Li, Zhuan-Hong; Guo, Han; Xu, Wen-Bin; Ge, Juan; Li, Xin; Alimu, Mireguli; He, Da-Jun
Many potential health benefits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves were attributed to polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids. In this study, the methanol extract of R. idaeus leaves showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.01 µg mL−1. Meanwhile, a rapid and reliable method, employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, was established for structure identification of flavonoids from PTP1B inhibitive extract of R. idaeus leaves using accurate mass measurement and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A total of 16 flavonoids, including 4 quercetin derivatives, 2 luteolin derivatives, 8 kaempferol derivatives and 2 isorhamnetin derivatives, were identified. Compounds 3 and 4, Compounds 6 and 7 and Compounds 15 and 16 were isomers with different aglycones and different saccharides. Compounds 8, 9 and 10 were isomers with the same aglycone and the same saccharide but different substituent positions. Compounds 11 and 12 were isomers with the same aglycone but different saccharides. Compounds 2, 8, 9 and 10 possessed the same substituent saccharide of glycuronic acid. Most of them were reported in R. idaeus for the first time. PMID:26896347
Li, Zhuan-Hong; Guo, Han; Xu, Wen-Bin; Ge, Juan; Li, Xin; Alimu, Mireguli; He, Da-Jun
Many potential health benefits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves were attributed to polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids. In this study, the methanol extract of R. idaeus leaves showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.01 µg mL(-1) Meanwhile, a rapid and reliable method, employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, was established for structure identification of flavonoids from PTP1B inhibitive extract of R. idaeus leaves using accurate mass measurement and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A total of 16 flavonoids, including 4 quercetin derivatives, 2 luteolin derivatives, 8 kaempferol derivatives and 2 isorhamnetin derivatives, were identified. Compounds 3: and 4: , Compounds 6: and 7: and Compounds 15: and 16: were isomers with different aglycones and different saccharides. Compounds 8: , 9: and 10: were isomers with the same aglycone and the same saccharide but different substituent positions. Compounds 11: and 12: were isomers with the same aglycone but different saccharides. Compounds 2: , 8: , 9: and 10: possessed the same substituent saccharide of glycuronic acid. Most of them were reported inR. idaeus for the first time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Fournier, Frédéric; Joly Beauparlant, Charles; Paradis, René; Droit, Arnaud
rTANDEM is an R/Bioconductor package that interfaces the X!Tandem protein identification algorithm. The package can run the multi-threaded algorithm on proteomic data files directly from R. It also provides functions to convert search parameters and results to/from R as well as functions to manipulate parameters and automate searches. An associated R package, shinyTANDEM, provides a web-based graphical interface to visualize and interpret the results. Together, those two packages form an entry point for a general MS/MS-based proteomic pipeline in R/Bioconductor. rTANDEM and shinyTANDEM are distributed in R/Bioconductor, http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/. The packages are under open licenses (GPL-3 and Artistice-1.0). firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Liu, Hong-tao; Ma, An-de
To develop a method for rapid identification of 22 abused drugs and organophosphorus pesticides in the blood. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple-reaction monitoring mode (MRM) was employed for detecting the drugs and pesticides in the blood. The MRM database and criteria for identification were established, and ethyl acetate was used for extraction of the drugs. After 3 rounds of extractions of the blood sample (1 mL) using 2 mL ethyl acetate, the extract was vortexed for 3 min and centrifuged at 5000 r/min. Each organic phase was combined and evaporated by gentle N2 gas. The residue was re-dissolved in 100 L mobile phase, from which 5 L was taken for LC-MS/MS detection. The detection of the 22 target compounds could be completed within 10 min. The limit of detection of the target compound ranged from 0.03 to 6.00 ng/ml. Satisfactory results were obtained in proficiency testing program organized by China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment. The method we established is rapid, selective and sensitive for detecting the 22 abused drugs and organophosphorus pesticides.
de Rosso, Veridiana V; Mercadante, Adriana Z
The major and minor carotenoids from six fruits, buriti (Mauritia vinifera), mamey (Mammea americana), marimari (Geoffrola striata), peach palm (Bactrys gasipaes), physalis (Physalis angulata), and tucuma (Astrocaryum aculeatum), all native to the Amazonia region, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-mass spectrometry detector (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), fulfilling the recommended criteria for identification. A total of 60 different carotenoids were separated on a C30 column, all-trans-beta-carotene being the major carotenoid found in all fruits. The presence of apo-10'-beta-carotenol, found in mamey, was not previously reported in foods. In addition, this is the first time that the identification of beta-zeacarotene in natural sources is supported by MS data. The total carotenoid content ranged from 38 microg/g in marimari to 514 microg/g in buriti. All fruits analyzed can be considered good sources of provitamin A, especially buriti, with 7280 RE/100 g.
Harkins, J D; Karpiesiuk, W; Tobin, T; Dirikolu, L; Lehner, A F
Ropivacaine is a local anesthetic that has a high potential for abuse in racing horses. It can be recovered from urine collected after administration as a hydroxylated metabolite following beta-glucuronidase treatment of the urine. Based on these findings, it has been inferred that ropivacaine is present in equine urine as a glucuronide metabolite; however, these metabolites have never been directly identified. Using ESI+/MS/MS, the presence of a [M+H]+ molecular ion of m/z 467 was demonstrated in urine corresponding to the calculated mass of a hydroxyropivacaine glucuronide +1. The abundance of this ion diminished after glucuronidase treatment with concomitant appearance of a m/z 291 peak, which is consistent with its hydrolysis to hydroxyropivacaine. In further work, the m/z 467 material was fragmented in the MS/MS system, yielding fragments interpretable as hydroxyropivacaine glucuronide. These data are consistent with the presence of a hydroxyropivacaine glucuronide in equine urine and constitute the first direct demonstration of a specific glucuronide metabolite in equine urine. PMID:10935884
Guan, F; Ishii, A; Seno, H; Watanabe-Suzuki, K; Kumazawa, T; Suzuki, O
Cardiac glycosides (CG) are of forensic importance because of their toxicity and the fact that very limited methods are available for identification of CG in biological samples. In this study, we have developed an identification and quantification method for digoxin, digitoxin, deslanoside, digoxigenin, and digitoxigenin by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). CG formed abundant [M + NH4]+ ions and much less abundant [M + H]+ ions as observed with electrospray ionization (ESI) source and ammonium formate buffer. Under mild conditions for collision-induced dissociation (CID), each [M + NH4]+ ion fragmented to produce a dominant daughter ion, which was essential to the sensitive method of selected reaction monitoring (SRM) quantification of CG achieved in this study. SRM was compared with selected ion monitoring (SIM) regarding the effects of sample matrixes on the methodology. SRM produced lower detection limits with biological samples than SIM, while both methods produced equal detection limits with CG standards. On the basis of the HPLC/MS/MS results for CG, we have proposed some generalized points for conducting sensitive SRM measurements, in view of the property of analytes as well as instrumental conditions such as the type of HPLC/MS interface and CID parameters. Analytes of which the molecular ion can produce one abundant daughter ion with high yield under CID conditions may be sensitively measured by SRM. ESI is the most soft ionization source developed so far and can afford formation of the fragile molecular ions that are necessary for sensitive SRM detection. Mild CID conditions such as low collision energy and low pressure of collision gas favor production of an abundant daughter ion that is essential to sensitive SRM detection. This knowledge may provide some guidelines for conducting sensitive SRM measurements of very low concentrations of drugs or toxicants in biological samples.
Background Traditional scientific workflow platforms usually run individual experiments with little evaluation and analysis of performance as required by automated experimentation in which scientists are being allowed to access numerous applicable workflows rather than being committed to a single one. Experimental protocols and data under a peer-to-peer environment could potentially be shared freely without any single point of authority to dictate how experiments should be run. In such environment it is necessary to have mechanisms by which each individual scientist (peer) can assess, locally, how he or she wants to be involved with others in experiments. This study aims to implement and demonstrate simple peer ranking under the OpenKnowledge peer-to-peer infrastructure by both simulated and real-world bioinformatics experiments involving multi-agent interactions. Methods A simulated experiment environment with a peer ranking capability was specified by the Lightweight Coordination Calculus (LCC) and automatically executed under the OpenKnowledge infrastructure. The peers such as MS/MS protein identification services (including web-enabled and independent programs) were made accessible as OpenKnowledge Components (OKCs) for automated execution as peers in the experiments. The performance of the peers in these automated experiments was monitored and evaluated by simple peer ranking algorithms. Results Peer ranking experiments with simulated peers exhibited characteristic behaviours, e.g., power law effect (a few dominant peers dominate), similar to that observed in the traditional Web. Real-world experiments were run using an interaction model in LCC involving two different types of MS/MS protein identification peers, viz., peptide fragment fingerprinting (PFF) and de novo sequencing with another peer ranking algorithm simply based on counting the successful and failed runs. This study demonstrated a novel integration and useful evaluation of specific proteomic
Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.; Heine, C.E.; Thurman, E.M.
The use of a method combining ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) for identification of emerging contaminates was discussed. The two tools together complemented each other in sensitivity, fragmentation and accurate mass determination. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS), in positive ion mode of operation, was used to separate and identify specific compounds. Diagnostic fragment ions were obtained for a polyethyleneglycol(PEG) homolog by ion trap MS/MS, and fragments were measured by TOF/MS. It was observed that the combined method gave an exact mass measurement that differed from the calculated mass.
Borsuk, Sibele; Newcombe, Jane; Mendum, Tom A; Dellagostin, Odir A; McFadden, Johnjoe
The tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) is a widely used diagnostic antigen for tuberculosis, however it is poorly defined. Most mycobacterial proteins are extensively denatured by the procedure employed in its preparation, which explains previous difficulties in identifying constituents from PPD to characterize their behaviour in B- and T-cell reactions. We here described a proteomics-based characterization of PPD from several different sources by LC-MS/MS, which combines the solute separation power of HPLC, with the detection power of a mass spectrometer. The technique is able to identify proteins from complex mixtures of peptide fragments. A total of 171 different proteins were identified among the four PPD samples (two bovine PPD and two avium PPD) from Brazil and UK. The majority of the proteins were cytoplasmic (77.9%) and involved in intermediary metabolism and respiration (24.25%) but there was a preponderance of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. We identified a group of 21 proteins that are present in both bovine PPD but were not detected in avium PPD preparation. In addition, four proteins found in bovine PPD are absent in Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strain. This study provides a better understanding of the tuberculin PPD components leading to the identification of additional antigens useful as reagents for specific diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Dhurjad, Pooja Sukhdev; Marothu, Vamsi Krishna; Rathod, Rajeshwari
Metabolite identification is a crucial part of the drug discovery process. LC-MS/MS-based metabolite identification has gained widespread use, but the data acquired by the LC-MS/MS instrument is complex, and thus the interpretation of data becomes troublesome. Fortunately, advancements in data mining techniques have simplified the process of data interpretation with improved mass accuracy and provide a potentially selective, sensitive, accurate and comprehensive way for metabolite identification. In this review, we have discussed the targeted (extracted ion chromatogram, mass defect filter, product ion filter, neutral loss filter and isotope pattern filter) and untargeted (control sample comparison, background subtraction and metabolomic approaches) post-acquisition data mining techniques, which facilitate the drug metabolite identification. We have also discussed the importance of integrated data mining strategy.
Théron, Laëtitia; Centeno, Delphine; Coudy-Gandilhon, Cécile; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Astruc, Thierry; Rémond, Didier; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Roche, Frédéric; Feasson, Léonard; Hébraud, Michel; Béchet, Daniel; Chambon, Christophe
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool to visualize the spatial distribution of molecules on a tissue section. The main limitation of MALDI-MSI of proteins is the lack of direct identification. Therefore, this study focuses on a MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF workflow to link the results from MALDI-MSI with potential peak identification and label-free quantitation, using only one tissue section. At first, we studied the impact of matrix deposition and laser ablation on protein extraction from the tissue section. Then, we did a back-correlation of the m / z of the proteins detected by MALDI-MSI to those identified by label-free quantitation. This allowed us to compare the label-free quantitation of proteins obtained in LC-MS/MS with the peak intensities observed in MALDI-MSI. We managed to link identification to nine peaks observed by MALDI-MSI. The results showed that the MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF workflow (i) allowed us to study a representative muscle proteome compared to a classical bottom-up workflow; and (ii) was sparsely impacted by matrix deposition and laser ablation. This workflow, performed as a proof-of-concept, suggests that a single tissue section can be used to perform MALDI-MSI and protein extraction, identification, and relative quantitation.
Théron, Laëtitia; Centeno, Delphine; Coudy-Gandilhon, Cécile; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Astruc, Thierry; Rémond, Didier; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Roche, Frédéric; Feasson, Léonard; Hébraud, Michel; Béchet, Daniel; Chambon, Christophe
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool to visualize the spatial distribution of molecules on a tissue section. The main limitation of MALDI-MSI of proteins is the lack of direct identification. Therefore, this study focuses on a MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF workflow to link the results from MALDI-MSI with potential peak identification and label-free quantitation, using only one tissue section. At first, we studied the impact of matrix deposition and laser ablation on protein extraction from the tissue section. Then, we did a back-correlation of the m/z of the proteins detected by MALDI-MSI to those identified by label-free quantitation. This allowed us to compare the label-free quantitation of proteins obtained in LC-MS/MS with the peak intensities observed in MALDI-MSI. We managed to link identification to nine peaks observed by MALDI-MSI. The results showed that the MSI~LC-MS/MS-LF workflow (i) allowed us to study a representative muscle proteome compared to a classical bottom-up workflow; and (ii) was sparsely impacted by matrix deposition and laser ablation. This workflow, performed as a proof-of-concept, suggests that a single tissue section can be used to perform MALDI-MSI and protein extraction, identification, and relative quantitation. PMID:28248242
Levander, Fredrik; James, Peter
The identification of proteins separated on two-dimensional gels is most commonly performed by trypsin digestion and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) with time-of-flight (TOF). Recently, atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI coupled to an ion trap (IT) has emerged as a convenient method to obtain tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) from samples on MALDI target plates. In the present work, we investigated the feasibility of using the two methodologies in line as a standard method for protein identification. In this setup, the high mass accuracy MALDI-TOF spectra are used to calibrate the peptide precursor masses in the lower mass accuracy AP-MALDI-IT MS/MS spectra. Several software tools were developed to automate the analysis process. Two sets of MALDI samples, consisting of 142 and 421 gel spots, respectively, were analyzed in a highly automated manner. In the first set, the protein identification rate increased from 61% for MALDI-TOF only to 85% for MALDI-TOF combined with AP-MALDI-IT. In the second data set the increase in protein identification rate was from 44% to 58%. AP-MALDI-IT MS/MS spectra were in general less effective than the MALDI-TOF spectra for protein identification, but the combination of the two methods clearly enhanced the confidence in protein identification.
Currently, there is a demand for accurate evaluation of brassica plat species for their glucosinolate content. An optimized method has been developed for detecting and identifying glucosinolates in plant extracts using MS-MS fragmentation with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID) and higher...
Lim, C K; Yuan, Z X; Jones, R M; White, I N; Smith, L L
On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) have been applied to the study of tamoxifen metabolism in liver microsomes and to the identification of potentially genotoxic metabolites. The results showed that the hydroxylated derivatives, including 4-hydroxytamoxifen and alpha-hydroxytamoxifen are detoxication metabolites, while arene oxides, their free radical precursors or metabolic intermediates, are the most probable species involved in DNA-adduct formation.
Chithra, S; Jasim, B; Anisha, C; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K
Piper nigrum is very remarkable for its medicinal properties due to the presence of metabolites like piperine. Emerging understanding on the biosynthetic potential of endophytic fungi suggests the possibility to have piperine producing fungi in P. nigrum. In the current study, endophytic fungi isolated from P. nigrum were screened for the presence of piperine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This resulted in the identification of a Mycosphaerella sp. with the ability to produce piperine extracellularly. The biosynthesis of piperine (C17H19NO3) by the endophytic fungal isolate was confirmed by the presence of m/z 286.1 (M + H(+)) in the LC-MS/MS analysis using positive mode ionization. This was further supported by the presence of specific fragment ions with masses 135, 143, 171 and 201 formed due to the fragmentation of piperine present in the fungal extract.
Xie, Jing; Zhang, Li; Zeng, Jin-Xiang; Li, Min; Wang, Juan; Xie, Xiong-Xiong; Zhong, Guo-Yue; Luo, Guang-Ming; Yuan, Jin-Bin; Liang, Jian
The chemical constituents of Lagotis brevituba were rapidly determined and analyzed by using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method, providing material basis for the clinical application of L. brevituba. The separation was performed on UPLC YMC-Triart C₁₈ (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.9 μm) column, with acetonitrile-water containing 0.2% formic acid as mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.4 mL•min-1 gradient elution and column temperature was 40 ℃, the injection volume was 2 μL. ESI ion source was used to ensure the data collected in a negative ion mode. The chemical components of L. brevituba were identified through retention time, exact relative molecular mass, cleavage fragments of MS/MS and reported data. The results showed that a total of 22 compounds were identified, including 11 flavones, 6 phenylethanoid glycosides, 1 iridoid glucosides, and 4 organic acid. The UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS method could fast identify the chemical components of L. brevituba, providing valuable information about L. brevituba for its clinical application. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Hu, Hankun; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Baogen; Wei, Xin; Ellis, Alexis; Liu, Yi-Ming
Authentication and quality assessment of Cordyceps sinensis, a precious and pricey natural product that offers a variety of health benefits, is highly significant. To identify effective chemical markers, authentic C. sinensis was thoroughly screened by using HPLC-MS/MS. In addition to many previously reported ingredients, two glycosides, i.e., cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose and Phe-o-glucose, were detected for the first time in this material. Six ingredients detected, including cordycepin, D-mannitol, Phe, Phe-o-glucose, cyclo-Gly-Pro, and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were selected as a collection of chemical markers. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously quantify them with sensitivity and specificity. The method had limits of detection ranging from 0.008 μg mL(-1) for cordycepin to 0.75 μg mL(-1) for cyclo-Gly-Pro. Recovery was found between 96 and 103 % in all tests. To evaluate the effectiveness of the marker collection proposed, five authentic C. sinensis samples and five samples of its substitutes were analyzed. Cordycepin, D-mannitol, and Phe were found present in all samples. The contents ranged from 0.0076 to 0.029 % (w/w) for cordycepin, 0.33 to 18.9 % for mannitol, and 0.0013 to 0.642 % for Phe. Interestingly, the two glycosides, Phe-o-glucose and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were detected only in authentic C. sinensis samples. These results indicated that the proposed protocol based on HPLC-MS/MS quantification of the markers might have a great potential in authentication and quality assessment of C. sinensis. Graphical abstract Chemical markers of C. sinensis identified in this work.
Cajka, Tomas; Fiehn, Oliver
This protocol describes the analysis, specifically the identification, of blood plasma lipids. Plasma lipids are extracted using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), methanol, and water followed by separation and data acquisition of isolated lipids using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RPLC-QTOFMS) operated in MS/MS mode. For lipid identification, acquired MS/MS spectra are converted to the mascot generic format (MGF) followed by library search using the in-silico MS/MS library LipidBlast. Using this approach, lipid classes, carbon-chain lengths, and degree of unsaturation of fatty-acid components are annotated.
Marchis, Daniela; Altomare, Alessandra; Gili, Marilena; Ostorero, Federica; Khadjavi, Amina; Corona, Cristiano; Ru, Giuseppe; Cappelletti, Benedetta; Gianelli, Silvia; Amadeo, Francesca; Rumio, Cristiano; Carini, Marina; Aldini, Giancarlo; Casalone, Cristina
An innovative analytical strategy has been applied to identify signature peptides able to distinguish among processed animal proteins (PAPs) derived from bovine, pig, fish, and milk products. Proteomics was first used to elucidate the proteome of each source. Starting from the identified proteins and using a funnel based approach, a set of abundant and well characterized peptides with suitable physical-chemical properties (signature peptides) and specific for each source was selected. An on-target LC-ESI-MS/MS method (MRM mode) was set up using standard peptides and was then applied to selectively identify the PAP source and also to distinguish proteins from bovine carcass and milk proteins. We believe that the method described meets the request of the European Commission which has developed a strategy for gradually lifting the "total ban" toward "species to species ban", therefore requiring official methods for species-specific discrimination in feed.
Luan, Hemi; Yang, Lin; Ji, Fenfen; Cai, Zongwei
Alkyl chloroformate have been wildly used for the fast derivatization of metabolites with amino and/or carboxyl groups, coupling of powerful separation and detection systems, such as GC-MS, which allows the comprehensive analysis of non-amino organic acids and amino acids. The reagents involving n-alkyl chloroformate and n-alcohol are generally employed for providing symmetric labeling terminal alkyl chain with the same length. Here, we developed an asymmetric labeling strategy and positive chemical ionization gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PCI-GC-MS-MS) approach for determination of non-amino organic acids and amino acids, as well as the short chain fatty acids. Carboxylic and amino groups could be selectively labelled by propyl and ethyl groups, respectively. The specific neutral loss of C 3 H 8 O (60Da), C 3 H 5 O 2 (74Da) and C 4 H 8 O 2 (88Da) were useful in the selective identification for qualitative analysis of organic acids and amino acid derivatives. PCI-GC-MS-MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was applied for semi-quantification of typical non-amino organic acids and amino acids. This method exhibited a wide range of linear range, good regression coefficient (R 2 ) and repeatability. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of targeted metabolites showed excellent intra- and inter-day precision (<5%). Our method provided a qualitative and semi-quantitative PCI-GC-MS-MS, coupled with alkyl chloroformate derivatization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Golizeh, Makan; LeBlanc, André; Sleno, Lekha
Xenobiotic metabolism in the liver can give rise to reactive metabolites that covalently bind to proteins, and determining which proteins are targeted is important in drug discovery and molecular toxicology. However, there are difficulties in the analysis of these modified proteins in complex biological matrices due to their low abundance. In this study, an analytical approach was developed to systematically identify target proteins of acetaminophen (APAP) in rat liver microsomes (RLM) using two-dimensional chromatography and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. In vitro microsomal incubations, with and without APAP, were digested and subjected to strong cation exchange (SCX) fractionation prior to reverse-phase UHPLC-MS/MS. Four data processing strategies were combined into an efficient label-free workflow meant to eliminate potential false positives, using peptide spectral matching, statistical differential analysis, product ion screening, and a custom-built delta-mass filtering tool to pinpoint potential modified peptides. This study revealed four proteins, involved in important cellular processes, to be covalently modified by APAP. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002590.
Frerot, Eric; Chen, Ting
Glutamic acid is an abundant amino acid that lends a characteristic umami taste to foods. In fermented foods, glutamic acid can be found as a free amino acid formed by proteolysis or as a non-proteolytic derivative formed by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to identify different structures of glutamic acid derivatives in a typical fermented protein-based food product, soy sauce. An acidic fraction was prepared with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS and UPLC/TOF-MS. α-Glutamyl, γ-glutamyl, and pyroglutamyl dipeptides, as well as lactoyl amino acids, were identified in the acidic fraction of soy sauce. They were chemically synthesized for confirmation of their occurrence and quantified in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Pyroglutamyl dipeptides accounted for 770 mg/kg of soy sauce, followed by lactoyl amino acids (135 mg/kg) and γ-glutamyl dipeptides (70 mg/kg). In addition, N-succinoylglutamic acid was identified for the first time in food as a minor compound in soy sauce (5 mg/kg). Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.
