 MeV/nucleon. The giant dipole resonance (GDR) strength function is deduced from an analysis of the photon spectra within the statistical model. The GDR width Γ is studied as a function of the fragment excitation energy E*. A saturation at about Γ=10 MeV is observed for E*/A>=1.0 MeV/nucleon.
Theoretical study of the dipole moment of oxygen monofluoride (OF)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Langhoff, S. R.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Partridge, H.
1983-01-01
The ground-state potential curve and dipole-moment function of OF are calculated theoretically using the complete active-space self-consistent-field levels, externally contracted configuration-interaction levels, or multireference (singles plus doubles) configuration-interaction levels. Both an extended Gaussian basis set and a double-zeta-plus-polarization basis set were applied. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs. Best results are achieved using a large Gaussian basis set and taking the valence-correlation energy into account. It is suggested that OF may best be detected by its laser-magnetic-resonance spectrum in the IR.
Molecular Dipole Osmosis Based on Induced Charge Electro-Osmosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugioka, Hideyuki
2016-09-01
We propose a novel mechanism of producing a large nonlinear electrokinetic vortex flow around a nonconductive polar molecule in an electrolyte. That is, a large nonlinear electrokinetic slip velocity is derived by considering a local giant permittivity due to a molecular electric dipole moment with induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO). Different from the conventional ICEO theory, our theory predicts that a nonconductive biomaterial, such as a base of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule, has a significantly high ICEO flow velocity because of its large local permittivity. We consider that our findings will contribute markedly to promising biomedical applications.
Whistler choruswaves: Linear theory and nonlinear simulations in dipole geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shuo
2015-12-01
Whistler-mode chorus waves have recently drawn tremendous attention as an important mechanism for controlling the energetic electron flux in Earth's radiation belt. This dissertation aims to answer questions about whistler-mode chorus waves, such as "What is the effect of cold plasma density on the linear whistler instability? How do whistler mode chorus waves evolve in a meridional plane? How would chorus waves occur if the magnetosphere is compressed?" First, we derive the real dispersion relation and linear growth rate of whistler mode in mixed hot and cold plasma. We find that there is a peak in the temporal and convective growth rates with respect to cold plasma density. We model the relation between the linear growth rate and various plasma parameters and use this model to explain the observed modulation of chorus intensity by cold plasma density. Second, we simulate the nonlinear growth of whistler-mode chorus waves in a dipole field using a hybrid code. The hybrid code uses the particle-in-cell technique in generalized orthogonal coordinates. A small fraction of electrons is treated as particles with anisotropic temperature that leads to the whistler instability. Other electrons are treated as a cold fluid without mass. The rough validity of our model is confirmed by comparing results from our hybrid code and a full dynamics particle in cell code. Our 1-D simulations along the dipole field line reproduce chorus generation in agreement with observations and past studies. We find that it is easier to simulate temporal frequency variation in a scaled down system with greater magnetic field inhomogeneity. Our 2-D simulations reveal features of chorus propagation in a meridional plane and the effects of background plasma density on that propagation. These are the first 2-D first principles simulations of whistler-mode chorus waves in Earth's dipole field. Our preliminary simulation in a 1-D compressed dipole field is the first attempt to self
A dipole band above the Iπ= 31/2- isomeric state in 189Pb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cullen, D. M.
2016-09-01
This contribution focuses on the new observation of a dipole band built upon an Iπ=31/2- isomeric state in 189Pb, identified using recoil-isomer tagging at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. This is the lightest odd-mass Pb isotope in which a dipole band is known. By comparison with the heavier-mass dipole bands, the dipole band in 189Pb was deduced to be based upon a π {≤ft( {s1/2 - 2{h9/2}{i13/2}} right){{11^ - }}} otimes v{≤ft( {i13/2 - 1} right)13/{2^ + }} configuration. However, in the 189Pb dipole band, the initial aligned angular momentum was larger than that exhibited by the dipole bands in the heavier-mass isotopes. This may be evidence for a reduced repulsive proton/neutron-hole interaction in 189Pb.
Anisotropic media effect on the dipole moment of some coumarin dyes.
Zakerhamidi, M S; Ghanadzadeh, A; Moghadam, M; Tajalli, H
2010-11-01
The ground state (μ(g)) and the excited state (μ(e)) dipole moments of two coumarin laser dyes, C500 and C503, were studied at room temperature in various solvents, viz., aprotic solvents, alcohols and liquid crystals at 298 K. We report dipole moment of laser dyes in different anisotropic (liquid crystals) and isotropic environments. The dipole moments values in different media help to investigate environment effects on the molecular dipole moment and provide a straightforward method for comparing their properties. Ground and excited state dipole moments of coumarin dyes were evaluated by means of solvatochromic shift method. It was observed that dipole moment values of excited states (μ(e)) were higher than corresponding ground state values (μ(g)), indicating a substantial redistribution of the π-electron densities in a more polar excited state for the dyes investigated.
Simultaneous Measurement of the Three-Dimensional Orientation of Excitation and Emission Dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karedla, Narain; Stein, Simon C.; Hähnel, Dirk; Gregor, Ingo; Chizhik, Anna; Enderlein, Jörg
2015-10-01
The emission properties of most fluorescent emitters, such as dye molecules or solid-state color centers, can be well described by the model of an oscillating electric dipole. However, the orientations of their excitation and emission dipoles are, in most cases, not parallel. Although single molecule excitation and emission dipole orientation measurements have been performed in the past, no experimental method has so far looked at the three-dimensional excitation and emission dipole geometry of individual emitters simultaneously. We present the first experimental study, using defocused imaging in conjunction with radially polarized excitation scanning, to measure both the excitation as well as emission dipole orientations of single molecules, which allows us to sample the distribution of their mutual orientation. We find an unexpectedly broad distribution of the angle between both dipoles which we attribute to the interaction between the observed molecules and the substrate they are immobilized on.
Signal quality of the LHC AC dipoles and its impact on beam dynamics
Miyamoto, R.; Cattin, M.; Serrano, J.; Tomas, R.
2010-05-23
The adiabaticity of the AC dipole might be compromised by noise or unwanted frequency components in its signal. An effort has been put to characterize and optimize the signal quality of the LHC AC dipoles. The measured signal is used in realistic simulations in order to evaluate its impact on beam dynamics and to ultimately establish safe margins for the operation of the LHC AC dipoles.
Axion Induced Oscillating Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron
Hill, Christopher T.
2016-01-12
A cosmic axion, via the electromagnetic anomaly, induces an oscillating electric dipole for the electron of frequency ma and strength ~(few) x 10^{-32} e-cm, two orders of magnitude above the nucleon, and within a few orders of magnitude of the present standard model constant limit. We give a detailed study of this phenomenon via the interaction of the cosmic axion, through the electromagnetic anomaly, with particular emphasis on the decoupling limit of the axion, ∂_{t}a(t) ∝ m_{α} → 0. The analysis is subtle, and we find the general form of the action involves a local contact interaction and a nonlocal contribution, analogous to the “transverse current” in QED, that enforces the decoupling limit. We carefully derive the effective action in the Pauli-Schroedinger non-relativistic formalism, and in Georgi’s heavy quark formalism adapted to the “heavy electron” (m_{e} >> m_{a}). We compute the electric dipole radiation emitted by free electrons, magnets and currents, immersed in the cosmic axion field, and discuss experimental configurations that may yield a detectable signal.
Pinwheel-dipole configuration in cat early visual cortex.
Ribot, Jérôme; Romagnoni, Alberto; Milleret, Chantal; Bennequin, Daniel; Touboul, Jonathan
2016-03-01
In the early visual cortex, information is processed within functional maps whose layouts are thought to underlie visual perception. However, the precise organization of these functional maps as well as their interrelationships remain unsettled. Here, we show that spatial frequency representation in cat early visual cortex exhibits singularities around which the map organizes like an electric dipole potential. These singularities are precisely co-located with singularities of the orientation map: the pinwheel centers. To show this, we used high resolution intrinsic optical imaging in cat areas 17 and 18. First, we show that a majority of pinwheel centers exhibit in their neighborhood both semi-global maximum and minimum in the spatial frequency map (i.e. extreme values of the spatial frequency in a hypercolumn). This contradicts pioneering studies suggesting that pinwheel centers are placed at the locus of a single spatial frequency extremum. Based on an analogy with electromagnetism, we proposed a mathematical model for a dipolar structure, accurately fitting optical imaging data. We conclude that a majority of orientation pinwheel centers form spatial frequency dipoles in cat early visual cortex. Given the functional specificities of neurons at singularities in the visual cortex, it is argued that the dipolar organization of spatial frequency around pinwheel centers could be fundamental for visual processing.
Electric dipole excitation of 208Pb by polarized electron impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. H.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.
2016-03-01
The cross sections and spin asymmetries for the excitation of 1- states in 208Pb by transversely polarized electrons with collision energy of 30-180MeV have been examined within the DWBA scattering formalism. As examples, we have considered a low-lying 1- state and also states belonging to the pygmy dipole and giant dipole resonances. The structure of these states and their corresponding transition charge and current densities have been taken from an RPA calculation within the quasiparticle phonon model. The complex-plane rotation method has been applied to achieve the convergence of the radial DWBA integrals for backward scattering. We have studied the behaviour of the cross sections and spin asymmetries as a function of electron energy and scattering angle. The role of the longitudinal and transversal contributions to the excitation has been thoroughly studied. We conclude that the spin asymmetry S, related to unpolarized outgoing electrons, is mostly well below 1% even at the backward scattering angles and its measurement provides a challenge for future experiments with polarized electrons.
Membrane Transport of Singlet Oxygen Monitored by Dipole Potential Measurements
Sokolov, Valerij S.; Pohl, Peter
2009-01-01
Abstract The efficiency of photodynamic reactions depends on 1), the penetration depth of the photosensitizer into the membrane and 2), the sidedness of the target. Molecules which are susceptible to singlet oxygen (1O2) experience less damage when separated from the photosensitizer by the membrane. Since 1O2 lifetime in the membrane environment is orders of magnitude longer than the time required for nonexcited oxygen (O2) to cross the membrane, this observation suggests that differences between the permeabilities or membrane partition of 1O2 and O2 exist. We investigated this hypothesis by releasing 1O2 at one side of a planar membrane while monitoring the kinetics of target damage at the opposite side of the same membrane. Damage to the target, represented by dipole-modifying molecules (phloretin or phlorizin), was indicated by changes in the interleaflet dipole potential difference Δϕb. A simple analytical model allowed estimation of the 1O2 interleaflet concentration difference from the rate at which Δϕb changed. It confirmed that the lower limit of 1O2 permeability is ∼2 cm/s; i.e., it roughly matches O2 permeability as predicted by Overton's rule. Consequently, the membrane cannot act as a barrier to 1O2 diffusion. Differences in the reaction rates at the cytoplasmic and extracellular membrane leaflets may be attributed only to 1O2 quenchers inside the membrane. PMID:18931253
Nongeocentric axial dipole field behavior during the Mono Lake excursion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negrini, Robert M.; McCuan, Daniel T.; Horton, Robert A.; Lopez, James D.; Cassata, William S.; Channell, James E. T.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Coe, Robert S.; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Lund, Steven P.; Benson, Larry V.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.
2014-04-01
A new record of the Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is reported from the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, USA. Sediment magnetic properties indicate magnetite as the magnetization carrier and imply suitability of the sediments as accurate recorders of the magnetic field including relative paleointensity (RPI) variations. The magnitudes and phases of the declination, inclination, and RPI components of the new record correlate well with other coeval but lower resolution records from western North America including records from the Wilson Creek Formation exposed around Mono Lake. The virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path of the new record is similar to that from another high-resolution record of the MLE from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin between Iceland and Greenland but different from the VGP path for the Laschamp excursion (LE), including that found lower in the ODP-919 core. Thus, the prominent excursion recorded at Mono Lake, California, is not the LE but rather one that is several thousands of years younger. The MLE VGP path contains clusters, the locations of which coincide with nonaxial dipole features found in the Holocene geomagnetic field. The clusters are occupied in the same time progression by VGPs from Summer Lake and the Irminger Basin, but the phase of occupation is offset, a behavior that suggests time-transgressive decay and return of the principal field components at the beginning and end of the MLE, respectively, leaving the nonaxial dipole features associated with the clusters dominant during the excursion.
Tailoring magnetic energies to form dipole skyrmions and skyrmion lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montoya, S. A.; Couture, S.; Chess, J. J.; Lee, J. C. T.; Kent, N.; Henze, D.; Sinha, S. K.; Im, M.-Y.; Kevan, S. D.; Fischer, P.; McMorran, B. J.; Lomakin, V.; Roy, S.; Fullerton, E. E.
2017-01-01
The interesting physics and potential memory technologies resulting from topologically protected spin textures such as skyrmions have prompted efforts to discover new material systems that can host these kinds of magnetic structures. Here, we use the highly tunable magnetic properties of amorphous Fe/Gd multilayer films to explore the magnetic properties that lead to dipole-stabilized skyrmions and skyrmion lattices that form from the competition of dipolar field and exchange energy. Using both real space imaging and reciprocal space scattering techniques, we determined the range of material properties and magnetic fields where skyrmions form. Micromagnetic modeling closely matches our observation of small skyrmion features (˜50 to 70 nm) and suggests that these classes of skyrmions have a rich domain structure that is Bloch-like in the center of the film and more Néel-like towards each surface. Our results provide a pathway to engineer the formation and controllability of dipole skyrmion phases in a thin film geometry at different temperatures and magnetic fields.
Bayesian smoothing of dipoles in magneto-/electroencephalography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivaldi, Valentina; Sorrentino, Alberto
2016-04-01
We describe a novel method for dynamic estimation of multi-dipole states from magneto-/electroencephalography (M/EEG) time series. The new approach builds on the recent development of particle filters for M/EEG; these algorithms approximate, with samples and weights, the posterior distribution of the neural sources at time t given the data up to time t. However, for off-line inference purposes it is preferable to work with the smoothing distribution, i.e. the distribution for the neural sources at time t conditioned on the whole time series. In this study, we use a Monte Carlo algorithm to approximate the smoothing distribution for a time-varying set of current dipoles. We show, using numerical simulations, that the estimates provided by the smoothing distribution are more accurate than those provided by the filtering distribution, particularly at the appearance of the source. We validate the proposed algorithm using an experimental data set recorded from an epileptic patient. Improved localization of the source onset can be particularly relevant in source modeling of epileptic patients, where the source onset brings information on the epileptogenic zone.
Axion Induced Oscillating Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron
Hill, Christopher T.
2016-01-12
A cosmic axion, via the electromagnetic anomaly, induces an oscillating electric dipole for the electron of frequency ma and strength ~(few) x 10-32 e-cm, two orders of magnitude above the nucleon, and within a few orders of magnitude of the present standard model constant limit. We give a detailed study of this phenomenon via the interaction of the cosmic axion, through the electromagnetic anomaly, with particular emphasis on the decoupling limit of the axion, ∂ta(t) ∝ mα → 0. The analysis is subtle, and we find the general form of the action involves a local contact interaction and a nonlocalmore » contribution, analogous to the “transverse current” in QED, that enforces the decoupling limit. We carefully derive the effective action in the Pauli-Schroedinger non-relativistic formalism, and in Georgi’s heavy quark formalism adapted to the “heavy electron” (me >> ma). We compute the electric dipole radiation emitted by free electrons, magnets and currents, immersed in the cosmic axion field, and discuss experimental configurations that may yield a detectable signal.« less
Electric field-driven water dipoles: nanoscale architecture of electroporation.
Tokman, Mayya; Lee, Jane HyoJin; Levine, Zachary A; Ho, Ming-Chak; Colvin, Michael E; Vernier, P Thomas
2013-01-01
Electroporation is the formation of permeabilizing structures in the cell membrane under the influence of an externally imposed electric field. The resulting increased permeability of the membrane enables a wide range of biological applications, including the delivery of normally excluded substances into cells. While electroporation is used extensively in biology, biotechnology, and medicine, its molecular mechanism is not well understood. This lack of knowledge limits the ability to control and fine-tune the process. In this article we propose a novel molecular mechanism for the electroporation of a lipid bilayer based on energetics analysis. Using molecular dynamics simulations we demonstrate that pore formation is driven by the reorganization of the interfacial water molecules. Our energetics analysis and comparisons of simulations with and without the lipid bilayer show that the process of poration is driven by field-induced reorganization of water dipoles at the water-lipid or water-vacuum interfaces into more energetically favorable configurations, with their molecular dipoles oriented in the external field. Although the contributing role of water in electroporation has been noted previously, here we propose that interfacial water molecules are the main players in the process, its initiators and drivers. The role of the lipid layer, to a first-order approximation, is then reduced to a relatively passive barrier. This new view of electroporation simplifies the study of the problem, and opens up new opportunities in both theoretical modeling of the process and experimental research to better control or to use it in new, innovative ways.
Bayesian smoothing of dipoles in Magneto-/Electro-encephalography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivaldi, Valentina; Sorrentino, Alberto
2016-02-01
We describe a novel method for dynamic estimation of multi-dipole states from Magneto/Electro-encephalography (M/EEG) time series. The new approach builds on the recent development of particle filters for M/EEG; these algorithms approximate, with samples and weights, the posterior distribution of the neural sources at time t given the data up to time t. However, for off-line inference purposes it is preferable to work with the smoothing distribution, i.e. the distribution for the neural sources at time t conditioned on the whole time series. In this study, we use a Monte Carlo algorithm to approximate the smoothing distribution for a time-varying set of current dipoles. We show, using numerical simulations, that the estimates provided by the smoothing distribution are more accurate than those provided by the filtering distribution, particularly at the appearance of the source. We validate the proposed algorithm using an experimental dataset recorded from an epileptic patient. Improved localization of the source onset can be particularly relevant in source modeling of epileptic patients, where the source onset brings information on the epileptogenic zone.
