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Sample records for direct antiglobulin tests

  1. Direct Antiglobulin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Direct Antiglobulin Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: DAT; Direct Coombs Test; Direct Anti-human Globulin Test Formal ...

  2. Direct antiglobulin ("Coombs") test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a review.

    PubMed

    Segel, George B; Lichtman, Marshall A

    2014-04-01

    We have reviewed the literature to identify and characterize reports of warm-antibody type, autoimmune hemolytic anemia in which the standard direct antiglobulin reaction was negative but a confirmatory test indicated that the red cells were opsonized with antibody. Three principal reasons account for the absence of a positive direct antiglobulin test in these cases: a) IgG sensitization below the threshold of detection by the commercial antiglobulin reagent, b) low affinity IgG, removed by preparatory washes not conducted at 4°C or at low ionic strength, and c) red cell sensitization by IgA alone, or rarely (monomeric) IgM alone, but not accompanied by complement fixation, and thus not detectable by a commercial antiglobulin reagent that contains anti-IgG and anti-C3. In cases in which the phenotype is compatible with warm-antibody type, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and the direct antiglobulin test is negative, an alternative method to detect low levels of IgG sensitization, use of 4°C, low ionic strength washes to prepare the cells for the direct antiglobulin test reaction to permit retention and identification of low affinity IgG antibodies, and, if the latter are uninformative, testing for sensitization with an anti-IgA, and, if necessary, an anti-IgM reagent identifies cases of warm-antibody type, immune hemolysis not verified by a commercial reagent.

  3. Case of cytomegalovirus-associated direct anti-globulin test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Saeko; Sato, Masanori; Sasaki, Goro; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Tsutomu; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year-old boy developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia after a negative direct anti-globulin test. The concentration of erythrocyte membrane-associated immunoglobulin G, determined using an immunoradiometric assay, correlated with disease activity. He was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) both serologically and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, indicating that his autoimmune hemolytic anemia was directly caused by CMV infection. Since anti-CMV immunoglobulin G was not absorbed by the patient's erythrocytes, cross-reaction between erythrocyte antigens and CMV was not likely a causative factor for hemolysis.

  4. Characterization of direct antiglobulin test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a study of 154 cases.

    PubMed

    Kamesaki, Toyomi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Kajii, Eiji

    2013-02-01

    Direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-negative (DAT-)autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is empirically thought to show the same clinical conditions as DAT-positive (DAT+)AIHA, with the exception of an adequate amount of red blood cell (RBC)-bound immunoglobulin (Ig)G. We investigated the clinical characteristics of DAT-AIHA in comparison with DAT+AIHA. Of the 582 patients referred to our laboratory with undiagnosed hemolytic anemia, AIHA was clinically diagnosed in 216 patients (DAT-AIHA, n = 154; DAT+AIHA, n = 62). The percentage of reticulocytes, mean corpuscular volume, RBC-IgG levels, white blood cell count, and total protein (TP) levels were significantly higher in patients with DAT+AIHA than patients with DAT-AIHA. The hemoglobin level was significantly lower in patients with DAT+AIHA. No significant differences between patients with DAT-AIHA and DAT+AIHA existed with respect to age, gender, idiopathic/secondary nature, complications such as Evans syndrome, effectiveness of steroid treatment, or survival rate at 1 year following diagnosis. Patients with DAT-AIHA required significantly lower doses of steroids for maintenance therapy. Based on multivariate analysis of idiopathic DAT-AIHA (n = 110), TP and Evans syndrome were associated with the effectiveness of steroids (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36/[0.1 g/dl]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.84) and survival at the 1-year follow-up (aOR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.01-0.88). Our results indicate that patients with DAT-AIHA generally suffer milder anemia and hemolysis than patients with DAT+AIHA, respond equally well to steroids, and have comparable survival at 1-year.

  5. Management of blood donors and blood donations from individuals found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Judith L

    2012-04-01

    The medical literature is replete with articles addressing the diagnosis and management of patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). However, there is scant information addressing the management of blood donors and blood donations found to have a positive DAT. Practices vary considerably between countries and blood suppliers within countries, and there is no standardized approach to the management of these blood donors or the blood products prepared from their donations. Recent evidence from Israel suggests that the finding of a positive DAT in a blood donor may not be as benign as previously thought. Therefore, it may be prudent for blood collection agencies to periodically reexamine their approach to the management of blood donors with a positive DAT and their donations. This article reviews the available literature and explores options for the management of DAT-positive blood donors and their blood donations.

  6. The investigation of infants with RhD-negative mothers: can we safely omit the umbilical cord blood direct antiglobulin test?

    PubMed

    James, R M; McGuire, W; Smith, D P

    2011-07-01

    Historically, the investigation of a neonate at risk of Rhesus D antigen (RhD)-associated haemolytic disease has included a direct antiglobulin test on umbilical cord blood. However, the introduction of routine antenatal anti-RhD prophylaxis has led to a significant number of false positive results and recent studies suggest that a positive cord blood direct antiglobulin test is poorly predictive of subsequent hyperbilirubinaemia. The British Committee for Standards in Haematology guidelines now recommend that a direct antiglobulin test should no longer be performed routinely on umbilical cord blood in infants born to RhD-negative mothers. We review the recent changes in antenatal management of RhD-negative mothers and their impact on the neonatal presentation of RhD-associated haemolytic disease of the newborn that underpin this recommendation. We conclude that there is convincing evidence to support the guidelines. Finally, we consider how babies born to RhD-negative mothers should be investigated and consider alternative strategies to detect neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia.

  7. Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Direct Antiglobulin Testing With a False-Negative Result in a 53-Year-Old Man: The DAT Will Set You Free.

    PubMed

    Losos, Michael; Hamad, Diane; Joshi, Sarita; Scrape, Scott; Chen, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA), the most common of the relatively uncommon autoimmune-mediated hemolytic anemias (AIHAs), is mediated by polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)G autoantibodies in most cases. Herein, we present a case of WAIHA involving a direct antiglobulin test (DAT) with an initially negative result. Using a modified DAT protocol, repeat testing of the same specimen material from a previously healthy 53-year-old man yielded positive results. This case demonstrates that investigation of an apparently negative DAT result plays a critical role in the differential diagnosis of patients with rapidly progressing hemolytic anemia and the reversal of that decline.

  8. A radiolabeled antiglobulin test for crossmatching platelet transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Kickler, T.S.; Braine, H.G.; Ness, P.M.; Koester, A.; Bias, W.

    1983-02-01

    Despite the use of HLA-matched platelets for alloimmunized recipients, transfusion failures occur. In order to reduce these failures, researchers investigated the use of a radiolabeled antiglobulin technique for platelet crossmatching. The principle of the test is that of an indirect Coombs test using /sup 125/I labeled goat anti-human IgG. Incompatibility is determined by calculating a radioactivity antiglobulin test (RAGT) index. Using this technique, researchers performed 89 crossmatches on 19 leukemic or aplastic patients who were refractory to random donor platelets and receiving varying degrees of HLA-matched platelets. Effectiveness of the transfusion was assessed from the posttransfusion corrected platelet count increment (CCI) determined at 1 and 20 hr. When the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI at 1 lhr was 17,570 +/- 7003/cu mm, n . 55. When the RAGT index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 4237 +/- 4100/cu mm, n . 34. At 20 hr when the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI was 8722 +/- 3143/cu mm, n . 33, and when the index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 571 +/- 1286/cu mm, n . 23. Using this technique, one false negative resulted. Nine positive crossmatches with good increments at 1 hr were found; at 20 hr, however, the survival of these units was zero. These data suggest that this method is a useful adjunct in the selection of platelets in the refractory patient.

  9. A radiolabeled antiglobulin test for crossmatching platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Kickler, T S; Braine, H G; Ness, P M; Koester, A; Bias, W

    1983-02-01

    Despite the use of HLA-matched platelets for alloimmunized recipients, transfusion failures occur. In order to reduce these failures, we investigated the use of a radiolabeled antiglobulin technique for platelet crossmatching. The principle of the test is that of an indirect Coombs test using 125I labeled goat anti-human IgG. Incompatibility is determined by calculating a radioactivity antiglobulin test (RAGT) index. Using this technique, we performed 89 crossmatches on 19 leukemic or aplastic patients who were refractory to random donor platelets and receiving varying degrees of HLA-matched platelets. Effectiveness of the transfusion was assessed from the posttransfusion corrected platelet count increment (CCI) determined at 1 and 20 hr. When the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI at 1 lhr was 17,570 +/- 7003/cu mm, n = 55. When the RAGT index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 4237 +/- 4100/cu mm, n = 34. At 20 hr when the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI was 8722 +/- 3143/cu mm, n = 33, and when the index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 571 +/- 1286/cu mm, n = 23. Using this technique, one false negative resulted. Nine positive crossmatches with good increments at 1 hr were found; at 20 hr, however, the survival of these units was zero. These data suggest that this method is a useful adjunct in the selection of platelets in the refractory patient.

  10. Paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Natasha; McLiesh, Heather; Guan, Liyun; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and simple paper-based elution assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was established. This allows to type blood using IgG antibodies for the important blood groups in which IgM antibodies do not exist. Red blood cells incubated with IgG anti-D were washed with saline and spotted onto the paper assay pre-treated with anti-IgG. The blood spot was eluted with an elution buffer solution in a chromatography tank. Positive samples were identified by the agglutinated and fixed red blood cells on the original spotting area, while red blood cells from negative samples completely eluted away from the spot of origin. Optimum concentrations for both anti-IgG and anti-D were identified to eliminate the washing step after the incubation phase. Based on the no-washing procedure, the critical variables were investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the paper-based assay. Two hundred ten donor blood samples were tested in optimal conditions for the paper test with anti-D and anti-Kell. Positive and negative samples were clearly distinguished. This assay opens up new applications of the IAT on paper including antibody detection and blood donor-recipient crossmatching and extends its uses into non-blood typing applications with IgG antibody-based diagnostics. Graphical abstract A rapid and simple paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

  11. Coombs test

    MedlinePlus

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  12. Estimation of transfused red cell survival using an enzyme-linked antiglobulin test

    SciTech Connect

    Kickler, T.S.; Smith, B.; Bell, W.; Drew, H.; Baldwin, M.; Ness, P.M.

    1985-09-01

    An enzyme-linked antiglobulin test (ELAT) method was developed to estimate survival of transfused red cells. This procedure is based on a principle analogous to that of the Ashby technique were antigenically distinct red cells are transfused and their survival studied. The authors compared the ELAT survival to the V Chromium method (V Cr) in four patients. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias showed T 1/2 by ELAT of 17.5, 18, and 17 days versus 18.5, 20, and 19 days by the V Cr method. A fourth patient with traumatic cardiac hemolysis had two studies performed. In this case, the ELAT showed a T 1/2 of 10 and 8.1 days while V Cr T 1/2 values were 11 and 10.5 days. The ELAT method for measuring red cell survival yielded data which agreed closely with the results of the V Cr method. Although V Cr is the accepted method for red cell survival, the ELAT method can be used to estimate transfused red cell survival.

  13. Comparison of the direct antiglobulin rosetting reaction (DARR) and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) for demonstration of sIg-bearing lymphocytes in pigs, sheep and cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Binns, R M; Licence, S T; Symons, D B; Gurner, B W; Coombs, R R; Walters, D E

    1979-01-01

    Tests with untreated and trypsin-treated red cells (rbc) from a variety of species showed that anti-Ig-coupled pig RBC are good indicator cells for the study of ruminant blood sIg + lymphocytes by the DARR test; coupled donkey and rabbit RBC are suitable for investigating pig lymphocytes. The different species showed the following percentages of sIg + lymphocytes (M +/- SE) by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and the direct antiglobulin rosetting reaction (DARR) respectively:pigs 9.2 +/- 0.7% and 16.3 +/- 1.2%; sheep 20.2 +/- 1.2% and 33.1 +/- 1.6%; Cattle 13.5 +/- 1.4% and 28.9 +/- 3.5%. The mean ratio of sIg + lymphocytes shown by the two tests (DARR/DIF) for each species was 1.80 +/- 0.08 for pigs, 1.73 +/- 0.7 for sheep and 2.15 +/- 0.18 for cattle. Preincubation of pig and sheep lymphocytes at 37 degrees for 1 h did not alter the proportion of sIg + lymphocytes detected by either test. Thus the DARR test reveals a further population of sIg + lymphocytes in addition to that detected by immunofluorescence, whose number is proportional to the B population as measured by DIF and whose sIg is intimately associated with the membrane. PMID:374254

  14. The intra- and inter-assay variation of the indirect mixed antiglobulin reaction test: is a quality control suitable?

    PubMed

    Bohring, C; Krause, W

    1999-07-01

    The test most commonly used to detect sperm antibodies is the mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR), standardized by the World Health Organization. The indirect MAR test detects soluble sperm antibodies in seminal plasma by using healthy donor spermatozoa as antigen. In this study we systematically investigated the influence of donor spermatozoa and the source of sperm antibodies upon the results of the indirect MAR test, and calculated the intra- and inter-assay variations. Using one individual seminal plasma and the same donor semen, results of the indirect MAR test are highly reproducible (low intra-assay variation). Two dimensions of inter-assay variation must be considered: (i) serial ejaculates of an individual donor may be used at different times; (ii) different donors may be applied to identical antibody sources. Donor spermatozoa strongly influenced the results of the indirect MAR test. Using multivariate statistical tests, highly significant main effects between the different donors (P < 0.001) and specific reciprocal effects between donor spermatozoa and seminal plasma samples (P < 0.001) were observed. The high inter-assay variation of the indirect MAR test will lead to incorrect results. There is urgent need of a reliable and reproducible test for sperm antibody detection to improve quality control of the methods.

  15. Laboratory diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis: a solid phase radioassay for IgG and IgM antiglobulins.

    PubMed Central

    Nineham, L J; Hay, F C; Roitt, I M

    1976-01-01

    A technique suitable for the routine estimation of IgM and IgG antiglobulins has been devised. The assay involves the binding of antiglobulins to plastic tubes coated with rabbit immunoglobulin: the amount of antiglobulin bound is then determined by adding radiolabelled antihuman IgG or IgM. The conditions for the assay have been examined and optimal incubation times and amounts of reagents established. Verification of the antibody nature of antiglobulin activity has been obtained. Both IgG and IgM antiglobulins were raised in virtually all seropositive rheumatoid arthritics, and most seronegative patients gave elevated values for either IgM or IgG rheumatoid factors. The use of an anti-light chain reagent as a screening test for total antiglobulins was investigated. These tests should prove valuable in diagnosis and permit quantitative evaluation of research studies. PMID:1087638

  16. Bilirubin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Total Bilirubin; TBIL; Neonatal Bilirubin; Direct Bilirubin; Conjugated Bilirubin; Indirect Bilirubin; Unconjugated Bilirubin Formal ... Hepatitis B ; Hepatitis C ; Complete Blood Count ; Urinalysis ; Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Haptoglobin ; Reticulocyte Count All content on ...

  17. Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch using low-ionic-strength saline-albumin enhancement medium and reduced incubation time: effectiveness in the detection of most clinically significant antibodies and impact on blood utilization.

    PubMed

    Dinardo, C L; Bonifácio, S L; Mendrone, A

    2014-01-01

    Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch (IAT-XM) using enhancement media such as low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) usually requires 15 minutes of incubation. These methods are necessary when testing samples from blood recipients who have a higher risk of alloimmunization. In emergency situations, IAT-XM can be time-consuming and can influence presurgery routine, resulting in more red blood cell (RBC) units being tested and stored to avoid the transfusion of uncrossmatched ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a LISS-albumin enhancer to intensify antigen-antibody reaction after 5 minutes of 37oC incubation and compare this performance with that of other enhancers, gel, and conventional tube testing. Second, the study evaluated the impact of this method's implementation in the C:T ratio (crossmatched to transfused RBC units) of a transfusion laboratory. Ninety serum samples containing alloantibodies of potential clinical significance were tested against phenotyped RBCs using four different methods: (1) tube with LISS-albumin enhancer (5 minutes of incubation), (2) tube with LISS-albumin and PEG (15 minutes of incubation), (3) gel, and (4) conventional tube method (60 minutes of incubation). In parallel, the study compared the C:T ratio of a tertiary-hospital transfusion laboratory in two different periods: 3 months before and 3 months after the implementation of the 5-minute IAT-XM protocol. The use of LISS-albumin with 5 minutes of incubation exhibited the same performance as LISS-albumin, PEG, and gel with 15 minutes of incubation. Conventional tube method results were equally comparable, but reactions were significantly less intense, except for anti-c (p = 0.406). Accuracy was 100 percent for all selected methods. After the implementation of the 5-minute IAT-XM protocol, the C:T ratio fell from 2.74 to 1.29 (p < 0.001). IAT-XM can have its incubation time reduced to 5 minutes with the use of LISS

  18. Letter Directionality Test, Word Directionality Test, and Sentence Directionality Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohig, Brian T.

    Designed to measure the subject's ability to discriminate among alphabetic letters varied over three spatial dimensions (left-right, vertical, and combination left-right and vertical), the tests can be administered in groups and take about twenty minutes to complete. Ten letters of the alphabet were selected for assymetry (for example, b-d) and…

  19. Direct Field Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, Paul; Goldstein, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an update to the methods and procedures used in Direct Field Acoustic Testing (DFAT). The paper will discuss some of the recent techniques and developments that are currently being used and the future publication of a reference standard. Acoustic testing using commercial sound system components is becoming a popular and cost effective way of generating a required acoustic test environment both in and out of a reverberant chamber. This paper will present the DFAT test method, the usual setup and procedure and the development and use of a closed-loop, narrow-band control system. Narrow-band control of the acoustic PSD allows all standard techniques and procedures currently used in random control to be applied to acoustics and some examples are given. The paper will conclude with a summary of the development of a standard practice guideline that is hoped to be available in the first quarter of next year.

  20. Naturally Occurring Human Antiglobulins with Specificity for γE

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ralph C.; Griffiths, Robert W.; Emmons, Jean D.; Field, Richard C.

    1972-01-01

    Human sera have been examined for antibodies with specific reactivity for γE using the tanned cell hemagglutination test. Cells tanned with three different γE myeloma proteins provided a reproducible test system. Inhibition of agglutination reactions by γE proteins, but not by γG, γA, γM, or γD confirmed the specificity of these reactions. 8.5% of 304 serial serum samples obtained from miscellaneous hospitalized patients showed clear-cut anti-γ-globulins with specificity for γE. In most of these instances no definite clinical history of concomitant allergic disorders could be obtained. 53% of 73 patients with well-established allergic disorders (hay fever, extrinsic asthma) showed serum anti-γ-globulins with reactivity for γE. Some patients studied before and after desensitization to Bermuda grass allergen showed an increase in titer or a conversion from negative to positive reactions for anti-γE antibodies following several month courses of progressive desensitization. Gradient and gel filtration studies indicated that anti-γE globulins were 19S γM in all instances. No clear correlation was noted between quantitative serum γE levels and titer of anti-γE antibodies. 19S serum fractions with anti-γE antibody activity did not release histamine from normal human peripheral blood leukocytes, whereas specific rabbit anti-γE antisera consistently induced leukocytic histamine release. Moreover, macroglobulin fractions with anti-γE activity did not block allergen-specific leukocyte histamine release induced by in vitro leukocyte challenge with allergens such as Bermuda grass and leukocytes from allergic donors. In some instances 19S human serum fractions with anti-γE activity appeared to potentiate histamine release when incubated concomitantly with specific allergen and leukocytes from allergic individuals. PMID:4111367

  1. New Directions in Vocabulary Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…

  2. Directions in Foreign Language Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valette, Rebecca M.

    This handbook, which focuses on foreign language teaching in the classroom, aims to describe the "state of the art" in testing. The first section considers the area of aptitude testing, particularly the diagnostic function of aptitude tests. A taxonomy of foreign language teaching objectives points out the need to classify the aims of foreign…

  3. Empirical Evaluation of Directional-Dependence Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoemmes, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Testing of directional dependence is a method to infer causal direction that recently has attracted some attention. Previous examples by e.g. von Eye and DeShon (2012a) and extensive simulation studies by Pornprasertmanit and Little (2012) have demonstrated that under specific assumptions, directional-dependence tests can recover the true causal…

  4. Hydraulic tests with direct-push equipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J.; Healey, J.M.; McCall, G.W.; Garnett, E.J.; Loheide, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    The potential of direct-push technology for hydraulic characterization of saturated flow systems was investigated at a field site with a considerable degree of subsurface control. Direct-push installations were emplaced by attaching short lengths of screen (shielded and unshielded) to the bottom end of a tool string that was then advanced into the unconsolidated sediments. A series of constant-rate pumping tests were performed in a coarse sand and gravel aquifer using direct-push tool strings as observation wells. Very good agreement (within 4%) was found between hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates from direct-push installations and those from conventional wells. A program of slug tests was performed in direct-push installations using small-diameter adaptations of solid-slug and pneumatic methods. In a sandy silt interval of moderate hydraulic conductivity, K values from tests in a shielded screen tool were in excellent agreement (within 2%) with those from tests in a nearby well. In the coarse sand and gravel aquifer, K values were within 12% of those from multilevel slug tests at a nearby well. However, in the more permeable portions of the aquifer (K > 70 m/day), the smaller-diameter direct-push rods (0.016 m inner diameter [I.D.]) attenuated test responses, leading to an underprediction of K. In those conditions, use of larger-diameter rods (e.g., 0.038 m I.D.) is necessary to obtain K values representative of the formation. This investigation demonstrates that much valuable information can be obtained from hydraulic tests in direct-push installations. As with any type of hydraulic test, K estimates are critically dependent on use of appropriate emplacement and development procedures. In particular, driving an unshielded screen through a heterogeneous sequence will often lead to a buildup of low-K material that can be difficult to remove with standard development procedures.

  5. A Boundary Scan Test Vehicle for Direct Chip Attach Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Heather A.; DAgostino, Saverio; Arakaki, Genji

    2000-01-01

    To facilitate the new faster, better and cheaper spacecraft designs, smaller more mass efficient avionics and instruments are using higher density electronic packaging technologies such as direct chip attach (DCA). For space flight applications, these technologies need to have demonstrated reliability and reasonably well defined fabrication and assembly processes before they will be accepted as baseline designs in new missions. As electronics shrink in size, not only can repair be more difficult, but 49 probing" circuitry can be very risky and it becomes increasingly more difficult to identify the specific source of a problem. To test and monitor these new technologies, the Direct Chip Attach Task, under NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), chose the test methodology of boundary scan testing. The boundary scan methodology was developed for interconnect integrity and functional testing at hard to access electrical nodes. With boundary scan testing, active devices are used and failures can be identified to the specific device and lead. This technology permits the incorporation of "built in test" into almost any circuit and thus gives detailed test access to the highly integrated electronic assemblies. This presentation will describe boundary scan, discuss the development of the boundary scan test vehicle for DCA and current plans for testing of direct chip attach configurations.

  6. Scaling effects in direct shear tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, A.D.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments of the direct shear test were performed on spherical particles of different materials and diameters. Results of the bulk friction vs. non-dimensional shear displacement are presented as a function of the non-dimensional particle diameter. Simulations of the direct shear test were performed using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The simulation results show Considerable differences with the physical experiments. Particle level material properties, such as the coefficients of static friction, restitution and rolling friction need to be known a priori in order to guarantee that the simulation results are an accurate representation of the physical phenomenon. Furthermore, laboratory results show a clear size dependency on the results, with smaller particles having a higher bulk friction than larger ones. ?? 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  7. What Is Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... consumer genetic testing? What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? Traditionally, genetic tests have been available only ... testing. For more information about direct-to-consumer genetic testing: The American College of Medical Genetics, which ...

  8. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC Antibody Screen ; Blood Typing ; Type ... a positive RBC antibody screen or a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) . It is used to identify ...

  9. Space ethics to test directed panspermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makukov, Maxim A.; shCherbak, Vladimir I.

    2014-10-01

    The hypothesis that Earth was intentionally seeded with life by a preceding extraterrestrial civilization is believed to be currently untestable. However, analysis of the situation where humans themselves embark on seeding other planetary systems motivated by survival and propagation of life reveals at least two ethical issues calling for specific solutions. Assuming that generally intelligence evolves ethically as it evolves technologically, the same considerations might be applied to test the hypothesis of directed panspermia: if life on Earth was seeded intentionally, the two ethical requirements are expected to be satisfied, what appears to be the case.

  10. Direct Field and Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Test Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Reverberant and direct acoustic test comparisons were analyzed in this viewgraph presentation. The acoustic test data set includes: 1) CloudSat antenna subjected to PF reverberant chamber acoustic test; 2) CloudSat subjected to a PF direct speaker acoustic test; and 3) DAWN flight spacecraft subjected to PF direct speaker and a workmanship reverberant chamber acoustic test.

  11. Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... sell their tests online and through multi-level marketing networks. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) wants you to know the facts about the DTC marketing of genetic tests. Genes and Genetic Tests Interpreting ...

  12. International collaborative study to establish reference preparations to standardise haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in normal intravenous immunoglobulins by the direct method.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, S J; Fox, B; Sharp, G; Heath, A B; Behr-Gross, M-E; Terao, E; Virata-Theimer, M L; Yu, M W

    2010-04-01

    A joint project (coded BSP089) was run by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) of the Council of Europe, the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to evaluate, in an international collaborative study, 3 lyophilised intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations for their suitability to serve as Reference Preparations to standardise and control the highly variable haemagglutination testing for anti-A and anti-B in IVIG products. 23 laboratories tested candidate IVIG reference preparations consisting of a Positive control, a Negative control and a specifically formulated Limit test reference preparation to define the maximum (e.g., pharmacopoeial) limits of anti-A and anti-B haemagglutinins in IVIG products, where limits are applicable. Laboratories performed direct haemagglutination using papain-treated erythrocytes and/or indirect anti-globulin tests. For both methods, there was up to 16-fold variation in anti-A and anti-B titres, although there was good agreement over a 2-fold titre range for anti-A and anti-B between laboratories using the direct method for both the Positive control and Limit reference preparations. Comparative titration data for the Positive control and Limit reference preparations indicated that the use of a 'Limit' test reference preparation would facilitate identification of higher titre batches when the direct haemagglutination method is used. The Positive control, Negative control and Limit test preparations were adopted in November 2008 by the Commission of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) as Biological Reference Preparations. The same preparations have been established as reference reagents by the WHO and the U.S FDA, including the maximal specifications defined by the Limit test preparation. This will facilitate

  13. Direct agglutination test for serologic diagnosis of Neospora caninum infection.

    PubMed

    Romand, S; Thulliez, P; Dubey, J P

    1998-01-01

    A direct agglutination test was evaluated for the detection and quantitation of IgG antibodies to Neospora caninum in both experimental and natural infections in various animal species. As compared with results obtained by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, the direct agglutination test appeared reliable for the serologic diagnosis of neosporosis in a variety of animal species. The direct agglutination test should provide easily available and inexpensive tools for serologic testing for antibodies to N. caninum in many host species.

  14. Partial discharge testing under direct voltage conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bever, R. S.; Westrom, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    DC partial discharge (PD) (corona) testing is performed using a multichannel analyzer for pulse storing, and data is collected during increase of voltage and at quiescent voltage levels. Thus high voltage ceramic disk capacitors were evaluated by obtaining PD data interspersed during an accelerated life test. Increased PD activity was found early in samples that later failed catastrophically. By this technique, trends of insulation behavior are revealed sensitively and nondestructively in high voltage dc components.

  15. Evaluation of a Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for Rabies Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, Tiziana; Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ernest, Eblate; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    A direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) was evaluated under field and laboratory conditions to detect rabies virus antigen in frozen and glycerol-preserved field brain samples from northwestern Tanzania. Compared to the direct fluorescent antibody test, the traditional standard in rabies diagnosis, the dRIT was 100% sensitive and specific. PMID:16494761

  16. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  17. Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: A Comprehensive View

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing refers to testing sold directly to consumers via the Internet, television, or other marketing venues without involving health care professionals. As the recent Supreme Court ruling eliminated the patentability of human genes, this rapidly evolving segment in the laboratory testing industry is starting to attract increasing scrutiny by government, scientists, consumers, and other interested parties. This article provides a panoramic view of the DTC genetic testing industry, including reasons for seeking DTC testing services, benefits and concerns associated with the industry, and potential development and prospects of this relatively new market under the current regulatory environment. PMID:24058310

  18. The future of direct-to-consumer clinical genetic tests.

    PubMed

    Frueh, Felix W; Greely, Henry T; Green, Robert C; Hogarth, Stuart; Siegel, Sue

    2011-06-01

    In light of the meeting of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2011 to discuss the regulation of clinical direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests, we have invited five experts to consider the best means of overseeing the ordering and interpretation of these tests. Should these tests be regulated? If so, who, if anyone, should communicate results to consumers?

  19. Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis Testing: A Survey of SIG Members, Journals, and Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Keith

    The use of directional and nondirectional hypothesis testing was examined from the perspectives of textbooks, journal articles, and members of editorial boards. Three widely used statistical texts were reviewed in terms of how directional and nondirectional tests of significance were presented. Texts reviewed were written by: (1) D. E. Hinkle, W.…

  20. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.; Layne, R.R.

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  1. Direct Observational Assessment during Test Sessions and Child Clinical Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.

    2005-01-01

    Test sessions and child clinical interviews offer opportunities for direct observations of children's behavior in controlled settings. Moreover, standardized instruments for test session and interview observations offer more reliable and valid assessment methods than do anecdotal reports. This article reviews characteristics and psychometric…

  2. Strict vs lenient criteria for elution testing: comparison of yields between two tertiary care medical centers.

    PubMed

    Veeraputhiran, Muthu K; Pesek, Gina A; Blackall, Douglas P

    2011-09-01

    In this study, 2 patient populations, using different elution strategies, were compared to evaluate eluate yields under more and less restrictive conditions. An informative eluate was defined as one in which an antibody that could be clinically significant was detected in the eluate but was not detectable in the plasma at the time of elution testing. The results for 160 direct antiglobulin tests (DATs) and 160 elution studies were evaluated in 71 patients at the adult hospital (lenient criteria). The results for 372 DATs and 43 elution studies were evaluated in 123 patients at the pediatric hospital (strict criteria). The yields from these eluates were 0.6% at the adult hospital (C antibody) vs 2.3% at the pediatric hospital (Jk(a) antibody). Thus, the yield of information from eluate testing is low regardless of the stringency applied to testing. However, considering the cost and time required for testing, more stringent criteria are advised.

  3. Direction-Dependence Analysis: A Confirmatory Approach for Testing Directional Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; von Eye, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The concept of direction dependence has attracted growing attention due to its potential to help decide which of two competing linear regression models (X ? Y or Y ? X) is more likely to reflect the correct causal flow. Several tests have been proposed to evaluate hypotheses compatible with direction dependence. In this issue, Thoemmes (2015)…

  4. Direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations: what it takes.

    PubMed

    Busch, Paul; Stevens, Neil

    2015-02-20

    The uncertainty principle being a cornerstone of quantum mechanics, it is surprising that, in nearly 90 years, there have been no direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations. This lacuna was due to the absence of two essential ingredients: appropriate measures of measurement error (and disturbance) and precise formulations of such relations that are universally valid and directly testable. We formulate two distinct forms of direct tests, based on different measures of error. We present a prototype protocol for a direct test of measurement uncertainty relations in terms of value deviation errors (hitherto considered nonfeasible), highlighting the lack of universality of these relations. This shows that the formulation of universal, directly testable measurement uncertainty relations for state-dependent error measures remains an important open problem. Recent experiments that were claimed to constitute invalidations of Heisenberg's error-disturbance relation, are shown to conform with the spirit of Heisenberg's principle if interpreted as direct tests of measurement uncertainty relations for error measures that quantify distances between observables.

  5. Measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests was investigated. Directivity angle resolution is affected by the data reduction parameters, the aircraft velocity and flyover altitude, and by deviations of the aircraft from the desired flight path. Equations are developed which determine bounds for the lateral and longitudinal directivity angle resolution as a function of the nominal directivity angle. The equations are applied to a flight test data base and the effects of several flight conditions and data reduction parameters on the directivity angle resolution are presented. The maximum directivity angle resolution typically occurs when the aircraft is at or near the overhead position. In general, directivity angle resolution improves with decreasing velocity, increasing altitude, increasing sampling rate, decreasing block size, and decreasing block averages. Deviations from the desired ideal flight path will increase the resolution. For the flight experiment considered in this study, an average of two flyovers were required at each test condition to obtain an acceptable flight path. The ability of the pilot to maintain the flight track improved with decreasing altitude, decreasing velocity, and practice. Due to the prevailing wind conditions, yaw angles of as much as 20 deg were required to maintain the desired flight path.

  6. Direct-to-consumer testing: more risks than opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lippi, G; Favaloro, E J; Plebani, M

    2011-12-01

    As a result of incessant genetic discoveries and remarkable technological advancements, the availability and the consequent consumer's request for genetic testing are growing exponentially, leading to the development of a 'parallel' market, i.e. the direct-to-consumer (DTC) testing, also known as 'direct access testing' (DAT). Analogous to the traditional laboratory diagnostics, drawbacks of DTC testing might arise from any step characterising the total testing process, and include poor control of both appropriateness and preanalytical requirements, potential operation outside national or international regulation for in vitro diagnostic testing, little evidence of quality as well as the risk of transfer of genetic materials from the companies to other entities. Another important issue is the test panels offered to consumers, which are often based on preliminary, speculative or unsupported scientific information. Finally, the potential of this type of testing to generate anxiety or false reassurance should also be carefully considered. Although DTC testing carries some theoretical advantages (e.g. greater consumer autonomy and empowerment), solid clinical studies and costs vs. benefit analyses are needed to definitely establish whether DTC testing might be effective for decreasing the burden of diseases, delay their onset or modify their progression and therefore the clinical outcome.

  7. Tensile test of dumbbell-shaped specimen in thickness direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Sheet metal forming is widely used in manufacturing shops, and evaluation of forming limit for sheet metal is important. However, specimen shape influences on the fracture of the sheet metal. As one of methods to decrease these effects, an uniaxial tensile test using specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction had been examined using FEM analysis. In this study, actually specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction was fabricated using a new incremental sheet forging method, and uniaxial tensile test was conducted. Load-stroke diagram, fracture morphologies, stress-strain curves and shape after fracture were investigated, and effects of specimen shape were considered. Elongation was larger as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. Stress-strain curves until necking occurred were less influenced by specimen shape. However, yield stress decreased and local elongation increased as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. The reasons why these tendencies showed were considered in the view of specimen shapes.

  8. Media coverage of direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Lynch, John; Parrott, Ashley; Hopkin, Robert J; Myers, Melanie

    2011-10-01

    Media coverage of Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) genetic testing shapes public perception of such testing. The purpose of this study was to determine and assess the themes presented by U.S. news media regarding DTC genetic testing. We performed a Lexis-Nexis search with the keywords "Direct-to-Consumer" and "genetic test" for news stories published from 2006-2009. The sample was coded on themes of genetic determinism, privacy, discrimination, validity, regulation, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), utility, and cost. Ninety-two news stories were included. Stories displayed moderate genetic determinism and were neutral about validity and utility. Stories indicated that insurance and employers were the most likely sources of discrimination, yet identified the physicians and DTC companies as groups most likely to violate privacy. Stories claimed lack of regulation would harm consumers, but most post-GINA stories did not discuss the law. The costs of tests were frequently included. The results of this study show a broad range of views toward DTC genetic testing and its potential impacts. The genetics community should be aware that the public has been exposed to multiple views of DTC genetic testing when discussing these tests.

  9. In vitro testing for direct immunotoxicity: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Lankveld, D P K; Van Loveren, H; Baken, K A; Vandebriel, R J

    2010-01-01

    Immunotoxicity is defined as the toxicological effects of xenobiotics including pharmaceuticals on the functioning of the immune system and can be induced in either direct or indirect ways. Direct immunotoxicity is caused by the effects of chemicals on the immune system, leading to immunosuppression and subsequently to reduced resistance to infectious diseases or certain forms of nongenotoxic carcinogenicity.In vitro testing has several advantages over in vivo testing, such as detailed mechanistic understanding, species extrapolation (parallelogram approach), and reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal experiments. In vitro testing for direct immunotoxicity can be done in a two-tiered approach, the first tier measuring myelotoxicity. If this type of toxicity is apparent, the compound can be designated immunotoxic. If not, the compound is tested for lymphotoxicity (second tier). Several in vitro assays for lymphotoxicity exist, each comprising specific functions of the immune system (cytokine production, cell proliferation, cytotoxic T-cell activity, natural killer cell activity, antibody production, and dendritic cell maturation). A brief description of each assay is provided. Only one assay, the human whole blood cytokine release assay, has undergone formal prevalidation, while another one, the lymphocyte proliferation assay, is progressing towards that phase.Progress in in vitro testing for direct immunotoxicity includes prevalidation of existing assays and selection of the assay (or combination of assays) that performs best. To avoid inter-species extrapolation, assays should preferably use human cells. Furthermore, the use of whole blood has the advantage of comprising multiple cell types in their natural proportion and environment. The so-called "omics" techniques provide additional mechanistic understanding and hold promise for the characterization of classes of compounds and prediction of specific toxic effects. Technical innovations such as high

  10. HIV and Hepatitis Testing: Global Progress, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Philippa; Johnson, Cheryl; Figueroa, Carmen; Baggaley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection and viral hepatitis due to HBV and HCV infection are major causes of chronic disease worldwide, and share some common routes of transmission, epidemiology, initial barriers faced in treatment access, and in strategies for a global public health response. Testing and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection is the gateway for access to both care and treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective HIV and hepatitis epidemic response. In this review article, we first summarize the common goals and guiding principles in a public health approach to HIV and hepatitis testing. We summarize the impressive global progress in HIV testing scale-up and evolution of approaches, with expansion of provider-initiated testing and counseling in clinical settings (particularly antenatal and tuberculosis clinics), the introduction of more community based testing services, and use of rapid diagnostic tests enabling provision of same-day test results. However, 46% of all people living with HIV are still unaware of their serostatus, and many continue to be diagnosed and start antiretroviral therapy late. As testing and treatment scale-up accelerates for an "treat all" approach, other challenges to address include how to better focus testing and reach those yet undiagnosed and most at risk, especially key populations, men, adolescents, and children. We summarize future directions in HIV testing to speed scale-up and close gaps that are addressed in the WHO 2015 consolidated HIV testing guidelines. In contrast to HIV, action in hepatitis testing and treatment has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. We summarize key challenges in the hepatitis testing response, including lack of simple, reliable, and low-cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to screen; stigmatization and social

  11. Testing of Action of Direct Flame on Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Valek, Jaroslav; Novosad, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The paper states results of experimental exposition of concrete test specimens to direct flame. Concrete test specimens made from various mixtures differing in the type of aggregate, binder, dispersed reinforcement, and technological procedure were subjected to thermal load. Physicomechanical and other properties of all test specimens were tested before exposition to open flame: density, compressive strength, flexural strength, moisture content, and surface appearance. The specimens were visually observed during exposition to open flame and changes were recorded. Exposed surface was photographically documented before thermal load and at 10-minute intervals. Development of temperature of the specimens was documented with a thermocamera. After exposition to thermal load and cooling down, concrete specimens were visually observed, network of cracks was photographically documented, and maximal depth of spalled area was measured. PMID:25830162

  12. Testing of a direct drive generator for wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Sondergaard, L.M.

    1996-12-31

    The normal drive train of a wind turbine consists a gearbox and a 4 to 8 poles asynchronous generator. The gearbox is an expensive and unreliable components and this paper deals with testing of a direct drive synchronous generator for a gearless wind turbine. The Danish company Belt Electric has constructed and manufactured a 27 kW prototype radial flux PM-generator (DD600). They have used cheap hard ferrite magnets in the rotor of this PM-generator. This generator has been tested at Riso and the test results are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The tests have been done with three different load types (1: resistance; 2: diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance; 3: AC-capacitor, diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance). 1 ref., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Direct contact test for estimating the ecotoxicity of aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Kováts, Nora; Acs, András; Kovács, Anikó; Ferincz, Arpád; Turóczi, Beatrix; Gelencsér, András

    2012-03-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is now identified as one of the most dangerous pollutants on human health by the EU new directive on air quality (2008/50/CE). Although these primary pollutants are monitored in cities, little information is available on their ecotoxicity. In this paper a 'whole-aerosol' testing protocol is suggested based on the kinetic version of the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test.

  14. Orbiter S-band direct link system verification test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermillion, B. K.

    1980-01-01

    Space-to-ground S-band communications system compatibility and performance tests were performed for the various radio frequency links. These tests consisted of the various uplink and downlink signal combinations (data rates) for the phase modulation system and both realtime and playback data rates for the frequency modulated downlink systems. In addition, tests involving encryption/decryption, Doppler, and acquisition were performed. Results show that the S-band transponder for the space shuttle orbiter is compatible with the S-band equipment of the AFSCF/RTS (Air Force Satellite Control Facility/Remote Tracking Station). It is also concluded that the performance of the orbiter-AFSCF/RTS direct link exceeds the required performance and that this communications link will meet the system requirements of the Space Transportation System.

  15. Test Report: Direct and Indirect Lightning Effects on Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    Lightning tests were performed on composite materials as a part of an investigation of electromagnetic effects on the materials. Samples were subjected to direct and remote simulated lightning strikes. Samples included various thicknesses of graphite filament reinforced plastic (GFRP), material enhanced by expanded aluminum foil layers, and material with an aluminum honeycomb core. Shielding properties of the material and damage to the sample surfaces and joints were investigated. Adding expanded aluminum foil layers and increasing the thickness of GFRP improves the shielding effectiveness against lightning induced fields and the ability to withstand lightning strikes. A report describing the lightning strike tests performed by the U.S. Army Redstone Technical Test Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL, STERT-TE-E-EM, is included as an appendix.

  16. Impact of a confirmatory RhD test on the correct serologic typing of blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Luciana Cayres; Castilho, Lilian; Vieira, Otavio Vinicius Neves; Sippert, Emília; Gaspardi, Ane Caroline; Martins, Marina Lobato; da Silva Malta, Maria Clara Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Background The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated. Methods One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique) were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples). Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis. Results The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1) presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43%) previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected. Conclusion The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks. PMID:26408363

  17. Interpretation of coagulation test results under direct oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Mani, H

    2014-06-01

    Diagnostic of global coagulation parameters is part of the daily clinical routine practice in conservative as well in operative disciplines. The correct interpretation of in vitro test results in context to the ex vivo influence of anticoagulant drugs and the in vivo hemostatic system of the individual patient is dependent on the doctors clinical and laboratory experience. This article shortly reviews the laboratory interference of oral anticoagulants including the target-specific inhibitors dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban on coagulation parameters and discusses the potential of several methods for measuring the anticoagulant effect of the direct oral anticoagulants.

  18. Slipstream testing of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Portzer, J.W.; Howe, G.B.; Chen, D.H.; McMillian, M.H.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this work is to continue further development of the zinc titanate fluidized-bed desulfurization (ZTFBD) and the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) technologies for hot gas cleanup in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generating systems. There are three main goals of this project: development of an integrated, skid-mounted, bench-scale ZTFBD/DSRP reactor system; testing the integrated system over an extended period with a slipstream of coal gas from an operating gasifier to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by the trace contaminants present in coal gas (including heavy metals, chlorides, fluorides, and ammonia); and design, fabrication, and commissioning of a larger, pilot-plant scale DSRP reactor system capable of operating on a six-fold volume of gas greater than the reactors used in the bench-scale field tests. The results so far on the first phase are limited to design and construction of the test apparatus. This report describes DSRP technology and equipment that will be used to test it.

  19. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-02-03

    Stored solutions containing plutonium and nitric acid and possibly uranium thorium and minor amounts of other substances will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those to stable storable PuO{sub 2} rich solids. Some of those solutions are quite dilute and very impure these require either pretreatment to make them suitable for calciner feed or an alternate stabilization method. Untreated scrap solutions containing some amounts of sulfate phosphate sodium and/or potassium may also be tested for suitability of direct denitration for conversion directly to PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium-rich solids. The calciner and some of its ancillary equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  20. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-02-03

    Stored solutions containing plutonium and nitric acid and possibly uranium thorium and minor amounts of other substances will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those to stable storable PuO{sub 2} rich solids. Some of those solutions are quite dilute and very impure these require either pretreatment to make them suitable for calciner feed or an alternate stabilization method. Untreated scrap solutions containing some amounts of sulfate phosphate sodium and/or potassium may also be tested for suitability of direct denitration for conversion directly to PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  1. Coatings for directional eutectics. [cyclic furnace oxidation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, M. R.; Rairden, J. R.; Hampton, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Coating compositions were evaluated for oxidation protection of directionally solidified composite alloy NiTaC-13. These coatings included three NiCrAlY compositions (30-5-1, 25-10-1 and 20-15-1), two FeCrAlY compositions (30-5-1 and 25-10-1), a CoCrAlY composition (25-10-1), and one duplex coating, Ni-35Cr + Al. Duplicate pin samples of each composition were evaluated using two cyclic furnace oxidation tests of 100 hours at 871 C and 500 hours at 1093 C. The two best coatings were Ni-20Cr-15Al-lY and Ni-35Cr + Al. The two preferred coatings were deposited on pins and were evaluated in detail in .05 Mach cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1093 C. The NiCrAlY coating was protective after 830 hours of cycling, while the duplex coating withstood 630 hours. Test bars were coated and cycled for up to 500 hours. Tensile tests indicated no effect of coatings on strength. In 871 C air stress rupture, a degradation was observed for coated relative to bare material. The cycled NiCrAlY coating offered excellent protection with properties superior to the bare cycled NiTaC-13 in 1093 C air stress rupture.

  2. Test of TDA's Direct Oxidation Process for Sulfur Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; Eugene Peeples; Sandra Huzyk; Randy Welch

    2005-01-01

    This project was a Phase III pilot plant test of TDA's gas sweetening process done under realistic conditions. TDA Research Inc successfully completed the test at Whiting Petroleum's Sable San Andreas Gas Plant. The feed was approximately 228,000 standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of gas that contained approximately 60 vol% CO{sub 2}, 20 vol% CH{sub 4} and 10 vol% C{sub 3}+ and higher hydrocarbons. The feed was associated gas from CO{sub 2} flooding operations carried out on Whiting's oil wells. The gas is collected and piped to the Sable gas plant where it is normally flared. We sited our pilot plant in line with the flare so that we could remove the hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) prior to flaring. The average H{sub 2}S concentration in the gas during the field test was 7341 ppm. The selectivity of our process for converting H{sub 2}S into elemental sulfur was essentially 100% and the catalyst converted 90% of the H{sub 2}S into sulfur and water (the remaining 10% of the H{sub 2}S passed through unconverted). Importantly, no catalyst deactivation was observed for over the course of the 1000+ hour test. Minimal (ca. 10-15 ppm) of SO{sub 2} was formed during the test. Approximately 3.6 tons of elemental sulfur was recovered from a total inlet of 3.9 tons of sulfur (as H{sub 2}S). The total amount of SO{sub 2} released from the plant (taking into account flaring of the unconverted 10% H2S) was 0.86 tons. This amount of SO{sub 2} is much lower than the normal 8 tons that would have been emitted if all of the H{sub 2}S were flared over the time of the pilot plant test. The pilot plant was simple to operate and required much less operator intervention than is typical for a new unit being commissioned. Our operator (Mr. Eugene Peeples) has more than 30 years of experience operating commercial scale liquid redox sulfur recovery processes and in his opinion, TDA's Direct Oxidation pilot plant is easier to operate than liquid systems. The ease of use and low capital and

  3. Direct reactions for nuclear structure required for fundamental symmetry tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, P. E.; Rand, E. T.; Diaz Varela, A.; Ball, G. C.; Bildstein, V.; Faestermann, T.; Hadinia, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Jamieson, D. S.; Jigmeddorj, B.; Leach, K. G.; Svensson, C. E.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2016-09-01

    A program of nuclear structure studies to support fundamental symmetry tests has been initiated. Motivated by the search for an electric dipole moment in 199Hg, the structure in the vicinity has been explored via direct reaction studies. To date, these have included the 198,200Hg(d, d') inelastic scattering reactions, with the aim to obtain information on the E2 and E3 strength distributions, and the 198Hg(d, p) and 200Hg(d, t) reactions to obtain information on the single-particle states in 199Hg. The studies using the 200Hg targets have been fully analyzed using the FRESCO reaction code yielding the E2 and E3 strength distribution to 4 MeV in excitation energy, and the (d, t) single- particle strength to over 3 MeV in excitation energy.

  4. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    COMPTON, J.A.

    1999-10-05

    A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  5. Test plan for radioactive testing of a vertical direct denitration calciner

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, F.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and come of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  6. Analysis of single ring infiltrometer test by direct numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réfloch, Aurore; Oxarango, Laurent; Rossier, Yvan; Gaudet, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    The well field of the Lyon metropolitan area provides drinking water to approximately 1,300,000 inhabitants. It is equipped with 12 infiltration basins. These basins have two main goals: sustaining the water table in times of peak demand for water, and preventing a possible contamination from the Rhône river by inverting groundwater flow direction. The water infiltration under the basins is thus crucial for the overall hydrogeologic behavior of the site. In order to characterize this phenomenon, a set of infiltrometer tests were performed to estimate the soil hydraulic properties. The soil is a coarse alluvial deposits. In order to deal with its sparse granulometric curve, a large single ring infiltrometer (1 meter in diameter) was used. A constant hydraulic head (=0.07 m) was imposed during the test. Two kinds of data are recorded: the amount of water infiltrated over time and the extension of the moisture stain around the ring. The main hydraulic properties are estimated using Richard's equation in a 2D axi-symmetric configuration. Simulations are performed using a finite element commercial software package (Comsol Multiphysics 5.1). According to simplified numerical models, an average homogeneous saturated permeability of the alluvial deposits is estimated at 5.0 10-6 m.s-1. However, such a simple model is not able to represent accurately the moisture stain at the soil surface. More complex models introduce anisotropy of permeability in the alluvium layer, with mono or bi-layer domain. In these cases, experimental and modeling results are consistent, both for the amount of water infiltrated over time and the extension of the moisture stain around the ring. The hydraulic anisotropy in the soil could be due to the stratified nature of alluvial deposits and to soil compaction during the construction of infiltration basins. Keywords: Single ring infiltrometer test, artificial aquifer recharge, numerical modeling.

  7. Test Directions as a Critical Component of Test Design: Best Practices and the Impact of Examinee Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of test directions is to familiarize examinees with a test so that they respond to items in the manner intended. However, changes in educational measurement as well as the U.S. student population present new challenges to test directions and increase the impact that differential familiarity could have on the validity of test score…

  8. 33 CFR 95.035 - Reasonable cause for directing a chemical test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.035 Reasonable cause for directing a chemical test. (a) Only a law enforcement officer... directed to undergo a test as soon as is practicable. (c) When practicable, a marine employer should base...

  9. 33 CFR 95.035 - Reasonable cause for directing a chemical test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.035 Reasonable cause for directing a chemical test. (a) Only a law enforcement officer... directed to undergo a test as soon as is practicable. (c) When practicable, a marine employer should base...

  10. FDA Approves 1st Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Risk Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... 164507.html FDA Approves 1st Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Risk Tests They screen for gene variants linked ... on Thursday approved the first direct-to-consumer genetic health risk tests. Known as the 23andMe Personal ...

  11. International Test Commission: Its History, Current Status, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Poortinga, Ype H.; Schlegel, Justin; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2001-01-01

    Traces the history of the International Test Commission (ITC), reviewing the context in which it was formed, its goals, and major milestones in its development. Suggests ways the ITC may continue to impact test development positively, and introduces this inaugural journal issue. (SLD)

  12. Direct Testing of Speaking Proficiency: Theory and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John L. D., Ed.

    The following papers are presented in the conference proceedings: (1) "Development and Current Use of the FSI Oral Interview Test," by H. Sollenberger; (2) "Interview Testing in Non-European Languages," by W. Lovelace; (3) "Measuring Second Language Speaking Ability in New Brunswick's Senior High Schools," by M.…

  13. Direct sunlight facility for testing and research in HCPV

    SciTech Connect

    Sciortino, Luisa Agnello, Simonpietro Bonsignore, Gaetano; Cannas, Marco; Gelardi, Franco Mario; Napoli, Gianluca; Spallino, Luisa; Barbera, Marco; Buscemi, Alessandro; Montagnino, Fabio Maria; Paredes, Filippo; Candia, Roberto; Collura, Alfonso; Di Cicca, Gaspare; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Varisco, Salvo

    2014-09-26

    A facility for testing different components for HCPV application has been developed in the framework of 'Fotovoltaico ad Alta Efficienza' (FAE) project funded by the Sicilian Regional Authority (PO FESR Sicilia 2007/2013 4.1.1.1). The testing facility is equipped with an heliostat providing a wide solar beam inside the lab, an optical bench for mounting and aligning the HCPV components, electronic equipments to characterize the I-V curves of multijunction cells operated up to 2000 suns, a system to circulate a fluid in the heat sink at controlled temperature and flow-rate, a data logging system with sensors to measure temperatures in several locations and fluid pressures at the inlet and outlet of the heat sink, and a climatic chamber with large test volume to test assembled HCPV modules.

  14. Direct sunlight facility for testing and research in HCPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciortino, Luisa; Agnello, Simonpietro; Barbera, Marco; Bonsignore, Gaetano; Buscemi, Alessandro; Candia, Roberto; Cannas, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Di Cicca, Gaspare; Gelardi, Franco Mario; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Montagnino, Fabio Maria; Napoli, Gianluca; Paredes, Filippo; Spallino, Luisa; Varisco, Salvo

    2014-09-01

    A facility for testing different components for HCPV application has been developed in the framework of "Fotovoltaico ad Alta Efficienza" (FAE) project funded by the Sicilian Regional Authority (PO FESR Sicilia 2007/2013 4.1.1.1). The testing facility is equipped with an heliostat providing a wide solar beam inside the lab, an optical bench for mounting and aligning the HCPV components, electronic equipments to characterize the I-V curves of multijunction cells operated up to 2000 suns, a system to circulate a fluid in the heat sink at controlled temperature and flow-rate, a data logging system with sensors to measure temperatures in several locations and fluid pressures at the inlet and outlet of the heat sink, and a climatic chamber with large test volume to test assembled HCPV modules.

  15. Test Report for the Direct Access Radar/National Airspace System (DARC/NAS) Bi-Directional Interface Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Report m. Robert V. DiMeo, et al. DOT/FAA/CT-TN89/ II 9. Performing Organisation Name and Addrtess 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) U.S. Department of...procedures in summary form, the test enviroment , and test administration, data collection, and analyses. - Results - Presents significant findings based...cases that did not pass, whi wre attributed to S4 timng problems. As stated earlier in the Test Enviroent section we expected that a small percntage of

  16. Direct laboratory tensile testing of select yielding rock bolt systems

    SciTech Connect

    VandeKraats, J.D.; Watson, S.O.

    1996-08-01

    Yielding rock bolt support systems have been developed to accommodate ground movement in shifting ground such as in coal operations; in creeping ground such as salt, trona, and potash; and in swelling ground associated with some clays. These systems, designed to remain intact despite ground movement, should enhance mine safety and help contain costs in areas where rebolting of rigid non-yielding systems is typically required. Four such systems were tested in straight tensile pulls in the laboratory. They include the Slip Nut System from Dywidag Systems International USA, Inc., Ischebeck`s bolt mounted Titan Load Indicator, Rocky Mountain Bolt Company`s Yielding Cable Bolt, and a rock bolt installed variation of the yielding steel post developed by RE/SPEC Inc. The first two systems are currently marketed products and the latter two are prototype systems. Each system responds to load and displacement by yielding in an unique manner. All are designed to yield at predetermined loads. A description of each system and its yield function is provided. Each system was tested over its prescribed yield range in a test machine. At least five tests were performed on each system. Each system yielded and continued to provide support according to its design. Each shows promise for ground control use in shifting or creeping rock. This work helps to illustrate the comparative differences in performance between these specialized systems and the applications where they may be most useful.

  17. Pulmonary physiology: future directions for lung function testing in COPD.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, Vito; Barisione, Giovanni; Crimi, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term that encompasses different pathological conditions having excessive airflow limitation in common. A wide body of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century explaining the mechanisms by which airway (chronic bronchitis) and parenchymal (emphysema) diseases lead to an indistinguishable spirometric abnormality. Although the definition of emphysema is anatomical, early studies showed that its presence can be inferred with good approximation from measurements of lung mechanics and gas exchange, in addition to simple spirometry. Studies using tests of ventilation distribution showed that abnormalities are present in smokers with normal spirometry, although these tests were not predictive of development of COPD. At the beginning of the third millennium, new documents and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of COPD were developed, in which the functional diagnosis of COPD was restricted, for the sake of simplicity, to simple spirometry. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in separating bronchitic from emphysematous phenotype of COPD. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography scanning has been added to diagnostic work-up. At the same time, methods for lung function testing have been refined and seem promising for detection of early small airways abnormalities. Among them are the forced oscillation technique and the nitrogen phase III slope analysis of the multiple-breath washout test, which may provide information on ventilation inhomogeneity. Moreover, the combined assessment of diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide may be more sensitive than the latter alone for partitioning diffusive components at parenchymal level.