Khaleel, Nareman D H; Mahmoud, Waleed M M; Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Kümmerer, Klaus
Sulfonamides are one of the most frequently used antibiotics worldwide. Therefore, mitigation processes such as abiotic or biotic degradation are of interest. Photodegradation and biodegradation are the potentially significant removal mechanisms for pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. The photolysis of sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP) using a medium pressure Hg-lamp was evaluated in three different media: Millipore water pH 6.1 (MW), effluent from sewage treatment plant pH 7.6 (STP), and buffered demineralized water pH 7.4 (BDW). Identification of transformation products (TPs) was performed by LC-UV-MS/MS. The biodegradation of SMP using two tests from the OECD series was studied: Closed Bottle test (OECD 301 D), and Manometric Respirometry test (OECD 301 F). In biodegradation tests, it was found that SMP was not readily biodegradable so it may pose a risk to the environment. The results showed that SMP was removed completely within 128 min of irradiation in the three media, and the degradation rate was different for each investigated type of water. However, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was not removed in BDW and only little DOC removal was observed in MW and STP, thus indicating the formation of TPs. Analysis by LC-UV-MS/MS revealed new TPs formed. The hydroxylation of SMP represents the main photodegradation pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sai Sachin, L; Nagarjuna Chary, R; Pavankumar, P; Prabhakar, S
The methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO) are known to be at high levels in the diabetic humans. They react with amine containing proteins and amino acids to form advanced glycation end products, however, the reactivity with the other amine containing metabolites, such as neurotransmitters are not explored. In this study, we aimed at studying the reactivity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) with MGO or GO, which may alter the metabolic function of 5-HT. The stock solutions of 5-HT, MGO and GO were made in PBS buffer at pH 7.4 and incubated 5-HT with MGO or GO at difference concentrations. The reactions were also performed at physiological concentrations. The reaction mixtures collected at different incubation times were analyzed by direct ESI-HRMS, LC/MS and LC/MS/MS conditions to detect/characterize the products. Agilent 6545 Q-TOF and Agilent 6420 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer were used for the study, and LC separations were performed on a C18 column. The direct ESI-HRMS data of the reaction mixtures showed formation of three and four reaction products when 5-HT reacted with MGO and GO, respectively. All the products showed dominant [M+H] + ions. The products were characterized by HRMS, LC/MS/MS and the literature reports on similar compounds. The products can easily be identified by LC/MS based on the accurate mass values together with retention time information. The MS/MS of the reaction products showed structure indicative fragment ions. 5-HT reacts with one or two MGO/GO to form a set of reaction products. The reaction between 5-HT and MGO or GO was faster at higher concentrations of MGO/GO (<10 min), and the same products were found even at physiological concentrations (<48 hrs). The LC-MS/MS (SRM) method can be used to screen the reaction products when present at low level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Tsuchiya, Megumi; Karim, M Rezaul; Matsumoto, Taro; Ogawa, Hidesato; Taniguchi, Hiroaki
Transcriptional coregulators are vital to the efficient transcriptional regulation of nuclear chromatin structure. Coregulators play a variety of roles in regulating transcription. These include the direct interaction with transcription factors, the covalent modification of histones and other proteins, and the occasional chromatin conformation alteration. Accordingly, establishing relatively quick methods for identifying proteins that interact within this network is crucial to enhancing our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. LC-MS/MS-mediated protein binding partner identification is a validated technique used to analyze protein-protein interactions. By immunoprecipitating a previously-identified member of a protein complex with an antibody (occasionally with an antibody for a tagged protein), it is possible to identify its unknown protein interactions via mass spectrometry analysis. Here, we present a method of protein preparation for the LC-MS/MS-mediated high-throughput identification of protein interactions involving nuclear cofactors and their binding partners. This method allows for a better understanding of the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of the targeted nuclear factors.
Kryczyk, Agata; Żmudzki, Paweł; Hubicka, Urszula
The main goal of the presented work was to investigate the effect of ZnO or/and TiO 2 on the stability of bifonazole in solutions under UVA irradiation. To this end, a simple and reproducible UPLC method for the determination of bifonazole in the presence of its photocatalytic degradation products was developed. Linearity was studied in the range of 0.0046-0.15 mg mL -1 with a determination coefficient of 0.9996. Bifonazole underwent a photocatalytic degradation process under the experimental conditions used. Comparative studies showed that combination of TiO 2 /ZnO (1:1 w/w) was a more effective catalyst than TiO 2 or ZnO with a degradation rate of up to 67.57% after 24 h of irradiation. Further, kinetic analyses indicated that the photocatalytic degradation of bifonazole in the mixture of TiO 2 /ZnO can be described by a pseudo-first order reaction. Statistical comparison clearly indicated that the presence of TiO 2 /ZnO also affected the stability of bifonazole from a cream preparation after 15 h of UVA exposure (p < 0.05). Ten photodegradation products of bifonazole were identified for the first time and their plausible fragmentation pathways, derived from MS/MS data, were proposed. The main pathway in the photocatalytic transformation of bifonazole in the presence of ZnO or/and TiO 2 involves hydroxylation of the methanetriyl group and/or adjacent phenyl rings and cleavage of the imidazole moiety. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Purvine, Samuel O.
The peptidome (i.e. processed and degraded forms of proteins) of e.g. blood can potentially provide insights into disease processes, as well as a source of candidate biomarkers that are unobtainable using conventional bottom-up proteomics approaches. MS dissociation methods, including CID, HCD, and ETD, can each contribute distinct identifications using conventional peptide identification methods (Shen et al. J. Proteome Res. 2011), but such samples still pose significant analysis and informatics challenges. In this work, we explored a simple approach for better utilization of high accuracy fragment ion mass measurements provided e.g. by FT MS/MS and demonstrate significant improvements relative to conventionalmore » descriptive and probabilistic scores methods. For example, at the same FDR level we identified 20-40% more peptides than SEQUEST and Mascot scoring methods using high accuracy fragment ion information (e.g., <10 mass errors) from CID, HCD, and ETD spectra. Species identified covered >90% of all those identified from SEQUEST, Mascot, and MS-GF scoring methods. Additionally, we found that the merging the different fragment spectra provided >60% more species using the UStags method than achieved previously, and enabled >1000 peptidome components to be identified from a single human blood plasma sample with a 0.6% peptide-level FDR, and providing an improved basis for investigation of potentially disease-related peptidome components.« less
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS)has provided new capabilities for the rapid identification of digested and non-digested proteins. The tandem (MS/MS) capability of TOF-TOF instruments allows precursor ion selection/isolation...
Lu, Yali; Zhou, Xiao; Stemmer, Paul M.; Reid, Gavin E.
An amine specific peptide derivatization strategy involving the use of novel isobaric stable isotope encoded ‘fixed charge’ sulfonium ion reagents, coupled with an analysis strategy employing capillary HPLC, ESI-MS, and automated data dependent ion trap CID-MS/MS, -MS3, and/or ETD-MS/MS, has been developed for the improved quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylation, and for identification and characterization of their site(s) of modification. Derivatization of 50 synthetic phosphopeptides with S,S′-dimethylthiobutanoylhydroxysuccinimide ester iodide (DMBNHS), followed by analysis using capillary HPLC-ESI-MS, yielded an average 2.5-fold increase in ionization efficiencies and a significant increase in the presence and/or abundance of higher charge state precursor ions compared to the non-derivatized phosphopeptides. Notably, 44% of the phosphopeptides (22 of 50) in their underivatized states yielded precursor ions whose maximum charge states corresponded to +2, while only 8% (4 of 50) remained at this maximum charge state following DMBNHS derivatization. Quantitative analysis was achieved by measuring the abundances of the diagnostic product ions corresponding to the neutral losses of ‘light’ (S(CH3)2) and ‘heavy’ (S(CD3)2) dimethylsulfide exclusively formed upon CID-MS/MS of isobaric stable isotope labeled forms of the DMBNHS derivatized phosphopeptides. Under these conditions, the phosphate group stayed intact. Access for a greater number of peptides to provide enhanced phosphopeptide sequence identification and phosphorylation site characterization was achieved via automated data-dependent CID-MS3 or ETD-MS/MS analysis due to the formation of the higher charge state precursor ions. Importantly, improved sequence coverage was observed using ETD-MS/MS following introduction of the sulfonium ion fixed charge, but with no detrimental effects on ETD fragmentation efficiency. PMID:21952753
Barth, Vanessa; Need, Anne
designing and labeling tracer candidates. LC-MS/MS has only recently been used for de novo tracer identification; however, this connection of mass spectral technology to imaging has initiated engagement from a wider community that brings diverse backgrounds into the tracer discovery arena.
Yesmine, Ben Henda; Antoine, Bonnet; da Silva Ortência Leocádia, Nunes Gonzalez; Rogério, Boscolo Wilson; Ingrid, Arnaudin; Nicolas, Bridiau; Thierry, Maugard; Jean-Marie, Piot; Frédéric, Sannier; Stéphanie, Bordenave-Juchereau
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry method was developed and applied to identify short angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory cryptides in Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) protein hydrolyzate. A database was created with previously identified ACE-inhibitory di- and tripeptides and the lowest molecular weight fraction of Tilapia hydrolysate was analysed for coincidences. Only VW and VY were identified. Further analysis of collected fractions conducted to the identification of 51 different peptides in major fractions. 19 peptides selected were synthesised and tested for their ACE inhibitory potential. TL, TI, IK, LR, LD, IQ, DI, AILE, ALLE, ALIE and AIIE were identified as new ACE inhibitors. The findings from this study point UPLC-MS/MS combined with the creation of a database as an efficient technique to identify specific short peptides within a complex hydrolysate, in addition with de novo sequencing. This efficient characterisation of bioactive factors like cryptides in protein hydrolysates will extend their use as functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rezanka, Tomáš; Kambourova, Margarita; Derekova, Anna; Kolouchová, Irena; Sigler, Karel
Phospholipids and glycolipids from two recently described species belonging to the thermophilic genus Anoxybacillus were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). Analysis of total lipids from the facultatively anaerobic A. bogrovensis on a HILIC (Hydrophilic Interaction LIquid Chromatography) column succeeded in separating diacyl- and plasmalogen phospholipids. The LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of the strict aerobe A. rupiensis revealed the presence of different unique polar lipids, predominantly alanyl-, lysyl-, and glucosyl-phosphatidylglycerols and cardiolipins. Each of the classes of polar lipids was then analyzed by means of the ESI-MS/MS and more than 140 molecular species of six lipid classes from A. bogrovensis and nearly 200 molecular species of nine classes of polar lipids from A. rupiensis were identified. Five classes of unidentified polar lipids were detected in both strains. Plasmalogens were thus determined for the first time in a facultatively anaerobic bacterium, i.e. A. bogrovensis.
Maublanc, Julie; Dulaurent, Sylvain; Morichon, Julien; Lachâtre, Gérard; Gaulier, Jean-michel
Despite a non-invasive sampling, hair samples are generally collected in limited amounts for an obvious esthetic reason. In order to reduce the required quantity of samples, a multianalytes method allowing simultaneous identification and quantification of 35 psychoactive drugs was developed. After incubation of 50 mg of hair in a phosphate buffer pH 5 for one night at room temperature, the substances of interest were extracted by a simple liquid-liquid extraction step, with a dichloromethane/ether mixture (70:30, v/v). After evaporation under a gentle stream of nitrogen and reconstitution in formate buffer (2 mM, pH 3)/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v), twenty microliter were injected into the LC-MS/MS system for a chromatographic run of 29 min using an Atlantis T3 column (150 × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) (Waters Corp, Milford, USA) and a gradient mixture of 2 mM, pH 3.0 ammonium formate, and 2 mM, pH 3.0 ammonium formate/acetonitrile. The data acquisition was performed in scheduled MRM mode. Intra- and inter-day precisions, estimated using the coefficient of variation and relative bias, were lower than 20 % for all concentration levels, except for two compounds. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.5 to 10 pg/mg. After complete validation, this method has been successfully used in several forensic cases, three of which are reported.
Ruzik, Lena; Kwiatkowski, Piotr
The identification of groups of ligands binding metals is a crucial issue for the better understanding of their bioaccessibility. In the current study, we have intended an approach for identification of Zn-binding ligands based on using capillary electrophoresis combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS/MS). The approach, which featured the use of the coupling of capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry allows to separate and observe zinc ions present in complexes with respect to their size and charge and to identify nine compounds with zinc isotopic profile. CE-ICP-MS provides us with information about presence of zinc species and elemental information about zinc distribution. CE-ESI-MS/MS provide us with information about the most favorable Zn binding ligands: amino acids, flavonols, stilbenoids, fenolic acids and carotenoids. The presented work is the continuation of previous studies based on using LC-ESI-MS/MS, though, now we presented a new solutions with the possibility of changing detectors without changing the separation techniques, what is important without re-optimizing the method. The new presented method allows to identify the zinc-binding ligands in shorter time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Shouming; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Keutsch, Frank N.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.
Molecules with hydroperoxide functional groups are of extreme importance to both the atmospheric and biological chemistry fields. In this work, an analytical method is presented for the identification of organic hydroperoxides and peroxy acids (ROOH) by direct infusion of liquid samples into a positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometer ((+)-APCI-MS/MS). Under collisional dissociation conditions, a characteristic neutral loss of 51 Da (arising from loss of H2O2+NH3) from ammonium adducts of the molecular ions ([M + NH4]+) is observed for ROOH standards (i.e. cumene hydroperoxide, isoprene-4-hydroxy-3-hydroperoxide (ISOPOOH), tert-butyl hydroperoxide, 2-butanone peroxide and peracetic acid), as well as the ROOH formed from the reactions of H2O2 with aldehydes (i.e. acetaldehyde, hexanal, glyoxal and methylglyoxal). This new ROOH detection method was applied to methanol extracts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material generated from ozonolysis of α-pinene, indicating a number of ROOH molecules in the SOA material. While the full-scan mass spectrum of SOA demonstrates the presence of monomers (m/z = 80-250), dimers (m/z = 250-450) and trimers (m/z = 450-600), the neutral loss scan shows that the ROOH products all have masses less than 300 Da, indicating that ROOH molecules may not contribute significantly to the SOA oligomeric content. We anticipate this method could also be applied to biological systems with considerable value.
Yuan, Long; Ji, Qin C
Metabolite interferences represent a major risk of inaccurate quantification when using LC-MS/MS bioanalytical assays. During LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of BMS-919194, a phosphate ester prodrug, in plasma samples from rat and monkey GLP toxicology studies, an unknown peak was detected in the MRM channel of the prodrug. This peak was not observed in previous discovery toxicology studies, in which a fast gradient LC-MS/MS method was used. We found out that this unknown peak would co-elute with the prodrug peak when the discovery method was used, therefore, causing significant overestimation of the exposure of the prodrug in the discovery toxicology studies. To understand the nature of this interfering peak and its impact to bioanalytical assay, we further investigated its formation and identification. The interfering compound and the prodrug were found to be isobaric and to have the same major product ions in electrospray ionization positive mode, thus, could not be differentiated using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. By using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), the interfering metabolite was successfully identified to be an isobaric sulfate metabolite of BMS-919194. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that a phosphate prodrug was metabolized in vivo to an isobaric sulfate metabolite, and this metabolite caused significant interference to the analysis of the prodrug. This work demonstrated the presence of the interference risk from isobaric sulfate metabolites to the bioanalysis of phosphate prodrugs in real samples. It is critical to evaluate and mitigate potential metabolite interferences during method development, therefore, minimize the related bioanalytical risks and ensure assay quality. Our work also showed the unique advantages of HRMS in identifying potential metabolite interference during LC-MS/MS bioanalysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maier, Barbara; Vogeser, Michael
Isotope dilution LC-MS/MS methods used in the clinical laboratory typically involve multi-point external calibration in each analytical series. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that determination of target analyte concentrations directly derived from the relation of the target analyte peak area to the peak area of a corresponding stable isotope labelled internal standard compound [direct isotope dilution analysis (DIDA)] may be not inferior to conventional external calibration with respect to accuracy and reproducibility. Quality control samples and human serum pools were analysed in a comparative validation protocol for cortisol as an exemplary analyte by LC-MS/MS. Accuracy and reproducibility were compared between quantification either involving a six-point external calibration function, or a result calculation merely based on peak area ratios of unlabelled and labelled analyte. Both quantification approaches resulted in similar accuracy and reproducibility. For specified analytes, reliable analyte quantification directly derived from the ratio of peak areas of labelled and unlabelled analyte without the need for a time consuming multi-point calibration series is possible. This DIDA approach is of considerable practical importance for the application of LC-MS/MS in the clinical laboratory where short turnaround times often have high priority.
The goal of this research is to use a bio-assay directed approach to focus identification work on the most toxicologically important disinfection by-products. To this end, drinking water is being collected from full-scale treatment plants that use chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxi...
The goal of this research is to use a bio-assay directed approach to focus identification work on the most toxicologically important disinfection by-products. To this end, drinking water is being collected from full-scale treatment plants that use chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxi...
Dresen, S; Ferreirós, N; Gnann, H; Zimmermann, R; Weinmann, W
The multi-target screening method described in this work allows the simultaneous detection and identification of 700 drugs and metabolites in biological fluids using a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer in a single analytical run. After standardization of the method, the retention times of 700 compounds were determined and transitions for each compound were selected by a "scheduled" survey MRM scan, followed by an information-dependent acquisition using the sensitive enhanced product ion scan of a Q TRAP hybrid instrument. The identification of the compounds in the samples analyzed was accomplished by searching the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra against the library we developed, which contains electrospray ionization-MS/MS spectra of over 1,250 compounds. The multi-target screening method together with the library was included in a software program for routine screening and quantitation to achieve automated acquisition and library searching. With the help of this software application, the time for evaluation and interpretation of the results could be drastically reduced. This new multi-target screening method has been successfully applied for the analysis of postmortem and traffic offense samples as well as proficiency testing, and complements screening with immunoassays, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-diode-array detection. Other possible applications are analysis in clinical toxicology (for intoxication cases), in psychiatry (antidepressants and other psychoactive drugs), and in forensic toxicology (drugs and driving, workplace drug testing, oral fluid analysis, drug-facilitated sexual assault).
Liu, Liangzhong; Zhang, Min; Peng, Guanghua; Wang, Haibin; Zhang, Shenghua
The natural red yolk of duck's eggs is produced by the laying duck in the lake areas in southward of China. In the laying duck breeding areas such as Honghu, Jianli, Xiantao, Tianmen and Hanchuan citys in Hubei Province, the culturists are used to feeding fresh pondweeds to the laying ducks. The yolk of duck's eggs is natural red with the chrominance reaching up to and/or above RCF (Roche Yolk Color Fan) 15. The red pigment components of natural red yolk of duck's eggs were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) and high resolution electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Four isomers of red pigments were separated by HPLC on a RP-C18 column with methanol-water (99.5:0.5, v/v) as mobile phase. The lambda(max) of the four components were 482, 488, 496, 501 nm, respectively, and all of them were single peak on chromatogram. They had the same molecular mass (Mr = 562), and had the same fragment peaks of MS2 with rhodoxanthin. The molecular formula of red pigments was determined as C40H50O2 by high resolution EI-MS. The results indicate that the red pigment is rhodoxanthin, and they are all cis-isomers of rhodoxanthin.
Bicudo, Rogério Campos; Bicudo, Tatiana Campos; Forato, Lucimara A; Titato, Guilherme M; Colnago, Luiz A; Lanças, Fernando M
The nutritional value of maize seed is limited due to its high content of storage proteins (zeins), which are deficient in essential amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan. In a previous paper, we showed that protein bodies obtained from BR473 maize variety, developed by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation), were mainly constituted by Z27 and a smaller quantity of Z50 gamma-zeins. Besides zein proteins, other not identified protein band in the SDS/PAGE was also observed, which could indicate the presence of non-zein proteins additionally to gamma-zeins. In the present paper, we have demonstrated the presence of non-zein proteins in BR473 maize protein bodies by LC-nanoESI-MS/MS and database searching. This fact could be related to the excellent energetic value and higher protein quality of BR473 maize grains, since high lysine concentration in some maize varieties has been related to the presence of cytoskeleton proteins that are non-zeins. We have identified the following proteins: Brittle-1 protein (chloroplast precursor), Legumin-1, glyceroldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and elongation factor 1-alpha.
Prajanban, Bung-on; Shawsuan, Laoo; Daduang, Sakda; Kommanee, Jintana; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong
Proteomics of egg white proteins of five reptile species, namely Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis), soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx sinensis taiwanese), red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) were studied by 2D-PAGE using IPG strip pH 4-7 size 7 cm and IPG strip pH 3-10 size 24 cm. The protein spots in the egg white of the five reptile species were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and LC/MS-MS analysis. Sequence comparison with the database revealed that reptile egg white contained at least seven protein groups, such as serpine, transferrin precursor/iron binding protein, lysozyme C, teneurin-2 (fragment), interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx, succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur subunit and olfactory receptor 46. This report confirms that transferrin precursor/iron binding protein is the major component in reptile egg white. In egg white of Siamese crocodile, twenty isoforms of transferrin precursor were found. Iron binding protein was found in four species of turtle. In egg white of soft-shelled turtle, ten isoforms of lysozyme were found. Apart from well-known reptile egg white constituents, this study identified some reptile egg white proteins, such as the teneurin-2 (fragment), the interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx, the olfactory receptor 46 and the succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur subunit. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cornejo, Alberto; Salgado, Francisco; Caballero, Julio; Vargas, Reinaldo; Simirgiotis, Mario; Areche, Carlos
Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is an outstanding methodology for fast analysis of phenolic compounds in biological samples. Twenty two compounds were quickly and accurately identified in the methanolic extract of the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata for the first time using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS). In addition, the extract and the four compounds isolated from this species were tested for the inhibitory activity of tau protein aggregation, which is a protein involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). All compounds showed null activity with the exception of parietin, which it was able to inhibit aggregation process of tau in a concentration range between 3 µg/mL (10 µM) to 28 µg/mL (100 µM). In addition, we show how parietin interact with tau (306)VQIVYK(311) hexapeptide inside of the microtubule binding domain (4R) with the help of molecular docking experiments. Finally, the constituents present in the methanolic extract could possibly contribute to the established anti-aggregation activity for this extract and this in-depth analysis of the chemical composition of R. terebrata could guide further research into its medicinal properties and potential uses.