Structure of dipole bands in doubly odd 102Ag
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, V.; Sihotra, S.; Malik, S. S.; Bhat, G. H.; Palit, R.; Sheikh, J. A.; Kumar, S.; Singh, N.; Singh, K.; Goswamy, J.; Sethi, J.; Saha, S.; Trivedi, T.; Mehta, D.
2016-10-01
Excited states in the transitional doubly odd 102Ag nucleus were populated in the 75As(31P,p 3 n ) fusion-evaporation reaction using the 125 MeV incident 31P beam. The subsequent deexcitations were investigated through in-beam γ -ray spectroscopic techniques using the Indian National Gamma Array spectrometer equipped with 21 clover Ge detectors. The level scheme in 102Ag has been established up to excitation energy ˜6.5 MeV and angular momentum 19 ℏ . The earlier reported level scheme is considerably extended and modified to result in a pair of nearly degenerate negative-parity dipole bands. Lifetime measurements for the states of these two dipole bands have been performed by using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The two nearly degenerate bands exhibit different features with regard to kinetic moment of inertia, and the reduced transition probabilities B (M 1 ) and B (E 2 ) , which do not favor these to be chiral partners. These bands are discussed in the framework of the hybrid version of tilted-axis cranking (tac) model calculations and assigned the π g9 /2⊗ν h11 /2 and π g9 /2⊗ν h11 /2(d5/2/g7 /2) 2 configurations. The tac model calculations are extended to the nearly degenerate bands observed in the heavier doubly odd Ag-108104 isotopes.
Dynamics of vortex dipoles in anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates
Goodman, Roy H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Carretero-González, R.
2015-04-14
We study the motion of a vortex dipole in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined to an anisotropic trap. We focus on a system of ODEs describing the vortices' motion, which is in turn a reduced model of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing the condensate's motion. Using a sequence of canonical changes of variables, we reduce the dimension and simplify the equations of motion. In this study, we uncover two interesting regimes. Near a family of periodic orbits known as guiding centers, we find that the dynamics is essentially that of a pendulum coupled to a linear oscillator, leading to stochastic reversals in the overall direction of rotation of the dipole. Near the separatrix orbit in the isotropic system, we find other families of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic trajectories. In a neighborhood of the guiding center orbits, we derive an explicit iterated map that simplifies the problem further. Numerical calculations are used to illustrate the phenomena discovered through the analysis. Using the results from the reduced system, we are able to construct complex periodic orbits in the original, PDE, mean-field model for Bose-Einstein condensates, which corroborates the phenomenology observed in the reduced dynamical equations.
Dynamics of vortex dipoles in anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates
Goodman, Roy H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Carretero-González, R.
2015-04-14
We study the motion of a vortex dipole in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined to an anisotropic trap. We focus on a system of ODEs describing the vortices' motion, which is in turn a reduced model of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing the condensate's motion. Using a sequence of canonical changes of variables, we reduce the dimension and simplify the equations of motion. In this study, we uncover two interesting regimes. Near a family of periodic orbits known as guiding centers, we find that the dynamics is essentially that of a pendulum coupled to a linear oscillator, leading to stochastic reversals inmore » the overall direction of rotation of the dipole. Near the separatrix orbit in the isotropic system, we find other families of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic trajectories. In a neighborhood of the guiding center orbits, we derive an explicit iterated map that simplifies the problem further. Numerical calculations are used to illustrate the phenomena discovered through the analysis. Using the results from the reduced system, we are able to construct complex periodic orbits in the original, PDE, mean-field model for Bose-Einstein condensates, which corroborates the phenomenology observed in the reduced dynamical equations.« less
Precision measurement of the electromagnetic dipole strengths in Be11
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.; Summers, N. C.; Hackman, G.; Drake, T. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Chester, A.; Close, A.; Cline, D.; Cross, D. S.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, A.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hayes, A. B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Nano, T.; Navrátil, P.; Pearson, C. J.; Pore, J.; Quaglioni, S.; Svensson, C. E.; Starosta, K.; Thompson, I. J.; Voss, P.; Williams, S. J.; Wang, Z. M.
2014-05-01
The electromagnetic dipole strength in Be11 between the bound states has been measured using low-energy projectile Coulomb excitation at bombarding energies of 1.73 and 2.09 MeV/nucleon on a Pt196 target. An electric dipole transition probability B(E1;1/2-→1/2+)=0.102(2) e2fm was determined using the semi-classical code Gosia, and a value of 0.098(4) e2fm was determined using the Extended Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels method with the quantum mechanical code FRESCO. These extracted B(E1) values are consistent with the average value determined by a model-dependent analysis of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation measurements and are approximately 14% lower than that determined by a lifetime measurement. The much-improved precisions of 2% and 4% in the measured B(E1) values between the bound states deduced using Gosia and the Extended Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels method, respectively, compared to the previous accuracy of ˜10% will help in our understanding of and better improve the realistic inter-nucleon interactions.
Free induction decay caused by a dipole field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziener, C. H.; Kurz, F. T.; Kampf, T.
2015-03-01
We analyze the free induction decay of nuclear spins under the influence of restricted diffusion in a magnetic dipole field around cylindrical objects. In contrast to previous publications no restrictions or simplifications concerning the diffusion process are made. By directly solving the Bloch-Torrey equation, analytical expressions for the magnetization are given in terms of an eigenfunction expansion. The field strength-dependent complex nature of the eigenvalue spectrum significantly influences the shape of the free induction decay. As the dipole field is the lowest order of the multipole expansion, the obtained results are important for understanding fundamental mechanisms of spin dephasing in many other applied fields of nuclear magnetic resonance such as biophysics or material science. The analytical methods are applied to interpret the spin dephasing in the free induction decay in cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle. A simple expression for the relevant transverse relaxation time is found in terms of the underlying microscopic parameters of the muscle tissue. The analytical results are in agreement with experimental data. These findings are important for the correct interpretation of magnetic resonance images for clinical diagnosis at all magnetic field strengths and therapy of cardiovascular diseases.
The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO
Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C.
2014-03-28
A number of low-rotational lines of the E{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} ← X{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h{sub 7/2}, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq{sub 0}, for the E{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2}(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ{sup -vector}{sub el}, for the X{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} (υ = 0) and E{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F′ = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F′ = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.
Dipole radiation from a cylindrical hole in the earth.
Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Basilio, Lorena I.
2005-08-01
This report examines the problem of an antenna radiating from a cylindrical hole in the earth and the subsequent far-zone field produced in the upper air half space. The approach used for this analysis was to first examine propagation characteristics along the hole for surrounding geologic material properties. Three cases of sand with various levels of moisture content were considered as the surrounding material to the hole. For the hole diameters and sand cases examined, the radiation through the earth medium was found to be the dominant contribution to the radiation transmitted through to the upper half-space. In the analysis presented, the radiation from a vertical and a horizontal dipole source within the hole is used to determine a closed-form expression for the radiation in the earth medium which represents a modified element factor for the source and hole combination. As the final step, the well-known results for a dipole below a half space, in conjunction with the use of Snell's law to transform the modified element factor to the upper half space, determine closed-form expressions for the far-zone radiated fields in the air region above the earth.
Dipole analysis of magnetoencephalographic data during continuous shape copying.
Langheim, Frederick J P; Merkle, Alexander N; Leuthold, Arthur C; Lewis, Scott M; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P
2006-04-01
High density, whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to study ten healthy human subjects (five females and five males) participating in a continuous shape-copying task. The task was performed with eyes open and fixated. The three-part task began with 45 s of fixation on a blue dot, after which the dot turned red, and a pentagon was presented around it. Subjects continued to fixate on the red dot for 45 s, after which it turned green. The green dot instructed subjects to begin copying the shape continuously for 45 s, without visual feedback, using a joystick mounted at arm's length. Data were collected at 1,017.25 Hz with a 248 sensor axial-gradiometer system. After cardiac artifact subtraction (Leuthold 2003), each corner was identified, and 1 s epochs (centered on each corner) were averaged and filtered from 1 to 44 Hz. Grand average flux maps demonstrated dipolar distributions identifying the most relevant sensors. With these sensors, which were located over flux extrema (Valaki et al. 2004), dipole models were used for source localization within subjects. Consistent dipole locations included the left motor cortex, bilateral parietal, frontal and temporal regions, and the occipital cortex. These results indicate that MEG source-localization may be derived from a limited number of trials of continuous data, and that visual cortex activity may be consistently present during continuous motor activity despite the absence of novel visual stimulation and eye-movements.
Measurements of Loma Linda proton therapy gantry dipoles
Glass, H.D.; Mazur, P.O.; Sim, J.W.
1993-07-01
We describe the procedures used by the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) to perform tests of dipoles to be installed in the beam lines of the Loma Linda University Medical Center Proton Therapy Facility. The dipoles were manufactured in two styles, one style having a 45{degree} bending angle and the other a 135{degree} bending angle. The tests included magnetic field measurements using a Hall probe and the measurement of coil temperatures, voltages, and water flow rates. The probe was mounted on a movable cart which could be wheeled along the magnet beam pipe; we mounted extensions onto each end of the beam pipe to allow for the probe to measure the magnet end fields. The probe was also mounted at varying transverse positions on the cart to allow for field shape measurements, from which body quadrupole and sextupole coefficients were determined. A longitudinal sampling of the field down the entire length of the magnet allowed us to measure the total integrated field of each magnet. Hall probe measurements were controlled by a C program running on a Unix workstation.
Tidal generation of large sub-mesoscale eddy dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callendar, W.; Klymak, J. M.; Foreman, M. G. G.
2011-04-01
Numerical simulations of tidal flow past Cape St. James on the south tip of Haida Gwai (Queen Charlotte Islands) are presented that indicate mesoscale dipoles are formed from coalescing tidal eddies. Observations in this region demonstrate robust eddy generation at the Cape, with the primary process being flow separation of buoyant or wind driven outflows forming large anti-cyclonic, negative potential vorticity, Haida Eddies. However, there are other times where dipoles are observed in satellites, indicating a source of positive potential vorticity must also be present. The simulations here build on previous work that implicates oscillating tidal flow past the cape in creating the positive vorticity. Small headland eddies of alternating vorticity are created each tide. During certain tidal cycles, the headland eddies coalesce and self organize in such a way as to create large >20-km diameter eddies that then self-advect into deep water. The self advection speed is faster than the beta drift of anti-cyclones, and the propagation direction appears to be more southerly than typical Haida Eddies, though the model contains no mean wind-driven flows. These eddies are smaller than Haida Eddies, but given their tidal origin, may represent a more consistent source of coastal water that is injected into to the interior of the subpolar gyre.
Tidal generation of large sub-mesoscale eddy dipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callendar, W.; Klymak, J. M.; Foreman, M. G. G.
2011-08-01
Numerical simulations of tidal flow past Cape St. James on the south tip of Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) are presented that indicate mesoscale dipoles are formed from coalescing tidal eddies. Observations in this region demonstrate robust eddy generation at the Cape, with the primary process being flow separation of buoyant or wind driven outflows forming large anti-cyclonic, negative potential vorticity, Haida Eddies. However, there are other times where dipoles are observed in satellites, indicating a source of positive potential vorticity must also be present. The simulations here build on previous work that implicates oscillating tidal flow past the cape in creating the positive vorticity. Small headland eddies of alternating vorticity are created each tide. During certain tidal cycles, the headland eddies coalesce and self organize in such a way as to create large >20-km diameter eddies that then self-advect into deep water. The self advection speed is faster than the beta drift of anti-cyclones, and the propagation direction appears to be more southerly than typical Haida Eddies, though the model contains no mean wind-driven flows. These eddies are smaller than Haida Eddies, but given their tidal origin, may represent a more consistent source of coastal water that is injected into the interior of the subpolar gyre.
The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO.
Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C
2014-03-28
A number of low-rotational lines of the E(4)Δ7/2 ← X(4)Δ7/2 (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h7/2, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq0, for the E(4)Δ7/2(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ(→)(el), for the X(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 0) and E(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F' = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F' = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.
OPEN MIDPLANE DIPOLE DESIGN FOR LHC IR UPGRADE.
GUPTA,R.; ANERELLA,M.; HARRISON,M.; SCHMALZLE,J.; MOKHOV,N.
2004-01-21
The proposed luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), now under construction, will bring a large increase in the number of secondary particles from p-p collisions at the interaction point (IP). Energy deposition will be so large that the lifetime and quench performance of interaction region (IR) magnets may be significantly reduced if conventional designs are used. Moreover, the cryogenic capacity of the LHC will have to be significantly increased as the energy deposition load on the interaction region (IR) magnets by itself will exhaust the present capacity. We propose an alternate open midplane dipole design concept for the dipole-first optics that mitigates these issues. The proposed design takes advantage of the fact that most of the energy is deposited in the midplane region. The coil midplane region is kept free of superconductor, support structure and other material. Initial energy deposition calculations show that the increase in temperature remains within the quench tolerance of the superconducting coils. In addition, most of the energy is deposited in a relatively warm region where the heat removal is economical. We present the basic concept and preliminary design that includes several innovations.
Dipole source localization of mouse electroencephalogram using the Fieldtrip toolbox.
Lee, Chungki; Oostenveld, Robert; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Lae Hyun; Sung, Hokun; Choi, Jee Hyun
2013-01-01
The mouse model is an important research tool in neurosciences to examine brain function and diseases with genetic perturbation in different brain regions. However, the limited techniques to map activated brain regions under specific experimental manipulations has been a drawback of the mouse model compared to human functional brain mapping. Here, we present a functional brain mapping method for fast and robust in vivo brain mapping of the mouse brain. The method is based on the acquisition of high density electroencephalography (EEG) with a microarray and EEG source estimation to localize the electrophysiological origins. We adapted the Fieldtrip toolbox for the source estimation, taking advantage of its software openness and flexibility in modeling the EEG volume conduction. Three source estimation techniques were compared: Distribution source modeling with minimum-norm estimation (MNE), scanning with multiple signal classification (MUSIC), and single-dipole fitting. Known sources to evaluate the performance of the localization methods were provided using optogenetic tools. The accuracy was quantified based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The mean detection accuracy was high, with a false positive rate less than 1.3% and 7% at the sensitivity of 90% plotted with the MNE and MUSIC algorithms, respectively. The mean center-to-center distance was less than 1.2 mm in single dipole fitting algorithm. Mouse microarray EEG source localization using microarray allows a reliable method for functional brain mapping in awake mouse opening an access to cross-species study with human brain.
Dipole relaxation in erythrocyte membrane: involvement of spectrin skeleton.
Ivanov, I T; Paarvanova, B; Slavov, T
2012-12-01
Polarization of spectrin-actin undermembrane skeleton of red blood cell (RBC) plasma membranes was studied by impedance spectroscopy. Relatedly, dielectric spectra of suspensions that contained RBCs of humans, mammals (bovine, horse, dog, cat) and birds (turkey, pigeon, duck), and human RBC ghost membranes were continuously obtained during heating from 20 to 70°C. Data for the complex admittance and capacitance were used to derive the suspension resistance, R, and capacitance, C, as well as the energy loss as a function of temperature. As in previous studies, two irreversible temperature-induced transitions in the human RBC plasma membrane were detected at 49.5°C and at 60.7°C (at low heating rate). The transition at 49.5°C was evident from the abrupt changes in R, and C and the fall in the energy loss, due to dipole relaxation. For the erythrocytes of indicated species the changes in R and C displayed remarkable and similar frequency profiles within the 0.05-13MHz domain. These changes were subdued after cross-linking of membranes by diamide (0.3-1.3mM) and glutaraldehyde (0.1-0.4%) and at the presence of glycerol (10%). Based on the above results and previous reports, the dielectric changes at 49.5°C were related to dipole relaxation and segmental mobility of spectrin cytoskeleton. The results open the possibility for selective dielectric thermolysis of cell cytoskeleton.
Tissue dielectric measurement using an interstitial dipole antenna.
Wang, Peng; Brace, Christopher L
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to measure the dielectric properties of biological tissues with an interstitial dipole antenna based upon previous efforts for open-ended coaxial probes. The primary motivation for this technique is to facilitate treatment monitoring during microwave tumor ablation by utilizing the heating antenna without additional intervention or interruption of the treatment. The complex permittivity of a tissue volume surrounding the antenna was calculated from reflection coefficients measured after high-temperature microwave heating by using a rational function model of the antenna's input admittance. Three referencing liquids were needed for measurement calibration. The dielectric measurement technique was validated ex vivo in normal and ablated bovine livers. Relative permittivity and effective conductivity were lower in the ablation zone when compared to normal tissue, consistent with previous results. The dipole technique demonstrated a mean 10% difference of permittivity values when compared to open-ended coaxial cable measurements in the frequency range of 0.5-20 GHz. Variability in measured permittivities could be smoothed by fitting to a Cole-Cole dispersion model. Further development of this technique may facilitate real-time monitoring of microwave ablation treatments through the treatment applicator.
Enhanced Z-mode radiation from a dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horita, R. E.; James, H. G.