  18. Results of Some Uplift Capacity Tests on Direct Embedment Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    should be expected to vary from those of the terrestrial tesis above. The analysis of direct embedment anchor-holding capacity is complicated by the...was conducted north of the Puerto Rico trench in 5,500 m (18,000 ft) in a pelagic clay or "red clay" deposit. Water contents in the upper 1.2 m (4 ft...north of Puerto Rico Trench. S6 - -~ ~-~d- 70. 60 20 60 j - 12 18 5 fluke 16 embedaent - 10 -0 340 6- -20 20,--6 4 - 10- ൟ 0g 30 2 3 4 5 6 7 4i Time

  19. The Bronchial Challenge Test: A New Direction in Asthmatic Management

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Calvin

    1983-01-01

    Bronchial asthma can be diagnosed when a patient develops the clinical manifestations of bronchial reactivity: wheezing, cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea. Occasionally, despite immunotherapy, bronchodilator therapy, and avoidance of the provocative factors, some asthmatic patients do not respond to treatment. Bronchial inhalation challenge, a method to test airway reactivity after inhalation of a nonspecific drug, can be used to plan and assess different modes of treatment, as well as screen for bronchial hyperreactivity in an occupational setting. PMID:6827612

  20. 33 CFR 95.035 - Reasonable cause for directing a chemical test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemical test. 95.035 Section 95.035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.035 Reasonable cause for directing a chemical test. (a) Only a law enforcement officer or a marine employer may direct an individual operating a vessel to undergo a chemical test...

  1. Comparing Direct versus Indirect Measures of the Pedagogical Effectiveness of Team Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Direct measures (tests) of the pedagogical effectiveness of team testing and indirect measures (student surveys) of pedagogical effectiveness of team testing were collected in several sections of an undergraduate marketing course with varying levels of the use of team testing. The results indicate that although students perceived team testing to…

  2. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and direct cefoxitin disk diffusion tests.

    PubMed

    Metwally, L; Gomaa, N; Hassan, R

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the utility of 2 methods for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) directly from signal-positive blood culture bottles: loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, and direct cefoxitin disk diffusion (DCDD) test using a 30 μg cefoxitin disk. In parallel, standard microbiological identification and oxacillin susceptibility testing with MecA PCR was performed. Of 60 blood cultures positive for Gram-positive cocci in clusters, LAMP (via detection of the FemA and MecA genes) showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for identification of MRSA/MSSA. When coagulase-negative staphylococci were tested, sensitivity for detection of methicillin resistance was 91.7% and specificity was 100%. DCDD along with direct tube coagulase assay detected only 80.6% of MRSA/MSSA. LAMP showed higher diagnostic accuracy although DCDD was more cost-effective and did not require additional reagents or supplies.

  3. Asymmetry of the Modified Illinois Change of Direction Test Impacts Young Elite Soccer Players’ Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rouissi, Mehdi; Chtara, Moktar; Berriri, Ahmed; Owen, Adam; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Background The modified Illinois change of direction test (MICODT) is an asymmetrical test because the numbers of changes of direction performed to the right and to the left are unequal. Therefore, it is possible that the asymmetry of this test may influence agility performance testing. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare two opposite/mirrored versions of the modified Illinois change of direction test. Patients and Methods Forty-six right-footed soccer players (17.2 ± 1.6 years-old) participated in the study. Players performed a modified Illinois change of direction test and a mirrored version of this test “inverted modified Illinois change of direction test” (I/MICODT) in a randomized and counter-balanced order. Paired t-test was used to determine whether significant differences existed between time performances of the tests as a within-subjects measure. Players were thereafter stratified into MICODT group or I/MICODT group according to their best performance and independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups. Results The analysis revealed no significant difference in time performance between the two versions of test as a within-subjects measure (P > 0.05, ES = 0.05). However, significant better time performances among inverted modified Illinois change of direction group (52% of players) were found when compared to the modified Illinois change of direction group (48% of players) (P < 0.04, ES = 0.66). Conclusions The modified Illinois change of direction test must be considered as an asymmetrical test because it underestimates more than half of the players’ agility performances. Therefore, fitness coaches should take these results into account when using this test. PMID:27625760

  4. Simplified Protocol for Carba NP Test for Enhanced Detection of Carbapenemase Producers Directly from Bacterial Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Pasteran, Fernando; Tijet, Nathalie; Melano, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    We compared carbapenemase detection among 266 Gram-negative bacilli (161 carbapenemase producers) using the Carba NP tests issued by the CLSI (CNPt-CLSI) and a novel protocol (CNPt-direct) designed for carbapenemase detection direct from bacterial cultures (instead of bacterial extracts required by the CLSI tests). The specificities were comparable (100%), but the CNPt-direct was more sensitive (98% versus 84%). The CNPt-direct was easier to perform due to the direct use of colonies and offered a more robust detection of carbapenemase producers. PMID:26424841

  5. Simplified Protocol for Carba NP Test for Enhanced Detection of Carbapenemase Producers Directly from Bacterial Cultures.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Tijet, Nathalie; Melano, Roberto G; Corso, Alejandra

    2015-12-01

    We compared carbapenemase detection among 266 Gram-negative bacilli (161 carbapenemase producers) using the Carba NP tests issued by the CLSI (CNPt-CLSI) and a novel protocol (CNPt-direct) designed for carbapenemase detection direct from bacterial cultures (instead of bacterial extracts required by the CLSI tests). The specificities were comparable (100%), but the CNPt-direct was more sensitive (98% versus 84%). The CNPt-direct was easier to perform due to the direct use of colonies and offered a more robust detection of carbapenemase producers.

  6. Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Change-of-Direction Speed for Field-Based Sports: the Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT).

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Schultz, Adrian B; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Berry, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    Field sport coaches must use reliable and valid tests to assess change-of-direction speed in their athletes. Few tests feature linear sprinting with acute change- of-direction maneuvers. The Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) was designed to assess field sport change-of-direction speed, and includes a linear 5-meter (m) sprint, 45° and 90° cuts, 3- m sprints to the left and right, and a linear 10-m sprint. This study analyzed the reliability and validity of this test, through comparisons to 20-m sprint (0-5, 0-10, 0-20 m intervals) and Illinois agility run (IAR) performance. Eighteen Australian footballers (age = 23.83 ± 7.04 yrs; height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m; mass = 85.36 ± 13.21 kg) were recruited. Following familiarization, subjects completed the 20-m sprint, CODAT, and IAR in 2 sessions, 48 hours apart. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) assessed relative reliability. Absolute reliability was analyzed through paired samples t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) determining between-session differences. Typical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV), and differences between the TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC), also assessed absolute reliability and test usefulness. For the validity analysis, Pearson's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) analyzed between-test relationships. Results showed no between-session differences for any test (p = 0.19-0.86). CODAT time averaged ~6 s, and the ICC and CV equaled 0.84 and 3.0%, respectively. The homogeneous sample of Australian footballers meant that the CODAT's TE (0.19 s) exceeded the usual 0.2 x standard deviation (SD) SWC (0.10 s). However, the CODAT is capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC calculated as 0.5 x SD = 0.25 s). There was a near perfect correlation between the CODAT and IAR (r = 0.92), and very large correlations with the 20-m sprint (r = 0.75-0.76), suggesting that the CODAT was a valid change-of-direction speed test. Due to movement specificity, the CODAT has value for field sport

  7. Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Change-of-Direction Speed for Field-Based Sports: the Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT)

    PubMed Central

    Lockie, Robert G.; Schultz, Adrian B.; Callaghan, Samuel J.; Jeffriess, Matthew D.; Berry, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    Field sport coaches must use reliable and valid tests to assess change-of-direction speed in their athletes. Few tests feature linear sprinting with acute change- of-direction maneuvers. The Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) was designed to assess field sport change-of-direction speed, and includes a linear 5-meter (m) sprint, 45° and 90° cuts, 3- m sprints to the left and right, and a linear 10-m sprint. This study analyzed the reliability and validity of this test, through comparisons to 20-m sprint (0-5, 0-10, 0-20 m intervals) and Illinois agility run (IAR) performance. Eighteen Australian footballers (age = 23.83 ± 7.04 yrs; height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m; mass = 85.36 ± 13.21 kg) were recruited. Following familiarization, subjects completed the 20-m sprint, CODAT, and IAR in 2 sessions, 48 hours apart. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) assessed relative reliability. Absolute reliability was analyzed through paired samples t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) determining between-session differences. Typical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV), and differences between the TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC), also assessed absolute reliability and test usefulness. For the validity analysis, Pearson’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05) analyzed between-test relationships. Results showed no between-session differences for any test (p = 0.19-0.86). CODAT time averaged ~6 s, and the ICC and CV equaled 0.84 and 3.0%, respectively. The homogeneous sample of Australian footballers meant that the CODAT’s TE (0.19 s) exceeded the usual 0.2 x standard deviation (SD) SWC (0.10 s). However, the CODAT is capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC calculated as 0.5 x SD = 0.25 s). There was a near perfect correlation between the CODAT and IAR (r = 0.92), and very large correlations with the 20-m sprint (r = 0.75-0.76), suggesting that the CODAT was a valid change-of-direction speed test. Due to movement specificity, the CODAT has value for field sport

  8. Utility of direct susceptibility testing on blood cultures: is it still worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Menon, Vidthiya; Lahanas, Sophie; Janto, Catherine; Lee, Andie

    2016-06-01

    Earlier targeted therapy for bacteraemia optimizes patient outcomes and reduces broad spectrum antibiotic use. Standardized susceptibility testing results are available at 36-48 h. Direct disc susceptibility testing from blood culture broth reduces time to results but the inoculum is not standardized. No studies have looked at the clinical utility of direct susceptibility results. This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the correlation between direct and formal testing methods as well as the clinical utility of direct susceptibility results. 160 episodes of bacteraemia with paired direct and formal susceptibility testing were studied. Direct disc testing was performed on blood culture broth. Formal testing was performed on isolates, using automated broth microdilution or Etests. The rate of error was 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.0-11.6 %). In 10 cases (6.3 %, 95 % CI 3.0-11.2 %), inappropriate antibiotics were used due to direct susceptibility results, including two cases with ineffective (as opposed to too broad) antibiotics being used. Antibiotics were changed in 28.1 % of cases once direct susceptibility data was available. There was a decreased time to effective antibiotics in 9.3 % (95 % CI 5.3-15.0 %), and a decreased time to a targeted antibiotics in 14.3 % (95 % CI 9.3-20.8 %) of cases. Despite the error rate, the advantages of earlier times to effective and targeted antibiotics justifies continuing direct testing in bacteraemia episodes with Gram-negative rods. In the Gram-positive group, given the contamination rate, the availability of adjunctive PCR, and the fact that early identification of the isolate could equally influence antibiotic choices, direct susceptibility testing may no longer be warranted.

  9. Psychological distress with direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a case report of an unexpected BRCA positive test result.

    PubMed

    Dohany, Lindsay; Gustafson, Shanna; Ducaine, Whitney; Zakalik, Dana

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of a client who discovered she had a BRCA mutation following direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing in the absence of genetic counseling. After testing she presented for genetic counseling with anxiety, distress, and a deficit of knowledge about what the DTC genetic testing revealed. Genetic counseling helped alleviate distress while empowering the client to apply the results of testing to improve medical management. Despite recent studies demonstrating no negative psychological impact of DTC genetic testing on the consumer, this case illustrates that significant psychological distress and confusion can occur as a result of DTC genetic testing for highly penetrant single gene disorders. Pre- and post-test genetic counseling in conjunction with DTC genetic testing may alleviate consumers' distress and empower clients to proactively utilize their result information.

  10. Testing for uniformity of ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) exhibit mainly an isotropic distribution with some small deviations in particular energy bins. In this paper, the Yakutsk array data are tested for circular uniformity of arrival directions in right ascension (RA) using two methods appropriate for the energy ranges below and above 1018 eV. No statistically significant deviation from uniformity is found in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) detected within the observation period 1974-2000.

  11. Test-Potentiated Learning: Distinguishing between Direct and Indirect Effects of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kathleen M.; McDermott, Kathleen B.

    2013-01-01

    The facilitative effect of retrieval practice, or testing, on the probability of later retrieval has been the focus of much recent empirical research. A lesser known benefit of retrieval practice is that it may also enhance the ability of a learner to benefit from a subsequent restudy opportunity. This facilitative effect of retrieval practice on…

  12. Reverberant Acoustic Testing and Direct Field Acoustic Testing Acoustic Standing Waves and their Impact on Structural Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    The aerospace industry has been using two methods of acoustic testing to qualify flight hardware: (1) Reverberant Acoustic Test (RAT), (2) Direct Field Acoustic Test (DFAT). The acoustic field obtained by RAT is generally understood and assumed to be diffuse, expect below Schroeder cut-of frequencies. DFAT method of testing has some distinct advantages over RAT, however the acoustic field characteristics can be strongly affected by test setup such as the speaker layouts, number and location of control microphones and control schemes. In this paper the following are discussed based on DEMO tests performed at APL and JPL: (1) Acoustic wave interference patterns and acoustic standing waves, (2) The structural responses in RAT and DFAT.

  13. Writing to the Rubric: Lingering Effects of Traditional Standardized Testing on Direct Writing Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Education remains heavily shackled by punitive, test-driven reform. Despite reasonable alternatives, testing increasingly drives educational accountability and reform. Standardization of direct writing assessments promotes scoring reliability and facilitates educational comparisons and rankings. However, standardized writing is not good writing,…

  14. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  15. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... amendments to DOE's test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment, and pool heaters... heating equipment test procedures as applied to vented hearth heaters, and coverage of electric...

  16. Direct Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Pyrazinamide by Use of the Bactec MGIT 960 System

    PubMed Central

    Demers, Anne-Marie; Venter, Amour; Friedrich, Sven O.; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; Mapamba, Daniel; Jugheli, Levan; Sasamalo, Mohammed; Almeida, Deepak; Dorasamy, Afton; Jentsch, Ute; Gibson, Mara; Everitt, Daniel; Diacon, Andreas H.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key antituberculosis drug, yet no rapid susceptibility test is commercially available. PZA drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed directly on sputum samples from 327 patients and compared with the indirect method by using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in the context of patient screening for participation in a drug trial. Compared to standard indirect PZA DST, direct DST was successful in only 59% of cases, but results obtained were highly accurate and available faster. Agreement between the direct and indirect methods varied from 90 to 100% in each laboratory. The median times for obtaining PZA results from the time when the specimen was collected ranged from 11 to 16 days for the direct test and 18 to 95 days for the indirect test across laboratories. The direct method is accurate and reproducible across laboratories. It can be expected to accelerate results in >50% of cases, but it cannot replace indirect DST for PZA. Phenotypic methods remain the gold standard for DST in drug trials. If future studies can optimize the method to decrease the number of uninterpretable results, direct MGIT DST could be the new phenotypic DST standard for clinical trials, providing more rapid detection of resistance to new drugs in experimental regimens. PMID:26912751

  17. Direct Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Pyrazinamide by Use of the Bactec MGIT 960 System.

    PubMed

    Demers, Anne-Marie; Venter, Amour; Friedrich, Sven O; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; Mapamba, Daniel; Jugheli, Levan; Sasamalo, Mohammed; Almeida, Deepak; Dorasamy, Afton; Jentsch, Ute; Gibson, Mara; Everitt, Daniel; Eisenach, Kathleen D; Diacon, Andreas H

    2016-05-01

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key antituberculosis drug, yet no rapid susceptibility test is commercially available. PZA drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed directly on sputum samples from 327 patients and compared with the indirect method by using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in the context of patient screening for participation in a drug trial. Compared to standard indirect PZA DST, direct DST was successful in only 59% of cases, but results obtained were highly accurate and available faster. Agreement between the direct and indirect methods varied from 90 to 100% in each laboratory. The median times for obtaining PZA results from the time when the specimen was collected ranged from 11 to 16 days for the direct test and 18 to 95 days for the indirect test across laboratories. The direct method is accurate and reproducible across laboratories. It can be expected to accelerate results in >50% of cases, but it cannot replace indirect DST for PZA. Phenotypic methods remain the gold standard for DST in drug trials. If future studies can optimize the method to decrease the number of uninterpretable results, direct MGIT DST could be the new phenotypic DST standard for clinical trials, providing more rapid detection of resistance to new drugs in experimental regimens.

  18. Reading between the lines: direct-to-consumer advertising of genetic testing in the USA.

    PubMed

    Hull, S C; Prasad, K

    2001-11-01

    This article critiques an advertisement in a theatre playbill by a bio-technology company for its commercial test for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic mutation, which may indicate a higher risk for breast and ovarian cancer. The advertisement targets a vulnerable audience attending a play about one woman's isolated and painful death from ovarian cancer. It promotes a product with incomplete and at times incorrect information, and it misguides women by suggesting that they contact the company directly about this test, rather than encouraging them to talk to their health care providers about genetic testing and their personal risk of breast cancer. In an era in which more genetic tests will be integrated into clinical practice, we can expect an increase in direct-to-consumer marketing for such tests. This advertisement is an example of what we need to be on guard against.

  19. Direct Emissivity Measurements of Painted Metals for Improved Temperature Estimation During Laser Damage Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    DIRECT EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENTS OF PAINTED METALS FOR IMPROVED TEMPERATURE ESTIMATION DURING LASER DAMAGE TESTING THESIS Sean M. Baumann, Civilian...radiance measurement, and fitted spectral radiance results, of one pixel on the back surface of a painted metal sample, far from laser burn-through hole...parabolic mirror NET noise-equivalent temperature xv DIRECT EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENTS OF PAINTED METALS FOR IMPROVED TEMPERATURE ESTIMATION DURING LASER DAMAGE

  20. Direct-field acoustic testing of a flight system : logistics, challenges, and results.

    SciTech Connect

    Stasiunas, Eric Carl; Gurule, David Joseph; Babuska, Vit; Skousen, Troy J.

    2010-10-01

    Before a spacecraft can be considered for launch, it must first survive environmental testing that simulates the launch environment. Typically, these simulations include vibration testing performed using an electro-dynamic shaker. For some spacecraft however, acoustic excitation may provide a more severe loading environment than base shaker excitation. Because this was the case for a Sandia Flight System, it was necessary to perform an acoustic test prior to launch in order to verify survival due to an acoustic environment. Typically, acoustic tests are performed in acoustic chambers, but because of scheduling, transportation, and cleanliness concerns, this was not possible. Instead, the test was performed as a direct field acoustic test (DFAT). This type of test consists of surrounding a test article with a wall of speakers and controlling the acoustic input using control microphones placed around the test item, with a closed-loop control system. Obtaining the desired acoustic input environment - proto-flight random noise input with an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 146.7 dB-with this technique presented a challenge due to several factors. An acoustic profile with this high OASPL had not knowingly been obtained using the DFAT technique prior to this test. In addition, the test was performed in a high-bay, where floor space and existing equipment constrained the speaker circle diameter. And finally, the Flight System had to be tested without contamination of the unit, which required a contamination bag enclosure of the test unit. This paper describes in detail the logistics, challenges, and results encountered while performing a high-OASPL, direct-field acoustic test on a contamination-sensitive Flight System in a high-bay environment.

  1. [Legislative management of the direct sale of genetic testing and the health care system of Quebec].

    PubMed

    Tassé, Anne Marie; Godard, Béatrice

    2007-01-01

    The increasing availability of direct to consumer genetic tests, particularly over the Internet, raises a number of difficult to answer legal questions for health care professionals. While lawmakers have enacted an exhaustive legislative scheme aimed at ensuring the efficiency and universality of publicly funded health care, genetic services sold outside the public system create have created a new challenge for the public system. An analysis of both Quebec and Federal legislation highlights the gaps in the current legal framework with regards to freely available genetic services. The varied impact of failing to address direct to consumer sales of genetic testing services is identified, including implications for consumer protection, control and regulation of testing, and their integration into the public health care system. According to this analysis, resolving these problems, in light of the need for consumer protection, and controlling the use of genetic tests is an essential first step towards the integration of genetic services into the public health care system.

  2. Preconceptional genetic carrier testing and the commercial offer directly-to-consumers

    PubMed Central

    Borry, Pascal; Henneman, Lidewij; Lakeman, Phillis; ten Kate, Leo P.; Cornel, Martina C.; Howard, Heidi C.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a number of commercial companies are offering preconceptional carrier tests directly-to-consumers. This offer raises a number of concerns and issues above and beyond those encountered with preconceptional tests offered within the traditional health care setting. In order to bring some of these issues to light and to initiate dialogue on this topic, this article discusses the following issues: the current offer of preconceptional carrier tests (until the end of 2010) through online commercial companies; the implications for the informed consent procedure and the need for good information; the need for medical supervision and follow-up; and the appropriate use of existing resources. The article concludes with some reflections about the potential sustainability of the offer of preconceptional carrier tests directly-to-consumers. PMID:21362685

  3. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in Slovenia: availability, ethical dilemmas and legislation

    PubMed Central

    Vrecar, Irena; Peterlin, Borut; Teran, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over the last few years, many private companies are advertising direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), mostly with no or only minor clinical utility and validity of tests and without genetic counselling. International professional community does not approve provision of DTC GT and situation in some EU countries has been analysed already. The aim of our study was to analyse current situation in the field of DTC GT in Slovenia and related legal and ethical issues. Materials and methods Information was retrieved through internet search, performed independently by two authors, structured according to individual private company and the types of offered genetic testing. Results Five private companies and three Health Insurance Companies offer DTC GT and it is provided without genetic counselling. Available tests include testing for breast cancer, tests with other health-related information (complex diseases, drug responses) and other tests (nutrigenetic, ancestry, paternity). National legislation is currently being developed and Council of Experts in Medical Genetics has issued an opinion about Genetic Testing and Commercialization of Genetic Tests in Slovenia. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia has signed the Additional protocol to the convention on human rights and biomedicine, concerning genetic testing for health purposes, DTC GT in Slovenia is present and against all international recommendations. There is lack of or no medical supervision, clinical validity and utility of tests and inappropriate genetic testing of minors is available. There is urgent need for regulation of ethical, legal, and social aspects. National legislation on DTC GT is being prepared. PMID:25672471

  4. Assessing the social impact of direct-to-consumer genetic testing: understanding sociotechnical architectures.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Shobita

    2010-09-01

    To properly understand the social impact of direct-to-consumer genetic testing, we must consider the "sociotechnical architectures" of these technologies--how developers design and assemble the human and technical components of individual testing systems to perform specific functions. In particular, the way testing systems perform their main functions--providing access to testing, analyzing genetic material, and conveying test results--influence the technology's utility and the distribution of expertise in the medical system. I illustrate this concept by comparing two systems that offer single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, a relatively new type of genetic testing. I conclude by exploring how policy officials and other decision makers might intervene in the development of sociotechnical architectures to maximize the benefits of genomic technologies.

  5. Test Results from a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Component level testing of power conversion units proposed for use in fission surface power systems has typically been done using relatively simple electric heaters for thermal input. These heaters do not adequately represent the geometry or response of proposed reactors. As testing of fission surface power systems transitions from the component level to the system level it becomes necessary to more accurately replicate these reactors using reactor simulators. The Direct Drive Gas-Brayton Power Conversion Unit test activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center integrates a reactor simulator with an existing Brayton test rig. The response of the reactor simulator to a change in Brayton shaft speed is shown as well as the response of the Brayton to an insertion of reactivity, corresponding to a drum reconfiguration. The lessons learned from these tests can be used to improve the design of future reactor simulators which can be used in system level fission surface power tests.

  6. Current landscape of direct-to-consumer genetic testing and its role in ophthalmology: a review.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Kearns, Lisa S; Wright, Philip; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W

    2015-08-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has seen the emergence of the direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic-testing market, which allows individuals to obtain information about their genetic profile and its many health and lifestyle implications. Genetics play an important role in the development of many eye diseases, however, little information is available describing the influence of the DTC industry in ophthalmology. In this review, we examined DTC companies providing genetic test products for eye disease. Of all eye conditions, the majority of DTC companies provided susceptibility testing or risk assessment for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). For the 15 companies noted to offer products, we found considerable variation in the cost, scope and clarity of informational content of DTC genetic testing for ophthalmic conditions. The clinical utility of these tests remains in question, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations against routine testing for many conditions probably still apply.

  7. Detecting deficits in change of direction performance using the preplanned multidirectional Australian football league agility test.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Spiteri, Tania; Lockie, Robert G; Nimphius, Sophia; Newton, Robert U

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Football League (AFL) agility test is a preplanned multidirectional circuit involving 5 directional changes of various magnitudes that might differently assess athletes of particular leg dominance. This study served to establish whether the AFL agility test appropriately examines athletes of differing limb dominance, while also quantifying performance deficits prevalent between limbs of Australian Footballers. Fifty-eight Australian Footballers were recruited from the Western Australian Football League (age = 21.9 ± 2.8 years; height = 183.7 ± 5.9 cm; weight = 86.4 ± 4.7 kg). Two circuits of the AFL agility test were set up in accordance with official specifications. The finish line of the second circuit was relocated to the opposite side to modify the starting direction. Footballers were randomized and counterbalanced between versions, performing 3 trials in each direction. Paired t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) were used to examine differences between dominant and nondominant trials. Independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) were used to identify differences between left and right leg dominant groups. The current version of the AFL agility test appropriately examined ∼61% of footballers in this cohort. The remaining ∼39% produced significantly faster times during the alternate version (0.63-0.82 seconds; p ≤ 0.001). All footballers demonstrated a performance deficit of 5-10% between limbs (∼0.72 seconds; p ≤ 0.001). Limb dominance (directional preference) was evident for all footballers. Change of direction capabilities should therefore be examined bilaterally to eliminate bias toward athletes with particular leg dominance profiles and to provide a limb deficit measure for enhanced athletic profiling outcomes.

  8. Public interest in predictive genetic testing, including direct-to-consumer testing, for susceptibility to major depression: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Alex; Meiser, Bettina; Mitchell, Philip B; Schofield, Peter R

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen rapid advances in the identification of associations between candidate genes and a range of common multifactorial disorders. This paper evaluates public attitudes towards the complexity of genetic risk prediction in psychiatry involving susceptibility genes, uncertain penetrance and gene-environment interactions on which successful molecular-based mental health interventions will depend. A qualitative approach was taken to enable the exploration of the views of the public. Four structured focus groups were conducted with a total of 36 participants. The majority of participants indicated interest in having a genetic test for susceptibility to major depression, if it was available. Having a family history of mental illness was cited as a major reason. After discussion of perceived positive and negative implications of predictive genetic testing, nine of 24 participants initially interested in having such a test changed their mind. Fear of genetic discrimination and privacy issues predominantly influenced change of attitude. All participants still interested in having a predictive genetic test for risk for depression reported they would only do so through trusted medical professionals. Participants were unanimously against direct-to-consumer genetic testing marketed through the Internet, although some would consider it if there was suitable protection against discrimination. The study highlights the importance of general practitioner and public education about psychiatric genetics, and the availability of appropriate treatment and support services prior to implementation of future predictive genetic testing services.

  9. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3390 - Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...

  14. Modification of Irrational Ideas and Test Anxiety through Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, Gerard E.; Tosi, Donald J.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of four treatment conditions on the modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety in female nursing students (N=48). The Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy (RSDH) treatment group was significantly more effective than the hypnosis only group. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects. (Author/JAC)

  15. The Effect of Formative Testing and Self-Directed Learning on Mathematics Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumantri, Mohamad Syarif; Satriani, Retni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of formative testing and self-directed learning on mathematics learning outcomes. The research was conducted at an elementary school in central Jakarta during the 2014/2015 school year. Seventy-two fourth-grade students who were selected using random sampling participated in this study. Data…

  16. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  20. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), American Gas Association (AGA), Air-Conditioning, Heating, and... Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters...

  1. Replication of Non-Trivial Directional Motion in Multi-Scales Observed by the Runs Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yura, Yoshihiro; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Yamada, Kenta; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    Non-trivial autocorrelation in up-down statistics in financial market price fluctuation is revealed by a multi-scale runs test(Wald-Wolfowitz test). We apply two models, a stochastic price model and dealer model to understand this property. In both approaches we successfully reproduce the non-stationary directional price motions consistent with the runs test by tuning parameters in the models. We find that two types of dealers exist in the markets, a short-time-scale trend-follower and an extended-time-scale contrarian who are active in different time periods.

  2. Detection of IgG sensitization of red cells with /sup 125/I staphylococcal protein A

    SciTech Connect

    Yam, P.; Petz, L.D.; Spath, P.

    1982-06-01

    Most cases of immune hemolytic anemia are associated with a positive direct antiglobulin test. However, in some cases, the antiglobulin test is not sensitive enough to detect low levels of red-cell bound antibodies. This report describes a method using radiolabelled purified staphylococcal protein A which is capable of detecting IgG sensitization of red cells beyond the threshold of serologic techniques. It is less cumbersome than previously described methods and does not require antibody purification procedures. Its effectiveness was demonstrated for the detection of red-cell alloantibodies and in evaluation of patients with acquired hemolytic anemias associated with a negative direct antiglobulin test.

  3. Case Report: Direct Access Genetic Testing and A False-Positive Result For Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Predham, Sarah; Hamilton, Sara; Elliott, Alison M; T Gibson, William

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a woman who pursued direct access genetic testing and then presented with concerns regarding a positive test result for Long-QT syndrome. Although the result ultimately proved to be a false positive, this case illustrates that costs associated with follow-up of direct access genetic testing results can be non-trivial for both the patient and for health care systems. Here we raise policy questions regarding the appropriate distribution of these costs. We also discuss the possibility that, when confronted by a direct access genetic test result that reports high risk for one or more actionable diseases, a family physician might feel compelled to act out of a desire to avoid liability, even when information regarding the accuracy and validity of the testing were not easily accessible. This case outlines lessons that can easily be translated into clinical practice, not only by genetic counselors, but also by family physicians, medical specialists and members of the public.

  4. Evaluating online direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests: informed choices or buyers beware?

    PubMed

    Geransar, Rose; Einsiedel, Edna

    2008-03-01

    Commercialization of genetic technologies is expanding the horizons for the marketing and sales of genetic tests direct-to-consumers (DTCs). This study assesses the information provision and access requirements that are in place for genetic tests that are being advertised DTC over the Internet. Sets of key words specific to DTC genetic testing were entered into popular Internet search engines to generate a list of 24 companies engaging in DTC advertising. Company requirements for physician mediation, genetic counseling arrangements, and information provision were coded to develop categories for quantitative analysis within each variable. Results showed that companies offering risk assessment and diagnostic testing were most likely to require that testing be mediated by a clinician, and to recommend physician-arranged counseling. Companies offering enhancement testing were less likely to require physician mediation of services and more likely to provide long-distance genetic counseling. DTC advertisements often provided information on disease etiology; this was most common in the case of multifactorial diseases. The majority of companies cited outside sources to support the validity of claims about clinical utility of the tests being advertised; companies offering risk assessment tests most frequently cited all information sources. DTC advertising for genetic tests that lack independent professional oversight raises troubling questions about appropriate use and interpretation of these tests by consumers and carries implications for the standards of patient care. These implications are discussed in the context of a public healthcare system.

  5. [Direct-to-consumer genetic testing through Internet: marketing, ethical and social issues].

    PubMed

    Ducournau, Pascal; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Bulle, Alexandre; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We probably did not anticipate all the consequences of the direct to consumer genetic tests on Internet, resulting from the combined skills of communication and genomic advances. What are the commercial strategies used by the companies offering direct-to-consumer genetic tests on Internet and what are the different social expectations on which they focus? Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the web sites offering such tests, it seems that these companies target a triple market based on: the "healthism" which raises health and hygiene to the top of the social values; the contemporary demands of the users to become actual actors of health decisions; and finally on the need for bio-social relationships. These three commercial strategies underlie various ethical and societal issues justifying a general analysis.

  6. False recognition of objects in visual scenes: findings from a combined direct and indirect memory test.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; Nash, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    We report an extension of the procedure devised by Weinstein and Shanks (Memory & Cognition 36:1415-1428, 2008) to study false recognition and priming of pictures. Participants viewed scenes with multiple embedded objects (seen items), then studied the names of these objects and the names of other objects (read items). Finally, participants completed a combined direct (recognition) and indirect (identification) memory test that included seen items, read items, and new items. In the direct test, participants recognized pictures of seen and read items more often than new pictures. In the indirect test, participants' speed at identifying those same pictures was improved for pictures that they had actually studied, and also for falsely recognized pictures whose names they had read. These data provide new evidence that a false-memory induction procedure can elicit memory-like representations that are difficult to distinguish from "true" memories of studied pictures.

  7. Testing reciprocity in social interactions: a comparison between the directional consistency and skew-symmetry statistics.

    PubMed

    Leiva, David; Solanas, Antonio; Salafranca, Lluís

    2008-05-01

    In the present article, we focus on two indices that quantify directionality and skew-symmetrical patterns in social interactions as measures of social reciprocity: the directional consistency (DC) and skew-symmetry indices. Although both indices enable researchers to describe social groups, most studies require statistical inferential tests. The main aims of the present study are first, to propose an overall statistical technique for testing null hypotheses regarding social reciprocity in behavioral studies, using the DC and skew-symmetry statistics (Phi) at group level; and second, to compare both statistics in order to allow researchers to choose the optimal measure depending on the conditions. In order to allow researchers to make statistical decisions, statistical significance for both statistics has been estimated by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, this study will enable researchers to choose the optimal observational conditions for carrying out their research, since the power of the statistical tests has been estimated.

  8. Direct antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the radiometric method

    SciTech Connect

    Libonati, J.P.; Stager, C.E.; Davis, J.R.; Siddiqi, S.H.

    1988-05-01

    Direct-drug-susceptibility tests were performed on clinical specimens positive for acid-fast bacilli by either Ziehl-Neelsen or fluorochrome staining. The results of conventional agar dilution and a modified radiometric (BACTEC) method were compared. A total of 580 smear-positive specimens were tested by the BACTEC method at three separate sites. Three hundred and seventy-seven of these were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, and 343 (91%) yielded acceptable direct-susceptibility-test results. We used the conventional method to determine that 343 of 519 smear-positive specimens were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, and 212 (62%) produced acceptable results within 3 wks. Conventional results were reported in 3-4 wks, while the time required to obtain results with the BACTEC method ranged from 5 to 21 days (average 11.5 days). Results indicate that the radiometric method provides reportable results more frequently with time savings as compared to the conventional method.

  9. Evaluation of cytotoxic effects of six self-etching adhesives with direct and indirect contact tests.

    PubMed

    Kusdemir, Mahmut; Gunal, Solen; Ozer, Fusun; Imazato, Satoshi; Izutani, Naomi; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Blatz, Markus B

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of self-etching primers/adhesives by direct contact and dentin barrier tests. The three two-step self-etching systems Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), Prime&Bond NT/NRC (PB) and one-step self-etching systems Reactmer Bond (RB), Clearfil Tri-S Bond (CTS), and Adper Prompt L-Pop (AP) were examined. In direct contact tests, L929 cells were cultured in the presence of diluted solutions (50, 20, 10, and 1%) of primer/conditioner of adhesive systems. For dentin barrier tests, each system was applied onto 0.5 or 1.5 mm thick human dentin assembled in a simple pulp chamber device and incubated for 24 h at 37°C to make the diffusive components contact the L929 cells placed at the bottom of the chamber. The cytotoxic effects were assessed by MTT assay. Cell culture without application of any primers/adhesives served as the control for both tests. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analyses. The direct contact tests demonstrated that CSE and CPB were less toxic than the other materials at all dilutions. In the dentin barrier tests, toxic effects of materials were reduced with an increase in thickness of intervening dentin. CSE and CPB showed less cytotoxicity than the other adhesives (p<0.05) when applied to 0.5 mm-thick dentin, and CSE was the least toxic in the 1.5 mm-dentin group (p<0.05). Dentin thickness positively affected biocompatibility of the tested bonding systems. Two-step self-etching systems with HEMA-based primers were more biocompatible than other self-etching adhesives.

  10. Test Results From a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2009-01-01

    The Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) located at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a closed cycle system incorporating a turboaltemator, recuperator, and gas cooler connected by gas ducts to an external gas heater. For this series of tests, the BPCU was modified by replacing the gas heater with the Direct Drive Gas heater or DOG. The DOG uses electric resistance heaters to simulate a fast spectrum nuclear reactor similar to those proposed for space power applications. The combined system thermal transient behavior was the focus of these tests. The BPCU was operated at various steady state points. At each point it was subjected to transient changes involving shaft rotational speed or DOG electrical input. This paper outlines the changes made to the test unit and describes the testing that took place along with the test results.

  11. Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

  12. Legislation on direct-to-consumer genetic testing in seven European countries

    PubMed Central

    Borry, Pascal; van Hellemondt, Rachel E; Sprumont, Dominique; Jales, Camilla Fittipaldi Duarte; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Spranger, Tade Matthias; Curren, Liam; Kaye, Jane; Nys, Herman; Howard, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of private companies are now offering direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing services. Although a lot of attention has been devoted to the regulatory framework of DTC genetic testing services in the USA, only limited information about the regulatory framework in Europe is available. We will report on the situation with regard to the national legislation on DTC genetic testing in seven European countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Portugal, France, Germany, the United Kingdom). The paper will address whether these countries have legislation that specifically address the issue of DTC genetic testing or have relevant laws that is pertinent to the regulatory control of these services in their countries. The findings show that France, Germany, Portugal and Switzerland have specific legislation that defines that genetic tests can only be carried out by a medical doctor after the provision of sufficient information concerning the nature, meaning and consequences of the genetic test and after the consent of the person concerned. In the Netherlands, some DTC genetic tests could fall under legislation that provides the Minister the right to refuse to provide a license to operate if a test is scientifically unsound, not in accordance with the professional medical practice standards or if the expected benefit is not in balance with the (potential) health risks. Belgium and the United Kingdom allow the provision of DTC genetic tests. PMID:22274578

  13. Legislation on direct-to-consumer genetic testing in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Borry, Pascal; van Hellemondt, Rachel E; Sprumont, Dominique; Jales, Camilla Fittipaldi Duarte; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Spranger, Tade Matthias; Curren, Liam; Kaye, Jane; Nys, Herman; Howard, Heidi

    2012-07-01

    An increasing number of private companies are now offering direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing services. Although a lot of attention has been devoted to the regulatory framework of DTC genetic testing services in the USA, only limited information about the regulatory framework in Europe is available. We will report on the situation with regard to the national legislation on DTC genetic testing in seven European countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Portugal, France, Germany, the United Kingdom). The paper will address whether these countries have legislation that specifically address the issue of DTC genetic testing or have relevant laws that is pertinent to the regulatory control of these services in their countries. The findings show that France, Germany, Portugal and Switzerland have specific legislation that defines that genetic tests can only be carried out by a medical doctor after the provision of sufficient information concerning the nature, meaning and consequences of the genetic test and after the consent of the person concerned. In the Netherlands, some DTC genetic tests could fall under legislation that provides the Minister the right to refuse to provide a license to operate if a test is scientifically unsound, not in accordance with the professional medical practice standards or if the expected benefit is not in balance with the (potential) health risks. Belgium and the United Kingdom allow the provision of DTC genetic tests.

  14. [Direct oral anticoagulants: what is the exact assessment of coagulation tests and plasma levels by laboratory tests in clinical practice?].

    PubMed

    Gendron, Nicolas; Smadja, David M

    2016-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DAO), anti-IIa or anti-Xa, are intended to be widely used for the treatment and prevention of thrombotic disorders in venous thromboembolic disease and atrial fibrillation as an alternative of vitamin K antagonists (VKA). Despite predictable pharmacological properties, spontaneous or provoked hemorrhagic risks by DAO are major limitations. Thus, after few years of inconsistence concerning biological implication and in particular coagulation tests, it is now established that we need biology to evaluate hemorrhagic risk before surgery or in hemorrhagic cases.

  15. Perceptions of genetic counseling services in direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing.

    PubMed

    Darst, B F; Madlensky, L; Schork, N J; Topol, E J; Bloss, C S

    2013-10-01

    To describe consumers' perceptions of genetic counseling services in the context of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing is the purpose of this research. Utilizing data from the Scripps Genomic Health Initiative, we assessed direct-to-consumer genomic test consumers' utilization and perceptions of genetic counseling services. At long-term follow-up, approximately 14 months post-testing, participants were asked to respond to several items gauging their interactions, if any, with a Navigenics genetic counselor, and their perceptions of those interactions. Out of 1325 individuals who completed long-term follow-up, 187 (14.1%) indicated that they had spoken with a genetic counselor. The most commonly given reason for not utilizing the counseling service was a lack of need due to the perception of already understanding one's results (55.6%). The most common reasons for utilizing the service included wanting to take advantage of a free service (43.9%) and wanting more information on risk calculations (42.2%). Among those who utilized the service, a large fraction reported that counseling improved their understanding of their results (54.5%) and genetics in general (43.9%). A relatively small proportion of participants utilized genetic counseling after direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing. Among those individuals who did utilize the service, however, a large fraction perceived it to be informative, and thus presumably beneficial.

  16. A test for children's goal-directed behavior: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Juhani E

    2004-02-01

    A test for children's goal-directed behavior was developed, based on neuropsychological executive function research of Vilkki and Holst and on the framework of Lewin's level-of-aspiration research. 46 12-yr.-old children were participants. Fluid Intelligence was expected to be linked to goal-directed behavior and a commonly used executive function task, the Wisconsin Card-sorting Test. A child was asked to set personal goals in a short-term memory task without prior knowledge about performance. Four different task versions were developed employing both verbal (memorizing series of words) and visuospatial (memorizing block sequences) material. The child set an individual goal for each memory trial. Goal-setting after successful and failed trials was investigated. Usually, the children lowered their goals after failures and set their goals higher or did not change them after successful trials. Compared to goal on a previous trial, Inadequate Responses included setting a goal higher after a failed trial and setting it lower after success. Fluid Intelligence was related to goal-directed behavior, viz., Inadequate Responses. It also correlated with scores on the Wisconsin Card-sorting Test. The results are in concordance with previous research. In addition to experimental executive function research, the novel test might be useful in research concerning children's motivation, self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning.

  17. Direct Release of Test Results to Patients Increases Patient Engagement and Utilization of Care.

    PubMed

    Pillemer, Francesca; Price, Rebecca Anhang; Paone, Suzanne; Martich, G Daniel; Albert, Steve; Haidari, Leila; Updike, Glenn; Rudin, Robert; Liu, Darren; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2016-01-01

    An important focus for meaningful use criteria is to engage patients in their care by allowing them online access to their health information, including test results. There has been little evaluation of such initiatives. Using a mixed methods analysis of electronic health record data, surveys, and qualitative interviews, we examined the impact of allowing patients to view their test results via patient portal in one large health system. Quantitative data were collected for new users and all users of the patient portal. Qualitative interviews occurred with patients who had received an HbA1c or abnormal Pap result. Survey participants were active patient portal users. Our main measures were patient portal usage, factors associated with viewing test results and utilizing care, and patient and provider experiences with patient portal and direct release. Usage data show 80% of all patient portal users viewed test results during the year. Of survey respondents, 82.7% noted test results to be a very useful feature and 70% agreed that patient portal has made their provider more accessible to them. Interviewed patients reported feeling they should have direct access to test results and identified the ability to monitor results over time and prepare prior to communicating with a provider as benefits. In interviews, both patients and physicians reported instances of test results leading to unnecessary patient anxiety. Both groups noted the benefits of results released with provider interpretation. Quantitative data showed patient utilization to increase with viewing test results online, but this effect is mitigated when results are manually released by physicians. Our findings demonstrate that patient portal access to test results was highly valued by patients and appeared to increase patient engagement. However, it may lead to patient anxiety and increase rates of patient visits. We discuss how such unintended consequences can be addressed and larger implications for

  18. Direct Release of Test Results to Patients Increases Patient Engagement and Utilization of Care

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Francesca; Price, Rebecca Anhang; Paone, Suzanne; Martich, G. Daniel; Albert, Steve; Haidari, Leila; Updike, Glenn; Rudin, Robert; Liu, Darren; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2016-01-01

    An important focus for meaningful use criteria is to engage patients in their care by allowing them online access to their health information, including test results. There has been little evaluation of such initiatives. Using a mixed methods analysis of electronic health record data, surveys, and qualitative interviews, we examined the impact of allowing patients to view their test results via patient portal in one large health system. Quantitative data were collected for new users and all users of the patient portal. Qualitative interviews occurred with patients who had received an HbA1c or abnormal Pap result. Survey participants were active patient portal users. Our main measures were patient portal usage, factors associated with viewing test results and utilizing care, and patient and provider experiences with patient portal and direct release. Usage data show 80% of all patient portal users viewed test results during the year. Of survey respondents, 82.7% noted test results to be a very useful feature and 70% agreed that patient portal has made their provider more accessible to them. Interviewed patients reported feeling they should have direct access to test results and identified the ability to monitor results over time and prepare prior to communicating with a provider as benefits. In interviews, both patients and physicians reported instances of test results leading to unnecessary patient anxiety. Both groups noted the benefits of results released with provider interpretation. Quantitative data showed patient utilization to increase with viewing test results online, but this effect is mitigated when results are manually released by physicians. Our findings demonstrate that patient portal access to test results was highly valued by patients and appeared to increase patient engagement. However, it may lead to patient anxiety and increase rates of patient visits. We discuss how such unintended consequences can be addressed and larger implications for

  19. Evaluation of direct-to-consumer low-volume lab tests in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Brian A.; Hoffman, Gabriel; Zimmerman, Noah; Li, Li; Morgan, Joseph W.; Glowe, Patricia K.; Botwin, Gregory J.; Parekh, Samir; Babic, Nikolina; Doust, Matthew W.; Stock, Gregory B.; Schadt, Eric E.; Dudley, Joel T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Clinical laboratory tests are now being prescribed and made directly available to consumers through retail outlets in the USA. Concerns with these test have been raised regarding the uncertainty of testing methods used in these venues and a lack of open, scientific validation of the technical accuracy and clinical equivalency of results obtained through these services. METHODS. We conducted a cohort study of 60 healthy adults to compare the uncertainty and accuracy in 22 common clinical lab tests between one company offering blood tests obtained from finger prick (Theranos) and 2 major clinical testing services that require standard venipuncture draws (Quest and LabCorp). Samples were collected in Phoenix, Arizona, at an ambulatory clinic and at retail outlets with point-of-care services. RESULTS. Theranos flagged tests outside their normal range 1.6× more often than other testing services (P < 0.0001). Of the 22 lab measurements evaluated, 15 (68%) showed significant interservice variability (P < 0.002). We found nonequivalent lipid panel test results between Theranos and other clinical services. Variability in testing services, sample collection times, and subjects markedly influenced lab results. CONCLUSION. While laboratory practice standards exist to control this variability, the disparities between testing services we observed could potentially alter clinical interpretation and health care utilization. Greater transparency and evaluation of testing technologies would increase their utility in personalized health management. FUNDING. This work was supported by the Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, a gift from the Harris Family Charitable Foundation (to J.T. Dudley), and grants from the NIH (R01 DK098242 and U54 CA189201, to J.T. Dudley, and R01 AG046170 and U01 AI111598, to E.E. Schadt). PMID:27018593

  20. Socioeconomic influences on the effects of a genetic testing direct-to-consumer marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Bowen, D J; Harris, J; Jorgensen, C M; Myers, M F; Kuniyuki, A

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests is beginning to appear in select markets, and little independent evaluation has been conducted on the effects of this marketing on consumer attitudes or behavior. The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of socioeconomic status on women's reactions to such a campaign, including knowledge of the test, perceptions of personal risk, communications with others about the test, and interest in pursuing the test. The only United States provider of genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility (BRCA1/2 testing) conducted a pilot marketing campaign that targeted women aged 25-54 and their health care providers in 2 cities, Atlanta, Ga., and Denver, Colo. The design for the evaluation was a post campaign consumer survey, based on a cross-sectional stratified random sample of women in the 2 intervention sites and 2 comparison sites. The campaign had no differential impact by socioeconomic status. However, there was a consistent relationship between socioeconomic status and several outcome variables, including knowledge of the test, beliefs about the test, and desire to know about genetic risk. These data indicate that socioeconomic status may play a role in uptake of genetic services, regardless of response to a media campaign.

  1. Limitations of direct-to-consumer advertising for clinical genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Gollust, Sarah E; Hull, Sara Chandros; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2002-10-09

    Although direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertisements for pharmaceuticals have been appearing in the mass media for 20 years, DTC advertisements for genetic testing have only recently appeared. Advertisements for genetic testing can provide both consumers and physicians with information about test availability in an expanding market. However, 3 factors limit the value and appropriateness of advertisements: complex information, a complicated social context surrounding genetics, and a lack of consensus about the clinical utility of some tests. Consideration of several advertisements suggests that they overstate the value of genetic testing for consumers' clinical care. Furthermore, advertisements may provide misinformation about genetics, exaggerate consumers' risks, endorse a deterministic relationship between genes and disease, and reinforce associations between diseases and ethnic groups. Advertising motivated by factors other than evidence of the clinical value of genetic tests can manipulate consumers' behavior by exploiting their fears and worries. At this time, DTC advertisements are inappropriate, given the public's limited sophistication regarding genetics and the lack of comprehensive premarket review of tests or oversight of advertisement content. Existing Federal Trade Commission and Food and Drug Administration regulations for other types of health-related advertising should be applied to advertisements for genetic tests.

  2. Detonation product equation-of-state directly from the cylinder test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.

    1997-10-01

    A quasi-analytic method is presented for obtaining the detonation-product expansion isentrope directly from cylinder test data. The idea actually dates to G.I. Taylor`s invention of the cylinder test--though he did not implement it for lack of data--but has received little attention since. The method uses the fact that the pressure may be determined from the measured wall trajectory, whereupon the associated specific volume follows from the equations of continuity and momentum. Using the HMX-based explosive PBX9501 as an example, the method makes a good prediction of the detonation pressure and the basic form of {gamma}, the isentropic exponent. However, the model isentrope is slightly low in the mid-range, perhaps because the standard cylinder test is not optimal for this analysis. A better-suited design is proposed, and a simple ad-hoc correction is offered that reconciles the standard test.

  3. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: perceptions, problems, and policy responses.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy; McGuire, Amy L

    2012-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing has attracted a great amount of attention from policy makers, the scientific community, professional groups, and the media. Although it is unclear what the public demand is for these services, there does appear to be public interest in personal genetic risk information. As a result, many commentators have raised a variety of social, ethical, and regulatory issues associated with this emerging industry, including privacy issues, ensuring that DTC companies provide accurate information about the risks and limitations of their services, the possible adverse impact of DTC genetic testing on healthcare systems, and concern about how individuals may interpret and react to genetic risk information.

  4. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: Perspectives on its value in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Delaney, S K; Christman, M F

    2016-02-01

    The direct-to-consumer genetic testing debate reached a fever pitch in November 2013 when the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) instructed 23andMe to discontinue marketing and sale of their Personal Genome Service. In 2015, 23andMe emerged with FDA approval to market a carrier test for Bloom syndrome only, and plans to release additional reports. The dust has settled and it is time to ask: What have we learned, and where do we go from here?

  5. Test of spectral emission and absorption characteristics of active optical fibers by direct side pumping.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Luo, Yanhua; Sathi, Zinat M; Azadpeyma, Nilram; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2012-08-27

    Emission and absorption are two main properties of active optical fibers that are important for fiber amplifiers and lasers. We propose a direct side pumping scheme for non-deconstructive evaluation of active optical fibers. This scheme enables a simple in situ test of both emission and absorption characteristics without cutting fiber and produces good accuracy with very low pumping background. A commercial Er-doped fiber and a home-made Bi/Er co-doped optical fiber have been tested to demonstrate that the scheme is a useful alternative technique for characterizing active optical fiber or waveguides.

  6. Identification of Friction Parameters from the Inverse Analysis of a Direct Extrusion Test

    SciTech Connect

    Adinel, Gavrus; Thien, Pham Duc; Henri, Francillette

    2011-01-17

    This work proposes to use a special upsetting test and an optimal direct extrusion one performed to identify the constitutive equation of the material behavior and the friction coefficients directly from the load-stroke curves. The proposed friction test has the advantage to permit to take into account contact phenomena corresponding to new specimen surfaces created during a real bulk cold forming process. A lot of numerical simulations are made with the commercial software FORGE2 in order to study the influence of some design and process parameters. Different friction laws will be identified starting from the classical Coulomb and Tresca ones. All the parameter identifications are made using the Inverse Analysis principle.

  7. Development and flight tests of a gyro-less wing leveler and directional autopilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D.; Poole, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    A gyro-less wing leveler and directional autopilot were developed and flight tested in a single-engine light airplane. The primary purpose of the project was to develop a simple, reliable, low-cost stability augmentation and autopilot system for light aircraft. The wing leveler used a fluidic inertial rate sensor, electronic signal processing circuitry, and vacuum operated servos. A strap-down magnetic heading reference of simple design provided the wing leveler with directional autopilot capability. Flight tests indicated that the performance of the gyro-less wing leveler was equal to that of a commercial wing leveler using a gyroscopic rate sensor. Drift-free, long-term, heading-hold capability of the magnetic heading reference was demonstrated.

  8. Test of the CLAS12 RICH large-scale prototype in the direct proximity focusing configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Anefalos Pereira, S.; Baltzell, N.; Barion, L.; Benmokhtar, F.; Brooks, W.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; El Alaoui, A.; Hafidi, K.; Hoek, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lagamba, L.; Lucherini, V.; Malaguti, R.; Mirazita, M.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Musico, P.; Orlandi, A.; Orecchini, D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perrino, R.; Phillips, J.; Pisano, S.; Rossi, P.; Squerzanti, S.; Tomassini, S.; Turisini, M.; Viticchiè, A.

    2016-02-11

    A large-area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identi- fication capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c up to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiment at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Laboratory. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and highly packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large-angle tracks). We report here the results of the tests of a large-scale prototype of the RICH detector performed with the hadron beam of the CERN T9 experimental hall for the direct detection configuration. The tests demonstrated that the proposed design provides the required pion-to-kaon rejection factor of 1 : 500 in the whole momentum range.

  9. Test of the CLAS12 Rich Large Scale Prototype in the Direct Proximity Focusing Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Anefalos Pereira, S.; Baltzell, N.; Barion, L.; Benmokhtar, F.; Brooks, W. K.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; El Alaoui, A.; Hafidi, K.; Hoek, M.

    2016-02-11

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c up to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Laboratory. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and high-packed and high-segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). We report here the results of the tests of a large scale prototype of the RICH detector performed with the hadron beam of the CERN T9 experimental hall for the direct detection configuration. The tests demonstrated that the proposed design provides the required pion-to-kaon rejection factor of 1:500 in the whole momentum range.

  10. Test of the CLAS12 RICH large-scale prototype in the direct proximity focusing configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Anefalos Pereira, S.; Baltzell, N.; Barion, L.; Benmokhtar, F.; Brooks, W.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; El Alaoui, A.; Hafidi, K.; Hoek, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lagamba, L.; Lucherini, V.; Malaguti, R.; Mirazita, M.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Musico, P.; Orlandi, A.; Orecchini, D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perrino, R.; Phillips, J.; Pisano, S.; Rossi, P.; Squerzanti, S.; Tomassini, S.; Turisini, M.; Viticchiè, A.

    2016-02-11

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c up to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Laboratory. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and high-packed and high-segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). We report here the results of the tests of a large scale prototype of the RICH detector performed with the hadron beam of the CERN T9 experimental hall for the direct detection configuration. As a result, the tests demonstrated that the proposed design provides the required pion-to-kaon rejection factor of 1:500 in the whole momentum range.

  11. Identification of Friction Parameters from the Inverse Analysis of a Direct Extrusion Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrus, Adinel; Thien Pham, Duc; Francillette, Henri

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes to use a special upsetting test and an optimal direct extrusion one performed to identify the constitutive equation of the material behavior and the friction coefficients directly from the load-stroke curves. The proposed friction test has the advantage to permit to take into account contact phenomena corresponding to new specimen surfaces created during a real bulk cold forming process. A lot of numerical simulations are made with the commercial software FORGE2 in order to study the influence of some design and process parameters. Different friction laws will be identified starting from the classical Coulomb and Tresca ones. All the parameter identifications are made using the Inverse Analysis principle.