Cornejo, Alberto; Salgado, Francisco; Caballero, Julio; Vargas, Reinaldo; Simirgiotis, Mario; Areche, Carlos
Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is an outstanding methodology for fast analysis of phenolic compounds in biological samples. Twenty two compounds were quickly and accurately identified in the methanolic extract of the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata for the first time using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS). In addition, the extract and the four compounds isolated from this species were tested for the inhibitory activity of tau protein aggregation, which is a protein involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). All compounds showed null activity with the exception of parietin, which it was able to inhibit aggregation process of tau in a concentration range between 3 µg/mL (10 µM) to 28 µg/mL (100 µM). In addition, we show how parietin interact with tau 306VQIVYK311 hexapeptide inside of the microtubule binding domain (4R) with the help of molecular docking experiments. Finally, the constituents present in the methanolic extract could possibly contribute to the established anti-aggregation activity for this extract and this in-depth analysis of the chemical composition of R. terebrata could guide further research into its medicinal properties and potential uses. PMID:27548142
Chang, Susane; Porto Carneiro-Leão, Mariele; Ferreira de Oliveira, Benny; Souza-Motta, Cristina; Lima, Nelson; Santos, Cledir; Tinti de Oliveira, Neiva
Fusarium verticillioides is considered one of the most important global sources of fumonisins contamination in food and feed. Corn is one of the main commodities produced in the Northeastern Region of Brazil. The present study investigated potential mycotoxigenic fungal strains belonging to the F. verticillioides species isolated from corn kernels in 3 different Regions of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco. A polyphasic approach including classical taxonomy, molecular biology, MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF MS/MS for the identification and characterisation of the F. verticillioides strains was used. Sixty F. verticillioides strains were isolated and successfully identified by classical morphology, proteomic profiles of MALDI-TOF MS, and by molecular biology using the species-specific primers VERT-1 and VERT-2. FUM1 gene was further detected for all the 60 F. verticillioides by using the primers VERTF-1 and VERTF-2 and through the amplification profiles of the ISSR regions using the primers (GTG)5 and (GACA)4. Results obtained from molecular analysis shown a low genetic variability among these isolates from the different geographical regions. All of the 60 F. verticillioides isolates assessed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS presented ion peaks with the molecular mass of the fumonisin B1 (721.83 g/mol) and B2 (705.83 g/mol). PMID:26927172
Thanh Tran, The; Phan, Van Chi
In this work, we present results of membrane proteome profiling from mouse liver tissues using a gel-based approach in combination with 2DnanoLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Following purification of the membrane fraction, SDS-PAGE was carried out as a useful separation step. After staining, gels with protein bands were cut, reduced, alkylated and trypsin-digested. The peptide mixtures extracted from each gel slice were fractionated by two-dimensional nano liquid chromatography (2DnanoLC) coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry analysis (NanoESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS). The proteins were identified by MASCOT search against a mouse protein database using a peptide and fragment mass tolerance of ±0.5 Da. Protein identification was carried out using a Mowse scoring algorithm with a confidence level of 95% and processed by MSQuant v1.5 software for further validation. In total, 318 verified membrane proteins from mouse liver tissues were identified; 66.67% of them (212 proteins) contained at least one or more transmembrane domains predicted by the SOSUI program and 43 were found to be unique microsome membranes. Furthermore, GRAVY values of membrane proteins varied in the range -1.1276 to 0.9016 and only 31 (9.76%) membrane proteins had positive values. The functions and subcellular locations of the identified proteins were categorized as well, according to universal GO annotations.
He, Jintang; Liu, Yashu; Xie, Xiaolei; Zhu, Thant; Soules, Mary; DiMeco, Francesco; Vescovi, Angelo L.; Fan, Xing; Lubman, David M.
Despite progress in the treatment of glioblastoma, more than 95% of patients suffering from this disease still die within two years. Recent findings support the belief that cancer stem-like cells are responsible for tumor formation and ongoing growth. Here a method combining lectin microarray and LC-MS/MS was used to discover the cell surface glycoprotein markers of a glioblastoma-derived stem-like cell line. Lectin microarray analysis of cell surface glycans showed that two galactose-specific lectins Trichosanthes kirilowii agglutinin (TKA) and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) could distinguish the stem-like glioblastoma neurosphere culture from a traditional adherent glioblastoma cell line. Agarose-bound TKA and PNA were used to capture the glycoproteins from the two cell cultures, which were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The glycoproteins were quantified by spectral counting, resulting in the identification of 12 and 11 potential glycoprotein markers from the TKA and PNA captured fractions respectively. Almost all of these proteins were membrane proteins. Differential expression was verified by Western blotting analysis of 6 interesting proteins, including the up-regulated Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase zeta, Tenascin-C, Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2, Podocalyxin-like protein 1 and CD90, and the down-regulated CD44. An improved understanding of these proteins may be important for earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic targeting of glioblastoma. PMID:20235609
Frank, Oliver; Blumberg, Simone; Kunert, Christof; Zehentbauer, Gerhard; Hofmann, Thomas
Aimed at elucidating intense bitter-tasting molecules in coffee, various bean ingredients were thermally treated in model experiments and evaluated for their potential to produce bitter compounds. As caffeic acid was found to generate intense bitterness reminiscent of the bitter taste of a strongly roasted espresso-type coffee, the reaction products formed were screened for bitter compounds by means of taste dilution analysis, and the most bitter tastants were isolated and purified. LC-MS/MS as well as 1-D/2-D NMR experiments enabled the identification of 10 bitter compounds with rather low recognition threshold concentrations ranging between 23 and 178 micromol/L. These bitter compounds are the previously unreported 1,3-bis(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl) butane, trans-1,3-bis(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-butene, and eight multiply hydroxylated phenylindanes, among which five derivatives are reported for the first time. In addition, the occurrence of each of these bitter compounds in a coffee brew was verified by means of LC-MS/MS (ESI-) operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The structures of these bitter compounds show strong evidence that they are generated by oligomerization of 4-vinylcatechol released from caffeic acid moieties upon roasting.
Tripp, K M; Dubois, M; Delahaut, P; Verstegen, J P
Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) have relatively low peripheral concentrations of progesterone (P4). The objective of this study was to determine if these relatively low P4 concentrations are associated with a high ratio of progestin metabolites and to document metabolite concentrations from individual blood samples obtained from manatees during diestrus or pregnancy. Metabolites known to exist in elephants-terrestrial manatee relatives-were targeted. These included 5alpha-reduced progestins (5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione [5alpha-DHP] and 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one [5alpha-P3-OH]) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), which occurs in Asian elephants. An additional, inactive metabolite, 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (20alpha-OHP), indicative of P4 overproduction, was also targeted. Progesterone itself was the predominant progestin detected in pregnant and nonpregnant manatee plasma (n = 10) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with tandem quadrupole detectors (GC/MS/MS). Progesterone concentrations in pregnant females varied from early (moderate to high) through mid and late (low) pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations ranged from low to high in nonpregnant, nonlactating females. The most commonly detected metabolite was 5alpha-P3-OH (n = 7), which occurred in pregnant (lower limit of detection [LLOD] to high) and nonpregnant (trace to high) females. The 5alpha-DHP metabolite was also detected in pregnant (LLOD to moderate) and nonpregnant (low) females. The 17alpha-OHP metabolite was not detected in any tested female. The 20alpha-OHP metabolite was detected in one nonpregnant, nonlactating, captive female (LLOD). Metabolites were most prevalent during early pregnancy, concurrent with maximum P4 concentrations. Based on their concentrations in peripheral circulation, we inferred that these metabolites may have, opposite to elephants, a limited physiologic role during luteal, pregnant, and nonpregnant phases in the manatee.
Poetsch, Ansgar; Schlüsener, Daniela; Florizone, Christine; Eltis, Lindsay; Menzel, Christoph; Rögner, Matthias; Steinert, Kerstin; Roth, Udo
Integral membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to identify and analyze by mass spectrometry because of their low abundance and limited number of trypsin cleavage sites. Our strategy to address this problem is based on a novel technology for MALDI-MS peptide sample preparation that increases the success rate of membrane protein identification by increasing the sensitivity of the MALDI-TOF system. For this, we used sample plates with predeposited matrix spots of CHCA crystals prepared by vacuum sublimation onto an extremely low wettable (ultraphobic) surface. In experiments using standard peptides, an up to 10-fold gain of sensitivity was found for on-chip preparations compared with classical dried-droplet preparations on a steel target. In order to assess the performance of the chips with membrane proteins, three model proteins (bacteriorhodopsin, subunit IV(a) of ATP synthase, and the cp47 subunit from photosystem II) were analyzed. To mimic realistic analysis conditions, purified proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin. The digest MALDI samples were prepared either by dried-droplet technique on steel plates using CHCA as matrix, or applied directly onto the matrix spots of the chip surface. Significantly higher signal-to-noise ratios were observed for all of the spectra resulting from on-chip preparations of different peptides. In a second series of experiments, the membrane proteome of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 was investigated by AIEC/SDS-PAGE in combination with MALDI-TOF MS/MS. As in the first experiments, Coomassie-stained SDS-PAGE bands were digested and the two different preparation methods were compared. For preparations on the Mass·Spec·Turbo Chip, 43 of 60 proteins were identified, whereas only 30 proteins were reliably identified after classical sample preparation. Comparison of the obtained Mascot scores, which reflect the confidence level of the protein identifications, revealed that for 70% of the identified proteins
Joshi, Elizabeth M; Need, Anne; Schaus, John; Chen, Zhaogen; Benesh, Dana; Mitch, Charles; Morton, Stuart; Raub, Thomas J; Phebus, Lee; Barth, Vanessa
Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has become a useful noninvasive technique to explore molecular biology within living systems; however, the utility of this method is limited by the availability of suitable radiotracers to probe specific targets and disease biology. Methods to identify potential areas of improvement in the ability to predict small molecule performance as tracers prior to radiolabeling would speed the discovery of novel tracers. In this retrospective analysis, we characterized the brain penetration or peak SUV (standardized uptake value), binding potential (BP), and brain exposure kinetics across a series of known, nonradiolabeled PET ligands using in vivo LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) and correlated these parameters with the reported PET ligand performance in nonhuman primates and humans available in the literature. The PET tracers studied included those reported to label G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), intracellular enzymes, and transporters. Additionally, data for each tracer was obtained from a mouse brain uptake assay (MBUA), previously published, where blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration and clearance parameters were assessed and compared against similar data collected on a broad compound set of central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic compounds. The BP and SUV identified via nonradiolabeled LC-MS/MS, while different from the published values observed in the literature PET tracer data, allowed for an identification of initial criteria values we sought to facilitate increased potential for success from our early discovery screening paradigm. Our analysis showed that successful, as well as novel, clinical PET tracers exhibited BP of greater than 1.5 and peak SUVs greater than approximately 150% at 5 min post dose in rodents. The brain kinetics appeared similar between both techniques despite differences in tracer dose, suggesting linearity across these dose ranges. The assessment of tracers in a
Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen
Identification of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is a vital issue in doping control and toxicology, and searching for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task. Recently, a gas chromatography chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-CI-MS/MS) method was introduced, and CI, in comparison with electron ionization (EI), proved to be capable of increasing the sensitivity significantly. In addition, correlations between AAS structure and fragmentation behavior could be revealed. This enables the search for previously unknown but expected metabolites by selection of their predicted transitions. The combination of both factors allows the setup of an efficient approach to search for new metabolites. The approach uses selected reaction monitoring which is inherently more sensitive than full scan or precursor ion scan. Additionally, structural information obtained from the structure specific CI fragmentation pattern facilitates metabolite identification. The procedure was demonstrated by a methandienone case study. Its metabolites have been studied extensively in the past, and this allowed an adequate evaluation of the efficiency of the approach. Thirty three metabolites were detected, including all relevant previously discovered metabolites. In our study, the previously reported long-term metabolite (18-nor-17β-hydroxymethyl,17α-methyl-androst-1,4,13-trien-3-one) could be detected up to 26 days by using GC-CI-MS/MS. The study proves the validity of the approach to search for metabolites of new synthetic AAS and new long-term metabolites of less studied AAS and illustrates the increase in sensitivity by using CI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.
A novel methodology was developed for the determination of alkyl (C12, C14, and C16) dimethylbenzylammonium chloride (benzalkonium chloride or BAC, Chemical Abstract Service number: 8001-54-5) in water samples. This method is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) using polymeric cartridges, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry(MS/MS) detection, equipped with an electrospray interface in positive ion mode. Chromatographic separation was achieved for three BAC homologues by using a C18 column and a gradient of acetonitrile/10 millimolar aqueous ammonium formate. Total method recoveries were higher than 71% in different water matrices. The main ions observed by LC/MS were at mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) of 304, 332, and 360, which correspond to the molecular ions of the C12, C14, and C16 alkyl BAC, respectively. The unequivocal structural identification of these compounds in water samples was performed by LC/MS/MS after isolation and subsequent fragmentation of each molecular ion. The main fragmentation observed for the three different homologues corresponded to the loss of the toluyl group in the chemical structure, which leads to the fragment ions at m/z 212, 240, and 268 and a tropylium ion, characteristic of all homologues, at m/z 91. Detection limits for the methodology developed in this work were in the low nanogram-per-liter range. Concentration levels of BAC - ranging from 1.2 to 36.6 micrograms per liter - were found in surface-water samples collected downstream from different wastewater-treatment discharges, thus indicating its input and persistence through the wastewater-treatment process.
Recently, sulfur analogs of well known arsenicals have been identified in biological and dietary matrices. In this presentation, the detection and identification of dimethylthioarsinic acid (DMTA) will be reported in rice samples after an enzymatic extraction. The enzymatic ext...
Piehowski, Paul D; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Sandoval, John D; Burnum, Kristin E; Kiebel, Gary R; Monroe, Matthew E; Anderson, Gordon A; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D
For bottom-up proteomics, there are wide variety of database-searching algorithms in use for matching peptide sequences to tandem MS spectra. Likewise, there are numerous strategies being employed to produce a confident list of peptide identifications from the different search algorithm outputs. Here we introduce a grid-search approach for determining optimal database filtering criteria in shotgun proteomics data analyses that is easily adaptable to any search. Systematic Trial and Error Parameter Selection--referred to as STEPS--utilizes user-defined parameter ranges to test a wide array of parameter combinations to arrive at an optimal "parameter set" for data filtering, thus maximizing confident identifications. The benefits of this approach in terms of numbers of true-positive identifications are demonstrated using datasets derived from immunoaffinity-depleted blood serum and a bacterial cell lysate, two common proteomics sample types. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Samgina, Tatyana Yu; Gorshkov, Vladimir A; Artemenko, Konstantin A; Vorontsov, Egor A; Klykov, Oleg V; Ogourtsov, Sergey V; Zubarev, Roman A; Lebedev, Albert T
Identification of species constituting Rana esculenta complex represents a certain problem as two parental species Rana ridibunda and Rana lessonae form their hybrid R. esculenta, while external signs and sizes of the members of this complex are intersected. However the composition of skin secretion consisting mainly of peptides is different for the species of the complex. LC-MS/MS is an ideal analytical tool for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of these peptides. The results covering elemental composition of these peptides, their levels in the secretion, as well as their belonging to a certain family of peptides may be visualized by means of 2D mass maps. The proposed approach proved itself to be a perspective tool for the reliable identification of all 3 species constituting R. esculenta complex. Easy distinguishing between the species may be achieved using 2D maps as fingerprints. Besides this approach may be used to study hybridogenesis and mechanisms of hemiclonal transfer of genetic information, when rapid and reliable identification of species involved in the process is required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berset, Jean-Daniel; Ochsenbein, Nicole
A HPLC-MS/MS method is presented for the simultaneous determination of frequently used artificial sweeteners (ASs) and the main metabolite of aspartame (ASP), diketopiperazine (DKP), in environmental water samples using the direct-injection (DI) technique, thereby achieving limits of quantification (LOQ) of 10 ng L(-1). For a reliable quantification of ASP pH should be adjusted to 4.3 to prevent formation of the metabolite. Acesulfame (ACE), saccharin (SAC), cyclamate (CYC) and sucralose (SUC) were ubiquitously found in water samples. Highest concentrations up to 61 μg L(-1) of ACE were found in wastewater effluents, followed by surface water with concentrations up to 7 μg L(-1), lakes up to 600 ng L(-1) and groundwater and tap water up to 70 ng L(-1). The metabolite DKP was only detected in wastewater up to 200 ng L(-1) and at low detection frequencies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shen, Yufeng; Tolić, Nikola; Xie, Fang; Zhao, Rui; Purvine, Samuel O.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Ronald, J. Moore; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.
We report on the effectiveness of CID, HCD, and ETD for LC-FT MS/MS analysis of peptides using a tandem linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. A range of software tools and analysis parameters were employed to explore the use of CID, HCD, and ETD to identify peptides isolated from human blood plasma without the use of specific “enzyme rules”. In the evaluation of an FDR-controlled SEQUEST scoring method, the use of accurate masses for fragments increased the numbers of identified peptides (by ~50%) compared to the use of conventional low accuracy fragment mass information, and CID provided the largest contribution to the identified peptide datasets compared to HCD and ETD. The FDR-controlled Mascot scoring method provided significantly fewer peptide identifications than with SEQUEST (by 1.3–2.3 fold) at the same confidence levels, and CID, HCD, and ETD provided similar contributions to identified peptides. Evaluation of de novo sequencing and the UStags method for more intense fragment ions revealed that HCD afforded more sequence consecutive residues (e.g., ≥7 amino acids) than either CID or ETD. Both the FDR-controlled SEQUEST and Mascot scoring methods provided peptide datasets that were affected by the decoy database and mass tolerances applied (e.g., the identical peptides between the datasets could be limited to ~70%), while the UStags method provided the most consistent peptide datasets (>90% overlap) with extremely low (near zero) numbers of false positive identifications. The m/z ranges in which CID, HCD, and ETD contributed the largest number of peptide identifications were substantially overlapping. This work suggests that the three peptide ion fragmentation methods are complementary, and that maximizing the number of peptide identifications benefits significantly from a careful match with the informatics tools and methods applied. These results also suggest that the decoy strategy may inaccurately estimate identification FDRs. PMID:21678914
Fang, Xinsheng; Wang, Jianhua; Hao, Jifu; Li, Xueke; Guo, Ning
A simple and rapid method was developed using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined with HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS for the simultaneous extraction, identification, and quantification of phenolic compounds in Eclipta prostrata, a common herb and vegetable in China. The optimized parameters of MAE were: employing 50% ethanol as solvent, microwave power 400 W, temperature 70 °C, ratio of liquid/solid 30 mL/g and extraction time 2 min. Compared to conventional extraction methods, the optimized MAE can avoid the degradation of the phenolic compounds and simultaneously obtained the highest yields of all components faster with less consumption of solvent and energy. Six phenolic acids, six flavonoid glycosides and one coumarin were firstly identified. The phenolic compounds were quantified by HPLC-DAD with good linearity, precision, and accuracy. The extract obtained by MAE showed significant antioxidant activity. The proposed method provides a valuable and green analytical methodology for the investigation of phenolic components in natural plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Breindahl, Torben; Evans-Brown, Michael; Hindersson, Peter; McVeigh, Jim; Bellis, Mark; Stensballe, Allan; Kimergård, Andreas
New methods were developed and validated to determine the identity, contents, and purity of samples of melanotan II, a synthetic melanocortin receptor agonist, sold in vials as injectable skin-tanning products that were purchased from three online shops. Methods were based on liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detection (LC-UV) at wavelength 218 nm, and tandem mass spectrometric detection (MS/MS) after collision-induced fragmentation of the double charged [M+2H](2+) precursor ion (m/z 513). Identification of melanotan II was verified by correct chromatographic retention time, and relative abundance ratios of five qualifying fragment ions. LC-UV was used to quantify melanotan II as well as impurities. Method validation was performed with reference to guidelines for assessing active substances in authorized medicinal products to reach acceptable accuracy and precision. Vials from two shops contained unknown impurities ranging from 4.1 to 5.9%; impurities from one shop were below the quantification limit. The total amount of melanotan II in vials ranged between 4.32 and 8.84 mg, although each shop claimed that vials contained 10 mg melanotan II. A broad range of drugs used for enhancement purposes can be obtained from the illicit market. However, users of these drugs may be exposed to a range of potential harms, as shown in this study, given that these products are manufactured, distributed and supplied from an illicit market. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
He, Wei; Zeng, Maomao; Chen, Jie; Jiao, Yuzhi; Niu, Fuxiang; Tao, Guanjun; Zhang, Shuang; Qin, Fang; He, Zhiyong
The identification and quantitation of the anthocyanins in 12 purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) cultivars ('Jihei 1', 'Xuzi 3', 'Xuzi 6', 'Zhezi 4', 'Ningzi 1', 'Ningzi 2', 'Ningzi 3', 'Ning 2-2', 'Ning 6-8', 'Guangzi 1', 'Ziluolan', and 'Qinzi 1') in China were carried out using a combination of ultraperformance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA), quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. Thirteen acylated anthocyanins were tentatively characterized, including two new PFSP anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-vanilloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside and peonidin 3-caffeoyl-vanilloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside. The quantitative analyses of these anthocyanins were conducted using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as a standard. The total anthocyanin content of the PFSPs depended on the cultivar. The five PFSP cultivars with the highest content of anthocyanins were 'Jihei 1', 'Xuzi 3', 'Zhezi 4', 'Ziluolan', and 'Qinzi 1'. This is the first report of the 'Ningzi 2', 'Ningzi 3', and 'Ning 2-2' PFSP cultivars containing only diacylated anthocyanins and of the 'Xuzi 6' cultivar containing single anthocyanidin-based anthocyanins.
Yamazaki, K; Ogiso, M; Isagawa, S; Urushiyama, T; Ukena, T; Kibune, N
A new, direct analytical method for the determination of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD esters) was developed. The targeted 3-MCPD esters included five types of monoester and 25 [corrected] types of diester. Samples (oils and fats) were dissolved in a mixture of tert-butyl methyl ether and ethyl acetate (4:1), purified using two solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (C(18) and silica), then analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Five monoesters and five diesters with the same fatty acid group could be separated and quantified. Pairs of 3-MCPD diesters carrying the same two different fatty acid groups, but at reversed positions (sn-1 and sn-2), could not be separated and so were expressed as a sum of both compounds. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were estimated to be between 0.02 to 0.08 mg kg(-1), depending on the types of 3-MCPD ester. Repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD(r)%) varied from 5.5% to 25.5%. The new method was shown to be applicable to various commercial edible oils and showed levels of 3-MCPD esters varying from 0.58 to 25.35 mg kg(-1). The levels of mono- and diesters ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 mg kg(-1) and from 0.06 to 16 mg kg(-1), respectively.
Determination of dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban by ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and coagulation assays for therapy monitoring of novel direct oral anticoagulants.
Schmitz, E M H; Boonen, K; van den Heuvel, D J A; van Dongen, J L J; Schellings, M W M; Emmen, J M A; van der Graaf, F; Brunsveld, L; van de Kerkhof, D
Three novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have recently been registered by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency Commission: dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. To quantify DOACs in plasma, various dedicated coagulation assays have been developed. To develop and validate a reference ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method and to evaluate the analytical performance of several coagulation assays for quantification of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method was validated by determination of precision, accuracy, specificity, matrix effects, lower limits of detection, carry-over, recovery, stability, and robustness. The following coagulation assays were evaluated for accuracy and precision: laboratory-developed (LD) diluted thrombin time (dTT), Hemoclot dTT, Pefakit PiCT, ECA, Liquid anti-Xa, Biophen Heparin (LRT), and Biophen DiXal anti-Xa. Agreement between the various coagulation assays and UPLC-MS/MS was determined with random samples from patients using dabigatran or rivaroxaban. The UPLC-MS/MS method was shown to be accurate, precise, sensitive, stable, and robust. The dabigatran coagulation assay showing the best precision, accuracy and agreement with the UPLC-MS/MS method was the LD dTT test. For rivaroxaban, the anti-factor Xa assays were superior to the PiCT-Xa assay with regard to precision, accuracy, and agreement with the reference method. For apixaban, the Liquid anti-Xa assay was superior to the PiCT-Xa assay. Statistically significant differences were observed between the various coagulation assays as compared with the UPLC-MS/MS reference method. It is currently unknown whether these differences are clinically relevant. When DOACs are quantified with coagulation assays, comparison with a reference method as part of proficiency testing is therefore pivotal. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Comprehensive identification and structural characterization of target components from Gelsemium elegans by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on accurate mass databases combined with MS/MS spectra.