An HF transmitter and synchronized receiver both connected to dipoles were operated during the tethered experiment OEDIPUS C. On the flight down leg after the tether had been cut, direct bistatic propagation experiments were made with the transmitter in one subpayload and the receiver in the other subpayload. Medium-frequency Z-mode transmissions were observed to be strong compared to the adjoining wave modes. This Z-mode is the left-hand polarized mode propagating between its cut-off frequency fZ=(- fc+( fc2+4 fp2) 1/2)/2 and the local plasma frequency fp; fc is the local gyrofrequency. It is of particular theoretical interest because its refractive index surface evolves from a simple ellipsoid to an ellipsoid with inflections as frequency is swept through the band. The Z-mode signal was strongest at frequencies just below fp, at relatively low fp values. When fp increased, the Z-mode signals were strongest at frequencies just above fZ. Details of these characteristics are presented. A possible explanation is that the transmitting dipole impedance in this frequency range provides a better match to the output of the transmitter than in other wave modes swept.
Predictability of the Indian Ocean Dipole in the coupled models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Huafeng; Tang, Youmin; Chen, Dake; Lian, Tao
2017-03-01
In this study, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) predictability, measured by the Indian Dipole Mode Index (DMI), is comprehensively examined at the seasonal time scale, including its actual prediction skill and potential predictability, using the ENSEMBLES multiple model ensembles and the recently developed information-based theoretical framework of predictability. It was found that all model predictions have useful skill, which is normally defined by the anomaly correlation coefficient larger than 0.5, only at around 2-3 month leads. This is mainly because there are more false alarms in predictions as leading time increases. The DMI predictability has significant seasonal variation, and the predictions whose target seasons are boreal summer (JJA) and autumn (SON) are more reliable than that for other seasons. All of models fail to predict the IOD onset before May and suffer from the winter (DJF) predictability barrier. The potential predictability study indicates that, with the model development and initialization improvement, the prediction of IOD onset is likely to be improved but the winter barrier cannot be overcome. The IOD predictability also has decadal variation, with a high skill during the 1960s and the early 1990s, and a low skill during the early 1970s and early 1980s, which is very consistent with the potential predictability. The main factors controlling the IOD predictability, including its seasonal and decadal variations, are also analyzed in this study.
Hot Electron Instability in a Dipole Confined Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesner, J.; Mauel, M. E.
2005-10-01
In plasma containing energetic electrons, two interacting collective modes, an MHD-like mode and a hot electron interchange (HEI) modeootnotetextN. A. Krall, Phys. Fluids, 9, 820 (1966)., may be present. The linear stability of interchange modes in a z-pinch at arbitrary beta, including a bulk and hot electron species was recently studiedootnotetextN. Krasheninnikova, P. J. Catto, Phys. Plasmas, 12, 32101 (2005).. Using the dispersion relation derived in this reference we show that when necessary conditions are satisfied the two modes may be present or absent in a closed-field line magnetic confinement geometry such as a hard core z-pinch or a dipole. The HEI instability and the MHD-like centrifugally-driven mode have been studied previouslyootnotetextB. Levitt, et al., Phys. Plasmas, 9, 2507 (2002), and 12, 055703 (2005)., including a comparison between the measured mode structure and the predictions of a global low-beta simulation. The radial eigenmode is seen to effect the saturation level of the mode. In the Levitated Dipole Experimenthttp://psfcwww2.psfc.mit.edu/ldx/ electron cyclotron resonance heating produces high beta plasmas containing hot electrons, and instability observations will be discussed and compared with theoretical predictions.
Periodic shedding of vortex dipoles from a moving penetrable obstacle in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Woo Jin; Seo, Sang Won; Shin, Yong-il
2015-09-01
We investigate vortex shedding from a moving penetrable obstacle in a highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensate. The penetrable obstacle is formed by a repulsive Gaussian laser beam that has the potential barrier height lower than the chemical potential of the condensate. The moving obstacle periodically generates vortex dipoles and the vortex shedding frequency fv linearly increases with the obstacle velocity v as fv=a (v -vc) , where vc is a critical velocity. Based on the periodic shedding behavior, we demonstrate deterministic generation of a single vortex dipole by applying a short linear sweep of a laser beam. This method will allow further controlled vortex experiments such as dipole-dipole collisions.
11 T Twin-Aperture Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Development for LHC Upgrades
Zlobin, A. V.; Andreev, N.; Apollinari, G.; Auchmann, B.; Barzi, E.; Izquierdo Bermudez, S.; Bossert, R.; Buehler, M.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Karppinen, M.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Rossi, L.; Smekens, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Velev, Genadi
2015-01-01
FNAL and CERN are developing a twin-aperture 11 T Nb3Sn dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. This paper describes the design and parameters of the 11 T dipole developed at FNAL for the LHC upgrades in both single-aperture and twin-aperture configurations, and presents details of the constructed dipole models. Results of studies of magnet quench performance, quench protection and magnetic measurements performed using short 1 m long coils in the dipole mirror and single-aperture configurations are reported and discussed.
A new dipole index of the salinity anomalies of the tropical Indian Ocean.
Li, Junde; Liang, Chujin; Tang, Youmin; Dong, Changming; Chen, Dake; Liu, Xiaohui; Jin, Weifang
2016-04-07
With the increased interest in studying the sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA) of the tropical Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), an index describing the dipole variability of the SSSA has been pursued recently. In this study, we first use a regional ocean model with a high spatial resolution to produce a high-quality salinity simulation during the period from 1982 to 2014, from which the SSSA dipole structure is identified for boreal autumn. On this basis, by further analysing the observed data, we define a dipole index of the SSSA between the central equatorial Indian Ocean (CEIO: 70°E-90°E, 5°S-5°N) and the region off the Sumatra-Java coast (SJC: 100°E-110°E, 13°S-3°S). Compared with previous SSSA dipole indices, this index has advantages in detecting the dipole signals and in characterizing their relationship to the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) dipole variability. Finally, the mechanism of the SSSA dipole is investigated by dynamical diagnosis. It is found that anomalous zonal advection dominates the SSSA in the CEIO region, whereas the SSSA in the SJC region are mainly influenced by the anomalous surface freshwater flux. This SSSA dipole provides a positive feedback to the formation of the IOD events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Kumar, Deepu; von Plessen, Gero
2016-09-01
Emission quenching is analysed at nanometer distances from the surface of an absorbing nanoparticle. It is demonstrated that emission quenching at small distances to the surface is much weaker for magnetic-dipole (MD) than for electric-dipole (ED) transitions. This difference is explained by the fact that the electric field induced by a magnetic dipole has a weaker distance dependence than the electric field of an electric dipole. It is also demonstrated that in the extreme near-field regime the non-locality of the optical response of the metal results in additional emission quenching for both ED and MD transitions.
Nonlinear effects in the energy loss of a slow dipole in a free-electron gas
Alducin, M.; Juaristi, J.I.
2002-11-01
We analyze beyond linear-response theory the energy loss of a slow dipole moving inside a free-electron gas. The energy loss is obtained from a nonlinear treatment of the scattering of electrons at the dipole-induced potential. This potential and the total electronic density are calculated with density-functional theory. We focus on the interference effects, i.e., the difference between the energy loss of a dipole and that of the isolated charges forming it. Comparison of our results to those obtained in linear-response theory shows that a nonlinear treatment of the screening is required to accurately describe the energy loss of slow dipoles.
Variations in the geomagnetic dipole moment during the Holocene and the past 50 kyr
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Riisager, Peter; Donadini, Fabio; Snowball, Ian; Muscheler, Raimund; Korhonen, Kimmo; Pesonen, Lauri J.
2008-07-01
All absolute paleointensity data published in peer-reviewed journals were recently compiled in the GEOMAGIA50 database. Based on the information in GEOMAGIA50, we reconstruct variations in the geomagnetic dipole moment over the past 50 kyr, with a focus on the Holocene period. A running-window approach is used to determine the axial dipole moment that provides the optimal least-squares fit to the paleointensity data, whereas associated error estimates are constrained using a bootstrap procedure. We subsequently compare the reconstruction from this study with previous reconstructions of the geomagnetic dipole moment, including those based on cosmogenic radionuclides ( 10Be and 14C). This comparison generally lends support to the axial dipole moments obtained in this study. Our reconstruction shows that the evolution of the dipole moment was highly dynamic, and the recently observed rates of change (5% per century) do not appear unique. We observe no apparent link between the occurrence of archeomagnetic jerks and changes in the geomagnetic dipole moment, suggesting that archeomagnetic jerks most likely represent drastic changes in the orientation of the geomagnetic dipole axis or periods characterized by large secular variation of the non-dipole field. This study also shows that the Holocene geomagnetic dipole moment was high compared to that of the preceding ˜ 40 kyr, and that ˜ 4 · 10 22 Am 2 appears to represent a critical threshold below which geomagnetic excursions and reversals occur.
Methods for Room Acoustic Analysis and Synthesis using a Monopole-Dipole Microphone Array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abel, J. S.; Begault, Durand R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
In recent work, a microphone array consisting of an omnidirectional microphone and colocated dipole microphones having orthogonally aligned dipole axes was used to examine the directional nature of a room impulse response. The arrival of significant reflections was indicated by peaks in the power of the omnidirectional microphone response; reflection direction of arrival was revealed by comparing zero-lag crosscorrelations between the omnidirectional response and the dipole responses to the omnidirectional response power to estimate arrival direction cosines with respect to the dipole axes.
Symmetry Analysis of Spin-Dependent Electric Dipole and Its Application to Magnetoelectric Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Masashige; Chimata, Kosuke; Koga, Mikito
2017-03-01
Spin-dependent electric dipole operators are investigated group-theoretically for the emergence of an electric dipole induced by a single spin or by two spins, where the spin dependences are completely classified up to the quadratic order. For a single spin, a product of spin operators behaves as an even-parity electric quadrupole operator, which differs from an odd-parity electric dipole. The lack of the inversion symmetry allows the even- and odd-parity mixing, which leads to the electric dipole described by the electric quadruple operators. Point-group tables are given for classification of the possible spin-dependent electric dipoles and for the qualitative analysis of multiferroic properties, such as an emergent electric dipole moment coexisting with a magnetic moment, electromagnon excitation, and directional dichroism. The results can be applied to a magnetic ion in crystals or embedded in molecules at a site without the inversion symmetry. In the presence of an inversion symmetry, the electric dipole does not appear for a single spin. This is not the case for the electric dipole induced by two spins with antisymmetric spin dependence, which is known as vector spin chirality, in the presence of the inversion center between the two spins. In the absence of the inversion center, symmetric spin-dependent electric dipoles are also relevant. The detailed analysis of various symmetries of two-spin states is applied to spin dimer systems and the related multiferroic properties.
Green, M.A.
1991-05-01
Higher multipoles due to magnetization of the superconductor in four and five centimeter bore Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) superconducting dipole magnets have been observed. The use of passive superconductor to correct out the magnetization sextupole has been demonstrated on two dipoles built by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This reports shows how passive correction can be applied to the five centimeter SSC dipoles to remove sextupole and decapole caused by magnetization of the dipole superconductor. Two passive superconductor corrector options will be presented. The change in magnetization sextupole and decapole due to flux creep decay of the superconductor during injection can be partially compensated for using the passive superconductor. 9 refs; 5 figs.
A new dipole index of the salinity anomalies of the tropical Indian Ocean
Li, Junde; Liang, Chujin; Tang, Youmin; Dong, Changming; Chen, Dake; Liu, Xiaohui; Jin, Weifang
2016-01-01
With the increased interest in studying the sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA) of the tropical Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), an index describing the dipole variability of the SSSA has been pursued recently. In this study, we first use a regional ocean model with a high spatial resolution to produce a high-quality salinity simulation during the period from 1982 to 2014, from which the SSSA dipole structure is identified for boreal autumn. On this basis, by further analysing the observed data, we define a dipole index of the SSSA between the central equatorial Indian Ocean (CEIO: 70°E-90°E, 5°S-5°N) and the region off the Sumatra-Java coast (SJC: 100°E-110°E, 13°S-3°S). Compared with previous SSSA dipole indices, this index has advantages in detecting the dipole signals and in characterizing their relationship to the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) dipole variability. Finally, the mechanism of the SSSA dipole is investigated by dynamical diagnosis. It is found that anomalous zonal advection dominates the SSSA in the CEIO region, whereas the SSSA in the SJC region are mainly influenced by the anomalous surface freshwater flux. This SSSA dipole provides a positive feedback to the formation of the IOD events. PMID:27052319
A new dipole index of the salinity anomalies of the tropical Indian Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Junde; Liang, Chujin; Tang, Youmin; Dong, Changming; Chen, Dake; Liu, Xiaohui; Jin, Weifang
2016-04-01
With the increased interest in studying the sea surface salinity anomaly (SSSA) of the tropical Indian Ocean during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), an index describing the dipole variability of the SSSA has been pursued recently. In this study, we first use a regional ocean model with a high spatial resolution to produce a high-quality salinity simulation during the period from 1982 to 2014, from which the SSSA dipole structure is identified for boreal autumn. On this basis, by further analysing the observed data, we define a dipole index of the SSSA between the central equatorial Indian Ocean (CEIO: 70°E-90°E, 5°S-5°N) and the region off the Sumatra-Java coast (SJC: 100°E-110°E, 13°S-3°S). Compared with previous SSSA dipole indices, this index has advantages in detecting the dipole signals and in characterizing their relationship to the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) dipole variability. Finally, the mechanism of the SSSA dipole is investigated by dynamical diagnosis. It is found that anomalous zonal advection dominates the SSSA in the CEIO region, whereas the SSSA in the SJC region are mainly influenced by the anomalous surface freshwater flux. This SSSA dipole provides a positive feedback to the formation of the IOD events.
Ma, Chunrui; Lu, Rongtao; Hu, Guangliang; Han, Jinsheng; Liu, Ming; Li, Jun; Wu, Judy
2017-02-01
Graphene was inserted into the interface between electric dipole layers from DEME-TFSI ionic liquid (top-gate) and ferroelectric Pb0.92La0.08Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PLZT, back-gate) to probe the interface dipole-dipole interaction in response to DC and pulsed gate voltages. A highly complicated behavior of the interface dipole-dipole interaction has been revealed as a combination of electrostatic and electrochemical effects. The interfacial polar molecules in the DEME-TFSI electrical double layer are pinned with assistance from the PLZT back-gate in response to a DC top-gate pump, leading to strong nonlinear electrochemical behavior. In contrast, depinning of these molecules can be facilitated by a faster pulsed top-gate pump, which results in a characteristic linear electrostatic behavior. This result not only sheds light on the dynamic dipole-dipole interactions on the interface between functional materials but also prototypes a unique pump and probe approach using graphene field effect transistors to detect the interface dipole-dipole interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Yang; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Mei-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Wen-Wang; Wang, Li-Zhi
2016-01-01
The analytic potential energy functions (APEFs) of the X1Σ+, 21Σ+, a3Σ+, and 23Σ+ states of the LiRb molecule are obtained using Morse long-range potential energy function with damping function and nonlinear least-squares method. These calculations were based on the potential energy curves (PECs) calculated using the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method. The reliability of the APEFs is confirmed using the curves of their first and second derivatives. By using the obtained APEFs, the rotational and vibrational energy levels of the states are determined by solving the Schrödinger equation of nuclear movement. The spectroscopic parameters, which are deduced using Dunham expansion, and the obtained rotational and vibrational levels are compared with the reported theoretical and experimental values. The correlation effect of the electrons of the inner shell remarkably improves the results compared with the experimental spectroscopic parameters. For the first time, the APEFs for the dipole moments and transition dipole moments of the states have been determined based on the curves obtained from the MRCI calculations.
You, Yang; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Mei-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Wen-Wang; Wang, Li-Zhi
2016-01-15
The analytic potential energy functions (APEFs) of the X(1)Σ(+), 2(1)Σ(+), a(3)Σ(+), and 2(3)Σ(+) states of the LiRb molecule are obtained using Morse long-range potential energy function with damping function and nonlinear least-squares method. These calculations were based on the potential energy curves (PECs) calculated using the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method. The reliability of the APEFs is confirmed using the curves of their first and second derivatives. By using the obtained APEFs, the rotational and vibrational energy levels of the states are determined by solving the Schrödinger equation of nuclear movement. The spectroscopic parameters, which are deduced using Dunham expansion, and the obtained rotational and vibrational levels are compared with the reported theoretical and experimental values. The correlation effect of the electrons of the inner shell remarkably improves the results compared with the experimental spectroscopic parameters. For the first time, the APEFs for the dipole moments and transition dipole moments of the states have been determined based on the curves obtained from the MRCI calculations.