  12. Neutron beam test of barium fluoride crystal for dark matter direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.; Ma, X. H.; Wang, Z. M.; Bao, J.; Dai, C. J.; Guan, M. Y.; Liu, J. C.; Li, Z. H.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Yang, C. G.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zhong, W. L.

    2016-10-01

    In order to test the capabilities of Barium Fluoride (BaF2) crystal for dark matter direct detection, nuclear recoils are studied with mono-energetic neutron beam. The energy spectra of nuclear recoils, quenching factors for elastic scattering neutrons and discrimination capability between neutron inelastic scattering events and γ events are obtained for various recoil energies of the F content in BaF2.

  13. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    DOE PAGES

    Ronzhin, A.; Los, S.; Ramberg, E.; ...

    2015-05-22

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. Furthermore, the time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  14. A multiple testing method for hypotheses structured in a directed acyclic graph.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Rosa J; Goeman, Jelle J

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel multiple testing method for testing null hypotheses that are structured in a directed acyclic graph (DAG). The method is a top-down method that strongly controls the familywise error rate and can be seen as a generalization of Meinshausen's procedure for tree-structured hypotheses. Just as Meinshausen's procedure, our proposed method can be used to test for variable importance, only the corresponding variable clusters can be chosen more freely, because the method allows for multiple parent nodes and partially overlapping hypotheses. An important application of our method is in gene set analysis, in which one often wants to test multiple gene sets as well as individual genes for their association with a clinical outcome. By considering the genes and gene sets as nodes in a DAG, our method enables us to test both for significant gene sets as well as for significant individual genes within the same multiple testing procedure. The method will be illustrated by testing Gene Ontology terms for evidence of differential expression in a survival setting and is implemented in the R package cherry.

  15. The Water Framework Directive: The Challenges of Testing and Validation of Guidance Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, F.; Bidoglio, G.; Murray, C. N.; Zaldivar, J.; Bouraoui, F.

    process.. · Activity 1: Information sharing · Activity 2: Develop guidance on technical issues · Activity 3: Information and data management · Activity 4: Application, testing and validation The first three priorities have a more horizontal character. They are the key activities for developing a common understanding of the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. All these horizontal activities need to be integrated and made operational in the River Basin Management Plans. Activity 4 (Application, Testing and Validation) significantly contributes to this integration role by making these activities operational in the River Basin Management Plans. The integration step is crucial for the effective implementation of the WFD. The objective of Activity 4 is to ensure coherence amongst the different guidance documents and their cross applicability by testing the guidance documents in selected pilot river basins. To achieve these objectives a Network of pilot river basins and associated coastal zones (where applicable) will be identified, in close co- operation with WGs in Key Action 2, that are considered to represent a range of problems and conditions characteristic of those to be found in the application of the different guidelines. The Network of identified sites will used for testing and cross- validation of proposed WG guidelines. The Joint Research Centre is acting as the technical secretariat for the Scientific Coordination Committee who is responsible for Activity 4. The purpose of the present paper is to describe approach, methodology and timetable for integrated testing of guidance documents.

  16. Reliable four-point flexion test and model for die-to-wafer direct bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, T.; Sanchez, L.; Fournel, F.; Moriceau, H.

    2015-07-01

    For many years, wafer-to-wafer (W2W) direct bonding has been very developed particularly in terms of bonding energy measurement and bonding mechanism comprehension. Nowadays, die-to-wafer (D2W) direct bonding has gained significant attention, for instance, in photonics and microelectro-mechanics, which supposes controlled and reliable fabrication processes. So, whatever the stuck materials may be, it is not obvious whether bonded D2W structures have the same bonding strength as bonded W2W ones, because of possible edge effects of dies. For that reason, it has been strongly required to develop a bonding energy measurement technique which is suitable for D2W structures. In this paper, both D2W- and W2W-type standard SiO2-to-SiO2 direct bonding samples are fabricated from the same full-wafer bonding. Modifications of the four-point flexion test (4PT) technique and applications for measuring D2W direct bonding energies are reported. Thus, the comparison between the modified 4PT and the double-cantilever beam techniques is drawn, also considering possible impacts of the conditions of measures such as the water stress corrosion at the debonding interface and the friction error at the loading contact points. Finally, reliability of a modified technique and a new model established for measuring D2W direct bonding energies is demonstrated.

  17. Correntropy-based partial directed coherence for testing multivariate Granger causality in nonlinear processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rohit; Tangirala, Arun K.

    2014-06-01

    Identification of directional influences in multivariate systems is of prime importance in several applications of engineering and sciences such as plant topology reconstruction, fault detection and diagnosis, and neurosciences. A spectrum of related directionality measures, ranging from linear measures such as partial directed coherence (PDC) to nonlinear measures such as transfer entropy, have emerged over the past two decades. The PDC-based technique is simple and effective, but being a linear directionality measure has limited applicability. On the other hand, transfer entropy, despite being a robust nonlinear measure, is computationally intensive and practically implementable only for bivariate processes. The objective of this work is to develop a nonlinear directionality measure, termed as KPDC, that possesses the simplicity of PDC but is still applicable to nonlinear processes. The technique is founded on a nonlinear measure called correntropy, a recently proposed generalized correlation measure. The proposed method is equivalent to constructing PDC in a kernel space where the PDC is estimated using a vector autoregressive model built on correntropy. A consistent estimator of the KPDC is developed and important theoretical results are established. A permutation scheme combined with the sequential Bonferroni procedure is proposed for testing hypothesis on absence of causality. It is demonstrated through several case studies that the proposed methodology effectively detects Granger causality in nonlinear processes.

  18. CHROMagar Candida Medium for Direct Susceptibility Testing of Yeast from Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Grace L.; Peterson, Ellena M.

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation was performed on 95 blood cultures positive for Candida spp. to determine the correlation of direct susceptibility testing of fluconazole versus both standardized disk diffusion and MIC methods. For direct testing, an aliquot taken from BD BACTEC Plus and/or BD BACTEC Lytic/10 bottles (Becton Dickinson [BD], Sparks, MD) positive by gram stain for yeast was subcultured to CHROMagar Candida (BD), and a 25-μg fluconazole disk (BD) was placed on the plate. The area of growth inhibition surrounding the disk was measured at 24 and 48 h. In addition, a subculture of the isolate was tested by a microdilution MIC using YeastOne (TREK Diagnostics Systems Inc., OH) and disk diffusion (NCCLS M44-A) using a standardized inoculum plated onto CHROMagar Candida as well as Mueller-Hinton agar to which 2% glucose and 0.5 μg/ml methylene blue dye was added (MH-GMB). The categorical interpretation derived from the MIC was used as the reference to which the disk diffusion results were compared. There were a total of 41 Candida albicans, 23 Candida glabrata, 20 Candida parapsilosis, 9 Candida tropicalis, and 1 each of Candida krusei and Candida lusitaniae tested. At 24 h there was full agreement among the methods for all C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, and C. krusei isolates. For the C. parapsilosis isolates at 24 h there was one very major discrepancy using the direct CHROMagar and one major error with the standardized MH-GMB. The majority of the errors were seen at 24 h with the C. glabrata isolates. Of the 23 C. glabrata isolates at 24 h by direct CHROMagar, there were 10 minor and 1 very major error; by MH-GMB there were 12 minor and 2 very major errors; and by standardized CHROMagar Candida there were 13 minor and 2 major errors. There were no very major errors with C. glabrata when all plates were read at 48 h. At 24 h by the direct and standardized CHROMagar the majority of C. glabrata isolates were more resistant, whereas by MH-GMB they were more

  19. CHROMagar Candida medium for direct susceptibility testing of yeast from blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Tan, Grace L; Peterson, Ellena M

    2005-04-01

    An evaluation was performed on 95 blood cultures positive for Candida spp. to determine the correlation of direct susceptibility testing of fluconazole versus both standardized disk diffusion and MIC methods. For direct testing, an aliquot taken from BD BACTEC Plus and/or BD BACTEC Lytic/10 bottles (Becton Dickinson [BD], Sparks, MD) positive by gram stain for yeast was subcultured to CHROMagar Candida (BD), and a 25-microg fluconazole disk (BD) was placed on the plate. The area of growth inhibition surrounding the disk was measured at 24 and 48 h. In addition, a subculture of the isolate was tested by a microdilution MIC using YeastOne (TREK Diagnostics Systems Inc., OH) and disk diffusion (NCCLS M44-A) using a standardized inoculum plated onto CHROMagar Candida as well as Mueller-Hinton agar to which 2% glucose and 0.5 microg/ml methylene blue dye was added (MH-GMB). The categorical interpretation derived from the MIC was used as the reference to which the disk diffusion results were compared. There were a total of 41 Candida albicans, 23 Candida glabrata, 20 Candida parapsilosis, 9 Candida tropicalis, and 1 each of Candida krusei and Candida lusitaniae tested. At 24 h there was full agreement among the methods for all C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, and C. krusei isolates. For the C. parapsilosis isolates at 24 h there was one very major discrepancy using the direct CHROMagar and one major error with the standardized MH-GMB. The majority of the errors were seen at 24 h with the C. glabrata isolates. Of the 23 C. glabrata isolates at 24 h by direct CHROMagar, there were 10 minor and 1 very major error; by MH-GMB there were 12 minor and 2 very major errors; and by standardized CHROMagar Candida there were 13 minor and 2 major errors. There were no very major errors with C. glabrata when all plates were read at 48 h. At 24 h by the direct and standardized CHROMagar the majority of C. glabrata isolates were more resistant, whereas by MH-GMB they were more

  20. Applicability of a change of direction ability field test in soccer assistant referees.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Bizzini, Mario; Weston, Matthew; Manzi, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of a test for change of direction ability (10-8-8-10 test, involving line and sideward sprinting, 36 m) in elite-level soccer assistant referees (ARs). One hundred AR of the first-second and third Italian Championships (ARA-B and ARC, n = 50, respectively) performed the 10-8-8-10 on 3 separate occasions. Twenty AR authorities scored test relevance (1-5 scale, from trivial to very large) for logical validity using a questionnaire. Construct validity was examined comparing ARA-B and ARC for the 10-8-8-10 performance. Short-term reliability was assessed testing a random selection of ARs (n = 64) over 3 separate occasions every other day. Performance in the 10-8-8-10 test was assumed as total coverage time using telemetric photocells. Results showed that the 10-8-8-10 test was perceived as possessing from large (n = 4/20) to very-large (n = 16/20) relevance to AR physical match performance. No significant performance difference was found between competitive levels (p = 0.57). Area under the curve (= 0.49; p = 0.87) showed no significant sensitivity of 10-8-8-10 in detecting competitive-level difference. The intraclass correlation coefficient (n = 64) and typical error of measurement (test 2 vs. 3) values were 0.90 (p < 0.0001) and 0.18 seconds, respectively. This study showed that the 10-8-8-10 test possesses logical validity, good reliability, and it is independent of the competitive level. As such, this original investigation represents the first step in the identification and assessment of a valid and reliable AR change of direction test. Given the strength of our findings, governing bodies should look to integrate the 10-8-8-10 test into the fitness test protocols devised for ARs, with scores ≥ 9.67 being considered as a starting point for the empirical validation of minimum selection criteria for elite-level ARs.

  1. Development of a new protocol for rapid bacterial identification and susceptibility testing directly from urine samples.

    PubMed

    Zboromyrska, Y; Rubio, E; Alejo, I; Vergara, A; Mons, A; Campo, I; Bosch, J; Marco, F; Vila, J

    2016-06-01

    The current gold standard method for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI) is urine culture that requires 18-48 h for the identification of the causative microorganisms and an additional 24 h until the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are available. The aim of this study was to shorten the time of urine sample processing by a combination of flow cytometry for screening and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for bacterial identification followed by AST directly from urine. The study was divided into two parts. During the first part, 675 urine samples were processed by a flow cytometry device and a cut-off value of bacterial count was determined to select samples for direct identification by MALDI-TOF-MS at ≥5 × 10(6) bacteria/mL. During the second part, 163 of 1029 processed samples reached the cut-off value. The sample preparation protocol for direct identification included two centrifugation and two washing steps. Direct AST was performed by the disc diffusion method if a reliable direct identification was obtained. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identification was performed in 140 urine samples; 125 of the samples were positive by urine culture, 12 were contaminated and 3 were negative. Reliable direct identification was obtained in 108 (86.4%) of the 125 positive samples. AST was performed in 102 identified samples, and the results were fully concordant with the routine method among 83 monomicrobial infections. In conclusion, the turnaround time of the protocol described to diagnose UTI was about 1 h for microbial identification and 18-24 h for AST.

  2. Antibacterial susceptibility of bovine-mastitis pathogens tested directly in milk from infected quarters.

    PubMed

    Louhi-Lehtiö, M; Sandholm, M; Myllys, V; Honkanen-Buzalski, T

    1994-04-01

    Antibacterial susceptibilities of bovine-mastitis pathogens were analysed directly in 57 mastitic milk samples without inoculation with exogenous organisms. Aseptically collected milk was mixed with serial dilutions of antibacterials and the growth was observed using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction the following day. The results were compared with those obtained by using calibrated bacterial inocula in turbidimetric minimum-inhibitory-concentration (MIC) determination in broth cultures, and in TTC-broth culture-test and TTC-normal milk-test. The results of different methods all correlated positively when the entire data was used. However, taking the direct test in mastitic milk as the 'true' result, the total discrepancies varied from 34.7% to 48.8%. Antibacterial activities of the trimethoprim-sulphadoxine combination, and of spiramycin and ampicillin, decreased significantly when nutrient broth was replaced by milk as the test medium. The efficacy of trimethoprim-sulphadoxine as an antibacterial agent was also dependent on the source of milk.

  3. Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis by Gen-Probe amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test.

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, S; Ignatius, R; Regnath, T; Hahn, H

    1996-01-01

    A total of 294 specimens collected from nonrespiratory sites of 268 patients were tested for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (AMTD). The specimens included ascitic, pleural, pericardial, and synovial fluids, abscess aspirates, and tissue and lymph node biopsy samples, as well as gastric aspirates and cerebrospinal fluid samples. All samples were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide decontamination procedure prior to testing. Twenty samples showed acid-fast bacilli on auramine staining, and 48 samples were positive by AMTD, 9 of which were negative for M. tuberculosis complex by culture. After reviewing the patients clinical charts to resolve discrepancies, the test result of one cerebrospinal fluid sample was considered to be false positive by AMTD. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 83.9, 99.6, 97.9, and 96.3%, respectively. No significant differences were found when AMTD results obtained with specimens of nonrespiratory origin were compared with assay results obtained with samples of respiratory origin (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that AMTD performs equally well with all types of specimens. PMID:8862598

  4. Direct-to-Consumer Racial Admixture Tests and Beliefs About Essential Racial Differences

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.; Zelner, Sarah; Yang, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Although at first relatively disinterested in race, modern genomic research has increasingly turned attention to racial variations. We examine a prominent example of this focus—direct-to-consumer racial admixture tests—and ask how information about the methods and results of these tests in news media may affect beliefs in racial differences. The reification hypothesis proposes that by emphasizing a genetic basis for race, thereby reifying race as a biological reality, the tests increase beliefs that whites and blacks are essentially different. The challenge hypothesis suggests that by describing differences between racial groups as continua rather than sharp demarcations, the results produced by admixture tests break down racial categories and reduce beliefs in racial differences. A nationally representative survey experiment (N = 526) provided clear support for the reification hypothesis. The results suggest that an unintended consequence of the genomic revolution may be to reinvigorate age-old beliefs in essential racial differences. PMID:25870464

  5. High-voltage Array Ground Test for Direct-drive Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Development is underway on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for direct drive electric propulsion. These SLA performance attributes closely match the critical needs of solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems, which may be used for "space tugs" to fuel-efficiently transport cargo from low earth orbit (LEO) to low lunar orbit (LLO), in support of NASA s robotic and human exploration missions. Later SEP systems may similarly transport cargo from the earth-moon neighborhood to the Mars neighborhood. This paper will describe the SLA SEP technology, discuss ground tests already completed, and present plans for future ground tests and future flight tests of SLA SEP systems.

  6. Consumer direct access to clinical laboratory testing: what are the critical issues?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David S; Pontius, C Anne

    2003-01-01

    Americans are demanding, independent people. In most aspects of our lives, we are used to walking into a store or other place of business with the expectation that the personnel working for the business will make every effort to satisfy our requests quickly and without the need for a third party to intervene or approve the transaction. Hence, the popularity of convenience stores, do-it-yourself stores and kits, and e-commerce. The delivery of health-care services, however, generally does not conform to this model. Before most diagnostic tests or treatments are ordered, patients usually consult a physician. In many cases, prior to tests or treatments being performed, additional consultations are required with insurance plans. But the winds of change, they are a-blowing. More and more, people demand an active role in managing their health care. One emerging trend is direct patient access to clinical laboratory testing (1).

  7. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for AHTRs

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Quiping; Sun, Xiaodong; Chtistensen, Richard; Blue, Thomas; Yoder, Graydon; Wilson, Dane

    2015-05-08

    The principal objective of this research is to test and model the heat transfer performance and reliability of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) for AHTRs. In addition, component testing of fluidic diodes is to be performed to examine the performance and viability of several existing fluidic diode designs. An extensive database related to the thermal performance of the heat exchangers involved will be obtained, which will be used to benchmark a computer code for the DRACS design and to evaluate and improve, if needed, existing heat transfer models of interest. The database will also be valuable for assessing the viability of the DRACS concept and benchmarking any related computer codes in the future. The experience of making a liquid fluoride salt test facility available, with lessons learned, will greatly benefit the development of the Fluoride Salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) and eventually the AHTR programs.

  8. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of a Testing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of validating a probability of detection (POD) testing system using directed design of experiments (DOE) includes recording an input data set of observed hit and miss or analog data for sample components as a function of size of a flaw in the components. The method also includes processing the input data set to generate an output data set having an optimal class width, assigning a case number to the output data set, and generating validation instructions based on the assigned case number. An apparatus includes a host machine for receiving the input data set from the testing system and an algorithm for executing DOE to validate the test system. The algorithm applies DOE to the input data set to determine a data set having an optimal class width, assigns a case number to that data set, and generates validation instructions based on the case number.

  9. "Be ready against cancer, now": direct-to-consumer advertising for genetic testing.

    PubMed

    William-Jones, Bryn

    2006-04-01

    A recent addition to the debate about the benefits and harms of direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of medicines and pharmaceuticals is a growing critique of DTC marketing and sale of genetic tests. Academic and policy literatures exploring this issue have, however, tended to focus on the sale of genetic tests, paying rather less attention to the particular implications of advertising. The globalization of broadcast media and ever increasing access to the Internet mean that public exposure to advertising for medical technologies is a reality that national regulatory bodies will be hard pressed to constrain. Working through a case study detailing Myriad Genetics' 2002 pilot advertising campaign for their BRACAnalysis genetic susceptibility test for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, this paper highlights some of the diverse and often overlooked and unregulated approaches to DTC advertising, and the associated social, ethical and policy implications.

  10. On testing models for the pressure-strain correlation of turbulence using direct simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, Charles G.; Gatski, Thomas B.; Sarkar, Sutanu

    1992-01-01

    Direct simulations of homogeneous turbulence have, in recent years, come into widespread use for the evaluation of models for the pressure-strain correlation of turbulence. While work in this area has been beneficial, the increasingly common practice of testing the slow and rapid parts of these models separately in uniformly strained turbulent flows is shown in this paper to be unsound. For such flows, the decomposition of models for the total pressure-strain correlation into slow and rapid parts is ambiguous. Consequently, when tested in this manner, misleading conclusions can be drawn about the performance of pressure-strain models. This point is amplified by illustrative calculations of homogeneous shear flow where other pitfalls in the evaluation of models are also uncovered. More meaningful measures for testing the performance of pressure-strain models in uniformly strained turbulent flows are proposed and the implications for turbulence modeling are discussed.

  11. A novel method for direct solder bump pull testing using lead-free solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Gregory Alan

    This thesis focuses on the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a new method for testing the adhesion strength of lead-free solders, named the Isotraction Bump Pull method (IBP). In order to develop a direct solder joint-strength testing method that did not require customization for different solder types, bump sizes, specific equipment, or trial-and-error, a combination of two widely used and accepted standards was created. First, solder bumps were made from three types of lead free solder were generated on untreated copper PCB substrates using an in-house fabricated solder bump-on-demand generator, Following this, the newly developed method made use of a polymer epoxy to encapsulate the solder bumps that could then be tested under tension using a high precision universal vertical load machine. The tests produced repeatable and predictable results for each of the three alloys tested that were in agreement with the relative behavior of the same alloys using other testing methods in the literature. The median peak stress at failure for the three solders tested were 2020.52 psi, 940.57 psi, and 2781.0 psi, and were within one standard deviation of the of all data collected for each solder. The assumptions in this work that brittle fracture occurred through the Intermetallic Compound layer (IMC) were validated with the use of Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and high magnification of the fractured surface of both newly exposed sides of the test specimens. Following this, an examination of the process to apply the results from the tensile tests into standard material science equations for the fracture of the systems was performed..

  12. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for predicting sports performance and talent identification: Consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Webborn, Nick; Williams, Alun; McNamee, Mike; Bouchard, Claude; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Ahmetov, Ildus; Ashley, Euan; Byrne, Nuala; Camporesi, Silvia; Collins, Malcolm; Dijkstra, Paul; Eynon, Nir; Fuku, Noriyuki; Garton, Fleur C; Hoppe, Nils; Holm, Søren; Kaye, Jane; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Maase, Kamiel; Moran, Colin; North, Kathryn N; Pigozzi, Fabio; Wang, Guan

    2015-01-01

    The general consensus among sport and exercise genetics researchers is that genetic tests have no role to play in talent identification or the individualised prescription of training to maximise performance. Despite the lack of evidence, recent years have witnessed the rise of an emerging market of direct-to-consumer marketing (DTC) tests that claim to be able to identify children's athletic talents. Targeted consumers include mainly coaches and parents. There is concern among the scientific community that the current level of knowledge is being misrepresented for commercial purposes. There remains a lack of universally accepted guidelines and legislation for DTC testing in relation to all forms of genetic testing and not just for talent identification. There is concern over the lack of clarity of information over which specific genes or variants are being tested and the almost universal lack of appropriate genetic counselling for the interpretation of the genetic data to consumers. Furthermore independent studies have identified issues relating to quality control by DTC laboratories with different results being reported from samples from the same individual. Consequently, in the current state of knowledge, no child or young athlete should be exposed to DTC genetic testing to define or alter training or for talent identification aimed at selecting gifted children or adolescents. Large scale collaborative projects, may help to develop a stronger scientific foundation on these issues in the future. PMID:26582191

  13. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for predicting sports performance and talent identification: Consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Webborn, Nick; Williams, Alun; McNamee, Mike; Bouchard, Claude; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Ahmetov, Ildus; Ashley, Euan; Byrne, Nuala; Camporesi, Silvia; Collins, Malcolm; Dijkstra, Paul; Eynon, Nir; Fuku, Noriyuki; Garton, Fleur C; Hoppe, Nils; Holm, Søren; Kaye, Jane; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Maase, Kamiel; Moran, Colin; North, Kathryn N; Pigozzi, Fabio; Wang, Guan

    2015-12-01

    The general consensus among sport and exercise genetics researchers is that genetic tests have no role to play in talent identification or the individualised prescription of training to maximise performance. Despite the lack of evidence, recent years have witnessed the rise of an emerging market of direct-to-consumer marketing (DTC) tests that claim to be able to identify children's athletic talents. Targeted consumers include mainly coaches and parents. There is concern among the scientific community that the current level of knowledge is being misrepresented for commercial purposes. There remains a lack of universally accepted guidelines and legislation for DTC testing in relation to all forms of genetic testing and not just for talent identification. There is concern over the lack of clarity of information over which specific genes or variants are being tested and the almost universal lack of appropriate genetic counselling for the interpretation of the genetic data to consumers. Furthermore independent studies have identified issues relating to quality control by DTC laboratories with different results being reported from samples from the same individual. Consequently, in the current state of knowledge, no child or young athlete should be exposed to DTC genetic testing to define or alter training or for talent identification aimed at selecting gifted children or adolescents. Large scale collaborative projects, may help to develop a stronger scientific foundation on these issues in the future.

  14. Process Sensitivity, Performance, and Direct Verification Testing of Adhesive Locking Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Leatherwood, Michael D.; Montoya, Michael D.; Kato, Ken A.; Akers, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Phase I: The use of adhesive locking features or liquid locking compounds (LLCs) (e.g., Loctite) as a means of providing a secondary locking feature has been used on NASA programs since the Apollo program. In many cases Loctite was used as a last resort when (a) self-locking fasteners were no longer functioning per their respective drawing specification, (b) access was limited for removal & replacement, or (c) replacement could not be accomplished without severe impact to schedule. Long-term use of Loctite became inevitable in cases where removal and replacement of worn hardware was not cost effective and Loctite was assumed to be fully cured and working. The NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) and United Space Alliance (USA) recognized the need for more extensive testing of Loctite grades to better understand their capabilities and limitations as a secondary locking feature. These tests, identified as Phase I, were designed to identify processing sensitivities, to determine proper cure time, the correct primer to use on aerospace nutplate, insert and bolt materials such as A286 and MP35N, and the minimum amount of Loctite that is required to achieve optimum breakaway torque values. The .1900-32 was the fastener size tested, due to wide usage in the aerospace industry. Three different grades of Loctite were tested. Results indicate that, with proper controls, adhesive locking features can be successfully used in the repair of locking features and should be considered for design. Phase II: Threaded fastening systems used in aerospace programs typically have a requirement for a redundant locking feature. The primary locking method is the fastener preload and the traditional redundant locking feature is a self-locking mechanical device that may include deformed threads, non-metallic inserts, split beam features, or other methods that impede movement between threaded members. The self-locking resistance of traditional locking features can be directly verified

  15. Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor Power System: Concept and Preliminary Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, S. A.; Lipinski, R. J.; Godfroy, T. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; VanDyke, M. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the concept and preliminary component testing of a gas-cooled, UN-fueled, pin-type reactor which uses He/Xe gas that goes directly into a recuperated Brayton system to produce electricity for nuclear electric propulsion. This Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor (DDG) is designed to be subcritical under water or wet- sand immersion in case of a launch accident. Because the gas-cooled reactor can directly drive the Brayton turbomachinery, it is possible to configure the system such that there are no external surfaces or pressure boundaries that are refractory metal, even though the gas delivered to the turbine is 1144 K. The He/Xe gas mixture is a good heat transport medium when flowing, and a good insulator when stagnant. Judicious use of stagnant cavities as insulating regions allows transport of the 1144-K gas while keeping all external surfaces below 900 K. At this temperature super-alloys (Hastelloy or Inconel) can be used instead of refractory metals. Super-alloys reduce the technology risk because they are easier to fabricate than refractory metals, we have a much more extensive knowledge base on their characteristics, and, because they have a greater resistance to oxidation, system testing is eased. The system is also relatively simple in its design: no additional coolant pumps, heat exchanger, or freeze-thaw systems are required. Key to success of this concept is a good knowledge of the heat transfer between the fuel pins and the gas, as well as the pressure drop through the system. This paper describes preliminary testing to obtain this key information, as well as experience in demonstrating electrically heated testing of simulated reactor components.

  16. Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor Power System: Concept and Preliminary Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Lipinski, R. J.; Godfroy, T. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; van Dyke, M. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the concept and preliminary component testing of a gas-cooled. UN-fueled, pin-type reactor which uses He/Xe gas that goes directly into a recuperated Brayton system to produce electricity for nuclear electric propulsion. This Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor (DDG) is designed to be subcritical under water or wet-sand immersion in case of a launch accident. Because the gas-cooled reactor can directly drive the Brayton turbomachinery, it is possible to configure the system such that there are no external surfaces or pressure boundaries that are refractory metal, even though the gas delivered to the turbine is 1144 K. The He/Xe gas mixture is a good heat transport medium when flowing, and a good insulator when stagnant. Judicious use of stagnant cavities as insulating regions allows transport of the 1144-K gas while keeping all external surfaces below 900 K. At this temperature super-alloys (Hastelloy or Inconel) can be used instead of refractory metals. Super-alloys reduce the technology risk because they are easier to fabricate than refractory metals, we have a much more extensive knowledge base on their characteristics, and, because they have a greater resistance to oxidation, system testing is eased. The system is also relatively simple in its design: no additional coolant pumps, heat exchanger, or freeze-thaw systems are required. Key to success of this concept is a good knowledge of the heat transfer between the fuel pins and the gas, as well as the pressure drop through the system. This paper describes preliminary testing to obtain this key information, as well as experience in demonstrating electrically heated testing of simulated reactor components.

  17. Flight calibration tests of a nose-boom-mounted fixed hemispherical flow-direction sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armistead, K. H.; Webb, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    Flight calibrations of a fixed hemispherical flow angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip sensor were made from Mach numbers of 0.5 to 1.8. Maneuvers were performed by an F-104 airplane at selected altitudes to compare the measurement of flow angle of attack from the fixed hemispherical sensor with that from a standard angle-of-attack vane. The hemispherical flow-direction sensor measured differential pressure at two angle-of-attack ports and two angle-of-sideslip ports in diametrically opposed positions. Stagnation pressure was measured at a center port. The results of these tests showed that the calibration curves for the hemispherical flow-direction sensor were linear for angles of attack up to 13 deg. The overall uncertainty in determining angle of attack from these curves was plus or minus 0.35 deg or less. A Mach number position error calibration curve was also obtained for the hemispherical flow-direction sensor. The hemispherical flow-direction sensor exhibited a much larger position error than a standard uncompensated pitot-static probe.

  18. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  19. Hemispherical directional reflectance factor using UAV and a hyperspectral camera, validation and crop field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakala, T.; Honkavaara, E.; Markelin, L.

    2014-10-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a prototype hyperspectral imaging camera (HSI) was used to measure the hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) of a test field with known light scattering properties. The HSI acquires a burst of 24 images within two seconds and all of these images are acquired with different spectral content. By using the autopilot of the UAV, the flight can be preplanned so that the target area is optimally covered with overlapping images from multiple view angles. Structure from motion (SFM) algorithm is used to accurately determine the view angles for each image. The HDRF is calculated for each ground pixel by determining view directions from all of the images for that particular pixel. The pixel intensity values are then processed to reflectance by using a reference panel, which has been measured in laboratory with Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO). The UAV flight was performed over a test field with different gravel targets. The targets have known HDRF and this allows us to validate the UAV results. Another test was performed over a crop field to display the potential of this method for crop monitoring.

  20. World Year of Physics: a direct test of E=mc2.

    PubMed

    Rainville, Simon; Thompson, James K; Myers, Edmund G; Brown, John M; Dewey, Maynard S; Kessler, Ernest G; Deslattes, Richard D; Börner, Hans G; Jentschel, Michael; Mutti, Paolo; Pritchard, David E

    2005-12-22

    One of the most striking predictions of Einstein's special theory of relativity is also perhaps the best known formula in all of science: E=mc(2). If this equation were found to be even slightly incorrect, the impact would be enormous--given the degree to which special relativity is woven into the theoretical fabric of modern physics and into everyday applications such as global positioning systems. Here we test this mass-energy relationship directly by combining very accurate measurements of atomic-mass difference, Delta(m), and of gamma-ray wavelengths to determine E, the nuclear binding energy, for isotopes of silicon and sulphur. Einstein's relationship is separately confirmed in two tests, which yield a combined result of 1-Delta(mc2)/E=(-1.4+/-4.4)x10(-7), indicating that it holds to a level of at least 0.00004%. To our knowledge, this is the most precise direct test of the famous equation yet described.

  1. Mobile Navigation Using Haptic, Audio, and Visual Direction Cues with a Handheld Test Platform.

    PubMed

    Koslover, R L; Gleeson, B T; de Bever, J T; Provancher, W R

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a series of user experiments evaluating the design of a multimodal test platform capable of rendering visual, audio, vibrotactile, and directional skin-stretch stimuli. The test platform is a handheld, wirelessly controlled device that will facilitate experiments with mobile users in realistic environments. Stimuli rendered by the device are fully characterized, and have little variance in stimulus onset timing. A series of user experiments utilizing navigational cues validates the function of the device and investigates the user response to all stimulus modes. Results show users are capable of interpreting all stimuli with high accuracy and can use the direction cues for mobile navigation. Tests included both stationary (seated) and mobile (walking a simple obstacle course) tasks. Accuracy and response time patterns are similar in both seated and mobile conditions. This device provides a means of designing and evaluating multimodal communication methods for handheld devices and will facilitate experiments investigating the effects of stimulus mode on device usability and situation awareness.

  2. Internet-Based Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Rubinelli, Sara; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Gelatti, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GT) are easily purchased through the Internet, independent of a physician referral or approval for testing, allowing the retrieval of genetic information outside the clinical context. There is a broad debate about the testing validity, their impact on individuals, and what people know and perceive about them. Objective The aim of this review was to collect evidence on DTC-GT from a comprehensive perspective that unravels the complexity of the phenomenon. Methods A systematic search was carried out through PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Embase, in addition to Google Scholar according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist with the key term “Direct-to-consumer genetic test.” Results In the final sample, 118 articles were identified. Articles were summarized in five categories according to their focus on (1) knowledge of, attitude toward use of, and perception of DTC-GT (n=37), (2) the impact of genetic risk information on users (n=37), (3) the opinion of health professionals (n=20), (4) the content of websites selling DTC-GT (n=16), and (5) the scientific evidence and clinical utility of the tests (n=14). Most of the articles analyzed the attitude, knowledge, and perception of DTC-GT, highlighting an interest in using DTC-GT, along with the need for a health care professional to help interpret the results. The articles investigating the content analysis of the websites selling these tests are in agreement that the information provided by the companies about genetic testing is not completely comprehensive for the consumer. Given that risk information can modify consumers’ health behavior, there are surprisingly few studies carried out on actual consumers and they do not confirm the overall concerns on the possible impact of DTC-GT. Data from studies that investigate the quality of the tests offered confirm that they are not informative, have little predictive

  3. Thermally Simulated Testing of a Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; VanDyke, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the concept and preliminary component testing of a gas-cooled, UN-fueled, pin-type reactor which uses He/Xe gas that goes directly into a recuperated Brayton system to produce electricity for nuclear electric propulsion. This Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor (DDG) is designed to be subcritical under water or wet-sand immersion in case of a launch accident. Because the gas-cooled reactor can directly drive the Brayton turbomachinery, it is possible to configure the system such that there are no external surfaces or pressure boundaries that are refractory metal, even though the gas delivered to the turbine is 1144 K. The He/Xe gas mixture is a good heat transport medium when flowing, and a good insulator when stagnant. Judicious use of stagnant cavities as insulating regions allows transport of the 1144-K gas while keeping all external surfaces below 900 K. At this temperature super-alloys (Hastelloy or Inconel) can be used instead of refractory metals. Super-alloys reduce the technology risk because they are easier to fabricate than refractory metals, we have a much more extensive knowledge base on their characteristics, and, because they have a greater resistance to oxidation, system testing is eased. The system is also relatively simple in its design: no additional coolant pumps, heat exchanger, or freeze-thaw systems are required. Key to success of this concept is a good knowledge of the heat transfer between the fuel pins and the gas, as well as the pressure drop through the system. This paper describes preliminary testing to obtain this key information, as well as experience in demonstrating electrical thermal simulation of reactor components and concepts.

  4. Testing adhesion of direct restoratives to dental hard tissue - a review.

    PubMed

    Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten

    2010-10-01

    This articles concerns itself with the testing of adhesion between direct restoratives and dental hard tissue, ie, enamel and dentin. The aim is to survey available methods for adhesion testing and influential parameters affecting experimental outcome. The testing of adhesion to indirect restorative materials, eg, ceramics and metals, is beyond the scope of this article and shall be discussed elsewhere. The longevity and success of modern dental restorations very often relies on potent dental adhesives to provide durable bonds between the dental hard substance and the restorative composite. To predict the clinical outcome of such restorative treatment, a large variety of in vitro laboratory tests and clinical in vivo experiments have been devised, analyzed, and published. The purpose of this review is to provide a current overview of bond strength testing methods and their applicability to the characterization of dental adhesives. Regardless of the method employed, subtle variations in sample preparation may already severely impact test results, usually necessitating at least co-testing of a well-known internal reference to allow conclusive interpretation. This article attempts to list and discuss the most influential parameters, such as substrate nature, age, health status, storage, clinically relevant pre-treatment, and sample preparation. Special attention is devoted to the last aspect, as numerous publications have stressed the tremendous influence of preparatory parameters on the validity and scope of obtained data. Added to the large variety of such factors, an equally large diversity of load-applying procedures exists to actually quantify adhesion between composites and dental hard substance. This article summarizes the basics of macro and micro approaches to shear and tensile bond strength testing, as well as push- and pull-out tests. The strengths and weaknesses inherent to each method and influential test parameters are reviewed and methods for

  5. Direct and nearby lightning strike interaction with test power distribution lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, Jens Daniel

    The interaction of direct and nearby rocket-triggered lightning with two unenergized three-phase power distribution lines of about 800 m length was studied at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Florida. A horizontally-configured line was tested in 1999 and 2000, a vertically-configured line in 2001, 2002, and 2003, and a vertically-configured line with overhead ground wire in 2004. All lines were equipped with arresters and, additionally, in 2003, the vertical line had a polemounted transformer. During the 2000, 2001, and 2002 direct strike experiments, arresters frequently failed, but there was no arrester failures either during the 2003 direct strike experiment when the transformer was on the line or during the 2004 direct strike experiment when the lightning current was injected into the overhead ground wire. All line configurations except the one tested in 2004 commonly exhibited flashovers. The division of return stroke currents for the vertically-configured line was initially similar to the division on the horizontally-configured line (that is, the arresters closest to the strike point conducted the bulk of the impulsive current). After some tens of microseconds the currents in all arresters on the vertically-configured line equalized, while the close arrester currents on the horizontally-configured line still conducted significantly more current than the remote arresters. The lightning current division for direct strikes to a phase conductor is successfully modeled with the Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP) for the vertically-configured line and, if the residual voltage of the close arresters is reduced by 20%, successfully modeled for the horizontally-configured line. Currents on the vertically-configured line induced by nearby lightning strikes were measured and compared to results calculated using the LIOV-EMTP96 code. It was found that during a lightning strike 11 m from a grounded line pole, a significant fraction of

  6. Nonaxisymmetric anisotropy of solar wind turbulence as a direct test for models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Turner, A J; Gogoberidze, G; Chapman, S C

    2012-02-24

    Single point spacecraft observations of the turbulent solar wind flow exhibit a characteristic nonaxisymmetric anisotropy that depends sensitively on the perpendicular power spectral exponent. We use this nonaxisymmetric anisotropy as a function of wave vector direction to test models of MHD turbulence. Using Ulysses magnetic field observations in the fast, quiet polar solar wind we find that the Goldreich-Sridhar model of MHD turbulence is not consistent with the observed anisotropy, whereas the observations are well reproduced by the "slab+2D" model. The Goldreich-Sridhar model alone cannot account for the observations unless an additional component is also present.

  7. Direction and Integration of Experimental Ground Test Capabilities and Computational Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper groups and summarizes the salient points and findings from two AIAA conference panels targeted at defining the direction, with associated key issues and recommendations, for the integration of experimental ground testing and computational methods. Each panel session utilized rapporteurs to capture comments from both the panel members and the audience. Additionally, a virtual panel of several experts were consulted between the two sessions and their comments were also captured. The information is organized into three time-based groupings, as well as by subject area. These panel sessions were designed to provide guidance to both researchers/developers and experimental/computational service providers in defining the future of ground testing, which will be inextricably integrated with the advancement of computational tools.

  8. Direct disk diffusion susceptibility testing from respiratory tract specimens: focus on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Perez, Leandro Reus Rodrigues; Freitas, Ana Lúcia Peixoto de; Barth, Afonso Luís; Dias, Cícero Armídio Gomes

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of direct disk diffusion (DDD) testing to respiratory tract specimens for the prediction of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile. DDD was performed on 144 specimens containing P. aeruginosa and the disk diffusion test was used as reference method. Agreement with the reference method was 77.8% for amikacin, 69.4% for cefepime, 86.1% for levofloxacin, 87.5% for meropenem, and 62.5% for piperacillin/tazobactam. Very major errors were observed for all agents, except levofloxacin. Our study showed that DDD results are inaccurate and may lead to errors in early decision-making regarding antibiotic therapy for lower respiratory tract infections.

  9. Modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety through rational stage directed hypnotherapy [RSDH].

    PubMed

    Boutin, G E; Tosi, D J

    1983-05-01

    Examined the effects of four treatment conditions on the modification of Irrational Ideas and test anxiety in female nursing students. The treatments were Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy, a cognitive behavioral approach that utilized hypnosis and vivid-emotive-imagery, a hypnosis-only treatment, a placebo condition, and a no-treatment control. The 48 Ss were assigned randomly to one of these treatment groups, which met for 1 hour per week for 6 consecutive weeks with in-vivo homework assignments also utilized. Statistically significant treatment effects on cognitive, affective, behavioral, and physiological measures were noted for both the RSDH and hypnosis group at the posttest and at a 2-month follow-up. Post-hoc analyses revealed the RSDH treatment group to be significantly more effective than the hypnosis only group on both the post- and follow-up tests. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects either at post-treatment or at follow-up.

  10. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of pulp capping agents with direct contact test method

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Muhammet; Arslan, Ugur; Dundar, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Calcium hydroxide has been used in dentistry as a major capping material having the capacity to introduce the formation of a mineralized dentin bridge, but it has no direct inducing effect to the pulp cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of three different pulp capping agents using a direct contact test (DCT). Materials and Methods: The antibacterial properties of three pulp capping agents were evaluated a DCT. For the DCT, wells (n = 12) of 96-microtiter plates were coated with the tested cements (Dycal, Dentsply, USA; DiaRoot BioAggregate, Diadent, Holland; Calcimol LC, Voco, Germany) and Kalzinol (zinc oxide/eugenol cement, Dentsply, USA) was used as control material. A Lactobacillus casei suspension was placed on the surface of each specimen for 1 h at 37°C. Bacterial growth was monitored for 16 h with a temperature-controlled microplate spectrophotometer. The kinetics of the outgrowth in each well were recorded continuously at 650 nm every 30 min. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, and Tamhane's T2 multiple comparison test. The level of significance was determined as P < 0.05. Results: All pulp capping agents showed an increase in the logarithmic growth rate of L. casei when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Therefore, all pulp capping agents did not show antibacterial activity. Conclusions: The tested pulp capping agents haven't got antibacterial properties. Therefore, they should be used carefully when pulp is exposed or only very thin dentin remained over the pulp to avoid bacterial contamination. PMID:24966754

  11. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  12. MELCOR 1.8.2 Assessment: IET direct containment heating tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1993-10-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze several of the IET direct containment heating experiments done at 1:10 linear scale in the Surtsey test facility at Sandia and at 1:40 linear scale in the corium-water thermal interactions (CWTI) COREXIT test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. These MELCOR calculations were done as an open post-test study, with both the experimental data and CONTAIN results available to guide the selection of code input. Basecase MELCOR results are compared to test data in order to evaluate the new HPME DCH model recently added in MELCOR version 1.8.2. The effect of various user-input parameters in the HPME model, which define both the initial debris source and the subsequent debris interaction, were investigated in sensitivity studies. In addition, several other non-default input modelling changes involving other MELCOR code packages were required in our IET assessment analyses in order to reproduce the observed experiment behavior. Several calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in our DCH IET assessment analyses.

  13. Directed Forgetting in Direct and Indirect Tests of Memory: Seeking Evidence of Retrieval Inhibition Using Electrophysiological Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hooff, Johanna C.; Whitaker, T. Aisling; Ford, Ruth M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether directed forgetting as elicited by the item-cueing method results solely from "differential rehearsal" of to-be-remembered vs. to-be-forgotten words or, additionally, from "inhibitory" processes that actively impair retrieval of to-be-forgotten words. During study, participants (N = 24) were instructed to remember half of a…

  14. Test of the CLAS12 RICH large-scale prototype in the direct proximity focusing configuration

    DOE PAGES

    Anefalos Pereira, S.; Baltzell, N.; Barion, L.; ...

    2016-02-11

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c up to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Laboratory. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and high-packed and high-segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). We report here the results of the tests of a large scale prototype of the RICH detector performed withmore » the hadron beam of the CERN T9 experimental hall for the direct detection configuration. As a result, the tests demonstrated that the proposed design provides the required pion-to-kaon rejection factor of 1:500 in the whole momentum range.« less

  15. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing.

    PubMed

    Francke, Uta; Dijamco, Cheri; Kiefer, Amy K; Eriksson, Nicholas; Moiseff, Bianca; Tung, Joyce Y; Mountain, Joanna L

    2013-01-01

    Background. Inherited BRCA gene mutations convey a high risk for breast and ovarian cancer, but current guidelines limit BRCA mutation testing to women with early-onset cancer and relatives of mutation-positive cases. Benefits and risks of providing this information directly to consumers are unknown. Methods. To assess and quantify emotional and behavioral reactions of consumers to their 23andMe Personal Genome Service(®) report of three BRCA mutations that are common in Ashkenazi Jews, we invited all 136 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive individuals in the 23andMe customer database who had chosen to view their BRCA reports to participate in this IRB-approved study. We also invited 160 mutation-negative customers who were matched for age, sex and ancestry. Semi-structured phone interviews were completed for 32 mutation carriers, 16 women and 16 men, and 31 non-carriers. Questions addressed personal and family history of cancer, decision and timing of viewing the BRCA report, recollection of the result, emotional responses, perception of personal cancer risk, information sharing, and actions taken or planned. Results. Eleven women and 14 men had received the unexpected result that they are carriers of a BRCA1 185delAG or 5382insC, or BRCA2 6174delT mutation. None of them reported extreme anxiety and four experienced moderate anxiety that was transitory. Remarkably, five women and six men described their response as neutral. Most carrier women sought medical advice and four underwent risk-reducing procedures after confirmatory mutation testing. Male carriers realized that their test results implied genetic risk for female relatives, and several of them felt considerably burdened by this fact. Sharing mutation information with family members led to screening of at least 30 relatives and identification of 13 additional carriers. Non-carriers did not report inappropriate actions, such as foregoing cancer screening. All but one of the 32 mutation-positive participants

  16. Direct validity of the yo-yo intermittent recovery test in young team handball players.

    PubMed

    Souhail, Hermassi; Castagna, Carlo; Mohamed, Haj Yahmed; Younes, Hachana; Chamari, Karim

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 performance (distance covered, Yo-Yo IR1) and match activities (direct validity) in young male team handball players. Eighteen young male players (age 14.3 +/- 0.5 years, body mass 64 +/- 28.7 kg, height 174 +/- 6 cm, body fat 11.2 +/- 3.9%) took part in this study. Players' match activities were videotaped during an experimental tournament (6 games/player) and analyzed using a computerized system. Games and Yo-Yo IR1 heart rates (HRs) (short-range telemetry, HR) and blood lactate concentrations ([la]b) were assessed throughout and at selected times of the games, respectively. Peak Yo-Yo IR1 HR was assumed as representative of individual maximal HR (HRmax). Mean and peak game HRs were 174 +/- 3 and 198 +/- 2 b.min, which corresponded to 87 and 99% of HRmax, respectively. Yo-Yo IR1 performance (1,831 +/- 373 m) was significantly related (r = 0.88, p < 0.01) to total game distance (1,921 +/- 325 m). Post-game (9.2 +/- 2.3 mmol.L) and Yo-Yo IR1 (8.8 +/- 1.6 mmol.L) [la]b were significantly related (r = 0.51, p < 0.05). These findings demonstrated the direct validity of Yo-Yo IR1. Consequently, Yo-Yo IR1 test may be considered as a team handball test relevant for the assessment of intermittent high-intensity endurance in young male team handball players.

  17. Autobiologies on YouTube: Narratives of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Anna; Kelly, Susan E.; Wyatt, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing personal genomics market, little is known about how people engage with the possibilities offered by direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing. In order to help address this gap, this study deploys narrative analysis of YouTube videos posted by individuals who have purchased DTC genetic testing for disease. Genetic testing is said to be contributing to new states of illness, where individuals may become “patients-in-waiting.” In the videos analyzed, we found a new form of storytelling about this ambiguous state of illness, which we refer to as autobiology. Autobiology – the study of, and story about, one's own biology – concerns narratives of sense-making through forms of biological practice, as well as wayfaring narratives which interweave genetic markers and family histories of disease. These autobiologies – part of a broader shift toward public stories about genetics and other healthcare technologies – exhibit playfulness, as well as being bound with consumerist practices. PMID:24772003

  18. How to chase a tracer - combining conventional salt tracer testing and direct push electrical conductivity profiling for enhanced aquifer characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienken, Thomas; Huber, Emanuel; Kreck, Manuel; Huggenberger, Peter; Dietrich, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Tracer testing is a well-established technique in hydrogeological site characterization. However, certain a priori knowledge of the hydraulic regime is required beforehand to avoid test failure, e.g. miss of tracer. In this study, we propose a novel tracer test concept for the hydraulic characterization of shallow unconsolidated sedimentary deposits when only scarce a priori information on the hydraulic regime is available. Therefore, we combine conventional salt tracer testing with direct push vertical high resolution electrical conductivity logging. The proposed tracer test concept was successfully tested on coarse, braided river deposits of the Tagliamento River, Italy. With limited a priori information available two tracer tests were performed in three days to reliably determine ground water flow direction and velocity allowing on-site decision-making to adaptively install observation wells for reliable breakthrough curve measurements. Furthermore, direct push vertical electrical profiling provided essential information about the plume characteristics with outstanding measurement resolution and efficiency.

  19. Preferences of referring physicians regarding the role of radiologists as direct communicators of test results

    PubMed Central

    Erdoğan, Nuri; İmamoğlu, Hakan; Görkem, Süreyya Burcu; Doğan, Serap; Şenol, Serkan; Öztürk, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE Currently, there is a growing need for patient-centered radiology in which radiologists communicate with patients directly. The aim of this study is to investigate the preferences of referring physicians (RPs) regarding direct communication between radiologists and patients. METHODS This study was conducted in a single academic hospital using a survey form. The survey items investigated the preferences of RPs regarding: 1. who should be the communicator of test results when a patient with abnormal findings requests information (the options were the radiologist; another health professional with communication skills training (CST); and the RP with CST); and 2. how the communication activity should be conducted if the radiologist is obliged (or chooses) to communicate with the patient directly (the options were that the disclosure should be limited to the findings in the radiology report; the radiologist should emphasize that the RP is the primary physician; and the communication activity should be conducted in accordance with guidelines established by consensus). The respondents were 101 RPs from various fields of specialty; they were asked to rate the items using a 5-point Likert scale. The effects of age, sex, field of specialty (surgical vs. nonsurgical), and total years of experience as a medical specialist on the ratings were statistically compared. RESULTS Most RPs preferred that the radiologist transmit the information to the RP without communicating directly with the patient (89.1%). Although 69.3% of the RPs declared that health professionals with CST have priority in communication, 86.1% declared that the RP should be the person who received CST. If the radiologist communicates with patients directly, the RPs favored that 1. the disclosure should be limited to the findings in the radiology report (95%); 2. the communication activity should include an emphasis on the RP as the patient’s primary agent (84.1%); and 3. communication should be

  20. Direct test of static stress versus dynamic stress triggering of aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Aftershocks observed over time scales of minutes to months following a main shock are plausibly triggered by the static stress change imparted by the main shock, dynamic shaking effects associated with passage of seismic waves from the main shock, or a combination of the two. We design a direct test of static versus dynamic triggering of aftershocks by comparing the near-field temporal aftershock patterns generated by aseismic and impulsive events occurring in the same source area. The San Juan Bautista, California, area is ideally suited for this purpose because several events of both types of M???5 have occurred since 1974. We find that aftershock rates observed after impulsive events are much higher than those observed after aseismic events, and this pattern persists for several weeks after the event. This suggests that, at least in the near field, dynamic triggering is the dominant cause of aftershocks, and that it generates both immediate and delayed aftershock activity.

  1. Some preliminary results from the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, P.W.; Fingersh, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    With the remarkable rise in interest in variable-speed operation of larger wind turbines, it has become important for the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) to have access to a variable-speed test bed that can be specially instrumented for research. Accordingly, a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind, Grumman Windstream machine has been equipped with a set of composite blades and a direct-coupled, permanent-magnet, 20 kilowatt generator. This machine and its associated control system and data collection system are discussed. Several variations of a maximum power control algorithm have been installed on the control computer. To provide a baseline for comparison, several constant speed algorithms have also been installed. The present major effort is devoted to daytime, semi-autonomous data collection.

  2. Thermal comfort conditions in the NBS/DoE direct gain passive solar test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. T.

    1982-12-01

    The thermal comfort conditions in a direct gain cell of passive solar test facility were analyzed. It was found that the daytime operative temperature as measured by the black globe temperature sensors in an area near the large south glazing exceeded the upper boundary of the ASHRAE comfort envelope by a large amount in a clear day during both the thermal transition month of October and the cold winter month of January. The reflected solar radiation from the interior surfaces and the snow covered ground plays a significant role on the measured black globe temperature and should be included in the computation of the mean radiant temperature for a space with large glazed areas.

  3. High Voltage Solar Array ARC Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, T.; Vaughn, J.; Carruth, M. R.; Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2003-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (112HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration "trigger" arcs as well as long duration "sustained" arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of vo!tage, (current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (>300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  4. High Voltage Solar Array Arc Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Todd; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Vaughn, J. A.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.; Ferguson, D.; Kerslake, T. W.; Peterson, T.; Snyder, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (D2HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration trigger arcs as well as long duration sustained arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of voltage, current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (greater than 300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  5. Testing the axial dipole hypothesis for the Moon by modeling the direction of crustal magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. S.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Orbital magnetic field data show that portions of the Moon's crust are strongly magnetized, and paleomagnetic data of lunar samples suggest that Earth strength magnetic fields could have existed during the first several hundred million years of lunar history. The origin of the fields that magnetized the crust are not understood and could be the result of either a long-lived core-generated dynamo or transient fields associated with large impact events. Core dynamo models usually predict that the field would be predominantly dipolar, with the dipole axis aligned with the rotation axis. We test this hypothesis by modeling the direction of crustal magnetization using a global magnetic field model of the Moon derived from Lunar Prospector and Kaguya magnetometer data. We make use of a model that assumes that the crust is unidirectionally magnetized. The intensity of magnetization can vary with the crust, and the best fitting direction of magnetization is obtained from a nonnegative least squares inversion. From the best fitting magnetization direction we obtain the corresponding north magnetic pole predicted by an internal dipolar field. Some of the obtained paleopoles are associated with the current geographic poles, while other well-constrained anomalies have paleopoles at equatorial latitudes, preferentially at 90° east and west longitudes. One plausible hypothesis for this distribution of paleopoles is that the Moon possessed a long-lived dipolar field but that the dipole was not aligned with the rotation axis as a result of large-scale heat flow heterogeneities at the core-mantle boundary.

  6. A field test of the directed deterrence hypothesis in two species of wild chili.

    PubMed

    Levey, Douglas J; Tewksbury, Joshua J; Cipollini, Martin L; Carlo, Tomás A

    2006-11-01

    The directed deterrence hypothesis posits that secondary metabolites in ripe fruit function to deter fruit consumption by vertebrates that do not disperse seeds, while not impacting consumption by those that do. We tested this hypothesis in two species of wild chilies (Capsicum spp.). Both produce fruits that contain capsaicinoids, the compounds responsible for the pungency of chilies. Previous work suggests seed-dispersing birds but not seed-destroying rodents consume chili fruits, presumably because rodents are deterred by capsaicin. However, fruit removal from chili plants by rodents and other mammals has not been previously explored. Because laboratory rodents can develop a preference for capsaicin, it is quite possible that wild rodents are natural consumers of chili fruits. We monitored the fate of 125 marked fruits of Capsicum chacoense and 291 fruits of Capsicum annuum. For both species, essentially all fruit removal occurred during the day, when rodents are inactive. Video monitoring revealed fruit removal only by birds, mostly by species known to disperse chili seeds in viable condition. Furthermore, these species are from taxonomic groups that tend to specialize on lipid-rich fruits. Both species of chili produce fruits that are unusually high in lipids (35% in C. chacoense, 24% in C. annuum). These results support the directed deterrence hypothesis and suggest that fruiting plants distinguish between seed predators and seed dispersers by producing fruits that repel the former and attract the latter.