Liu, Yan-Chun; Xiao, Sa; Yang, Kun; Ling, Li; Sun, Zhi-Liang; Liu, Zhao-Ying
This study reports an applicable analytical strategy of comprehensive identification and structure characterization of target components from Gelsemium elegans by using high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QqTOF MS) based on the use of accurate mass databases combined with MS/MS spectra. The databases created included accurate masses and elemental compositions of 204 components from Gelsemium and their structural data. The accurate MS and MS/MS spectra were acquired through data-dependent auto MS/MS mode followed by an extraction of the potential compounds from the LC-QqTOF MS raw data of the sample. The same was matched using the databases to search for targeted components in the sample. The structures for detected components were tentatively characterized by manually interpreting the accurate MS/MS spectra for the first time. A total of 57 components have been successfully detected and structurally characterized from the crude extracts of G. elegans, but has failed to differentiate some isomers. This analytical strategy is generic and efficient, avoids isolation and purification procedures, enables a comprehensive structure characterization of target components of Gelsemium and would be widely applicable for complicated mixtures that are derived from Gelsemium preparations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Timms, Mark; Steel, Rohan; Vine, John
The recombinant human erythropoietins epoetin alfa (Eprex®), darbepoetin (Aranesp®) and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera®) were administered to greyhounds for 7, 10 and 14 days respectively. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed for erythropoietin by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and western blotting. Limits of confirmation in plasma for western blotting and LC-MS/MS methods ranged from a low of 2.5mIU/mL, and closely matched the sensitivity of ELISA screening. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Abe, Yuka; Kudo, Yuta; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Paul, Valerie J.; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Adachi, Masaatsu; Imazu, Takuya; Nishikawa, Toshio; Isobe, Minoru
Even though tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a widespread toxin in marine and terrestrial organisms, very little is known about the biosynthetic pathway used to produce it. By describing chemical structures of natural analogs of TTX, we can start to identify some of the precursors that might be important for TTX biosynthesis. In the present study, an analog of TTX, 5,11-dideoxyTTX, was identified for the first time in natural sources, the ovary of the pufferfish and the pharynx of a flatworm (planocerid sp. 1), by comparison with totally synthesized (−)-5,11-dideoxyTTX, using high resolution ESI-LC-MS. Based on the presence of 5,11-dideoxyTTX together with a series of known deoxy analogs, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, 6,11-dideoxyTTX, 11-deoxyTTX, and 5-deoxyTTX, in these animals, we predicted two routes of stepwise oxidation pathways in the late stages of biosynthesis of TTX. Furthermore, high resolution masses of the major fragment ions of TTX, 6,11-dideoxyTTX, and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX were also measured, and their molecular formulas and structures were predicted to compare them with each other. Although both TTX and 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX give major fragment ions that are very close, m/z 162.0660 and 162.1020, respectively, they are distinguishable and predicted to be different molecular formulas. These data will be useful for identification of TTXs using high resolution LC-MS/MS. PMID:23924959
Valledor, Luis; Castillejo, Maria A; Lenz, Christof; Rodríguez, Roberto; Cañal, Maria J; Jorrín, Jesús
Pinus radiata is one of the most economically important forest tree species, with a worldwide production of around 370 million m (3) of wood per year. Current selection of elite trees to be used in conservation and breeding programes requires the physiological and molecular characterization of available populations. To identify key proteins related to tree growth, productivity and responses to environmental factors, a proteomic approach is being utilized. In this paper, we present the first report of the 2-DE protein reference map of physiologically mature P. radiata needles, as a basis for subsequent differential expression proteomic studies related to growth, development, biomass production and responses to stresses. After TCA/acetone protein extraction of needle tissue, 549 +/- 21 well-resolved spots were detected in Coommassie-stained gels within the 5-8 pH and 10-100 kDa M(r) ranges. The analytical and biological variance determined for 450 spots were of 31 and 42%, respectively. After LC/MS/MS analysis of in-gel tryptic digested spots, proteins were identified by using the novel Paragon algorithm that tolerates amino acid substitution in the first-pass search. It allowed the confident identification of 115 out of the 150 protein spots subjected to MS, quite unusual high percentage for a poor sequence database, as is the case of P. radiata. Proteins were classified into 12 or 18 groups based on their corresponding cell component or biological process/pathway categories, respectively. Carbohydrate metabolism and photosynthetic enzymes predominate in the 2-DE protein profile of P. radiata needles.
Müller, Miriam J; Bruns, Heiko; Volmer, Dietrich A
Vitamin D measurements in biological fluids by mass spectrometry are challenging at very low concentration levels. As a result, chemical derivatization is often employed to enhance the ionization properties of low abundant vitamin D compounds. Cookson-type reagents such as 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) or similar derivatives work well but require careful, water-free experimental conditions, as traces of water inactivate the reagent and inhibit or stop the derivatization reactions, thus making quantitative measurements in aqueous samples impossible. We describe a novel electrospray liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for determining 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3 ) directly in aqueous cellular systems using a new derivatization reagent, the ionic liquid 12-(maleimidyl)dodecyl-tri-n-butylphosphonium bromide (MDBP). The proof-of-concept for the MDBP assay was demonstrated by measuring the levels of 25(OH)D 3 in four different human cell types, namely T cells, helper T cells, B cells, and macrophages. In addition to the ability to determine the levels of 25(OH)D 3 directly in aqueous samples, the cellular integrity was maintained in our application. We show the time-dependent uptake of 25(OH)D 3 into the investigated cells to demonstrate the applicability of the new label. Furthermore, the MDBP derivatization technique may be equally useful in imaging mass spectrometry, where it could be used for response enhancements of spatially localized vitamin D metabolites on wet tissue surfaces, without destroying the integrity of the tissue surface. Graphical Abstract MDBP labelling of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the extracellular space.
Voisin, Sébastien N.; Krakovska, Olga; Matta, Ajay; DeSouza, Leroi V.; Romaschin, Alexander D.; Colgan, Terence J.; Siu, K. W. Michael
Background The number of patients with endometrial carcinoma (EmCa) with advanced stage or high histological grade is increasing and prognosis has not improved for over the last decade. There is an urgent need for the discovery of novel molecular targets for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of EmCa, which will have the potential to improve the clinical strategy and outcome of this disease. Methodology and Results We used a “drill-down” proteomics approach to facilitate the identification of novel molecular targets for diagnosis, prognosis and/or therapeutic intervention for EmCa. Based on peptide ions identified and their retention times in the first LC-MS/MS analysis, an exclusion list was generated for subsequent iterations. A total of 1529 proteins have been identified below the Proteinpilot® 5% error threshold from the seven sets of iTRAQ experiments performed. On average, the second iteration added 78% new peptides to those identified after the first run, while the third iteration added 36% additional peptides. Of the 1529 proteins identified, only 40 satisfied our criteria for significant differential expression in EmCa in comparison to normal proliferative tissues. These proteins included metabolic enzymes (pyruvate kinase M2 and lactate dehydrogenase A); calcium binding proteins (S100A6, calcyphosine and calumenin), and proteins involved in regulating inflammation, proliferation and invasion (annexin A1, interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3, alpha-1-antitrypsin, macrophage capping protein and cathepsin B). Network analyses revealed regulation of these molecular targets by c-myc, Her2/neu and TNF alpha, suggesting intervention with these pathways may be a promising strategy for the development of novel molecular targeted therapies for EmCa. Conclusions Our analyses revealed the significance of drill-down proteomics approach in combination with iTRAQ to overcome some of the limitations of current proteomics strategies. This study led to the
Tsednee, Munkhtsetseg; Huang, Yu-Chen; Chen, Yet-Ran; Yeh, Kuo-Chen
Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is used to analyze metal species in a variety of samples. Here, we describe an application for identifying metal species by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) with the release of free metals from the corresponding metal–ligand complexes. The MS/MS data were used to elucidate the possible fragmentation pathways of different metal–deoxymugineic acid (–DMA) and metal–nicotianamine (–NA) complexes and select the product ions with highest abundance that may be useful for quantitative multiple reaction monitoring. This method can be used for identifying different metal–ligand complexes, especially for metal species whose mass spectra peaks are clustered close together. Different metal–DMA/NA complexes were simultaneously identified under different physiological pH conditions with this method. We further demonstrated the application of the technique for different plant samples and with different MS instruments. PMID:27240899
Zhang, Er-Fei; Ling, Yun; Yin, Zi; Zhang, Qing
Triterpene saponins in medicinal plants attract scientific attentions for their structural diversity and significant bioactivities. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) method is used to rapidly separate and identify triterpene saponins from the extract of Ardisia mamillata Hance (AMH). In the full scan mass spectrum, the accurate determination of molecular formula is obtained by the predominant ion [M + HCOO] - in negative ion mode. As a result, 30 triterpene saponins are identified or tentatively identified in the plant extract. Of these, 17 triterpene saponins are new compounds. In conclusion, the HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS is an efficient technique to separate and identify triterpene saponins in complex matrices of medicinal plant.
Shen, Bingbing; Zhou, Rongrong; Yang, Yupei; Li, Jiayu; Liang, Xuejuan; Chen, Lin; Huang, Luqi; Zhang, Shuihan
This paper intends to identify the antimicrobial activity compounds from the deciduous leaves of Malus doumeri (Dong Li Tea) by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. The ethanol extracts of Malus doumeri were partitioned into petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fraction, respectively. The antimicrobial screening experiments showed that ethyl acetate fraction has a certain antibacterial activity by inhibition zone method in vitro. And then we used the HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS method to verify the identities of bioactive compounds. Finally, 41 compounds were determined and 11 of which were firstly reported in this plant. Notably, compounds (32, 34, 38) are new dihydrochalcones, and three chlorogenic acid analogues (10, 13, 17) may be potential antimicrobial active ingredient. Which is of great significance to the isolation of novel compounds and the discovery of new natural preservative candidates from the deciduous leaves of Malus doumeri.
Zou, Hong-Yan; Luo, Jun; Xu, De-Ran; Kong, Ling-Yi
'Naoyanghua', composed of the flowers of Rhododendron molle G. Don, is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely known for its toxicity. Grayanane-type diterpenoids are the main active ingredients in R. molle, as well as possibly their toxicity: they are, however, difficult to isolate and analyse using common chromatographic methods, due to their small amounts and absence of conjugated groups, such as phenyl and α, β-unsaturated ketone. To establish a highly sensitive, selective and reliable method for the qualitative evaluation of trace diterpenoids in the flowers of R. molle by using tandem solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS/MS). Tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) was undertaken using a polyamide cartridge and a C18E cartridge in succession to enrich the trace diterpenoids. HPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS/MS was used to determine the fragmentation patterns of diterpenoids and to tentatively characterise their fragmentation pathways. HPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS/MS detected a total of 14 diterpenoids, eight of which were identified by comparison with literature sources and six based on fragmentation analysis. Among the latter six, rhodojaponin VI-3-glucoside was tentatively identified as a new diterpenoid glycoside and rhodojaponin VII, rhodojaponin IV and rhodojaponin I were reported from R. molle for the first time. By qualitative research of diterpenoids in this plant by HPLC-ESI/QTOF/MS/MS, a reliable methodology for the analysis of these active constituents of R. molle was established for the first time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Xia, Qing; Wang, Hong-xia; Wang, Jie; Liu, Bing-yu; Hu, Mei-ru; Zhang, Xue-min; Shen, Bei-fen
To identify two differentiation-associated proteins induced by rhIL-6 in M1 mouse myeloid leukemia cells. Protein spots were excised from 2-D gels and digested in-gel with trypsin. The trypsin lysis products were first analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) through peptide mass fingerprinting and then performed peptide sequencing by nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS/MS). The database search was finished with the Mascot search engine (http://www.matrixscience.co.uk) using the data processed through MaxEnt3 and MasSeq. The two proteins were not revealed by peptide mass fingerprint using MALDI-TOF-MS, while they were respectively identified as Destrin and Putative protein after the sequence of their trypic peptides were obtained by the nano-ESI-MS/MS techniques. Nano-ESI-MS/MS technique can successfully identify the two differentiation-associated proteins induced by rhIL-6 and has great advantage in protein analysis.
Paz, Tiago Antunes; dos Santos, Vânia A F F M; Inácio, Marielle Cascaes; Pina, Edieidia Souza; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Furlan, Maysa
Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Peritassa campestris (Celastraceae) was achieved from seed cotyledons cultured in semisolid Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 2% sucrose, 0.01% PVP, and 4.0 mg L⁻¹ IBA. Culture period on accumulation of biomass and quinone-methide triterpene maytenin in adventitious root were investigated. The accumulation of maytenin in these roots was compared with its accumulation in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse (one year old). A rapid detection and identification of maytenin by direct injection into an atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS/MS) were performed without prior chromatographic separation. In vitro, the greatest accumulation of biomass occurred within 60 days of culture. The highest level of maytenin--972.11 μ g·g⁻¹ dry weight--was detected at seven days of cultivation; this value was 5.55-fold higher than that found in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse.
Paz, Tiago Antunes; dos Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Inácio, Marielle Cascaes; Pina, Edieidia Souza; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares; Furlan, Maysa
Establishment of adventitious root cultures of Peritassa campestris (Celastraceae) was achieved from seed cotyledons cultured in semisolid Woody Plant Medium (WPM) supplemented with 2% sucrose, 0.01% PVP, and 4.0 mg L−1 IBA. Culture period on accumulation of biomass and quinone-methide triterpene maytenin in adventitious root were investigated. The accumulation of maytenin in these roots was compared with its accumulation in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse (one year old). A rapid detection and identification of maytenin by direct injection into an atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS/MS) were performed without prior chromatographic separation. In vitro, the greatest accumulation of biomass occurred within 60 days of culture. The highest level of maytenin—972.11 μg·g−1 dry weight—was detected at seven days of cultivation; this value was 5.55-fold higher than that found in the roots of seedlings grown in a greenhouse. PMID:24205504
Oliveira, Tiago S; Murphy, Mark; Mendola, Nicholas; Wong, Virginia; Carlson, Doreen; Waring, Linda
Two USEPA Regional Laboratories developed direct-injection LC/MS/MS methods to measure Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in water matrices. Combined, the laboratories were prepared to analyze 185 PPCPs (with 74 overlapping) belonging to more than 20 therapeutical categories with reporting limits at low part-per-trillion. In partnership with Suffolk County in NY, the laboratories conducted PPCP analysis on 72 samples belonging to 4 Water Systems (WS). Samples were collected at different stages of the WS (hospital effluents, WWTP influents/effluents) to assess PPCP relevance in hospital discharges, impact on WWTP performance and potential ecological risk posed by analytes not eliminated during treatment. Major findings include: a) acceptable accuracy between the two laboratories for most overlapping PPCPs with better agreement for higher concentrations; b) the measurement of PPCPs throughout all investigated WS with total PPCP concentrations ranging between 324 and 965 μg L(-1) for hospital effluent, 259 and 573 μg L(-1) for WWTP influent and 19 and 118 μg L(-1) for WWTP effluent; c) the variable contribution of hospital effluents to the PPCP loads into the WWTP influents (contribution ranging between 1% (WS-2) and 59% (WS-3); d) the PPCP load reduction after treatment for all WS reaching more than 95% for WS using activated sludge processes (WS-2 and WS-4), with inflow above 6500 m(3) d(-1), and having a lower percentage of hospital effluent in the WWTP influent; e) the relevance of four therapeutical categories for the PPCP load in WWTP effluents (analgesics, antidiabetics, antiepileptics and psychoanaleptics); and f) the risk quotients calculated using screening-level Predicted Non Effect Concentration indicate that WWTP effluents contain 33 PPCPs with potential medium to high ecological risk. To our knowledge no other monitoring investigation published in the scientific literature uses direct-injection methods to cover as many PPCPs and
Highly efficient proteome analysis with combination of protein pre-fractionation by preparative microscale solution isoelectric focusing and identification by μRPLC-MS/MS with serially coupled long microcolumn.
Tao, Dingyin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui
To improve the efficiency of proteome analysis, a strategy with the combination of protein pre-fractionation by preparative microscale solution isoelectric focusing, peptide separation by μRPLC with serially coupled long microcolumn and protein identification by ESI-MS/MS was proposed. By preparative microscale solution isoelectric focusing technique, proteins extracted from whole cell lysates of Escherichia coli were fractionated into five chambers divided by isoelectric membranes, respectively with pH range from 3.0 to 4.6, 4.6 to 5.4, 5.4 to 6.2, 6.2 to 7.0 and 7.0 to 10.0. Compared to the traditional on-gel IFF, the protein recovery could be obviously improved to over 95%. Subsequently, the enriched and fractionated proteins in each chamber were digested, and further separated by a 30-cm long serially coupled RP microcolumn. Through the detection by ESI-MS/MS, about 200 proteins were identified in each fraction, and in total 835 proteins were identified even with one-dimensional μRPLC-MS/MS system. All these results demonstrate that by such a combination strategy, highly efficient proteome analysis could be achieved, not only due to the in-solution protein enrichment and pre-fractionation with improved protein recovery but also owing to the increased separation capacity of serially coupled long μRPLC columns. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Lehmann, Roland; Schmidt, André; Pastuschek, Jana; Müller, Mario M; Fritzsche, Andreas; Dieterle, Stefan; Greb, Robert R; Markert, Udo R; Slevogt, Hortense
The proteomic analysis of complex body fluids by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis requires the selection of suitable sample preparation techniques and optimal parameter settings in data analysis software packages to obtain reliable results. Proteomic analysis of follicular fluid, as a representative of a complex body fluid similar to serum or plasma, is difficult as it contains a vast amount of high abundant proteins and a variety of proteins with different concentrations. However, the accessibility of this complex body fluid for LC-MS/MS analysis is an opportunity to gain insights into the status, the composition of fertility-relevant proteins including immunological factors or for the discovery of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for, for example, the treatment of infertility. In this study, we compared different sample preparation methods (FASP, eFASP and in-solution digestion) and three different data analysis software packages (Proteome Discoverer with SEQUEST, Mascot and MaxQuant with Andromeda) combined with semi- and full-tryptic databank search options to obtain a maximum coverage of the follicular fluid proteome. We found that the most comprehensive proteome coverage is achieved by the eFASP sample preparation method using SDS in the initial denaturing step and the SEQUEST-based semi-tryptic data analysis. In conclusion, we have developed a fractionation-free methodical workflow for in depth LC-MS/MS-based analysis for the standardized investigation of human follicle fluid as an important representative of a complex body fluid. Taken together, we were able to identify a total of 1392 proteins in follicular fluid. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tang, Chang-Bo; Zhang, Wan-Gang; Wang, Yao-Song; Xing, Lu-Juan; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhou, Guang-Hong
Triple TOF MS/MS was used to identify adducts between rosmarinic acid (RosA)-derived quinones and meat proteins in a gel model under oxidative stress. Seventy-five RosA-modified peptides responded to 67 proteins with adduction of RosA. RosA conjugated with different amino acids in proteins, and His, Arg, and Lys adducts with RosA were identified for the first time in meat. A total of 8 peptides containing Cys, 14 peptides containing His, 48 peptides containing Arg, 64 peptides containing Lys, and 5 peptides containing N-termini that which participated in adduction reaction with RosA were identified, respectively. Seventy-seven adduction sites were subdivided into all adducted proteins including 2 N-terminal adduction sites, 3 Cys adduction sites, 4 His adduction sites, 29 Arg adduction sites, and 39 Lys adduction sites. Site occupancy analyses showed that approximately 80.597% of the proteins carried a single RosA-modified site, 14.925% retained two sites, 1.492% contained three sites, and the rest 2.985% had four or more sites. Large-scale triple TOF MS/MS mapping of RosA-adducted sites reveals the adduction regulations of quinone and different amino acids as well as the adduction ratios, which clarify phenol-protein adductions and pave the way for industrial meat processing and preservation.
MacMahon, Shaun; Ridge, Clark D; Begley, Timothy H
A new analytical method has been developed and validated for the detection and quantification of 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD) esters in edible oils. The target compounds are potentially carcinogenic contaminants formed during the processing of edible oils. As the 2-MCPD esters that occur most frequently in refined edible oils were not commercially available, standards were synthesized with identity and purity (95+%) confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and (1)H NMR. Target analytes are separated from edible oil matrices using a two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extracts are then analyzed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI). The method has been validated for 11 2-MCPD diesters and 3 2-MCPD monoesters in soybean oil, olive oil, and palm oil using an external calibration curve. The ranges of average recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSD) across the three oil matrices at three spiking concentrations are 79-106% (3-13% RSD) for the 2-MCPD diesters and 72-108% (4-17% RSD) for the 2-MCPD monoesters, with limits of quantitation at or below 30 ng/g for the diesters and 90 ng/g for the monoesters.
Ruan, Chuanfen; Bai, Xuelian; Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Shuangshuang; Jiang, Yingying
Endophytic microbe has been proved to be one of rich sources of bioactive natural products with potential application for new drug and pesticide discovery. One cyclodepsipeptide, beauvericin, was firstly isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusarium oxysporum 5-19 endophytic on Edgeworthia chrysantha Linn. Its chemical structure was unambiguously identified by a combination of spectroscopic methods, such as HRESI-MS and 1H and 13C NMR. ESI-MS/MS was successfully used to elucidate the splitting decomposition route of the positive molecule ion of beauvericin. Antimicrobial results showed that this cyclodepsipeptide had inhibitory effect on three human pathogenic microbes, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. In particular, beauvericin exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity against S. aureus with MIC values of 3.91 μM, which had similar effect with that of the positive control amoxicillin. PMID:27413733
Buszewska-Forajta, Magdalena; Siluk, Danuta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Markuszewski, Michał J; Kaliszan, Roman
In recent years biologically active compounds isolated from insects call special interest of drug researchers. According to some Polish etnopharmacological observations, secretion from the grasshopper's abdomen (Orthoptera family) is believed to speed up the process of wound healing. In the present work we focused on determination of main components of the lipid fraction of material from grasshopper abdomen using GC-MS/MS. Samples were qualitatively analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction pretreatment methods were used to concentrate and fractionate the compounds from the insect. In the derivatized fractions ca. 350 compounds were identified, including substances of known biological activity. The potential agents affecting wound healing have been indicated. A set of compounds characteristic for all the studied Chorthippus spp., have been identified. Data analysis revealed different lipidomic profiles of grasshoppers depending on the insects origin and collection area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rashad, Hend; Metwally, Fateheya M; Ezzat, Shahira M; Salama, Maha M; Hasheesh, Adel; Abdel Motaal, Amira
Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae) fruits are traditionally known for the treatment of hyperglycaemia. Several in vitro and in vivo studies proposed some mechanisms of action. However, clinical trials in human beings were never reported to date. To investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of the 70% ethanol extract of the pericarps of B. aegyptiaca (BE) within a nutritional intervention in elderly people. Ultra-performance electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis was used for metabolic profiling of BE which was incorporated in hard gelatine capsules (400 mg/day) and tested on 30 type 2 diabetes (T2D) Egyptian patients for 8 weeks. According to sex, age and body mass index participants were divided into two equivalent groups, placebo and treatment. Thirteen compounds were identified in BE using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis among which five steroidal saponins, seven phenolic compounds and a sterol glucoside. At the end of the 8-week treatment, the treated group showed 26.88% decrease in 2 h postprandial plasma glucose relative to 2.6% increase in the placebo group, while fasting plasma glucose was reduced to 10.3%. Treatment with BE capsules for 8 weeks produced significant reduction in the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 9.0, 12.76 and 21.35%, respectively, with 29.8% increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were reduced by 42.6 and 43.3%, respectively. Administration of the BE capsules to T2D resulted in significant improvements in the glycaemic markers and the lipid profile, without adverse effects or hypoglycaemia.