Low-frequency RF Coupling To Unconventional (Fat Unbalanced) Dipoles
Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Perkins, M P; Speer, R D; Javedani, J B
2010-12-07
The report explains radio frequency (RF) coupling to unconventional dipole antennas. Normal dipoles have thin equal length arms that operate at maximum efficiency around resonance frequencies. In some applications like high-explosive (HE) safety analysis, structures similar to dipoles with ''fat'' unequal length arms must be evaluated for indirect-lightning effects. An example is shown where a metal drum-shaped container with HE forms one arm and the detonator cable acts as the other. Even if the HE is in a facility converted into a ''Faraday cage'', a lightning strike to the facility could still produce electric fields inside. The detonator cable concentrates the electric field and carries the energy into the detonator, potentially creating a hazard. This electromagnetic (EM) field coupling of lightning energy is the indirect effect of a lightning strike. In practice, ''Faraday cages'' are formed by the rebar of the concrete facilities. The individual rebar rods in the roof, walls and floor are normally electrically connected because of the construction technique of using metal wire to tie the pieces together. There are two additional requirements for a good cage. (1) The roof-wall joint and the wall-floor joint must be electrically attached. (2) All metallic penetrations into the facility must also be electrically connected to the rebar. In this report, it is assumed that these conditions have been met, and there is no arcing in the facility structure. Many types of detonators have metal ''cups'' that contain the explosives and thin electrical initiating wires, called bridge wires mounted between two pins. The pins are connected to the detonator cable. The area of concern is between the pins supporting the bridge wire and the metal cup forming the outside of the detonator. Detonator cables usually have two wires, and in this example, both wires generated the same voltage at the detonator bridge wire. This is called the common-mode voltage. The explosive component
Raz, J; Biggins, C A; Turetsky, B; Fein, G
1993-09-01
We describe a statistical frequency domain approach to localizing equivalent dipole generators of human brain evoked potentials. The frequency domain representation allows considerable data reduction, constrains the magnitude function of the dipoles to be smooth, and accounts for the statistical properties of the background EEG. A previous paper described a restrictive model in which the dipole orientations were assumed to be fixed over time, and only one dipole was allowed. In this paper, we consider the more general model in which the orientation can vary over time, and which includes multiple dipole generators. The varying orientation model has the practical advantage of being more nearly linear and more flexible than the fixed orientation model, which facilitates convergence of the iterative fitting algorithm. We suggest a measure of goodness-of-fit that compares the likelihood of the dipole model with the likelihoods of saturated and null models. We report the results of fitting the model to recorded auditory and visual evoked potentials. A single dipole with fixed orientation seems to be an adequate model of the auditory midlatency response, while two dipoles with varying orientation are needed to fit the later P200 component. Analysis of the visual P100 response to unilateral stimulation localized a generator in the contralateral occipital cortex, as expected from anatomical considerations. A two-dipole model fit the visual P100 response of bilateral stimulations, and the locations of the two dipoles were similar to the locations obtained by single-dipole fits to the responses to left and right unilateral stimuli.
Green, M.A.; Taylor, C.E.
1998-08-01
The Ultra Compact Synchrotron (UCS), proposed for UCLA, is a compact 1.5 GeV electron light source with superconducting magnets to produce X rays with a critical energy of about 10 keV. The design physical length (cold length) for the dipole is 418 mm. The synchrotron requires that a uniform field be produced in a region that is 180 mm wide by 40 mm high by about 380 mm long. The end regions of the dipole should be short compared to the overall length of the dipole field region. A Vobly H type of dipole was selected for the synchrotron bending magnets. In order for each dipole to bend a 1.5 GeV electron beam 30 degrees, the central induction must be in the range of 6.4 to 6.9 T (depending on the dipole magnetic length). The pole width for the dipole was set so that over 90% of the X rays generated by the magnet can be extracted. The three dimensional field calculations were done using TOSCA. This report shows that a Vobly type of dipole will behave magnetically as a conventional water cooled iron dominated dipole. The uniformity of the integrated magnetic field can be controlled by varying the current in the shield coil with respect to the gap and cross-over coils. The two dimensional field in the center of the magnet can be tuned to be very uniform over a width of 110 to 120 mm. The three dimensional calculations show that the magnetic length along a particle track in the dipole is about 29 mm longer than the length of the iron pole pieces. This report will present the three dimensional design of the UCS Vobly dipole and the results of the field calculations for that magnet.
Modulation of Saharan dust export by the North African dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, S.; Cuevas, E.; Prospero, J. M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; López-Solano, J.; García, M. I.; Alonso-Pérez, S.
2014-10-01
Desert dust aerosols influence air quality and climate on a global scale, including radiative forcing, cloud properties and carbon dioxide modulation through ocean fertilisation. North Africa is the largest and most active dust source worldwide; however, the mechanisms modulating year-to-year variability in Saharan dust export in summer remains unclear. In this season, enhanced dust mobilization in the hyper-arid Sahara results in maximum dust impacts throughout the North Atlantic. The objective of this study is to identify the relationship between the long term interannual variability in Saharan dust export in summer and large scale meteorology in western North Africa. We address this issue by analysing ~25 yr (1987-2012) dust concentrations at the high altitude Izaña observatory (2373 m a.s.l.) in Tenerife Island, satellite and meteorological reanalysis data. Because in summer Saharan dust export occurs at altitudes 1-5 km, we paid special attention to the summer meteorological scenario in the 700 hPa standard level, characterised by a high over the subtropical Sahara and lower geopotential heights over the tropics; we measured the intensity of this low-high dipole like pattern in terms of the North AFrican Dipole Index (NAFDI): the difference of the 700 hPa geopotential heights anomalies averaged over central Morocco (subtropic) and over Bamako region (tropic). The correlations we found between the 1987-2012 NAFDI with dust at Izaña, satellite dust observations and meteorological re-analysis data, indicates that increase in the NAFDI (i) results in higher wind speeds at the north of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone which enhances dust export over the subtropical North Atlantic, (ii) influences on the size distribution of exported dust particles, increasing the load of coarse dust and (iii) are associated with higher rainfall over tropical North Africa and the Sahel. Because of the North African dipole modulation, inter-annual variability in Saharan dust
Electric-dipole sum rule in nuclear matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.
1985-03-01
The enhancement factor K in the electric-dipole sum rule for some realistic models of symmetrical nuclear matter is calculated using variational theory. The nuclear-matter wave function used contains central, spin, isospin, tensor and spin-orbit pair correlations. The non-central correlations, particularly the tensor one, give the major contribution to K. At experimental equilibrium density K. turns out to be ≈ 1.8, of which 65% comes from OPEP and 30% from the short-range part of the interaction. The two-pion-exchange three-nucleon interaction contributes ≈ 0.2% and is cancelled, to a large extent, by the contribution due to the intermediate-range two-body potential. The relationship of the summed oscillator strength with the effective mass is also discussed.
Development of a Francium Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munger, Charles T., Jr.; Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey; Kalnins, Juris; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Jentschura, Ulrich; Behr, John; Pearson, Matt
2014-09-01
An experiment to discover or rule out a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron, at a sensitivity well beyond the present experimental limit, is being developed. The experiment will use 211Fr, obtainable online at TRIUMF at rates of 109/s, in a laser-cooled fountain. The experiment is done in free space and free fall, with an electric field, but no applied magnetic field, between optical state preparation and analysis. The relation between an electron EDM and an EDM of a francium atom has recently been recalculated using field theory alone (Blundell, Griffith & Sapirstein, Phys. Rev. D 86, 025023 [2012]), confirming previous atomic physics calculations and removing any ambiguity in the experimental interpretation.
Towards a new measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altarev, I.; Ban, G.; Bison, G.; Bodek, K.; Burghoff, M.; Cvijovic, M.; Daum, M.; Fierlinger, P.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Hampel, G.; Heil, W.; Henneck, R.; Horras, M.; Khomutov, N.; Kirch, K.; Kistryn, St.; Knappe-Grüneberg, S.; Knecht, A.; Knowles, P.; Kozela, A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kuchler, F.; Kuźniak, M.; Lauer, T.; Lauss, B.; Lefort, T.; Mtchedlishvili, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Paul, S.; Pazgalev, A. S.; Petzoldt, G.; Pierre, E.; Plonka-Spehr, C.; Quéméner, G.; Rebreyend, D.; Roccia, S.; Rogel, G.; Sander-Thoemmes, T.; Schnabel, A.; Severijns, N.; Sobolev, Yu.; Stoepler, R.; Trahms, L.; Weis, A.; Wiehl, N.; Zejma, J.; Zsigmond, G.
2009-12-01
The effort towards a new measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) at the Paul Scherrer Institut's (PSI) new high intensity source of ultracold neutrons (UCN) is described. The experimental technique relies on Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields, using UCN in vacuum with the apparatus at ambient temperature. In the first phase, R&D towards the upgrade of the RAL/Sussex/ILL apparatus is being performed at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). In the second phase the apparatus, moved from ILL to PSI, will allow an improvement in experimental sensitivity by a factor of 5. In the third phase, a new spectrometer should gain another order of magnitude in sensitivity. The improvements will be mainly due to (1) much higher UCN intensity, (2) improved magnetometry and magnetic field control, and (3) a double chamber configuration with opposite electric field directions.
Low-energy dipole modes in unstable nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, T.; Sagawa, H.
2001-01-01
Enhancement of electric dipole (E1) strength at low energy is investigated in light neutron and proton drip-line nuclei with halo or skin by large scale shell model calculations. Large E1 strength are found in low excitation energy region below 5 MeV in 11Li, 12Be and 13O. Both the effects of extended halo or skin wave functions and the coherence in the transition amplitudes are important to enhance the E1 strength. The particle (hole)- vibration coupling model is shown to explain the splitting of the low energy E1 strength in 11Li and 13O. Melting of the shell magicity at N=8 and Z=8 is pointed out. Pigmy resonances in oxygen isotopes are also studied. The pigmy strength below E x = 15 MeV are shown to have about 10 % of the Thomas- Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule and more than 40 % of the cluster sum rule.
Trapped-flux internal-dipole superconducting motor/generator.
Hull, J. R.
1998-09-03
A new class of motor/generator (M/G) utilizes the magnetic flux trapping capability of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs). The rotor, consists of a cylindrical shell composed of HTS segments. These segments act as trapped-field magnets, magnetized in such a way that a dipole magnetic field is produced in the interior of the shell. A stator coil assembly is placed in the interior of the shell and current passing through the conductors of the coil produce a rotational torque, either as a hysteresis motor or as a synchronous motor. The coil may be either conventional, with copper wires and an iron core, or composed of superconductors and can be used to establish the trapped fields in the HTSs.
Dipole (hyper)polarizabilities of neutral silver clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jorge, Francisco E.; de Macedo, Luiz G. M.
2016-12-01
At the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) level, the B3PW91 functional along with the all-electron relativistic basis sets of valence triple and quadruple zeta qualities are used to determine the structure, stability, and electronic properties of the small silver clusters (Agn, n ⩽ 7). The results presented in this study are in good agreement with the experimental data and theoretical values obtained at a higher level of theory from the literature. Static polarizability and hyperpolarizability are also reported. It is verified that the mean dipole polarizability per atom exhibits an odd-even oscillation and that the polarizability anisotropy is directly related to the cluster shape. In this article, the first study of hyperpolarizabilities of small silver clusters is presented. Except for the monomer, the second hyperpolarizabilities of the silver clusters are significantly larger than those of the copper clusters. Project supported by CNPq, CAPES, and FAPES (Brazilian Agencies).
Controlling magnetic and electric dipole modes in hollow silicon nanocylinders.
van de Haar, Marie Anne; van de Groep, Jorik; Brenny, Benjamin J M; Polman, Albert
2016-02-08
We propose a dielectric nanoresonator geometry consisting of hollow dielectric nanocylinders which support geometrical resonances. We fabricate such hollow Si particles with an outer diameter of 108-251 nm on a Si substrate, and determine their resonant modes with cathodo-luminescence (CL) spectroscopy and optical dark-field (DF) scattering measurements. The scattering behavior is numerically investigated in a systematic fashion as a function of wavelength and particle geometry. We find that the additional design parameter as a result of the introduction of a center gap can be used to control the relative spectral spacing of the resonant modes, which will enable additional control over the angular radiation pattern of the scatterers. Furthermore, the gap offers direct access to the enhanced magnetic dipole modal field in the center of the particle.
Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional System of Quantum Dipoles
Mazzanti, F.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Zillich, R. E.
2009-03-20
A detailed microscopic analysis of the dynamic structure function S(k,{omega}) of a two-dimensional Bose system of dipoles polarized along the direction perpendicular to the plane is presented and discussed. Starting from ground-state quantities obtained using a quantum diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm, the density-density response is evaluated in the context of the correlated basis functions (CBF) theory. CBF predicts a sharp peak and a multiexcitation component at higher energies produced by the decay of excitations. We discuss the structure of the phonon-roton peak and show that the Feynman and Bogoliubov predictions depart from the CBF result already at low densities. We finally discuss the emergence of a roton in the spectrum, but find the roton energy not low enough to make the system unstable under density fluctuations up to the highest density considered that is close to the freezing point.
Contributions of axionlike particles to lepton dipole moments
Marciano, W. J.; Masiero, A.; Paradisi, P.; ...
2016-12-30
We examined contributions of a spin-0 axionlike particle (ALP) to lepton dipole moments, g - 2 and EDMs. Barr-Zee and light-by-light loop effects from a light pseudoscalar ALP are found to be capable of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 discrepancy at the expense of relatively large ALP - γ γ couplings. We also discussed the compatibility of such large couplings with direct experimental constraints and perturbative unitarity bounds. Future tests of such a scenario are described. For C P -violating ALP couplings, the electron EDM is found to probe much smaller, theoretically more easily accommodated ALP interactions. Wemore » advocate future planned improvements in electron EDM searches as a way to not only significantly constrain ALP parameters, but also potentially unveil a new source of C P violation which could have far-reaching ramifications.« less
Contributions of axionlike particles to lepton dipole moments
Marciano, W. J.; Masiero, A.; Paradisi, P.; Passera, M.
2016-12-30
We examined contributions of a spin-0 axionlike particle (ALP) to lepton dipole moments, g - 2 and EDMs. Barr-Zee and light-by-light loop effects from a light pseudoscalar ALP are found to be capable of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 discrepancy at the expense of relatively large ALP - γ γ couplings. We also discussed the compatibility of such large couplings with direct experimental constraints and perturbative unitarity bounds. Future tests of such a scenario are described. For C P -violating ALP couplings, the electron EDM is found to probe much smaller, theoretically more easily accommodated ALP interactions. We advocate future planned improvements in electron EDM searches as a way to not only significantly constrain ALP parameters, but also potentially unveil a new source of C P violation which could have far-reaching ramifications.
Parallel resistivity and ohmic heating of laboratory dipole plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, W.
2012-08-01
The parallel resistivity is calculated in the long-mean-free-path regime for the dipole plasma geometry; this is shown to be a neoclassical transport problem in the limit of a small number of circulating electrons. In this regime, the resistivity is substantially higher than the Spitzer resistivity due to the magnetic trapping of a majority of the electrons. This suggests that heating the outer flux surfaces of the plasma with low-frequency parallel electric fields can be substantially more efficient than might be naively estimated. Such a skin-current heating scheme is analyzed by deriving an equation for diffusion of skin currents into the plasma, from which quantities such as the resistive skin-depth, lumped-circuit impedance, and power deposited in the plasma can be estimated. Numerical estimates indicate that this may be a simple and efficient way to couple power into experiments in this geometry.
Dipole modulation of cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization
Ghosh, Shamik; Kothari, Rahul; Jain, Pankaj; Rath, Pranati K. E-mail: rahulko@iitk.ac.in E-mail: pranati@iopb.res.in
2016-01-01
We propose a dipole modulation model for the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) polarization field. We show that the model leads to correlations between l and l+1 multipoles, exactly as in the case of temperature. We obtain results for the case of TE, EE and BB correlations. An anisotropic or inhomogeneous model of primordial power spectrum which leads to such correlations in temperature field also predicts similar correlations in CMBR polarization. We analyze the CMBR temperature and polarization data in order to extract the signal of these correlation between l and l+1 multipoles. Our results for the case of temperature using the latest PLANCK data agree with those obtained by an earlier analysis. A detailed study of the correlation in the polarization data is not possible at present. Hence we restrict ourselves to a preliminary investigation in this case.
Isotope shift of the electric-dipole transition in Os-
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kellerbauer, A.; Canali, C.; Fischer, A.; Warring, U.; Fritzsche, S.
2011-12-01
The isotope shift of the bound-bound electric dipole transition at 1162.75 nm in the osmium anion was measured by high-precision collinear laser spectroscopy. The transition was observed in all naturally occurring isotopes, including 184Os- with a natural abundance of 0.02%. We combined the data with our prior measurements of the hyperfine structure in 187Os- and 189Os- and used them to determine experimental values for the isotope shift coefficients. The normal mass shift, specific mass shift, and field shift coefficients were found to be MNMS=141.4 GHz u, MSMS=2.4(12.6) THz u, and F=16.2(9.9) GHz fm-2, respectively. Theoretical values for the MSMS and F parameters were calculated based on a series of relativistic configuration interaction computations and a Fermi-like charge distribution and found to be in good agreement with the experimental values.
Low-cost, pseudo-Halbach dipole magnets for NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tayler, Michael C. D.; Sakellariou, Dimitrios
2017-04-01
We present designs for compact, inexpensive and strong dipole permanent magnets aimed primarily at magnetic resonance applications where prepolarization and detection occur at different locations. Low-homogeneity magnets with a 7.5 mm bore size and field up to nearly 2 T are constructed using low-cost starting materials, standard workshop tools and only few hours of labor - an achievable project for a student or postdoc with spare time. As an application example we show how our magnet was used to polarize the nuclear spins in approximately 1 mL of pure [13C ]-methanol prior to detection of its high-resolution NMR spectrum at zero field (measurement field below 10-10 T), where signals appear at multiples of the carbon-hydrogen spin-spin coupling frequency 1JCH = 140.7 (1) Hz.