  7. Femininity and Kin-Directed Altruism in Androphilic Men: A Test of an Evolutionary Developmental Model.

    PubMed

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Petterson, Lanna J; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-04-01

    Androphilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward males whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction and arousal toward females. This study tested the adaptive feminine phenotype model of the evolution of male androphilia via kin selection, which posits that the development of an evolved disposition toward elevated kin-directed altruism among androphilic males is contingent on the behavioral expression of femininity. Gynephilic men, androphilic women, and androphilic men (N = 387) completed measures of childhood and adulthood gender expression and concern for kin's well-being. Adulthood femininity correlated positively with uncle/aunt-like tendencies among androphilic men and women. Although androphilic women reported greater willingness to invest in nieces and nephews than gynephilic and androphilic men, mediation analyses indicated that adult femininity completely mediated these group differences. In addition, changes in the expression of femininity between childhood and adulthood were associated with parallel changes in concern for the well-being of kin among androphilic men. Thus, these findings suggest that femininity is key to the expression of kin-directed altruism among androphilic males and may have been important in the evolution of male androphilia.

  8. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development: FY 2006 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wil Lewis, editor

    2007-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site–Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program completed its fifth successful year of research and development activities in FY 2006. Forty new projects were selected for funding this year, and ten FY 2005 projects were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $6 million, for an average per-project cost of $120 thousand. Beginning in May, 2006 programmatic burden rates were applied to SDRD project costs. An external audit conducted in September 2006 verified that appropriate accounting practices were applied to the SDRD program. Highlights for the year included: the filing of 27 invention disclosures for intellectual property generated by FY 2006 projects; programmatic adoption of four FY 2005 SDRD-developed technologies; participation in the tri-Lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD program review that was broadly attended by NTS, NNSA, LDRD, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2006 projects; and the successful completion of 50 R&D projects, as presented in this report.

  9. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration. FY2005 report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Will

    2006-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site-Directed Research, Development, and Demonstration (SDRD) program completed a very successful year of research and development activities in FY 2005. Fifty new projects were selected for funding this year, and five FY 2004 projects were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $5.4 million, for an average per project cost of just under $100,000. Two external audits of SDRD accounting practices were conducted in FY 2005. Both audits found the program's accounting practices consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 413.2A, and one included the observation that the NTS contractor ''did an exceptional job in planning and executing year-start activities.'' Highlights for the year included: the filing of 18 invention disclosures for intellectual property generated by FY 2005 projects; programmatic adoption of 17 FY 2004 SDRD-developed technologies; participation in the tri-lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD program review that was broadly attended by NTS, NNSA, LDRD, and U.S. Department of Homeland Security representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2005 projects; and the successful completion of 55 R&D projects, as presented in this report.

  10. Testing of an Arcjet Thruster with Capability of Direct-Drive Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Adam K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Eskridge, Richard H.; Smith, James W.; Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Riley, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Electric thrusters typically require a power processing unit (PPU) to convert the spacecraft provided power to the voltage-current that a thruster needs for operation. Testing has been initiated to study whether an arcjet thruster can be operated directly with the power produced by solar arrays without any additional conversion. Elimination of the PPU significantly reduces system-level complexity of the propulsion system, and lowers developmental cost and risk. The work aims to identify and address technical questions related to power conditioning and noise suppression in the system and heating of the thruster in long-duration operation. The apparatus under investigation has a target power level from 400-1,000 W. However, the proposed direct-drive arcjet is potentially a highly scalable concept, applicable to solar-electric spacecraft with up to 100's of kW and beyond. A direct-drive electric propulsion system would be comprised of a thruster that operates with the power supplied directly from the power source (typically solar arrays) with no further power conditioning needed between those two components. Arcjet thrusters are electric propulsion devices, with the power supplied as a high current at low voltage; of all the different types of electric thruster, they are best suited for direct drive from solar arrays. One advantage of an arcjet over Hall or gridded ion thrusters is that for comparable power the arcjet is a much smaller device and can provide more thrust and orders of magnitude higher thrust density (approximately 1-10 N/sq m), albeit at lower I(sub sp) (approximately 800-1000 s). In addition, arcjets are capable of operating on a wide range of propellant options, having been demonstrated on H2, ammonia, N2, Ar, Kr, Xe, while present SOA Hall and ion thrusters are primarily limited to Xe propellant. Direct-drive is often discussed in terms of Hall thrusters, but they require 250-300 V for operation, which is difficult even with high-voltage solar

  11. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; Hollenbeck, Scott

    2015-01-27

    We examined the calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.

  12. Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10−18

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Moritz; Parker, Stephen R.; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Hartnett, John G.; Ivanov, Eugene N.; Peters, Achim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry is a foundational property of modern physics, underlying the standard model of particles and general relativity. It is anticipated that these two theories are low-energy approximations of a single theory that is unified and consistent at the Planck scale. Many unifying proposals allow Lorentz symmetry to be broken, with observable effects appearing at Planck-suppressed levels; thus, precision tests of Lorentz invariance are needed to assess and guide theoretical efforts. Here we use ultrastable oscillator frequency sources to perform a modern Michelson–Morley experiment and make the most precise direct terrestrial test to date of Lorentz symmetry for the photon, constraining Lorentz violating orientation-dependent relative frequency changes Δν/ν to 9.2±10.7 × 10−19 (95% confidence interval). This order of magnitude improvement over previous Michelson–Morley experiments allows us to set comprehensive simultaneous bounds on nine boost and rotation anisotropies of the speed of light, finding no significant violations of Lorentz symmetry. PMID:26323989

  13. Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10(-18).

    PubMed

    Nagel, Moritz; Parker, Stephen R; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V; Stanwix, Paul L; Hartnett, John G; Ivanov, Eugene N; Peters, Achim; Tobar, Michael E

    2015-09-01

    Lorentz symmetry is a foundational property of modern physics, underlying the standard model of particles and general relativity. It is anticipated that these two theories are low-energy approximations of a single theory that is unified and consistent at the Planck scale. Many unifying proposals allow Lorentz symmetry to be broken, with observable effects appearing at Planck-suppressed levels; thus, precision tests of Lorentz invariance are needed to assess and guide theoretical efforts. Here we use ultrastable oscillator frequency sources to perform a modern Michelson-Morley experiment and make the most precise direct terrestrial test to date of Lorentz symmetry for the photon, constraining Lorentz violating orientation-dependent relative frequency changes Δν/ν to 9.2±10.7 × 10(-19) (95% confidence interval). This order of magnitude improvement over previous Michelson-Morley experiments allows us to set comprehensive simultaneous bounds on nine boost and rotation anisotropies of the speed of light, finding no significant violations of Lorentz symmetry.

  14. Reflections on the US FDA's Warning on Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing.

    PubMed

    Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2014-12-01

    In November 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) sent a warning letter to 23andMe, Inc. and ordered the company to discontinue marketing of the 23andMe Personal Genome Service (PGS) until it receives FDA marketing authorization for the device. The FDA considers the PGS as an unclassified medical device, which requires premarket approval or de novo classification. Opponents of the FDA's action expressed their concerns, saying that the FDA is overcautious and paternalistic, which violates consumers' rights and might stifle the consumer genomics field itself, and insisted that the agency should not restrict direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic testing without empirical evidence of harm. Proponents support the agency's action as protection of consumers from potentially invalid and almost useless information. This action was also significant, since it reflected the FDA's attitude towards medical application of next-generation sequencing techniques. In this review, we followed up on the FDA-23andMe incident and evaluated the problems and prospects for DTC genetic testing.

  15. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L; Ogle, Burton R; Hollenbeck, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters were examined to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. Both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Therefore, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. The bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.

  16. An exacting transition probability measurement - a direct test of atomic many-body theories

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tarun; De Munshi, Debashis; Yum, Dahyun; Rebhi, Riadh; Mukherjee, Manas

    2016-01-01

    A new protocol for measuring the branching fraction of hydrogenic atoms with only statistically limited uncertainty is proposed and demonstrated for the decay of the P3/2 level of the barium ion, with precision below 0.5%. Heavy hydrogenic atoms like the barium ion are test beds for fundamental physics such as atomic parity violation and they also hold the key to understanding nucleo-synthesis in stars. To draw definitive conclusion about possible physics beyond the standard model by measuring atomic parity violation in the barium ion it is necessary to measure the dipole transition probabilities of low-lying excited states with a precision better than 1%. Furthermore, enhancing our understanding of the barium puzzle in barium stars requires branching fraction data for proper modelling of nucleo-synthesis. Our measurements are the first to provide a direct test of quantum many-body calculations on the barium ion with a precision below one percent and more importantly with no known systematic uncertainties. The unique measurement protocol proposed here can be easily extended to any decay with more than two channels and hence paves the way for measuring the branching fractions of other hydrogenic atoms with no significant systematic uncertainties. PMID:27432734

  17. An exacting transition probability measurement - a direct test of atomic many-body theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Tarun; de Munshi, Debashis; Yum, Dahyun; Rebhi, Riadh; Mukherjee, Manas

    2016-07-01

    A new protocol for measuring the branching fraction of hydrogenic atoms with only statistically limited uncertainty is proposed and demonstrated for the decay of the P3/2 level of the barium ion, with precision below 0.5%. Heavy hydrogenic atoms like the barium ion are test beds for fundamental physics such as atomic parity violation and they also hold the key to understanding nucleo-synthesis in stars. To draw definitive conclusion about possible physics beyond the standard model by measuring atomic parity violation in the barium ion it is necessary to measure the dipole transition probabilities of low-lying excited states with a precision better than 1%. Furthermore, enhancing our understanding of the barium puzzle in barium stars requires branching fraction data for proper modelling of nucleo-synthesis. Our measurements are the first to provide a direct test of quantum many-body calculations on the barium ion with a precision below one percent and more importantly with no known systematic uncertainties. The unique measurement protocol proposed here can be easily extended to any decay with more than two channels and hence paves the way for measuring the branching fractions of other hydrogenic atoms with no significant systematic uncertainties.

  18. Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10-18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Moritz; Parker, Stephen R.; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Hartnett, John G.; Ivanov, Eugene N.; Peters, Achim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Lorentz symmetry is a foundational property of modern physics, underlying the standard model of particles and general relativity. It is anticipated that these two theories are low-energy approximations of a single theory that is unified and consistent at the Planck scale. Many unifying proposals allow Lorentz symmetry to be broken, with observable effects appearing at Planck-suppressed levels; thus, precision tests of Lorentz invariance are needed to assess and guide theoretical efforts. Here we use ultrastable oscillator frequency sources to perform a modern Michelson-Morley experiment and make the most precise direct terrestrial test to date of Lorentz symmetry for the photon, constraining Lorentz violating orientation-dependent relative frequency changes Δν/ν to 9.2+/-10.7 × 10-19 (95% confidence interval). This order of magnitude improvement over previous Michelson-Morley experiments allows us to set comprehensive simultaneous bounds on nine boost and rotation anisotropies of the speed of light, finding no significant violations of Lorentz symmetry.

  19. Health-related direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a review of companies' policies with regard to genetic testing in minors.

    PubMed

    Borry, Pascal; Howard, Heidi C; Sénécal, Karine; Avard, Denise

    2010-03-01

    More and more companies are advertising and selling genetic tests directly to consumers. Considering the ethical, legal, and psychological concerns surrounding genetic testing in minors, a study of companies' websites was performed in order to describe and analyze their policies with respect to this issue. Of the 29 companies analyzed, 13 did not provide any information about this matter, eight companies allowed genetic testing upon parental request, four companies stated that their website is not directed to children under 18 years, and four companies suggested that in order to be tested, applicants should have reached the age of legal majority. If private companies offer genetic tests which are also offered in a clinical setting, can they be expected to adhere to the existing clinical guidelines with regard to these tests? If so, a certain ambiguity exists. Many companies are emphasizing in their disclaimers that their services are not medical services and should not be used as a basis for making medical decisions. Nonetheless, it remains debatable whether genetic testing in minors would be appropriate in this context. In line with the Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing, the Human Genetics Commission addressed the problem of non-consensual testing and recommended not to supply genetic testing services directly to those under the age of 16 or to those not able to make a competent decision regarding testing.

  20. Second Language Idiom Learning in a Paired-Associate Paradigm: Effects of Direction of Learning, Direction of Testing, Idiom Imageability, and Idiom Transparency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinel, Margarita P.; Hulstijn, Jan H.; Steinel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    In a paired-associate learning (PAL) task, Dutch university students (n = 129) learned 20 English second language (L2) idioms either receptively or productively (i.e., L2-first language [L1] or L1-L2) and were tested in two directions (i.e., recognition or production) immediately after learning and 3 weeks later. Receptive and productive…

  1. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Frontal Cortex Decreases Performance on the WAIS-IV Intelligence Test

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Kristin K.; Mellin, Juliann M.; Lustenberger, Caroline M.; Boyle, Michael R.; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V.; Frohlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA at each anode for 20 minutes) or active sham tDCS (2mA for 40 seconds), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA for 20 minutes). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. PMID:25934490

  2. Alternatives to the use of animals in safety testing as required by the EU-Cosmetics Directive 2009.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Ingredients of cosmetic products are no longer allowed to be tested by animal experimentation (EU-Cosmetics Directive 76/768 EEC). For several toxicological endpoints this testing ban applies since March 11, 2009, while repeated dose toxicity tests and the test on skin sensitisation will follow on March 11, 2013. All currently available alternatives meeting the requirements of the first deadline are compiled in the following.

  3. DIRECT DOSING OF PRE-WEANING RODENTS IN TOXICITY TESTING AND RESEARCH: DELIBERATIONS OF AN ILSI RSI EXPERT WORKING GROUP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory animal studies that are designed to assess the effects of exposure of a test substance during postnatal development are commonly utilized in basic research and to evaluate potential hazard to children for chemical and pharmaceutical regulation. Direct dosing, defined ...

  4. Comparison of Test Directions for Ability Tests: Impact on Young English-Language Learner and Non-ELL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni Marie

    2010-01-01

    Ability tests play an important role in the assessment programs of many schools. However, the inferences about ability made from such tests presume that students understand the tasks they are attempting. Task familiarity can vary by student as well as by format. By design, nonverbal reasoning tests use formats that are intended to be novel. The…

  5. Test plan for non-radioactive testing of vertical calciner for development of direct denitration conversion of Pu-bearing liquors to stable, storage solids

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, F.D.

    1995-03-30

    Plutonium-bearing liquors, including ANL scrap liquors, will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those liquors to stable, storable PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. This test plan is to test with non-radioactive stand-in materials to demonstrate adequate performance of the vertical calciner and ancillary equipment.

  6. 1994 Triggered lightning test program: Measured responses of a reinforced concrete building under direct lightning attachments, Volume 2: Test data

    SciTech Connect

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Chael, J.; Davis, R.

    1995-08-01

    A rocket-triggered lightning test was carried out during the summer of 1994 on a specially designed steel reinforced concrete test building located at Ft. McClellan, Alabama. Currents, voltages, and magnetic fields were measured at 24 instrumented locations during 42 return strokes triggered to designated points on the structure and its lightning protection system. Detailed descriptions of the test structure, measurements, and test procedures are given in Volume 1 of this report. The present volume contains plots of the complete set of test data.

  7. Design, Testing and Modeling of the Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System for FHRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiuping

    Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) is a passive decay heat removal system proposed for the Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) that combines coated particle fuel and a graphite moderator with a liquid fluoride salt as the coolant. The DRACS features three coupled natural circulation/convection loops, relying completely on buoyancy as the driving force. These loops are coupled through two heat exchangers, namely, the DRACS Heat Exchanger (DHX) and the Natural Draft Heat Exchanger (NDHX). In addition, a fluidic diode is employed to minimize the parasitic flow into the DRACS primary loop and correspondingly the heat loss to the DRACS during normal operation of the reactor, but to keep the DRACS ready for activation, if needed, during accidents. While the DRACS concept has been proposed, there are no actual prototypic DRACS systems for FHRs built or tested in the literature. The primary goal of the present research is to design, test, and model the DRACS for FHR applications. Previously, a detailed modular design of the DRACS for a 20-MWth FHR was developed. As a starting point, the DRACS was designed to remove 1% of the reactor nominal power, i.e., 200 kW decay power. In addition, a detailed scaling analysis has been performed to develop the key non-dimensional numbers that characterize the DRACS system. Based on the previous work on the prototypic DRACS design and scaling analysis, two scaled-down test facilities have been designed and constructed, namely, Low-temperature DRACS Test Facility (LTDF) and High-temperature DRACS Test Facility (HTDF). The LTDF has a nominal power capacity of 6 kW. It uses 1.0-MPa water as the primary coolant, 0.1-MPa water as the secondary coolant, and ambient air as the ultimate heat sink. The main purpose of the LTDF is to examine the couplings among the three natural circulation/convection loops in the DRACS, as well as to provide design and operation experience for the HTDF. An extensive test matrix has

  8. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development, FY 2007 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wil Lewis, editor

    2008-02-20

    The Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program completed a very successful year of research and development activities in FY 2007. Twenty-nine new projects were selected for funding this year, and eight projects started in FY 2006 were brought to conclusion. The total funds expended by the SDRD program were $5.67 million, for an average per-project cost of $153 thousand. An external audit conducted in September 2007 verified that appropriate accounting practices were applied to the SDRD program. Highlights for the year included: programmatic adoption of 8 SDRD-developed technologies; the filing of 9 invention disclosures for innovation evolving from SDRD projects; participation in the tri-Lab Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) and SDRD Symposium that was broadly attended by Nevada Test Site (NTS), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), LDRD, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) representatives; peer reviews of all FY 2007 projects; and the successful completion of 37 R&D projects, as presented in this report. In response to a company-wide call, authors throughout the NTS complex submitted 182 proposals for FY 2007 SDRD projects. The SDRD program has seen a dramatic increase in the yearly total of submitted proposals--from 69 in FY 2002 to 182 this year--while the number of projects funded has actually decreased from a program high of 57 in FY 2004. The overall effect of this trend has helped ensure an increasingly competitive program that benefited from a broader set of innovative ideas, making project selection both challenging and rewarding. Proposals were evaluated for technical merit, including such factors as innovation, probability of success, potential benefit, and mission applicability. Authors and reviewers benefited from the use of a shortfalls list entitled the 'NTS Technology Needs Assessment' that was compiled from NTS, National Weapons Laboratory (NWL), and

  9. Direct Reading Particle Counters: Calibration Verification and Multiple Instrument Agreement via Bump Testing

    DOE PAGES

    Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; ...

    2015-01-27

    We examined the calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The methodmore » consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.« less

  10. Direct oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. Clinical relevance and options for laboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Sibbing, D; Spannagl, M

    2014-01-01

    Oral anticoagulants and platelet receptor blockers are widely used in clinical practice with the aim of reducing the risk of thrombotic complications in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Their regular intake and adequate antithrombotic action is vital and this is way numerous assays have been developed for laboratory testing and monitoring of these agents. Available assays can be stratified into pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assays. Such assays are increasingly used in clinical routine and their daily use is triggered by the advent of the novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) as an alternative for vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment, which are dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, and by the advent of prasugrel or ticagrelor as an alternative for clopidogrel with regard to platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibition. In this review the most important and most commonly used laboratory assays are summarized as well as their clinical implications with the focus on DOACs as an alternative for VKAs and the different P2Y12 receptor blockers for antiplatelet treatment.

  11. Direct writing electrodes using a ball pen for paper-based point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zedong; Li, Fei; Hu, Jie; Wee, Wei Hong; Han, Yu Long; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-08-21

    The integration of paper with an electrochemical device has attracted growing attention for point-of-care testing, where it is of great importance to fabricate electrodes on paper in a low-cost, easy and versatile way. In this work, we report a simple strategy for directly writing electrodes on paper using a pressure-assisted ball pen to form a paper-based electrochemical device (PED). This method is demonstrated to be capable of fabricating electrodes on paper with good electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance, holding great potential to be employed in point-of-care applications, such as in human health diagnostics and food safety detection. As examples, the PEDs fabricated using the developed method are applied for detection of glucose in artificial urine and melamine in sample solutions. Furthermore, our developed strategy is also extended to fabricate PEDs with multi-electrode arrays and write electrodes on non-planar surfaces (e.g., paper cup, human skin), indicating the potential application of our method in other fields, such as fabricating biosensors, paper electronics etc.

  12. Ground penetrating radar and direct current resistivity evaluation of the desiccation test cap, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a variety of waste units that may be temporarily or permanently stabilized by closure using an impermeable cover to prevent groundwater infiltration. The placement of an engineered kaolin clay layer over a waste unit is an accepted and economical technique for providing an impermeable cover but the long term stability and integrity of the clay in non-arid conditions is unknown. A simulated kaolin cap has been constructed at the SRA adjacent to the Burial Ground Complex. The cap is designed to evaluate the effects of desiccation on clay integrity, therefore half of the cap is covered with native soil to prevent drying, while the remainder of the cap is exposed. Measurements of the continuing impermeability of a clay cap are difficult because intrusive techniques may locally compromise the structure. Point measurements made to evaluate clay integrity, such as those from grid sampling or coring and made through a soil cover, may miss cracks, joints or fissures, and may not allow for mapping of the lateral extent of elongate features. Because of these problems, a non-invasive technique is needed to map clay integrity, below a soil or vegetation cover, which is capable of moderate to rapid investigation speeds. Two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, direct current resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR), have been successful at the SRS in geologically mapping shallow subsurface clay layers. The applicability of each technique in detecting the clay layer in the desiccation test cap and associated anomalies was investigated.

  13. Mathematical modeling and mechanical and histopathological testing of porous prosthetic pylon for direct skeletal attachment

    PubMed Central

    Pitkin, Mark; Raykhtsaum, Grigory; Pilling, John; Shukeylo, Yuri; Moxson, Vladimir; Duz, Volodimir; Lewandowski, John; Connolly, Raymond; Kistenberg, Robert S.; Dalton, John F.; Prilutsky, Boris; Jacobson, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    This article presents recent results in the development of the skin and bone integrated pylon (SBIP) intended for direct skeletal attachment of limb prostheses. In our previous studies of the porous SBIP-1 and SBIP-2 prototypes, the bond site between the porous pylons and residuum bone and skin did not show the inflammation characteristically observed when solid pylons are used. At the same time, porosity diminished the strength of the pylon. To find a reasonable balance between the biological conductivity and the strength of the porous pylon, we developed a mathematical model of the composite permeable structure. A novel manufacturing process was implemented, and the new SBIP-3 prototype was tested mechanically. The minimal strength requirements established earlier for the SBIP were exceeded threefold. The first histopathological analysis of skin, bone, and the implanted SBIP-2 pylons was conducted on two rats and one cat. The histopathological analysis provided new evidence of inflammation-free, deep ingrowth of skin and bone cells throughout the SBIP structure. PMID:19675985

  14. Moving towards a reliable HIV incidence test - current status, resources available, future directions and challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G; Pilcher, C D; Keating, S M; Kassanjee, R; Facente, S N; Welte, A; Grebe, E; Marson, K; Busch, M P; Dailey, P; Parkin, N; Osborn, J; Ongarello, S; Marsh, K; Garcia-Calleja, J M

    2017-04-01

    In 2011 the Incidence Assay Critical Path Working Group reviewed the current state of HIV incidence assays and helped to determine a critical path to the introduction of an HIV incidence assay. At that time the Consortium for Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays (CEPHIA) was formed to spur progress and raise standards among assay developers, scientists and laboratories involved in HIV incidence measurement and to structure and conduct a direct independent comparative evaluation of the performance of 10 existing HIV incidence assays, to be considered singly and in combinations as recent infection test algorithms. In this paper we report on a new framework for HIV incidence assay evaluation that has emerged from this effort over the past 5 years, which includes a preliminary target product profile for an incidence assay, a consensus around key performance metrics along with analytical tools and deployment of a standardized approach for incidence assay evaluation. The specimen panels for this evaluation have been collected in large volumes, characterized using a novel approach for infection dating rules and assembled into panels designed to assess the impact of important sources of measurement error with incidence assays such as viral subtype, elite host control of viraemia and antiretroviral treatment. We present the specific rationale for several of these innovations, and discuss important resources for assay developers and researchers that have recently become available. Finally, we summarize the key remaining steps on the path to development and implementation of reliable assays for monitoring HIV incidence at a population level.

  15. A direct test of the unequal-variance signal detection model of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Mickes, Laura; Wixted, John T; Wais, Peter E

    2007-10-01

    Analyses of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) almost invariably suggest that, on a recognition memory test, the standard deviation of memory strengths associated with the lures (sigma(lure)) is smaller than that of the targets (sigma(target)). Often, sigma(lure)/ sigma(target) approximately = 0.80. However, that conclusion is based on a model that assumes that the memory strength distributions are Gaussian in form. In two experiments, we investigated this issue in a more direct way by asking subjects to simply rate the memory strengths of targets and lures using a 20-point or a 99-point strength scale. The results showed that the standard deviation of the ratings made to the targets (S(target)) was, indeed, larger than the standard deviation of the ratings made to the lures (S(lure)). Moreover, across subjects, the ratio S(lure)/ S(target) correlated highly with the estimate of sigma(lure)/ sigma(target) obtained from ROC analysis, and both estimates were, on average, approximately equal to 0.80.

  16. Direct measurements of HOx radicals in the marine boundary layer: testing the current tropospheric chemistry mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Yugo; Akimoto, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    OH and HO(2) radicals, atmospheric detergents, and the reservoir thereof, play central roles in tropospheric chemistry. In spite of their importance, we had no choice but to trust their concentrations predicted by modeling studies based on known chemical processes. However, recent direct measurements of these radicals have enabled us to test and revise our knowledge of the processes by comparing the predicted and observed values of the radical concentrations. We developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrument and successfully observed OH and HO(2) at three remote islands of Japan (Oki Island, Okinawa Island, and Rishiri Island). At Okinawa Island, the observed daytime level of HO(2) agreed closely with the model estimates, suggesting that the photochemistry at Okinawa is well described by the current chemistry mechanism. At Rishiri Island, in contrast, the observed daytime level of HO(2) was consistently much lower than the calculated values. We proposed that iodine chemistry, usually not incorporated into the mechanism, is at least partly responsible for the discrepancy in the results. At night, HO(2) was detected at levels greater than 1 pptv at all three islands, suggesting the presence of processes in the dark that produce radicals. We showed that ozone reactions with unsaturated hydrocarbons, including monoterpenes, could significantly contribute to radical production.

  17. Direct Pb Isotopic Analysis of a Nuclear Fallout Debris Particle from the Trinity Nuclear Test.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Jeremy J; Snape, Joshua F; Whitehouse, Martin J; Nemchin, Alexander A

    2017-02-07

    The Pb isotope composition of a nuclear fallout debris particle has been directly measured in post-detonation materials produced during the Trinity nuclear test by a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) scanning ion image technique (SII). This technique permits the visual assessment of the spatial distribution of Pb and can be used to obtain full Pb isotope compositions in user-defined regions in a 70 μm × 70 μm analytical window. In conjunction with backscattered electron (BSE) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of the same particle, the Pb measured in this fallout particle cannot be from a major phase in the precursor arkosic sand. Similarly, the Pb isotope composition of the particle is resolvable from the surrounding glass at the 2σ uncertainty level (where σ represents the standard deviation). The Pb isotope composition measured in the particle here is in excellent agreement with that inferred from measurements of green and red trinitite, suggesting that these types of particles are responsible for the Pb isotope compositions measured in both trinitite glasses.

  18. Nevada Test Site-Directed Research and Development FY 2010 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Howard Bender, comp.

    2011-04-04

    This annual report of the Site-Directed Research and Development (SDRD) program represents the highly significant R&D accomplishments conducted during fiscal year 2010. This year was noteworthy historically, as the Nevada Test Site was renamed to the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). This change not only recognizes how the site's mission has evolved, but also heralds a future of new challenges and opportunities for the NNSS. In many ways, since its inception in 2002, the SDRD program has helped shape that evolving mission. As we approach 2012, SDRD will also mark a milestone, having completed its first full decade of innovative R&D in support of the site and national security. The program continues to fund advanced science and technology development across traditional Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear security areas such as stockpile stewardship and non-proliferation while also supporting Department of Homeland Security (DHS) needs, and specialized work for government agencies like the Department of Defense (DoD) and others. The NNSS will also contribute technologies in the areas of treaty verification and monitoring, two areas of increasing importance to national security. Keyed to the NNSS's broadened scope, the SDRD program will continue to anticipate and advance R&D projects that will help the NNSS meet forthcoming challenges.

  19. Direct-detection Free-space Laser Transceiver Test-bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Dabney, Philip W.; Ferrara, Jeffrey F.; Fong, Wai H.; Martino, Anthony J.; McGarry Jan. F.; Merkowitz, Stephen M.; Principe, Caleb M.; Sun, Siaoli; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a direct-detection free-space laser communications transceiver test bed. The laser transmitter is a master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration using a 1060 nm wavelength laser-diode with a two-stage multi-watt Ytterbium fiber amplifier. Dual Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulators provide an extinction ratio greater than 40 dB. The MOPA design delivered 10-W average power with low-duty-cycle PPM waveforms and achieved 1.7 kW peak power. We use pulse-position modulation format with a pseudo-noise code header to assist clock recovery and frame boundary identification. We are examining the use of low-density-parity-check (LDPC) codes for forward error correction. Our receiver uses an InGaAsP 1 mm diameter photocathode hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) cooled with a thermo-electric cooler. The HPMT has 25% single-photon detection efficiency at 1064 nm wavelength with a dark count rate of 60,000/s at -22 degrees Celsius and a single-photon impulse response of 0.9 ns. We report on progress toward demonstrating a combined laser communications and ranging field experiment.

  20. Direct-push hydrostratigraphic profiling: Coupling electrical logging and slug tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sellwood, S.M.; Healey, J.M.; Birk, S.; Butler, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can significantly affect the transport of contaminants in ground water. Conventional field methods, however, rarely provide a description of these variations at the level of detail necessary for reliable transport predictions and effective remediation designs. A direct-push (DP) method, hydrostratigraphic profiling, has been developed to characterize the spatial variability of both electrical conductivity (EC) and hydraulic conductivity in unconsolidated formations in a cost-effective manner. This method couples a dual-rod approach for performing slug tests in DP equipment with high-resolution EC logging. The method was evaluated at an extensively studied site in the Kansas River floodplain. A series of profiles was performed on a surface grid, resulting in a detailed depiction of the three-dimensional distribution of EC and K. Good agreement was found between K estimates obtained from this approach and those obtained using other methods. The results of the field evaluation indicate that DP hydrostratigraphic profiling is a promising method for obtaining detailed information about spatial variations in subsurface properties without the need for permanent wells.

  1. A Comparison of 2pi and 4pi Photometric Testing of Directional and Omnidirectional Sources in an Integrating Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.; Merzouk, Massine B.

    2014-06-12

    A Comparison of 2pi and 4pi Photometric Testing of Directional and Omnidirectional Sources in an Integrating Sphere. These data will help determine if differences in methods should be addresed in test methods specifically for LED products but applicable to other technologies as well

  2. A microcomputer-based data acquisition and control system for the direct shear, ring shear, triaxial shear, and consolidation tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Philip S.

    1983-01-01

    This report is intended to provide internal documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey laboratory's automatic data acquisition system. The operating procedures for each type of test are designed to independently lead a first-time user through the various stages of using the computer to control the test. Continuing advances in computer technology and the availability of desktop microcomputers with a wide variety of peripheral equipment at a reasonable cost can create an efficient automated geotechnical testing environment. A geotechnical testing environment is shown in figure 1. Using an automatic data acquisition system, laboratory test data from a variety of sensors can be collected, and manually or automatically recorded on a magnetic device at the same apparent time. The responses of a test can be displayed graphically on a CRT in a matter of seconds, giving the investigator an opportunity to evaluate the test data, and to make timely, informed decisions on such matters as whether to continue testing, abandon a test, or modify procedures. Data can be retrieved and results reported in tabular form, or graphic plots, suitable for publication. Thermistors, thermocouples, load cells, pressure transducers, and linear variable differential transformers are typical sensors which are incorporated in automated systems. The geotechnical tests which are most practical to automate are the long-term tests which often require readings to be recorded outside normal work hours and on weekends. Automation applications include incremental load consolidation tests, constant-rate-of-strain consolidation tests, direct shear tests, ring shear tests, and triaxial shear tests.

  3. Disk Diffusion Testing Using Candida sp. Colonies Taken Directly from CHROMagar Candida Medium May Decrease Time Required To Obtain Results

    PubMed Central

    Klevay, Michael; Ebinger, Alex; Diekema, Daniel; Messer, Shawn; Hollis, Richard; Pfaller, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We compared results of disk diffusion antifungal susceptibility testing from Candida sp. strains passaged on CHROMagar and on potato dextrose agar. The overall categorical agreements for fluconazole and voriconazole disk testing were 95% and 98% with 0% and 0.5% very major errors, respectively. Disk diffusion testing by the CLSI (formerly NCCLS) M44-A method can be performed accurately by taking inocula directly from CHROMagar. PMID:16000489

  4. New measures improve the accuracy of the directed-lie test when detecting deception using a mock crime.

    PubMed

    Bell, Brian G; Kircher, John C; Bernhardt, Paul C

    2008-06-09

    The present study tested the accuracy of probable-lie and directed-lie polygraph tests. One hundred and twenty men and women were recruited from the general community and paid $30 to participate in a mock crime experiment. Equal numbers of males and females were assigned to either the guilty or innocent condition with equal numbers in each group receiving either a probable-lie or a directed-lie polygraph test resulting in a 2 x 2 design with two experimental factors (test type and deceptive condition). Half of the participants were guilty and half were innocent of committing a mock theft of $20 from a purse. All participants were paid a $50 bonus if they could convince the polygraph examiner that they were innocent. There were no significant differences in decision accuracy between probable-lie and directed-lie tests, but respiration measures were more diagnostic for the probable-lie test. New physiological measures, skin potential excursion and a new respiratory measure improved the accuracy of the directed-lie test such that 86% of the innocent participants and 93% of the guilty participants were correctly classified.

  5. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses: Reverberant Acoustic Testing (RAT) vs. Direct Field Acoustic Testing (DFAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    Loudspeakers have been used for acoustic qualification of spacecraft, reflectors, solar panels, and other acoustically responsive structures for more than a decade. Limited measurements from some of the recent speaker tests used to qualify flight hardware have indicated significant spatial variation of the acoustic field within the test volume. Also structural responses have been reported to differ when similar tests were performed using reverberant chambers. To address the impact of non-uniform acoustic field on structural responses, a series of acoustic tests were performed using a flat panel and a 3-ft cylinder exposed to the field controlled by speakers and repeated in a reverberant chamber. The speaker testing was performed using multi-input-single-output (MISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control schemes with and without the test articles. In this paper the spatial variation of the acoustic field due to acoustic standing waves and their impacts on the structural responses in RAT and DFAT (both using MISO and MIMO controls for DFAT) are discussed in some detail.

  6. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A.E.; van den Berg, Sandra M.; Haerkens, Gijs M.; Koenders, Niek H.; de Leeuw, Arina J.; van Oorsouw, Roel G.; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. Purpose To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Study Design Cross-sectional, test-retest design Methods Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Results Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. Conclusion The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level of Evidence Level 2

  7. Ethical and clinical practice considerations for genetic counselors related to direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests.

    PubMed

    Wade, Christopher H; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2006-11-15

    Several companies utilize direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising for genetic tests and some, but not all, bypass clinician involvement by offering DTC purchase of the tests. This article examines how DTC marketing strategies may affect genetic counselors, using available cardiovascular disease susceptibility tests as an illustration. The interpretation of these tests is complex and includes consideration of clinical validity and utility, and the further complications of gene-environment interactions and pleiotropy. Although it is unclear to what extent genetic counselors will encounter clients who have been exposed to DTC marketing strategies, these strategies may influence genetic counseling interactions if they produce directed interest in specific tests and unrealistic expectations for the tests' capacity to predict disease. Often, a client's concern about risk for cardiovascular diseases is best addressed by established clinical tests and a family history assessment. Ethical dilemmas may arise for genetic counselors who consider whether to accept clients who request test interpretation or to order DTC-advertised tests that require a clinician's authorization. Genetic counselors' obligations to care for clients extend to interpreting DTC tests, although this obligation may be fulfilled by referral or consultation with specialists. Genetic counselors do not have an obligation to order DTC-advertised tests that have minimal clinical validity and utility at a client's request. This can be a justified restriction on autonomy based on consideration of risks to the client, the costs, and the implications for society.

  8. Laboratory endurance test of sunflower methyl esters for direct injected diesel engine fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.; Ziejewski, M.

    1983-12-01

    A methyl ester of sunflower oil was durability tested using the test cycle recommended by the Alternate Fuels Committee of the Engine Manufacturer's Association. The results are compared to a baseline test using diesel fuel. Based on the results, the methyl ester fuel successfully completed the 200-hour durability test.

  9. The Current Often Implemented Fitness Tests in Physical Education Programs: Problems and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen Deng

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to examine current nationwide youth fitness test programs, address problems embedded in the programs, and possible solutions. The current Fitnessgram, President's Challenge, and YMCA youth fitness test programs were selected to represent nationwide youth fitness test programs. Sponsors of the nationwide youth fitness test programs…

  10. Considerations When Including Students with Disabilities in Test Security Policies. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Sound test security policies and procedures are needed to ensure test security and confidentiality, and to help prevent cheating. In this era when cheating on tests draws regular media attention, there is a need for thoughtful consideration of the ways in which possible test security measures may affect accessibility for some students with…

  11. Fitness consequences of female multiple mating: A direct test of indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The observation that females mate multiply when males provide nothing but sperm - which sexual selection theory suggests is unlikely to be limiting - continues to puzzle evolutionary biologists. Here we test the hypothesis that multiple mating is prevalent under such circumstances because it enhances female fitness. We do this by allowing female Trinidadian guppies to mate with either a single male or with multiple males, and then tracking the consequences of these matings across two generations. Results Overall, multiply mated females produced 67% more F2 grand-offspring than singly mated females. These offspring, however, did not grow or mature faster, nor were they larger at birth, than F2 grand-offspring of singly mated females. Our results, however, show that multiple mating yields benefits to females in the form of an increase in the production of F1. The higher fecundity among multiply mated mothers was driven by greater production of sons but not daughters. However, contrary to expectation, individually, the offspring of multiply mated females do not grow at different rates than offspring of singly mated females, nor do any indirect fitness benefits or costs accrue to second-generation offspring. Conclusions The study provides strong evidence that multiple mating is advantageous to females, even when males contribute only sperm. This benefit is achieved through an increase in fecundity in the first generation, rather than through other fitness correlates such as size at birth, growth rate, time to sexual maturation and survival. Considered alongside previous work that female guppies can choose to mate with multiple partners, our results provide compelling evidence that direct fitness benefits underpin these mating decisions. PMID:22978442

  12. Startup, testing, and operation of the Santa Clara 2MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skok, A.J.; Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is a collaboration between several utility organizations, Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE), and the U.S. Dept. Of Energy aimed at the demonstration of Energy Research Corporation`s (ERC) direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology. ERC has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade, and this project is an integral part of the ERC commercialization effort. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project is to provide the first full, commercial scale demonstration of this technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere. An aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing interaction with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its production facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. FCE is serving as the prime contractor for the design, construction, and testing of the SCDP Plant. FCMC has manufactured the multi-stack submodules used in the DC power section of the plant. Fluor Daniel Inc. (FDI) served as the architect-engineer subcontractor for the design and construction of the plant and provided support to the design of the multi-stack submodules. FDI is also assisting the ERC companies in commercial power plant design.

  13. VHF Direction Finder (VDF) Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) integration and OT&E Operational Test Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    conducted at three locations on several dates. Testing took place at the FAA Technical Center and the Millville , NJ , AFSS in 1988. Additional testing...lnternational Airport NJ .08405. Thim: dzuzen? ha! Deon capprov~d f 31 p.b1ic rdease and sale: its dia tributiod n b UfiLn t.ed I DTIC QUAL 1Ty I.WJSP pCrEC...U.S. Department of Transportation FederalAviation Administration Technical CenterAtlantic CityAirport, NJ 08405 4V " 1 099 NOTICE This document Is

  14. Testing Second Language Oral Proficiency in Direct and Semidirect Settings: A Social-Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Yokoyama, Satoru; Shiozaki, Shuken; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify differences in the neural processes underlying direct and semidirect interviews. We examined brain activation patterns while 20 native speakers of Japanese participated in direct and semidirect interviews in both Japanese (first language [L1]) and English (second language…

  15. Illusions of scientific legitimacy: misrepresented science in the direct-to-consumer genetic-testing marketplace.

    PubMed

    Vashlishan Murray, Amy B; Carson, Michael J; Morris, Corey A; Beckwith, Jon

    2010-11-01

    Marketers of genetic tests often openly or implicitly misrepresent the utility of genetic information. Scientists who are well aware of the current limitations to the utility of such tests are best placed to publicly counter misrepresentations of the science.

  16. Experimental Analysis of a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine in a Direct-Connect Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, K.; Hawk, Clark W.

    1997-01-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the operation of a RBCC at ramjet and scramjet flight conditions using a direct-connect test facility. The apparatus being tested is a single strut-rocket within a dual-mode ram/scramjet combustor. The gaseous hydrogen/oxygen, linear strut-rocket was supplied by Aerojet Propulsion Company. The hardware is being tested in the Direct Connect Supersonic Combustion Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The test facilities hydrogen/oxygen vitiated heater is capable of flight total enthalpies to Mach 8. A Mach 2.5 facility nozzle mates the heater to the combustor duct. The rocket ejector will ordinarily operate in a fuel-rich mode. Additional fuel injection is provided by a pair of parallel injectors located at the base of the strut body. Instrumentation on the test apparatus includes a unique, direct thrust measurement system. Performance predictions for the anticipated test conditions have been made using a one-dimensional, thermodynamic analysis code. Results from the code show the dependence of overall thrust and specific impulse on rocket chamber pressure, rocket fuel equivalence ratio, and overall fuel equivalence ratio. Once the experimental test series begins, the inferred combustion efficiency as a function of axial location and the thermal choke region (where applicable) can also be determined using this code. Upon completion of the experimental test series, measurements will be used to calculate thrust, specific impulse, etc. Measured and calculated values will be compared to those found analytically. If appropriate, the code will be tailored to better predict hardware operation. Conclusions will be drawn as to the fuel-rich rocket's overall effect on ramjet and scramjet performance. Also, comparisons will be made between the integrated thrust calculated from the static pressure taps located along the duct and the thrust measured by the direct thrust measurement system.

  17. Hypercoagulable states: an algorithmic approach to laboratory testing and update on monitoring of direct oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Megan O.

    2014-01-01

    Hypercoagulability can result from a variety of inherited and, more commonly, acquired conditions. Testing for the underlying cause of thrombosis in a patient is complicated both by the number and variety of clinical conditions that can cause hypercoagulability as well as the many potential assay interferences. Using an algorithmic approach to hypercoagulability testing provides the ability to tailor assay selection to the clinical scenario. It also reduces the number of unnecessary tests performed, saving cost and time, and preventing potential false results. New oral anticoagulants are powerful tools for managing hypercoagulable patients; however, their use introduces new challenges in terms of test interpretation and therapeutic monitoring. The coagulation laboratory plays an essential role in testing for and treating hypercoagulable states. The input of laboratory professionals is necessary to guide appropriate testing and synthesize interpretation of results. PMID:25025009

  18. Validation of microscopic observation drug susceptibility testing for rapid, direct rifampicin and isoniazid drug susceptibility testing in patients receiving tuberculosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Coronel, J; Roper, M H; Herrera, C; Bonilla, C; Jave, O; Gianella, C; Sabogal, I; Huancaré, V; Leo, E; Tyas, A; Mendoza-Ticona, A; Caviedes, L; Moore, D A J

    2014-06-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) is often needed in patients clinically failing tuberculosis (TB) therapy. Most studies of phenotypic direct drug susceptibility tests, such as microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) tests, have been performed in patients not receiving TB treatment. The effect of ongoing TB treatment on the performance of MODS direct DST has not been previously explored, but patients failing such therapy constitute an important target group. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of MODS direct rifampicin and isoniazid DST in patients clinically failing first-line TB treatment, and to compare MODS direct DST with indirect proportion method DST. Sputa from 264 TB patients were cultured in parallel in Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) and MODS assays; strains were tested for rifampicin and isoniazid susceptibility by the proportion method at the national reference laboratory. Ninety-three samples were culture-positive by LJ and MODS (concordance of 96%; kappa 0.92). With conventional MODS plate DST reading (performed on the same day as the sample is classified as culture-positive), the isoniazid DST concordance was 96.8% (kappa 0.89), and the concordance for rifampicin susceptibility testing was 92.6% (kappa 0.80). Reading of MODS DST plates 1 week after cultures had been determined to be culture-positive improved overall performance marginally-the isoniazid DST concordance was 95.7% (kappa 0.85); and the rifampicin DST concordance was 96.8% (kappa 0.91). Sensitivity for detection of multidrug-resistant TB was 95.8%. MODS testing provided reliable rifampicin and isoniazid DST results for samples obtained from patients receiving TB therapy. A modified DST reading schedule for such samples, with a final reading 1 week after a MODS culture turns positive, marginally improves the concordance with reference DST.

  19. Thermally Simulated 32kW Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor: Design, Assembly, and Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfroy, Thomas J.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2004-02-01

    One of the power systems under consideration for nuclear electric propulsion is a direct-drive gas-cooled reactor coupled to a Brayton cycle. In this system, power is transferred from the reactor to the Brayton system via a circulated closed loop gas. To allow early utilization, system designs must be relatively simple, easy to fabricate, and easy to test using non-nuclear heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. This combination of attributes will allow pre-prototypic systems to be designed, fabricated, and tested quickly and affordably. The ability to build and test units is key to the success of a nuclear program, especially if an early flight is desired. The ability to perform very realistic non-nuclear testing increases the success probability of the system. In addition, the technologies required by a concept will substantially impact the cost, time, and resources required to develop a successful space reactor power system. This paper describes design features, assembly, and test matrix for the testing of a thermally simulated 32kW direct-drive gas-cooled reactor in the Early Flight Fission - Test Facility (EFF-TF) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The reactor design and test matrix are provided by Los Alamos National Laboratories.

  20. Thermally Simulated 32kW Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor: Design, Assembly, and Test

    SciTech Connect

    Godfroy, Thomas J.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Kapernick, Richard J.

    2004-02-04

    One of the power systems under consideration for nuclear electric propulsion is a direct-drive gas-cooled reactor coupled to a Brayton cycle. In this system, power is transferred from the reactor to the Brayton system via a circulated closed loop gas. To allow early utilization, system designs must be relatively simple, easy to fabricate, and easy to test using non-nuclear heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. This combination of attributes will allow pre-prototypic systems to be designed, fabricated, and tested quickly and affordably. The ability to build and test units is key to the success of a nuclear program, especially if an early flight is desired. The ability to perform very realistic non-nuclear testing increases the success probability of the system. In addition, the technologies required by a concept will substantially impact the cost, time, and resources required to develop a successful space reactor power system. This paper describes design features, assembly, and test matrix for the testing of a thermally simulated 32kW direct-drive gas-cooled reactor in the Early Flight Fission - Test Facility (EFF-TF) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The reactor design and test matrix are provided by Los Alamos National Laboratories.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... or serum. Measurements of the levels of bilirubin, an organic compound formed during the normal...

  2. HIFiRE Direct-Connect Rig (HDCR) Phase I Scramjet Test Results from the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Karen; Hass, Neal; Storch, Andrea; Gruber, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A series of hydrocarbon-fueled direct-connect scramjet ground tests has been completed in the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF) at simulated Mach 8 flight conditions. These experiments were part of an initial test phase to support Flight 2 of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program. In this flight experiment, a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet is intended to demonstrate transition from dual-mode to scramjet-mode operation and verify the scramjet performance prediction and design tools A performance goal is the achievement of a combusted fuel equivalence ratio greater than 0.7 while in scramjet mode. The ground test rig, designated the HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig (HDCR), is a full-scale, heat sink test article that duplicates both the flowpath lines and a majority of the instrumentation layout of the isolator and combustor portion of the flight test hardware. The primary objectives of the HDCR Phase I tests were to verify the operability of the HIFiRE isolator/combustor across the simulated Mach 6-8 flight regime and to establish a fuel distribution schedule to ensure a successful mode transition. Both of these objectives were achieved prior to the HiFIRE Flight 2 payload Critical Design Review. Mach 8 ground test results are presented in this report, including flowpath surface pressure distributions that demonstrate the operation of the flowpath in scramjet-mode over a small range of test conditions around the nominal Mach 8 simulation, as well as over a range of fuel equivalence ratios. Flowpath analysis using ground test data is presented elsewhere; however, limited comparisons with analytical predictions suggest that both scramjet-mode operation and the combustion performance objective are achieved at Mach 8 conditions.

  3. Informed consent in direct-to-consumer personal genome testing: the outline of a model between specific and generic consent.

    PubMed

    Bunnik, Eline M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Schermer, Maartje H N

    2014-09-01

    Broad genome-wide testing is increasingly finding its way to the public through the online direct-to-consumer marketing of so-called personal genome tests. Personal genome tests estimate genetic susceptibilities to multiple diseases and other phenotypic traits simultaneously. Providers commonly make use of Terms of Service agreements rather than informed consent procedures. However, to protect consumers from the potential physical, psychological and social harms associated with personal genome testing and to promote autonomous decision-making with regard to the testing offer, we argue that current practices of information provision are insufficient and that there is a place--and a need--for informed consent in personal genome testing, also when it is offered commercially. The increasing quantity, complexity and diversity of most testing offers, however, pose challenges for information provision and informed consent. Both specific and generic models for informed consent fail to meet its moral aims when applied to personal genome testing. Consumers should be enabled to know the limitations, risks and implications of personal genome testing and should be given control over the genetic information they do or do not wish to obtain. We present the outline of a new model for informed consent which can meet both the norm of providing sufficient information and the norm of providing understandable information. The model can be used for personal genome testing, but will also be applicable to other, future forms of broad genetic testing or screening in commercial and clinical settings.

  4. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for addiction susceptibility: a premature commercialisation of doubtful validity and value.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Rebecca; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Genetic research on addiction liability and pharmacogenetic research on treatments for addiction have identified some genetic variants associated with disease risk and treatment. Genetic testing for addiction liability and treatment response has not been used widely in clinical practice because most of the genes identified only modestly predict addiction risk or treatment response. However, many of these genetic tests have been commercialized prematurely and are available direct to the consumer (DTC). The easy availability of DTC tests for addiction liability and lack of regulation over their use raises a number of ethical concerns. Of paramount concern is the limited predictive power and clinical utility of these tests. Many DTC testing companies do not provide the consumer with the necessary genetic counselling to assist them in interpreting and acting on their test results. They may also engage in misleading marketing to entice consumers to purchase their products. Consumers' genetic information may be vulnerable to misuse by third parties, as there are limited standards to protect the privacy of the genetic information. Non-consensual testing and inappropriate testing of minors may also occur. The United States Food and Drug Administration plans to regulate DTC genetic tests. Based on the ethical concerns we discuss below, we believe there is a strong case for regulation of DTC genetic tests for addiction liability and treatment response. We argue that until this occurs, these tests have more potential to cause harm than to contribute to improved prevention and treatment of addiction.

  5. A Normalized Direct Approach for Estimating the Parameters of the Normal Ogive Three-Parameter Model for Ability Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugel, John F.

    A new method for estimating the parameters of the normal ogive three-parameter model for multiple-choice test items--the normalized direct (NDIR) procedure--is examined. The procedure is compared to a more commonly used estimation procedure, Lord's LOGIST, using computer simulations. The NDIR procedure uses the normalized (mid-percentile)…

  6. Improving preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Fragile X syndrome: two new powerful single-round multiplex indirect and direct tests.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Emmanuelle; Nicod, Jean-Christophe; Gardes, Nathalie; Kastner, Claire; Becker, Nicolas; Celebi, Catherine; Pirrello, Olivier; Rongières, Catherine; Koscinski, Isabelle; Gosset, Philippe; Moutou, Céline

    2016-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CGG repeat located in the Fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) gene. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) can be proposed to couples at risk of transmitting the disease, that is, when the female carries a premutation or a full mutation. We describe two new single-cell, single-round multiplex PCR for indirect and direct diagnosis of FraX on biopsied embryos. These tests include five unpublished, highly heterozygous simple sequence repeats, and the co-amplification of non-expanded CGG repeats for the direct test. Heterozygosity of the new markers ranged from 69 to 81%. The mean rate of non-informative marker included in the tests was low (26% and 23% for the new indirect and direct tests, respectively). This strategy allows offering a PGD for FraX to 96% of couples requesting it in our centre. A conclusive genotype was obtained in all cells with a rate of cells presenting an allele dropout ranging from 17% for the indirect test to 26% for the direct test. The new indirect test was applied for eight PGD cycles: 32 embryos were analysed, 9 were transferred and 3 healthy babies were born. By multiplexing these highly informative markers, robustness of the diagnosis is improved and the loss of potentially healthy embryos (because they are non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed) is limited. This may increase the chances of success of couples requesting a PGD for FraX, in particular, when premature ovarian insufficiency in premutated women leads to a reduced number of embryos available for analysis.

  7. Test of the principle of operation of a wideband magnetic direction finder for lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrman, B. D.; Uman, M. A.; Brantley, R. D.; Krider, E. P.

    1976-01-01

    The principle of operation of a wideband crossed-loop magnetic-field direction finder is studied by comparing the bearing determined from the NS and EW magnetic fields at various times up to 155 microsec after return stroke initiation with the TV-determined lightning channel base direction. For 40 lightning strokes in the 3 to 12 km range, the difference between the bearings found from magnetic fields sampled at times between 1 and 10 microsec and the TV channel-base data has a standard deviation of 3-4 deg. Included in this standard deviation is a 2-3 deg measurement error. For fields sampled at progressively later times, both the mean and the standard deviation of the difference between the direction-finder bearing and the TV bearing increase. Near 150 microsec, means are about 35 deg and standard deviations about 60 deg. The physical reasons for the late-time inaccuracies in the wideband direction finder and the occurrence of these effects in narrow-band VLF direction finders are considered.

  8. The Role of the Family in Genetic Testing: Theoretical Perspectives, Current Knowledge, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses conceptual challenges and theoretical approaches for examining the role of the family in responding and adapting to genetic testing for inherited conditions. Using a family systems perspective, family-based constructs that are relevant to genetic testing may be organized into three domains: family communication, organization…

  9. Direct and Inverse Problems of Item Pool Design for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.; Armstrong, Ronald D.

    2009-01-01

    The recent literature on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has developed methods for creating CAT item pools from a large master pool. Each CAT pool is designed as a set of nonoverlapping forms reflecting the skill levels of an assumed population of test takers. This article presents a Monte Carlo method to obtain these CAT pools and discusses…

  10. CALIBRATION AND TESTING OF A LARGE-AREA FAST-NEUTRON DIRECTIONAL DETECTOR.

    SciTech Connect

    VANIER,P.E.

    2007-05-16

    We have developed a new directional fast-neutron detector based on double proton recoil in two separated planes of plastic scintillators with position-sensitive readout. This method allows the energy spectrum of the neutrons to be measured by a combination of peak amplitude in the first plane and time of flight to the second plane. The planes are made up of 1-m long, 10-cm high paddles with photomultipliers at both ends, so that the location of an event along the paddle can be estimated from the time delay between the optical pulses detected at the two ends. The direction of the scattered neutron can be estimated from the locations of two time-correlated events in the two planes, and the energy lost in the first scattering event can be estimated from the pulse amplitude in the first plane. The direction of the incident neutron can then be determined to lie on a cone whose angle is determined by the kinematic equations. The superposition of many such cones generates an image that indicates the presence of a localized source. Setting upper and lower limits on the time of flight allows discrimination between gamma rays, muons and neutrons. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the expected angular resolution and efficiency. These models show that the lower energy limit for useful directional events is about 100 keV, because lower energy neutrons are likely to scatter more than once in the first plane. Placing a shadow bar in front of the detector provides an alternative way to obtain the direction to a point source, which may require fewer events. This method also can provide dual capability as a directional gamma detector.

  11. Quantitative Field Testing Heterodera glycines from Metagenomic DNA Samples Isolated Directly from Soil under Agronomic Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

  12. Testing keV sterile neutrino dark matter in future direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Miguel D.; Rodejohann, Werner

    2016-11-01

    We determine constraints on sterile neutrino warm dark matter through direct detection experiments, taking XENON100, XENON1T, and DARWIN as examples. If keV-scale sterile neutrinos scatter inelastically with bound electrons of the target material, an electron recoil signal is generated. This can be used to set limits on the sterile neutrino mass and its mixing with the active sector. While not competitive with astrophysical constraints from x-ray data, the constraints are the first direct laboratory bounds on sterile neutrino warm dark matter and will be in some parts of parameter space the strongest limits on keV-scale neutrinos.

  13. Application of Simulated Reactivity Feedback in Nonnuclear Testing of a Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Webster, K. L.