Coelho, Margarida; Mendes, Vera M; Lima, Inês S; Martins, Fátima O; Fernandes, Ana B; Macedo, M Paula; Jones, John G; Manadas, Bruno
A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a triple-quadrupole scan mode was developed and comprehensively validated for the determination of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [U-(13)C6]glucose enrichments from dried blood spots (DBS) without prior derivatization. The method is demonstrated with dried blood spots obtained from rats administered with a primed-constant infusion of [U-(13)C6]glucose and an oral glucose load enriched with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose. The sensitivity is sufficient for analysis of the equivalent to <5μL of blood and the overall method was accurate and precise for the determination of DBS isotopic enrichments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pathan, Mohashin; Samuel, Monisha; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Mathivanan, Suresh
Recent advances in high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS) has resulted in the accumulation of high quality data. Paralleled with these advances in instrumentation, bioinformatics software have been developed to analyze such quality datasets. In spite of these advances, data analysis in mass spectrometry still remains critical for protein identification. In addition, the complexity of the generated MS/MS spectra, unpredictable nature of peptide fragmentation, sequence annotation errors, and posttranslational modifications has impeded the protein identification process. In a typical MS data analysis, about 60 % of the MS/MS spectra remains unassigned. While some of these could attribute to the low quality of the MS/MS spectra, a proportion can be classified as high quality. Further analysis may reveal how much of the unassigned MS spectra attribute to search space, sequence annotation errors, mutations, and/or posttranslational modifications. In this chapter, the tools used to identify proteins and ways to assign unassigned tandem MS spectra are discussed.
Edlund, Per Olof; Baranczewski, Pawel
The metabolism of the 5HT2c agonist BVT.2938, 1-(3-[2-[(2-ethoxy-3-pyridinyl)oxy]ethoxy]-2-pyrazinyl)-2(R)-methylpiperazine, was studied in vitro by incubation with rat, monkey and human liver microsomes as well as cryopreserved hepatocytes, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS analysis on a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer for structural elucidation. Deuterium exchange on column was used to differentiate between hydroxylation and N-oxidation. Liver microsomes were incubated in two different buffer systems with optimum conditions for cytochrome P450 activity or UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity. The major phase I metabolites of BVT.2938 originated from O-deethylation of the pyridine ring, O-dealkylation of the ethylene bridge, pyrazine ring hydroxylation, hydroxylation of pyridine ring and piperazine ring N-hydroxylation. When a hydrogen carbonate buffer system was supplemented with UDPGA, the piperazine carbamoyl-glucuronide from the parent compound was identified together with several glucuronides of the phase I metabolites. The metabolite pattern in hepatocytes was similar to microsomes except that the sulphate at the N-position of the piperazine ring of BVT.2938 was identified, while the carbamoyl-glucuronide was missing. Excellent correlation was obtained between radioactivity detection and the chemiluminescent nitrogen detector when the nitrogen content of the analytes was taken into account.
Lin, Lianzhu; Yang, Qingyun; Zhao, Kun; Zhao, Mouming
Adlay bran free phenolic extract has been previously demonstrated to possess potent xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity. The aims of this study were to characterize the free phenolic profile of adlay bran and investigate the structure-activity relationship, underlying mechanism and interaction of phenolic acids as XOD inhibitors. A total of twenty phenolics including ten phenolic acids, two coumarins, two phenolic aldedhyes and six flavonoids were identified in a phenolic compound-guided separation by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Adlay bran free phenolic extract possessed strong XOD inhibitory activity related to hydroxycinnamic acids with methoxyl groups. The hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were the main forces in the binding of adlay phenolics to XOD. Sinapic acid, identified in adlay bran for the first time, possessed strong XOD inhibitory activity in a mixed non-competitive manner, and synergistic effects with other adlay phenolic acids at low concentrations, and would be a promising agent for preventing and treating hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Melough, Melissa M; Lee, Sang Gil; Cho, Eunyoung; Kim, Kijoon; Provatas, Anthony A; Perkins, Christopher; Park, Min Kyung; Qureshi, Abrar; Chun, Ock K
Furocoumarins are a class of photoactive compounds found in several plant species and may be responsible for the observed association between consumption of citrus products and the risk of skin cancer. Furocoumarin contents of several foods have been reported previously, but no comprehensive database of furocoumarin content of foods is currently available. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the distribution of furocoumarins in popularly consumed foods in the U.S. Samples of three varieties of each of 29 foods known or suspected to contain furocoumarins were purchased, prepared for analysis using a solid phase extraction method, and analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS for the presence of seven major furocoumarins. Most foods measured contained more than one furocoumarin, and some contained all seven of the furocoumarins examined. Total furocoumarin concentration was greatest in fresh parsley (23215 ng/g), grapefruits (21858 ng/g), lime juice (14580 ng/g), grapefruit juice (95341 ng/g), and limes (9151 ng/g). Bergamottin was found in the greatest proportion of foods sampled (23 of 29), followed by bergapten (19 of 29) and 6'7'-dihydroxybergamottin (16 of 29). These measurements will enable more accurate estimation of dietary furocoumarin exposure and will strengthen future epidemiological work investigating the relationships between furocoumarin intake and health outcomes.
Gao, Qiong; Zhang, Yufeng; Wo, Siukwan; Zuo, Zhong
The phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan arctigenin, a key component found in Arctium lappa, or burdock, has been reported with a variety of therapeutic effects including anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antivirus effects. Using LC/MS/MS, three novel metabolites of arctigenin, namely, arctigenic acid, arctigenin-4-O'-glucuronide, and 4-O-demethylarctigenin were identified after oral administration of arctigenin in rats for the first time. Another potential metabolite of arctigenin, arctigenin-4'-O-sulfate, was identified in vitro but not in vivo. Structure of arctigenic acid, the major metabolite of arctigenin, was confirmed by 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR. Rapid hydrolysis in plasma was identified as the major metabolic pathway of arctigenin after its oral administration, with Vmax, Km, and Clint in rat plasma determined to be 2.21 ± 0.12 nmol/min/mg, 89.12 ± 9.44 µM, and 24.74 µL/min/mg, respectively. Paraoxonase 1 was further confirmed to be the enzyme responsible for arctigenin hydrolysis, with Vmax, Km, and Clint determined to be 55.39 ± 1.49 nmol/min/mg, 300.3 ± 10.86 µM, and 184.45 µL/min/mg, respectively. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kuo, Chu-Wei; Guu, Shih-Yun; Khoo, Kay-Hooi
High sensitivity identification of sulfated glycans carried on specific sites of glycoproteins is an important requisite for investigation of molecular recognition events involved in diverse biological processes. However, aiming for resolving site-specific glycosylation of sulfated glycopeptides by direct LC-MS2 sequencing is technically most challenging. Other than the usual limiting factors such as lower abundance and ionization efficiency compared to analysis of non-glycosylated peptides, confident identification of sulfated glycopeptides among the more abundant non-sulfated glycopeptides requires additional considerations in the selective enrichment and detection strategies. Metal oxide has been applied to enrich phosphopeptides and sialylated glycopeptides, but its use to capture sulfated glycopeptides has not been investigated. Likewise, various complementary MS2 fragmentation modes have yet to be tested against sialylated and non-sialylated sulfoglycopeptides due to limited appropriate sample availability. In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of sequencing tryptic sulfated N-glycopeptide and its MS2 fragmentation characteristics by first optimizing the enrichment methods to allow efficient LC-MS detection and MS2 analysis by a combination of CID, HCD, ETD, and EThcD on hybrid and tribrid Orbitrap instruments. Characteristic sulfated glyco-oxonium ions and direct loss of sulfite from precursors were detected as evidences of sulfate modification. It is anticipated that the technical advances demonstrated in this study would allow a feasible extension of our sulfoglycomic analysis to sulfoglycoproteomics. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat
Sarcoplasmic proteins from 3 fish species were fractionated by 50% to 70% ammonium sulfate precipitation. Lyophilized fractionated sarcoplasmic proteins of threadfin bream (TB-SP), bigeye snapper (BS-SP), and yellow croaker (YC-SP) showed 80% to 92% trypsin inhibitory activity. Trypsin inhibitory activity staining gel electrophoresis revealed bands at 32, 33, 37, 45, 48, and 50 kDa for the 3 species, and a band at 95 kDa was observed for TB-SP and YC-SP. Alpha-1-antitrypsin with molecular mass of 45 to 50 kDa was identified in YC-SP by gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS). Other major protein bands appeared on trypsin activity staining included phosphorylase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase with molecular mass of 95 and 35 to 40 kDa, respectively. But, these 3 proteins did not show true trypsin inhibitory activity. Trypsin inhibitory activity of fractionated sarcoplasmic proteins showed good stability, with >80% activity retained at 60 °C and up to 0.6 M NaCl. TB-SP showed the highest inhibitory activity against autolysis of washed threadfin bream mince at 65 °C. Addition of 0.5% or 1% TB-SP improved textural properties of threadfin bream surimi gels preincubated at 37 or 65 °C followed by heating at 90 °C. Therefore, TB-SP could be a promising protein ingredient for enhancing surimi gel texture. Threadfin bream, bigeye snapper, and yellow croaker are the main species used as raw material for tropical surimi production. Sarcoplasmic proteins from 3 species contain trypsin inhibitor(s) that can minimize proteolytic activity and improve gel texture of proteinase-laden fish muscle. Therefore, sarcoplasmic proteins that are byproducts from surimi processing of these species could be recovered, fractionated, and utilized as a functional protein ingredient. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Bhatt, Vinod; Sharma, Sushila; Kumar, Neeraj; Sharma, Upendra; Singh, Bikram
The current study presents isolation and characterization of twelve compounds including catechin (1), isovitexin (2), hesperidin (3), psoralin (4), eudesmin (5), kobusin (6), fargesin (7), sesamin (8), asarinin (9), planispine-A (10), α-sanshool (11) and vitexin (12), from the leaves of Zanthoxylum armatum. Further, two rapid and simple ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (UPLC-DAD) methods were developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of isolated compounds from Z. armatum leaves. These analytical methods were validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.06-0.21μg/mL and 0.19-0.69μg/mL, respectively. The validated method was linear (R 2 ≥0.9906), precise in terms of peak area (intra-day RSDs <3.8% and inter-day RSDs <2.7%), and accurate (109.6-92.5%). This is the first report on the isolation and quantification of 1, 2, 4 and 12 in Z. armatum and 3 in Zanthoxylum genus. The methods: were successfully applied to assess the quality of samples collected from different locations of Himachal Pradesh during summer and winter season. The results demonstrated that flavonoids and furofuran lignans were the major constituents in Z. armatum leaves. The developed methods: were further applied for tandem electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) and total eighteen compounds were identified including phenolic acid, flavonoids, furofuran lignans, coumarin and isobutyl amides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brandão, Pedro Francisco; Ramos, Rui Miguel; Almeida, Paulo Joaquim; Rodrigues, José António
A new approach is proposed for the extraction and determination of carbonyl compounds in solid samples, such as wood or cork materials. Cork products are used as building materials due to their singular characteristics; however, little is known about its aldehyde emission potential and content. Sample preparation was done by using a gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME) device for the direct extraction of volatile aldehydes and derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Analytical determination of the extracts was done by HPLC-UV, with detection at 360 nm. The developed methodology proved to be a reliable tool for aldehyde determination in cork agglomerate samples with suitable method features. Mass spectrometry studies were performed for each sample, which enabled the identification, in the extracts, of the derivatization products of a total of 13 aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, furfural, propanal, 5-methylfurfural, butanal, benzaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal, trans-2-heptenal, heptanal, octanal, and trans-2-nonenal) and 4 ketones (3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetone, cyclohexanone, and acetophenone). This new analytical methodology simultaneously proved to be consistent for the identification and determination of aldehydes in cork agglomerates and a very simple and straightforward procedure.
Huber, Charlotte A; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Zowawi, Hosam M; Kvaskoff, David; Reed, Sarah; McNamara, John F; McCarthy, Kate L; Harris, Patrick; Toh, Benjamin; Wailan, Alexander M; Paterson, David L
It has been described that the sensitivity of the Carba NP test may be low in the case of OXA-48-like carbapenamases and mass spectrometry based methods as well as a colorimetry based method have been described as alternatives. We evaluated 84 Enterobacteriaceae isolates including 31 OXA-48-like producing isolates and 13 isolates that produced either an imipenemase (IMP; n=8), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM; n=3), or Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC; n=2), as well as 40 carbapenemase negative Enterobacteriaceae isolates. We used the Neo-Rapid CARB kit, assessing the results with the unaided eye and compared it with a colorimetric approach. Furthermore, we incubated the isolates in growth media with meropenem and measured the remaining meropenem after one and 2h of incubation, respectively, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Whilst all carbapenemase producing isolates with the exception of the OXA-244 producer tested positive for both the Neo-rapid CARB test using the unaided eye or colorimetry, and the 13 isolates producing either IMP, NDM or KPC hydrolysed the meropenem in the media almost completely after 2h of incubation, the 31 OXA-48-like producing isolates exhibited very variable hydrolytic activity when incubated in growth media with meropenem. In our study, the Neo-Rapid CARB test yielded a sensitivity of 98% for both the traditional and the colorimetric approach with a specificity of 95% and 100% respectively. Our results indicate that the Neo-Rapid CARB test may have use for the detection of OXA-48 type carbapenemases and that it may be particularly important to ensure bacterial lysis for the detection of these weaker hydrolysers. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Filipe, O M S; Santos, Sónia A O; Domingues, M Rosário M; Vidal, M M; Silvestre, A J D; Neto, C P; Santos, E B H
In this study, the relevance of photodegradation processes on the persistence of the fungicide thiram in waters was investigated. The photodegradation of thiram in Milli-Q water and in aqueous solutions of humic and fulvic acids, as well as the photodegradation in spiked river water were studied. Both pure thiram and one of its commercial formulations were used to prepare the solutions which were irradiated in a solar light simulator. In general, thiram photodegradation follows pseudo-first order kinetics. The half-life time of thiram 2mgL(-1) in Milli-Q water was 28min. However, the degradation rate of thiram was significantly increased (p=0.02) by the inert components of the thiram commercial formulation as well as by commercial humic acids and by fulvic acids isolated from river water (p<0.004). Thus, the half-life time of thiram decreased to 24min in the presence of the inert formulation components, while, in the presence of both humic and fulvic acids (10mgL(-1)) it decreased to 22min. Furthermore, thiram photodegradation in natural river water showed that there is a significant enhancement of the degradation rate constant of thiram relatively to Milli-Q water, corresponding to a decrease of about 38% in its half-life time. This increase of the degradation rate in river water seems to be higher than that observed in the presence of FA, suggesting that beyond organic matter, other natural river components can increase the thiram photodegradation rate. These results allow us to conclude that photodegradation by solar radiation can be an important degradation pathway of thiram in natural waters. HPLC-MS/MS allowed to identify, for the first time, three products of the photodegradation of thiram in aqueous solution. Three compounds were identified and their structure was corroborated by the MS(n) spectra fragmentation profile. Pathways for the formation of the products from thiram photodegradation are proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF) mass spectrometry is increasingly utilized for rapid top-down proteomic identification of proteins. This identification may involve analysis of either a pure protein or a protein mixture. For analysis of a pure protein...
Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) Study for the Identification and Characterization of In Vivo Metabolites of Cisplatin in Rat Kidney Cancer Tissues: Online Hydrogen/Deuterium (H/D) Exchange Study.
Bandu, Raju; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Lee, Joon Won; Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kwang Pyo
In vivo rat kidney tissue metabolites of an anticancer drug, cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [II]) (CP) which is used for the treatment of testicular, ovarian, bladder, cervical, esophageal, small cell lung, head and neck cancers, have been identified and characterized by using liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) in combination with on line hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. To identify in vivo metabolites, kidney tissues were collected after intravenous administration of CP to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group). The tissue samples were homogenized and extracted using newly optimized metabolite extraction procedure which involves liquid extraction with phosphate buffer containing ethyl acetate and protein precipitation with mixed solvents of methanol-water-chloroform followed by solid-phase clean-up procedure on Oasis HLB 3cc cartridges and then subjected to LC/ESI-HRMS analysis. A total of thirty one unknown in vivo metabolites have been identified and the structures of metabolites were elucidated using LC-MS/MS experiments combined with accurate mass measurements. Online HDX experiments have been used to further support the structural characterization of metabolites. The results showed that CP undergoes a series of ligand exchange biotransformation reactions with water and other nucleophiles like thio groups of methionine, cysteine, acetylcysteine, glutathione and thioether. This is the first research approach focused on the structure elucidation of biotransformation products of CP in rats, and the identification of metabolites provides essential information for further pharmacological and clinical studies of CP, and may also be useful to develop various effective new anticancer agents.
Caballero, Gerardo M; D'Angelo, Carlos; Fraguío, Mariá Sol; Centurión, Osvaldo Teme
The purpose of this study is to develop a sensitive and specific alternative to current gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) selected ion monitoring confirmation methods of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (cTHC) in human urine samples, in the context of doping analysis. An identification procedure based on the comparison, among suspicious and control samples, of the relative abundances of cTHC selected product ions obtained by GC-tandem MS in an ion trap is presented. The method complies with the identification criteria for qualitative assays established by sports authorities; the comparison procedure is precise, reproducible, specific, and sensitive, thus indicating that it is fit for the purpose of identification accordingly to World Antidoping Agency requirements.
Online identification of chlorogenic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, and flavonoids in the Brazilian arnica Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae) leaves by HPLC-DAD-MS and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS and a validated HPLC-DAD method for their simultaneous analysis.
Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Lopes, Norberto P
Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) is a plant, endemic to Brazil, with occurrence restricted to the "cerrado" biome. Traditional medicine employs alcoholic and aqueous-alcoholic preparations of leaves from this species for the treatment of wounds, inflammation, and pain. Furthermore, leaves of L. ericoides are also widely used as flavorings for the Brazilian traditional spirit "cachaça". A method has been developed for the extraction and HPLC-DAD analysis of the secondary metabolites of L. ericoides leaves. This analytical method was validated with 11 secondary metabolites chosen to represent the different classes and polarities of secondary metabolites occurring in L. ericoides leaves, and good responses were obtained for each validation parameter analyzed. The same HPLC analytical method was also employed for online secondary metabolite identification by HPLC-DAD-MS and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS, leading to the identification of di- C-glucosylflavones, coumaroylglucosylflavonols, flavone, flavanones, flavonols, chalcones, goyazensolide, and eremantholide-type sesquiterpene lactones and positional isomeric series of chlorogenic acids possessing caffeic and/or ferulic moieties. Among the 52 chromatographic peaks observed, 36 were fully identified and 8 were attributed to compounds belonging to series of caffeoylferuloylquinic and diferuloylquinic acids that could not be individualized from each other.
Ferrer, I.; Heine, C.E.; Thurman, E.M.
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) is a popular over-the-counter antihistaminic medication used for the treatment of allergies. After consumption, excretion, and subsequent discharge from wastewater treatment plants, it is possible that diphenhydramine will be found in environmental sediments due to its hydrophobicity (log P = 3.27). This work describes a methodology for the first unequivocal determination of diphenhydramine bound to environmental sediments. The drug is removed from the sediments by accelerated solvent extraction and then analyzed by liquid chromatography with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and an ion trap mass spectrometer. This combination of techniques provided unequivocal identification and confirmation of diphenhydramine in two sediment samples. The accurate mass measurements of the protonated molecules were m/z 256.1703 and 256.1696 compared to the calculated mass of m/z 256.1701, resulting in errors of 0.8 and 2.3 ppm. This mass accuracy was sufficient to verify the elemental composition of diphenhydramine in each sample. Furthermore, accurate mass measurements of the primary fragment ion were obtained. This work is the first application of time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of diphenhydramine and shows the accumulation of an over-the-counter medication in aquatic sediments at five different locations.
Gobo, Luciana Assis; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Temp, Fernanda; Viana, Carine; Mello, Carlos Fernando
An analytical method utilizing liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization has been developed for the identification of prostaglandins (PGs) in cerebral tissues. The five compounds identified (thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin D2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and prostaglandin F2 alpha) are cellular mediators of inflammation and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes by acting on membrane receptors on the surfaces of target cells. The parameters of the electrospray ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds studied. The limits of detection ranged from 0.25 to 1.09 μg L -1 , and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.83 to 3.64 μg L -1 . The method was validated and applied to samples of brain tissue from five mice. The sample concentrations of the four prostaglandins quantified ranged from 375 ȵg L -1 for prostaglandin E2 to 6602 μg L -1 for prostaglandin D2. An advantage of this work that should be emphasized is the fast response of the method, which allows to obtaining the lipid profile after a 3 min chromatographic run. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia
A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…
Ultrasonic-assisted extraction combined with sample preparation and analysis using LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed the identification of 24 new phenolic compounds in pecan nut shell [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] extracts.
Hilbig, Josiane; Alves, Victor Rodrigues; Müller, Carmen Maria Olivera; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Vitali, Luciano; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Block, Jane Mara
Ultrasonic-assisted extraction combined with statistical tools (factorial design, response surface methodology and kinetics) were used to evaluate the effects of the experimental conditions of temperature, solid-to-solvent ratio, ethanol concentration and time for the extraction of the total phenolic content from pecan nut shells. The optimal conditions for the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (with 20% v/v of ethanol) were 60 and 80 °C; solid to solvent ratio of 30 mL·g -1 (for both) and extraction time of 35 and 25 min, respectively. Using these optimize extraction conditions, 426 and 582 mg GAE·g -1 of phenolic compounds, from the aqueous and hydroalcoholic phases respectively, were obtained. In addition, the analysis of the phenolic compounds using the LC-ESI-MS/MS system allowed the identification of 29 phenolic compounds, 24 of which had not been reported in literature for this raw material yet. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS identification, quantification of polyphenols from Passiflora subpeltata fruit pulp and determination of nutritional, antioxidant, α-amylase and α-glucosidase key enzymes inhibition properties.
Shanmugam, Saravanan; Gomes, Isla Alcântara; Denadai, Marina; Dos Santos Lima, Bruno; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Narain, Narendra; Neta, Maria Terezinha Santos Leite; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Thangaraj, Parimelazhagan
The diabetic key enzymes inhibition, nutritional, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds identification of Passiflora subpeltata fruit pulp were investigated. Fifteen polyphenolic compounds including protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, eriodictyol and quercetin-3-glucoside were identified in the pulp of this species by using UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS analysis. The total carbohydrates and crude protein contents in fruit pulp were 2.62 mg glucose equivalent/g sample fruit pulp and 8.80 mg BSA equivalent/g sample fruit pulp, respectively. The fresh fruit pulp of P. subpeltata contained high total phenolic (724.76 mg GAE/g sample) content and it revealed very high DPPH • (IC 50 of 5.667 μg/mL) and ABTS +• (6794.96 μM trolox equivalent/g sample) scavenging activities. In the key enzymes assays useful for diabetic inhibition the fresh fruit pulp characterized maximum inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase IC 50 of 18.69 and 32.63 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, these results lead to conclude that this fruit specie could be very useful source in nutraceutical products preparations for Type 2 diabetic suffering humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Pamela K; Wujcik, Chad E; McGuire, Michelle K; McGuire, Mark A
Simple high-throughput procedures were developed for the direct analysis of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in human and bovine milk and human urine matrices. Samples were extracted with an acidified aqueous solution on a high-speed shaker. Stable isotope labeled internal standards were added with the extraction solvent to ensure accurate tracking and quantitation. An additional cleanup procedure using partitioning with methylene chloride was required for milk matrices to minimize the presence of matrix components that can impact the longevity of the analytical column. Both analytes were analyzed directly, without derivatization, by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using two separate precursor-to-product transitions that ensure and confirm the accuracy of the measured results. Method performance was evaluated during validation through a series of assessments that included linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, ionization effects and carryover. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were determined to be 0.1 and 10 µg/L (ppb) for urine and milk, respectively, for both glyphosate and AMPA. Mean recoveries for all matrices were within 89-107% at three separate fortification levels including the LOQ. Precision for replicates was ≤ 7.4% relative standard deviation (RSD) for milk and ≤ 11.4% RSD for urine across all fortification levels. All human and bovine milk samples used for selectivity and ionization effects assessments were free of any detectable levels of glyphosate and AMPA. Some of the human urine samples contained trace levels of glyphosate and AMPA, which were background subtracted for accuracy assessments. Ionization effects testing showed no significant biases from the matrix. A successful independent external validation was conducted using the more complicated milk matrices to demonstrate method transferability.