A global ab initio dipole moment surface for methyl chloride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2016-11-01
A new dipole moment surface (DMS) for methyl chloride has been generated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ(+d for Cl) level of theory. To represent the DMS, a symmetry-adapted analytic representation in terms of nine vibrational coordinates has been developed and implemented. Variational calculations of the infrared spectrum of CH3Cl show good agreement with a range of experimental results. This includes vibrational transition moments, absolute line intensities of the ν1, ν4, ν5 and 3ν6 bands, and a rotation-vibration line list for both CH335Cl and CH337Cl including states up to J=85 and vibrational band origins up to 4400 cm-1. Across the spectrum band shape and structure are well reproduced and computed absolute line intensities are comparable with highly accurate experimental measurements for certain fundamental bands. We thus recommend the DMS for future use.
Magnetic Shielding Studies for Electric Dipole Moment Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, Harvey; Feinberg, B.
2014-09-01
Electric dipole moment experiments are necessarily sensitive to magnetic fields and hence require effective magnetic shielding. In testing the shielding factor of single-layer Permalloy (Carpenter HyMu ``80'' ®) cylinders, we find time-dependent effects lasting tens of minutes to thousands of minutes when a static magnetic field is applied to a Permalloy cylinder that has been demagnetized in a region of near-zero field. A decrease in the magnetic field, measured at the center of the cylinder, of about 20 percent is observed for applied fields ranging from 0.5 A/m to 16 A/m. The latter applied field is comparable to the Earth's magnetic field. Effects that resemble these have been seen in other ferromagnetic materials.
RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION.
SCHMALZLE,J.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; KAHN,S.; MORGAN,G.; MURATORE,J.; SAMPSON,W.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E.
1997-05-12
Iterations to the cross section of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) D0 Insertion Dipole magnets were made during the production. This was included as part of the production plan because no R&D or pre-production magnets were built prior to the start of production. The first magnet produced had the desired coil pre-stress and low field harmonics in the body of the magnet and is therefore being used in the RHIC Machine. On the first eight magnets, iterations were carried out to minimize the iron saturation and to compensate for the end harmonics. This paper will discuss the details of the iterations made, the obstacles encountered, and the results obtained. Also included will be a brief summary of the magnet design and performance.
Thermal annealing-induced electric dipole relaxation in natural alexandrite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scalvi, Rosa M. Fernandes; Li, Maximo Siu; Scalvi, Luis V. A.
2005-02-01
Electrical properties of natural alexandrite (BeAl2O4:Cr3+) are investigated by the thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) technique. Samples are submitted to consecutive annealing processes and TSDC is carried out after each annealing, yielding bands with different parameters. These bands are fitted by a continuous distribution of relaxation parameters: activation energy and pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation. It has been observed that annealing influences the dipole relaxation behavior, since it promotes a modification of Fe3+ and Cr3+ impurity distributions on sites of distinct symmetry: Al1 and Al2. In order to have a reference for comparison, TSDC is also carried out on a synthetic alexandrite sample, where the only impurity present is Cr3+ ion.
Comparison between discrete dipole implementations and exact techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penttilä, Antti; Zubko, Evgenij; Lumme, Kari; Muinonen, Karri; Yurkin, Maxim A.; Draine, Bruce; Rahola, Jussi; Hoekstra, Alfons G.; Shkuratov, Yuri
2007-07-01
The use of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method in wave optical scattering simulations is growing quite fast. This is due to the fact that the current computing resources allow to apply DDA to sufficiently large scattering systems. The advantage of DDA is that it is applicable to arbitrary particle shape and configuration of particles. There are several computer implementations of the DDA method, and in this article we will compare four of such implementations in terms of their accuracy, speed and usability. The accuracy is studied by comparing the DDA results against results from either Mie, T-matrix or cluster T-Matrix codes with suitable geometries. It is found that the relative accuracy for intensity is between 2% and 6% for ice and silicate type refractive indices and the absolute accuracy for linear polarization ratio is roughly from 1% to 3%.
Contributions of axionlike particles to lepton dipole moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marciano, W. J.; Masiero, A.; Paradisi, P.; Passera, M.
2016-12-01
Contributions of a spin-0 axionlike particle (ALP) to lepton dipole moments, g -2 and EDMs are examined. Barr-Zee and light-by-light loop effects from a light pseudoscalar ALPlease note thathP are found to be capable of resolving the longstanding muon g -2 discrepancy at the expense of relatively large ALP -γ γ couplings. The compatibility of such large couplings with direct experimental constraints and perturbative unitarity bounds is discussed. Future tests of such a scenario are described. For C P -violating ALP couplings, the electron EDM is found to probe much smaller, theoretically more easily accommodated ALP interactions. Future planned improvement in electron EDM searches is advocated as a way to not only significantly constrain ALP parameters, but also potentially unveil a new source of C P violation which could have far-reaching ramifications.
Autodetachment spectroscopy of the aluminum oxide anion dipole bound state
Mascaritolo, Kyle J.; Gardner, Adrian M.; Heaven, Michael C.
2015-09-21
The {sup 1}Σ{sup +}←X{sup 1}Σ{sup +} ground state to dipole bound state (DBS) electronic transition of AlO{sup −} has been studied by means of autodetachment spectroscopy. Vibrational and rotational molecular constants for AlO{sup −} have been determined for both the ground state (υ″ = 0, 1) and the excited DBS (υ′ = 0, 1). These data provide an improved determination of the electron affinity for AlO (2.6110(7) eV) that is consistent with an earlier measurement. The electron binding energy of the DBS was found to be 52 ± 6 cm{sup −1}. Experimental results are compared with the predictions from high level ab initio calculations.
Low-cost, pseudo-Halbach dipole magnets for NMR.
Tayler, Michael C D; Sakellariou, Dimitrios
2017-04-01
We present designs for compact, inexpensive and strong dipole permanent magnets aimed primarily at magnetic resonance applications where prepolarization and detection occur at different locations. Low-homogeneity magnets with a 7.5mm bore size and field up to nearly 2T are constructed using low-cost starting materials, standard workshop tools and only few hours of labor - an achievable project for a student or postdoc with spare time. As an application example we show how our magnet was used to polarize the nuclear spins in approximately 1mL of pure [(13)C]-methanol prior to detection of its high-resolution NMR spectrum at zero field (measurement field below 10(-10)T), where signals appear at multiples of the carbon-hydrogen spin-spin coupling frequency (1)JCH=140.7(1)Hz.
Electric dipole polarizabilities of hydrogen and helium isotopes
Stetcu, I; Friar, J; Hayes, A C; Quaglioni, S
2009-01-01
The electric dipole polarizabilities of {sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, and {sup 4}He are calculated directly using the Schroedinger equation with the latest generation of two- and three-nucleon interactions. These quantities are necessary in order to obtain accurate nuclear-polarization corrections for transitions involving S-waves in one-and two-electron atoms. Our results are compared to previous results, and it is shown that direct calculations of the electric polarizability of {sup 4}He using modern nuclear potentials are smaller than published values calculated using experimental photoabsorption data. The status of this topic is assessed in the context of precise measurements of transitions in one- and two-electron atoms.
The permanent electric dipole moment of CaOH
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Steimle, Timothy; Shirley, Jeffrey E.
1990-01-01
The X 2 Sigma(+), A 2Pi, and B 2Sigma(+) states of CaOH are characterized theoretically and experimentally, with a focus on the value of the permanent electric dipole moment (mu). Calculations based on SCF and SDCI studies of CaOH (Bauschlicher et al., 1984 and 1986) give mu values of 0.98, 0.49, and 0.11 D for the X, A, and B states, respectively, in good agreement with experiments in which the pure rotational spectra of these states were not detected. Modified Rittner (1951) and ligand-field models of these states are explored in detail, and the applicability of these results to observational searches for CaOH in circumstellar envelopes is indicated.
Description of resonant processes in the dipole moment interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vargas Morales, M.; Torres Rodríguez, M. A.; De Los Santos García, S. I.; García Guzman, A.; Martínez Niconoff, G.
2016-09-01
We analyze the resonant interaction between cumulus of nano-particles distributed on a two-dimensional array controlling the polarization states on the illumination, this allows controlling the dipole moment induced in a tunable-way obtaining an analytic expression for the refractive index. The resonant effects depend on the parameters that characterize the spatial distribution of the particle arrangement. We present two cases, firstly the interaction is described using a linear polarization on a linear particle array, and secondly it is obtained using circular polarization inducing resonant interaction between ring-particle kind structures. The refractive index associated to both configurations is implemented in the Fresnel equations for the study of the reflectivity and transmittance of optical fields. As a main result of the analysis is that we can to identify and control the parameters required for the synthesis of metamaterials. Computer simulations are presented.
Parallel resistivity and ohmic heating of laboratory dipole plasmas
Fox, W.
2012-08-15
The parallel resistivity is calculated in the long-mean-free-path regime for the dipole plasma geometry; this is shown to be a neoclassical transport problem in the limit of a small number of circulating electrons. In this regime, the resistivity is substantially higher than the Spitzer resistivity due to the magnetic trapping of a majority of the electrons. This suggests that heating the outer flux surfaces of the plasma with low-frequency parallel electric fields can be substantially more efficient than might be naively estimated. Such a skin-current heating scheme is analyzed by deriving an equation for diffusion of skin currents into the plasma, from which quantities such as the resistive skin-depth, lumped-circuit impedance, and power deposited in the plasma can be estimated. Numerical estimates indicate that this may be a simple and efficient way to couple power into experiments in this geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashok; Thakkar, Ajit J.
2010-02-01
The construction of the dipole oscillator strength distribution (DOSD) from theoretical and experimental photoabsorption cross sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule and molar refractivity data is a well-established technique that has been successfully applied to more than 50 species. Such DOSDs are insufficiently accurate at large photon energies. A novel iterative procedure is developed that rectifies this deficiency by using the high-energy asymptotic behavior of the dipole oscillator strength density as an additional constraint. Pilot applications are made for the neon, argon, krypton, and xenon atoms. The resulting DOSDs improve the agreement of the predicted S2 and S1 sum rules with ab initio calculations while preserving the accuracy of the remainder of the moments. Our DOSDs exploit new and more accurate experimental data. Improved estimates of dipole properties for these four atoms and of dipole-dipole C6 and triple-dipole C9 dispersion coefficients for the interactions among them are reported.
A skull-based multiple dipole phantom for EEG and MEG studies
Spencer, M.E.; Leahy, R.M.; Mosher, J.C.
1996-07-01
A versatile phantom for use in evaluating forward and inverse methods for MEG and EEG has been designed and is currently being constructed. The phantom consists of three major components: (i) a 32-element cur- rent dipole array, (ii) a PC-controlled dipole driver with 32 isolated channels allowing independent control of each dipole, (iii) spherical and human-skull mounts in which the dipole array is placed. Materials were selected throughout the phantom to produce minimal field distortions and artifacts to enable acquisition of high quality EEG and MEG data. The dipoles are made from a rigid narrow (0.84 mm) stainless steel coax cable. The dipole drivers can be configured as either current or voltage sources, are independently programmable and fully isolated, and are capable of producing arbitrary bipolar waveforms up to a 200 Hz bandwidth. The spherical mount is a single shell sphere filled with conductive gelatin. The human skull mount has three shells: ``brain`` (conducting gelatin), ``skull`` (the skull is impregnated with a low conductivity conducting gelatin), and ``scalp`` (a thin layer of rubber latex mixed with NaCl to achieve a conductivity matched to the brain). The conductivities will be adjusted to achieve approximately an 80:1:80 ratio. Data collected to date from the spherical phantom shows excellent agreement between measured surface potentials and that predicted from theory (27 of the 32 dipoles give better than 99.9% rms fit) and negligible leakage between dipoles. We are currently completing construction of the skull mount.
Wilke, Josefin; Wilke, Martin; Meerts, W Leo; Schmitt, Michael
2016-01-28
The dipole moments of the ground and lowest electronically excited singlet state of 5-methoxyindole have been determined by means of optical Stark spectroscopy in a molecular beam. The resulting spectra arise from a superposition of different field configurations, one with the static electric field almost parallel to the polarization of the exciting laser radiation, the other nearly perpendicular. Each field configuration leads to different intensities in the rovibronic spectrum. With an automated evolutionary algorithm approach, the spectra can be fit and the ratio of both field configurations can be determined. A simultaneous fit of two spectra with both field configurations improved the precision of the dipole moment determination by a factor of two. We find a reduction of the absolute dipole moment from 1.59(3) D to 1.14(6) D upon electronic excitation to the lowest electronically excited singlet state. At the same time, the dipole moment orientation rotates by 54(∘) showing the importance of the determination of the dipole moment components. The dipole moment in the electronic ground state can approximately be obtained from a vector addition of the indole and the methoxy group dipole moments. However, in the electronically excited state, vector addition completely fails to describe the observed dipole moment. Several reasons for this behavior are discussed.
Recent amplification of the North American winter temperature dipole
Swain, Daniel L.; Mankin, Justin S.; Horton, Daniel E.; Thomas, Leif N.; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.
2016-01-01
Abstract During the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, anomalously warm temperatures in western North America and anomalously cool temperatures in eastern North America resulted in substantial human and environmental impacts. Motivated by the impacts of these concurrent temperature extremes and the intrinsic atmospheric linkage between weather conditions in the western and eastern United States, we investigate the occurrence of concurrent “warm‐West/cool‐East” surface temperature anomalies, which we call the “North American winter temperature dipole.” We find that, historically, warm‐West/cool‐East dipole conditions have been associated with anomalous mid‐tropospheric ridging over western North America and downstream troughing over eastern North America. We also find that the occurrence and severity of warm‐West/cool‐East events have increased significantly between 1980 and 2015, driven largely by an increase in the frequency with which high‐amplitude “ridge‐trough” wave patterns result in simultaneous severe temperature conditions in both the West and East. Using a large single‐model ensemble of climate simulations, we show that the observed positive trend in the warm‐West/cool‐East events is attributable to historical anthropogenic emissions including greenhouse gases, but that the co‐occurrence of extreme western warmth and eastern cold will likely decrease in the future as winter temperatures warm dramatically across the continent, thereby reducing the occurrence of severely cold conditions in the East. Although our analysis is focused on one particular region, our analysis framework is generally transferable to the physical conditions shaping different types of extreme events around the globe. PMID:27840780
Magnetic field homogeneity perturbations in finite Halbach dipole magnets.
Turek, Krzysztof; Liszkowski, Piotr
2014-01-01
Halbach hollow cylinder dipole magnets of a low or relatively low aspect ratio attract considerable attention due to their applications, among others, in compact NMR and MRI systems for investigating small objects. However, a complete mathematical framework for the analysis of magnetic fields in these magnets has been developed only for their infinitely long precursors. In such a case the analysis is reduced to two-dimensions (2D). The paper details the analysis of the 3D magnetic field in the Halbach dipole cylinders of a finite length. The analysis is based on three equations in which the components of the magnetic flux density Bx, By and Bz are expanded to infinite power series of the radial coordinate r. The zeroth term in the series corresponds to a homogeneous magnetic field Bc, which is perturbed by the higher order terms due to a finite magnet length. This set of equations is supplemented with an equation for the field profile B(z) along the magnet axis, presented for the first time. It is demonstrated that the geometrical factors in the coefficients of particular powers of r, defined by intricate integrals are the coefficients of the Taylor expansion of the homogeneity profile (B(z)-Bc)/Bc. As a consequence, the components of B can be easily calculated with an arbitrary accuracy. In order to describe perturbations of the field due to segmentation, two additional equations are borrowed from the 2D theory. It is shown that the 2D approach to the perturbations generated by the segmentation can be applied to the 3D Halbach structures unless r is not too close to the inner radius of the cylinder ri. The mathematical framework presented in the paper was verified with great precision by computations of B by a highly accurate integration of the magnetostatic Coulomb law and utilized to analyze the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the magnet with the accuracy better than 1 ppm.
Recent amplification of the North American winter temperature dipole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L.; Mankin, Justin S.; Horton, Daniel E.; Thomas, Leif N.; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.
2016-09-01
During the winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, anomalously warm temperatures in western North America and anomalously cool temperatures in eastern North America resulted in substantial human and environmental impacts. Motivated by the impacts of these concurrent temperature extremes and the intrinsic atmospheric linkage between weather conditions in the western and eastern United States, we investigate the occurrence of concurrent "warm-West/cool-East" surface temperature anomalies, which we call the "North American winter temperature dipole." We find that, historically, warm-West/cool-East dipole conditions have been associated with anomalous mid-tropospheric ridging over western North America and downstream troughing over eastern North America. We also find that the occurrence and severity of warm-West/cool-East events have increased significantly between 1980 and 2015, driven largely by an increase in the frequency with which high-amplitude "ridge-trough" wave patterns result in simultaneous severe temperature conditions in both the West and East. Using a large single-model ensemble of climate simulations, we show that the observed positive trend in the warm-West/cool-East events is attributable to historical anthropogenic emissions including greenhouse gases, but that the co-occurrence of extreme western warmth and eastern cold will likely decrease in the future as winter temperatures warm dramatically across the continent, thereby reducing the occurrence of severely cold conditions in the East. Although our analysis is focused on one particular region, our analysis framework is generally transferable to the physical conditions shaping different types of extreme events around the globe.
A search for the electric dipole of the electron
Abdullah, K.F.