    2007-01-01

    Nonnuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of an in-space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a nonnuclear test facility, electric heaters are used to simulate heat from nuclear fuel. Standard testing allows one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and full nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements with a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial system dynamic response testing was demonstrated on the integrated SAFE 100a heat pipe cooled, electrically heated reactor and heat exchanger hardware. This Technical Memorandum discusses the status of the planned dynamic test methodology for implementation in the direct-drive gas-cooled reactor testing and assesses the additional instrumentation needed to implement high-fidelity dynamic testing.

  14. HIFiRE Direct-Connect Rig (HDCR) Phase I Ground Test Results from the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Neal E.; Cabell, Karen F.; Storch, Andrea M.

    2010-01-01

    The initial phase of hydrocarbon-fueled ground tests supporting Flight 2 of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experiment (HIFiRE) Program has been conducted in the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF). The HIFiRE Program, an Air Force-lead international cooperative program includes eight different flight test experiments designed to target specific challenges of hypersonic flight. The second of the eight planned flight experiments is a hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet flight test intended to demonstrate dual-mode to scramjet-mode operation and verify the scramjet performance prediction and design tools. A performance goal is the achievement of a combusted fuel equivalence ratio greater than 0.7 while in scramjet mode. The ground test rig, designated the HIFiRE Direct Connect Rig (HDCR), is a full-scale, heat sink, direct-connect ground test article that duplicates both the flowpath lines and the instrumentation layout of the isolator and combustor portion of the flight test hardware. The primary objectives of the HDCR Phase I tests are to verify the operability of the HIFiRE isolator/combustor across the Mach 6.0-8.0 flight regime and to establish a fuel distribution schedule to ensure a successful mode transition prior to the HiFIRE payload Critical Design Review. Although the phase I test plans include testing over the Mach 6 to 8 flight simulation range, only Mach 6 testing will be reported in this paper. Experimental results presented here include flowpath surface pressure, temperature, and heat flux distributions that demonstrate the operation of the flowpath over a small range of test conditions around the nominal Mach 6 simulation, as well as a range of fuel equivalence ratios and fuel injection distributions. Both ethylene and a mixture of ethylene and methane (planned for flight) were tested. Maximum back pressure and flameholding limits, as well as a baseline fuel schedule, that covers the Mach 5.84-6.5 test space have been

  15. Multi-directional Reach Test: An Investigation of the Limits of Stability of People Aged between 20-79 Years.

    PubMed

    Tantisuwat, Anong; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The multi-directional reach test (MDRT) is a simple, inexpensive, reliable and valid screening tool for assessing the limits of stability in the anterorposterior and mediolateral directions. The aim of this study was to quantify the limits of stability of people aged between 20 and 79 years using the MDRT. [Subjects] One hundred and eighty subjects were divided into the following 6 age groups: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 years (n=30 per group). [Methods] The MDRT was used to measure the limits of stability in four directions: forward, backward, leftward and rightward. Subjects performed maximal outstretched arm reach in each direction with their feet flat on the floor. [Results] All age groups performed the greatest values of the limit of stability in the forward direction. The 60-79 year group demonstrated significantly lower limits of stability in the forward, leftward and rightward directions compared to the 20-39 year group. [Conclusion] The limits of stability declined with age mainly in the forward, leftward and rightward directions. The MDRT appears to be a useful assessment tool for postural control and balance of those aged 60 years and over.

  16. Diagnostic utility of a direct immunofluorescence test to detect feline coronavirus antigen in macrophages in effusive feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Litster, A L; Pogranichniy, R; Lin, T-L

    2013-11-01

    The antemortem diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) remains challenging in clinical practice, since current testing methods have suboptimal diagnostic accuracy. Immunohistochemical testing of biopsy specimens and postmortem examination are the standard diagnostic methods, although direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing to detect feline coronavirus in macrophages in effusion specimens has been reported to have 100% specificity and has been recommended as an antemortem confirmatory test. The aim of this study was to compare the results of DIF testing in antemortem feline effusions with postmortem results using field samples. Effusion specimens were collected antemortem from 17 cats and tested by DIF, followed by postmortem examination. Histopathological examination of specimens collected at postmortem confirmed FIP in 10/17 cases and ruled out FIP out in 7/17 cases. Antemortem DIF testing was positive in all 10 cases confirmed as FIP at postmortem examination. In the seven cats where FIP was ruled out at postmortem examination, DIF was negative in five cases and positive in the remaining two cases. The calculated sensitivity of DIF testing was 100% and the specificity was 71.4%. Duplicate effusion specimens from eight cats that were initially DIF positive were stored refrigerated (4 °C) or at room temperature (22-25 °C) and subjected to serial DIF testing to determine the duration of positive results. DIF-positive specimens stored at both temperatures retained their positive status for at least 2 days.

  17. Direct-to-consumer online genetic testing and the four principles: an analysis of the ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Katherine; Cook, E David; Helzlsouer, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    The development of genetic tests marketed and sold direct-to-consumers (DTC) via the internet raises moral concerns and debate about their appropriateness and ethical and clinical significance. These tests are offered for a wide range of diseases and conditions, and the mutations have variable penetrance and associated risk. A number of these tests lack data on their accuracy and reliability, making interpretation of results difficult. DTC genetic testing is undertaken outside the context of the physician-patient relationship and may lack appropriate individual and family genetic counseling, leaving the consumer vulnerable to potential harms, such as misinterpretation of results, including false positive or false reassurance, with limited or no benefits. Beauchamp and Childress's four principles of biomedical ethics provide a framework for analyzing the ethical issues raised by DTC genetic testing. We argue that the potential harms outweigh the potential benefits of such tests, that respect for autonomy should be limited in light of potential harm from DTC testing, and that the availability of genetic testing over the internet may be considered unfair and unjust and affect resource allocation by placing an unfair burden on primary care physicians. In light of the moral issues posed by these tests, practical responses are suggested in the areas of consumer education, medical education, and interaction with commercial companies.

  18. A novel application of direct force control to perform in-vitro biomechanical tests using robotic technology.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Horacio; Obst, Tobias; Ulbrich, Heinz; Burgkart, Rainer

    2013-04-26

    This paper presents a novel application of direct force control to test biological specimens using a serial manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom Direct force control compares actual force/moment values with desired values of load. The error is compensated by a proportional/integral controller (PI), a damping factor implemented with the velocity of the robot and acting in the direction of the force and a feedforward compensation. The controller works with a frequency of 0.5 kHz which enhances its performance due to the direct force feedback loop. A fresh porcine cervical spine C2-C4 was used. All muscle tissues were removed while leaving intact all ligaments and bony tissue. The specimen was loaded separately with ±3 Nm in every spatial axis. The mean errors in the unconstrained axes in the present study were less than 1.70 N and 0.32 Nm. Direct force control of 6 axes with a high controller frequency of 0.5 kHz developed in this methodology shows a successful procedure to perform biomechanical in-vitro tests. The controller demonstrated the ability to maintain zero load targets in the unconstrained axes. This control approach allows the application of pure moments in order to perform in vitro biomechanical experiments with spine segments.

  19. Informative Gene Selection and Direct Classification of Tumor Based on Chi-Square Test of Pairwise Gene Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Lanzhi; Luo, Chao; Sun, Congwei; Chen, Yuan; Dai, Zhijun; Yuan, Zheming

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to discover disease mechanisms and improve clinical diagnosis of tumors, it is useful to mine profiles for informative genes with definite biological meanings and to build robust classifiers with high precision. In this study, we developed a new method for tumor-gene selection, the Chi-square test-based integrated rank gene and direct classifier (χ2-IRG-DC). First, we obtained the weighted integrated rank of gene importance from chi-square tests of single and pairwise gene interactions. Then, we sequentially introduced the ranked genes and removed redundant genes by using leave-one-out cross-validation of the chi-square test-based Direct Classifier (χ2-DC) within the training set to obtain informative genes. Finally, we determined the accuracy of independent test data by utilizing the genes obtained above with χ2-DC. Furthermore, we analyzed the robustness of χ2-IRG-DC by comparing the generalization performance of different models, the efficiency of different feature-selection methods, and the accuracy of different classifiers. An independent test of ten multiclass tumor gene-expression datasets showed that χ2-IRG-DC could efficiently control overfitting and had higher generalization performance. The informative genes selected by χ2-IRG-DC could dramatically improve the independent test precision of other classifiers; meanwhile, the informative genes selected by other feature selection methods also had good performance in χ2-DC. PMID:25140319

  20. Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network laboratory guidelines for the use of direct tests to detect syphilis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Morshed, Muhammad; Chernesky, Max A; Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kadkhoda, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and/or its nucleic acid can be detected by various methods such as microscopy, rabbit infectivity test or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The rabbit infectivity test for T. pallidum, although very sensitive, has been discontinued from most laboratories due to ethical issues related to the need for animal inoculation with live T. pallidum, the technically demanding procedure and long turnaround time for results, thus making it impractical for routine diagnostic use. Dark-field and phase-contrast microscopy are still useful at clinic- or hospital-based laboratories for near-bedside detection of T. pallidum in genital, skin or mucous lesions although their availability is decreasing. The lack of reliable and specific anti-T. pallidum antibodies and its inferior sensitivity to PCR may explain why the direct fluorescent antibody test for T. pallidum is not widely available for clinical use. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum also depends on the availability of specific antibodies, and the method is only applicable for histopathological examination of biopsy and autopsy specimens necessitating an invasive specimen collection approach. With recent advances in molecular diagnostics, PCR is considered to be the most reliable, versatile and practical for laboratories to implement. In addition to being an objective and sensitive test for direct detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA in skin and mucous membrane lesions, the resulting PCR amplicons from selected gene targets can be further characterized for antimicrobial (macrolide) susceptibility testing, strain typing and identification of T. pallidum subspecies. PMID:25798160

  1. Microbial identification and automated antibiotic susceptibility testing directly from positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK 2.

    PubMed

    Wattal, C; Oberoi, J K

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses the utility of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using VITEK MS and the VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) system for direct identification (ID) and timely AST from positive blood culture bottles using a lysis-filtration method (LFM). Between July and December 2014, a total of 140 non-duplicate mono-microbial blood cultures were processed. An aliquot of positive blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer before the bacteria were filtered and washed. Micro-organisms recovered from the filter were first identified using VITEK MS and its suspension was used for direct AST by VITEK 2 once the ID was known. Direct ID and AST results were compared with classical methods using solid growth. Out of the 140 bottles tested, VITEK MS resulted in 70.7 % correct identification to the genus and/ or species level. For the 103 bottles where identification was possible, there was agreement in 97 samples (94.17 %) with classical culture. Compared to the routine method, the direct AST resulted in category agreement in 860 (96.5 %) of 891 bacteria-antimicrobial agent combinations tested. The results of direct ID and AST were available 16.1 hours before those of the standard approach on average. The combined use of VITEK MS and VITEK 2 directly on samples from positive blood culture bottles using a LFM technique can result in rapid and reliable ID and AST results in blood stream infections to result in early institution of targeted treatment. The combination of LFM and AST using VITEK 2 was found to expedite AST more reliably.

  2. A comparison of EGFR mutation testing methods in lung carcinoma: direct sequencing, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Bárbara; Conde, Esther; Suárez-Gauthier, Ana; Plaza, Carlos; Martínez, Rebeca; Redondo, Pilar; Izquierdo, Elisa; Rubio-Viqueira, Belén; Paz-Ares, Luis; Hidalgo, Manuel; López-Ríos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare two EGFR testing methodologies (a commercial real-time PCR kit and a specific EGFR mutant immunohistochemistry), with direct sequencing and to investigate the limit of detection (LOD) of both PCR-based methods. We identified EGFR mutations in 21 (16%) of the 136 tumours analyzed by direct sequencing. Interestingly, the Therascreen EGFR Mutation Test kit was able to characterize as wild-type one tumour that could not be analyzed by direct sequencing of the PCR product. We then compared the LOD of the kit and that of direct sequencing using the available mutant tumours. The kit was able to detect the presence of a mutation in a 1% dilution of the total DNA in nine of the 18 tumours (50%), which tested positive with the real-time quantitative PCR method. In all cases, EGFR mutation was identified at a dilution of 5%. Where the mutant DNA represented 30% of the total DNA, sequencing was able to detect mutations in 12 out of 19 cases (63%). Additional experiments with genetically defined standards (EGFR ΔE746-A750/+ and EGFR L858R/+) yielded similar results. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with exon 19-specific antibody was seen in eight out of nine cases with E746-A750del detected by direct sequencing. Neither of the two tumours with complex deletions were positive. Of the five L858R-mutated tumours detected by the PCR methods, only two were positive for the exon 21-specific antibody. The specificity was 100% for both antibodies. The LOD of the real-time PCR method was lower than that of direct sequencing. The mutation specific IHC produced excellent specificity.

  3. A Comparison of EGFR Mutation Testing Methods in Lung Carcinoma: Direct Sequencing, Real-time PCR and Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Bárbara; Conde, Esther; Suárez-Gauthier, Ana; Plaza, Carlos; Martínez, Rebeca; Redondo, Pilar; Izquierdo, Elisa; Rubio-Viqueira, Belén; Paz-Ares, Luis; Hidalgo, Manuel; López-Ríos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare two EGFR testing methodologies (a commercial real-time PCR kit and a specific EGFR mutant immunohistochemistry), with direct sequencing and to investigate the limit of detection (LOD) of both PCR-based methods. We identified EGFR mutations in 21 (16%) of the 136 tumours analyzed by direct sequencing. Interestingly, the Therascreen EGFR Mutation Test kit was able to characterize as wild-type one tumour that could not be analyzed by direct sequencing of the PCR product. We then compared the LOD of the kit and that of direct sequencing using the available mutant tumours. The kit was able to detect the presence of a mutation in a 1% dilution of the total DNA in nine of the 18 tumours (50%), which tested positive with the real-time quantitative PCR method. In all cases, EGFR mutation was identified at a dilution of 5%. Where the mutant DNA represented 30% of the total DNA, sequencing was able to detect mutations in 12 out of 19 cases (63%). Additional experiments with genetically defined standards (EGFR ΔE746-A750/+ and EGFR L858R/+) yielded similar results. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with exon 19-specific antibody was seen in eight out of nine cases with E746-A750del detected by direct sequencing. Neither of the two tumours with complex deletions were positive. Of the five L858R-mutated tumours detected by the PCR methods, only two were positive for the exon 21-specific antibody. The specificity was 100% for both antibodies. The LOD of the real-time PCR method was lower than that of direct sequencing. The mutation specific IHC produced excellent specificity. PMID:22952784

  4. The Safety of Aircraft Exposed to Electromagnetic Fields: HIRF Testing of Aircraft Using Direct Current Injection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    divides the current modes into two types; a capacitive type which flows between charge concentrations and an inductive type which flows in closed loops...Airframe resonances will be clearly shown to exist in the capacitive type modes and circulating type modes will be shown to occur at low and uniform...variety of DCI topologies. • Section 6 takes a promising DCI topology, and the capacitive mode currents are used to control the direct injected

  5. Direct-fired downhole steam generator: from design to field test

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, R.M.; Eson, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    A direct-fired downhole steam generator (DFDSG) has been developed which shows considerable promise for production of heavy oil. Generation of steam by surface boilers is inefficient because of heat losses, and air pollution curtails crude production. The technology of DFDSG is very attractive because it deals with both of these problems directly, and there are additional benefits. By carrying out the combustion process at high pressure, and then adding water, a mixture of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and steam is charged directly into the heavy oil reservoir. This eliminates the need for expensive, and inefficient, stack scrubbers to remove sulfur dioxide, as well as sophisticated NO/sub x/ control techniques. The carbon dioxide created during the fuel burning process is absorbed by the heavy oil and increases its mobility without expending additional energy. Even the nitrogen contributes a high-velocity drag which increases both crude production rate and efficiency. DFDSG offers the potential for placing into the production zone, regardless of its depth, any quality effluent desired, from wet to superheated steam.

  6. Object-directed imitation in children with high-functioning autism: testing the social motivation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Mark; Slaughter, Virginia; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2013-02-01

    Children with autism show clear deficits in copying others' bodily oriented actions whereas their capacity for replicating others' object-directed actions appears relatively spared. One explanation is that unlike bodily oriented actions, object-directed actions have tangible, functional outcomes and hence rely far less on social motivations for their production. To investigate this, we compared the performance of a group of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and a group of typically developing (TD) children on two distinct object-directed tasks that are considered highly social: overimitation and synchronic imitation. Our findings were surprising. The HFA children copied all of a modeling adult's actions, including those that had no function or purpose (i.e. they overimitated), and they entered into extended bouts repeating an arbitrary action along with the adult who had a similar object to play with (i.e. they engaged in synchronic imitation). Moreover, they did so at rates indistinguishable from the TD children. This work demonstrates that the capacity and propensity for overimitation and synchronic imitation are intact in children with HFA, and questions whether socially based imitation should be considered an autism-specific deficit.

  7. Direct identification and susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using high speed cold centrifugation and Vitek II system.

    PubMed

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    2016-06-13

    Compared to routine isolated colony-based methods, direct testing of bacterial pellets from positive blood cultures reduces turnaround time for reporting of antibiotic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy, and precision, of a rapid method for direct identification and susceptibility testing of blood cultures with the routine method used in our laboratory, using Vitek 2. A total of 60 isolates were evaluated using the candidate and the routine method. The candidate method had 100% accuracy for the identification of Gram negative bacteria, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, 50% for Streptococcus and 33.3% for Corynebacterium species. Susceptibility testing of Gram negative isolates yielded 98-100% essential agreement. For Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates, essential agreement was 100% for 17 antibiotics except for moxifloxacin. Direct testing of blood culture samples with Vitek 2 produced reliable identification and susceptibility results 18-24h sooner for aerobic/anaerobic facultative Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus strains.

  8. Subscale Flight Testing for Aircraft Loss of Control: Accomplishments and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin; Jordan, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Subscale flight-testing provides a means to validate both dynamic models and mitigation technologies in the high-risk flight conditions associated with aircraft loss of control. The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) facility was designed to be a flexible and efficient research facility to address this type of flight-testing. Over the last several years (2009-2011) it has been used to perform 58 research flights with an unmanned, remotely-piloted, dynamically-scaled airplane. This paper will present an overview of the facility and its architecture and summarize the experimental data collected. All flights to date have been conducted within visual range of a safety observer. Current plans for the facility include expanding the test volume to altitudes and distances well beyond visual range. The architecture and instrumentation changes associated with this upgrade will also be presented.

  9. Improving the Accuracy of Lunar Laser Ranging Tests of Gravitational Theory: Modeling and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.; Turyshev, Slava; Dickey, Jean O.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate analysis of precision ranges to the Moon have provided several tests of gravitational theory: the equivalence principle, geodetic precession, PPN parameters beta and gamma, and the constancy of the gravitational constant G. Other possible tests include the inverse square law at 20,000 km length scales and the PPN parameter 1. The uncertainties of these tests have decreased as data accuracies have improved and data time span has lengthened. We are exploring the modeling improvements necessary to proceed from cm to mm range accuracies. Looking to future exploration, what characteristics are desired for the next generation of ranging devices, what fundamental questions can be investigated, and what are the challenges for modeling and data analysis?

  10. Minimum energy test direction design in the control of cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishna, S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1980-06-01

    The advent of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept is attributable to the need for high Reynolds number flow in wind tunnels. The cryogenic wind tunnel concept consists of operating the test medium of a conventional tunnel at cryogenic temperatures down to 80 K. Nitrogen gas, cooled by injected liquid nitrogen, proves to be ideal for the cryogenic tunnel test medium because of its near perfect behavior in insentropic flow. Cryogenic operation of a wind tunnel results in reduced fan power consumption and no penalty in flow dynamic pressure. In a cryogenic tunnel, the flow parameters (Reynolds number, Mach number and flow dynamic pressure) can be independently controlled by separately controlling the tunnel flow variables: total temperature, test section mass flow, and the tunnel total pressure. The problem of closed-loop control of the tunnel total temperature, flow Mach number, and total pressure is addressed and reported.

  11. Underwriters Laboratories Fire Tests of Sprayed Polyurethane Foam Applied Directly to Metal Roof Decks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    with 1 in. mineral wool insulation positioned on the tunnel ledges to provide a more positive seal. These tests will be identified with the letter "I...during test minus 4-1/2 ft igniting flame. (1) - Mineral wool insulation positioned on the tunnel ledges. -A41 File USNC77 Issued: 12-29-78... Mineral wool insulation positioned on the tunnel ledges. ,-A2 Fie SNśIsud: 12297 ;. "’"’._." "-...:. " ., , ’ "’" .k

  12. Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: Direct Tests and Text-Derived Simulations of Vocabulary Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Andrew; Rosenstein, Mark; Sparks, Randall; Landauer, Thomas K.; Foltz, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Determining word meanings that ought to be taught or introduced is important for educators. A sequence for vocabulary growth can be inferred from many sources, including testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages, predicting from print frequency, or adult-recalled Age of Acquisition. A new approach, Word Maturity, is based on…

  13. The Major Field Test in Business: A Direct Measure of Learning in Common Business Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Susan A.; Jones, Wesley M., Jr; Bolt, Cynthia E.

    2015-01-01

    Assurance of learning and its assessment are critical focal points in collegiate schools of business as programs strive to achieve or maintain Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business accreditation. Prior research suggests that student learning in business core disciplines can be measured by the Educational Testing Service Major Field…

  14. On the Road to Assessing Deeper Learning: What Direction Do Test Blueprints Provide? CRESST Report 849

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Joan L.; La Torre Matrundola, Deborah; Wang, Jia

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which deeper learning is expected to be present in the new college and career ready (CCR) standards. This is done by examining the distribution of items and tasks at high levels of cognitive demand (DOK3 and DOK4) in the summative test blueprints developed by the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College…

  15. Quantifying the "Degree of Linguistic Demand" in Spoken Intelligence Test Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Damien C.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Evans, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    The linguistic demand of spoken instructions on individually administered norm-referenced psychological and educational tests is of concern when examining individuals who have varying levels of language processing ability or varying cultural backgrounds. The authors present a new method for analyzing the level of verbosity, complexity, and total…

  16. 1994 Triggered Lightning Test Program: Measured responses of a reinforced concrete building under direct lightning attachments

    SciTech Connect

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Chael, J.; Davis, R.; Fisher, R.J.; Magnotti, P.J.

    1995-08-01

    A rocket-triggered lightning test was carried out during the summer of 1994 on a specially designed steel reinforced concrete test building located at Ft. McClellan, Alabama. Currents, voltages, and magnetic fields were measured at 24 instrumented locations during 42 return strokes triggered to designated points on the structure and its lightning protection systems. As was found during an earlier similar lightning test of an earth covered munitions storage building, the buried power service conduits carried a much larger fraction of incident stroke current away from the building than did the intended grounding elements of the lightning protection system. Electrical breakdown and subsequent arcing occurred repeatedly to create dominant current paths to earth that were not accounted for in pretest linear modeling. Potential hazard level transient voltages, surprisingly more resistive than inductive in nature, were recorded throughout the structure. Also surprisingly, strikes to a single grounded protection mast system resulted in internal environments that were generally comparable to those occurring during strikes to roof-mounted air terminals. A description of the test structure, experimental procedures, and a full set of the resultant data are presented in this two-volume report.

  17. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  18. Validation of the dynamic direct exposure method for toxicity testing of diesel exhaust in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joeng, Lucky; Hayes, Amanda; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emission is a major health concern because of the complex nature of its gaseous content (e.g., NO2, NO, CO, and CO2) and high concentration of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5  μ m which allows for deeper penetration into the human pulmonary system upon inhalation. The aim of this research was to elucidate the potential toxic effects of diesel exhaust on a human pulmonary-based cellular system. Validation of a dynamic direct exposure method for both laboratory (230 hp Volvo truck engine) and field (Volkswagen Passat passenger car) diesel engines, at idle mode, was implemented. Human pulmonary type II epithelial cells (A549) grown on porous membranes were exposed to unmodified diesel exhaust at a low flow rate (37.5 mL/min). In parallel, diesel emission sampling was also conducted using real-time air monitoring techniques. Induced cellular effects were assessed using a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (MTS, ATP, and NRU). Reduction of cell viability was observed in a time-dependent manner following 30-60 mins of exposure with NRU as the most sensitive assay. The results suggest that the dynamic direct exposure method has the potential to be implemented for both laboratory- and field-based in vitro toxicity studies of diesel exhaust emissions.

  19. Testing the Interstellar Wind Helium Flow Direction with Galileo Euvs Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryor, W. R.; Simmons, K. E.; Ajello, J. M.; Tobiska, W. K.; Retherford, K. D.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Frisch, P. C.; Bzowski, M.; Grava, C.

    2014-12-01

    Forty years of measurements of the flow of interstellar helium through the heliosphere suggest that variations of the flow direction with time are possible. We will model Galileo Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EUVS) data to determine the best-fitting flow direction and compare it to values obtained by other spacecraft. The Galileo EUVS (Hord et al., 1992) was mounted on the spinning part of the spacecraft and obtained interstellar wind hydrogen Lyman-alpha 121.6 nm and helium 58.4 nm data on great circles passing near the ecliptic poles during the interplanetary cruise phase of the mission and also during the Jupiter orbital phase of the mission. The Galileo hydrogen cruise data have been previously published (Hord et al., 1991, Pryor et al., 1992; 1996; 2001), but the helium data have not. Our model was previously used by Ajello et al., 1978, 1979 to model Mariner 10 interstellar wind helium data, and by Stern et al., 2012 and Feldman et al., 2012 to model the interplanetary helium background near the moon in Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman-alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) data. The model has been updated to include recent determinations of daily helium 58.4 nm solar flux variations and helium losses due to EUV photoionization and electron impact ionization.

  20. Tests of WIMP Dark Matter Candidates with Direct Dark Matter Detection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Andreea Irina

    We reexamine the current direct dark matter (DM) detection data for several types of DM candidates, both assuming the Standard Halo Model (SHM) and in a halo-independent manner. We consider the potential signals for light WIMPs that have appeared in three direct detection searches: DAMA, CDMS-II-Si, and CoGeNT, and we analyze their compatibility with the null results of other direct detection experiments. We first consider light WIMPs with exothermic scattering with nuclei (exoDM). Exothermic interactions favor light targets, thus reducing the importance of upper limits derived from Xe targets, the most restrictive of which is at present the LUX limit. In our SHM analysis the CDMS-II-Si and CoGeNT regions become allowed by these bounds, however the SuperCDMS limit rejects both regions for exoDM with isospin-conserving couplings. An isospin-violating coupling of the exoDM, in particular one with a neutron to proton coupling ratio of -0.8 (which we call "Ge-phobic"), maximally reduces the DM coupling to Ge and allows the CDMS-II-Si region to become compatible with all upper bounds. This is also clearly shown in our halo-independent analysis. Next, we extend and correct a recently proposed maximum-likelihood halo-independent method to analyze unbinned direct DM detection data. Instead of the recoil energy as an independent variable, we use the minimum speed a DM particle must have to impart a given recoil energy to a nucleus. This has the advantage of allowing us to apply the method to any type of target composition and interaction, e.g. with general momentum and velocity dependence, and with elastic or inelastic scattering. We prove the method and provide a rigorous statistical interpretation of the results. As first applications, we find that for dark matter particles with elastic spin-independent interactions and neutron to proton coupling ratio ƒn/ƒp = --0.7 ("Xe-phobic", which reduces maximally the coupling to Xe), the WIMP interpretation of the signal observed

  1. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Experimental tests of general relativity: recent progress and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, S. G.

    2009-01-01

    Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard theory of gravity, especially where the needs of astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. As such, this theory is used for many practical purposes involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss recent progress in tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for the new generation of high-accuracy tests of new physics beyond general relativity. Space-based experiments in fundamental physics are presently capable of uniquely addressing important questions related to the fundamental laws of nature. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics that are anticipated in the near future and evaluate the discovery potential of a number of recently proposed space-based gravitational experiments.

  2. Direct Test for Neuroinflammation with [11C]DAP-713-PET Scanning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD 21218 REPORT DATE: October 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army...Test for Neuroinflammation with [11C]DAP-713-PET Scanning 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0620 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR... binds to the translocator protein (TSPO), which is located on the outer mitochondrial membrane and is an established biomarker of neuroinflammation

  3. Field Calibration of Wind Direction Sensor to the True North and Its Application to the Daegwanryung Wind Turbine Test Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Wan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a field calibration technique for aligning a wind direction sensor to the true north. The proposed technique uses the synchronized measurements of captured images by a camera, and the output voltage of a wind direction sensor. The true wind direction was evaluated through image processing techniques using the captured picture of the sensor with the least square sense. Then, the evaluated true value was compared with the measured output voltage of the sensor. This technique solves the discordance problem of the wind direction sensor in the process of installing meteorological mast. For this proposed technique, some uncertainty analyses are presented and the calibration accuracy is discussed. Finally, the proposed technique was applied to the real meteorological mast at the Daegwanryung test site, and the statistical analysis of the experimental testing estimated the values of stable misalignment and uncertainty level. In a strict sense, it is confirmed that the error range of the misalignment from the exact north could be expected to decrease within the credibility level. PMID:27873957

  4. 49 CFR 40.309 - What are the employer's responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? 40.309 Section 40.309 Transportation Office of the... responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? (a) As the employer, you must carry out the SAP's follow-up testing requirements. You may not allow the employee to continue to perform...

  5. 49 CFR 40.309 - What are the employer's responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? 40.309 Section 40.309 Transportation Office of the... responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? (a) As the employer, you must carry out the SAP's follow-up testing requirements. You may not allow the employee to continue to perform...

  6. 49 CFR 40.309 - What are the employer's responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? 40.309 Section 40.309 Transportation Office of the... responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? (a) As the employer, you must carry out the SAP's follow-up testing requirements. You may not allow the employee to continue to perform...

  7. 49 CFR 40.309 - What are the employer's responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? 40.309 Section 40.309 Transportation Office of the... responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? (a) As the employer, you must carry out the SAP's follow-up testing requirements. You may not allow the employee to continue to perform...

  8. 49 CFR 40.309 - What are the employer's responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? 40.309 Section 40.309 Transportation Office of the... responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests? (a) As the employer, you must carry out the SAP's follow-up testing requirements. You may not allow the employee to continue to perform...

  9. Design and application of permanent magnet flux sources for mechanical testing of magnetoactive elastomers at variable field directions.

    PubMed

    Hiptmair, F; Major, Z; Haßlacher, R; Hild, S

    2015-08-01

    Magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) are a class of smart materials whose mechanical properties can be rapidly and reversibly changed by an external magnetic field. Due to this tunability, they are useable for actuators or in active vibration control applications. An extensive magnetomechanical characterization is necessary for MAE material development and requires experiments under cyclic loading in uniform but variable magnetic fields. MAE testing apparatus typically rely on fields of adjustable strength, but fixed (transverse) direction, often provided by electromagnets. In this work, two permanent magnet flux sources were developed as an add-on for a modular test stand, to allow for mechanical testing in uniform fields of variable direction. MAE specimens, based on a silicone matrix with isotropic and anisotropic carbonyl iron particle distributions, were subjected to dynamic mechanical analysis under different field and loading configurations. The magneto-induced increase of stiffness and energy dissipation was determined by the change of the hysteresis loop area and dynamic modulus values. A distinct influence of the composite microstructure and the loading state was observed. Due to the very soft and flexible matrix used for preparing the MAE samples, the material stiffness and damping behavior could be varied over a wide range via the applied field direction and intensity.

  10. Single Channel Testing for Characterization of the Direct Gas Cooled Reactor and the SAFE-100 Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, S.M.; Kapernick, R.; Godfroy, T.J.

    2004-02-04

    Experiments have been designed to characterize the coolant gas flow in two space reactor concepts that are currently under investigation by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory: the direct-drive gas-cooled reactor (DDG) and the SAFE-100 heatpipe-cooled reactor (HPR). For the DDG concept, initial tests have been completed to measure pressure drop versus flow rate for a prototypic core flow channel, with gas exiting to atmospheric pressure conditions. The experimental results of the completed DDG tests presented in this paper validate the predicted results to within a reasonable margin of error. These tests have resulted in a re-design of the flow annulus to reduce the pressure drop. Subsequent tests will be conducted with the re-designed flow channel and with the outlet pressure held at 150 psi (1 MPa). Design of a similar test for a nominal flow channel in the HPR heat exchanger (HPR-HX) has been completed and hardware is currently being assembled for testing this channel at 150 psi. When completed, these test programs will provide the data necessary to validate calculated flow performance for these reactor concepts (pressure drop and film temperature rise)

  11. Benchmark of FDNS CFD Code For Direct Connect RBCC Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis results are compared with experimental data from the Pennsylvania State University's (PSU) Propulsion Engineering Research Center (PERC) rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) rocket-ejector experiments. The PERC RBCC experimental hardware was in a direct-connect configuration in diffusion and afterburning (DAB) operation. The objective of the present work was to validate the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) CFD code for the rocket-ejector mode internal fluid mechanics and combustion phenomena. A second objective was determine the best application procedures to use FDNS as a predictive/engineering tool. Three-dimensional CFD analysis was performed. Solution methodology and grid requirements are discussed. CFD results are compared to experimental data for static pressure, Raman Spectroscopy species distribution data and RBCC net thrust and specified impulse.

  12. Computational systems biology and dose-response modeling in relation to new directions in toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Andersen, Melvin E; Conolly, Rory B

    2010-02-01

    The new paradigm envisioned for toxicity testing in the 21st century advocates shifting from the current animal-based testing process to a combination of in vitro cell-based studies, high-throughput techniques, and in silico modeling. A strategic component of the vision is the adoption of the systems biology approach to acquire, analyze, and interpret toxicity pathway data. As key toxicity pathways are identified and their wiring details elucidated using traditional and high-throughput techniques, there is a pressing need to understand their qualitative and quantitative behaviors in response to perturbation by both physiological signals and exogenous stressors. The complexity of these molecular networks makes the task of understanding cellular responses merely by human intuition challenging, if not impossible. This process can be aided by mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the networks and their dynamic behaviors. A number of theoretical frameworks were developed in the last century for understanding dynamical systems in science and engineering disciplines. These frameworks, which include metabolic control analysis, biochemical systems theory, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory, can greatly facilitate the process of organizing, analyzing, and understanding toxicity pathways. Such analysis will require a comprehensive examination of the dynamic properties of "network motifs"--the basic building blocks of molecular circuits. Network motifs like feedback and feedforward loops appear repeatedly in various molecular circuits across cell types and enable vital cellular functions like homeostasis, all-or-none response, memory, and biological rhythm. These functional motifs and associated qualitative and quantitative properties are the predominant source of nonlinearities observed in cellular dose response data. Complex response behaviors can arise from toxicity pathways built upon combinations of network motifs. While the field of computational cell

  13. Geothermal direct applications hardware systems development and testing. 1979 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.

    1980-03-01

    Activities performed during calendar year 1979 for the hardware system development and testing task are presented. The fluidized bed technology was applied to the drying of potato by-products and to the exchange of heat to air in the space heating experiment. Geothermal water was flashed to steam and also used as the prime energy source in the steam distillation of peppermint oil. Geothermal water temperatures as low as 112.8/sup 0/C were utilized to distill alcohol from sugar beet juice, and lower temperature water provided air conditioning through an absorption air conditioning system. These experiments are discussed.

  14. Methodological considerations of acoustic playbacks to test the behavioral significance of call directionality in male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Insley, Stephen J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Schusterman, Ronald J.

    2005-09-01

    While attempting to gain access to receptive females, male northern elephant seals form dominance hierarchies through multiple dyadic interactions involving visual and acoustic signals. These signals are both highly stereotyped and directional. Previous behavioral observations suggested that males attend to the directional cues of these signals. We used in situ vocal playbacks to test whether males attend to directional cues of the acoustic components of a competitors calls (i.e., variation in call spectra and source levels). Here, we will focus on playback methodology. Playback calls were multiple exemplars of a marked dominant male from an isolated area, recorded with a directional microphone and DAT recorder and edited into a natural sequence that controlled call amplitude. Control calls were recordings of ambient rookery sounds with the male calls removed. Subjects were 20 marked males (10 adults and 10 subadults) all located at An~o Nuevo, CA. Playback presentations, calibrated for sound-pressure level, were broadcast at a distance of 7 m from each subject. Most responses were classified into the following categories: visual orientation, postural change, calling, movement toward or away from the loudspeaker, and re-directed aggression. We also investigated developmental, hierarchical, and ambient noise variables that were thought to influence male behavior.

  15. The perspective from EASAC and FEAM on direct-to-consumer genetic testing for health-related purposes.

    PubMed

    Fears, Robin; ter Meulen, Volker

    2013-07-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing services raise scientific, regulatory and ethical questions. A report was prepared by consultation with an expert Working Group and published by the academies of science (European Academies of Science Advisory Council, EASAC) and medicine (Federation of European Academies of Medicine, FEAM). This report reviews current scientific evidence, ascertains the principles that should underpin the options for action by policy-makers, and discusses the potential for devising proportionate and flexible regulation that enables future innovation, taking account of the work of other expert groups, most notably the European Society of Human Genetics. EASAC-FEAM concluded that DTC genetic testing has little clinical value at present, and expresses especial caution in several specific respects, for example relating to testing for high penetrance, serious disorders, prenatal screening, nutrigenomic and pharmacogenetic testing. It was emphasised that regulation must be on the basis that claims about the link between genetic marker and disease are scientifically valid. Other key issues to address include quality assurance (that includes the professional interpretation of results), transparent supply of accurate information, consideration of the implications for established health services, and clarification of consent procedures for any use of data for research purposes. There are important implications: for the European Commission, in revising the Directive on In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices; for professional bodies, in supporting training and guideline development; for the broader research community, in generating the evidence base; and for the public health community, in improving the routine translation of research advances into clinical practice.

  16. Insights into the movements of landslides from combinations of field monitoring and novel direct shear testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petley, D. N.; Carey, J.; Massey, C. I.; Brain, M.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms of pre- and post-failure movement of translational landslides remain surprisingly poorly investigated. Previous approaches have focussed on field monitoring, for example through high resolution automated surveying and/or GPS measurements, or from modelling using dedicated codes. There has been some experimental work too, most notably using ring shear devices, although there are limitations as to the type of analyses that can be completed in these devices. In recent years the author has been involved in a series of studies that have sought to understand pre- and post-failure behaviour in translational landslides using both high precision monitoring and experimental investigation using novel apparatus. The latter approach has involved the use of the back pressured shear box, a direct shear machine that allows near-infinite variation of the normal and shear stress state, and measurement and control of the pore water pressure. More recently, a more advanced version of this machine has been developed that allows dynamic loading of both direct and normal shear stresses. This paper presents key lessons learnt about the behaviour of translational landslides from these approaches. The data highlight a number of key elements: The important differences in pre-failure behaviour for materials that show a brittle response compared with those that are ductile. In particular, some aspects of behaviour (e.g. the hyperbolic acceleration to failure) can only be replicated in materials that show brittle cracking processes; In the post-failure domain, all materials show a high level of sensitivity to small changes in pore water pressure when the Factor of Safety is close to unity; Rates of strain are not simply related to pore water pressure / stress state. In particular, some materials show a different deformation response during phases of increasing pore water pressure to that during periods of pore water pressure reduction. The reasons for this require further study

  17. Direct dark matter searches—Test of the Big Bounce Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.; Vergados, J.D. E-mail: vergados@uoi.gr

    2015-02-01

    We consider the possibility of using dark matter particle's mass and its interaction cross section as a smoking gun signal of the existence of a Big Bounce at the early stage in the evolution of our currently observed universe. A study of dark matter production in the pre-bounce contraction and the post bounce expansion epochs of this universe reveals a new venue for achieving the observed relic abundance of our present universe. Specifically, it predicts a characteristic relation governing a dark matter mass and interaction cross section and a factor of 1/2 in thermally averaged cross section, as compared to the non-thermal production in standard cosmology, is needed for creating enough dark matter particle to satisfy the currently observed relic abundance because dark matter is being created during the pre-bounce contraction, in addition to the post-bounce expansion. As the production rate is lower than the Hubble expansion rate information of the bounce universe evolution is preserved. Therefore once the value of dark matter mass and interaction cross section are obtained by direct detection in laboratories, this alternative route becomes a signature prediction of the bounce universe scenario. This leads us to consider a scalar dark matter candidate, which if it is light, has important implications on dark matter searches.

  18. Priming of motion direction and area V5/MT: a test of perceptual memory.

    PubMed

    Campana, Gianluca; Cowey, Alan; Walsh, Vincent

    2002-06-01

    Presentation of supraliminal or subliminal visual stimuli that can (or cannot) be detected or identified can improve the probability of the same stimulus being detected over a subsequent period of seconds, hours or longer. The locus and nature of this perceptual priming effect was examined, using suprathreshold stimuli, in subjects who received repetitive pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the posterior occipital cortex, the extrastriate motion area V5/MT or the right posterior parietal cortex during the intertrial interval of a visual motion direction discrimination task. Perceptual priming observed in a control condition was abolished when area V5/MT was stimulated but was not affected by magnetic stimulation over striate or parietal sites. The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on priming was specific to site (V5/MT) and to task - colour priming was unaffected by TMS over V5/MT. The results parallel, in the motion domain, recent demonstrations of the importance of macaque areas V4 and TEO for priming in the colour and form domains.

  19. Testing lowered isothermal models with direct N-body simulations of globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocchi, Alice; Gieles, Mark; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Varri, Anna Lisa

    2016-10-01

    Several self-consistent models have been proposed, aiming at describing the phase-space distribution of stars in globular clusters. This study explores the ability of the recently proposed LIMEPY models to reproduce the dynamical properties of direct N-body models of a cluster in a tidal field, during its entire evolution. These dynamical models include prescriptions for the truncation and the degree of radially biased anisotropy contained in the system, allowing us to explore the interplay between the role of anisotropy and tides in various stages of the life of star clusters. We show that the amount of anisotropy in an initially tidally underfilling cluster increases in the pre-collapse phase, and then decreases with time, due to the effect of the external tidal field on its spatial truncation. This is reflected in the correspondent model parameters, and the best-fitting models reproduce the main properties of the cluster at all stages of its evolution, except for the phases immediately preceding and following core collapse. We also notice that the best-fitting LIMEPY models are significantly different from isotropic King models, especially in the first part of the evolution of the cluster. Our results put limits on the amount of radial anisotropy that can be expected for clusters evolving in a tidal field, which is important to understand other factors that could give rise to similar observational signatures, such as the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole.

  20. Visualization of xylem embolism by X-ray microtomography: a direct test against hydraulic measurements.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Markus; Lopez, Rosana; Peters, Jennifer M R; Flavel, Richard J; Koloadin, Leah S; Young, Iain M; Choat, Brendan

    2017-04-01

    X-ray microtomography (microCT) is becoming a valuable noninvasive tool for advancing our understanding of plant-water relations. Laboratory-based microCT systems are becoming more affordable and provide better access than synchrotron facilities. However, some systems come at the cost of comparably lower signal quality and spatial resolution than synchrotron facilities. In this study, we evaluated laboratory-based X-ray microCT imaging as a tool to nondestructively analyse hydraulic vulnerability to drought-induced embolism in a woody plant species. We analysed the vulnerability to drought-induced embolism of benchtop-dehydrated Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants using microCT and hydraulic flow measurements on the same sample material, allowing us to directly compare the two methods. Additionally, we developed a quantitative procedure to improve microCT image analysis at limited resolution and accurately measure vessel lumens. Hydraulic measurements matched closely with microCT imaging of the current-year growth ring, with similar hydraulic conductivity and loss of conductivity due to xylem embolism. Optimized thresholding of vessel lumens during image analysis, based on a physiologically meaningful parameter (theoretical conductivity), allowed us to overcome common potential constraints of some lab-based systems. Our results indicate that estimates of vulnerability to embolism provided by microCT visualization agree well with those obtained from hydraulic measurements on the same sample material.

  1. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    DOE PAGES

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; ...

    2016-05-07

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. As a result, a method for measuring themore » arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.« less

  2. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    SciTech Connect

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.

    2016-05-07

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. As a result, a method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  3. Directly lighting up RNA G-quadruplexes from test tubes to living human cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shujuan; Li, Qian; Xiang, Junfeng; Yang, Qianfan; Sun, Hongxia; Guan, Aijiao; Wang, Lixia; Liu, Yan; Yu, Lijia; Shi, Yunhua; Chen, Hongbo; Tang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    RNA G-quadruplexes (G4s) are one of the key components of the transcriptome that act as efficient post-transcriptional regulatory elements in living cells. To conduct further studies of the unique biological functions of RNA G4s, techniques need to be developed that can efficiently recognize RNA G4 structures under various conditions, in fixed cells and living cells, as well as in vitro. This paper presents the development of such a method, a new technique using a cyanine dye called CyT, which can detect both canonical and non-canonical RNA G4 structures from test tubes to living human cells. The ability of CyT to distinguish between G4 and nonG4 RNA offers a promising tool for future RNA G4-based biomarker discovery and potential diagnostic applications. PMID:26476445

  4. Directionally solidified lamellar eutectic superalloys by edge-defined, film-fed growth. [including tensile tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program was performed to scale up the edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) method for the gamma/gamma prime-beta eutectic alloy of the nominal composition Ni-19.7 Cb - 6 Cr-2.5 Al. Procedures and problem areas are described. Flat bars approximately 12 x 1.7 x 200 mm were grown, mostly at speeds of 38 mm/hr, and tensile tests on these bars at 25 and 1000 C showed lower strength than expected. The feasibility of growing hollow airfoils was also demonstrated by growing bars over 200 mm long with a teardrop shaped cross-section, having a major dimension of 12 mm and a maximum width of 5 mm.

  5. Test of IMME in fp shell via direct mass measurements of nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. H.; Xu, H. S.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Tu, X. L.; Yan, X. L.; Typel, S.; Blaum, K.; Wang, M.; Zhou, X. H.; Sun, Y.; Brown, B. A.; Yuan, Y. J.; Xia, J. W.; Yang, J. C.; Audi, G.; Chen, X. C.; Jia, G. B.; Hu, Z. G.; Ma, X. W.; Mao, R. S.; Mei, B.; Shuai, P.; Sun, Z. Y.; Wang, S. T.; Xiao, G. Q.; Xu, X.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Zang, Y. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhang, W.; Zhan, W. L.

    2013-03-01

    Isochronous mass spectrometry has been applied to neutron-deficient 58Ni projectile fragments at the HIRFL-CSR facility in Lanzhou, China. Masses of four shortlived Tz = -3/2 nuclides 41Ti, 45Cr, 49Fe, and 53Ni have been measured with a precision of 20 — 40 keV. The new mass data enabled for the first time to test the isobaric multiplet mass equation (IMME) in fp-shell nuclei. We observed that the IMME is inconsistent with the generally accepted quadratic form for the A = 53, T = 3/2 quartet. We performed full space shell model calculations and compared them with the new experimental results. The main results were published in Y.H. Zhang et al., Physical Review Letters 109 (2012). Here we give details on the experiment and data analysis as well as summarize the main findings.

  6. Developmental toxicity testing of biopharmaceuticals in nonhuman primates: previous experience and future directions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pauline L; Weinbauer, Gerhard F

    2010-12-01

    Developmental toxicity studies for pharmaceutical safety testing are designed to evaluate potential adverse effects of drug treatment on pregnancy and on the developing embryo/fetus. Biopharmaceuticals present specific challenges for developmental toxicity testing because the pharmacology of these molecules, which are frequently human-specific proteins, is often restricted to humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). For those species-restricted molecules, the only option for the evaluation of potential effects on development of the human biopharmaceutical is to use NHPs. This article reviews each of the stages of development in cynomolgus macaques (the most frequently used NHP) and the potential exposure of the embryo, fetus, and infant following administration of a biopharmaceutical during pregnancy and lactation. Because the purpose of the NHP developmental studies is to identify potential human risks, a comparison between macaque and human development and potential exposure has been made when possible. Understanding the potential exposure of the conceptus relative to critical periods in development is essential to designing a scientifically based study that adequately addresses human risks. Some options for NHP study designs, including the option of combining end points into a single study, and the pros and cons of each of the study options have been reviewed. Developmental studies for biopharmaceuticals in NHPs need to be optimally designed on a case-by-case basis taking into consideration the pharmacology of the molecule, the type of molecule (antibody or non-antibody), the potential exposure relative to the development of potential target organs, the clinical use, and the ethical considerations associated with the use of NHPs.

  7. The feasibility of replacing animal testing for assessing consumer safety: a suggested future direction.

    PubMed

    Fentem, Julia; Chamberlain, Mark; Sangster, Bart

    2004-12-01

    At present, we are unable to use much of the data derived from alternative (non-animal) tests for human health risk assessment. This brief Comment outlines why it is plausible that new paradigms could be developed to enable risk assessment to support consumer safety decisions, without the need to generate data in animal tests. The availability of technologies that did not exist 10 years ago makes this new approach possible. The approach is based on the concept that data and information derived from applying existing and new technologies to non-animal models can be interpreted in terms of harm and disease in man. A prerequisite is that similar data and information generated in a clinical setting are available to permit this "translation". The incorporation of this additional translation step should make it possible to use data and information generated in non-animal models as inputs to risk assessment. The new technologies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics. Their application to in vitro and human "models" enables large amounts of data to be generated very quickly. The processing, interpretation and translation of these data need to be supported by powerful informatics capabilities and statistical tools. The use of integrated "systems biology" approaches will further support the interpretation by providing better understanding of the underlying biological complexity and mechanisms of toxicity. Clinical medicine is using the opportunities offered by the new "omics" technologies to advance the understanding of disease. The application of these technologies in clinical medicine will generate massive amounts of data that will need processing and interpretation to allow clinicians to better diagnose disease and understand the patients' responses to therapeutic interventions. Support from clinical epidemiology will be essential. If these data and information can be made generally accessible in an ethical and legal way, they should also permit

  8. Performance tests and efficiency analysis of Solar Invictus 53S - A parabolic dish solar collector for direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Umer; Ali, Wajahat

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on Solar Invictus 53S `system'; an economically effective solar steam generation solution designed and developed by ZED Solar Ltd. The system consists of a dual axis tracking parabolic solar dish and bespoke cavity type receiver, which works as a Once Through Solar Steam Generator `OTSSG' mounted at the focal point of the dish. The overall performance and efficiency of the system depends primarily on the optical efficiency of the solar dish and thermal efficiency of the OTSSG. Optical testing performed include `on sun' tests using CCD camera images and `burn plate' testing to evaluate the sunspot for size and quality. The intercept factor was calculated using a colour look-back method to determine the percentage of solar rays focused into the receiver. Solar dish tracking stability tests were carried out at different times of day to account for varying dish elevation angles and positions, movement of the sunspot centroid was recorded and logged using a CCD camera. Finally the overall performance and net solar to steam efficiency of the system was calculated by experimentally measuring the output steam parameters at varying Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) levels at ZED Solar's test facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Thermal losses from OTSSG were calculated using the known optical efficiency and measured changes in output steam enthalpy.

  9. Direct-dynamics approach to catalytic effects: The tautomerization of 3-hydroxyisoquinoline as a test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Ramos, Antonio; Smedarchina, Zorka; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2000-08-01

    The mechanism of tautomerization of 3-hydroxyisoquinoline (3HIQ) in its first excited singlet state is studied theoretically for the isolated molecule and the 1:1 complexes with water (3HIQ/H2O) and acetic acid (3HIQ/AA). It is found that the proton transfer is a tunneling process which is strongly mediated by the motion of the heavier atoms involved in the hydrogen bond bridges. Therefore it is argued that quantitative assessment of the tremendous catalytic effect of complexation observed experimentally is possible only through the evaluation of multidimensional tunneling rate constants. These are addressed using a direct dynamics approach based on the multidimensional instanton model. The potential energy surface, which governs the tautomerization dynamics, is generated from ab initio calculations at CIS/6-31G* and CASSCF(8,8)/6-31G* levels of theory. It is formulated in terms of the normal modes of the transition state and consists of 33, 57, and 72 degrees of freedom for 3HIQ, 3HIQ/H2O, and 3HIQ/AA, respectively. The catalytic effect of complexation is discussed as an interplay between the static component, reflected in the change of geometries and relative stabilities of the three stationary points, and the dynamic one, resulting from the effects of coupling of the tunneling motion to the skeletal modes. Since the coupling parameters reported in the present study are typical for proton transfer along hydrogen bridges, the relative weight of these effects in the overall acceleration of the reaction will be larger in complexes with smaller reduction of the barrier height upon complexation.

  10. Maximal lateral reaching distance on the affected side using the multi-directional reach test in persons with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Won-Jeong; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Jeon, Seo-Hyun; Chung, Yijung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the relationship between maximal lateral reaching distance on the affected side and weight shifting using the Multi-directional Reach Test in persons with stoke. [Subjects] Fifty-one chronic stroke participants were recruited from two rehabilitation hospitals. This study administered the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go, Trunk Impairment Scale, Modified Barthel Index and measured different maximal reaching distances. [Results] The maximal lateral reaching distance on the affected side was correlated with the BBS (r=0.571), TUG (r=−0.478), TIS (r=0.561), and MBI scores (r=0.499), the lateral reaching distance in all directions on the non-affected side (r=0.785), the maximal backward reaching distance (r=0.723), and the maximal forward reaching distance (r=0.673). The maximal reaching distance on the affected side was also affected by that on the non-affected side, in addition to the maximal backward reaching distance and MBI score. The final step model of stepwise multiple regression was explained 69.5%. [Conclusion] Maximal lateral reaching distance on the affected side as determined by the Multi-directional Reach Test is a good method of assessing functional performance in stroke patients. Data regarding maximal reaching distance on the non-affected side can be used to measure functional impairment on the affected side in clinical settings. PMID:26504275

  11. Direct test of the critical exponents at the sol-gel transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Demet; Pekcan, Önder; Yılmaz, Yaşar

    2004-01-01

    The steady state fluorescence technique was used to study the sol-gel transition for the solution-free radical cross-linking polymerization of acrylamide (AAm), with N,N'-methylenebis (acrylamide) as cross linker in the presence of ammonium persulfate as an initiator. Pyranine (8-hydroxypyrene-1, 3,6-trisulfonic acid, trisodium salt) is used as a fluoroprobe for monitoring the polymerization. Pyranine molecules start to bind to acrylamide polymer chains upon the initiation of the polymerization, thus the spectra of the bonded pyranines shift to the shorter wavelengths. Fluorescence spectra from the bonded pyranines allows one to monitor the sol-gel transition, without disturbing the system mechanically, and to test the universality of the sol-gel transition as a function of some kinetic parameters such as polymer concentration, cross-linker concentration, and temperature. Observations around the critical point show that there are three regimes for AAm concentration in which the exponents differ drastically. The gel fraction exponent β and the weight average degree of polymerization exponent γ agree best with the static percolation results for higher acrylamide concentrations above 1M, but they cross over from percolation to mean-field (Flory-Stockmayer) values when the AAm concentration is lower than 2M. For very low polymer concentrations, below which the system can not form the gel, the exponents differ considerably from both the percolation and the mean-field values.

  12. Direct testing of the biasing effect of manipulations of endolymphatic pressure on cochlear mechanical function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LePage, Eric; Avan, Paul

    2015-12-01

    is aimed at quantifying hydrostatic pressures in cochlear chambers by direct measurement using a null-flow micropipette pressure measurement system, while simultaneously quantifying electric potentials and distortion products to provide indirect measures of displacement bias and hair cell integrity. We now suspect that during any experiment obtaining of good pressure seals is critical. Secondary penetrations, such as occur in neural recordings, are contra-indicated. When we address the issue of seals we see raised pressures in response to manipulations known to disturb homeostasis, viz. diuretics and hypoxia.

  13. Serological evidence of Leishmania donovani infection in apparently healthy dogs using direct agglutination test (DAT) and rk39 dipstick tests in Kafta Humera, north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kalayou, S; Tadelle, H; Bsrat, A; Abebe, N; Haileselassie, M; Schallig, H D F H

    2011-06-01

    Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of significant medical and veterinary importance. Over the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a major opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS in North Western Ethiopia. This paper reports on serological evidence of possible Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) infection in dogs using two serological tests: direct agglutination test (DAT) and Kalazar detect rapid test (KDRT). Two hundred and seventeen asymptomatic local breed dogs were examined for L. donovani antibodies. Performance of the DAT and KDRT was assessed in 162 matching samples of blood collected on filter paper and serum, respectively. Using DAT and KDRT testing in parallel, the overall seroprevalence of L. donovani infection was 27.7% and 14.8%, respectively. The degree of agreement was found to be fair (68.8%, k = 0.234). Univariable logistic regression analysis of some risk factors for L. donovani infection in dogs using DAT indicates that place of residence, sex, age, dog keeping purpose and dog housing condition were not significantly associated with seropositivity. The high proportion of positive dogs suggests the exposure of these animals to L. donovani infection and needs further investigation. Isolation and typing of the parasite aiming at confirming the role of these animals in maintenance and transmission of kala-azar is advocated.