Stanley, Shawn M R; Foo, Hsiao Ching
A rapid, selective and robust direct-injection LC/hybrid tandem MS method has been developed for simultaneous screening of more than 250 basic drugs in the supernatant of enzyme hydrolysed equine urine. Analytes, trapped using a short HLB extraction column, are refocused and separated on a Sunfire C(18) analytical column using a controlled differential gradient generated by proportional dilution of the first column's eluent with water. Independent data acquisition (IDA) was configured to trigger a sensitive enhanced product ion (EPI) scan when a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) survey scan signal exceeded the defined criteria. The decision on whether or not to report a sample as a positive result was based upon both the presence of a MRM response within the correct retention time range and a qualitative match between the EPI spectrum obtained and the corresponding reference standard. Ninety seven percent of the drugs targeted by this method met our detection criteria when spiked into urine at 100 ng/ml; 199 were found at 10 ng/ml, 83 at 1 ng/ml and 4 at 0.1 ng/ml.
Stanley, Shawn M R; Wee, Wei Khee; Lim, Boon Huat; Foo, Hsiao Ching
Direct-injection LC-LC hybrid tandem MS methods have been developed for undertaking broad-based screening for acidic drugs in protein-precipitated plasma and neutral doping agents in equine urine. In both analyses, analytes present in the matrix were trapped using a HLB extraction column before being refocused and separated on a Chromolith RP-18e monolithic analytical column using a controlled differential gradient generated by proportional dilution of the first column's eluent with water. Each method has been optimised by the adoption of a mobile phase and gradient that was tailored to enhance ionisation in the MS source while maintaining good chromatographic behaviour for the majority of the target drugs. The analytical column eluent was fed into the heated nebulizer (HN) part of the Duospray interface attached to a 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer. Information dependent acquisition (IDA) with dynamic background subtraction (DBS) was configured to trigger a sensitive enhanced product ion (EPI) scan when a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) survey scan signal exceeded the defined criteria. Ninety-one percent of acidic drugs in protein-precipitated plasma and 80% of the neutral compounds in equine urine were detected when spiked at 10 ng/ml.
Phan, Nhu T N; Munem, Marwa; Ewing, Andrew G; Fletcher, John S
Lipids are abundant biomolecules performing central roles to maintain proper functioning of cells and biological bodies. Due to their highly complex composition, it is critical to obtain information of lipid structures in order to identify particular lipids which are relevant for a biological process or metabolic pathway under study. Among currently available molecular identification techniques, MS/MS in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging has been of high interest in the bioanalytical community as it allows visualization of intact molecules in biological samples as well as elucidation of their chemical structures. However, there have been few applications using SIMS and MS/MS owing to instrumental challenges for this capability. We performed MS and MS/MS imaging to study the lipid structures of Drosophila brain using the J105 and 40-keV Ar 4000 + gas cluster ion source, with the novelty being the use of MS/MS SIMS analysis of intact lipids in the fly brain. Glycerophospholipids were identified by MS/MS profiling. MS/MS was also used to characterize diglyceride fragment ions and to identify them as triacylglyceride fragments. Moreover, MS/MS imaging offers a unique possibility for detailed elucidation of biomolecular distribution with high accuracy based on the ion images of its fragments. This is particularly useful in the presence of interferences which disturb the interpretation of biomolecular localization. Graphical abstract MS/MS was performed during time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of Drosophila melongaster (fruit fly) to elucidate the structure and origin of different chemical species in the brain including a range of different phospholipid classes (PC, PI, PE) and di- and triacylglycerides (DAG & TAG) species where reference MS/MS spectra provided a potential means of discriminating between the isobaric [M-OH] + ion of DAGs and the [M-RCO] + ion of TAGs.
Boiteau, Rene M.; Hoyt, David W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; ...
Here, we introduce a cheminformatics approach that combines highly selective and orthogonal structure elucidation parameters; accurate mass, MS/MS (MS 2), and NMR in a single analysis platform to accurately identify unknown metabolites in untargeted studies. The approach starts with an unknown LC-MS feature, and then combines the experimental MS/MS and NMR information of the unknown to effectively filter the false positive candidate structures based on their predicted MS/MS and NMR spectra. We demonstrate the approach on a model mixture and then we identify an uncatalogued secondary metabolite in Arabidopsis thaliana. The NMR/MS 2 approach is well suited for discovery ofmore » new metabolites in plant extracts, microbes, soils, dissolved organic matter, food extracts, biofuels, and biomedical samples, facilitating the identification of metabolites that are not present in experimental NMR and MS metabolomics databases.« less
Boiteau, Rene M.; Hoyt, David W.; Nicora, Carrie D.
Here, we introduce a cheminformatics approach that combines highly selective and orthogonal structure elucidation parameters; accurate mass, MS/MS (MS 2), and NMR in a single analysis platform to accurately identify unknown metabolites in untargeted studies. The approach starts with an unknown LC-MS feature, and then combines the experimental MS/MS and NMR information of the unknown to effectively filter the false positive candidate structures based on their predicted MS/MS and NMR spectra. We demonstrate the approach on a model mixture and then we identify an uncatalogued secondary metabolite in Arabidopsis thaliana. The NMR/MS 2 approach is well suited for discovery ofmore » new metabolites in plant extracts, microbes, soils, dissolved organic matter, food extracts, biofuels, and biomedical samples, facilitating the identification of metabolites that are not present in experimental NMR and MS metabolomics databases.« less
Hoyt, David W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A.; Ward, Joy K.
We introduce a cheminformatics approach that combines highly selective and orthogonal structure elucidation parameters; accurate mass, MS/MS (MS2), and NMR into a single analysis platform to accurately identify unknown metabolites in untargeted studies. The approach starts with an unknown LC-MS feature, and then combines the experimental MS/MS and NMR information of the unknown to effectively filter out the false positive candidate structures based on their predicted MS/MS and NMR spectra. We demonstrate the approach on a model mixture, and then we identify an uncatalogued secondary metabolite in Arabidopsis thaliana. The NMR/MS2 approach is well suited to the discovery of new metabolites in plant extracts, microbes, soils, dissolved organic matter, food extracts, biofuels, and biomedical samples, facilitating the identification of metabolites that are not present in experimental NMR and MS metabolomics databases. PMID:29342073
Subtitle 5 . Report Date April 2010 General Unknown Screening by Ion Trap LC/MS/MS 6 . Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) 8... 5 Table 1: Analytical Data for Each of the...359 Compounds in the LC/MS/MS Library . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1 General Unknown ScreeninG by ion Trap lc/MS/MS INTrOduCTION The Federal Aviation
Smith, Anne Marie E; Brennan, John D
Selective inhibition of one kinase over another is a critical issue in drug development. For antimicrobial development, it is particularly important to selectively inhibit bacterial kinases, which can phosphorylate antimicrobial compounds such as aminoglycosides, without affecting human kinases. Previous work from our group showed the development of a MALDI-MS/MS assay for the detection of small molecule modulators of the bacterial aminoglycoside kinase APH3'IIIa. Herein, we demonstrate the development of an enhanced kinase MALDI-MS/MS assay involving simultaneous assaying of two kinase reactions, one for APH3'IIIa, and the other for human protein kinase A (PKA), which leads to an output that provides direct information on selectivity and mechanism of action. Specificity of the respective enzyme substrates were verified, and the assay was validated through generation of Z'-factors of 0.55 for APH3'IIIa with kanamycin and 0.60 for PKA with kemptide. The assay was used to simultaneously screen a kinase-directed library of mixtures of ten compounds each against both enzymes, leading to the identification of selective inhibitors for each enzyme as well as one non-selective inhibitor following mixture deconvolution. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Stinson, Craig A; Xia, Yu
Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled with soft ionization is established as an essential platform for lipid analysis; however, determining high order structural information, such as the carbon-carbon double bond (C[double bond, length as m-dash]C) location, remains challenging. Recently, our group demonstrated a method for sensitive and confident lipid C[double bond, length as m-dash]C location determination by coupling online the Paternò-Büchi (PB) reaction with nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) and MS/MS. Herein, we aimed to expand the scope of the PB reaction for lipid analysis by enabling the reaction with infusion ESI-MS/MS at much higher flow rates than demonstrated in the nanoESI setup (∼20 nL min(-1)). In the new design, the PB reaction was effected in a fused silica capillary solution transfer line, which also served as a microflow UV reactor, prior to ESI. This setup allowed PB reaction optimization and kinetics studies. Under optimized conditions, a maximum of 50% PB reaction yield could be achieved for a standard glycerophosphocholine (PC) within 6 s of UV exposure over a wide flow rate range (0.1-10 μL min(-1)). A solvent composition of 7 : 3 acetone : H2O (with 1% acid or base modifier) allowed the highest PB yields and good lipid ionization, while lower yields were obtained with an addition of a variety of organic solvents. Radical induced lipid peroxidation was identified to induce undesirable side reactions, which could be effectively suppressed by eliminating trace oxygen in the solution via N2 purge. Finally, the utility of coupling the PB reaction with infusion ESI-MS/MS was demonstrated by analyzing a yeast polar lipid extract where C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond locations were revealed for 35 glycerophospholipids (GPs).
This program can be used to read a LC-MS/MS data file from either a Finnigan ion trap mass spectrometer (.Raw file) or an Agilent Ion Trap mass spectrometer (.MGF and .CDF files) and create a selected ion chromatogram (SIC) for each of the parent ion masses chosen for fragmentation. The largest peak in each SIC is also identified, with reported statistics including peak elution time, height, area, and signal to noise ratio. It creates several output files, including a base peak intensity (BPI) chromatogram for the survey scan, a BPI for the fragmentation scans, an XML file containing the SICmore » data for each parent ion, and a "flat file" (ready for import into a database) containing summaries of the SIC data statistics.« less
Riewe, David; Wiebach, Janine; Altmann, Thomas
Lipid oxidation is a process ubiquitous in life, but the direct and comprehensive analysis of oxidized lipids has been limited by available analytical methods. We applied high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to quantify oxidized lipids (glycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids, lysophospholipids, and galactolipids) and implemented a platform-independent high-throughput-amenable analysis pipeline for the high-confidence annotation and acyl composition analysis of oxidized lipids. Lipid contents of 90 different naturally aged wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) seed stocks were quantified in an untargeted high-resolution LC-MS experiment, resulting in 18,556 quantitative mass-to-charge ratio features. In a posthoc liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry experiment, high-resolution MS/MS spectra (5 mD accuracy) were recorded for 8,957 out of 12,080 putatively monoisotopic features of the LC-MS data set. A total of 353 nonoxidized and 559 oxidized lipids with up to four additional oxygen atoms were annotated based on the accurate mass recordings (1.5 ppm tolerance) of the LC-MS data set and filtering procedures. MS/MS spectra available for 828 of these annotations were analyzed by translating experimentally known fragmentation rules of lipids into the fragmentation of oxidized lipids. This led to the identification of 259 nonoxidized and 365 oxidized lipids by both accurate mass and MS/MS spectra and to the determination of acyl compositions for 221 nonoxidized and 295 oxidized lipids. Analysis of 15-year aged wheat seeds revealed increased lipid oxidation and hydrolysis in seeds stored in ambient versus cold conditions. © 2017 The author(s). All Rights Reserved.
Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Zheng, Li; Guo, Wei-Wei; Wu, Xia
A simple, effective and suitable UFLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed to simultaneously determine five characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, Δα,β-dihydropiperlonguminine, pellitorine and piperanine) of Piper longum L. The total alkaloids of P. longum L. was prepared. The alkaloid contents of Piper nigrum L. and P. longum L. were compared. The analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring scan mode. The method showed a good specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.995), stability (RSD<2.53%), repeatability (RSD<2.58%), and recovery (90.0-103.5%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification of five alkaloids were in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 9.30% and 9.55%, respectively. The validation results confirmed that the method could simultaneously determine the target alkaloids in the sample. Furthermore, the identities of the alkaloids were verified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Compared with P. nigrum, P. longum had lower piperine content but was enriched in the other four alkaloids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bajpai, Vikas; Singh, Awantika; Chandra, Preeti; Negi, M P S; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Brijesh
The stem of dioecious Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae) is a commonly used traditional Ayurvedic medicine in India having several therapeutic properties. To develop and validate LC-MS methods for the identification and simultaneous quantitation of various secondary metabolites and to study metabolomic variations in the stem of male and female plants. Ethanolic extract of stems were analysed by HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS for rapid screening of bioactive phytochemicals. High resolution MS and MS/MS in positive ESI mode were used for structural investigation of secondary metabolites. An UPLC/ESI-QqQ(LIT) -MS/MS method in MRM mode was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of five bioactive alkaloids. Identification and characterisation of 36 metabolites including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes and phytoecdysteroids were performed using LC-MS and MS/MS techniques. The bioactive alkaloids such as jatrorrhizine, magnoflorine, isocorydine, palmatine and tetrahydropalmatine were successfully quantified in male and female plants. The mean abundances of magnoflorine jatrorrhizine, and oblongine were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in male plants while mean abundances of tetrahydropalmatine, norcoclaurine, and reticuline were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in female plants. Phytochemicals in the stem of male and female Tinospora cordifolia showed significant qualitative and quantitative variations. LC-MS and MS/MS methods can be used to differentiate between male and female plants based on their chemical profiles and quantities of the marker bioactive alkaloids. This chemical composition difference was also evident during vegetative stage when there were no male and female flowers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Woo, H; Kim, J W; Han, K M; Lee, J H; Hwang, I S; Lee, J H; Kim, J; Kweon, S J; Cho, S; Chae, K R; Han, S Y; Kim, J
In order to test health foods for illegally added diuretics for weight loss, we developed simple, rapid, selective, and sensitive methods using HPLC and LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous analysis of 17 diuretics in dietary supplements. HPLC conditions were set with a Capcell-pak C18, using a mobile phase consisting of gradient conditions, UV detection at 254 nm and validated for linearity (r(2)> 0.999), precision (CV ≤ 3%), recoveries (90.4-102.8%) and reproducibility. Identification and quantification of 17 diuretics were accomplished by ion-spray LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The chromatographic separation was carried out under the reversed-phase mechanism on an HSS-T3 column. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for linearity (r(2)> 0.99) and precision (CV < 13%). Sixteen dietary supplements were tested with the developed methods. Diuretics were not detected in all samples. Extraction recovery was also investigated and the extraction recoveries in different formulations were from 88% to 110% and from 81% to 116% using HPLC and LC-MS/MS, respectively. There was no significant difference in recoveries in the type of dietary supplements. Based on this result, the developed methods to monitor illegal drug adulterations in dietary supplements using HPLC and LC-MS/MS are simple, fast and reliable. Therefore, it is applicable to routine drug-adulteration screening.
Oya, Michiko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Anas, Andrea Roxanne J; Oishi, Koichi; Ono, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Shun; Eguchi, Megumi; Sawada, Makoto
Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging is a useful tool for direct and simultaneous visualization of specific molecules. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is used to evaluate the abundance of molecules in tissues using sample homogenates. To date, however, LC-MS/MS has not been utilized as an imaging tool because spatial information is lost during sample preparation. Here we report a new approach for LC-MS/MS imaging using a thermal film-based laser microdissection (LMD) technique. To isolate tissue spots, our LMD system uses a 808-nm near infrared laser, the diameter of which can be freely changed from 2.7 to 500 μm; for imaging purposes in this study, the diameter was fixed at 40 μm, allowing acquisition of LC-MS/MS images at a 40-μm resolution. The isolated spots are arranged on a thermal film at 4.5-mm intervals, corresponding to the well spacing on a 384-well plate. Each tissue spot is handled on the film in such a manner as to maintain its spatial information, allowing it to be extracted separately in its individual well. Using analytical LC-MS/MS in combination with the spatial information of each sample, we can reconstruct LC-MS/MS images. With this imaging technique, we successfully obtained the distributions of pilocarpine, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, and choline in a cross-section of mouse hippocampus. The protocol we established in this study is applicable to revealing the neurochemistry of pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Our system has a wide range of uses in fields such as biology, pharmacology, pathology, and neuroscience. Graphical abstract Schematic Indication of LMD-LC-MS/MS imaging.
Neuhauser, Nadin; Michalski, Annette; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias
An important step in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is the identification of peptides by their fragment spectra. Regardless of the identification score achieved, almost all tandem-MS (MS/MS) spectra contain remaining peaks that are not assigned by the search engine. These peaks may be explainable by human experts but the scale of modern proteomics experiments makes this impractical. In computer science, Expert Systems are a mature technology to implement a list of rules generated by interviews with practitioners. We here develop such an Expert System, making use of literature knowledge as well as a large body of high mass accuracy and pure fragmentation spectra. Interestingly, we find that even with high mass accuracy data, rule sets can quickly become too complex, leading to over-annotation. Therefore we establish a rigorous false discovery rate, calculated by random insertion of peaks from a large collection of other MS/MS spectra, and use it to develop an optimized knowledge base. This rule set correctly annotates almost all peaks of medium or high abundance. For high resolution HCD data, median intensity coverage of fragment peaks in MS/MS spectra increases from 58% by search engine annotation alone to 86%. The resulting annotation performance surpasses a human expert, especially on complex spectra such as those of larger phosphorylated peptides. Our system is also applicable to high resolution collision-induced dissociation data. It is available both as a part of MaxQuant and via a webserver that only requires an MS/MS spectrum and the corresponding peptides sequence, and which outputs publication quality, annotated MS/MS spectra (www.biochem.mpg.de/mann/tools/). It provides expert knowledge to beginners in the field of MS-based proteomics and helps advanced users to focus on unusual and possibly novel types of fragment ions.
Neuhauser, Nadin; Michalski, Annette; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias
An important step in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is the identification of peptides by their fragment spectra. Regardless of the identification score achieved, almost all tandem-MS (MS/MS) spectra contain remaining peaks that are not assigned by the search engine. These peaks may be explainable by human experts but the scale of modern proteomics experiments makes this impractical. In computer science, Expert Systems are a mature technology to implement a list of rules generated by interviews with practitioners. We here develop such an Expert System, making use of literature knowledge as well as a large body of high mass accuracy and pure fragmentation spectra. Interestingly, we find that even with high mass accuracy data, rule sets can quickly become too complex, leading to over-annotation. Therefore we establish a rigorous false discovery rate, calculated by random insertion of peaks from a large collection of other MS/MS spectra, and use it to develop an optimized knowledge base. This rule set correctly annotates almost all peaks of medium or high abundance. For high resolution HCD data, median intensity coverage of fragment peaks in MS/MS spectra increases from 58% by search engine annotation alone to 86%. The resulting annotation performance surpasses a human expert, especially on complex spectra such as those of larger phosphorylated peptides. Our system is also applicable to high resolution collision-induced dissociation data. It is available both as a part of MaxQuant and via a webserver that only requires an MS/MS spectrum and the corresponding peptides sequence, and which outputs publication quality, annotated MS/MS spectra (www.biochem.mpg.de/mann/tools/). It provides expert knowledge to beginners in the field of MS-based proteomics and helps advanced users to focus on unusual and possibly novel types of fragment ions. PMID:22888147
Zhao, Xia; Wang, Bo; Xie, Kaizhou; Liu, Jianyu; Zhang, Yangyang; Wang, Yajuan; Guo, Yawen; Zhang, Genxi; Dai, Guojun; Wang, Jinyu
A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method and an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determining eight coccidiostat (halofuginone, lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, nigericin, robenidine and salinomycin) residues in beef were developed and compared. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetic acid, acetonitrile and ethyl acetate and were then purified on a C 18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. The purified samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS, using 0.1% formic acid-water solution (A) and pure methanol (B) as the mobile phase. The samples were fractionated on a C 18 column using different gradient elution procedures, followed by qualitative analysis using a mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization; the external standard method was used for quantitation. At spiked levels that ranged from the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 100 μg/kg, the average recoveries were 71.96%-100.32% and 71.24%-89.24%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.65%-12.38% and 2.98%-14.86% for UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and LOQs of the eight coccidiostats were 0.14-0.32 μg/kg and 0.43-1.21 μg/kg, respectively, for UPLC-MS/MS analysis and 0.16-0.58 μg/kg and 0.53-1.92 μg/kg, respectively, for HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Both methods had good accuracy and precision, but UPLC-MS/MS had higher sensitivity than HPLC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ki Hun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick
This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. The limits of detection (LODs) of 65 steroids by GC-EI/MS/MS, 68 steroids by LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, 56 steroids by GC-EI/MS, 54 steroids by LC-ESI/MS/MS, and 27 steroids by GC-ESI/MS/MS were below cut-off value of 2.0 ng/mL. LODs of steroids that formed protonated ions in LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis were all lower than the cut-off value. Several steroids such as unconjugated C3-hydroxyl with C17-hydroxyl structure showed higher sensitivities in GC-EI/MS/MS analysis relative to those obtained using the LC-based methods. The steroids containing 4, 9, 11-triene structures showed relatively poor sensitivities in GC-EI/MS and GC-ESI/MS/MS analysis. The results of this study provide information that may be useful for selecting suitable analytical methods for confirmatory analysis of steroids. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tang, Wen-Zhao; Wang, Ying-Ai; Gao, Tian-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Yun-Xue
The fruits of Paulownia catalpifolia Gong Tong are used as a Chinese folk herbal medicine for the treatment of enteritis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and dysentery, etc. Our previous study has identified new C-geranylated flavanones with obvious anti-proliferative effects in lung cancer A549 cells. In the present study, a new C-geranylated flavone, paucatalinone C (1) and five known C-geranylated flavanones (2-6) were isolated. In addition, a total of 34 C-geranylated flavonoids were detected by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS coupling techniques from the CH 2 Cl 2 extract of P. catalpifolia. Futhermore, anti-aging effects of isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro with premature senescent 2BS cells induced by H 2 O 2 . Phytochemical results indicated that P. catalpifolia was a natural resource of abundant C-geranylated flavonoids. Diplacone (3) and paucatalinone A (5) were the potent anti-aging agents in the premature senescent 2BS cells induced by H 2 O 2 and the C-geranyl substituent may be an important factor because of its lipophilic character. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cordero, Chiara; Canale, Francesca; Del Rio, Daniele; Bicchi, Carlo
The present study is focused on flavan-3-ols characterizing the antioxidant properties of fermented tea (Camellia sinensis). These bioactive compounds, object of nutritional claims in commercial products, should be quantified with rigorous analytical procedures whose accuracy and precision have been stated with a certain level of confidence. An HPLC-UV/DAD method, able to detect and quantify flavan-3-ols in infusions and ready-to-drink teas, has been developed for routine analysis and validated by characterizing several performance parameters. The accuracy assessment has been run through a series of LC-MS/MS analyses. Epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechingallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechingallate, (-)-epicatechingallate, and (-)-catechingallate were chosen as markers of the polyphenolic fraction. Quantitative results showed that samples obtained from tea leaves infusion were richer in polyphenolic antioxidants than those obtained through other industrial processes. The influence of shelf-life and packaging material on the flavan-3-ols content was also considered; markers decreased, with an exponential trend, as a function of time within the shelf life while packaging materials demonstrated to influence differently the flavan-3-ol fraction composition over time. The method presented here provides quantitative results with a certain level of confidence and is suitable for a routine quality control of iced teas whose antioxidant properties are object of nutritional claim.