1989-08-01
We report a new upper limit on the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron of d{sub e} = 0.1 {plus minus} 3.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}26} e-cm. This precision is one hundred times better than any previously published limit and a factor of two better than that of unofficial reports. Recently there has been a great deal of theoretical interest in the possibility of a non-zero electron EDM. Models such as the left-right-symmetric Standard Model and an off-standard'' model with new heavy neutrinos are constrained by the new limit on d{sub e}. A non-zero electron EDM would violate the time reversal and parity space-time symmetries. T-violation was observed in neutral kaon decay and is still not fully explained by the Standard Model. Our experimental technique involves searching for an energy shift, linear in applied electric field, between the m{sub F} = 1 and m{sub F} = {minus}1 magnetic sublevels of the F=1 hyperfine level of the 6{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} ground state of atomic thallium. If the electron has a non-zero EDM, this thallium state will exhibit an atomic electric dipole moment that is roughly 600 times larger. The energy shift is detected with the technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, employing separated oscillating fields, applied to an atomic beam of thallium. In the approach, any relative phase-shift between the m{sub F} = {plus minus}1 components of the F=1 wavefunction acquired by the atom as it travels through an electric field is detected through interference with two separate oscillating magnetic fields located on either side of the electric field. The new level of precision is achieved through several improvements on previous experiments including employment of a vertical apparatus, two opposing atomic beams, and optical pumping for atomic state selection and analysis.
Dipole Excitation of Soft and Giant Resonances in 132Sn and neighboring unstable nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boretzky, Konstanze
2006-04-01
The evolution of dipole-strength distributions above the one-neutron threshold was investigated for exotic neutron-rich nuclei in a series of experiments using the electromagnetic projectile excitation at beam energies around 500 MeV/u. For halo nuclei, the large observed dipole strength (shown here for 11Be) is explained within the direct-breakup model to be of non-collective character. For neutron-rich oxygen isotopes, the origin of the observed low-lying strength is concluded to be due to single-particle transitions on theoretical grounds. The dipole strength spectra for 130,132Sn exhibit resonance-like structures observed at energies around 10 MeV exhausting a few percent of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule, separated clearly from the dominant Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR). The data agree with predictions for a new dipole mode related to the oscillation of excess neutrons versus the core nucleons ("pygmy resonance").
Magnetic dipole strength in 128Xe and 134Xe in the spin-flip resonance region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massarczyk, R.; Rusev, G.; Schwengner, R.; Dönau, F.; Bhatia, C.; Gooden, M. Â. E.; Kelley, J. Â. H.; Tonchev, A. Â. P.; Tornow, W.
2014-11-01
The magnetic dipole strength in the energy region of the spin-flip resonance is investigated in 128Xe and 134Xe using quasimonoenergetic and linearly polarized γ -ray beams at the High-Intensity γ -Ray Source facility in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Absorption cross sections were deduced for the magnetic and electric and dipole strength distributions separately for various intervals of excitation energy, including the strength of states in the unresolved quasicontinuum. The magnetic dipole strength distributions show structures resembling a resonance in the spin-flip region around an excitation energy of 8 MeV. The electric dipole strength distributions obtained from the present experiments are in agreement with the ones deduced from an earlier experiment using broad-band bremsstrahlung instead of a quasimonoenergetic beam. The experimental magnetic and electric dipole strength distributions are compared with phenomenological approximations and with predictions of a quasiparticle random phase approximation in a deformed basis.
Diffraction of sound from a dipole source near to a barrier or an impedance discontinuity.
Buret, Marc; Li, Kai Ming; Attenborough, Keith
2003-05-01
Pierce's formulation for the diffraction of spherical waves by a hard wedge has been extended to the case of the sound field due to a dipole source. The same approach is also used to extend a semiempirical model for sound propagation above an impedance discontinuity due to a dipole source. The resulting formulas have been validated by comparing their numerical solutions with that computed by summing the sound fields due to two closely spaced monopole sources of equal magnitude but opposite in phase. These new formulations are then used to develop a simple model for calculating the dipole sound field diffracted by a barrier above an impedance ground. Applications of these models relate to transportation noise prediction, particularly railway noise abatement, for which dipole sources are commonly used. The numerical predictions have been found to compare reasonably well with indoor measurements using piezoceramic transducers as dipole sources.
Is the earth's dipole actually inclined with respect to the rotation axis?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akasofu, S.-I.; Saito, T.
1990-01-01
Planetary exploration by deep space probes in recent years has shown that the dipole moment of some magnetized planets has a surprisingly large inclination angle with respect to the rotation axis. Applying the method developed for the source surface magnetic field of the sun (a spherical surface of 2.5 solar radii), it is suggested that the main dipole of the earth and the magnetized planets may actually be axial (the magnetic moment being parallel or antiparallel to the rotation axis), and that two or three smaller dipoles near the core surface could be responsible for the apparent inclination of the main dipole. In formulating a dynamo theory of the planetary magnetic field, such a possibility should be considered, as well as the inclined dipole case.
The electric dipole moment of rhodopsin solubilized in Triton X-100.
Petersen, D C; Cone, R A
1975-01-01
The electric dipole moment of solubilized rhodopsin was determined with dielectric dispersion measurements. Rhodopsin was extracted from disc membranes of cattle rod outer segments with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100. The dipole moment of rhodopsin at its isoionic point in the detergent micelle is 720 D (150 charge-A). This value is comparable to dipole moments of nonmembrane proteins, especially those which tend to aggregate or polymerize. Flash irradiation of the rhodopsin results in an increase in the dipole moment of about 25 D (5 charge-A). The light-induced increase in dipole moment appears to be composed of two parts--a faster component related to a change in the number of protons bound by rhodopsin and a slower component apparently independent of the change in proton binding. PMID:1203446
Engineering the Input Impedance of Electric Planar Metamaterials Analogue of Dipole Array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yan-Wu; Qiu, Yang; Liu, Qi; Domenic, Belgiovane
2014-11-01
Since the demand of metamaterial (MM) based devices for practical applications is increased, the method with input impedance of dipole aims to produce fast results with reasonable accuracy for its design proposed. In this work, the unit of MM is equivalent to a dipole and then MM could be treated as a dipole array. An analysis is performed based on classical microwave dipole and numerical simulation by using the finite-difference time-domain for different MM configurations in the form of dipoles array. Additionally, a quality factor (Q-factor) based analysis is shown to yield simulation results which are in good agreement with the experiment. In essence, this shows that we could use antenna theory and numerical method to analyze MM thus opening the doors for a more efficient parameter optimization method.
Effect of anisotropic and isotropic solvent on the dipole moment of coumarin dyes.
Zakerhamidi, M S; Ghanadzadeh, A; Moghadam, M
2011-03-01
The ground state (μ(g)) and the excited state (μ(e)) dipole moments of two coumarin laser dyes, coumarin 440 and 460, were studied at room temperature in various solvents, viz., general solvents, alcohols and liquid crystals at 298 K. In this work, we report dipole moment of laser dyes in different anisotropic (liquid crystal) and isotropic environments for understanding the effects of environments on the molecular dipole moment and comparing them. Ground and excited state dipole moments of coumarin dyes were evaluated by means of solvatochromic shift method. It was observed that dipole moment values of excited states (μ(e)) were higher than the corresponding ground state values (μ(g)) in all media.
Recent experiments on alternative dipole phasing with the JET A2 ICRF antennas
Lerche, E.; Messiaen, A.; Ongena, J.; Telesca, G.; Van Eester, D.; Weynants, R. R.; Bobkov, V.; Jacquet, P.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Monakhov, I.
2009-11-26
Using the JET A2 ICRF antennas, experiments were carried out to assess the performance of three different dipole phasing configurations relevant for the operation of the ICRF antenna in ITER. Three similar discharges with dipole (0{pi}0{pi}), 'symmetric dipole' (0{pi}{pi}0) and 'super dipole' (00{pi}{pi}) phasings were compared. In the 'super dipole' case, higher coupling was confirmed but lower heating efficiency and much stronger plasma wall interaction were observed, as corroborated, respectively, by the analysis of the diamagnetic energy response to the ICRF power steps and by the observation of a considerable temperature rise of the antenna limiters and septa in the 00{pi}{pi} case. These observations were found to be in line with simulations of the ICRF wave absorption and with High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS) modelling of the RF fields near the antenna.
Self-generated magnetic dipoles in weakly magnetized beam-plasma system.
Jia, Qing; Mima, Kunioki; Cai, Hong-bo; Taguchi, Toshihiro; Nagatomo, Hideo; He, X T
2015-02-01
A self-generation mechanism of magnetic dipoles and the anomalous energy dissipation of fast electrons in a magnetized beam-plasma system are presented. Based on two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, it is found that the magnetic dipoles are self-organized and play important roles in the beam electron energy dissipation. These dipoles drift slowly in the direction of the return flow with a quasisteady velocity, which depends upon the magnetic amplitude of the dipole and the imposed external magnetic field. This dipole formation provides a mechanism for the anomalous energy dissipation of a relativistic electron beam, which would play an important role in collisionless shock and ion shock acceleration.
Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding
Luber, Sandra
2014-12-21
We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange–correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.
Design Concept and Parameters of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ Dipole Demonstrator for a 100 TEV Hadron Collider
Zlobin, A. V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Novitski, I.
2015-06-01
FNAL has started the development of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale hadron collider. This paper describes the design concept and parameters of the 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator. The dipole magnetic, mechanical and quench protection concept and parameters are presented and discussed.
Matta, Chérif F; Sowlati-Hashjin, Shahin; Bandrauk, André D
2013-08-15
The partitioning of the dipole moment of an isolated molecule or that of a reacting system is reviewed and applied to a dynamic reacting system whereby the system's dipole moment surface is constructed in parallel to its potential energy surface. The dipole moment surface is then decomposed into two origin-independent surfaces: (1) an atomic polarization (AP) surface and a charge transfer (CT) surface. The dipole moment surface as well as its two composing AP and CT surfaces are all further broken down into atomic and/or group contributions with the aid of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). This approach is applied to the title's laser-induced chemical reactions [CH4 + (•)X → CH3(•) + HX (X = F, Cl)] previously studied by Bandrauk et al. [ J. Chem. Phys. 2004 , 121 , 7764 - 7775 ], and which were found to exhibit marked peaks in the dipole moment and in the polarizability tensor component at (or near) the transition state. These peaks afford a means to control the kinetics of these reactions with the proper adjustment of an external laser field intensity and phase. The entrance channel potentials of these reactions have recently been probed by photodetachment spectroscopy by Bowman and collaborators [ J. Chem. Phys. 2011 , 134 , 191102_1 - 4 ]. The understanding of the origin of the peaks in the dipole moment can provide, eventually, an additional layer of control in the design of reactions tunable by external fields through the proper selection of the reactants to maximize the field-molecule interaction.
Shimada, Rintaro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o
2014-05-28
We quantitatively interpret the recently discovered intriguing phenomenon related to resonance Hyper-Raman (HR) scattering. In resonance HR spectra of all-trans-β-carotene (β-carotene) in solution, vibrations of proximate solvent molecules are observed concomitantly with the solute β-carotene HR bands. It has been shown that these solvent bands are subject to marked intensity enhancements by more than 5 orders of magnitude under the presence of β-carotene. We have called this phenomenon the molecular-near field effect. Resonance HR spectra of β-carotene in benzene, deuterated benzene, cyclohexane, and deuterated cyclohexane have been measured precisely for a quantitative analysis of this effect. The assignments of the observed peaks are made by referring to the infrared, Raman, and HR spectra of neat solvents. It has been revealed that infrared active and some Raman active vibrations are active in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed spectra in the form of difference spectra (between benzene/deuterated benzene and cyclohexane/deuterated cyclohexane) are quantitatively analyzed on the basis of the extended vibronic theory of resonance HR scattering. The theory incorporates the coupling of excited electronic states of β-carotene with the vibrations of a proximate solvent molecule through solute-solvent dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interactions. It is shown that the infrared active modes arise from the dipole-dipole interaction, whereas Raman active modes from the dipole-quadrupole interaction. It is also shown that vibrations that give strongly polarized Raman bands are weak in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed solvent HR spectra are simulated with the help of quantum chemical calculations for various orientations and distances of a solvent molecule with respect to the solute. The observed spectra are best simulated with random orientations of the solvent molecule at an intermolecular distance of 10 Å.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimada, Rintaro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.
2014-05-01
We quantitatively interpret the recently discovered intriguing phenomenon related to resonance Hyper-Raman (HR) scattering. In resonance HR spectra of all-trans-β-carotene (β-carotene) in solution, vibrations of proximate solvent molecules are observed concomitantly with the solute β-carotene HR bands. It has been shown that these solvent bands are subject to marked intensity enhancements by more than 5 orders of magnitude under the presence of β-carotene. We have called this phenomenon the molecular-near field effect. Resonance HR spectra of β-carotene in benzene, deuterated benzene, cyclohexane, and deuterated cyclohexane have been measured precisely for a quantitative analysis of this effect. The assignments of the observed peaks are made by referring to the infrared, Raman, and HR spectra of neat solvents. It has been revealed that infrared active and some Raman active vibrations are active in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed spectra in the form of difference spectra (between benzene/deuterated benzene and cyclohexane/deuterated cyclohexane) are quantitatively analyzed on the basis of the extended vibronic theory of resonance HR scattering. The theory incorporates the coupling of excited electronic states of β-carotene with the vibrations of a proximate solvent molecule through solute-solvent dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interactions. It is shown that the infrared active modes arise from the dipole-dipole interaction, whereas Raman active modes from the dipole-quadrupole interaction. It is also shown that vibrations that give strongly polarized Raman bands are weak in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed solvent HR spectra are simulated with the help of quantum chemical calculations for various orientations and distances of a solvent molecule with respect to the solute. The observed spectra are best simulated with random orientations of the solvent molecule at an intermolecular distance of 10 Å.
Equivalent Dipole Vector Analysis for Detecting Pulmonary Hypertension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harlander, Matevz; Salobir, Barbara; Toplisek, Janez; Schlegel, Todd T.; Starc, Vito
2010-01-01
Various 12-lead ECG criteria have been established to detect right ventricular hypertrophy as a marker of pulmonary hypertension (PH). While some criteria offer good specificity they lack sensitivity because of a low prevalence of positive findings in the PH population. We hypothesized that three-dimensional equivalent dipole (ED) model could serve as a better detection tool of PH. We enrolled: 1) 17 patients (12 female, 5 male, mean age 57 years, range 19-79 years) with echocardiographically detected PH (systolic pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 35 mmHg) and no significant left ventricular disease; and 2) 19 healthy controls (7 female, 12 male, mean age 44, range 31-53 years) with no known heart disease. In each subject we recorded a 5-minute high-resolution 12-lead conventional ECG and constructed principal signals using singular value decomposition. Assuming a standard thorax dimension of an adult person with homogenous and isotropic distribution of thorax conductance, we determined moving equivalent dipoles (ED), characterized by the 3D location in the thorax, dipolar strength and the spatial orientation, in time intervals of 5 ms. We used the sum of all ED vectors in the second half of the QRS complex to derive the amplitude of the right-sided ED vector (RV), if the orientation of ED was to the right side of the thorax, and in the first half the QRS to derive the amplitude of the left-sided vector (LV), if the orientation was leftward. Finally, the parameter RV/LV ratio was determined over an average of 256 complexes. The groups differed in age and gender to some extent. There was a non-significant trend toward higher RV in patients with PH (438 units 284) than in controls (280 plus or minus 140) (p = 0.066) but the overlap was such that RV alone was not a good predictor of PH. On the other hand, the RV/LV ratio was a better predictor of PH, with 11/17 (64.7%) of PH patients but only in 1/19 (5.3%) control subjects having RV/LV ratio greater than or
Further Evaluation of Geomagnetic Dipole Asymmetry in Growth and Decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avery, M. S.; Constable, C.; Gee, J. S.
2015-12-01
Records of past geomagnetic intensity fluctuations provide important constraints on dynamical processes in the outer core. PADM2M is a reconstruction of the 0 to 2 Ma axial dipole moment primarily based on global sediment records, but calibrated by absolute paleointensity data. Ziegler & Constable (2011) showed that for periods longer than 25 kyr the dipole spends more time decaying than growing: thus its average growth rate is greater than its decay rate. The observed asymmetry is not limited to times when the field is reversing, and may reveal a critical dynamic of the outer core. We assess the robustness of the initial result through development of improved analysis methods and explore the possibility of identifying the asymmetry in alternative recording media and at other epochs. Improved low pass filtering is used to identify asymmetry (percent time growing, pg < 50% ) and to quantify its uncertainty via bootstrap methods. The original results are significant and do not depend on the specifics of the filtering process, although the cutoff period corresponding to the peak in asymmetry varies relative to the initial analyses. A long-term record of geomagnetic intensity should also be preserved by the thermoremanence of oceanic crust and stacks of marine magnetic anomalies are inverted to provide an independent means of assessing the asymmetry seen in PADM2M. We first examine a 0 to 780 kyr record from the East Pacific Rise near 19ºS finding that pg departures from 50% are not statistically significant. We believe the record is too short and noisy; comparing the power spectra of the datasets supports this. Overall coherence with PADM2M never rises above 0.4 and, despite the presence of obvious long term geomagnetic signals in the record, the primary signals at periods of 25 - 50ky are almost certainly due to variations in crustal accretion. A better candidate for analysis is a stack of near-bottom records from chron C5 in the NE Pacific. Multiple nearby records
Effects of the volume conductor on the apparent orientation of a known cardiac dipole.