  14. An exploration of genetic health professionals' experience with direct-to-consumer genetic testing in their clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Gemma R; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Amor, David J; Halliday, Jane L

    2012-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) allows individuals to obtain genetic tests directly from companies without necessarily involving health professionals. This study explores genetic health professionals' opinions of health-related DTC-GT and the reported frequency of individuals presenting to clinical genetics services after undertaking testing. Genetic counsellors and clinical geneticists, members of the Human Genetics Society of Australasia, completed an online survey in mid 2011. The 130 genetic counsellors (estimated response fraction=43%) and 38 clinical geneticists (estimated response fraction=46%) had mixed opinions regarding DTC-GT, with only 7% confident in accurately interpreting and explaining DTC-GT results. Nineteen respondents (11%) reported one or more client(s) referred to them after undertaking DTC-GT. Descriptions of 25 clients were extracted from responses, and respondents reported that all clients were concerned for the health of either themselves or family members. Most clients presented to genetic clinics specifically as a result of their DTC-GT (96%) and were self or GP referred (92%). Respondents perceived that their clients typically undertook DTC-GT because they wanted to identify monogenic conditions, including carrier testing and/or know their susceptibility or predisposition for complex conditions (88%). The majority of clients needed help interpreting DTC-GT results (80%), however in general were not questioning the validity of their DTC-GT results (92%) nor seeking further genetic testing (84%). Currently, DTC-GT is not a major reason for referral to clinical genetics services in Australia and New Zealand and the majority of genetic health professionals lack confidence in being able to accurately interpret and explain DTC-GT results. PMID:22317975

  15. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing

    PubMed Central

    Roellig, Dawn M.; Yoder, Jonathan S.; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Robinson, Trisha J.; Van, Tam T.; Collier, Sarah A.; Boxrud, Dave; Monson, Timothy; Bates, Leigh Ann; Blackstock, Anna J.; Shea, Shari; Larson, Kirsten; Xiao, Lihua; Beach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs) are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent “head to head” re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA). Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305) of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77) of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186) of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63) of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US). PMID:28085927

  16. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Dawn M; Yoder, Jonathan S; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Robinson, Trisha J; Van, Tam T; Collier, Sarah A; Boxrud, Dave; Monson, Timothy; Bates, Leigh Ann; Blackstock, Anna J; Shea, Shari; Larson, Kirsten; Xiao, Lihua; Beach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs) are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent "head to head" re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA). Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305) of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77) of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186) of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63) of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US).

  17. Effect of direct-to-consumer genetic tests on health behaviour and anxiety: a survey of consumers and potential consumers.

    PubMed

    Egglestone, Corin; Morris, Anne; O'Brien, Ann

    2013-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests can be purchased over the internet. Some companies claim to provide relative genetic risks for various diseases and thus encourage healthy behaviour. There are concerns that exposure to such information may actually discourage healthy behaviour or increase health anxiety. An online survey was conducted (n = 275). Respondents were composed of individuals who had purchased a DTC genetic test and received their results (consumers, n = 189), as well as individuals who were either awaiting test results or considering purchasing a test (potential consumers, n = 86). Consumers were asked if their health behaviour or health anxiety had changed after receiving their results. Respondents' current health behaviour and health anxiety were queried and compared. In total, 27.3 % of consumers claimed a change in health behaviour, all either positive or neutral, with no reported cessation of any existing health behaviour. A change in health anxiety was claimed by 24.6 % of consumers, 85.3 % of which were a reduction. Consumers had significantly better health behaviour scores than potential consumers (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in health anxiety. This study points towards an association between receipt of DTC genetic test results and increased adoption of healthy behaviours for a minority of consumers based on self-report, with more mixed results in relation to health anxiety.

  18. Preliminary report on the baseline thermal and hydraulic performance tests of a sieve tray direct contact heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, G.L.

    1982-11-01

    A sieve tray direct contact heat exchanger was designed, built and then tested in a binary power cycle at the Raft River geothermal test site. A series of baseline thermal and hydraulic tests were conducted with an isobutane working fluid. The evaluation of these tests is reported. The testing of the DCHX confirmed that the repeated forming and coalescence of the working fluid drops in the sieve tray column produce excellent heat transfer performance. Tray thermal efficiencies were at or above the design value of 70% and the pinch points were well under the design goal of 1/sup 0/F (too small to be measured with installed instrumentation). From a hydraulic standpoint, the column operated at the working fluid velocities from the plate holes corresponding to the predicted condition of maximum total drop surface area (or minimum drop size) when the unit was operating near the flooding limits, or throughputs. This is the recommended working fluid hole velocity for use in designing sieve tray columns. The geothermal flow limits encountered (at flooding) corresponded roughly to the thermal rise velocity of a 1/32-inch drop. This is a drop size commonly used for specifying the terminal velocity (or continuous fluid velocity) in the design of columns for mass transfer applications.

  19. A Bioequivalence Test by the Direct Comparison of Concentration-versus-Time Curves Using Local Polynomial Smoothers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Howard H.; Orange, Dana

    2016-01-01

    In order to test if two chemically or pharmaceutically equivalent products have the same efficacy and/or toxicity, a bioequivalence (BE) study is conducted. The 80%/125% rule is the most commonly used criteria for BE and states that BE cannot be claimed unless the 90% CIs for the ratio of selected pharmacokinetics (PK) parameters of the tested to the reference drug are within 0.8 to 1.25. Considering that estimates of these PK parameters are derived from the concentration-versus-time curves, a direct comparison between these curves motivates an alternative and more flexible approach to test BE. Here, we propose to frame the BE test in terms of an equivalence of concentration-versus-time curves which are constructed using local polynomial smoother (LPS). A metric is presented to quantify the distance between the curves and its 90% CIs are calculated via bootstrapping. Then, we applied the proposed procedures to data from an animal study and found that BE between a generic drug and its brand name cannot be concluded, which was consistent with the results by applying the 80%/125% rule. However, the proposed procedure has the advantage of testing only on a single metric, instead of all PK parameters. PMID:28050196

  20. Use of amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test in respiratory samples from HIV-infected patients in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Leonardo Bruno Paz Ferreira; Lourenço, Maria Cristina da Silva; Rolla, Valéria Cavalcanti; Veloso, Valdiléia Gonçalves; Huf, Gisele

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of the amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct (AMTD) test with reference methods for the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This was a study of diagnostic accuracy comparing AMTD test results with those obtained by culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and by the BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (BACTEC MGIT 960) system in respiratory samples analyzed at the Bioassay and Bacteriology Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. RESULTS: We analyzed respiratory samples collected from 118 patients, of whom 88 (74.4%) were male. The mean age was 36.6 ± 10.6 years. Using the AMTD test, the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, and LJ culture, we identified M. tuberculosis complex in 31.0%, 29.7%, and 27.1% of the samples, respectively. In comparison with LJ culture, the AMTD test had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 87.5%, 89.4%, 75.7%, and 95.0%, respectively, for LJ culture, whereas, in comparison with the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, it showed values of 88.6%, 92.4%, 83.8%, and 94.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The AMTD test showed good sensitivity and specificity in the population studied, enabling the laboratory detection of M. tuberculosis complex in paucibacillary respiratory specimens. PMID:24831399

  1. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  2. EU landfill waste acceptance criteria and EU Hazardous Waste Directive compliance testing of incinerated sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Tyrer, M; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    A hazardous waste assessment has been completed on ash samples obtained from seven sewage sludge incinerators operating in the UK, using the methods recommended in the EU Hazardous Waste Directive. Using these methods, the assumed speciation of zinc (Zn) ultimately determines if the samples are hazardous due to ecotoxicity hazard. Leaching test results showed that two of the seven sewage sludge ash samples would require disposal in a hazardous waste landfill because they exceed EU landfill waste acceptance criteria for stabilised non-reactive hazardous waste cells for soluble selenium (Se). Because Zn cannot be proven to exist predominantly as a phosphate or oxide in the ashes, it is recommended they be considered as non-hazardous waste. However leaching test results demonstrate that these ashes cannot be considered as inert waste, and this has significant implications for the management, disposal and re-use of sewage sludge ash.

  3. Summary of Liquid Oxygen/Hydrogen, Direct Metal Laser Sintering Injector Testing and Evaluation Effort at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Gregory; Bullard, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed a significant advancement in the area of additive manufacturing technology. One area that has seen substantial expansion in application has been laser sintering (or melting) in a powder bed. This technology is often termed 3D printing or various acronyms that may be industry, process, or company specific. Components manufactured via 3D printing have the potential to significantly reduce development and fabrication time and cost. The usefulness of 3D printed components is influenced by several factors such as material properties and surface roughness. This paper details three injectors that were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to evaluate the utility of 3D printed components for rocket engine applications. The three injectors were tested in a hot-fire environment with chamber pressures of approximately 1400 psia. One injector was a 28 element design printed by Directed Manufacturing. The other two injectors were identical 40 element designs printed by Directed Manufacturing and Solid Concepts. All the injectors were swirl-coaxial designs and were subscale versions of a full-scale injector currently in fabrication. The test and evaluation programs for the 28 element and 40 element injectors provided a substantial amount of data that confirms the feasibility of 3D printed parts for future applications. The operating conditions of previously tested, conventionally manufactured injectors were reproduced in the 28 and 40 element programs in order to contrast the performance of each. Overall, the 3D printed injectors demonstrated comparable performance to the conventionally manufactured units. The design features of the aforementioned injectors can readily be implemented in future applications with a high degree of confidence.

  4. Awareness, attitudes and perspectives of direct-to-consumer genetic testing in Greece: a survey of potential consumers.

    PubMed

    Mavroidopoulou, Vasiliki; Xera, Ellie; Mollaki, Vasiliki

    2015-09-01

    Direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTCGT) is now offered by numerous companies. The present survey aimed to explore awareness, interest, reasons to take and refuse DTCGT, and understanding of results amongst 725 higher education students in Greece. A third of the responders were aware of DTCGT and interest was dependent on cost. More than 60% of the participants would undergo DTCGT to learn more about their health, to warn their children, so that their doctor can monitor their health and change their lifestyle. Nevertheless, they would prefer to consult their doctor first and expressed concerned about their personal data. After receiving results from a hypothetical DTC genetic test predicting higher risk for colon cancer, 59.5% of the responders thought that they could understand the results but 46.1% believed that the results have diagnostic value. In total, 83.6% of the participants would ask their doctor to explain the results and 70.4% would discuss results with their family. In conclusion, the majority of higher education students in Greece appreciate the benefits of genetic testing but with the involvement of their doctor. A physician's participation in the process and informing the public about the true value of genetic testing, are crucial to avoid misinterpretation of DTCGT results.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. Results: PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. Conclusion: PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA. PMID:28042218

  6. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Methods Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. Findings The model’s fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics. Interpretation Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations. PMID:28225790

  7. Slimhole drilling and directional drilling for on-site inspections under a Comprehensive Test Ban: An initial assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F. E.

    1995-07-01

    On Site-Inspection (OSI), under the Comprehensive Test Ban being negotiated in the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, may include drilling at the site of a suspected clandestine underground nuclear explosion to recover radioactive samples. It is in the interest of the drilling party to operate as light and compact a system as possible because it is likely that the drilling equipment will first be airlifted to the country being inspected, and then will be carried by air or surface to the inspection site. It will be necessary for the inspection party to have the capability for more than vertical drilling since there may not be a drilling site available vertically above the suspected nuclear cavity location. This means having, the ability to perform directional drilling and to obtain accurate positioning of the drilling tool. Consequently, several directions may be explored from a single surface drilling pad. If the target depth is expected to be at or less than 600 m (2000 ft), slant drilling may be required to a length well in excess of 600 m. Clearly, the operation must be designed with health and safety features to prevent radioactive exposure if the drilling encounters a nuclear source region. The DOE/LLNL community has developed a strong expertise in this regard. In this initial assessment we focus on the portability and directionality of drilling systems.

  8. Efficiency of Direct Microscopy of Stool Samples Using an Antigen-Specific Adhesin Test for Entamoeba Histolytica

    PubMed Central

    İrvem, Arzu; Özdil, Kamil; Çalışkan, Zuhal; Yücel, Muhterem

    2016-01-01

    Background: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol’s iodine for pre-diagnosis. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E. histolytica in stool samples collected from 788 patients residing in the Anatolian region of İstanbul who presented with gastrointestinal complaints. We used the information obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of microscopic examinations when used in combination with the E. histolytica adhesin antigen test. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Methods: Preparations of stool samples stained with Native-Lugol’s iodine were evaluated using the E. histolytica adhesin test and examined using standard light microscopy at ×40 magnification. Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Of 788 samples, 38 (4.8%) were positive for E. histolytica adhesin antigens. When evaluated together with the presences of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cysts, and trophozoites, respectively, using logistic regression analysis, leukocyte positivity was significantly higher. The odds ratio of leukocyte positivity increased adhesin test-positivity by 2,530-fold (95% CI=1.01–6.330). Adhesin test-positivity was significant (p=0.047). Conclusion: In line with these findings, the consistency between the presence of cysts and erythrocytes and adhesin test-positivity was found to be highly significant, but that of higher levels of leukocytes was found to be discordant. It was concluded that leukocytes and trophozoites were easily misjudged

  9. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  10. Sector Tests of a Low-NO(sub x), Lean, Direct- Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combustor Concept Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R.; Wey, Chang-Lie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    The low-emissions combustor development described is directed toward advanced high pressure aircraft gas-turbine applications. The emphasis of this research is to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high-power conditions and to maintain carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons at their current low levels at low power conditions. Low-NOx combustors can be classified into rich-burn and lean-burn concepts. Lean-burn combustors can be further classified into lean-premixed-prevaporized (LPP) and lean direct injection (LDI) concepts. In both concepts, all the combustor air, except for liner cooling flow, enters through the combustor dome so that the combustion occurs at the lowest possible flame temperature. The LPP concept has been shown to have the lowest NOx emissions, but for advanced high-pressure-ratio engines, the possibility of autoignition or flashback precludes its use. LDI differs from LPP in that the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone, and thus, it does not have the potential for autoignition or flashback and should have greater stability. However, since it is not premixed and prevaporized, good atomization is necessary and the fuel must be mixed quickly and uniformly so that flame temperatures are low and NOx formation levels are comparable to those of LPP. The LDI concept described is a multipoint fuel injection/multiburning zone concept. Each of the multiple fuel injectors has an air swirler associated with it to provide quick mixing and a small recirculation zone for burning. The multipoint fuel injection provides quick, uniform mixing and the small multiburning zones provide for reduced burning residence time, resulting in low NOx formation. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers, and fuel manifold into a single element. The multipoint concept combustor was demonstrated in a 15 sector test. The configuration tested had 36

  11. The Use of Test Accommodations as a Gaming Strategy: A State-Level Exploration of Potential Gaming Tendencies in the 2007-2009 Period and Implications for Re-Directing Research on Gaming through Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saatcioglu, Argun; Skrtic, Thomas M.; DeLuca, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The overuse of test accommodations (e.g., test readers, extra time, and calculators) for students with disabilities is a potential means of gaming the accountability system because it can inflate proficiency gains. However, no direct evidence on this problem exists, and findings on whether or not test accommodations improve test scores are…

  12. Incidence and mutation rates of Huntington's disease in Spain: experience of 9 years of direct genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Arroyo, M; Moreno, S; Valiente, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prior to the discovery of the Huntington's disease (HD) mutation, the prevalence, incidence, and new mutation rates for this disease were based on the presence of progressive choreic movements and a positive family history. Objective: To evaluate the uptake of the HD genetic analysis in Spain, and to provide additional information on the epidemiology of this disease from the experience of 9 years of direct genetic testing. Methods: From 1994 to 2002, CAG repeat length was determined in 317 patients with symptoms compatible with HD. In all cases, demographic, clinical, and family data were carefully reviewed. Results: HD diagnosis (CAG repeat length ⩾36) was confirmed in 166 (52%) symptomatic cases. Of these, 76 (45.8%) reported a positive family history and in 21 cases (12.7%) family history was negative. New mutation events were genetically proven in three families and highly suspected in another, estimating that the minimum new mutation rate for HD in our population is >4%, with a potential mutation rate of 8%. More than 16% of all HD cases had late onset (>59 years) of symptoms, and in three quarters of these the family history was negative. The incidence rate for the autonomous communities of Navarra and the Basque country, based on the number of newly diagnosed cases by genetic testing, was 4.7 per million per year. Conclusions: Direct HD genetic testing shows that the incidence and mutation rates of the disease are 2–3 times higher than previously reported. We also demonstrated the relevance of CAG repeat length assessment in diagnosing patients with late onset of symptoms and negative family history for HD. PMID:15716522

  13. Characterization of toxicants in urban road dust by Toxicity Identification Evaluation using ostracod Heterocypris incongruens direct contact test.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Rajendra; Furumai, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Fumiyuki

    2015-10-15

    The current study involves characterization of organic compounds, heavy metals, and ammonia as potential toxicants in one arterial road (St. 3) and two highway (St. 7 and 8) urban road dust (URD) collected in Tokyo, Japan. URD toxicity was evaluated by Toxicity Identification Evaluation using the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens direct contact test. URDs were treated with resins (10% XAD-4, 20% SIR-300 and 20% SIR-600) to determine the reduction in mortality after treatment. The mortality of ostracods exposed to St. 3 URD (baseline 80%) was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 0% and 47% after XAD-4 and SIR-300 treatment respectively. This reduction led us to suspect hydrophobic organic compounds and heavy metals as potential toxicants. Subsequent elution of the recovered XAD-4 with polar (methanol, acetone) and non-polar (dichloromethane) solvents confirmed the dominance of relatively polar hydrophobic organic toxicants. The dissolved concentration of Cu and Zn after SIR-300 treatment exceeded the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for ostracods, which led us to suspect Cu and Zn as other probable toxicants. The concentration of Zn in a SIR-300 acidic elutriate, recovered after the termination of toxicity test, confirmed Zn as one of the toxicants in St. 3. The baseline mortality (100%) of St. 7 was significantly reduced (23%) by SIR-300 treatment. This indicated the presence of heavy metals as the probable toxicant. However, the concentration of dissolved heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the overlying water was below previously reported LC50 values for each metal in St. 7. Recovery of Zn concentrations exceeding the LC50 in the St. 7 SIR-300 elutriate led us to suspect a dietary exposure route of Zn to the ostracod during the direct contact test. The overall results indicate that the toxicant types can vary widely depending on the road sampled.

  14. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Antibody Screen Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Blood Typing ; RBC Antibody Identification ; Type and Screen; Crossmatch All content on Lab Tests Online has been reviewed and approved by our Editorial Review Board . At a ... screen is used to screen an individual's blood for antibodies directed against red blood cell (RBC) ...

  15. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  16. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Blower-Door-Directed Infiltration Reduction Procedure, Field Test Implementation and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gettings, M.B.

    2001-05-21

    A blower-door-directed infiltration retrofit procedure was field tested on 18 homes in south central Wisconsin. The procedure, developed by the Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation, includes recommended retrofit techniques as well as criteria for estimating the amount of cost-effective work to be performed on a house. A recommended expenditure level and target air leakage reduction, in air changes per hour at 50 Pascal (ACH50), are determined from the initial leakage rate measured. The procedure produced an average 16% reduction in air leakage rate. For the 7 houses recommended for retrofit, 89% of the targeted reductions were accomplished with 76% of the recommended expenditures. The average cost of retrofits per house was reduced by a factor of four compared with previous programs. The average payback period for recommended retrofits was 4.4 years, based on predicted energy savings computed from achieved air leakage reductions. Although exceptions occurred, the procedure's 8 ACH50 minimum initial leakage rate for advising retrofits to be performed appeared a good choice, based on cost-effective air leakage reduction. Houses with initial rates of 7 ACH50 or below consistently required substantially higher costs to achieve significant air leakage reductions. No statistically significant average annual energy savings was detected as a result of the infiltration retrofits. Average measured savings were -27 therm per year, indicating an increase in energy use, with a 90% confidence interval of 36 therm. Measured savings for individual houses varied widely in both positive and negative directions, indicating that factors not considered affected the results. Large individual confidence intervals indicate a need to increase the accuracy of such measurements as well as understand the factors which may cause such disparity. Recommendations for the procedure include more extensive training of retrofit crews, checks for minimum air exchange rates to insure air quality

  17. Motions Recognized through Visual Scene by Pilots and Flight Simulator Tests with Only Lateral-Directional Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Masahito; Kobayashi, Osamu

    A flight simulator must exactly simulate the aircraft motion. So, engineers check if the solution of equations of motion, the calculation of flight positions and attitudes, and then, the drawn-up of visual scenery from cockpit windows according to the calculated positions and attitudes are correct. This paper proposes an additional check if the aircraft motion perceived from visual scenery by pilot is same as the calculated motion. This opinion is applied to the simulation case that just lateral-directional flying qualities are evaluated, and it is found that the pitching motion rate (q) and Euler’s pitch attitude rate (Θ) should not be perfectly neglected (i.e. q=Θ=0) but (q and Θ) should be given assuming steady level turn flight should be given. The flight simulator test showed that the pilot felt more real flight motion and controlled some harder than in the condition of q=Θ=0.

  18. A direct CO2 control system for ocean acidification experiments: testing effects on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Laura; Santos, Rui; Reis, Joao; Shulika, Alona; Silva, Joao

    2016-01-01

    Most ocean acidification (OA) experimental systems rely on pH as an indirect way to control CO2. However, accurate pH measurements are difficult to obtain and shifts in temperature and/or salinity alter the relationship between pH and pCO2. Here we describe a system in which the target pCO2 is controlled via direct analysis of pCO2 in seawater. This direct type of control accommodates potential temperature and salinity shifts, as the target variable is directly measured instead of being estimated. Water in a header tank is permanently re-circulated through an air-water equilibrator. The equilibrated air is then routed to an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) that measures pCO2 and conveys this value to a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. The controller commands a solenoid valve that opens and closes the CO2 flush that is bubbled into the header tank. This low-cost control system allows the maintenance of stabilized levels of pCO2 for extended periods of time ensuring accurate experimental conditions. This system was used to study the long term effect of OA on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum. We found that after 11 months of high CO2 exposure, photosynthesis increased with CO2 as opposed to respiration, which was positively affected by temperature. Results showed that this system is adequate to run long-term OA experiments and can be easily adapted to test other relevant variables simultaneously with CO2, such as temperature, irradiance and nutrients.

  19. A direct CO2 control system for ocean acidification experiments: testing effects on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rui; Reis, Joao; Shulika, Alona

    2016-01-01

    Most ocean acidification (OA) experimental systems rely on pH as an indirect way to control CO2. However, accurate pH measurements are difficult to obtain and shifts in temperature and/or salinity alter the relationship between pH and pCO2. Here we describe a system in which the target pCO2 is controlled via direct analysis of pCO2 in seawater. This direct type of control accommodates potential temperature and salinity shifts, as the target variable is directly measured instead of being estimated. Water in a header tank is permanently re-circulated through an air-water equilibrator. The equilibrated air is then routed to an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) that measures pCO2 and conveys this value to a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller. The controller commands a solenoid valve that opens and closes the CO2 flush that is bubbled into the header tank. This low-cost control system allows the maintenance of stabilized levels of pCO2 for extended periods of time ensuring accurate experimental conditions. This system was used to study the long term effect of OA on the coralline red algae Phymatolithon lusitanicum. We found that after 11 months of high CO2 exposure, photosynthesis increased with CO2 as opposed to respiration, which was positively affected by temperature. Results showed that this system is adequate to run long-term OA experiments and can be easily adapted to test other relevant variables simultaneously with CO2, such as temperature, irradiance and nutrients. PMID:27703853

  20. Enabling real time release testing by NIR prediction of dissolution of tablets made by continuous direct compression (CDC).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pallavi; Wang, Yifan; Keyvan, Golshid; Callegari, Gerardo; Cuitino, Alberto; Muzzio, Fernando

    2016-10-15

    A method for predicting dissolution profiles of directly compressed tablets for a fixed sustained release formulation manufactured in a continuous direct compaction (CDC) system is presented. The methodology enables real-time release testing (RTRt). Tablets were made at a target drug concentration of 9% Acetaminophen, containing 90% lactose and 1% Magnesium Stearate, and at a target compression force of 24kN. A model for predicting dissolution profiles was developed using a 3(4-1) fractional factorial experimental design built around this targeted condition. Four variables were included: API concentration (low, medium, high), blender speed (150rpm, 200rpm, 250rpm), feed frame speed (20rpm, 25rpm, 30rpm), compaction force (8KN, 16KN, 24KN). The tablets thus obtained were scanned at-line in transmission mode using Near IR spectroscopy. The dissolution profiles were described using two approaches, a model-independent "shape and level" method, and a model-dependent approach based on Weibull's model. Multivariate regression was built between the NIR scores as the predictor variables and the dissolution profile parameters as the response. The model successfully predicted the dissolution profiles of the individual tablets (similarity factor, f2 ∼72) manufactured at the targeted set point. This is a first ever published manuscript addressing RTRt for dissolution prediction in continuous manufacturing, a novel and state of art technique for tablet manufacturing.

  1. Prescription medication changes following direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing: Findings from the Impact of Personal Genomics (PGen) Study

    PubMed Central

    Carere, Deanna Alexis; VanderWeele, Tyler; Vassy, Jason L.; van der Wouden, Cathelijne; Roberts, J. Scott; Kraft, Peter; Green, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To measure the frequency of prescription medication changes following direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (DTC-PGT) and their association with the pharmacogenomic results received. Methods New DTC-PGT customers were enrolled in 2012 and completed surveys prior to return of results and 6 months post-results; DTC-PGT results were linked to survey data. ‘Atypical response’ pharmacogenomic results were defined as those indicating an increase or decrease in risk of an adverse drug event or likelihood of therapeutic benefit. At follow-up, participants reported prescription medication changes and health care provider consultation. Results Follow-up data were available from 961 participants, of which 54 (5.6%) reported changing a medication they were taking, or starting a new medication, due to their DTC-PGT results. Of these, 45 (83.3%) reported consulting with a health care provider regarding the change. Pharmacogenomic results were available for 961 participants, of which 875 (91.2%) received ≥1 atypical response result. For each such result received, the odds of reporting a prescription medication change increased 1.57 times (95% confidence interval = 1.17, 2.11). Conclusion Receipt of pharmacogenomic results indicating atypical drug response is common with DTC-PGT, and associated with prescription medication changes; however, fewer than 1% of consumers report unsupervised changes at 6 months post-testing. PMID:27657683

  2. Genital chlamydial infection among women in Nicaragua: validity of direct fluorescent antibody testing, prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, B; Espinoza, F; Villegas, R R; Smith, G D; Ramos, A; Egger, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the performance of a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations of cervical chlamydia infection in different groups of women in Nicaragua. STUDY POPULATION: 926 women, 863 routine clinic attenders (mean age 27 years) and 63 sex workers (mean age 25 years) attending health centres in León, Corinto, Matagalpa and Bluefields. METHODS: Cervical specimens were examined using the Syva MicroTrak test system with a cut-off of 10 or more elementary bodies (EBs). The DFA results were validated by a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Discordant results were further examined in nested PCR assays directed at two different target genes. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standard gynaecological examination were completed. RESULTS: Sensitivity of DFA was 80.1%, specificity 98.3%, and positive and negative predictive values 62.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Values were lower in locations where samples thawed because of electricity breaks and higher among sex workers. The majority of discordant results was confirmed as positive in nested PCR assays. Prevalence of cervical chlamydia infection based on positivity in DFA and/or PCR ranged from 2% among routine clinic attenders aged 35 years or older, to 8% among adolescent clinic attenders, and to 14% among sex workers. Among routine clinic attenders, young age (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.4-8.9 for women aged 15-19 years as compared with 1 in women 25 years of age or older) and use of oral contraceptives (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.6) were the only statistically significant risk factors identified in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of mucopurulent cervical discharge (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.0-11.5) and presence of ectropion (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5) were the clinical signs independently associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the DFA test was sensitive and

  3. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of frontal cortex decreases performance on the WAIS-IV intelligence test.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Kristin K; Mellin, Juliann M; Lustenberger, Caroline M; Boyle, Michael R; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants were included in the final analysis. These participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA at each anode for 20 min) or active sham tDCS (2 mA for 40 s), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA for 20 min). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of the pressure-based direct integrity test for membranes used in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Minnery, John G; Jacangelo, Joseph G; Boden, Leslie I; Vorhees, Donna J; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy

    2009-12-15

    We conducted a sensitivity analysis of the commonly employed pressure-based direct integrity test (DIT), the most sensitive test for defects in low-pressure hollow fiber (LPHF) microfiltration and ultrafiltration systems used in drinking water treatment. Incorporating uncertainty to assess the practice of DIT, we find the resolution in some tests may be insufficient to verify the presence of a barrier to oocysts of Cryptosporidium. Applying distributions and boundaries derived from literature and practice, we solved for the defect size resolution (DSR) using Monte Carlo and Probability Bounds Analysis for five commercial membrane designs. Surface tension was modeled using annual temperature profiles from three rivers. Contact angle measurement error and variability were derived from literature, respectively, as a standard deviation of 5.7 degrees and +/- 9.6 degrees median change due to natural organic matter (NOM) fouling. These measures of contact angle uncertainty and variability were combined in a normal distribution with the discrete values currently applied. Additionally we considered model uncertainty, applying the maximum bubble pressure method, an established method of surface tension measurement in liquids in which the maximum air pressure in a submerged capillary is developed after the contact angle becomes zero prior to bubble formation. Where the DSR exceeds 3 microm the test design is not compliant with applicable drinking water regulations. Implications include uncertain and variable log-removal values (LRV) as determined by DIT due to the possible emergence of defects large enough to allow oocysts to pass without detection by the DIT. Specifically, we found the DSR may exceed 3 microm and may be as large as 8 microm. With the variable contact angle model, all lower bound possibilities are compliant, whereas the upper bound is over 80% noncompliant for three of five commercial designs. Using the Maximum Bubble Pressure Method, the lower bounds in

  5. Asymmetries in the production of self-directed behavior by chimpanzees and gorillas during a computerized cognitive test.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Katherine E; Hopper, Lydia M; Ross, Stephen R

    2016-03-01

    Self-directed behaviors (SDBs) are a commonly used behavioral indicator of arousal in nonhuman primates. Experimental manipulations, designed to increase arousal and uncertainty, have been used to elicit SDB production in primates. Beyond measuring rates of SDB production, researchers have also recorded their lateralized production by primates, thought to reflect laterality of hemispheric brain control and response to emotion. Although a handful of such studies exist, all have been conducted with chimpanzees. Expanding on this line of inquiry, we tested both chimpanzees (N = 3) and gorillas (N = 3) in a serial learning task presented on a touchscreen interface that incorporated both EASY (two-item list) and HARD (four-item list) versions of the task. Although SDB production by the apes did not differ across the two levels of task complexity, both species produced higher rates of SDB when they made an error, regardless of task difficulty. Furthermore, the apes made more SDB with the left hand-directed to the right side of their body (contralateral SDB) and left side of their body (ipsilateral SDB)-when they made an incorrect response. There was no difference in the rate of SDB produced with the right hand across correct compared to incorrect trials. The apes' responses reflect previous reports that show humans are quicker at selecting negative emotional stimuli when using their left, compared to their right, hand (the reverse is true for positive stimuli). However, previous work has shown that chimpanzees are more likely to produce (contralateral) SDB with their right hand when aroused and so we discuss our results in relation to these findings and consider how they relate to the 'right hemisphere' and 'valence' models of emotional processing in apes.

  6. Transverse and z-Direction CVN Impact Tests of X65 Line Pipe Steels of Two Centerline Segregation Ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lihong; Li, Huijun; Lu, Cheng; Li, Jintao; Fletcher, Leigh; Simpson, Ian; Barbaro, Frank; Zheng, Lei; Bai, Mingzhuo; Shen, Jianlan; Qu, Xianyong

    2016-08-01

    Centerline segregation occurs as a positive concentration of alloying elements in the mid-thickness region of continuously cast slab. Depending upon its severity, it may affect mechanical properties and potentially downstream processing such as weldability, particularly for high-strength line pipe. The segregation fraction in continuously cast slabs and corresponding hot-rolled strips was assessed on API 5L grade X65 line pipe steels with different levels of segregation, rated as Mannesmann 2.0 and 1.4. The results showed that the segregation fraction in hot-rolled strip samples was in accordance with that assessed in the cast slabs, and the segregated regions in hot-rolled strip samples were found to be discontinuous. Transverse and z-direction CVN impact tests were conducted on the two strips and the results showed that centerline segregation does have an influence on the Charpy impact properties of line pipe steel. Specimens located at segregated regions exhibited lower Charpy impact toughness and strips rolled from slabs with higher segregation levels are more likely to exhibit greater variability in Charpy impact toughness. The influence of centerline segregation on z-direction Charpy impact toughness is more severe than on transverse Charpy impact toughness. Lower Charpy impact toughness and brittle fracture surface with cleavage facets along with rod-shaped MnS inclusions were observed for the strip rolled from slab with 2.0 segregation rating if the Charpy specimens were located at segregated regions. The influence on Charpy impact toughness can be associated with the pearlite structure at the centerline and level of MnS inclusions.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolates directly from spiked blood culture media with Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dekter, H E; Orelio, C C; Morsink, M C; Tektas, S; Vis, B; Te Witt, R; van Leeuwen, W B

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from bacterial bloodstream infections have an increased risk of developing systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which can result in rapid deterioration of the patients' health. Diagnostic methods for bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests are time-consuming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Raman spectroscopy would be able to rapidly provide an antimicrobial susceptibility profile from bacteria isolated directly from positive blood cultures. First, bacterial strains (n = 133) were inoculated in tryptic soy broth and incubated in the presence or absence of antibiotics for 5 h. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Subsequently, a selection of strains was isolated from blood cultures and analyzed similarly. VITEK®2 technology and broth dilution were used as the reference methods. Raman spectra from 67 antibiotic-susceptible strains showed discriminatory spectra in the absence or at low concentrations of antibiotics as compared to high antibiotic concentrations. For 66 antibiotic-resistant strains, no antimicrobial effect was observed on the bacterial Raman spectra. Full concordance with VITEK®2 data and broth dilution was obtained for the antibiotic-susceptible strains, 68 % and 98 %, respectively, for the resistant strains. Discriminative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) profiles were obtained for all bacterial strains isolated from blood cultures, resulting in full concordance with the VITEK®2 data. It can be concluded that Raman spectroscopy is able to detect the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial species isolated from a positive blood culture bottle within 5 h. Although Raman spectroscopy is cheap and rapid, further optimization is required, to fulfill a great promise for future AST profiling technology development.

  8. Field-testing of a Passive Surface Water Flux Meter for the Direct Measurement of Water and Solute Mass Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, E. C.; Jawitz, J. W.; Annable, M. D.; Klammler, H.; Hatfield, K.

    2007-05-01

    The measurement of water and solute mass discharges in surface water flow systems is a fundamental hydrologic task for ecological and economic decision making. However, due to the extensive monetary, labor, and time costs of traditional monitoring devices and methods, many water quality monitoring programs lack the resources necessary to provide comprehensive descriptions of surface water impairments. The Passive Surface Water Flux Meter (PSFM) is a recently developed passive sampling device that measures water and solute fluxes within flowing surface water bodies. Devoid of mechanical components and power supply requirements, the relatively low-maintenance, low-cost design of the PSFM gives it considerable potential as a tool for extensive, large-scale surface water quality characterization and monitoring. The novelty of the PSFM extends to its direct mass-based approach to solute flux measurement, as compared to conventional, indirect concentration-based approaches. During this field-testing campaign, the PSFM was deployed in flowing surface water bodies of north- central Florida. The device contained a dual-packed porous media cartridge that performed simultaneous ion exchange to determine phosphate mass flux and equilibrium tracer desorption to determine water flux within the stream. The PSFM demonstrated accurate measurement of steady-state water and phosphate mass fluxes to within 15% over a range of stream velocities, solute concentrations, and deployment durations. The PSFM design described here was found to perform well in steady-flow conditions. The device was also shown to be effective under transient conditions of limited variability, but full transient testing remains for future work.

  9. A prototype of the direct agglutination test kit (DAT-Canis) for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Edward; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Oliveira, Diana; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes

    2016-05-15

    This report describes the stege I/II development of a new direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using freeze-dried antigen produced Coomassie blue-stained Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes. In stage I, 16 canine serum samples, collected from eight dogs carrying CVL and eight healthy dogs, were assessed with the DAT using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), kaolin or NAC plus urea (NAC+U) to improve the assay conditions. Stage II assessed the diagnostic accuracy with 100 serum samples collected from dogs with symptomatic CVL and clinically healthy dogs, comparing the four different sample diluents. The CVL-DAT prototype kit showed equivalent performances when 2-ME, NAC or NAC+U were used: 97.1% sensitivity (CI: 83-99.8%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and a 97% diagnostic accuracy (CI: 90.8-99.2). With kaolin, a 94.1% sensitivity (CI: 79-99%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and 96% diagnostic accuracy were observed (CI: 89.5-98.7), with no statistically significant differences among the four reagents (p=1.0). The NAC plus urea in sample diluent decreased non-specific agglutination, promoted a better defined sharp-edged blue spot and was thus chosen as a component for the new DAT prototype to diagnose canine VL, designated DAT-Canis.

  10. Absolute pitch among students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music: a large-scale direct-test study.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana; Li, Xiaonuo; Shen, Jing

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a large-scale direct-test study of absolute pitch (AP) in students at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. Overall note-naming scores were very high, with high scores correlating positively with early onset of musical training. Students who had begun training at age ≤5 yr scored 83% correct not allowing for semitone errors and 90% correct allowing for semitone errors. Performance levels were higher for white key pitches than for black key pitches. This effect was greater for orchestral performers than for pianists, indicating that it cannot be attributed to early training on the piano. Rather, accuracy in identifying notes of different names (C, C#, D, etc.) correlated with their frequency of occurrence in a large sample of music taken from the Western tonal repertoire. There was also an effect of pitch range, so that performance on tones in the two-octave range beginning on Middle C was higher than on tones in the octave below Middle C. In addition, semitone errors tended to be on the sharp side. The evidence also ran counter to the hypothesis, previously advanced by others, that the note A plays a special role in pitch identification judgments.

  11. Helium heater design for the helium direct cycle component test facility. [for gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V. R.; Gunn, S. V.; Lee, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a helium heater to be used to conduct non-nuclear demonstration tests of the complete power conversion loop for a direct-cycle gas-cooled nuclear reactor power plant. Requirements for the heater include: heating the helium to a 1500 F temperature, operating at a 1000 psia helium pressure, providing a thermal response capability and helium volume similar to that of the nuclear reactor, and a total heater system helium pressure drop of not more than 15 psi. The unique compact heater system design proposed consists of 18 heater modules; air preheaters, compressors, and compressor drive systems; an integral control system; piping; and auxiliary equipment. The heater modules incorporate the dual-concentric-tube 'Variflux' heat exchanger design which provides a controlled heat flux along the entire length of the tube element. The heater design as proposed will meet all system requirements. The heater uses pressurized combustion (50 psia) to provide intensive heat transfer, and to minimize furnace volume and heat storage mass.

  12. Bench-scale testing and evaluation of the direct sulfur recovery process. Final report, February 1990--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Chen, D.H.

    1994-05-01

    The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a two-stage catalytic reduction process for efficiently recovering up to 99% or higher amounts of elemental sulfur from SO{sub 2}-containing regeneration tail-gas produced in advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems by reacting the tail-gas with a small slipstream of coal gas. In this project, the DSRP was demonstrated with simulated gases at bench-scale with 3-in. diameter, 1-L size catalytic reactors. Fundamental kinetic and modeling studies were conducted to explain the significantly higher than thermodynamically expected sulfur recoveries in DSRP and to enable prediction of sulfur recovery in larger reactors. Technology transfer activities to promote the DSRP consisted of publications and discussions with architectural engineering firms and industrial parties especially IGCC system developers. Toward the end of the project, an agreement was signed with an IGCC system developer to scale up the DSRP and test it with actual gases in their 10-MW (thermal) coal gasification pilot-plant under a cooperative R&D agreement with the US Department of Energy.

  13. Direct measurement of the positive acceleration of the universe and testing inhomogeneous models under gravitational wave cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Kent; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Yoo, Chul-Moon E-mail: anishi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2012-04-01

    One possibility for explaining the apparent accelerating expansion of the universe is that we live in the center of a spherically inhomogeneous universe. Although current observations cannot fully distinguish ΛCDM and these inhomogeneous models, direct measurement of the acceleration of the universe can be a powerful tool in probing them. We have shown that, if ΛCDM is the correct model, DECIGO/BBO would be able to detect the positive redshift drift (which is the time evolution of the source redshift z) in 3–5 year gravitational wave (GW) observations from neutron-star binaries, which enables us to rule out any Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) void model with monotonically increasing density profile. We may even be able to rule out any LTB model unless we allow unrealistically steep density profile at z ∼ 0. This test can be performed with GW observations alone, without any reference to electromagnetic observations, and is more powerful than the redshift drift measurement using Lyman α forest.

  14. Comparison study of membrane filtration direct count and an automated coliform and Escherichia coli detection system for on-site water quality testing.

    PubMed

    Habash, Marc; Johns, Robert

    2009-10-01

    This study compared an automated Escherichia coli and coliform detection system with the membrane filtration direct count technique for water testing. The automated instrument performed equal to or better than the membrane filtration test in analyzing E. coli-spiked samples and blind samples with interference from Proteus vulgaris or Aeromonas hydrophila.

  15. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact Animal Foods; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Direct- Human-Contact Animal Foods.'' The document provides guidance to firms that manufacture, process, pack, or hold human foods or direct-human- contact animal foods intended for distribution to...

  16. Assessing Inter-Effort Recovery and Change of Direction Ability with the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test

    PubMed Central

    Haydar, Bachar; Haddad, Hani Al; Ahmaidi, Said; Buchheit, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to propose a new and simple field assessment of inter-effort recovery and change of direction (COD) ability based on performance during the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT, an intermittent, incremental shuttle-run test) using three different protocols. Forty team-sport players (22 ± 2 years) performed either (group A; n = 16) the original 30-15IFT and two modified versions, one without a rest period (i.e. continuous run, 30-15IFT-CONT) and one without COD (30-15IFT-LINE), or (group B; n = 24) the original 30-15IFT and a modified version with more COD (28-m shuttle instead of 40-m, 30- 15IFT-28m). Heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration ([La]b), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and maximal running speed were recorded for all tests. There was no statistical difference in either maximal HR (A: p = 0.07 and B: p = 0.94) or RPE (A: p = 0.10 and B: p = 0.97) between tests. Compared with the 30-15IFT (12.3 ± 2.5, p < 0.01) and 30-15IFT-LINE (11.3 ± 2.6, p = 0.07, ES = 0.61), [La]b was lower for 30-15IFT-CONT (9.6 ± 3.3 mmol.L-1). Compared with 30-15IFT, maximal running speed was higher for 30-15IFT-LINE (103.1 ± 1.7%, p < 0.001) and lower for 30-15IFT-CONT (93.2 ± 1.4%, p < 0.001), while it was similar for 30-15IFT-28m (99.7 ± 3.6%, p = 0.62). Maximal speeds reached after the four tests were significantly but not perfectly correlated (r = 0.74 to 95, all p < 0.001). Present results show that differences in the maximal running speed reached following different versions of the 30-15IFT can be used by coaches to isolate and evaluate inter- effort recovery (i.e. 30-15IFT vs. 30-15IFT-CONT) and COD (i.e., 30-15IFT vs. 30-15IFT-LINE) abilities in the field. Additionally, COD ability as evaluated here appears to be independent of shuttle-length. Key points The comparison of the maximal running speed reached at the original 30-15IFT with these reached at two modified protocols (i.e., 30-15IFT-CONT and 30-15IFT

  17. W4E HYDROPOWER DIRECT DRIVE IN-LINE HYDROTURBINE GENERATOR FULL SCALE PROTOTYPE VALIDATION TESTING REPORT MAY 2013 ALDEN LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Chad W

    2013-09-24

    The W4E is a patent-pending, direct-drive, variable force turbine/generator. The equipment generates electricity through the water dependent engagement of a ring of rotating magnets with coils mounted on a stator ring. Validation testing of the W4e was performed at Alden Laboratories in the Spring of 2013. The testing was independently observed and validated by GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. The observations made during testing and the results of the testing are included in the Test Summary Report

  18. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zamani Sani, Seyed Hojjat; Fathirezaie, Zahra; Brand, Serge; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus; Talepasand, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA) and self-esteem (SE), while introducing body mass index (BMI), perceived physical fitness (PPF), and body image (BI) in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years). The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE. PMID:27789950

  19. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zamani Sani, Seyed Hojjat; Fathirezaie, Zahra; Brand, Serge; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus; Talepasand, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity (PA) and self-esteem (SE), while introducing body mass index (BMI), perceived physical fitness (PPF), and body image (BI) in adults (N =264, M =38.10 years). The findings indicated that PA was directly and indirectly associated with SE. BMI predicted SE neither directly nor indirectly, but was directly associated with PPF and both directly and indirectly with BI. Furthermore, PPF was directly related to BI and SE, and a direct association was found between BI and SE. The pattern of results suggests that among a sample of adults, PA is directly and indirectly associated with SE, PPF, and BI, but not with BMI. PA, PPF, and BI appear to play an important role in SE. Accordingly, regular PA should be promoted, in particular, among adults reporting lower SE.

  20. An autoanalyzer test for the quantitation of platelet-associated IgG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitan, Nathan; Teno, Richard A.; Szymanski, Irma O.

    1986-01-01

    A new quantitative antiglobulin consumption (QAC) test for the measurement of platelet-associated IgG is described. In this test washed platelets are incubated with anti-IgG at a final dilution of 1:2 million. The unneutralized fraction of anti-IgG remaining in solution is then measured with an Autoanalyzer and soluble IgG is used for calibration. The dose-response curves depicting the percent neutralization of anti-IgG by platelets and by soluble IgG were compared in detail and found to be nearly identical, indicating that platelet-associated IgG can be accurately quantitated by this method. The mean IgG values were 2287 molecules/platelet for normal adults and 38,112 molecules/platelet for ITP patients. The Autoanalyzer QAC test is a sensitive and reproducible assay for the quantitation of platelet-associated IgG.

  1. Flow direction measurement criteria and techniques planned for the 40- by 80-/80- x 120-foot wind tunnel integrated systems tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, P. T.; Hoffmann, J.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was performed in order to develop the criteria for the selection of flow direction indicators for use in the Integrated Systems Tests (ISTs) of the 40 by 80/80 by 120 Foot Wind Tunnel System. The problems, requirements, and limitations of flow direction measurement in the wind tunnel were investigated. The locations and types of flow direction measurements planned in the facility were discussed. A review of current methods of flow direction measurement was made and the most suitable technique for each location was chosen. A flow direction vane for each location was chosen. A flow direction vane that employs a Hall Effect Transducer was then developed and evaluated for application during the ISTs.

  2. Chlamydia infection in patients with and without cervical intra-epithelial lesions tested by real-time PCR vs. direct immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Micheline de Lucena; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério de; Albuquerque, Lúcia Cristina Bezerra de; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2008-08-01

    This study compares the detection rates of Chlamydia trachomatis by two techniques, direct immunofluorescence (IMF) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in patients with and without intra-epithelial cervical lesions (SIL) in Recife. We conducted a transversal study involving 35 women with SIL and 35 without SIL attended at Ambulatório Especializado da Mulher, Recife, Brazil. They were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis using two techniques, direct IMF or real time PCR. The rates of Chlamydia trachomatis detection were compared and the association with intra-epithelial cervical lesions was determined using the chi-square test at a 5% level of significance. Concordance between the tests was evaluated using kappa. The global prevalence of Chlamydia infection was 47.1% by direct IMF and 58.6% by real time PCR. A significant association was observed between Chlamydia diagnosis and presence of intra-epithelial cervical lesions, with about 80% positive results by direct IMF and 77.1% by real time PCR. However, the detected rate of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly greater in patients without intra-epithelial cervical lesions tested by real time PCR (40%) when compared to direct IMF (14.3%). The concordance between the tests was weak, with a kappa coefficient of 0.4. Both real time PCR and direct IMF detected elevated rates of Chlamydia infection in patients with intra-epithelial cervical lesions (80%) but the tests were discordant when patients without cervical lesions were tested, possibly because sensitivity of real time PCR is greater.

  3. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  4. Direct comparison of flow-FISH and qPCR as diagnostic tests for telomere length measurement in humans.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Santana-Lemos, Bárbara A; Scheucher, Priscila S; Alves-Paiva, Raquel M; Calado, Rodrigo T

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length measurement is an essential test for the diagnosis of telomeropathies, which are caused by excessive telomere erosion. Commonly used methods are terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis by Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (flow-FISH), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Although these methods have been used in the clinic, they have not been comprehensively compared. Here, we directly compared the performance of flow-FISH and qPCR to measure leukocytes' telomere length of healthy individuals and patients evaluated for telomeropathies, using TRF as standard. TRF and flow-FISH showed good agreement and correlation in the analysis of healthy subjects (R(2) = 0.60; p<0.0001) and patients (R(2) = 0.51; p<0.0001). In contrast, the comparison between TRF and qPCR yielded modest correlation for the analysis of samples of healthy individuals (R(2) = 0.35; p<0.0001) and low correlation for patients (R(2) = 0.20; p = 0.001); Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the two methods for both patients and controls. Quantitative PCR and flow-FISH modestly correlated in the analysis of healthy individuals (R(2) = 0.33; p<0.0001) and did not correlate in the comparison of patients' samples (R(2) = 0.1, p = 0.08). Intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was similar for flow-FISH (10.8 ± 7.1%) and qPCR (9.5 ± 7.4%; p = 0.35), but the inter-assay CV was lower for flow-FISH (9.6 ± 7.6% vs. 16 ± 19.5%; p = 0.02). Bland-Altman analysis indicated that flow-FISH was more precise and reproducible than qPCR. Flow-FISH and qPCR were sensitive (both 100%) and specific (93% and 89%, respectively) to distinguish very short telomeres. However, qPCR sensitivity (40%) and specificity (63%) to detect telomeres below the tenth percentile were lower compared to flow-FISH (80% sensitivity and 85% specificity). In the clinical setting, flow-FISH was more accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and specific in the measurement of human

  5. Direct Comparison of Flow-FISH and qPCR as Diagnostic Tests for Telomere Length Measurement in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Santana-Lemos, Bárbara A.; Scheucher, Priscila S.; Alves-Paiva, Raquel M.; Calado, Rodrigo T.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length measurement is an essential test for the diagnosis of telomeropathies, which are caused by excessive telomere erosion. Commonly used methods are terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis by Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (flow-FISH), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Although these methods have been used in the clinic, they have not been comprehensively compared. Here, we directly compared the performance of flow-FISH and qPCR to measure leukocytes' telomere length of healthy individuals and patients evaluated for telomeropathies, using TRF as standard. TRF and flow-FISH showed good agreement and correlation in the analysis of healthy subjects (R2 = 0.60; p<0.0001) and patients (R2 = 0.51; p<0.0001). In contrast, the comparison between TRF and qPCR yielded modest correlation for the analysis of samples of healthy individuals (R2 = 0.35; p<0.0001) and low correlation for patients (R2 = 0.20; p = 0.001); Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the two methods for both patients and controls. Quantitative PCR and flow-FISH modestly correlated in the analysis of healthy individuals (R2 = 0.33; p<0.0001) and did not correlate in the comparison of patients' samples (R2 = 0.1, p = 0.08). Intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was similar for flow-FISH (10.8±7.1%) and qPCR (9.5±7.4%; p = 0.35), but the inter-assay CV was lower for flow-FISH (9.6±7.6% vs. 16±19.5%; p = 0.02). Bland-Altman analysis indicated that flow-FISH was more precise and reproducible than qPCR. Flow-FISH and qPCR were sensitive (both 100%) and specific (93% and 89%, respectively) to distinguish very short telomeres. However, qPCR sensitivity (40%) and specificity (63%) to detect telomeres below the tenth percentile were lower compared to flow-FISH (80% sensitivity and 85% specificity). In the clinical setting, flow-FISH was more accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and specific in the

  6. State of play in direct-to-consumer genetic testing for lifestyle-related diseases: market, marketing content, user experiences and regulation.

    PubMed

    Saukko, Paula

    2013-02-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests have aroused controversy. Critics have argued many of the tests are not backed by scientific evidence, misguide their customers and should be regulated more stringently. Proponents suggest that finding out genetic susceptibilities for diseases could encourage healthier behaviours and makes the results of genetics research available to the public. This paper reviews the state of play in DTC genetic testing, focusing on tests identifying susceptibilities for lifestyle-related diseases. It will start with mapping the market for the tests. The paper will review (1) research on the content of the online marketing of DTC tests, (2) studies on the effects of DTC genetic tests on customers and (3) academic and policy proposals on how to regulate the tests. Current studies suggest that the marketing of DTC genetic tests often exaggerates their predictive powers, which could misguide consumers. However, research indicates that the tests do not seem to have major negative effects (worry and confusion) but neither do they engender positive effects (lifestyle change) on current users. Research on regulation of the tests has most commonly suggested regulating the marketing claims of the companies. In conclusion, the risks and benefits of DTC genetic tests are less significant than what has been predicted by critics and proponents, which will be argued reflects broader historical trends transforming health and medicine.

  7. Halo-independent tests of dark matter direct detection signals: local DM density, LHC, and thermal freeze-out

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan E-mail: juhg@kth.se E-mail: stefan.vogl@fysik.su.se

    2015-08-01

    From an assumed signal in a Dark Matter (DM) direct detection experiment a lower bound on the product of the DM-nucleon scattering cross section and the local DM density is derived, which is independent of the local DM velocity distribution. This can be combined with astrophysical determinations of the local DM density. Within a given particle physics model the bound also allows a robust comparison of a direct detection signal with limits from the LHC. Furthermore, the bound can be used to formulate a condition which has to be fulfilled if the particle responsible for the direct detection signal is a thermal relic, regardless of whether it constitutes all DM or only part of it. We illustrate the arguments by adopting a simplified DM model with a Z' mediator and assuming a signal in a future xenon direct detection experiment.

  8. Halo-independent tests of dark matter direct detection signals: local DM density, LHC, and thermal freeze-out

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan

    2015-08-19

    From an assumed signal in a Dark Matter (DM) direct detection experiment a lower bound on the product of the DM-nucleon scattering cross section and the local DM density is derived, which is independent of the local DM velocity distribution. This can be combined with astrophysical determinations of the local DM density. Within a given particle physics model the bound also allows a robust comparison of a direct detection signal with limits from the LHC. Furthermore, the bound can be used to formulate a condition which has to be fulfilled if the particle responsible for the direct detection signal is a thermal relic, regardless of whether it constitutes all DM or only part of it. We illustrate the arguments by adopting a simplified DM model with a Z{sup ′} mediator and assuming a signal in a future xenon direct detection experiment.

  9. Standard test method for airborne asbestos concentration in ambient and indoor atmospheres as determined by transmission electron microscopy direct transfer (TEM). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-22 on Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D22.07 on Asbestos. Current edition approved Jul. 10, 1998. Published October 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  10. Attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertisements and online genetic testing among high-risk women participating in a hereditary cancer clinic.

    PubMed

    Perez, Giselle K; Cruess, Dean G; Cruess, Stacy; Brewer, Molly; Stroop, Jennifer; Schwartz, Robin; Greenstein, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Genetic testing for the breast cancer genes 1/2 (BRCA 1/2) has helped women determine their risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. As interest in genetic testing has grown, companies have created strategies to disseminate information about testing, including direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) and online genetic testing. This study examined attitudes toward DTCA and online testing for BRCA among 84 women at a high-risk clinic as well as additional factors that may be associated with these attitudes, such as personal and familial cancer history, cancer worry and risk perception, and history with genetic testing/counseling. Results showed that the majority of the women held favorable attitudes toward DTCA for BRCA testing but did not support online testing. Factors such as familial ovarian cancer, cancer worry, and satisfaction with genetic counseling/testing were associated with positive attitudes toward DTCA, whereas personal breast cancer history was related to negative attitudes. The findings suggest that women may view DTCA as informational but rely on physicians for help in their decision to undergo testing, and also suggest that cancer history may affect women's acceptance of DTCA and genetic testing.