Zhong, Ning; Cui, Yazhou; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Li, Tianliang; Han, Jinxiang
Membrane proteins are an important source of potential targets for anticancer drugs or biomarkers for early diagnosis. In this study, we used a modified aqueous two-phase partition system combined with two-dimensional (2D) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS, 2D-MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) analysis to isolate and identify membrane proteins in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Using this method, we identified 55 proteins, of which 31 (56.4 %) were membrane proteins, which, according to gene ontology annotation, are associated with various cellular processes including cell signal transduction, differentiation, and apoptosis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression level of one of the identified mitochondria membrane proteins, prohibitin 1 (PHB1), is correlated with pancreatic carcinoma differentiation; PHB1 is expressed at a higher level in normal pancreatic tissue than in well-differentiated carcinoma tissue. Further studies showed that PHB1 plays a proapoptotic role in human pancreatic cancer cells, which suggests that PHB1 has antitumorigenic properties. In conclusion, we have provided a modified method for isolating and identifying membrane proteins and demonstrated that PHB1 may be a promising biomarker for early diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic (and potentially other) cancers.
Yassine, Montaha; Rifai, Ahmad; Doumyati, Samah; Trivella, Aurélien; Mazellier, Patrick; Budzinski, Hélène; Al Iskandarani, Mohamad
In this study, we aimed to investigate the kinetics and the mechanism of reaction of the fluoroquinolone antibacterial danofloxacin (DANO) by free available chlorine (FAC) during water chlorination process. Kinetic study was thus performed at pH 7.2, 20 °C in the presence of an excess of total chlorine. Under these experimental conditions, a second-order reaction rate constant (first-order relative to DANO concentration and first-order relative to FAC concentration) was evaluated to k~1446 M -1 s -1 . Five degradation products were identified at different reaction times. Their structures were investigated by using fragmentations obtained at different CID collision energies in MS/MS experiments. Moreover, the toxicity of the proposed structures was predicted by using T.E.S.T. The results indicated that all by-products may have a developmental toxicity. The oral rat LD 50 concentration was predicted to be lower than that of DANO. Furthermore, two degradation compounds presented a concentration level for fathead minnow LC 50 (96 h) lower than that of DANO and presented toxicity for the marine animals.
Ramisetti, Nageswara Rao; Kuntamukkala, Ramakrishna; Lakshetti, Sridhar; Sripadi, Prabhakar
The current study dealt with the degradation behavior of lacosamide (LAC) under ICH prescribed stress conditions. LAC was found to be labile under acid and base hydrolytic stress conditions, while it was stable to neutral hydrolytic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress. In total, seven degradation products (DPs) were formed, which were separated on a C18 column using a stability-indicating method. LC-MS analyses indicated that one of the DPs had the same molecular mass as that of the drug. Structural characterization of DPs was carried out using ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS technique. The degradation pathways and mechanisms of degradation of the drug were delineated by carrying out the degradation in different co-solvents viz. methanol, deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and acetonitrile. The developed LC method was validated for the determination of related substances and assay of LAC as per ICH guidelines. This study demonstrates a comprehensive approach of LAC degradation studies during its development phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sousa, José A; Domingues, Valentina F; Rosas, Mónica S; Ribeiro, Susana O; Alvim-Ferraz, Conceiçao M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina F
The evaluation of benzene in different environments such as indoor (with and without tobacco smoke), a city area, countryside, gas stations and near exhaust pipes from cars running on different types of fuels was performed. The samples were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) and tandem mass spectrometric detection (MS/MS) (to confirm the identification of benzene in the air samples). Operating conditions for the GC-MS analysis were optimized as well as the sampling and sample preparation. The results obtained in this work indicate that i) the type of fuel directly influences the benzene concentration in the air. Gasoline with additives provided the highest amount of benzene followed by unleaded gasoline and diesel; ii) the benzene concentration in the gas station was always higher than the advisable limit established by law (5 μg m⁻³) and during the unloading of gasoline the achieved concentration was 8371 μg m⁻³; iii) the data from the countryside (Taliscas) and the urban city (Matosinhos) were below 5 μg m⁻³ except 5 days after a fire on a petroleum refinery plant located near the city; iv) it was proven that in coffee shops where smoking is allowed the benzene concentration is higher (6 μg m⁻³) than in coffee shops where this is forbidden (4 μg m⁻³). This method may also be helpful for environmental analytical chemists who use GC-MS/MS for the confirmation or/and quantification of benzene.
RATIONALE: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight-time-of-flight (TOF-TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has seen increasing use for post-source decay (PSD)-MS/MS analysis of non-digested protein ions for top-down proteomic identification. However, there is no commonl...
Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J.
A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) system was integrated with an immobilized trypsin microreactor. The system was evaluated and then applied for online digestion and analysis of picogram loadings of RAW 264.7 cell lysate. Protein samples were dissolved in a buffer containing 50% (v/v) acetonitrile (ACN), and then directly loaded into the capillary for digestion, followed by CZE separation and MS/MS identification. The organic solvent (50% (v/v) ACN) assisted the immobilized trypsin digestion and simplified the protein sample preparation protocol. Neither protein reduction nor alkylation steps were employed, which minimized sample loss and contamination. The integrated CZE-ESI-MS/MS system generated confident identification of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with 19% sequence coverage and 14 peptide IDs when 20 fmole was loaded. When only 1 fmole BSA was injected, one BSA peptide was consistently detected. For the analysis of a standard protein mixture, the integrated system produced efficient protein digestion and confident identification for proteins with different molecular weights and isoelectric points when low fmole amount was loaded for each protein. We further applied the system for triplicate analysis of a RAW 264.7 cell lysate; 2 ± 1 and 7 ± 2 protein groups were confidently identified from only 300 pg and 3 ng loadings, respectively. The 300 pg sample loading corresponds to the protein content of three RAW 264.7 cells. In addition to high sensitivity analysis, the integrated CZE-ESI-MS/MS system produces good reproducibility in terms of peptide and protein IDs, peptide migration time, and peptide intensity. PMID:23510126
Ueland, Grethe Å; Methlie, Paal; Øksnes, Marianne; Thordarson, Hrafnkell B; Sagen, Jørn; Kellmann, Ralf; Mellgren, Gunnar; Ræder, Maria; Dahlqvist, Per; Dahl, Sandra R; Thorsby, Per M; Løvås, Kristian; Husebye, Eystein S
The cosyntropin test is used to diagnose adrenal insufficiency (AI) and nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH). Current cutoffs for cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) are derived from nonstandardized immunoassays. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) offers direct measurement of steroids, prompting the need to re-establish normal ranges. The goal of this study was to define cutoff values for cortisol and 17-OHP in serum by LC-MS/MS 30 and 60 minutes after intravenous administration of 250 µg tetracosactide acetate to healthy volunteers and to compare the results with LC-MS/MS with routine immunoassays. Cosyntropin testing was performed in healthy subjects (n = 138) and in patients referred for evaluation of adrenocortical function (n = 94). Steroids were assayed by LC-MS/MS and compared with two immunoassays used in routine diagnostics (Immulite and Roche platforms). The cutoff level for cortisol was defined as the 2.5% percentile in healthy subjects not using oral estrogens (n = 121) and for 17-OHP as the 97.5% percentile. Cortisol cutoff levels for LC-MS/MS were 412 and 485 nmol/L at 30 and 60 minutes, respectively. Applying the new cutoffs, 13 of 60 (22%) subjects who had AI according to conventional criteria now had a normal test result. For 17-OHP, the cutoff levels were 8.9 and 9.0 nmol/L at 30 and 60 minutes, respectively. LC-MS/MS provides cutoff levels for cortisol and 17-OHP after cosyntropin stimulation that are lower than those based on immunoassays, possibly because cross-reactivity between steroid intermediates and cortisol is eliminated. This reduces the number of false-positive tests for AI and false-negative tests for NCCAH.
Wiergowski, Marek; Aszyk, Justyna; Kaliszan, Michał; Wilczewska, Kamila; Anand, Jacek Sein; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Jankowski, Zbigniew
This paper describes cases of poisoning caused by new psychoactive substances such as: 25B-NBOMe (2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine) and 4-CMC (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-1-propanone). The analytical procedure includes rapid and selective method for the extraction and determination of 4-CMC and 25B-NBOMe in blood samples using UPLC-MS/MS technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, that involves a fully validated method for quantification of new-designer drug - 4-CMC in postmortem blood samples. The biological material was also analyzed with the use of routine analytical methods: immunochemical techniques, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry. The results of real samples analyses correspond to possible toxicological effects: death resulting from 25B-NBOMe - mediated hallucinations (661ng/mL of 25B-NBOMe and 0.887ng/mL of 4-CMC), fatal overdose of 25B-NBOMe and 4-CMC (66.5ng/mL of 25B-NBOMe and 2.14ng/mL of 4-CMC) and non-fatal intoxication of these drugs (38.4ng/mL of 25B NBOMe and 0.181ng/mL of 4-CMC). Additionally, O-demethylathed O, O-bis-demethylathed and glucuronidated metabolites of 25B-NBOMe in biological specimens were detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yoneyama, Toshihiro; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Honda, Kazufumi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Iwasaki, Motoki; Uchida, Yasuo; Okusaka, Takuji; Nakamori, Shoji; Shimahara, Masashi; Ueno, Takaaki; Tsuchida, Akihiko; Sata, Naohiro; Ioka, Tatsuya; Yasunami, Yohichi; Kosuge, Tomoo; Kaneda, Takashi; Kato, Takao; Yagihara, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Shigeyuki; Huang, Wilber; Yamada, Tesshi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal tumors, and reliable detection of early-stage pancreatic cancer and risk diseases for pancreatic cancer is essential to improve the prognosis. As 260 genes were previously reported to be upregulated in invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of pancreas (IDACP) cells, quantification of the corresponding proteins in plasma might be useful for IDACP diagnosis. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to identify plasma biomarkers for early detection of IDACP by using two proteomics strategies: antibody-based proteomics and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomics. Among the 260 genes, we focused on 130 encoded proteins with known function for which antibodies were available. Twenty-three proteins showed values of the area under the curve (AUC) of more than 0.8 in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) data of IDACP patients compared with healthy controls, and these proteins were selected as biomarker candidates. We then used our high-throughput selected reaction monitoring or multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) methodology, together with an automated sample preparation system, micro LC and auto analysis system, to quantify these candidate proteins in plasma from healthy controls and IDACP patients on a large scale. The results revealed that insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)2 and IGFBP3 have the ability to discriminate IDACP patients at an early stage from healthy controls, and IGFBP2 appeared to be increased in risk diseases of pancreatic malignancy, such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Furthermore, diagnosis of IDACP using the combination of carbohydrate antigen 19–9 (CA19-9), IGFBP2 and IGFBP3 is significantly more effective than CA19-9 alone. This suggests that IGFBP2 and IGFBP3 may serve as compensatory biomarkers for CA19-9. Early diagnosis with this marker combination may improve the prognosis of
Coulot, M.; Domon, B.; Grossenbacher, H.; Guenat, C.; Maerki, W.; Müller, D. R.; Richter, W. J.
Applicability and performance of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) is demonstrated for protein analysis. ESIMS is applied in conjunction with on-line HPLC (LC-ESlMS) and direct tandem mass spectrometry (positive and negative ion mode ESlMS/MS) to the structural characterization of a recombinant protein (r-hirudin variant 1) and a congener phosphorylated at threonine 45 (RP-1).
Elhottová, D; Tríska, J; Petersen, S O; Santrůcková, H
Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can significantly improve trace analyses of compounds in complex matrices from natural environments compared to gas chromatography only. A GC-MS/MS technique for determination of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a bacterial storage compound, has been developed and used for analysis of two soils stored for up to 319 d, fresh samples of sewage sludge, as well as a pure culture of Bacillus megaterium. Specific derivatization of beta-hydroxybutyrate (3-OH C4:0) PHB monomer units by N-tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl-N-methyltrifluoracetamide (MTBSTFA) improved chromatographic and mass spectrometric properties of the analyte. The diagnostic fragmentation scheme of the derivates tert-butyldimethylsilyl ester and ether of beta-hydroxybutyric acid (MTBSTFA-HB) essential for the PHB identification was shown. The ion trap MS was used, therefore the scan gave the best sensitivity and with MS/MS the noise decreased, so the S/N was better and also with second fragmentation the amount of ions increased compared to SIM. The detection limit for MTBSTFA-HB by GC-MS/MS was about 10(-13) g microL(-1) of injected volume, while by GC (FID) and GC-MS (scan) it was around 10(-10) g microL(-1) of injected volume. Sensitivity of GC-MS/MS measurements of PHB in arable soil and activated sludge samples was down to 10 pg of PHB g(-1) dry matter. Comparison of MTBSTFA-HB detection in natural soil sample by GC (FID), GC-MS (scan) and by GC-MS/MS demonstrated potentials and limitations of the individual measurement techniques.
Tyanova, Stefka; Temu, Tikira; Carlson, Arthur; Sinitcyn, Pavel; Mann, Matthias; Cox, Juergen
Modern software platforms enable the analysis of shotgun proteomics data in an automated fashion resulting in high quality identification and quantification results. Additional understanding of the underlying data can be gained with the help of advanced visualization tools that allow for easy navigation through large LC-MS/MS datasets potentially consisting of terabytes of raw data. The updated MaxQuant version has a map navigation component that steers the users through mass and retention time-dependent mass spectrometric signals. It can be used to monitor a peptide feature used in label-free quantification over many LC-MS runs and visualize it with advanced 3D graphic models. An expert annotation system aids the interpretation of the MS/MS spectra used for the identification of these peptide features. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Allard, Pierre-Marie; Péresse, Tiphaine; Bisson, Jonathan; Gindro, Katia; Marcourt, Laurence; Pham, Van Cuong; Roussi, Fanny; Litaudon, Marc; Wolfender, Jean-Luc
Dereplication represents a key step for rapidly identifying known secondary metabolites in complex biological matrices. In this context, liquid-chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is increasingly used and, via untargeted data-dependent MS/MS experiments, massive amounts of detailed information on the chemical composition of crude extracts can be generated. An efficient exploitation of such data sets requires automated data treatment and access to dedicated fragmentation databases. Various novel bioinformatics approaches such as molecular networking (MN) and in-silico fragmentation tools have emerged recently and provide new perspective for early metabolite identification in natural products (NPs) research. Here we propose an innovative dereplication strategy based on the combination of MN with an extensive in-silico MS/MS fragmentation database of NPs. Using two case studies, we demonstrate that this combined approach offers a powerful tool to navigate through the chemistry of complex NPs extracts, dereplicate metabolites, and annotate analogues of database entries.
Ross, Charles W; Simonsick, William J; Aaserud, David J
Component identification of complex mixtures, whether they are from polymeric formulations or combinatorial synthesis, by conventional MS/MS techniques generally requires component separation by chromatography or mass spectrometry. An automated means of acquiring simultaneous MS/MS data from a complex mixture without prior separation is obtained from stored waveform ion modulation (SWIM) two-dimensional FTICR MS/MS. The technique applies a series of SWIFT excitation waveforms whose frequency domain magnitude spectrum is a sinusoid increasing in frequency from one waveform to the next. The controlled dissociation of the precursor ions produces an associated modulation of the product ion abundances. Fourier transformation of these abundances reveals the encoded modulation frequency from which connectivities of precursor and product ions are observed. The final result is total assignment of product ions for each precursor ion in a mixture from one automated experiment. We demonstrated the applicability of SWIM 2D-FTICR MS/MS to two diverse samples of industrial importance. We characterized structured polyester oligomers and products derived from combinatorial synthesis. Fragmentation pathways identified in standard serial ion isolation MS/MS experiments were observed for trimethylolpropane/methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride. A 20-component sample derived from combinatorial synthesis was fragmented, and the template ion along with another key fragment ion was identified for each of the 20 components.
Shah, Bhavana; Jiang, Xinzhao Grace; Chen, Louise; Zhang, Zhongqi
Protein N-Glycan analysis is traditionally performed by high pH anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), or hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) on fluorescence-labeled glycans enzymatically released from the glycoprotein. These methods require time-consuming sample preparations and do not provide site-specific glycosylation information. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) peptide mapping is frequently used for protein structural characterization and, as a bonus, can potentially provide glycan profile on each individual glycosylation site. In this work, a recently developed glycopeptide fragmentation model was used for automated identification, based on their MS/MS, of N-glycopeptides from proteolytic digestion of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Experimental conditions were optimized to achieve accurate profiling of glycoforms. Glycan profiles obtained from LC-MS/MS peptide mapping were compared with those obtained from HPAEC, RPLC, and HILIC analyses of released glycans for several mAb molecules. Accuracy, reproducibility, and linearity of the LC-MS/MS peptide mapping method for glycan profiling were evaluated. The LC-MS/MS peptide mapping method with fully automated data analysis requires less sample preparation, provides site-specific information, and may serve as an alternative method for routine profiling of N-glycans on immunoglobulins as well as other glycoproteins with simple N-glycans.
Neutral Loss Scan - Based Strategy for Integrated Identification of Amorfrutin Derivatives, New Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonists, from Amorpha Fruticosa by UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS
Chen, Chu; Xue, Ying; Li, Qing-Miao; Wu, Yan; Liang, Jian; Qing, Lin-Sen
Amorfrutins with a 2-hydroxybenzoic acid core structure are promising natural PPARγ agonists with potent antidiabetic activity. Owing to the complex matrix and low concentration in botanical material, the identification of unknown amorfrutins remains a challenge. In the present study, a combined application of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and UPLC-QqQ-MS was developed to discover unknown amorfrutins from fruits of Amorpha fruticosa. First, reference compounds of amorfrutin A (AA), amorfrutin B (AB), and 2-carboxy-3,5-dihydroxy-4-geranylbibenzyl (AC) were analyzed using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS to reveal the characteristic fragment ions and the possible neutral loss. Second, the extract of A. fruticosa was separated and screened by UPLC-QqQ-MS using neutral loss scan to find out suspect compounds associated with the specified neutral fragment Δm/z 44. Third, the extract was re-analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS to obtain the exact mass of quasi-molecular ion and fragment ions of each suspect compound, and to subsequently calculate their corresponding molecular formulas. Finally, according to the molecular formula of suspect compound and its fragment ions and comparing with literature data, structure elucidation of four unidentified amorfrutins was achieved. The results indicated that the combination of QqQ-MS neutral loss scan and Q-TOF-MS molecular formula calculation was proven to be a powerful tool for unknown natural product identification, and this strategy provides an effective solution to discover natural products or metabolites of trace content.
The frequent used bottom-up strategy for identification of proteins and their associated modifications generate nowadays typically thousands of MS/MS spectra that normally are matched automatically against a protein sequence database. Search engines that take as input MS/MS spectra and a protein sequence database are referred as database-dependent search engines. Many programs both commercial and freely available exist for database-dependent search of MS/MS spectra and most of the programs have excellent user documentation. The aim here is therefore to outline the algorithm strategy behind different search engines rather than providing software user manuals. The process of database-dependent search can be divided into search strategy, peptide scoring, protein scoring, and finally protein inference. Most efforts in the literature have been put in to comparing results from different software rather than discussing the underlining algorithms. Such practical comparisons can be cluttered by suboptimal implementation and the observed differences are frequently caused by software parameters settings which have not been set proper to allow even comparison. In other words an algorithmic idea can still be worth considering even if the software implementation has been demonstrated to be suboptimal. The aim in this chapter is therefore to split the algorithms for database-dependent searching of MS/MS data into the above steps so that the different algorithmic ideas become more transparent and comparable. Most search engines provide good implementations of the first three data analysis steps mentioned above, whereas the final step of protein inference are much less developed for most search engines and is in many cases performed by an external software. The final part of this chapter illustrates how protein inference is built into the VEMS search engine and discusses a stand-alone program SIR for protein inference that can import a Mascot search result.
Neutral Loss Scan - Based Strategy for Integrated Identification of Amorfrutin Derivatives, New Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Agonists, from Amorpha Fruticosa by UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS.
Chen, Chu; Xue, Ying; Li, Qing-Miao; Wu, Yan; Liang, Jian; Qing, Lin-Sen
Amorfrutins with a 2-hydroxybenzoic acid core structure are promising natural PPARγ agonists with potent antidiabetic activity. Owing to the complex matrix and low concentration in botanical material, the identification of unknown amorfrutins remains a challenge. In the present study, a combined application of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and UPLC-QqQ-MS was developed to discover unknown amorfrutins from fruits of Amorpha fruticosa. First, reference compounds of amorfrutin A (AA), amorfrutin B (AB), and 2-carboxy-3,5-dihydroxy-4-geranylbibenzyl (AC) were analyzed using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS to reveal the characteristic fragment ions and the possible neutral loss. Second, the extract of A. fruticosa was separated and screened by UPLC-QqQ-MS using neutral loss scan to find out suspect compounds associated with the specified neutral fragment Δm/z 44. Third, the extract was re-analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS to obtain the exact mass of quasi-molecular ion and fragment ions of each suspect compound, and to subsequently calculate their corresponding molecular formulas. Finally, according to the molecular formula of suspect compound and its fragment ions and comparing with literature data, structure elucidation of four unidentified amorfrutins was achieved. The results indicated that the combination of QqQ-MS neutral loss scan and Q-TOF-MS molecular formula calculation was proven to be a powerful tool for unknown natural product identification, and this strategy provides an effective solution to discover natural products or metabolites of trace content. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.
Sullards, M. Cameron; Liu, Ying; Chen, Yanfeng; Merrill, Alfred H.