Salu, Y; Laughlin, D; Rogers, J; Marcus, M
1978-04-01
The surface electrocardiogram (EKG) is dependent on two major factors: the cardiac generator and the volume conductor. This investigation assessed the effects of the volume conductor in man on the apparent orientation of a simulated cardiac dipole. The apparent orientation of the dipole was calculated from measured surface potentials from about 60 locations on the body of five patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers. The real orientation of the dipole (an implanted pacemaker) was determined radiographically. The effects of both inhomogeneity and boundary characteristics of the volume conductor on the apparent orientation of the dipole were assessed using a new inverse algorithm. The difference between the orientation of the real and the calculated dipoles averaged 30 degrees (range 15 degrees--40 degrees) when the torso was assumed to be an infinite-homogeneous volume conductor. When the configuration of the torso was accounted for, however, the difference between the orientation of the real and calculated dipoles was reduced to 9 degrees (range 5 degrees--13 degrees). Thus, by taking into account the geometry of the torso and neglecting the inhomogeneities in the volume conductor, it is possible to calculate the orientation of a dipole in the cardiac region with an accuracy of about 9 degrees. It is reasonable to assume that the orientation of real activation wave fronts from localized areas of the heart could be calculated with a similar degree of accuracy.
Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of some laser dyes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biradar, D. S.; Siddlingeshwar, B.; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2008-03-01
The ground state ( μg) and the excited state ( μe) dipole moments of three laser dyes namely 2, 5-diphenyl-1, 3, 4- oxadiazole (PPD), 2, 2″-dimethyl-p-terphenyl (DMT) and 1, 3-diphenyl benzene (MT) were studied at room temperature in various solvents. The ground state dipole moments ( μg) of all the three laser dyes were determined experimentally by Guggenheim method. The excited state dipole moments ( μe) were estimated from Lippert's, Bakshiev's and Chamma Viallet's equations by using the variation of the Stokes shift with the solvent dielectric constant and refractive index. Ground and excited state dipole moments were evaluated by means of solvatochromic shift method and also the excited state dipole moments are determined in combination with ground state dipole moments. It was observed that dipole moment values of excited states ( μe) were higher than corresponding ground state values ( μg), indicating a substantial redistribution of the π-electron densities in a more polar excited state for all the dyes investigated.
Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up using cos-theta dipole coils
Nobrega, F.; Andreev, N.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; /Fermilab
2007-06-01
Fermilab is working on the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets using shell-type dipole coils and the wind-and-react method. As a part of the first phase of technology development, Fermilab built and tested six 1 m long dipole model magnets and several dipole mirror configurations. The last three dipoles and two mirrors reached their design fields of 10-11 T. The technology scale up phase has started by building 2 m and 4 m dipole coils and testing them in a mirror configuration in which one of the two coils is replaced by a half-cylinder made of low carbon steel. This approach allows for shorter fabrication times and extensive instrumentation preserving almost the same level of magnetic field and Lorentz forces in the coils as in a complete dipole model magnet. This paper presents details on the 2 m (HFDM07) and 4 m long (HFDM08) Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole mirror magnet design and fabrication technology, as well as the magnet test results which are compared with 1 m long models.
Nadykto, Alexey B; Yu, Fangqun
2008-08-07
Sulfuric acid is a primary atmospheric nucleation precursor, with the ability to form stable aqueous hydrogen-bonded clusters/complexes. The electrical dipole moment of such clusters/complexes is important for ion-induced nucleation, largely controlled by dipole-charge interaction of airborne ions with vapor monomers and pre-existing clusters. Although experiments typically trace a single lowest energy conformer at low temperatures, the present study shows that the immediate vicinity (<1 kcal mol (-1)) of the global minima may be populated with a number of isomers of nearly identical spectral characteristics and drastically different dipole moments. The difference in the dipole moment of mono-, di-, and trihydrates of the sulfuric acid exceeds 1.3-1.5 Debyes ( approximately 50-60%), 1.4-2.6 Debyes ( approximately 50-90%), and 3.8-4.2 Debyes ( approximately 370-550%), respectively. Being driven by the temperature dependence of the Boltzmann distribution, the difference between the Boltzmann-Gibbs average dipole moment and the dipole moment of the most stable isomer increases with the ambient temperature, leading to large variations in the dipole-ion interaction strength, which may have important implications for the ion-mediated production of ultrafine aerosol particles associated with various climatic and health impacts.
Silva, Arnaldo F; da Silva, João V; Haiduke, R L A; Bruns, Roy E
2011-11-17
Infrared fundamental vibrational intensities and quantum theory atoms in molecules (QTAIM) charge-charge flux-dipole flux (CCFDF) contributions to the polar tensors of the fluorochloromethanes have been calculated at the QCISD/cc-pVTZ level. A root-mean-square error of 20.0 km mol(-1) has been found compared to an experimental error estimate of 14.4 and 21.1 km mol(-1) for MP2/6-311++G(3d,3p) results. The errors in the QCISD polar tensor elements and mean dipole moment derivatives are 0.059 e when compared with the experimental values. Both theoretical levels provide results showing that the dynamical charge and dipole fluxes provide significant contributions to the mean dipole moment derivatives and tend to be of opposite signs canceling one another. Although the experimental mean dipole moment derivative values suggest that all the fluorochloromethane molecules have electronic structures consistent with a simple electronegativity model with transferable atomic charges for their terminal atoms, the QTAIM/CCFDF models confirm this only for the fluoromethanes. Whereas the fluorine atom does not suffer a saturation effect in its capacity to drain electronic charge from carbon atoms that are attached to other fluorine and chlorine atoms, the zero flux electronic charge of the chlorine atom depends on the number and kind of the other substituent atoms. Both the QTAIM carbon charges (r = 0.990) and mean dipole moment derivatives (r = 0.996) are found to obey Siegbahn's potential model for carbon 1s electron ionization energies at the QCISD/cc-pVTZ level. The latter is a consequence of the carbon mean derivatives obeying the electronegativity model and not necessarily to their similarities with atomic charges. Atomic dipole contributions to the neighboring atom electrostatic potentials of the fluorochloromethanes are found to be of comparable size to the atomic charge contributions and increase the accuracy of Siegbahn's model for the QTAIM charge model results
Silicone films with high stiffness and increasing permittivity through dipole-grafting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bluemke, Martin; Wegener, Michael; Krueger, Hartmut
2015-04-01
Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are smart materials that can be optimized by modifying the dielectric or mechanical properties of the electroactive polymer. The incorporation of inorganic particles in silicone elastomers shows a permittivity enhancement and undesired stiffening. We present another concept to obtain comparable properties by dipole grafting. Therefore, the organic dipole N-ally-N-methyl-4-nitroaniline is grafted in competition with the vinyl terminated PDMS to a hydrosilane cross-linker forming the PDMS network. With this procedure PDMS films with up to 25 wt% of the dipole were solvent casted and the chemical, mechanical, electrical, plus electromechanical properties of these novel materials were investigated.
Dipole Response of 76Se up to 9 MeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, V.; Cooper, N. M.; Goddard, P. M.; Smith, M. K.; Savran, D.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Chakraborty, A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Raut, R.; Reichel, F.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Scheck, M.; Fritzsche, M.; Beller, J.; Zweidinger, M.; Sonnabend, K.
2013-03-01
This contribution reports on progress in the measurement of the full dipole excitation strength in 76Se.The experiments used the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique at two facilities, the photon scattering setup at the S-DALINAC at the TU Darmstadt, and the polarization setup at HIGS at TUNL. Data indicates sub-structure of the pygmy dipole resonance, and reveals a candidate for the scissors mode in 76Se. The final aim of the study is the determination of dipole strength distributions in the double-beta decay partners 76Se and 76Ge.
Status of 11 T 2-in-1 Nb$_3$Sn Dipole Development for LHC
Zlobin, Alexander; Andreev, Nicolai; Apollinari, Giorgio; Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Rodger; Buehler, Marc; Chlachidze, Guram; DiMarco, Joseph; Nobrega, Alfred; Novitski, Igor; Turrioni, Daniele; Velev, Gueorgui; Auchmann, Bernhard; Karppinen, Mikko; Rossi, Lucio; Smekens, David
2014-07-01
The LHC upgrade plans foresee installation of additional collimators in the LHC lattice. To provide the necessary longitudinal space for these collimators, shorter and stronger Nb3Sn dipoles compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems could be used. This paper describes the design and status of the twin-aperture Nb3Sn dipole being developed by FNAL and CERN for the LHC, and reports test results of two collared coils to be used in the first 1 m long twin-aperture dipole model.
Dynamical interaction effects on an electric dipole moving parallel to a flat solid surface
Villo-Perez, Isidro; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Arista, Nestor R.
2005-05-15
The interaction experienced by a fast electric dipole moving parallel and close to a flat solid surface is studied using the dielectric formalism. Analytical expressions for the force acting on the dipole, for random and for particular orientations, are obtained. Several features related to the dynamical effects on the induced forces are discussed, and numerical values are obtained for the different cases. The calculated energy loss of the electric dipole provides useful estimations which could be of interest for small-angle scattering experiments using polar molecules.
Nature of low-lying electric dipole resonance excitations in 74Ge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Negi, D.; Wiedeking, M.; Lanza, E. G.; Litvinova, E.; Vitturi, A.; Bark, R. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bvumbi, S.; Bucher, T. D.; Daub, B. H.; Dinoko, T. S.; Easton, J. L.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Jones, P.; Kheswa, B. V.; Khumalo, N. A.; Larsen, A. C.; Lawrie, E. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Majola, S. N. T.; Masiteng, L. P.; Nchodu, M. R.; Ndayishimye, J.; Newman, R. T.; Noncolela, S. P.; Orce, J. N.; Papka, P.; Pellegri, L.; Renstrøm, T.; Roux, D. G.; Schwengner, R.; Shirinda, O.; Siem, S.
2016-08-01
Isospin properties of dipole excitations in 74Ge are investigated using the (α ,α'γ ) reaction and compared to (γ ,γ' ) data. The results indicate that the dipole excitations in the energy region of 6 to 9 MeV adhere to the scenario of the recently found splitting of the region of dipole excitations into two separated parts: one at low energy, being populated by both isoscalar and isovector probes, and the other at high energy, excited only by the electromagnetic probe. Relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA) calculations show a reduction in the isoscalar E 1 strength with an increase in excitation energy, which is consistent with the measurement.
Full kinetic simulations of plasma flow interactions with meso- and microscale magnetic dipoles
Ashida, Y.; Yamakawa, H.; Usui, H.; Miyake, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Funaki, I.; Nakamura, M.
2014-12-15
We examined the plasma flow response to meso- and microscale magnetic dipoles by performing three-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulations. We particularly focused on the formation of a magnetosphere and its dependence on the intensity of the magnetic moment. The size of a magnetic dipole immersed in a plasma flow can be characterized by a distance L from the dipole center to the position where the pressure of the local magnetic field becomes equal to the dynamic pressure of the plasma flow under the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approximation. In this study, we are interested in a magnetic dipole whose L is smaller than the Larmor radius of ions r{sub iL} calculated with the unperturbed dipole field at the distance L from the center. In the simulation results, we confirmed the clear formation of a magnetosphere consisting of a magnetopause and a tail region in the density profile, although the spatial scale is much smaller than the MHD scale. One of the important findings in this study is that the spatial profiles of the plasma density as well as the current flows are remarkably affected by the finite Larmor radius effect of the plasma flow, which is different from the Earth's magnetosphere. The magnetopause found in the upstream region is located at a position much closer to the dipole center than L. In the equatorial plane, we also found an asymmetric density profile with respect to the plasma flow direction, which is caused by plasma gyration in the dipole field region. The ion current layers are created in the inner region of the dipole field, and the electron current also flows in the region beyond the ion current layer because ions with a large inertia can closely approach the dipole center. Unlike the ring current structure of the Earth's magnetosphere, the current layers in the microscale dipole fields are not circularly closed around the dipole center. Since the major current is caused by the particle gyrations, the current is independently determined
Sensing dipole fields at atomic steps with combined scanning tunneling and force microscopy.
Park, Jeong Young; Sacha, G M; Enachescu, M; Ogletree, D F; Ribeiro, R A; Canfield, P C; Jenks, C J; Thiel, P A; Sáenz, J J; Salmeron, M
2005-09-23
The electric field of dipoles localized at the atomic steps of metal surfaces due to the Smoluchowski effect were measured from the electrostatic force exerted on the biased tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. By varying the tip-sample bias the contribution of the step dipole was separated from changes in the force due to van der Waals and polarization forces. Combined with electrostatic calculations, the method was used to determine the local dipole moment in steps of different heights on Au(111) and on the twofold surface of an Al-Ni-Co decagonal quasicrystal.
Localization of a moving dipole source underwater using an artificial lateral line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdulsadda, Ahmad T.; Tan, Xiaobo
2012-04-01
Motivated by the lateral line system of fish, arrays of flow sensors have been proposed as a new sensing modality for underwater robots. Existing studies on such artificial lateral lines (ALLs) have been mostly focused on the localization of a fixed underwater vibrating sphere (dipole source). In this paper we examine the problem of tracking a moving dipole source using an ALL system. A nonlinear estimation problem is formulated based on an analytical model for the moving dipole-generated flow field, which is subsequently solved with the Gauss-Newton method. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated with simulation results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Commins, Eugene D.; Jackson, J. David; Demille, David P.
2007-06-01
In most experimental searches for the electron electric dipole moment, one searches for a linear Stark effect in a paramagnetic atom or molecule and interprets the result in terms of the electric dipole moment of the unpaired valence electron(s). Schiff's theorem states that in the limit of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, there can be no linear Stark effect to first order in the electric dipole moment. Sandars has shown that Schiff's theorem is not applicable when special relativity is taken into account. We give a heuristic explanation for this relativistic effect, which corrects a widespread misconception in the literature.
Theoretical electric dipole moments of SiH, GeH and SnH
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pettersson, L. G. M.; Langhoff, S. R.
1986-01-01
Accurate theoretical dipole moments have been computed for the X2Pi ground states of Si(-)H(+) (0.118 D), Ge(+)H(-) (0.085 D), and Sn(+)H(-) (0.357 D). The trend down the periodic table is regular and follows that expected from the electronegativities of the group IV atoms. The dipole moment of 1.24 + or - 0.1 D for GeH recently derived by Brown, Evenson and Sears (1985) from the relative intensities of electric and magnetic dipole transitions in the 10-micron spectrum of the X2Pi state is seriously questioned.
First Measurement of the Atomic Electric Dipole Moment of (225)Ra.
Parker, R H; Dietrich, M R; Kalita, M R; Lemke, N D; Bailey, K G; Bishof, M; Greene, J P; Holt, R J; Korsch, W; Lu, Z-T; Mueller, P; O'Connor, T P; Singh, J T
2015-06-12
The radioactive radium-225 ((225)Ra) atom is a favorable case to search for a permanent electric dipole moment. Because of its strong nuclear octupole deformation and large atomic mass, (225)Ra is particularly sensitive to interactions in the nuclear medium that violate both time-reversal symmetry and parity. We have developed a cold-atom technique to study the spin precession of (225)Ra atoms held in an optical dipole trap, and demonstrated the principle of this method by completing the first measurement of its atomic electric dipole moment, reaching an upper limit of |d((225)Ra)|<5.0×10(-22) e cm (95% confidence).
Theoretical Electric Dipole Moments of SiH, GeH and SnH
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1986-01-01
Accurate theoretical dipole moments (mu(sub c) have been computed for the X(exp 2)Pi ground states of Si(-)H(+)(0.118 D), Ge(+)H(-)(0.085 D) and Sn(+)H(-)(0.357 D). The trend down the periodic table is regular and follows that expected from the electronegativities of the group IV atoms. The dipole moment of 1.24 +/- 0.1 D for GeH recently derived by Brown, Evenson and Sears from the relative intensities of electric and magnetic dipole transitions in the 10 microns spectrum of the X(exp 2)Pi state is seriously questioned.
Small non-Gaussianity and dipole asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lingfei; Mazumdar, Anupam
2013-07-01
In this paper we provide a prescription for obtaining a small non-Gaussianity and the observed dipole asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The observations inevitably lead to multifield inflationary dynamics, where each field can create positive or negative large non-Gaussianity, resulting in a fine cancellation but with an observable imprint on the hemispherical asymmetry. We discuss this possibility within a simple slow-roll scenario and find that it is hard to explain the observed dipole asymmetry. We briefly discuss some speculative scenarios where one can explain dipole asymmetry.
A paleointensity test of the geocentric axial dipole (GAD) hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veikkolainen, Toni; Heimpel, Moritz; Evans, Michael E.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Korhonen, Kimmo
2017-04-01
The geocentric axial dipole (GAD) model is central to many aspects of geophysics, including plate tectonics and paleoclimate. But its validity is by no means firmly established, particularly for the Precambrian. One test that has met with some success involves the distribution of paleomagnetic inclination angles. It works because any given field morphology has its own distinct probability distribution function (PDF) against which data compilations can be tested. Here, we investigate a second possible test using published paleointensity data. Once again, any given field morphology has a specific PDF of intensity. Likely field models consist of an underlying GAD on which is superimposed modest zonal quadrupole and octupole components. The corresponding paleointensity PDFs turn out to have more complicated shapes than their inclination counterparts, often having multiple maxima and minima. Given sufficient data, this complexity offers greater discrimination between models. In this paper, the potential of the paleointensity test is assessed using an extension of the PINT paleointensity database. We found it useful to analyse the Phanerozoic and Precambrian intervals separately. Despite the inherent limitations of this kind of analysis, a tripartite geodynamo with small zonal multipoles appears to be a good starting point on a way towards more fine-tuned models.