  11. Direct drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for rapid detection of multidrug resistance using the Bactec MGIT 960 system: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Salman; Ahmed, Altaf; Asif, Sunil; Behera, Digamber; Javaid, Mona; Jani, Jasmine; Jyoti, Arora; Mahatre, Radhika; Mahto, Dewanand; Richter, Elvira; Rodrigues, Camilla; Visalakshi, Potharaju; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine

    2012-02-01

    Conventional indirect drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with liquid medium is well established and offers time-saving and reliable results. This multicenter study was carried out to evaluate if drug susceptibility testing (DST) can be successfully carried out directly from processed smear-positive specimens (direct DST) and if this approach could offer substantial time savings. Sputum specimens were digested, decontaminated, and concentrated by the laboratory routine procedure and were inoculated in Bactec MGIT 960 as well as Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium for primary isolation. All the processed specimens which were acid-fast bacterium (AFB) smear positive were used for setting up direct DST for isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). After the antimicrobial mixture of polymyxin B, amphotericin B, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, and azlocillin (PANTA) was added, the tubes were entered in the MGIT 960 instrument using the 21-day protocol (Bactec 960 pyrazinamide [PZA] protocol). Results obtained by direct DST were compared with those obtained by indirect DST to establish accuracy and time savings by this approach. Of a total of 360 AFB smear-positive sputum specimens set up for direct DST at four sites in three different countries, 307 (85%) specimens yielded reportable results. Average reporting time for direct DST was 11 days (range, 10 to 12 days). The average time savings by direct DST compared to indirect DST, which included time to isolate a culture and perform DST, was 8 days (range, 6 to 9 days). When results of direct DST were compared with those of indirect DST, there was 95.1% concordance with INH and 96.1% with rifampin. These findings indicate that direct DST with the Bactec MGIT 960 system offers further time savings and is a quick method to reliably detect multidrug resistance (MDR) cases.

  12. Real-time comparison of conventional direct control and pattern recognition myoelectric control in a two-dimensional Fitts' law style test.

    PubMed

    Wurth, Sophie M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have directly compared real-time control performance of pattern recognition to direct control for the next generation of myoelectric controlled upper limb prostheses. Many different implementations of pattern recognition control have been proposed, with minor differentiations in the feature sets and classifiers. An objective and generalizable evaluation tool quantifying the control performance, other than classification accuracy, is needed. This paper used the implementation of such a tool through the design of a target acquisition test, similar to a Fitts' law test, relating movement time of the target acquisition to the difficulty of the target, for a given control strategy. Performance metrics such as throughput (bits/sec), completion rate (%) and path efficiency (%) allow for a complete evaluation of the described strategies. We compared direct control and pattern recognition control with the proposed test and found that 1) the test was valid for control system evaluation by following Fitts' law with high coefficients of determination for both types of control and 2) that pattern recognition significantly outperformed direct control in throughput with similar completion rates and path efficiencies. In this framework, the present pilot study supports pattern recognition as a promising strategy and forms a basis for the development of a general and objective tool for the performance evaluation of upper limb control strategies.

  13. The Use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test for Assessment and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Modulate Language Acquisition in Minimally Verbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Harry D.; Hopp, Jenna P.

    2011-01-01

    Minimally verbal children with autism commonly demonstrate language dysfunction, including immature syntax acquisition. We hypothesised that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) should facilitate language acquisition in a cohort (n = 10) of children with immature syntax. We modified the English version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT)…

  14. Neutron beam tests of CsI(Na) and CaF2(Eu) crystals for dark matter direct search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.; Ma, X. H.; Wang, Z. M.; Bao, J.; Dai, C. J.; Guan, M. Y.; Liu, J. C.; Li, Z. H.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Yang, C. G.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zhong, W. L.; Huerta, C.

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, inorganic crystals have been widely used in dark matter direct search experiments. To contribute to the understanding of the capabilities of CsI(Na) and CaF2(Eu) crystals, a mono-energetic neutron beam is utilized to study the properties of nuclear recoils, which are expected to be similar to signals of dark matter direct detection. The quenching factor of nuclear recoils in CsI(Na) and CaF2Eu, as well as an improved discrimination factor between nuclear recoils and γ backgrounds in CsI(Na), are reported.

  15. Power evaluation of asymptotic tests for comparing two binomial proportions to detect direct and indirect association in large-scale studies.

    PubMed

    Emily, Mathieu; Friguet, Chloé

    2015-10-14

    Asymptotic tests are commonly used for comparing two binomial proportions when the sample size is sufficiently large. However, there is no consensus on the most powerful test. In this paper, we clarify this issue by comparing the power functions of three popular asymptotic tests: the Pearson's χ(2) test, the likelihood-ratio test and the odds-ratio based test. Considering Taylor decompositions under local alternatives, the comparisons lead to recommendations on which test to use in view of both the experimental design and the nature of the investigated signal. We show that when the design is balanced between the two binomials, the three tests are equivalent in terms of power. However, when the design is unbalanced, differences in power can be substantial and the choice of the most powerful test also depends on the value of the parameters of the two compared binomials. We further investigated situations where the two binomials are not compared directly but through tag binomials. In these cases of indirect association, we show that the differences in power between the three tests are enhanced with decreasing values of the parameters of the tag binomials. Our results are illustrated in the context of genetic epidemiology where the analysis of genome-wide association studies provides insights regarding the low power for detecting rare variants.

  16. Are the kids really all right? Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in children: are company policies clashing with professional norms?

    PubMed

    Howard, Heidi Carmen; Avard, Denise; Borry, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    The genetic testing of minors within the direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing (GT) context has been given relatively little attention. The issue of testing healthy children for diseases that would only develop in adulthood raises many important ethical, legal and social issues. As genetic testing is now available outside of the traditional health care system, often without even the intermediate of a health care professional, we surveyed 37 DTC GT companies regarding their policies for testing in children. Although the response rate is relatively low (35%, 13/37), our findings reveal that a clear majority of companies do perform genetic testing in minors. As such, companies testing for adult onset diseases are acting in contradiction of established professional guidelines, which state, among others, that, for predictive genetic testing, the availability of therapeutic or preventive measures is necessary for testing to be performed in asymptomatic minors. The community of stakeholders in children's health care and genetic testing should, therefore, decide which standards need to be upheld by DTC GT companies and ensure that these are met.

  17. Trichomonas Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trichomonas vaginalis by Amplified Detection; Trichomonas vaginalis by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Related tests: Pap Test , Chlamydia ... by one of the following methods: Molecular testing, direct DNA probes, or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs)— ...

  18. Tracking time-varying causality and directionality of information flow using an error reduction ratio test with applications to electroencephalography data.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yifan; Billings, Steve A; Wei, Hualiang; Sarrigiannis, Ptolemaios G

    2012-11-01

    This paper introduces an error reduction ratio-causality (ERR-causality) test that can be used to detect and track causal relationships between two signals. In comparison to the traditional Granger method, one significant advantage of the new ERR-causality test is that it can effectively detect the time-varying direction of linear or nonlinear causality between two signals without fitting a complete model. Another important advantage is that the ERR-causality test can detect both the direction of interactions and estimate the relative time shift between the two signals. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the new method together with the determination of the causality between electroencephalograph signals from different cortical sites for patients during an epileptic seizure.

  19. Evaluating Locally-Developed Language Testing: A Predictive Study of "Direct Entry" Language Programs at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigates the predictive validity of language assessments by "Direct Entry" programs at an Australian University--programs developed on site for Non English Speaking Background international students, principally to provide (i) pre-entry academic and language preparation and (ii) language assessment for…

  20. A Direct Test of the Differentiation Mechanism: REM, BCDMEM, and the Strength-Based Mirror Effect in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; White, Corey N.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2010-01-01

    We explore competing explanations for the reduction in false alarm rate observed when studied items are strengthened. Some models, such as Retrieving Effectively from Memory (REM; Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997), attribute the false alarm rate reduction to differentiation, a process in which strengthening memory traces at study directly reduces the…

  1. Resistance testing for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C with direct acting antivirals: when and for how long?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Ana Belén; Chueca, Natalia; García, Federico

    2017-01-01

    The need to test for resistance associated substitutions (RAS) has been intensively debated in the past two years. In the absence of pangenotypic combinations, it seems reasonable that, if available, RAS testing in the NS5A gene at baseline for genotypes 1a and 3 may help to avoid overtreatment in terms of ribavirin usage and/or prolonged treatment duration. When patients fail treatment, RAS testing may also be useful to guide the selection of the new regimen, especially for those that need urgent retreatment and that have failed a combination including an NS5A inhibitor. However, there are new drugs in the pipeline that in combination are pangenotypic, very potent and with a high genetic barrier to resistance. In this new scenario, RAS testing may not play such an important role. PMID:28331841

  2. Environmental Assessment: For the Testing and Evaluation of Directed Energy System Using Laser Technology, Edwards Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Test Center Edwards Air Force Base, California Final August 2006 Edwards AFB 95th Air Base Wing Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...light amplification by stimulated emission of rad iation (laser) technology at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California , and w ithin the R-2508 Complex...Force Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB, California . 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERN A TJVES CONSIDERED The Proposed Action would

  3. Comparative evaluation of Vitek 2 identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative rods directly and isolated from BacT/ALERT-positive blood culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Dávila, M J; Yagüe, G; Albert, M; García-Lucas, T

    2012-05-01

    The performance of Vitek 2 was evaluated for the identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative bacilli directly from positive blood cultures bottles. Direct inoculation of the positive blood cultures with the Vitek cards ID-GN and AST-NO58 was compared with the standard inoculation method based on the sub-culture of the positive blood culture to agar. A total of 142 blood cultures were included in the study; of those, 119 were from patients' clinical samples, while 23 were artificially prepared with strains showing different mechanisms of resistance. A total of 136 (95.8%) strains were correctly identified to the species level, only 2 (1.4%) were mis-identified and 4 (2.8%) were not identified. Susceptibility results were available for all isolates tested against 17 antibiotics, thus, resulting in a total of 2,414 isolate/anti-microbial combinations. The error rate was 2.8% (67/2,414) overall; 0.6% (14/2,414) very major errors, 0.1% (3/2,414) major errors and 2.1% (50/2,414) minor errors. The direct method detected 88.5% (22/25) of the strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The susceptibility agreement among the added strains with ESBL, AMPc hyperproduction, resistance to ceftazidime, carbapenems and cefepime was very high. Direct identification and susceptibility testing gave rapid and reliable results, reducing by 24 h the turnaround time of the microbiology laboratory.

  4. Target spectrum matrix definition for multiple-input- multiple-output control strategies applied on direct-field- acoustic-excitation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Blanco, M.; Janssens, K.; Bianciardi, F.

    2016-09-01

    During the last two decades there have been several improvements on environmental acoustic qualification testing for launch and space vehicles. Direct field excitation (DFAX) tests using Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) control strategies seems to become the most cost-efficient way for component and subsystem acoustic testing. However there are still some concerns about the uniformity and diffusivity of the acoustic field produced by direct field testing. Lately, much of the documented progresses aimed to solve the non-uniformity of the field by altering the sound pressure level requirement, limiting responses and adding or modifying control microphones positions. However, the first two solutions imply modifying the qualification criteria, which could lead to under-testing, potentially risking the mission. Furthermore, adding or moving control microphones prematurely changes the system configuration, even if it is an optimal geometric layout in terms of wave interference patterns control. This research investigates the target definition as an initial condition for the acoustic MIMO control. Through experiments it is shown that for a given system configuration the performance of a DFAX test strongly depends on the target definition procedure. As output of this research a set of descriptors are presented describing a phenomenon defined as “Energy- sink”.

  5. Multi-Wave and Hybrid Imaging Techniques: A New Direction for Nondestructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuhua; Deng, Yiming; Cao, Jing; Xiong, Xin; Bai, Libing; Li, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the state-of-the-art multi-wave and hybrid imaging techniques in the field of nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring were comprehensively reviewed. A new direction for assessment and health monitoring of various structures by capitalizing the advantages of those imaging methods was discussed. Although sharing similar system configurations, the imaging physics and principles of multi-wave phenomena and hybrid imaging methods are inherently different. After a brief introduction of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), structure health monitoring (SHM) and their related challenges, several recent advances that have significantly extended imaging methods from laboratory development into practical applications were summarized, followed by conclusions and discussion on future directions. PMID:24287536

  6. Digital 2D-photogrammetry and direct anthropometry--a comparing study on test accomplishment and measurement data.

    PubMed

    Franke-Gromberg, Christine; Schüler, Grit; Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this methodological anthropometric study was to compare direct anthropometry and digital two-dimensional photogrammetry in 18 male and 27 female subjects, aged 24 to 65 years, from Potsdam, Germany. In view of the rising interest in reliable biometric kephalofacial data, we focussed on head and face measurements. Out of 34 classic facial anatomical landmarks, 27 landmarks were investigated both by direct anthropometry and 2D-photogrammetry; 7 landmarks could not be localized by 2D-photogrammetry. Twenty-six kephalofacial distances were analysed both by direct anthropometry and digital 2D-photogrammetry. Kephalofacial distances are on average 7.6% shorter when obtained by direct anthropometry. The difference between the two techniques is particularly evident in total head height (vertex-gnathion) due to the fact that vertex is usually covered by hair and escapes from photogrammetry. Also the distances photographic sellion-gnathion (1.3 cm, i. e. 11.6%) and nasal-gnathion (1.2 cm, i. e. 9.4%) differ by more than one centimetre. Differences below 0.5 cm between the two techniques were found when measuring mucosa-lip-height (2.2%), gonia (3.0%), glabella-stomion (3.9%), and nose height (glabella-subnasal) (4.0%). Only the estimates of forehead width were significantly narrower when obtained by 2D-photogrammetry (-1.4 cm, -13.1%). The methodological differences increased with increasing magnitude of the kephalometric distance. Apart from these limitations, both techniques are similarly valid and may replace each other.

  7. Accuracy of the VITEK® 2 system for a rapid and direct identification and susceptibility testing of Gramnegative rods and Gram-positive cocci in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Nimer, N A; Al-Saa'da, R J; Abuelaish, O

    2016-06-15

    The performance of the VITEK® 2 system for direct rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacteria responsible for blood infections was determined. The isolates studied included 166 Gram-negative rods and 74 Gram-positive cocci from inpatients. Specially treated monomicrobial samples from positive blood culture bottles were directly inoculated into the VITEK 2 system and the results were compared with those from cards inoculated with standardized bacterial suspensions. Compared with the standard method, 95.8% of Gram-negative rods were correctly identified by VITEK 2 and the overall level of agreement between the two methods in susceptibility testing was 92.0%. For Gram-positive bacteria, 89.2% were correctly identified by VITEK 2 and susceptibility testing revealed an overall agreement rate of 91.3%. These results suggest that VITEK 2 cards inoculated with fluids sampled directly from positive blood culture bottles are suitable for speedy identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci.

  8. The atom assignment problem in automated de novo drug design. 5. Tests for envelope-directed fragment placement based on molecular similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. T.; Dean, P. M.

    1995-10-01

    The fragment placement method has been successfully extended to the problem of envelope-directed design. The atom assignment paradigm was based on molecular similarity between two molecular structures. A composite supersurface is defined to form the surface onto which the molecular fields are projected. The assignment process is then determined by using molecular similarity in the objective function to be optimized. In principle, this procedure is closely similar to that outlined in the previous paper for site-directed design. The rationale has been extensively tested on two benzodiazepine antagonists believed to bind to the same site.

  9. A scuba diving direct sediment sampling methodology on benthic transects in glacial lakes: procedure description, safety measures, and tests results.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    This work presents an in situ sediment sampling method on benthic transects, specifically intended for scientific scuba diver teams. It was originally designed and developed to sample benthic surface and subsurface sediments and subaqueous soils in glacial lakes up to a maximum depth of 25 m. Tests were conducted on the Sabocos and Baños tarns (i.e., cirque glacial lakes) in the Spanish Pyrenees. Two 100 m transects, ranging from 24.5 to 0 m of depth in Sabocos and 14 m to 0 m deep in Baños, were conducted. In each test, 10 sediment samples of 1 kg each were successfully collected and transported to the surface. This sampling method proved operative even in low visibility conditions (<2 m). Additional ice diving sampling tests were conducted in Sabocos and Truchas tarns. This sampling methodology can be easily adapted to accomplish underwater sampling campaigns in nonglacial lakes and other continental water or marine environments.

  10. The UK national external quality assessment scheme in blood group serology. Compatibility testing 1981-1982: performance and practice.

    PubMed

    Holburn, A M; Prior, D

    1984-01-01

    The design of exercises of compatibility testing was modified in 1981 in order better to accommodate participants' serological practices. Ten reference laboratories were also enrolled in order to determine the 'correct' results for each exercise. In 1981-1982 3.5 to 36% of participants missed incompatibilities in exercises in which undiluted antibodies were issued and this did not represent an improvement over performance obtained in 1979-1980. Surveys were undertaken of antiglobulin test procedures and revealed that serological practices continue to change, old techniques are being modified, new techniques are being employed but standardization shows little overall improvement. Surveys of quality control procedures and of cross-match procedures for agglutination in albumin and for agglutination of enzyme treated cells show equal lack of standardization.

  11. A direct method for calculating thermodynamic factors for liquid mixtures using the Permuted Widom test particle insertion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasaad Balaji, Sayee; Schnell, Sondre K.; McGarrity, Erin S.; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mass transport in liquids by mutual diffusion is an important topic for many applications in chemical engineering. The reason for this is that diffusion is often the rate limiting step in chemical reactors and separators. In multicomponent liquid mixtures, transport diffusion can be described by both generalized Fick's law and the Maxwell-Stefan theory. The Maxwell-Stefan and Fick approaches in an n-component system are related by the so-called thermodynamic factor [R. Taylor and H.A. Kooijman, Chem. Eng. Commun, 102, 87 (1991)]. As Fick diffusivities can be measured in experiments and Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities can be obtained from molecular simulations/theory, the thermodynamic factors bridge the gap between experiments and molecular simulations/theory. It is therefore desirable to be able to compute thermodynamic factors from molecular simulations. Unfortunately, presently used simulation techniques for computing thermodynamic factors are inefficient and often require numerical differentiation of simulation results. In this work, we propose a modified version of the Widom test-particle method to compute thermodynamic factors from a single simulation. This method is found to be more efficient than the conventional Widom test particle insertion method combined with numerical differentiation of simulation results. The approach is tested for binary systems consisting of Lennard-Jones particles. The thermodynamic factors computed from the simulation and from numerically differentiating the activity coefficients obtained from the conventional Widom test particle insertion method are in excellent agreement.

  12. Is the Unemployment Rate of Women Too Low? A Direct Test of the Economic Theory of Job Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Steven H.

    To test the economic theory of job search and the rationality of job search behavior by unemployed married women, the importance of reservation wages (or wages requested for employment) was studied for its effect on the duration of unemployment and its relationship to the subsequent rate of pay upon reemployment. Models were established to explain…

  13. Fiscal Year 1989 report: Initial performance evaluation of three bioassays modified for direct in-situ testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kapustka, L.A.

    1990-02-01

    Under an Interagency Agreement, the Environmental Research Laboratory-Corvallis has been developing methods for on-site and in situ toxicity testing and planning field validations for these techniques; in particular, these methods are being evaluated for their application to ecological assessments at hazardous waste sites. The report covers activities completed or initiated from July 1, 1989 to Oct 1, 1989.

  14. Estimation of Item Dimensional Measurement Direction Using Conditional Covariance Patterns. Computerized Testing Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel; Roussos, Louis; Stout, William

    Several nonparametric dimensionality assessment tools have demonstrated the usefulness of item pair conditional covariances as building blocks for investigating multidimensional test structure. Recently, J. Zhang and W. Stout (1999) have related the structural properties of conditional covariances in a generalized compensatory framework to a test…

  15. Field-testing a new directional passive air sampler for fugitive dust in a complex industrial source environment.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, E J S; Fryer, M; Sweetman, A J; Garcia, M A Solera; Timmis, R J

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the sources of fugitive dusts on complex industrial sites is essential for regulation and effective dust management. This study applied two recently-patented Directional Passive Air Samplers (DPAS) to measure the fugitive dust contribution from a Metal Recovery Plant (MRP) located on the periphery of a major steelworks site. The DPAS can collect separate samples for winds from different directions (12 × 30° sectors), and the collected dust may be quantified using several different measurement methods. The DPASs were located up and down-prevailing-wind of the MRP processing area to (i) identify and measure the contribution made by the MRP processing operation; (ii) monitor this contribution during the processing of a particularly dusty material; and (iii) detect any changes to this contribution following new dust-control measures. Sampling took place over a 12-month period and the amount of dust was quantified using photographic, magnetic and mass-loading measurement methods. The DPASs are able to effectively resolve the incoming dust signal from the wider steelworks complex, and also different sources of fugitive dust from the MRP processing area. There was no confirmable increase in the dust contribution from the MRP during the processing of a particularly dusty material, but dust levels significantly reduced following the introduction of new dust-control measures. This research was undertaken in a regulatory context, and the results provide a unique evidence-base for current and future operational or regulatory decisions.

  16. Testing the directed dispersal hypothesis: are native ant mounds (Formica sp.) favorable microhabitats for an invasive plant?

    PubMed

    Berg-Binder, Moni C; Suarez, Andrew V

    2012-07-01

    Ant-mediated seed dispersal may be a form of directed dispersal if collected seeds are placed in a favorable microhabitat (e.g., in or near an ant nest) that increases plant establishment, growth, and/or reproduction relative to random locations. We investigated whether the native ant community interacts with invasive leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) in a manner consistent with predictions of the directed dispersal hypothesis. Resident ants quickly located and dispersed 60% of experimentally offered E. esula seeds. Additionally, 40% of seeds whose final deposition site was observed were either brought inside or placed on top of an ant nest. Seed removal was 100% when seeds were placed experimentally on foraging trails of mound-building Formica obscuripes, although the deposition site of these seeds is unknown. Natural density and above-ground biomass of E. esula were greater on Formica mound edges compared to random locations. However, seedling recruitment and establishment from experimentally planted E. esula seeds was not greater on mound edges than random locations 3 m from the mound. Soil from Formica mound edges was greater in available nitrogen and available phosphorus relative to random soil locations 3 m from the mound. These results suggest Formica ant mounds are favorable microhabitats for E. esula growth following seedling establishment, a likely consequence of nutrient limitation during plant growth. The results also indicate positive species interactions may play an important role in biological invasions.

  17. Dissection of tumour and host cells from target organs of metastasis for testing gene expression directly ex vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, M.; Hexel, K.; Bucur, M.; Schirrmacher, V.; Umansky, V.

    1996-01-01

    We report on a new methodology which allows the direct analysis ex vivo of tumour cells and host cells (lymphocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells) from a metastasised organ (liver or spleen) at any time point during the metastatic process and without any further in vitro culture. First, we used a tumour cell line transduced with the bacterial gene lacZ, which permits the detection of the procaryotic enzyme beta-galactosidase in eukaryotic cells at the single cell level thus allowing flow adhesion cell sorting (FACS) analysis of tumour cells from metastasised target organs. Second, we established a method for the separation and enrichment of tumour and host cells from target organs of metastasis with a high viability and reproducibility. As exemplified with the murine lymphoma ESb, this new methodology permits the study of molecules of importance for metastasis or anti-tumour immunity (adhesion, costimulatory and cytotoxic molecules, cytokines, etc.) at the RNA or protein level in tumour and host cells during the whole process of metastasis. This novel approach may open new possibilities of developing strategies for intervention in tumour progression, since it allows the determination of the optimal window in time for successful treatments. The possibility of direct analysis of tumour and host cell properties also provides a new method for the evaluation of the effects of immunisation with tumour vaccines or of gene therapy. Images Figure 3 PMID:8883407

  18. Reproducing system-level bulk current injection test in direct power injection setup for multiple-port DUTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miropolsky, S.; Frei, S.

    2013-07-01

    Many investigations have been published on the transferability of RF immunity test results between system and IC-levels. The RF signal level at DUT (Device under Test) inputs, i.e. either RF voltage amplitude or RF input current, is used as a reference value for the load on the DUT. Existing approaches analyze the DUT response as a function of the RF signal level at a single input pin, e.g. supply voltage. Sufficient accuracy of such an approach could be shown in several cases, but results are not sufficient as a general solution for complex DUT. This paper proposes both theoretical analysis and practical implementation of a DPI setup, where a disturbance, equivalent to system-level BCI setup, can be delivered to multiple DUT input ports.

  19. Development of a direct experimental test for any violation of the equivalence principle by the weak interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Violation of the equivalence principle by the weak interaction is tested. Any variation of the weak interaction coupling constant with gravitational potential, i.e., a spatial variation of the fundamental constants is investigated. The level of sensitivity required for such a measurement is estimated on the basis of the size of a change in the gravitational potential which is accessible. The alpha particle spectrum is analyzed, and the counting rate was improved by a factor of approximately 100.

  20. Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) for direct food contact applications: challenge test of an inline recycling process.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Welle, F

    2002-05-01

    Of all the plastics used for packaging, due to its low diffusivity and chemical inertness, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the favoured candidate plastics for closed-loop recycling for new packaging applications. In the work reported here, a PET-recycling process was investigated with respect to its cleaning efficiency and compliance of the PET recyclate with food law. The key technology of the investigated PET-recycling process to remove contaminants consists of a predecontamination-extruder combination. At the end of the recycling process, there is either a pelletizing system or downstream equipment to produce preforms or flat sheets. Therefore, the process has two process options, an inline production of PET preforms and a batch option producing PET pellets. In the case of possible misuse of PET bottles by the consumer, the inline process produces higher concentrations in the bottle wall of the recyclate containing preforms. Owing to the dilution of the PET output material by large amounts of uncontaminated PET, the batch option is the less critical process in terms of consumer protection. Regarding an appropriate testing procedure for the evaluation of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process, both process options have their own specific requirements with respect to the design of a challenge test. A novel challenge test approach to the inline mode of a recycling process is presented here.

  1. GPHS-RTG system explosion test direct course experiment 5000. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) has been designed and is being built to provide electrical power for spacecrafts to be launched on the Space Shuttle. The objective of the RTG System Explosion Test was to expose a mock-up of the GPHS-RTG with a simulated heat source to the overpressure and impulse representative of a potential upper magnitude explosion of the Space Shuttle. The test was designed so that the heat source module would experience an overpressure at which the survival of the fuel element cladding would be expected to be marginal. Thus, the mock-up was placed where the predicted incident overpressure would be 1300 psi. The mock-up was mounted in an orientation representative of the launch configuration on the spacecraft to be used on the NASA Galileo Mission. The incident overpressure measured was in the range of 1400 to 2100 psi. The mock-up and simulated heat source were destroyed and only very small fragments were recovered. This damage is believed to have resulted from a combination of the overpressure and impact by very high velocity fragments from the ANFO sphere. Post-test analysis indicated that extreme working of the iridium clad material occurred, indicative of intensive impulsive loading on the metal.

  2. Breakdown study based on direct in situ observation of inner surfaces of an rf accelerating cavity during a high-gradient test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tetsuo; Kageyama, Tatsuya; Sakai, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Yasunao; Yoshino, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    We have developed normal-conducting accelerating single-cell cavities with a complete higher-order-mode (HOM) heavily damped structure, into which we feed a 508.9-MHz continuous wave. During a high-gradient test of the second production version of the cavity, we performed a breakdown study based on direct in situ observation of the inner surfaces of the cavity. This paper presents our experimental findings obtained from this observation.

  3. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  4. Predictive Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  5. Comparison of the direct burst pressure and the ring tensile test methods for mechanical characterization of tissue-engineered vascular substitutes.

    PubMed

    Laterreur, Véronique; Ruel, Jean; Auger, François A; Vallières, Karine; Tremblay, Catherine; Lacroix, Dan; Tondreau, Maxime; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Germain, Lucie

    2014-06-01

    Tissue engineering provides a promising alternative for small diameter vascular grafts, especially with the self-assembly method. It is crucial that these grafts possess mechanical properties that allow them to withstand physiological flow and pressure without being damaged. Therefore, an accurate assessment of their mechanical properties, especially the burst pressure, is essential prior to clinical release. In this study, the burst pressure of self-assembled tissue-engineered vascular substitutes was first measured by the direct method, which consists in pressurizing the construct with fluid until tissue failure. It was then compared to the burst pressure estimated by Laplace׳s law using data from a ring tensile test. The major advantage of this last method is that it requires a significantly smaller tissue sample. However, it has been reported as overestimating the burst pressure compared to a direct measurement. In the present report, it was found that an accurate estimation of the burst pressure may be obtained from a ring tensile test when failure internal diameter is used as the diameter parameter in Laplace׳s law. Overestimation occurs with the method previously reported, i.e. when the unloaded internal diameter is used for calculations. The estimation of other mechanical properties was also investigated. It was demonstrated that data from a ring tensile test provide an accurate estimate of the failure strain and the stiffness of the constructs when compared to measurements with the direct method.

  6. Genotoxicity studies on the azo dye Direct Red 2 using the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Rajaguru, P; Fairbairn, L J; Ashby, J; Willington, M A; Turner, S; Woolford, L A; Chinnasamy, N; Rafferty, J A

    1999-07-21

    The clastogenicity of the azo dye Direct Red 2 (DR2) has been investigated using the murine bone marrow micronucleus assay. A potent dose-dependent response was observed following oral gavage of DR2 up to 4 mg/kg, after which significant toxicity to the erythroid compartment was observed. The route of administration had a significant effect on the frequency of micronucleus formation: intraperitoneal injection was approximately two-fold less clastogenic than the equivalent dose delivered orally (p<0.05). The requirement for activation of DR2 by intestinal microflora was indicated by the fact that mice given acid-treated water prior to administration of DR2 showed a significant reduction (40%; p<0.001) in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte formation. The implications of these findings for the health and safety of occupationally exposed workers are discussed.

  7. Mutation testing for directing upfront targeted therapy and post-progression combination therapy strategies in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salgia, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Advances in the biology of non-small-cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, reveal multiple molecular subtypes driving oncogenesis. Accordingly, individualized targeted therapeutics are based on mutational diagnostics. Areas covered: Advances in strategies and techniques for individualized treatment, particularly of adenocarcinoma, are described through literature review. Approved therapies are established for some molecular subsets, with new driver mutations emerging that represent increasing proportions of patients. Actionable mutations are de novo oncogenic drivers or acquired resistance mediators, and mutational profiling is important for directing therapy. Patients should be monitored for emerging actionable resistance mutations. Liquid biopsy and associated multiplex diagnostics will be important means to monitor patients during treatment. Expert commentary: Outcomes with targeted agents may be improved by integrating mutation screens during treatment to optimize subsequent therapy. In order for this to be translated into impactful patient benefit, appropriate platforms and strategies need to be optimized and then implemented universally. PMID:27139190

  8. Analysis, design, and testing of a low cost, direct force command linear proof mass actuator for structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, G. L.; Shelley, Stuart; Jacobson, Mark

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the design, analysis, and test of a low cost, linear proof mass actuator for vibration control is presented. The actuator is based on a linear induction coil from a large computer disk drive. Such disk drives are readily available and provide the linear actuator, current feedback amplifier, and power supply for a highly effective, yet inexpensive, experimental laboratory actuator. The device is implemented as a force command input system, and the performance is virtually the same as other, more sophisticated, linear proof mass systems.

  9. Direct Detection and Identification of Bacterial Pathogens from Urine with Optimized Specimen Processing and Enhanced Testing Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Weizheng; Liao, Kang; Zhang, Shihong; Zhang, Zhiquan; Ma, Xingyan; Chen, Jialong; Zhang, Xiuhong; Qu, Pinghua; Wu, Shangwei; Chen, Cha; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Rapid and accurate detection and identification of microbial pathogens causing urinary tract infections allows prompt and specific treatment. We optimized the specimen processing to maximize the limit of detection (LOD) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and evaluated the capacity of combination of MALDI-TOF MS and urine analysis (UA) for direct detection and identification of bacterial pathogens from urine samples. The optimal volumes of processed urine, formic acid/acetonitrile and supernatant spotted onto the target plate were 15 mL, 3 μL and 3 μL, respectively, yielding a LOD of 1.0×10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Among the total of 1,167 urine specimens collected from three hospital centers, 612 (52.4%) and 351 (30.1%) were respectively positive by UA and urine culture. Compared with a reference method comprised of urine culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of MALDI-TOF MS alone and MALDI-TOF MS coupled with UA were 86.6% vs 93.4% (χ(2)=8.93, P<0.01), 91.5% vs 96.3% (χ(2)=7.06, P<0.01), 81.5% vs 96.4% (χ(2)=37.32, P<0.01) and 94.1% vs 93.1% (χ(2)=0.40, P>0.05), respectively. No significant performance differences were revealed among the three sites while the specificity and NPV of MALDI-TOF MS for males were significantly higher than for females (specificity: 94.3% vs 77.3%, χ(2)=44.90, P<0.01; NPV: 95.5% vs 86.1%, χ(2)=18.85, P<0.01). Our results indicated that optimization of specimen processing significantly enhanced analytical sensitivity, and the combination of UA and MALDI-TOF MS provided an accurate and rapid detection and identification of bacterial pathogens directly from urine.

  10. Rectal 13N-ammonia test (13N-liver/heart ratio), hepatic sinusoidal pressure and prevailing portal flow direction in cirrhosis of the liver.

    PubMed

    Hazenberg, H J; Gips, C H; Beekhuis, H; Kruizinga, K

    1976-01-01

    The 20 minutes' liver/heart activity ratio after rectal administration of 13N-ammonia was abnormally low (less than 2.25) in 12 of 26 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. An abnormal conventional rectal arterial ammonia test (porta-systemic shunts), an abnormally low urea index (prevailing hepatofugal portal venous flow direction), marked portal hypertension (hepatic sinusoidal pressure greater than or equal to 8 mm Hg), ascites and extreme enlargement of the spleen occurred significantly more often in the patients with an abnormally low 13N-liver/heart ratio than in those with a ratio greater than or equal to 2.25. There was no correlation between the 13N-liver/heart ratio and absence or presence of oesophageal varices. The non-invasive rectal 13N-ammonia test appears to be an easy to perform, informative test in cirrhosis of the liver.

  11. Cross-institute evaluations of inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for direct testing of aerosol and blood samples containing biological warfare agent DNA.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Timothy D; Rachwal, Phillip A; Trombley Hall, Adrienne; Koehler, Jeffery W; Weller, Simon A

    2014-02-01

    Rapid pathogen detection is crucial for the timely introduction of therapeutics. Two groups (one in the United Kingdom and one in the United States) independently evaluated inhibitor-resistant PCR reagents for the direct testing of substrates. In the United Kingdom, a multiplexed Bacillus anthracis (target) and Bacillus subtilis (internal-control) PCR was used to evaluate 4 reagents against 5 PCR inhibitors and down-selected the TaqMan Fast Virus 1-Step master mix (Life Technologies Inc.). In the United States, four real-time PCR assays (targeting B. anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV], and Orthopoxvirus spp.) were used to evaluate 5 reagents (plus the Fast Virus master mix) against buffer, blood, and soil samples and down-selected the KAPA Blood Direct master mix (KAPA Biosystems Inc.) with added Platinum Taq (Life Technologies). The down-selected reagents underwent further testing. In the United Kingdom experiments, both reagents were tested against seven contrived aerosol collector samples containing B. anthracis Ames DNA and B. subtilis spores from a commercial formulation (BioBall). In PCR assays with reaction mixtures containing 40% crude sample, an airfield-collected sample induced inhibition of the B. subtilis PCR with the KAPA reagent and complete failure of both PCRs with the Fast Virus reagent. However, both reagents allowed successful PCR for all other samples-which inhibited PCRs with a non-inhibitor-resistant reagent. In the United States, a cross-assay limit-of-detection (LoD) study in blood was conducted. The KAPA Blood Direct reagent allowed the detection of agent DNA (by four PCRs) at higher concentrations of blood in the reaction mixture (2.5%) than the Fast Virus reagent (0.5%), although LoDs differed between assays and reagent combinations. Across both groups, the KAPA Blood Direct reagent was determined to be the optimal reagent for inhibition relief in PCR.

  12. A direct relationship between aggressive behavior in the resident/intruder test and cell oxidative status in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Rammal, Hassan; Bouayed, Jaouad; Soulimani, Rachid

    2010-02-10

    Disturbances in oxidative metabolism are involved in many acute and chronic diseases, as well as in several other conditions. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the peripheral blood granulocytes of mice, as evaluated by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), a sensor of reactive oxygen species, and the aggressive behavior of these mice, as estimated by the resident/intruder test. Our results showed a significant, linear and positive relationship (P<0.001) between the intracellular redox status of peripheral blood granulocytes and the aggressive behavior levels of adult male mice (correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.75 to 0.77). This suggests that the granulocytes of aggressively behaving mice have high levels of oxidative stress.

  13. Effect of presumptive tests reagents on human blood confirmatory tests and DNA analysis using real time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliana Piva; Glesse, Nadine; Bonorino, Cristina

    2011-03-20

    Bloodstains often constitute the major physical evidence in crime investigation. Diluted blood invisible to the naked eye can be detected through presumptive tests however such tests can damage samples and prevent further processing such as DNA analysis. In this study, we compared the effects of luminol (prepared according to Weber [15]), Luminol 16(®), Bluestar(®) and benzidine for inhibition in the human antiglobulin test and the human hemoglobin immunochromatographic test and on the total human DNA concentration up to 120 days after sample treatment. Treatment with both luminol solutions and Bluestar(®) still allowed positive results for the immunologic tests, indicating non-interference with human blood confirmatory tests. However, samples treated with benzidine could not be further analyzed by serological tests. Also, DNA quantification showed that 48h after benzidine treatment, but not luminol or Bluestar solution application, sample DNA was degraded. Luminol 16(®) caused DNA degradation already at 30 days post-application. At 120 days post treatment, all samples treated with any of the agents but not untreated samples had DNA degradation.

  14. Comparison of Biotinylated Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies in an Evaluation of a Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for the Routine Diagnosis of Rabies in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Coetzer, Andre; Sabeta, Claude T.; Markotter, Wanda; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Nel, Louis H.

    2014-01-01

    The major etiological agent of rabies, rabies virus (RABV), accounts for tens of thousands of human deaths per annum. The majority of these deaths are associated with rabies cycles in dogs in resource-limited countries of Africa and Asia. Although routine rabies diagnosis plays an integral role in disease surveillance and management, the application of the currently recommended direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test in countries on the African and Asian continents remains quite limited. A novel diagnostic assay, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), has been reported to have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity equal to that of the DFA test while offering advantages in cost, time and interpretation. Prior studies used the dRIT utilized monoclonal antibody (MAb) cocktails. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a biotinylated polyclonal antibody (PAb) preparation, applied in the dRIT protocol, would yield equal or improved results compared to the use of dRIT with MAbs. We also wanted to compare the PAb dRIT with the DFA test, utilizing the same PAb preparation with a fluorescent label. The PAb dRIT had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%, which was shown to be marginally higher than the diagnostic efficacy observed for the PAb DFA test. The classical dRIT, relying on two-biotinylated MAbs, was applied to the same panel of samples and a reduced diagnostic sensitivity (83.50% and 90.78% respectively) was observed. Antigenic typing of the false negative samples indicated all of these to be mongoose RABV variants. Our results provided evidence that a dRIT with alternative antibody preparations, conjugated to a biotin moiety, has a diagnostic efficacy equal to that of a DFA relying on the same antibody and that the antibody preparation should be optimized for virus variants specific to the geographical area of focus. PMID:25254652

  15. Direct Coexistence Methods to Determine the Solubility of Salts in Water from Numerical Simulations. Test Case NaCl.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla-Granados, Héctor M; Saint-Martín, Humberto; Fuentes-Azcatl, Raúl; Alejandre, José

    2015-07-02

    The solubility of NaCl, an equilibrium between a saturated solution of ions and a solid with a crystalline structure, was obtained from molecular dynamics simulations using the SPC/E and TIP4P-Ew water models. Four initial setups on supersaturated systems were tested on sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions to determine the equilibrium conditions and computational performance: (1) an ionic solution confined between two crystal plates of periodic NaCl, (2) a solution with all the ions initially distributed randomly, (3) a nanocrystal immersed in pure water, and (4) a nanocrystal immersed in an ionic solution. In some cases, the equilibration of the system can take several microseconds. The results from this work showed that the solubility of NaCl was the same, within simulation error, for the four setups, and in agreement with previously reported values from simulations with the setup (1). The system of a nanocrystal immersed in supersaturated solution was found to equilibrate faster than others. In agreement with laser-Doppler droplet measurements, at equilibrium with the solution the crystals in all the setups had a slight positive charge.

  16. Simulation analysis to test the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits with direct and maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Clément, V; Bibé, B; Verrier, E; Elsen, J M; Manfredi, E; Bouix, J; Hanocq, E

    2001-01-01

    Simulations were used to study the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits governed by direct and maternal effects. To test model adequacy, several data sets were simulated according to different underlying genetic assumptions and analysed by comparing the correct and incorrect models. Results showed that omission of one of the random effects leads to an incorrect decomposition of the other components. If maternal genetic effects exist but are neglected, direct heritability is overestimated, and sometimes more than double. The bias depends on the value of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects. To study the influence of data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters, several populations were simulated, with different degrees of known paternity and different levels of genetic connectedness between flocks. Results showed that the lack of connectedness affects estimates when flocks have different genetic means because no distinction can be made between genetic and environmental differences between flocks. In this case, direct and maternal heritabilities are under-estimated, whereas maternal environmental effects are overestimated. The insufficiency of pedigree leads to biased estimates of genetic parameters.

  17. Simulation analysis to test the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits with direct and maternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Virginie; Bibé, Bernard; Verrier, Étienne; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Manfredi, Eduardo; Bouix, Jacques; Hanocq, Éric

    2001-01-01

    Simulations were used to study the influence of model adequacy and data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters for traits governed by direct and maternal effects. To test model adequacy, several data sets were simulated according to different underlying genetic assumptions and analysed by comparing the correct and incorrect models. Results showed that omission of one of the random effects leads to an incorrect decomposition of the other components. If maternal genetic effects exist but are neglected, direct heritability is overestimated, and sometimes more than double. The bias depends on the value of the genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects. To study the influence of data structure on the estimation of genetic parameters, several populations were simulated, with different degrees of known paternity and different levels of genetic connectedness between flocks. Results showed that the lack of connectedness affects estimates when flocks have different genetic means because no distinction can be made between genetic and environmental differences between flocks. In this case, direct and maternal heritabilities are under-estimated, whereas maternal environmental effects are overestimated. The insufficiency of pedigree leads to biased estimates of genetic parameters. PMID:11563370

  18. Comparing audiological test results obtained from a sound processor attached to a Softband with direct and magnetic passive bone conduction hearing implant systems.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ahmet; Iseri, Mete; Durgut, Merve; Topdag, Murat; Ozturk, Murat

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare audiological test results obtained from a sound processor (SP) attached to a Softband with those obtained from direct (abutment connection) bone conduction implant systems and magnetic passive bone conduction implant systems with different magnet strengths on patients implanted at our clinic. Twenty-four patients who were implanted with either an abutment or magnetic bone conduction implant system between January 2012 and December 2014 were analyzed for hearing results, such as free-field hearing thresholds, direct bone conduction hearing thresholds, and speech discrimination scores with aided and unaided conditions Both magnetic and direct osseointegrated bone conduction implant systems, as well as the Softband system, provide good hearing outcomes when compared with unaided performance; however, the abutment connection system gives better hearing thresholds in the higher frequencies. No significant difference in hearing gain was found between the Softband system, magnet 5, and magnet used by the patient. Magnetic and direct bone conduction hearing implant systems are both effective for rehabilitation of conductive and mixed hearing loss when conventional hearing aids cannot be used. However, patients with high-frequency hearing loss may be better suited to an abutment connection system if they are not satisfied with high-frequency hearing gains provided via the trial Softband system preoperatively and should be counseled accordingly.

  19. Development of a novel direct bioautography-thin-layer chromatography test: optimization of growth conditions for gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Grzelak, Edyta M; Majer-Dziedzic, Barbara; Choma, Irena M

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of developing a TLC-direct bioautography assay using Escherichia coli as test bacteria, various parameters influencing the viability of microorganisms on TLC plates were examined and checked for flumequine standards. The optimal times for preincubation and incubation of bacterial broth were 20 h at 37 degrees C and 2 h at 37 degrees C, respectively. The optimal viscosity of the broth was obtained for 0.05% agarose solution in Mueller-Hinton broth. Various incubation times of the seeded TLC plates were also tested (5 h proved to be optimal). After incubation, the plates were sprayed with 0.2% aqueous [3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) solution and incubated for 0.5 h at 37 degrees C. The precision of the method was evaluated by the repeatability (intraday assay) and intermediate precision (interday assay). The regression coefficients were 0.9977 and 0.9968, respectively, for intraday and interday curves. The calibration curves show good linearity in the range of 0.005-0.50 microg (0.5-50.0 microg/mL). The established LOD of flumequine equaled 0.5 microg/mL, i.e., 5 ng flumequine in the spot. The developed direct bioautography test significantly enhances the sensitivity of the TLC method.

  20. The use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test for assessment and transcranial direct current stimulation to modulate language acquisition in minimally verbal children with autism.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Harry D; Hopp, Jenna P

    2011-06-01

    Minimally verbal children with autism commonly demonstrate language dysfunction, including immature syntax acquisition. We hypothesised that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) should facilitate language acquisition in a cohort (n = 10) of children with immature syntax. We modified the English version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to test only basic canonical subject-verb-object sentences. We tested syntactic accuracy after teaching then testing all vocabulary from the subsequent syntax test to ensure validity of syntactic scoring. We used scaffolding sentences for syntax training. All procedures were performed both before and after tDCS. Results demonstrated a large effect size of the difference between pre-/post-tDCS groups (p < 0.0005, d = 2.78), indicating syntax acquisition. Combining a modified BAT with tDCS constitutes effective modalities for assessment and treatment of immature syntax in children with autism. Future studies should explore the BAT for patients with an inability to use or understand language, in particular bilingual children with autism.

  1. Evaluation of a two-minute strep A direct swab test (SADST) on patients with pharyngitis at a primary care clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G. F.; Majeed, H. A.

    1986-01-01

    A two-minute strep A direct swab test (SADST) was used to detect the presence of Lancefield group A streptococci (GAS) from the throats of 207 patients with pharyngitis at a primary-care clinic. The results were compared with a standard culture method. Fifty-one specimens were positive and 156 specimens were negative for GAS by culture. The SADST had a sensitivity of 96% (49 of 51) and specificity of 98.7% (154 of 156). The predictive values of a positive and negative SADST, for GAS, were 96% and 98.7% respectively. The SADST showed negative reactions with five specimens containing beta-haemolytic streptococci other than GAS and 34 known stock cultures other than GAS. Our results indicate that SADST is a rapid, simple, convenient and reliable test to use for diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis at primary care clinics, physicians' offices and clinical laboratories. PMID:3525671

  2. Age-Related Differences and Cognitive Correlates of Self-Reported and Direct Navigation Performance: The Effect of Real and Virtual Test Conditions Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Taillade, Mathieu; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzéon, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aging on direct navigation measures and self-reported ones according to the real-virtual test manipulation. Navigation (wayfinding tasks) and spatial memory (paper-pencil tasks) performances, obtained either in real-world or in virtual-laboratory test conditions, were compared between young (n = 32) and older (n = 32) adults who had self-rated their everyday navigation behavior (SBSOD scale). Real age-related differences were observed in navigation tasks as well as in paper-pencil tasks, which investigated spatial learning relative to the distinction between survey-route knowledge. The manipulation of test conditions (real vs. virtual) did not change these age-related differences, which are mostly explained by age-related decline in both spatial abilities and executive functioning (measured with neuropsychological tests). In contrast, elderly adults did not differ from young adults in their self-reporting relative to everyday navigation, suggesting some underestimation of navigation difficulties by elderly adults. Also, spatial abilities in young participants had a mediating effect on the relations between actual and self-reported navigation performance, but not for older participants. So, it is assumed that the older adults carried out the navigation task with fewer available spatial abilities compared to young adults, resulting in inaccurate self-estimates.

  3. Age-Related Differences and Cognitive Correlates of Self-Reported and Direct Navigation Performance: The Effect of Real and Virtual Test Conditions Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Taillade, Mathieu; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzéon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aging on direct navigation measures and self-reported ones according to the real-virtual test manipulation. Navigation (wayfinding tasks) and spatial memory (paper-pencil tasks) performances, obtained either in real-world or in virtual-laboratory test conditions, were compared between young (n = 32) and older (n = 32) adults who had self-rated their everyday navigation behavior (SBSOD scale). Real age-related differences were observed in navigation tasks as well as in paper-pencil tasks, which investigated spatial learning relative to the distinction between survey-route knowledge. The manipulation of test conditions (real vs. virtual) did not change these age-related differences, which are mostly explained by age-related decline in both spatial abilities and executive functioning (measured with neuropsychological tests). In contrast, elderly adults did not differ from young adults in their self-reporting relative to everyday navigation, suggesting some underestimation of navigation difficulties by elderly adults. Also, spatial abilities in young participants had a mediating effect on the relations between actual and self-reported navigation performance, but not for older participants. So, it is assumed that the older adults carried out the navigation task with fewer available spatial abilities compared to young adults, resulting in inaccurate self-estimates. PMID:26834666

  4. Comparison of counter-immunoelectrophoresis with other serological tests in the diagnosis of human brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, R.; Maravi-Poma, E.; Rivero, A.

    1976-01-01

    Sera from 65 persons with clinical brucellosis were employed in a comparison of standard and rapid serological tests. The results obtained with the Rose Bengal test correlated very well with those of the standard tube agglutination test, whereas results with the rapid plate agglutination test and the Coombs (antiglobulin) test were inferior. Absorption of patients' sera with specific anti-human immunoglobulin sera showed that IgM was active in the Rose Bengal test but not in the Coombs test, whereas IgG and IgA were active in both tests. In addition to the A & M antigen, which plays the most important role in the agglutination, Rose Bengal, and Coombs tests, other antigenic fractions of Brucella were examined in precipitation tests. A protein antigen reacted with 94% of the sera in counter-immunoelectrophoresis. On the basis of the results with both groups of sera, the Rose Bengal test and counter-immunoelectrophoresis appear to be the most promising methods for diagnosing clinical brucellosis. The tests differ qualitatively since different Brucella antigens are employed. PMID:791532

  5. StatXFinder: a web-based self-directed tool that provides appropriate statistical test selection for biomedical researchers in their scientific studies.

    PubMed

    Suner, Aslı; Karakülah, Gökhan; Koşaner, Özgün; Dicle, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    The improper use of statistical methods is common in analyzing and interpreting research data in biological and medical sciences. The objective of this study was to develop a decision support tool encompassing the commonly used statistical tests in biomedical research by combining and updating the present decision trees for appropriate statistical test selection. First, the decision trees in textbooks, published articles, and online resources were scrutinized, and a more comprehensive unified one was devised via the integration of 10 distinct decision trees. The questions also in the decision steps were revised by simplifying and enriching of the questions with examples. Then, our decision tree was implemented into the web environment and the tool titled StatXFinder was developed. Finally, usability and satisfaction questionnaires were applied to the users of the tool, and StatXFinder was reorganized in line with the feedback obtained from these questionnaires. StatXFinder provides users with decision support in the selection of 85 distinct parametric and non-parametric statistical tests by directing 44 different yes-no questions. The accuracy rate of the statistical test recommendations obtained by 36 participants, with the cases applied, were 83.3 % for "difficult" tests, and 88.9 % for "easy" tests. The mean system usability score of the tool was found 87.43 ± 10.01 (minimum: 70-maximum: 100). A statistically significant difference could not be seen between total system usability score and participants' attributes (p value >0.05). The User Satisfaction Questionnaire showed that 97.2 % of the participants appreciated the tool, and almost all of the participants (35 of 36) thought of recommending the tool to the others. In conclusion, StatXFinder, can be utilized as an instructional and guiding tool for biomedical researchers with limited statistics knowledge. StatXFinder is freely available at http://webb.deu.edu.tr/tb/statxfinder.

  6. The usefulness of direct agglutination test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Kornacka, Aleksandra; Cybulska, Aleksandra; Bień, Justyna; Goździk, Katarzyna; Moskwa, Bożena

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of two antibody-based methods, the direct agglutination test (DAT) and enzyme linked immuosorbent assay (ELISA), with that of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting anti-Toxoplasma gondii in samples derived from naturally-infected wild animals. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in meat juice samples collected from 129 free- living carnivores and omnivores. T. gondii seroprevalence was confirmed in 73,6% of examined samples when DAT and ELISA were used separately, but in only 88,4% samples when both immunological tests were used in parallel. PCR results confirmed the presence of DNA of the parasite in 24 of all the 129 samples. Sixteen samples were classified as positive when all three tests were used. A moderate degree of agreement was found between DAT and ELISA (κ=0.55). However, no agreement was found between the molecular and serological tests: κ=-1.75 for DAT versus PCR; κ=-1.67 ELISA versus PCR. By using both serological tests, antibodies against T. gondii were found in 77.5% of red foxes, 12.5% of badgers, 40% of martens and 8.3% of raccoon dogs. Antibodies against the parasite were detected also in one mink, but not in the sample derived from a polecat. T.gondii DNA was found in the brain tissue of 20 red foxes, three badgers and one raccoon dog. Our studies confirm that ELISA and DAT are suitable and reliable techniques for T. gondii antibody detection in meat juice from wild animals when serum samples are unavailable. Positive results obtained by immunological tests do not always reflect that the host was infected by T. gondii. They indicate only a contact with parasite. PCR should be used to confirm te presence of DNA from T. gondii.

  7. Evaluation of chromogenic medium and direct latex agglutination test for detection of group B streptococcus in vaginal specimens from pregnant women in Lebanon and Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Ghaddar, Nahed; Alfouzan, Wadha; Anastasiadis, Elie; Al Jiser, Tamima; Itani, Saad Eddine; Dernaika, Racha; Eid, Toufic; Ghaddar, Ali; Charafeddine, Adib; Dhar, Rita; El Hajj, Hiba

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate chromogenic medium and a direct latex agglutination test (DLA) for detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the vaginal specimens of pregnant women, and to ascertain the prevalence of GBS in this population in Kuwait and Lebanon. Vaginal swabs, collected from women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, were cultured on 5 % sheep blood agar (SBA), colistin nalidixic acid agar (CNA), Strept B Select chromogenic agar (SBS) as well as Lim enrichment broth in 168 cases in Lebanon while only SBA was used for 1391 samples in Kuwait. In addition, vaginal samples from 102 GBS-positive and 20 GBS-negative women near the time of delivery were collected in Kuwait for evaluation of the DLA test. During the study period, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined to be 20.7 % (288/1391) in Kuwait while 18.4 % (31) of 168 pregnant women in Lebanon had vaginal cultures positive for GBS. By direct plating of vaginal swabs on the three media used, the isolation rates of GBS were 51.6, 64.5 and 77.4 % on SBA, CNA and SBS, respectively, which increased to 90.35, 93.1 and 96.8 %, respectively, following subculture in Lim broth after 18 h of incubation. The sensitivity of the DLA test was found to be dependent on the density of GBS colonization, resulting in 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for heavy (>10(2) c.f.u. per swab) and moderately heavy (50-100 c.f.u. per swab) growth of GBS. However, for vaginal specimens yielding <50 c.f.u. per swab, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the DLA test were 100, 55.5, 63.6 and 100 %, respectively. In conclusion, a chromogenic agar, such as SBS, and a DLA test can be used for rapid detection of GBS in pregnant women. The DLA test, in particular, could prove to be a useful tool for immediate detection of GBS in women near delivery so that intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis can be initiated.

  8. Test battery with the human cell line activation test, direct peptide reactivity assay and DEREK based on a 139 chemical data set for predicting skin sensitizing potential and potency of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Takenouchi, Osamu; Fukui, Shiho; Okamoto, Kenji; Kurotani, Satoru; Imai, Noriyasu; Fujishiro, Miyuki; Kyotani, Daiki; Kato, Yoshinao; Kasahara, Toshihiko; Fujita, Masaharu; Toyoda, Akemi; Sekiya, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shinichi; Seto, Hirokazu; Hirota, Morihiko; Ashikaga, Takao; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2015-11-01

    To develop a testing strategy incorporating the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT), direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) and DEREK, we created an expanded data set of 139 chemicals (102 sensitizers and 37 non-sensitizers) by combining the existing data set of 101 chemicals through the collaborative projects of Japan Cosmetic Industry Association. Of the additional 38 chemicals, 15 chemicals with relatively low water solubility (log Kow > 3.5) were selected to clarify the limitation of testing strategies regarding the lipophilic chemicals. Predictivities of the h-CLAT, DPRA and DEREK, and the combinations thereof were evaluated by comparison to results of the local lymph node assay. When evaluating 139 chemicals using combinations of three methods based on integrated testing strategy (ITS) concept (ITS-based test battery) and a sequential testing strategy (STS) weighing the predictive performance of the h-CLAT and DPRA, overall similar predictivities were found as before on the 101 chemical data set. An analysis of false negative chemicals suggested a major limitation of our strategies was the testing of low water-soluble chemicals. When excluded the negative results for chemicals with log Kow > 3.5, the sensitivity and accuracy of ITS improved to 97% (91 of 94 chemicals) and 89% (114 of 128). Likewise, the sensitivity and accuracy of STS to 98% (92 of 94) and 85% (111 of 129). Moreover, the ITS and STS also showed good correlation with local lymph node assay on three potency classifications, yielding accuracies of 74% (ITS) and 73% (STS). Thus, the inclusion of log Kow in analysis could give both strategies a higher predictive performance.

  9. A Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Selected Thyme (Thymus) Species by Means of the Dot Blot Test with Direct Bioautographic Detection.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, Marta; Kowalska, Teresa; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Jesionek, Wioleta; Choma, Irena M; Majer-Dziedzic, Barbara; Szymczak, Grażyna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Bioautography carried out with the aid of thin-layer chromatographic adsorbents can be used to assess antibacterial activity in samples of different origin. It can either be used as a simple and cost-effective detection method applied to a developed chromatogram, or to the dot blot test performed on a chromatographic plate, where total antibacterial activity of a sample is scrutinized. It was an aim of this study to compare antibacterial activity of 18 thyme (Thymus) specimens and species (originating from the same gardening plot and harvested in the same period of time) by means of a dot blot test with direct bioautography. A two-step extraction of herbal material was applied, and at step two the polar fraction of secondary metabolites was obtained under the earlier optimized extraction conditions [methanol-water (27+73, v/v), 130°C]. This fraction was then tested for its antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis bacteria. It was established that all investigated extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, yet distinct differences were perceived in the size of the bacterial growth inhibition zones among the compared thyme species. Based on the results obtained, T. citriodorus "golden dwarf" (sample No. 5) and T. marschallianus (sample No. 6) were selected as promising targets for further investigations and possible inclusion in a herbal pharmacopeia, which is an essential scientific novelty of this study.

  10. Syphilis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... been developed, making them convenient for screening purposes. Direct detection of bacteria —these tests are less commonly ... highly sensitive; can be used to exclude neurosyphilis. Direct detection tests (much less common): Microscopic Exam, Darkfield ...

  11. Nystagmus intensity and direction in bow and lean test: an aid to diagnosis of lateral semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, V

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate nystagmus intensity and direction (NID) during bow and lean test (BLT) in subjects suffering from idiopathic lateral semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (LSC-BPPV), in order to differentiate between the geotropic and the apogeotropic form and to determine the affected ear before using classic diagnostic procedures. The BLT was performed in 32 subjects affected by LSC-BPPV. "Nystagmus intensity" evaluation allows distinguishing the geotropic variant from the apogeotropic one, while the "nystagmus direction" allows identification of the side. In particular, a more intense nystagmus in the bow position compared to the lean position indicates an ampullipetal flow caused by the presence of free-floating particles in the non-ampullary arm, and is suggestive of geotropic form. In this case, if the nystagmus in the bow position is left beating, the free-floating particles necessarily occupy the left LSC non-ampullary arm, while a right-beating nystagmus indicates the right LSC involvement. In contrast, a more intense nystagmus in the lean position compared to the bow position indicates an ampullifugal flow due to the presence of particles adherent to the cupula (cupulolithiasis) or free-floating in the ampullary arm (canalolithiasis), suggesting an apogeotropic form. In this situation, if the nystagmus in the lean position is left beating, the particles are in the left LSC ampullar arm or are coated on the left LSC cupula; vice versa, a right-beating nystagmus in the lean position is suggestive of the involvement of the right LSC. As a general rule, in both forms the direction of the more intense nystagmus points to the affected side. "NID-BLT" was effective in identifying the form and the side in 22/28 subjects (79% of the study population). The proper execution and interpretation of the "NID-BLT" helps to establish the form (geotropic versus apogeotropic) and side (right versus left) in most cases of LSC-BPPV. Unlike

  12. Do Advance Directives Direct?

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Susan P

    2015-06-01

    Resolution of long-standing debates about the role and impact of advance directives - living wills and powers of attorney for health care - has been hampered by a dearth of appropriate data, in particular data that compare the process and outcomes of end-of-life decision making on behalf of patients with and without advance directives. Drawing on a large ethnographic study of patients in two intensive care units in a large urban teaching hospital, this article compares aspects of the medical decision-making process and outcomes by advance-directive status. Controlling for demographic characteristics and severity of illness, the study finds few significant differences between patients without advance directives and those who claim to have them. Surprisingly, these few differences hold only for those whose directives are in their hospital chart. There are no significant differences between those with no directive and those claiming to have a copy at home or elsewhere. The article considers the implications if directives seemingly must be in hand to show even modest effects. Do advance directives direct? The intensive care unit data provide far more support for the growing body of literature that casts doubt on their impact than studies that promote the use of them.

  13. Effects of a common transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol on motor evoked potentials found to be highly variable within individuals over 9 testing sessions.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Vogrin, Simon J; Carter, Olivia; Cook, Mark J; Forte, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses a weak electric current to modulate neuronal activity. A neurophysiologic outcome measure to demonstrate reliable tDCS modulation at the group level is transcranial magnetic stimulation engendered motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Here, we conduct a study testing the reliability of individual MEP response patterns following a common tDCS protocol. Fourteen participants (7m/7f) each underwent nine randomized sessions of 1 mA, 10 min tDCS (3 anode; 3 cathode; 3 sham) delivered using an M1/orbito-frontal electrode montage (sessions separated by an average of ~5.5 days). Fifteen MEPs were obtained prior to, immediately following and in 5 min intervals for 30 min following tDCS. TMS was delivered at 130 % resting motor threshold using neuronavigation to ensure consistent coil localization. A number of non-experimental variables were collected during each session. At the individual level, considerable variability was seen among different testing sessions. No participant demonstrated an excitatory response ≥20 % to all three anodal sessions, and no participant demonstrated an inhibitory response ≥20 % to all three cathodal sessions. Intra-class correlation revealed poor anodal and cathodal test-retest reliability [anode: ICC(2,1) = 0.062; cathode: ICC(2,1) = 0.055] and moderate sham test-retest reliability [ICC(2,1) = 0.433]. Results also revealed no significant effect of tDCS at the group level. Using this common protocol, we found the effects of tDCS on MEP amplitudes to be highly variable at the individual level. In addition, no significant effects of tDCS on MEP amplitude were found at the group level. Future studies should consider utilizing a more strict experimental protocol to potentially account for intra-individual response variations.

  14. The effect of the direct factor Xa inhibitors apixaban and rivaroxaban on haemostasis tests: a comprehensive assessment using in vitro and ex vivo samples.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Mohammed, Soma; Ahuja, Monica; Pasalic, Leonardo; Sioufi, John; Marsden, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), now including dabigatran, apixaban and rivaroxaban, have given clinicians alternative options to low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) and vitamin K antagonist therapy, including warfarin, for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease. DOACs have been successfully marketed as not requiring monitoring; however, there will be situations where clinicians will request laboratory testing, including emergency department admissions for haemorrhage or thrombosis, or emergency surgical interventions. We report the results of several Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) surveys using apixaban and rivaroxaban spiked samples to either assess the suitability of certain potential screening or drug-quantifying assays, for assessment of drug presence or absence or measurement of levels, as well as assessing potential interference in a wide variety of haemostasis assays. We also include additional evaluations using ex vivo samples from patients given apixaban and rivaroxaban for various therapeutic reasons. The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) show better sensitivity with rivaroxaban than apixaban. Anti-Xa assays show good concordance and reproducibility with expected drug levels; however, availability of these assays may be limited to larger institutions. Interference of apixaban and rivaroxaban on haemostasis testing extends beyond routine coagulation assays to encompass a plethora of specialised assays, including factor assays, lupus inhibitor, and FVIII inhibitor estimation. In conclusion, this report highlights the influence of these drugs on most tests performed in haemostasis laboratories, and the potential for some tests to predict the presence, absence or level of these drugs in plasma.

  15. Analytical results from ground-water sampling using a direct-push technique at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, June-July 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guertal, William R.; Stewart, Marie; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timthoy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001 to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The study was conducted to support a planned enhanced bio-remediation demonstration and to assist the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. This report presents the analytical results from ground-water samples collected during the direct-push ground-water sampling study. A direct-push drill rig was used to quickly collect 115 ground-water samples over a large area at varying depths. The ground-water samples and associated quality-control samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds and methyl tert-butyl ether by the Dover National Test Site analytical laboratory. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloroethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloroethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloroethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest methyl tert-butyl ether concentrations were found in the surficial aquifer from -4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level, however, methyl tert-butyl ether was detected as deep as -9.5 feet mean sea level. Increased methane concentrations and decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations were found in

  16. Testing a structural model for viral DNA packaging motor function by optical tweezers measurements, site directed mutagenesis, and molecular dynamics calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Nicholas A.; Migliori, Amy D.; Arya, Gaurav; Rao, Venigalla B.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2013-09-01

    Many double-stranded DNA viruses employ a molecular motor to package DNA into preformed capsid shells. Based on structures of phage T4 motor proteins determined by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, Rao, Rossmann and coworkers recently proposed a structural model for motor function. They proposed that DNA is ratcheted by a large conformational change driven by electrostatic interactions between charged residues at an interface between two globular domains of the motor protein. We have conducted experiments to test this model by studying the effect on packaging under applied load of site-directed changes altering these residues. We observe significant impairment of packaging activity including reductions in packaging rate, percent time packaging, and time active under high load. We show that these measured impairments correlate well with alterations in free energies associated with the conformational change predicted by molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Impact of Direct-to-Consumer Predictive Genomic Testing on Risk Perception and Worry Among Patients Receiving Routine Care in a Preventive Health Clinic

    PubMed Central

    James, Katherine M.; Cowl, Clayton T.; Tilburt, Jon C.; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R.; Tiedje, Kristina; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) predictive genomic risk information on perceived risk and worry in the context of routine clinical care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients attending a preventive medicine clinic between June 1 and December 18, 2009, were randomly assigned to receive either genomic risk information from a DTC product plus usual care (n=74) or usual care alone (n=76). At intervals of 1 week and 1 year after their clinic visit, participants completed surveys containing validated measures of risk perception and levels of worry associated with the 12 conditions assessed by the DTC product. RESULTS: Of 345 patients approached, 150 (43%) agreed to participate, 64 (19%) refused, and 131 (38%) did not respond. Compared with those receiving usual care, participants who received genomic risk information initially rated their risk as higher for 4 conditions (abdominal aneurysm [P=.001], Graves disease [P=.04], obesity [P=.01], and osteoarthritis [P=.04]) and lower for one (prostate cancer [P=.02]). Although differences were not significant, they also reported higher levels of worry for 7 conditions and lower levels for 5 others. At 1 year, there were no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Predictive genomic risk information modestly influences risk perception and worry. The extent and direction of this influence may depend on the condition being tested and its baseline prominence in preventive health care and may attenuate with time. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00782366 PMID:21964170

  18. Performance of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)-antibody tests: a comparative analysis based on samples from individuals with direct contact to domestic pigs or wild boar in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sommerkorn, Frauke Mara; Schauer, Birgit; Schreiner, Thomas; Fickenscher, Helmut; Krumbholz, Andi

    2017-04-10

    In Europe, Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 causes most human infections, and domestic pigs and wild boar represent the main reservoirs. Contact to these animals represents one source of human infection. However, interpretation of studies is challenged in the absence of a serological gold standard. Hence, this study compared results of different HEV immunoassays. Plasma samples from 139 individuals who had professional contact to pigs (veterinarians, meat inspectors, slaughterhouse workers; n = 114) or hunted regularly (n = 25) were tested with assays specific for HEV IgG, HEV IgM, HEV IgA, and total HEV immunoglobulin as well as for viral RNA. Furthermore, overall HEV IgG was defined (i.e., two of three IgG assays reveal the same result) to compare serological findings. Borderline results were always quoted as positive. For IgG, apparent prevalence was higher in Wantai (48.2%) compared to Euroimmun (11.5%) and Mikrogen assays (17.3%) (p = 0.0001). The overall IgG prevalence was estimated to be 18.7%. For total Ig, Wantai (40.3%) also yielded higher prevalence than Euroimmun (15.8%) (p = 0.0001). The HEV IgM prevalence ranged from 0% (Euroimmun) to 4.3% (Mikrogen). Four percent of individuals tested IgA positive, whilst none harboured HEV RNA. Our results support previous studies that the higher IgG prevalence estimated with the Wantai assay result from a higher sensitivity of this test. However, further studies are needed to verify specificity given the challenge of defining true negative samples. The high percentage of individuals with HEV IgG observed in this study underlines that direct contact to pigs represents a risk factor for HEV infection.

  19. Top-down or bottom-up? Assessing crevassing directions on surging glaciers and developments for physically testing glacier crevassing models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, B.; Evans, D. J. A.; Benn, D. I.; Brennan, A. J.

    2012-04-01

    Networks of crevasse squeeze ridges (CSRs) preserved on the forelands of many surging glaciers attest to extensive full-depth crevassing. Full-depth connections have been inferred from turbid water up-welling in crevasses and the formation of concertina eskers however, it has not been clearly established if the crevasses formed from the top-down or the bottom-up. A Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) approach is used to determine the likely propagation direction for Mode I crevasses on seven surging glaciers. Results indicate that, the high extensional surface strain rates are insufficient to promote top-down full-depth crevasses but have sufficient magnitude to penetrate to depths of 4-12 m, explaining the extensive surface breakup accompanying glacier surges. Top-down, full-depth crevassing is only possible when water depth approaches 97% of the crevasse depth. However, the provision of sufficient meltwater is problematic due to the aforementioned extensive shallow surface crevassing. Full-depth, bottom-up crevassing can occur provided basal water pressures are in excess of 80-90% of flotation which is the default for surging and on occasion water pressures may even become artesian. Therefore CSRs, found across many surging glacier forelands and ice margins most likely result from the infilling of basal crevasses formed, for the most part, by bottom-up hydrofracturing. Despite the importance of crevassing for meltwater routing and calving dynamics physically testing numerical crevassing models remains problematic due to technological limitations, changing stress regimes and difficulties associated with working in crevasse zones on glaciers. Mapping of CSR spacing and matching to surface crevasse patterns can facilitate quantitative comparison between the LEFM model and observed basal crevasses provided ice dynamics are known. However, assessing full-depth top-down crevasse propagation is much harder to monitor in the field and no geomorphological record is

  20. European ring exercise on water toxicity using different bioluminescence inhibition tests based on Vibrio fischeri, in support to the implementation of the water framework directive.

    PubMed

    Farré, Marinella; Martínez, Elena; Hernando, M-D; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo; Fritz, Johann; Unruh, Eckehardt; Mihail, Otilia; Sakkas, Vasilis; Morbey, Ana; Albanis, Triantafyllos; Brito, Fatima; Hansen, Peter D; Barceló, Damià

    2006-04-15

    An inter-laboratory comparison exercise was conducted under the European Union funded project entitled: Screening Methods for Water Data Information in Support of the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive (SWIFT-WFD) and coordinated by the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), in order to evaluate the reproducibility of different toxicity tests based on the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri, for the rapid water toxicity assessment. For the first time, this type of exercise has been organized in Europe, and using different tests based on the same principle. In this exercise, 10 laboratories from 8 countries (Austria, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Spain) took place, and a total number of 360 samples were distributed. During the exercise, six series of six samples were analyzed along 5 months. Every batch of samples was composed by three real samples and three standard solutions. The real samples were: a raw influent and the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and a sample from a first settlement of the WWTP spiked with a mixture of toxicant standards. A final number of 330 (91.7%) samples was analyzed, 3300 values in duplicate were collected, and the results for each sample were expressed as the 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) values calculated through five points of dilution inhibition curves, after 5 and 15min of incubation times. A statistical study was initiated using 660 results. The mean values, standard deviations (sigma), variances (sigma(2)), and upper and lower warning limits (UWL and LWL) were obtained, using the EC(50) values calculated with the result from the participating laboratories. The main objectives of this toxicity ring study were to evaluate the repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) when different laboratories conduct the test, the influence of complex matrix samples, the variability between different tests based on the same principle, and to determine the

  1. The test-particle induced inhomogeneous direct correlation functions and extensions of Widom's theorem: impacts on the incremental chemical potentials and high-order correlation functions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lloyd L

    2013-10-21

    We develop the potential distributions of several test particles to obtain a hierarchy of the nonuniform singlet direct correlation functions (s-DCFs). These correlation functions are interpreted as the segmental chemical potentials or works of insertion of successive test particles in a classical fluid. The development has several interesting consequences: (i) it extends the Widom particle insertion formula to higher-order theorems, the first member gives the chemical potential as in the original theorem, the second member gives the incremental energy for dimer formation, with higher members giving the energies for forming trimers, tetramers, etc. (ii) The second and third order s-DCFs can be related to the cavity distribution functions y((2)) and y((3)) in the liquid-state theory. Thus we can express the triplet cavity function y((3)) in terms of these s-DCFs in an exact form. This enables us to calculate, as an illustration of the above theoretical developments, the numerical values of the s-DCFs via Monte Carlo (MC) simulation data on hard spheres. We use these data to critically analyze the commonly used approximations, the Kirkwood superposition (KSA) and the linear approximation (LA) for triplet correlation functions. An improved rule over KSA and LA is proposed for triplet hard spheres in the rolling-contact configurations. (iii) The s-DCFs are naturally suited for analyzing the chain-incremental Ansatz or hypothesis in the calculation of the chemical potentials of polymeric chain molecules. The first few segments of a polymer chain have been shown from extensive Monte Carlo simulations to not obey this Ansatz. By examining the insertion energies of successive segments through the s-DCFs, we are able to quantitatively decipher the decay of the segmental chemical potentials for at least the first three segments. Comparison with MC data on 4-mer and 8-mer hard-sphere fluids shows commensurate behavior with the s-DCFs. In addition, an analytical density

  2. Direct and efficient liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for opiates in urine drug testing - importance of 6-acetylmorphine and reduction of analytes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Maria; Stephanson, Nikolai; Ohman, Inger; Terzuoli, Tommy; Lindh, Jonatan D; Beck, Olof

    2014-04-01

    Opiates comprise a class of abused drugs that is of primary interest in clinical and forensic urine drug testing. Determination of heroin, codeine, or a multi-drug ingestion is complicated since both heroin and codeine can lead to urinary excretion of free and conjugated morphine. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) offers advantage over gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by simplifying sample preparation but increases the number of analytes. A method based on direct injection of five-fold diluted urine for confirmation of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide, codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide and 6-acetylmorphine was validated using LC-MS/MS in positive electrospray mode monitoring two transitions using selected reaction monitoring. The method was applied for the analysis of 3155 unknown urine samples which were positive for opiates in immunochemical screening. A linear response was observed for all compounds in the calibration curves covering more than three orders of magnitude. Cut off was set to 2 ng/ml for 6-acetylmorphine and 150 ng/ml for the other analytes. 6-Acetylmorphine was found to be effective (sensitivity 82%) in detecting samples as heroin intake. Morphine-3-glucuronide and codeine-6-glucuronide was the predominant components of total morphine and codeine, 84% and 93%, respectively. The authors have validated a robust LC-MS/MS method for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of opiates in urine. 6-Acetylmorphine has been demonstrated as a sensitive and important parameter for a heroin intake. A possible interpretation strategy to conclude the source of detected analytes was proposed. The method might be further developed by reducing the number of analytes to morphine-3-glucuronide, codeine-6-glucuronide and 6-acetylmorphine without compromising test performance.

  3. A Novel 7-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Clonotyping Test Allows Rapid Prediction of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Extraintestinal Escherichia coli Directly From Urine Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Tchesnokova, Veronika; Avagyan, Hovhannes; Billig, Mariya; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Aprikian, Pavel; Chan, Diana; Pseunova, Julietta; Rechkina, Elena; Riddell, Kim; Scholes, Delia; Fang, Ferric C.; Johnson, James R.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli is a highly clonal pathogen. Extraintestinal isolates belong to a limited number of genetically related groups, which often exhibit characteristic antimicrobial resistance profiles. Methods. We developed a rapid clonotyping method for extraintestinal E coli based on detection of the presence or absence of 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 2 genes (fumC and fimH). A reference set of 2559 E coli isolates, primarily of urinary origin, was used to predict the resolving power of the 7-SNP-based typing method, and 582 representative strains from this set were used to evaluate test robustness. Results. Fifty-four unique SNP combinations (“septatypes”) were identified in the reference strains. These septatypes yielded a clonal group resolution power on par with that of traditional multilocus sequence typing. In 72% of isolates, septatype identity predicted sequence type identity with at least 90% (mean, 97%) accuracy. Most septatypes exhibited highly distinctive antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. The 7-SNP-based test could be performed with high specificity and sensitivity using single or multiplex conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR. In the latter format, E coli presence and septatype identity were determined directly in urine specimens within 45 minutes with bacterial loads as low as 102 colony-forming units/mL and, at clinically significant bacterial loads, with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions. 7-SNP-based typing of E coli can be used for both epidemiological studies and clinical diagnostics, which could greatly improve the empirical selection of antimicrobial therapy. PMID:26925427

  4. Wind tunnel testing of 5-bladed H-rotor wind turbine with the integration of the omni-direction-guide-vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazlizan, A.; Chong, W. T.; Omar, W. Z. W.; Mansor, S.; Zain, Z. M.; Pan, K. C.; Oon, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    A novel omni-direction-guide-vane (ODGV) that surrounds a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) is designed to improve the wind turbine performance by increasing the oncoming wind speed and guiding the wind-stream through optimum flow angles before impinging onto the turbine blades. Wind tunnel testing was performed to measure the performance of a 5-bladed H-rotor wind turbine with Wortmann FX63-137 airfoil blades, with and without the integration of the ODGV. The test was conducted using a scaled model turbine which was constructed to simulate the VAWT enclosed by the ODGV on a building. The diameter and height of the ODGV are 2 times larger than the VAWT's. Torque, rotational speed and power measurements were performed by using torque transducer with hysteresis brake applied to the rotor shaft. The VAWT shows an improvement on its self-starting behavior where the cut-in speed reduced to 4 m/s with the ODGV (7.35 m/s without the ODGV). Since the VAWT is able to self-start at lower wind speed, the working hour of the wind turbine would increase. At the wind speed of 6 m/s and free-running condition (only rotor inertia and bearing friction were applied), the ODGV helps to increase the rotor RPM by 182%. At the same wind speed (6 m/s), the ODGV helps to increase the power output by 3.48 times at peak torque. With this innovative design, the size of VAWT can be reduced for a given power output and should generate interest in the market, even for regions with weaker winds.

  5. Amino acids as a nitrogen source in temperate upland grasslands: the use of dual labelled ((13)C, (15)N) glycine to test for direct uptake by dominant grasses.

    PubMed

    Streeter, T C; Bol, R; Bardgett, R D

    2000-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that soil amino acids are a principal source of nitrogen (N) for certain plants, and especially those of N-limited environments. This study of temperate upland grasslands used glycine-2-(13)C-(15)N and ((15)NH4)(2)SO(4) labelling techniques to test the hypothesis that plant species which dominate 'unimproved' semi-natural grasslands (Festuca-Agrostis-Galium) are able to utilise amino acid N for growth, whereas those plants which dominate 'improved' grasslands (Lolium-Cynosurus), that receive regular applications of inorganic fertiliser, use inorganic N forms as their main N source. Data from field experiments confirmed that 'free' amino acids were more abundant in 'unimproved' than 'improved' grassland and that glycine was the dominant amino acid type (up to 42% of total). Secondly, the injection of representative amounts of glycine-2-(13)C-(15)N (4.76 and 42.86 mM) into intact soil cores from the two grassland types provided evidence of direct uptake of glycine by plants, with both (15)N and (13)C being detected in plant material of both grasslands. Finally, a microcosm experiment demonstrated no preferential uptake of amino acid N by the grasses which dominate the grassland types, namely Holcus lanatus, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris from the 'unimproved' grassland, and Lolium perenne from the 'improved' grassland. Again, both (13)C and (15)N were detected in all grass species suggesting uptake of intact glycine by these plants.

  6. Tissue-specific direct microtransfer of nanomaterials into Drosophila embryos as a versatile in vivo test bed for nanomaterial toxicity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Herrera, Adriana; Rinaldi, Carlos; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials are the subject of intense research, focused on their synthesis, modification, and biomedical applications. Increased nanomaterial production and their wide range of applications imply a higher risk of human and environmental exposure. Unfortunately, neither environmental effects nor toxicity of nanomaterials to organisms are fully understood. Cost-effective, rapid toxicity assays requiring minimal amounts of materials are needed to establish both their biomedical potential and environmental safety standards. Drosophila exemplifies an efficient and cost-effective model organism with a vast repertoire of in vivo tools and techniques, all with high-throughput scalability and screening feasibility throughout its life cycle. Here we report tissue specific nanomaterial assessment through direct microtransfer into target tissues. We tested several nanomaterials with potential biomedical applications such as single-wall carbon nanotubes, multiwall carbon nanotubes, silver, gold, titanium dioxide, and iron oxide nanoparticles. Assessment of nanomaterial toxicity was conducted by evaluating progression through developmental morphological milestones in Drosophila. This cost-effective assessment method is amenable to high-throughput screening. PMID:24790441

  7. Development and testing of a novel lab-scale direct steam-injection apparatus to hydrolyse model and saline crop slurries.

    PubMed

    Santi, Guglielmo; Guglielmo, Santi; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Alessandro, D'Annibale; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Maurizio, Petruccioli; Crognale, Silvia; Silvia, Crognale; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Maurizio, Ruzzi; Valentini, Riccardo; Riccardo, Valentini; Moresi, Mauro; Moresi, Mauro

    2012-02-20

    In this work, a novel laboratory-scale direct steam-injection apparatus (DSIA) was developed to overcome the main drawback of the conventional batch-driven lab rigs, namely the long time needed to heat fiber slurry from room to reaction temperatures greater than 150 °C. The novel apparatus mainly consisted of three units: (i) a mechanically-stirred bioreactor where saturated steam at 5-30 bar can be injected; (ii) an automatic on-off valve to flash suddenly the reaction medium after a prefixed reaction time; (iii) a cyclone separator to recover the reacted slurry. This system was tested using 0.75 dm³ of an aqueous solution of H₂SO₄ (0.5%, v/v) enriched with 50 kg m⁻³ of either commercial particles of Avicel® and Larch xylan or 0.5 mm sieved particles of Tamarix jordanis. Each slurry was heated to about 200 °C by injecting steam at 28 bar for 90 s. The process efficiency was assessed by comparing the dissolution degree of suspended solid (Y(S)), as well as xylose (Y(X)), glucose (Y(G)), and furfural (Y(F)) yields, with those obtained in a conventional steam autoclave at 130 °C for 30 or 60 min. Treatment of T. jordanis particles in DSIA resulted in Y(S) and Y(G) values quite similar to those obtained in the steam autoclave at 130 °C for 60 min, but in a less efficient hemicellulose solubilization. A limited occurrence of pentose degradation products was observed in both equipments, suggesting that hydrolysis predominated over degradation reactions. The susceptibility of the residual solid fractions from DSIA treatment to a conventional 120 h long cellulolytic treatment using an enzyme loading of 5.4 FPU g⁻¹ was markedly higher than that of samples hydrolysed in the steam autoclave, their corresponding glucose yields being equal to 0.94 and 0.22 g per gram of initial cellulose, respectively. Thus, T. jordanis resulted to be a valuable source of sugars for bioethanol production as proved by preliminary tests in the novel lab rig developed here.

  8. Rapid Drug Susceptibility Testing of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates Directly from Clinical Samples by Use of Amplicon Sequencing: a Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Julia; Lemmer, Darrin; Lehmkuhl, Erik; Georghiou, Sophia B.; Heaton, Hannah; Wiggins, Kristin; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James M.; Catanzaro, Donald G.; Crudu, Valeriu; Cohen, Ted; Rodwell, Timothy C.; Engelthaler, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly complex drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a major global health concern and one of the primary reasons why TB is now the leading infectious cause of death worldwide. Rapid characterization of a DR-TB patient's complete drug resistance profile would facilitate individualized treatment in place of empirical treatment, improve treatment outcomes, prevent amplification of resistance, and reduce the transmission of DR-TB. The use of targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) to obtain drug resistance profiles directly from patient sputum samples has the potential to enable comprehensive evidence-based treatment plans to be implemented quickly, rather than in weeks to months, which is currently needed for phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. In this pilot study, we evaluated the performance of amplicon sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from patient sputum samples using a tabletop NGS technology and automated data analysis to provide a rapid DST solution (the Next Gen-RDST assay). One hundred sixty-six out of 176 (94.3%) sputum samples from the Republic of Moldova yielded complete Next Gen-RDST assay profiles for 7 drugs of interest. We found a high level of concordance of our Next Gen-RDST assay results with phenotypic DST (97.0%) and pyrosequencing (97.8%) results from the same clinical samples. Our Next Gen-RDST assay was also able to estimate the proportion of resistant-to-wild-type alleles down to mixtures of ≤1%, which demonstrates the ability to detect very low levels of resistant variants not detected by pyrosequencing and possibly below the threshold for phenotypic growth methods. The assay as described here could be used as a clinical or surveillance tool. PMID:27225403

  9. Direct blood culturing on solid medium outperforms an automated continuously monitored broth-based blood culture system in terms of time to identification and susceptibility testing

    PubMed Central

    Idelevich, E.A.; Grünastel, B.; Peters, G.; Becker, K.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) should be available as soon as possible for patients with bloodstream infections. We investigated whether a lysis-centrifugation (LC) blood culture (BC) method, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification and Vitek 2 AST, provides a time advantage in comparison with the currently used automated broth-based BC system. Seven bacterial reference strains were added each to 10 mL human blood in final concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 CFU/mL. Inoculated blood was added to the Isolator 10 tube and centrifuged at 3000 g for 30 min, then 1.5 mL sediment was distributed onto five 150-mm agar plates. Growth was observed hourly and microcolonies were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 as soon as possible. For comparison, seeded blood was introduced into an aerobic BC bottle and incubated in the BACTEC 9240 automated BC system. For all species/concentration combinations except one, successful identification and Vitek 2 inoculation were achieved even before growth detection by BACTEC. The fastest identification and inoculation for AST were achieved with Escherichia coli in concentrations of 100 CFU/mL and 10 CFU/mL (after 7 h each, while BACTEC flagged respective samples positive after 9.5 h and 10 h). Use of the LC-BC method allows skipping of incubation in automated BC systems and, used in combination with rapid diagnostics from microcolonies, provides a considerable advantage in time to result. This suggests that the usefulness of direct BC on solid medium should be re-evaluated in the era of rapid microbiology. PMID:26909155

  10. Fluorometric assay for red blood cell antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, A.B.; Lambermont, M.; Strosberg, A.D.; Wybran, J.

    1981-03-01

    A fluorometric assay is described for the detection of red blood cell antibodies. The assay reveals as little as 600 molecules of bound, fluoroesceinated rabbit anti-human IgG antibodies per erythrocyte. Eleven patients with possible autoimmune erythrocyte disorder and negative direct antiglobulin test were studied by the fluorometric assay. The outcome of the fluorometric assay was compared with that of the human allogeneic rosette test. Results obtained by the two methods were in complete agreement. Five of the patients were shown to possess unexpectedly high levels of erythrocyte-bound IgG in spite of a negative, direct antiglobulin test. These findings and the validity of the fluorometric assay are discussed.

  11. Selecting an acceptable and safe antibody detection test can present a dilemma.

    PubMed

    Combs, M R; Bredehoeft, S J

    2001-01-01

    The Transfusion Service at Duke University Hospital has changed antibody detection methods from the use of albumin in indirect antiglobulin tests to low-ionic-strength solution (LISS), and from LISS to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an effort to enhance the rapid detection of clinically significant antibodies. In 1996, staffing issues required the consideration of automation. Although previous studies indicated that the gel test was not as sensitive as PEG for detection of clinically significant antibodies, we chose to implement the gel test to be used with the Tecan MegaFlex-ID. We performed a retrospective analysis of identified antibodies and transfusion reactions to compare the outcomes of one year's experience with gel and PEG. We found comparable detection of potentially clinically significant antibodies by both methods and significantly fewer unwanted or clinically insignificant antibodies detected with the use of gel. Fewer delayed serologic transfusion reactions and no transfusion-associated hemolytic events occurred in the year that gel was used. Although we initially found the selection of the gel test to be a dilemma, our ultimate decision appears to have successfully protected patient safety and balanced sensitivity with specificity.

  12. [Validation of antibody screening by indirect antigloblin test and ABO blood typing by filtration and microplate techniques: assessment of robustness].

    PubMed

    Mannessier, L; Delamaire, M; Bouix, O; Krause, C; Roubinet, F

    2006-10-01

    According to requirements of the French Committee for Accreditation (Cofrac), it is essential to use validated and standardised methods in Immunohematology. This imposes first the knowledge of metrological tolerances for all the technics. Two multicenter studies were carried out to define the maximal acceptable deviations concerning incubation temperature and time, volumes of patient plasma and tests cells for antibody screening using indirect antiglobulin test on one hand and for reverse grouping on another hand. All equipment used (temperature test chamber, chronometer, pipettes) were calibrated according to Cofrac standards. The antibody screenings were performed manually using 3 different filtration systems: ID Diamed, Biovue Ortho and Scangel Biorad, the same tests cells, a standard 20 ng/mL anti RH1, a positive control anti KEL1 and a negative control; the reverse blood grouping was performed manually using the above mentionned filtration systems and microplate technic with the same A1 and B test cells. These two studies showed that all the tests from the multiples combinations of the above parameters gave the same results and allowed us to define a range of tolerance for 4 critical physical parameters involved in the antibody screening and blood typing.

  13. The utility of testing tactile perception of direction of scratch as a sensitive clinical sign of posterior column dysfunction in spinal cord disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, G J; Edis, R H

    1989-01-01

    Classical beliefs about the functions of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord have been attacked following recent evidence that position and vibration sensations may be carried in the dorsal spinocerebellar tracts. There is evidence that the one specific function of the dorsal columns is for the transmission of information concerning the direction of tactile cutaneous movement. Thirty normal controls, 43 patients with spinal cord disorders and 10 patients with functional disorders were examined prospectively using an easily administered "direction of scratch" protocol. Interpretation of the direction of a 2 cm vertical tactile cutaneous movement over the lower limbs was found to be accurate in normal controls and grossly inaccurate in patients with functional disorders, exceeding the error rate of guessing. Detection of direction of 2 cm scratch was moderately impaired in 11 of 13 patients with spastic paraparesis and preserved sensation to all other modalities and 23 of 24 patients with spastic paraparesis and impaired proprioception and/or vibration sensations. Direction of 2 cm scratch, proprioception and vibration sensations were preserved in the three cases with anterior spinal cord syndromes. It is proposed that tactile perception of direction of 2 cm scratch over the lower limbs is a sensitive sign of posterior column function which can be usefully incorporated into the clinical sensory examination in the evaluation of spinal cord disorders. PMID:2926427

  14. Strategy for rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria directly recovered from positive blood cultures using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper and the BD Phoenix system.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Jana L; Long, S Wesley; Cernoch, Patricia; Land, Geoffrey A; Davis, James R; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2012-07-01

    Decreasing the time to species identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of strains recovered from patients with bacteremia significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Herein, we validated a method to identify Gram-negative bacteria directly from positive blood culture medium using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper and to rapidly perform susceptibility testing using the BD Phoenix.

  15. Wind tunnel test results for the direction controlled antitank DCAT missile at Mach numbers from 0.64 to 2.50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, T. A.; Spring, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results are presented to show aerodynamic characteristics over the Mach number range of 0.64 to 2.50 of the DCAT missile. Data are presented showing the interference created by the rear mounted reaction control system. Two candidate fins were installed on the model during tests: a flat folding fin and a curved wrap around fin.

  16. Penicillin-induced hemolytic anemia and acute hepatic failure following treatment of tetanus in a horse.

    PubMed

    Step, D L; Blue, J T; Dill, S G

    1991-01-01

    Acute, severe hemolytic anemia occurred in a horse being treated for tetanus with intravenous penicillin and tetanus antitoxin. During treatment, the horse developed a positive direct antiglobulin test and a high titer (maximum 1:1024) of IgG anti-penicillin antibody. The horse recovered from the tetanus and penicillin induced hemolytic anemia, but later developed acute hepatic failure, probably resulting from the administration of equine origin tetanus antitoxin.

  17. Development of Point of Care Testing Device for Neurovascular Coupling From Simultaneous Recording of EEG and NIRS During Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Utkarsh; Sood, Mehak; Dutta, Anirban; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a point of care testing device for neurovascular coupling (NVC) from simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Here, anodal tDCS modulated cortical neural activity leading to hemodynamic response can be used to identify the impaired cerebral microvessels functionality. The impairments in the cerebral microvessels functionality may lead to impairments in the cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), where severely reduced CVR predicts the chances of transient ischemic attack and ipsilateral stroke. The neural and hemodynamic responses to anodal tDCS were studied through joint imaging with EEG and NIRS, where NIRS provided optical measurement of changes in tissue oxy-(\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$HbO2)$ \\end{document} and deoxy-(\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Hb$ \\end{document}) hemoglobin concentration and EEG captured alterations in the underlying neuronal current generators. Then, a cross-correlation method for the assessment of NVC underlying the site of anodal tDCS is presented. The feasibility studies on healthy subjects and stroke survivors showed detectable changes in the EEG and the NIRS responses to a 0.526 A/\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mathrm{m}^{2}$ \\end{document} of anodal tDCS. The NIRS system

  18. Rapid and accurate direct antibiotic susceptibility testing of blood culture broths using MALDI Sepsityper combined with the BD Phoenix automated system.

    PubMed

    Hazelton, Briony; Thomas, Lee C; Olma, Thomas; Kok, Jen; O'Sullivan, Matthew; Chen, Sharon C-A; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2014-12-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility testing with the BD Phoenix system on bacterial cell pellets generated from blood culture broths using the Bruker MALDI Sepsityper kit was evaluated. Seventy-six Gram-negative isolates, including 12 with defined multi-resistant phenotypes, had antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) performed by Phoenix on the cell pellet in parallel with conventional methods. In total, 1414/1444 (97.9 %) of susceptibility tests were concordant, with only 1 (0.07 %) very major error. This novel method has the potential to reduce the turnaround time for AST results by up to a day for Gram-negative bacteraemias.

  19. Charter and Direct Run Schools of the Recovery School District (RSD) and Orleans Parish School Board (OPSB) Comparison of High Stakes Tests and Dropout Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andry, Beverly Guillory

    2011-01-01

    The city of New Orleans has embarked on an historic experiment reinventing its schools--once considered among the worst in the country--from a centralized, single district model of education to a two district model in which both the Recovery School District (RSD) and the preexisting Orleans Parish School Board (OPSB) both operate direct run and…

  20. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  1. The serological relationship between Brucella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica serotype IX and Salmonella serotypes of Kauffmann-White group N.

    PubMed

    Corbell, M J

    1975-08-01

    The serological relationship between Brucella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica IX, and the group N salmonella serotypes S. godesberg, S. landau, S. morehead, S. neusdorf, S. soerenga and S. urbana was examined using agglutination, antiglobulin, complement fixation, immunodiffusion and fluorescent antibody methods. Antisera to the group N salmonella serotypes all reacted to significant titres in agglutination and complement fixation, but not antiglobulin or immunodiffusion tests with smooth brucella antigens. These antisera also reacted in agglutination, but not antiglobulin, tests with Y. enterocolitica IX. They did not react significantly in any tests with rough brucella antigens. Conversely, antisera to smooth Brucella spp. agglutinated group N salmonellas to low titre and Y. enterocolitica IX to titres similar to those given against the homologous strain. Antiserum to Y. enterocolitica IX on the other hand reacted with smooth brucella antigens to high titre in agglutination, complement fixation and antiglobulin tests, and with the group N salmonella antigens to substantial titres in agglutination tests. In direct fluorescent antibody tests, smooth Brucella strains and Y. enterocolitica IX reacted strongly with FITC-labelled antibody to Br. abortus whereas the group N salmonella strains reacted weakly. In tests with monospecific antisera to the A and M determinants of Br. abortus and Br. melitensis respectively, Y. enterocolitica IX reacted only with the antiserum to the A determinant whereas group N salmonellas reacted to low titre with both A and M antisera. The results of cross-absorption tests confirmed this relationship and suggested that the O30 antigens of group N salmonella serotypes contained antigenic determinants similar to, but not identical with, the antigenic structure shared by smooth Brucella spp. and Y. enterocolitica IX.

  2. Testing Direct and Indirect Effects of Sports Participation on Perceived Health in Spanish Adolescents between 15 and 18 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; Garcia-Merita, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M AGE=16.31, S. D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson,…

  3. The Validity of the Descriptive Tests of Language Skills: Relationships to Direct Measures of Writing Ability and to Grades in Introductory College English Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David; Jackson, Rex

    Performance data on the Descriptive Tests of Language Skills (DTLS) for entering college students were collected through a pilot study of 4,234 students in 16 colleges. This study was also designed to permit several checks on the validity of the DTLS by examining the relationship of DTLS scores to the following criteria: English course grades,…

  4. Nonparametric Statistical Tests for Single-Case Systematic and Randomized ABAB...AB and Alternating Treatment Intervention Designs: New Developments, New Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    In this four-investigation Monte Carlo simulation study, we examined the properties of nonparametric randomization and permutation statistical tests applied to single-case ABAB...AB and alternating treatment designs based on either systematically alternating or randomly determined phase assignments. Contrary to previous admonitions, when…

  5. Recovery Act. Direct Confirmation of Commercial Geothermal Resources in Colorado Using Remote Sensing and On-Site Exploration, Testing, and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Paul; Skeehan, Kirsten; Smith, Jerome; Mink, Roy; Geohydro, Mink

    2016-02-16

    Report on the confirmation of Commercial Geothermal Resources in Colorado describing the on site testing and analysis to confirm remote sensing identified potential resources. A series of thermal gradient wells were drilled in the Pagosa Springs region and the data collected is analyzed within.

  6. High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide for Direct Production of Syngas; Equilibrium Model and Single-Cell Tests

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Herring, J. S.; Hartvigsen, J. J.

    2007-07-01

    An experimental study has been completed to assess the performance of single solid-oxide electrolysis cells operating over a temperature range of 800 to 850ºC in the coelectrolysis mode, simultaneously electrolyzing steam and carbon dioxide for the direct production of syngas. The experiments were performed over a range of inlet flow rates of steam, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and over a range of current densities (-0.1 to 0.25 A/cm2) using single electrolyte-supported button electrolysis cells. Steam and carbon dioxide consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation and a gas chromatograph, respectively. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Measured values of open-cell potential and outlet gas composition are compared to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium coelectrolysis model. Model predictions of outlet gas composition based on an effective equilibrium temperature are shown to agree well with measurements. Cell area-specific resistance values were similar for steam electrolysis and coelectrolysis.

  7. Testing direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health in Spanish adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; García-Merita, Marisa

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M age=16.31, S.D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson, Vilhjalmsson and Valgeirsson's (Social Science and Medicine 31 (1990) 551) model which introduces smoking, alcohol use, feelings of anxiety, feelings of depression and psychophysiological symptoms as mediator variables; Model B is an extension of Model A with perceived physical fitness as an added mediator variable. Both models show a good fit to the data. Results showed that, in both models, sports participation affected perceived health directly and indirectly by decreasing smoking and alcohol consumption, feelings of depression and psychophysiological symptoms. In Model B, sport also affected perceived health via increased perceived physical fitness explaining almost 10% more of the variance.

  8. Parenting Control in Contexts of Political Violence: Testing Bi-directional Relations between Violence Exposure and Control in Post-Accord Belfast

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The goal of the present study is to examine bi-directional relations between youth exposure to sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behavior and mothers’ efforts to control youth’s exposure to community violence in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Design Mother-child dyads (N=773) were interviewed in their homes twice over 2 years regarding youth’s exposure to sectarian (SAB) and nonsectarian (NAB) community antisocial behavior and mothers’ use of control strategies, including behavioral and psychological control. Results Youth’s exposure to NAB was related to increases in mothers’ use of both behavioral and psychological control strategies over time, controlling for earlier levels of these constructs. Reflecting bi-directional relations, mothers’ behavioral control strategies were associated with youth’s reduced exposure to both NAB and SAB over time, whereas psychological control was not related to reduced exposure. Conclusion Only nonsectarian community violence was associated longitudinally with mothers’ increased use of control strategies, and only behavioral control strategies were effective in reducing youth’s exposure to community antisocial behavior, including both sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. PMID:22523479

  9. A new direction for prenatal chromosome microarray testing: software-targeting for detection of clinically significant chromosome imbalance without equivocal findings

    PubMed Central

    Bint, Susan; Irving, Melita D.; Kyle, Phillipa M.; Akolekar, Ranjit; Mohammed, Shehla N.; Mackie Ogilvie, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To design and validate a prenatal chromosomal microarray testing strategy that moves away from size-based detection thresholds, towards a more clinically relevant analysis, providing higher resolution than G-banded chromosomes but avoiding the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) of unclear prognosis that cause parental anxiety. Methods. All prenatal samples fulfilling our criteria for karyotype analysis (n = 342) were tested by chromosomal microarray and only CNVs of established deletion/duplication syndrome regions and any other CNV >3 Mb were detected and reported. A retrospective full-resolution analysis of 249 of these samples was carried out to ascertain the performance of this testing strategy. Results. Using our prenatal analysis, 23/342 (6.7%) samples were found to be abnormal. Of the remaining samples, 249 were anonymized and reanalyzed at full-resolution; a further 46 CNVs were detected in 44 of these cases (17.7%). None of these additional CNVs were of clear clinical significance. Conclusion. This prenatal chromosomal microarray strategy detected all CNVs of clear prognostic value and did not miss any CNVs of clear clinical significance. This strategy avoided both the problems associated with interpreting CNVs of uncertain prognosis and the parental anxiety that are a result of such findings. PMID:24795849

  10. Direct appraisal of latex agglutination testing, a convenient alternative to enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rotavirus in childhood gastroenteritis, by comparison of two enzyme immunoassays and two latex tests.

    PubMed Central

    Sambourg, M; Goudeau, A; Courant, C; Pinon, G; Denis, F

    1985-01-01

    During February and March 1984, 207 fecal samples from infants and children with gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus with four techniques: two enzyme immunoassays (Rotazyme; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill., and Enzygnost-Rotavirus; Calbiochem-Behring, La Jolla, Calif.) and two latex agglutination tests (Rotalex; Orion Research, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., and Slidex Rota-Kit; Biomérieux). All stool samples were also tested for yeasts and bacterial pathogens. Electron microscopy was used to investigate discrepant results. We found 47% positive samples with Enzygnost-Rotavirus, 38% with Rotazyme, 37% with Slidex Rota-Kit, and 34% with Rotalex. No specimen was found positive by Rotazyme only or Slidex Rota-Kit only. On the contrary, 12 samples which were positive with Enzygnost-Rotavirus only and 3 which were positive with Rotalex only were not confirmed as positive by electron microscopy. Both enzyme immunoassays gave 6% equivocal results; Slidex Rota-Kit gave significantly fewer equivocal results than did Rotalex: 2.9% versus 9.7% (P less than 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of latex tests compared favorably with that of enzyme immunoassays. Latex agglutination tests can be performed by unskilled personnel and are rapid and relatively cheap. They appear to be very suitable for routine laboratory work and may prove useful for large-scale screening in developing countries. PMID:2985650

  11. Direct appraisal of latex agglutination testing, a convenient alternative to enzyme immunoassay for the detection of rotavirus in childhood gastroenteritis, by comparison of two enzyme immunoassays and two latex tests.

    PubMed

    Sambourg, M; Goudeau, A; Courant, C; Pinon, G; Denis, F

    1985-04-01

    During February and March 1984, 207 fecal samples from infants and children with gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus with four techniques: two enzyme immunoassays (Rotazyme; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill., and Enzygnost-Rotavirus; Calbiochem-Behring, La Jolla, Calif.) and two latex agglutination tests (Rotalex; Orion Research, Inc., Cambridge, Mass., and Slidex Rota-Kit; Biomérieux). All stool samples were also tested for yeasts and bacterial pathogens. Electron microscopy was used to investigate discrepant results. We found 47% positive samples with Enzygnost-Rotavirus, 38% with Rotazyme, 37% with Slidex Rota-Kit, and 34% with Rotalex. No specimen was found positive by Rotazyme only or Slidex Rota-Kit only. On the contrary, 12 samples which were positive with Enzygnost-Rotavirus only and 3 which were positive with Rotalex only were not confirmed as positive by electron microscopy. Both enzyme immunoassays gave 6% equivocal results; Slidex Rota-Kit gave significantly fewer equivocal results than did Rotalex: 2.9% versus 9.7% (P less than 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of latex tests compared favorably with that of enzyme immunoassays. Latex agglutination tests can be performed by unskilled personnel and are rapid and relatively cheap. They appear to be very suitable for routine laboratory work and may prove useful for large-scale screening in developing countries.

  12. Complementary test of the dark matter self-interaction in dark U(1) model by direct and indirect dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chian-Shu; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yen-Hsun E-mail: glin@cc.nctu.edu.tw

    2016-01-01

    The halo dark matter (DM) can be captured by the Sun if its final velocity after the collision with a nucleus in the Sun is less than the escape velocity. We consider a selfinteracting dark matter (SIDM) model where U(1) gauge symmetry is introduced to account for the DM self-interaction. Such a model naturally leads to isospin violating DM-nucleon interaction, although isospin symmetric interaction is still allowed as a special case. We present the IceCube-PINGU 2σ sensitivity to the parameter range of the above model with 5 years of search for neutrino signature from DM annihilation in the Sun. This indirect detection complements the direct detection by probing those SIDM parameter ranges which are either the region for very small m{sub χ} or the region opened up due to isospin violations.

  13. Complementary test of the dark matter self-interaction in dark U(1) model by direct and indirect dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chian-Shu; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yen-Hsun

    2016-01-07

    The halo dark matter (DM) can be captured by the Sun if its final velocity after the collision with a nucleus in the Sun is less than the escape velocity. We consider a selfinteracting dark matter (SIDM) model where U(1) gauge symmetry is introduced to account for the DM self-interaction. Such a model naturally leads to isospin violating DM-nucleon interaction, although isospin symmetric interaction is still allowed as a special case. We present the IceCube-PINGU 2σ sensitivity to the parameter range of the above model with 5 years of search for neutrino signature from DM annihilation in the Sun. This indirect detection complements the direct detection by probing those SIDM parameter ranges which are either the region for very small m{sub χ} or the region opened up due to isospin violations.

  14. Flight test maneuvers for closed loop lateral-directional modeling of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) using forebody strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, E. A.

    1996-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for closed loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for lateral linear model parameter estimation at 30, 45, and 60 degrees angle of attack, using the Actuated Nose Strakes for Enhanced Rolling (ANSER) control law in Strake (S) model and Strake/Thrust Vectoring (STV) mode. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific pilot station controls using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specification of the time/amplitude points defining each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  15. Directing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintoff, Ernest

    Providing an introduction to anyone considering directing as a field of study or career, this book takes a broad look at the process of directing and encourages students and professionals alike to look outside of the movie industry for inspiration. Chapters in the book discuss selecting and acquiring material; budgeting and financing; casting and…

  16. Direct Identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Determination of Methicillin Susceptibility From Positive Blood-Culture Bottles in a Bact/ALERT System Using Binax Now S. aureus and PBP2a Tests.

    PubMed

    Heraud, Sandrine; Freydiere, Anne-Marie; Doleans-Jordheim, Anne; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Vandenesch, François; Laurent, Frederic; Dauwalder, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is associated with high mortality and morbidity, requiring prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Therefore, it is important to detect methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) rapidly from blood cultures. Two immunochromatographic tests, BinaxNow S. aureus and BinaxNow PBP2a, were directly applied to 79 Bact/Alert bottles that were positive for Gram positive cocci in cluster aggregations. Sensitivity and specificity for the identification of S. aureus and determination of methicillin resistance were 94% and 87%, and 100% and 100%, respectively, with less than 30 min of performance time. These tests are efficient and rapid; these tests are valuable alternatives to more sophisticated and expensive methods used in the diagnosis of MRSA bacteremia.

  17. Fractionally distilled SRC-I, SRC-II, EDS, H-Coal and ITSL direct coal liquefaction process materials: a comparative summary of chemical analysis and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.; Dauble, D.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    1985-07-01

    This document reports and compares the results compiled from chemical analyses and biological testing of coal liquefaction process materials which were fractionally distilled, after production, into various comparable boiling-point range cuts. Comparative analyses were performed on solvent refined coal (SRC)-I, SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS an integrated two-stage liquefaction (ITSL) distillate materials. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative, chemical and biological assessments. Where possible, results obtained from the distillate cuts are compared to those from coal liquefaction materials with limited boiling ranges. Work reported here was conducted by investigators in the Biology and Chemistry Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, WA. 38 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Granulocyte-associated IgG in neutropenic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Passero, F.; Guerry, D.; Bina, M.; Dusak, B.; Schreiber, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    We applied a radiolabeled antiglobulin test to a study of patients with a variety of neutropenic disorders. After defining the nature of the interaction of radiolabeled anti-IgG with the neutrophil, we studied 16 patients with neutropenia of uncertain etiology and adequate bone marrow granulocyte precursors. Twelve of these 16 patients had increased neutrophil-associated IgG (PMN-IgG). Patients with the highest levels of PMN-IgG had the lowest neutrophil counts. The majority of patients with neutropenia and increased PMN-IgG had an underlying immunologic disorder that included immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 patients and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 1 patient. In some patients, elevated PMN-IgG preceded other evidence for immunologic disease. The direct antiglobulin test helped to distinguish neutropenic patients with increased PMN-IgG both from patients with neutropenia due to a known nonimmune disorder and from nonneutropenic patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosis. Each of four patients with increased neutrophil-associated IgG treated with systemic corticosteroids responded clinically with an associated fall in neutrophil IgG and a rise in the circulating neutrophil count. The radiolabeled antiglobulin test appears useful in defining a subpopulation of patients with neutropenia due to an underlying immunologic disorder.

  19. Granulocyte-associated IgG in neutropenic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Passero, F.; Guerry, D. IV; Bina, M.; Dusak, B.; Schreiber, A.D

    1982-01-01

    We applied a radiolabeled antiglobulin test to a study of patients with a variety of neutropenic disorders. After defining the nature of the interaction of radiolabeled anti-IgG with the neutrophil, we studied 16 patients with neutropenia of uncertain etiology and adequate bone marrow granulocyte precursors. Twelve of these 16 patients had increased neutrophil-associated IgG (PMN-IgG). Patients with the highest levels of PMN-IgG had the lowest neutrophil counts. The majority of patients with neutropenia and increased PMN-IgG had an underlying immunologic disorder that included immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 patients and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 1 patient. In some patients, elevated PMN-IgG preceded other evidence for immunologic disease. The direct antiglobulin test helped to distinguish neutropenic patients with increased PMN-IgG both from patients with neutropenia due to a known nonimmune disorder and from noneutropenic patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosis. Each of four patients with increased neutrophil-associated IgG treated with systemic corticosteroids responded clinically with an associated fall in neutrophil IgG and a rise in the circulating neutrophil count. The radiolabeled antiglobulin test appears useful in defining a subpopulation of patients with neutropenia due to an underlying immunologic disorder.

  20. Direct identification of Mycobacterium abscessus through 16S rDNA sequence analysis and a citrate utilization test: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ziying; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Bing; Zeng, Ping

    2014-07-01

    A growing number of nontuberculous mycobacteria infection cases, especially those caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM), have been reported in the past decade. Conventional methods for mycobacteria diagnosis are inefficient and easily lead to misdiagnosis. New detection methods, such as gene sequencing, have been reported but are not widely used. The aim of the present case report was to provide a quick and exact method of identifying Myobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) infections. The particular case reported in this study initially manifested as hyperglycemia and papules in the right leg. Routine cultures for fungus were repeatedly negative. However, cultures of the purulent material under aerobic cultivation for five days yielded a rapidly growing, nontuberculous mycobacterium. A Ziehl-Neelsen staining of this mycobacterium revealed the presence of acid-fast bacilli that were finally identified as M. abscessus through 16S rDNA sequence analysis and a citrate utilization test. The current report may help other clinicians to make a quick and accurate diagnosis of RGM infection.