Photoassociation of Rb atoms in an optical dipole trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menegatti, Carlos; Marangoni, Bruno; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Marcassa, Luis
2012-06-01
Laser cooling and trapping techniques are nowadays routinely used to produce atomic samples at temperatures around 1 mK or below. An old ambition in this research field is the direct application of such techniques to molecules, however due to the absence of closed optical transitions in molecules this is not straightforward. Nevertheless, cold and dense atomic trapped samples can be used to produce cold molecules trough photoassociation. In our experiment, we have trapped Rb atoms in a crossed broadband optical dipole trap. Our crossed beam configuration uses 25 W of power (at 1064 n, bandwidth of 2 nm) in each beam with about 50 micron waist radius at the focus and a depth of about 700 μK. In the typical condition, we have about 3 x 10^6 trapped atoms at a density of 3 x 10^12 cm-3. We have observed that the Rb atom population presents a non-exponential decay in such a trap. We believe that such observation suggests that the sample is been photoassociated by the 1064 nm laser, forming an excited state Rb2 molecule, which further decays forming Rb2 in the ground state. The results are compared with a theoretical model.
Characterization and detection of oscillating magnetic dipole signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ram-Cohen, Tsuriel; Alimi, Roger; Weiss, Eyal; Zalevsky, Zeev
2017-04-01
The present paper deals with the problem of characterization of oscillating magnetic dipole (OMD) signals and the development of a suitable magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) algorithm for it. The resulting outcomes of investigating the above mentioned problem are: (1) a development of a complete model of the noise and the signal based on a non-linear gravity pendulum model. This model was compared and verified against real world magnetic signals, as well as simulated ones. (2) A detection algorithm that utilizes this model by whitening the noise and seeking for periodical features in the signal. The developed algorithm has high noise immunity with high detection probabilities even at as low SNR as ‑10 dB. Compared to benchmark detectors, our detection scheme offers performance improved by 5–10 dB. Moreover, when testing the detector against real world signals, the SNR difference in respect to the performance predicted by the simulations was less than 2.5 dB.
An improved method for localizing electric brain dipoles.
Salu, Y; Cohen, L G; Rose, D; Sato, S; Kufta, C; Hallett, M
1990-07-01
Methods for localizing electrical dipolar sources in the brain differ from one another by the models they use to represent the head, the specific formulas used in the calculation of the scalp potentials, the way that the reference electrode is treated, and by the algorithm employed to find the least-squares fit between the measured and calculated EEG potentials. The model presented here is based on some of the most advanced features found in other models, and on some improvements. The head is represented by a three-layer spherical model. The potential on any point on the scalp due to any source is found by a closed formula, which is not based on matrix rotations. The formulas will accept any surface electrode as the reference electrode. The least-squares procedure is based on optimal dipoles, reducing the number of unknowns in the iterations from six to three. The new method was evaluated by localizing five implanted dipolar sources in human sensorimotor cortex. The distances between the locations of the sources as calculated by the method, and the actual locations were between 0.4 and 2.0 cm. The sensitivity of the method to uncertainties encountered whenever a real head has to be modeled by a three-layer model has also been assessed.
Helical dipole partial Siberian snake for the AGS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takano, J.; Ahrens, L. A.; Alforque, R.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Ganetis, G.; Gardner, C. J.; Glenn, J. W.; Hattori, T.; Huang, H.; Jain, A.; Luccio, A. U.; MacKay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Tepikian, S.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wood, J.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.
2006-11-01
Overcoming depolarization resonances in medium class synchrotrons (3 to 50 GeV) is one of the key issues in accelerating a highly polarized proton beam up to very high energies. Since such synchrotrons, including the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the J-PARC Main Ring, generally do not have sufficiently long straight sections to accommodate full Siberian snakes with reasonable beam excursions, the practical solution is to use partial Siberian snakes that rotate the particle spin about a horizontal axis by a fraction of 180 degrees. For the AGS, we designed and installed a new partial Siberian snake consisting of a helical dipole magnet with a double pitch structure. The helical structure reduced the amount of transverse coupling as compared to that achieved by the previous solenoidal partial snake. This coupling led to partial depolarization at certain energies from horizontal betatron oscillations. The helical magnetic field in the snake magnet was calculated using a 3D magnetic field code TOSCA, and was optimized by segmenting the helical pitch and varying the lengths of the segments. Fabrication errors were checked and verified to be within required tolerances. Finally, the transverse field was measured by rotating harmonic coils. After installation, we achieved a 37.5% improvement in polarization - from 40% with the old solenoid to 55% with the new helical snake, thereby demonstrating that the helical partial snake is an effective device to suppress depolarization resonances in medium-sized synchrotrons.
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment and Tensor Charges from Lattice QCD.
Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Lin, Huey-Wen; Yoon, Boram
2015-11-20
We present lattice QCD results on the neutron tensor charges including, for the first time, a simultaneous extrapolation in the lattice spacing, volume, and light quark masses to the physical point in the continuum limit. We find that the "disconnected" contribution is smaller than the statistical error in the "connected" contribution. Our estimates in the modified minimal subtraction scheme at 2 GeV, including all systematics, are g_{T}^{d-u}=1.020(76), g_{T}^{d}=0.774(66), g_{T}^{u}=-0.233(28), and g_{T}^{s}=0.008(9). The flavor diagonal charges determine the size of the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) induced by quark EDMs that are generated in many new scenarios of CP violation beyond the standard model. We use our results to derive model-independent bounds on the EDMs of light quarks and update the EDM phenomenology in split supersymmetry with gaugino mass unification, finding a stringent upper bound of d_{n}<4×10^{-28} e cm for the neutron EDM in this scenario.
Limits on CP nonconserving interactions from electric dipole moments
Haxton, W.C.
1994-09-01
I discuss bounds on CP-nonconserving (CPNC) and parity-nonconserving (PNC) hadronic interactions that result from measurements of atomic electric dipole moments. In most models of hadronic CPNC, the nuclear edm arises primarily from the polarization of the ground state by the CPNC PNC NN interaction, rather than from the edms of valence nucleons. When the atom is placed in an external field, the nucleus is fully shielded apart from nuclear finite size effects and relativistic corrections arising from hyperfine interactions, so that careful atomic calculations must be performed to deduce the residual sensitivity to the nuclear edm. I describe these shielding effects qualitatively, and present results from more detailed calculations. Atomic limits, when translated into effective bounds on the neutron edm, have now reached sensitivities that are comparable to direct neutron edm limits. I also discuss limits that can be extracted on CPNC parity-conserving (PC) hadronic interactions. Such interactions can generate atomic edms when combined with weak radiative corrections.
Exploring dipole blockade using high- n strontium Rydberg atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xinyue; Ye, Shuzhen; Dunning, F. Barry; Hiller, Moritz; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim
2014-05-01
Studies of the production of strongly-polarized quasi-1D high- n, n ~ 300 , strontium `` nF'' Rydberg states in an atomic beam by three-photon excitation in a weak dc field suggest that (in the absence of blockade effects) densities of ~106 cm-3 might be achieved. At such densities the interparticle separation, ~ 100 μm , becomes comparable to that at which dipole blockade effects are expected to become important. Apparatus modifications are underway to allow the exploration of blockade at very high- n and the effects of the high energy level density. Blockade is also being examined through calculations of the energy spectrum for two interaction atoms. Access to the blockade regime promises creation of Rydberg atoms at well-defined separations whose interactions can be coherently controlled using electric field pulses thereby enabling study of the dynamics of strongly-coupled Rydberg systems. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, and the FWF (Austria).
Positive Indian Ocean Dipole events precondition southeast Australia bushfires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, W.; Cowan, T.; Raupach, M.
2009-10-01
The devastating “Black Saturday” bushfire inferno in the southeast Australian state of Victoria in early February 2009 and the “Ash Wednesday” bushfires in February 1983 were both preceded by a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) event. Is there a systematic pIOD linkage beyond these two natural disasters? We show that out of 21 significant bushfires seasons since 1950, 11 were preceded by a pIOD. During Victoria's wet season, particularly spring, a pIOD contributes to lower rainfall and higher temperatures exacerbating the dry conditions and increasing the fuel load leading into summer. Consequently, pIODs are effective in preconditioning Victoria for bushfires, more so than El Niño events, as seen in the impact on soil moisture on interannual time scales and in multi-decadal changes since the 1950s. Given that the recent increase in pIOD occurrences is consistent with what is expected from global warming, an increased bushfire risk in the future is likely across southeast Australia.
Dynamic evolution of coherent vortex dipole in atmospheric turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jinhong; Zeng, Jun
2017-01-01
The analytical expression for the cross-spectral density function of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams with coherent vortex dipole (CVD) propagating through atmospheric turbulence is derived, which enables us to study the evolution process of CVD propagating through atmospheric turbulence, where the influences of the beams parameters and atmospheric turbulence parameters on the ratio of critical off-axis distance to the waist width are stressed. It shows that the evolution process of the CVD depends on the off-axis distance. The larger the off-axis distance is, the more the number of CVD is. When the off-axis distance is zero, the position of coherent vortices with positive and negative topological charge of CVD propagating through atmospheric turbulence is always symmetry. When the off-axis distance is big enough, compared with the situation at source plane, the orientation of the positive coherent vortex of inherent CVD and negative coherent vortex of that rotates 180° in the far field. The larger the structure constant and the waist width are, as well as the smaller the spatial correlation length and the inner scale are, the smaller the ratio ac/w0 is. Besides, the ratio ac/w0 will no longer change when the spatial correlation length or the inner scale increases to a certain value, whereas the outer scale has no effect on the ratio.
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment and Tensor Charges from Lattice QCD
Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Lin, Huey-Wen; Yoon, Boram
2015-11-17
In this paper, we present lattice QCD results on the neutron tensor charges including, for the first time, a simultaneous extrapolation in the lattice spacing, volume, and light quark masses to the physical point in the continuum limit. We find that the “disconnected” contribution is smaller than the statistical error in the “connected” contribution. Our estimates in the modified minimal subtraction scheme at 2 GeV, including all systematics, are g^{d-u}_{T}=1.020(76), g^{d}_{T}=0.774(66), g^{u}_{T}=-0.233(28), and g^{s}_{T}=0.008(9). The flavor diagonal charges determine the size of the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) induced by quark EDMs that are generated in many new scenarios of CP violation beyond the standard model. Finally, we use our results to derive model-independent bounds on the EDMs of light quarks and update the EDM phenomenology in split supersymmetry with gaugino mass unification, finding a stringent upper bound of d_{n}<4×10^{-28} e cm for the neutron EDM in this scenario.
Dipole-allowed direct band gap silicon superlattices
Oh, Young Jun; Lee, In-Ho; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Jooyoung; Chang, Kee Joo
2015-01-01
Silicon is the most popular material used in electronic devices. However, its poor optical properties owing to its indirect band gap nature limit its usage in optoelectronic devices. Here we present the discovery of super-stable pure-silicon superlattice structures that can serve as promising materials for solar cell applications and can lead to the realization of pure Si-based optoelectronic devices. The structures are almost identical to that of bulk Si except that defective layers are intercalated in the diamond lattice. The superlattices exhibit dipole-allowed direct band gaps as well as indirect band gaps, providing ideal conditions for the investigation of a direct-to-indirect band gap transition. The fact that almost all structural portions of the superlattices originate from bulk Si warrants their stability and good lattice matching with bulk Si. Through first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, we confirmed their thermal stability and propose a possible method to synthesize the defective layer through wafer bonding. PMID:26656482
Dipole-allowed direct band gap silicon superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Young Jun; Lee, In-Ho; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Jooyoung; Chang, Kee Joo
2015-12-01
Silicon is the most popular material used in electronic devices. However, its poor optical properties owing to its indirect band gap nature limit its usage in optoelectronic devices. Here we present the discovery of super-stable pure-silicon superlattice structures that can serve as promising materials for solar cell applications and can lead to the realization of pure Si-based optoelectronic devices. The structures are almost identical to that of bulk Si except that defective layers are intercalated in the diamond lattice. The superlattices exhibit dipole-allowed direct band gaps as well as indirect band gaps, providing ideal conditions for the investigation of a direct-to-indirect band gap transition. The fact that almost all structural portions of the superlattices originate from bulk Si warrants their stability and good lattice matching with bulk Si. Through first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, we confirmed their thermal stability and propose a possible method to synthesize the defective layer through wafer bonding.
Nonlinear processes reinforce extreme Indian Ocean Dipole events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin; Santoso, Agus
2015-06-01
Under global warming, climate models show an almost three-fold increase in extreme positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events by 2100. These extreme pIODs are characterised by a westward extension of cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) which push the downstream atmospheric convergence further west. This induces severe drought and flooding in the surrounding countries, but the processes involved in this projected increase have not been fully examined. Here we conduct a detailed heat budget analysis of 19 models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project and show that nonlinear zonal and vertical heat advection are important for reinforcing extreme pIODs. Under greenhouse warming, these nonlinear processes do not change significantly in amplitude, but the frequency of occurrences surpassing a threshold increases. This is due to the projected weakening of the Walker circulation, which leads to the western tropical Indian Ocean warming faster than the east. As such, the magnitude of SSTAs required to shift convection westward is relatively smaller, allowing these convection shifts to occur more frequently in the future. The associated changes in wind and ocean current anomalies support the zonal and vertical advection terms in a positive feedback process and consequently, moderate pIODs become more extreme-like.
Generalized Wannier functions: A comparison of molecular electric dipole polarizabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Regan, David D.; Payne, Mike C.; Mostofi, Arash A.
2012-05-01
Localized Wannier functions provide an efficient and intuitive means by which to compute dielectric properties from first principles. They are most commonly constructed in a post-processing step, following total-energy minimization. Nonorthogonal generalized Wannier functions (NGWFs) [Skylaris , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.66.035119 66, 035119 (2002); Skylaris , J. Chem. Phys.JCPSA60021-960610.1063/1.1839852 122, 084119 (2005)] may also be optimized in situ, in the process of solving for the ground-state density. We explore the relationship between NGWFs and orthonormal, maximally localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) [Marzari and Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.56.12847 56, 12847 (1997); Souza, Marzari, and Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.65.035109 65, 035109 (2001)], demonstrating that NGWFs may be used to compute electric dipole polarizabilities efficiently, with no necessity for post-processing optimization, and with an accuracy comparable to MLWFs.
Nonlinear processes reinforce extreme Indian Ocean Dipole events.
Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin; Santoso, Agus
2015-06-26
Under global warming, climate models show an almost three-fold increase in extreme positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events by 2100. These extreme pIODs are characterised by a westward extension of cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) which push the downstream atmospheric convergence further west. This induces severe drought and flooding in the surrounding countries, but the processes involved in this projected increase have not been fully examined. Here we conduct a detailed heat budget analysis of 19 models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project and show that nonlinear zonal and vertical heat advection are important for reinforcing extreme pIODs. Under greenhouse warming, these nonlinear processes do not change significantly in amplitude, but the frequency of occurrences surpassing a threshold increases. This is due to the projected weakening of the Walker circulation, which leads to the western tropical Indian Ocean warming faster than the east. As such, the magnitude of SSTAs required to shift convection westward is relatively smaller, allowing these convection shifts to occur more frequently in the future. The associated changes in wind and ocean current anomalies support the zonal and vertical advection terms in a positive feedback process and consequently, moderate pIODs become more extreme-like.
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment and Tensor Charges from Lattice QCD
Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; ...
2015-11-17
In this paper, we present lattice QCD results on the neutron tensor charges including, for the first time, a simultaneous extrapolation in the lattice spacing, volume, and light quark masses to the physical point in the continuum limit. We find that the “disconnected” contribution is smaller than the statistical error in the “connected” contribution. Our estimates in the modified minimal subtraction scheme at 2 GeV, including all systematics, are gd-uT=1.020(76), gdT=0.774(66), guT=-0.233(28), and gsT=0.008(9). The flavor diagonal charges determine the size of the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) induced by quark EDMs that are generated in many new scenarios ofmore » CP violation beyond the standard model. Finally, we use our results to derive model-independent bounds on the EDMs of light quarks and update the EDM phenomenology in split supersymmetry with gaugino mass unification, finding a stringent upper bound of dn<4×10-28 e cm for the neutron EDM in this scenario.« less
Measuring the Electron Electric Dipole Moment Using Ytterbium Fluoride Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smallman, I. J.; Devlin, J. A.; Kara, D. M.; Hudson, J. J.; Sauer, B. E.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Hinds, E. A.
2013-06-01
It is well known that the existence of an electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) would violate time reversal symmetry. The Standard Model predicts an eEDM less than 10^{-38}e.cm, however many popular extensions predict values in the range 10^{-29}-10^{-24}e.cm. Our experiment currently has the potential to measure eEDMs down to approximately 10^{-29}e.cm, making it a precise probe for T-violation and physics beyond the Standard Model. We measure the eEDM by performing a type of separated oscillating field interferometry on a pulsed beam of YbF. The molecules are prepared such that the molecular spin is oriented perpendicular to an applied strong (10kV/cm) electric field. The spin is then allowed to precess about the electric field axis over a 0.5ms interaction period. We measure this angle of rotation, which is directly proportional to the eEDM. In order to measure the eEDM precisely and without error we use a complex switching technique wherein certain parameters, including the applied electric and magnetic fields, are reversed between individual molecular pulses. I will present our current technique and our most recent world leading result.