Sphingolipids are a highly diverse category of molecules that serve not only as components of biological structures but also as regulators of numerous cell functions. Because so many of the structural features of sphingolipids give rise to their biological activity, there is a need for comprehensive or “sphingolipidomic” methods for identification and quantitation of as many individual subspecies as possible. This review defines sphingolipids as a class, briefly discusses classical methods for their analysis, and focuses primarily on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and tissue imaging mass spectrometry (TIMS). Recently, a set of evolving and expanding methods have been developed and rigorously validated for the extraction, identification, separation, and quantitation of sphingolipids by LC-MS/MS. Quantitation of these biomolecules is made possible via the use of an internal standard cocktail. The compounds that can be readily analyzed are free long-chain (sphingoid) bases, sphingoid base 1-phosphates, and more complex species such as ceramides, ceramide 1-phosphates, sphingomyelins, mono- and di-hexosylceramides sulfatides, and novel compounds such as the 1-deoxy- and 1-(deoxymethyl)-sphingoid bases and their N-acyl-derivatives. These methods can be altered slightly to separate and quantitate isomeric species such as glucosyl/galactosylceramide. Because these techniques require the extraction of sphingolipids from their native environment, any information regarding their localization in histological slices is lost. Therefore, this review also describes methods for TIMS. This technique has been shown to be a powerful tool to determine the localization of individual molecular species of sphingolipids directly from tissue slices. PMID:21749933
Niedenführ, Sebastian; ten Pierick, Angela; van Dam, Patricia T N; Suarez-Mendez, Camilo A; Nöh, Katharina; Wahl, S Aljoscha
Fluxomics and metabolomics are crucial tools for metabolic engineering and biomedical analysis to determine the in vivo cellular state. Especially, the application of (13)C isotopes allows comprehensive insights into the functional operation of cellular metabolism. Compared to single MS, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides more detailed and accurate measurements of the metabolite enrichment patterns (tandem mass isotopomers), increasing the accuracy of metabolite concentration measurements and metabolic flux estimation. MS-type data from isotope labeling experiments is biased by naturally occurring stable isotopes (C, H, N, O, etc.). In particular, GC-MS(/MS) requires derivatization for the usually non-volatile intracellular metabolites introducing additional natural isotopes leading to measurements that do not directly represent the carbon labeling distribution. To make full use of LC- and GC-MS/MS mass isotopomer measurements, the influence of natural isotopes has to be eliminated (corrected). Our correction approach is analyzed for the two most common applications; (13)C fluxomics and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) based metabolomics. Natural isotopes can have an impact on the calculated flux distribution which strongly depends on the substrate labeling and the actual flux distribution. Second, we show that in IDMS based metabolomics natural isotopes lead to underestimated concentrations that can and should be corrected with a nonlinear calibration. Our simulations indicate that the correction for natural abundance in isotope based fluxomics and quantitative metabolomics is essential for correct data interpretation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shah, Kumar A; Peoples, Michael C; Halquist, Matthew S; Rutan, Sarah C; Karnes, H Thomas
The work described in this paper involves development of a high-throughput on-line microfluidic sample extraction method using capillary micro-columns packed with MIP beads coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of urinary NNAL. The method was optimized and matrix effects were evaluated and resolved. The method enabled low sample volume (200 μL) and rapid analysis of urinary NNAL by direct injection onto the microfluidic column packed with molecularly imprinted beads engineered to NNAL. The method was validated according to the FDA bioanalytical method validation guidance. The dynamic range extended from 20.0 to 2500.0 pg/mL with a percent relative error of ±5.9% and a run time of 7.00 min. The lower limit of quantitation was 20.0 pg/mL. The method was used for the analysis of NNAL and NNAL-Gluc concentrations in smokers' urine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meyer, S; López-Serrano, A; Mitze, H; Jakubowski, N; Schwerdtle, T
Single-cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SC-ICP-MS) has become a powerful and fast tool to evaluate the elemental composition at a single-cell level. In this study, the cellular bioavailability of arsenite (incubation of 25 and 50 μM for 0-48 h) has been successfully assessed by SC-ICP-MS/MS for the first time directly after re-suspending the cells in water. This procedure avoids the normally arising cell membrane permeabilization caused by cell fixation methods (e.g. methanol fixation). The reliability and feasibility of this SC-ICP-MS/MS approach with a limit of detection of 0.35 fg per cell was validated by conventional bulk ICP-MS/MS analysis after cell digestion and parallel measurement of sulfur and phosphorus.
Kyle, Jennifer E.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Casey, Cameron P.
We introduce an open-source software, LIQUID, for semi-automated processing and visualization of LC-MS/MS based lipidomics data. LIQUID provides users with the capability to process high throughput data and contains a customizable target library and scoring model per project needs. The graphical user interface provides visualization of multiple lines of spectral evidence for each lipid identification, allowing rapid examination of data for making confident identifications of lipid molecular species.
Sasaki, Mayu; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Smith, Derek; McManus, Bruce; McMaster, W. Robert; Ng, Raymond T.; Cohen Freue, Gabriela V.
The quantitation of proteins using shotgun proteomics has gained popularity in the last decades, simplifying sample handling procedures, removing extensive protein separation steps and achieving a relatively high throughput readout. The process starts with the digestion of the protein mixture into peptides, which are then separated by liquid chromatography and sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). At the end of the workflow, recovering the identity of the proteins originally present in the sample is often a difficult and ambiguous process, because more than one protein identifier may match a set of peptides identified from the MS/MS spectra. To address this identification problem, many MS/MS data processing software tools combine all plausible protein identifiers matching a common set of peptides into a protein group. However, this solution introduces new challenges in studies with multiple experimental runs, which can be characterized by three main factors: i) protein groups’ identifiers are local, i.e., they vary run to run, ii) the composition of each group may change across runs, and iii) the supporting evidence of proteins within each group may also change across runs. Since in general there is no conclusive evidence about the absence of proteins in the groups, protein groups need to be linked across different runs in subsequent statistical analyses. We propose an algorithm, called Protein Group Code Algorithm (PGCA), to link groups from multiple experimental runs by forming global protein groups from connected local groups. The algorithm is computationally inexpensive and enables the connection and analysis of lists of protein groups across runs needed in biomarkers studies. We illustrate the identification problem and the stability of the PGCA mapping using 65 iTRAQ experimental runs. Further, we use two biomarker studies to show how PGCA enables the discovery of relevant candidate protein group markers with similar but non-identical compositions
Liu, Hongmei; Luo, Jiaoyang; Kong, Weijun; Liu, Qiutao; Hu, Yichen; Yang, Meihua
A robust, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-ESI-MS/MS) was optimized and validated for simultaneous identification and quantification of eleven mycotoxins in medicinal and edible Areca catechu, based on one-step extraction without any further clean-up. Separation and quantification were performed in both positive and negative modes under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a single run with zearalanone (ZAN) as internal standard. The chromatographic conditions and MS/MS parameters were carefully optimized. Matrix-matched calibration was recommended to reduce matrix effects and improve accuracy, showing good linearity within wide concentration ranges. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were lower than 50 μg kg(-1), while limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.1-20 μg kg(-1). The accuracy of the developed method was validated for recoveries, ranging from 85% to 115% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤14.87% at low level, from 75% to 119% with RSD ≤ 14.43% at medium level and from 61% to 120% with RSD ≤ 13.18% at high level, respectively. Finally, the developed multi-mycotoxin method was applied for screening of these mycotoxins in 24 commercial samples. Only aflatoxin B2 and zearalenone were found in 2 samples. This is the first report on the application of UFLC-ESI(+/-)-MS/MS for multi-class mycotoxins in A. catechu. The developed method with many advantages of simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity is a proposed candidate for large-scale detection and quantification of multiple mycotoxins in other complex matrixes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Truta, Liliana; Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Costa, Pedro; Sales, M Goreti F; Teixeira, Helena M
Depression is among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of our society, leading to an increase in antidepressant drug consumption that needs to be accurately determined in whole blood samples in Forensic Toxicology Laboratories. For this purpose, this work presents a new gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method targeting the simultaneous and rapid determination of 14 common Antidepressants in whole blood: 13 Antidepressants (amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, dothiepin, fluoxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nortryptiline, paroxetine, sertraline, trimipramine and venlafaxine) and 1 Metabolite (N-desmethylclomipramine). Solid-phase extraction was used prior to chromatographic separation. Chromatographic and MS/MS parameters were selected to improve sensitivity, peak resolution and unequivocal identification of the eluted analyte. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode in tandem, using electronic impact ionization. Clomipramine-D3 and trimipramine-D3 were used as deutered internal standards. The validation parameters included linearity, limits of detection, lower limit of quantification, selectivity/specificity, extraction efficiency, carry-over, precision and robustness, and followed internationally accepted guidelines. Limits of quantification and detection were lower than therapeutic and sub-therapeutic concentration ranges. Overall, the method offered good selectivity, robustness and quick response (<16min) for typical concentration ranges, both for therapeutic and lethal levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kirollos, F N; Elhawary, S S; Salama, O M; Elkhawas, Y A
LC-ESI-MS/MS was used for a comprehensive characterisation of ethanol extract from the leaves of three Pistacia species. After optimisation of the method and the use of the negative ionisation mode, a total of 42 different compounds were identified, of which 22 were tentatively characterised in P. chinensis Bunge, 33 in P. khinjuk stocks and 25 in P. lentiscus L. leaves. Flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their derivatives were the most abundant identified compounds. LC-ESI-MS/MS revealed identification of 15, 18 and 6 not previously detected compounds in P. chinensis Bunge, P. khinjuk Stocks and P. lentiscus L., respectively. The three extracts were also tested for their cytotoxic activities against human PC3 prostate cancer, A549 lung cancer, MCF7 breast cancer and HepG2 liver cancer. Generally, all the extracts have a moderate cytotoxic activity against lung, breast and prostate cancer, with different IC 50 . However, only P. lentiscus L. showed moderate activity against liver cancer.
Wu, Jemma X.; Song, Xiaomin; Pascovici, Dana; Zaw, Thiri; Care, Natasha; Krisp, Christoph; Molloy, Mark P.
The use of data-independent acquisition methods such as SWATH for mass spectrometry based proteomics is usually performed with peptide MS/MS assay libraries which enable identification and quantitation of peptide peak areas. Reference assay libraries can be generated locally through information dependent acquisition, or obtained from community data repositories for commonly studied organisms. However, there have been no studies performed to systematically evaluate how locally generated or repository-based assay libraries affect SWATH performance for proteomic studies. To undertake this analysis, we developed a software workflow, SwathXtend, which generates extended peptide assay libraries by integration with a local seed library and delivers statistical analysis of SWATH-quantitative comparisons. We designed test samples using peptides from a yeast extract spiked into peptides from human K562 cell lysates at three different ratios to simulate protein abundance change comparisons. SWATH-MS performance was assessed using local and external assay libraries of varying complexities and proteome compositions. These experiments demonstrated that local seed libraries integrated with external assay libraries achieve better performance than local assay libraries alone, in terms of the number of identified peptides and proteins and the specificity to detect differentially abundant proteins. Our findings show that the performance of extended assay libraries is influenced by the MS/MS feature similarity of the seed and external libraries, while statistical analysis using multiple testing corrections increases the statistical rigor needed when searching against large extended assay libraries. PMID:27161445
Wu, Jemma X; Song, Xiaomin; Pascovici, Dana; Zaw, Thiri; Care, Natasha; Krisp, Christoph; Molloy, Mark P
The use of data-independent acquisition methods such as SWATH for mass spectrometry based proteomics is usually performed with peptide MS/MS assay libraries which enable identification and quantitation of peptide peak areas. Reference assay libraries can be generated locally through information dependent acquisition, or obtained from community data repositories for commonly studied organisms. However, there have been no studies performed to systematically evaluate how locally generated or repository-based assay libraries affect SWATH performance for proteomic studies. To undertake this analysis, we developed a software workflow, SwathXtend, which generates extended peptide assay libraries by integration with a local seed library and delivers statistical analysis of SWATH-quantitative comparisons. We designed test samples using peptides from a yeast extract spiked into peptides from human K562 cell lysates at three different ratios to simulate protein abundance change comparisons. SWATH-MS performance was assessed using local and external assay libraries of varying complexities and proteome compositions. These experiments demonstrated that local seed libraries integrated with external assay libraries achieve better performance than local assay libraries alone, in terms of the number of identified peptides and proteins and the specificity to detect differentially abundant proteins. Our findings show that the performance of extended assay libraries is influenced by the MS/MS feature similarity of the seed and external libraries, while statistical analysis using multiple testing corrections increases the statistical rigor needed when searching against large extended assay libraries. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Heussner, Kirsten; Rauh, Manfred; Cordasic, Nada; Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Huebner, Hanna; Ruebner, Matthias; Schmidt, Marius; Hartner, Andrea; Rascher, Wolfgang; Fahlbusch, Fabian B
Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allows for the direct analysis of multiple hormones in a single probe with minimal sample volume. Rodent-based animal studies strongly rely on microsampling, such as the dry blood spot (DBS) method. However, DBS suffers the drawback of hematocrit-dependence (non-volumetric). Hence, novel volumetric microsampling techniques were introduced recently, allowing sampling of fixed accurate volumes. We compared these methods for steroid analysis in the rat to improve inter-system comparability. We analyzed steroid levels in blood using the absorptive microsampling devices Whatman® 903 Protein Saver Cards, Noviplex™ Plasma Prep Cards and the Mitra™ Microsampling device and compared the obtained results to the respective EDTA plasma levels. Quantitative steroid analysis was performed via LC-MS/MS. For the determination of the plasma volume factor for each steroid, their levels in pooled blood samples from each human adults and rats (18weeks) were compared and the transferability of these factors was evaluated in a new set of juvenile (21days) and adult (18weeks) rats. Hematocrit was determined concomitantly. Using these approaches, we were unable to apply one single volume factor for each steroid. Instead, plasma volume factors had to be adjusted for the recovery rate of each steroid and device individually. The tested microsampling systems did not allow the use of one single volume factor for adult and juvenile rats based on an unexpectedly strong hematocrit-dependency and other steroid specific (pre-analytic) factors. Our study provides correction factors for LC-MS/MS steroid analysis of volumetric and non-volumetric microsampling systems in comparison to plasma. It argues for thorough analysis of chromatographic effects before the use of novel volumetric systems for steroid analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tchu, Simone M; Lynch, Kara L; Wu, Alan H B
Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is used widely in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (ER+). Therapeutic monitoring of tamoxifen, and its metabolites N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDTam) and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (endoxifen), may be clinically useful for guiding treatment decisions. Two significant barriers to tamoxifen efficacy are: (1) variability in conversion of tamoxifen into the potent antiestrogenic metabolite, endoxifen, and (2) poor compliance and adherence to tamoxifen therapy. Therapeutic monitoring can be used to address both of these issues. Low levels of endoxifen indicate either poor compliance or poor metabolism of tamoxifen. Low tamoxifen levels would suggest poor compliance while a low ratio of endoxifen to NDTam would be indicative of poor metabolism. Solid phase extraction of patient serum followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection enables rapid, accurate, detection of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen, and endoxifen.
Schoenherr, Regine M.; Ye, Mingliang; Vannatta, Michael
We present a proof-of-principle for a fully automated bottom-up approach to protein characterization. Proteins are first separated by capillary electrophoresis. A pepsin microreactor is incorporated into the distal end of this capillary. Peptides formed in the reactor are transferred to a second capillary, where they are separated by capillary electrophoresis and characterized by mass spectrometry. While peptides generated from one digestion are being separated in the second capillary, the next protein fraction undergoes digestion in the microreactor. The migration time in the first dimension capillary is characteristic of the protein while migration time in the second dimension is characteristic of the peptide. Spot capacity for the two-dimensional separation is 590. A MS/MS analysis of a mixture of cytochrome C and myoglobin generated Mascot MOWSE scores of 107 for cytochrome C and 58 for myoglobin. The sequence coverages were 48% and 22%, respectively. PMID:17295444
Kaspar, Hannelore; Dettmer, Katja; Chan, Queenie; Daniels, Scott; Nimkar, Subodh; Daviglus, Martha L.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul; Oefner, Peter J.
Urinary amino acid analysis is typically done by cation-exchange chromatography followed by post-column derivatization with ninhydrin and UV detection. This method lacks throughput and specificity. Two recently introduced stable isotope ratio mass spectrometric methods promise to overcome those shortcomings. Using two blinded sets of urine replicates and a certified amino acid standard, we compared the precision and accuracy of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of propyl chloroformate and iTRAQ® derivatized amino acids, respectively, to conventional amino acid analysis. The GC-MS method builds on the direct derivatization of amino acids in diluted urine with propyl chloroformate, GC separation and mass spectrometric quantification of derivatives using stable isotope labeled standards. The LC-MS/MS method requires prior urinary protein precipitation followed by labeling of urinary and standard amino acids with iTRAQ® tags containing different cleavable reporter ions distinguishable by MS/MS fragmentation. Means and standard deviations of percent technical error (%TE) computed for 20 amino acids determined by amino acid analyzer, GC-MS, and iTRAQ®-LC-MS/MS analyses of 33 duplicate and triplicate urine specimens were 7.27±5.22, 21.18±10.94, and 18.34±14.67, respectively. Corresponding values for 13 amino acids determined in a second batch of 144 urine specimens measured in duplicate or triplicate were 8.39±5.35, 6.23±3.84, and 35.37±29.42. Both GC-MS and iTRAQ®-LC-MS/MS are suited for high-throughput amino acid analysis, with the former offering at present higher reproducibility and completely automated sample pretreatment, while the latter covers more amino acids and related amines. PMID:19481989
Kaspar, Hannelore; Dettmer, Katja; Chan, Queenie; Daniels, Scott; Nimkar, Subodh; Daviglus, Martha L; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul; Oefner, Peter J
Urinary amino acid analysis is typically done by cation-exchange chromatography followed by post-column derivatization with ninhydrin and UV detection. This method lacks throughput and specificity. Two recently introduced stable isotope ratio mass spectrometric methods promise to overcome those shortcomings. Using two blinded sets of urine replicates and a certified amino acid standard, we compared the precision and accuracy of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of propyl chloroformate and iTRAQ derivatized amino acids, respectively, to conventional amino acid analysis. The GC-MS method builds on the direct derivatization of amino acids in diluted urine with propyl chloroformate, GC separation and mass spectrometric quantification of derivatives using stable isotope labeled standards. The LC-MS/MS method requires prior urinary protein precipitation followed by labeling of urinary and standard amino acids with iTRAQ tags containing different cleavable reporter ions distinguishable by MS/MS fragmentation. Means and standard deviations of percent technical error (%TE) computed for 20 amino acids determined by amino acid analyzer, GC-MS, and iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS analyses of 33 duplicate and triplicate urine specimens were 7.27+/-5.22, 21.18+/-10.94, and 18.34+/-14.67, respectively. Corresponding values for 13 amino acids determined in a second batch of 144 urine specimens measured in duplicate or triplicate were 8.39+/-5.35, 6.23+/-3.84, and 35.37+/-29.42. Both GC-MS and iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS are suited for high-throughput amino acid analysis, with the former offering at present higher reproducibility and completely automated sample pretreatment, while the latter covers more amino acids and related amines.
Wang, Xin; Qin, Yao; Li, Guang-Quan; Chen, Shuai; Ma, Jing-Qi; Guo, Yan-Lei; Luo, Wei-Zao
A rapid and credible analytical method was developed using online UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS to identify chemical constituents in Polygoni cuspidati folium and its preparation. By accurate mass measurements within 6.5 ppm error for [M-H]- ion in routine analysis, 26 chemical constituents, including tannin, derivatives of phenylpropionic acid, stilbene, flavonoid, anthraquinone, torachryson and its derivatives, were identified or tentatively characterized. Among them, five constituents (compounds 19-23) were firstly reported in Polygoni cuspidati folium, other 17 constituents were coexisting in both Polygoni cuspidati folium and its preparation. Fragmentation behaviors of different categories of constituents were also investigated to confirm the results. This established UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS method, with reliance and efficiency for the identification the major constituents, would be the basis for quality control of Polygoni cuspidati folium and its preparation.
Cannataro, Mario; Cuda, Giovanni; Gaspari, Marco; Greco, Sergio; Tradigo, Giuseppe; Veltri, Pierangelo
Isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT) is a method for quantitative proteomics based on differential isotopic labeling, sample digestion and mass spectrometry (MS). The method allows the identification and relative quantification of proteins present in two samples and consists of the following phases. First, cysteine residues are either labeled using the ICAT Light or ICAT Heavy reagent (having identical chemical properties but different masses). Then, after whole sample digestion, the labeled peptides are captured selectively using the biotin tag contained in both ICAT reagents. Finally, the simplified peptide mixture is analyzed by nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Nevertheless, the ICAT LC-MS/MS method still suffers from insufficient sample-to-sample reproducibility on peptide identification. In particular, the number and the type of peptides identified in different experiments can vary considerably and, thus, the statistical (comparative) analysis of sample sets is very challenging. Low information overlap at the peptide and, consequently, at the protein level, is very detrimental in situations where the number of samples to be analyzed is high. We designed a method for improving the data processing and peptide identification in sample sets subjected to ICAT labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis, based on cross validating MS/MS results. Such a method has been implemented in a tool, called EIPeptiDi, which boosts the ICAT data analysis software improving peptide identification throughout the input data set. Heavy/Light (H/L) pairs quantified but not identified by the MS/MS routine, are assigned to peptide sequences identified in other samples, by using similarity criteria based on chromatographic retention time and Heavy/Light mass attributes. EIPeptiDi significantly improves the number of identified peptides per sample, proving that the proposed method has a considerable impact on the protein identification process and, consequently, on
Qi, Jenson; Masucci, John A; Lang, Wensheng; Connelly, Margery A; Caldwell, Gary W; Petrounia, Ioanna; Kirkpatrick, Jennifer; Barnakov, Alexander N; Struble, Geoffrey; Miller, Robyn; Dzordzorine, Keli; Kuo, Gee-Hong; Gaul, Michael; Pocai, Alessandro; Lee, Seunghun
Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes (MGAT1, MGAT2, and MGAT3) convert monoacylglycerol to diacylglycerol (DAG). MGAT1 and MGAT2 are both implicated in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Conventional MGAT enzyme assays use radioactive substrates, wherein the product of the MGAT-catalyzed reaction is usually resolved by time-consuming thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. Furthermore, microsomal membrane preparations typically contain endogenous diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) from the host cells, and these DGAT activities can further acylate DAG to form triglyceride (TG). Our mass spectrometry (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, or LC/MS/MS) MGAT2 assay measures human recombinant MGAT2-catalyzed formation of didecanoyl-glycerol from 1-decanoyl-rac-glycerol and decanoyl-CoA, to produce predominantly 1,3-didecanoyl-glycerol. Unlike 1,2-DAG, 1,3-didecanoyl-glycerol is proved to be not susceptible to further acylation to TG. 1,3-Didecanoyl-glycerol product can be readily solubilized and directly subjected to high-throughput mass spectrometry (HTMS) without further extraction in a 384-well format. We also have established the LC/MS/MS MGAT activity assay in the intestinal microsomes from various species. Our assay is proved to be highly sensitive, and thus it allows measurement of endogenous MGAT activity in cell lysates and tissue preparations. The implementation of the HTMS MGAT activity assay has facilitated the robust screening and evaluation of MGAT inhibitors for the treatment of metabolic diseases.
Ahn, J; Kim, D; Kim, H; Jahng, K-Y
Naturally occurring mycotoxins are responsible for a wide array of adverse health effects. The measurement of urinary mycotoxin levels is a useful means of assessing an individual's exposure, but the development of sensitive and accurate analytical methods for detecting mycotoxins and their metabolites in urine samples is challenging. Urinary mycotoxins are present in low pg ml⁻¹ concentrations, and the chromatographic identification of their metabolites can be obscured by other endogenous metabolites. We developed an analytical method focused on the selection of two appropriate multiple-reaction monitoring transition for unambiguous identification and quantification of carcinogenic aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁), ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B₁, B₂ (FB₁, FB₂) in urine samples from a small volunteer group in a pilot study. AFM₁, OTA, FB₁ and FB₂ were concentrated selectively, interfering substances were removed using an immunoaffinity column (IAC), and mycotoxins were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in combination with a stable-isotope standard-dilution assay (SIDA). The method was sensitive enough to measure mycotoxins and their metabolites at pg ml⁻¹ levels in urine. The combination of LC-MS/MS and SIDA was critical to distinguishing pseudo-OTα interference from genuine OTα. Twelve urine samples contained OTA ranging from 0.013 to 0.093 ng ml⁻¹ (mean = 0.031 ng ml⁻¹). AFM₁ were detected in one sample at a 0.002 ng ml⁻¹ level, while FB₁ and FB₂ were undetectable in all 12 samples. None of the samples in this pilot study contained a detectable level of OTα, despite the presence of OTA, and this may suggest the need for further epidemiological investigation of OTA exposure in the Korean population.
Kane, Maureen A.; Chen, Na; Sparks, Susan; Napoli, Joseph L.
We report a sensitive LC (liquid chromatography)/MS/MS assay using selected reaction monitoring to quantify RA (retinoic acid), which is applicable to biological samples of limited size (10–20 mg of tissue wet weight), requires no sample derivatization, provides mass identification and resolves atRA (all-trans-RA) from its geometric isomers. The assay quantifies over a linear range of 20 fmol to 10 pmol, and has a 10 fmol limit of detection at a signal/noise ratio of 3. Coefficients of variation are: instrumental, 0.5–2.9%; intra-assay, 5.4±0.4%; inter-assay 8.9±1.0%. An internal standard (all-trans-4,4-dimethyl-RA) improves accuracy by confirming extraction efficiency and revealing handling-induced isomerization. Tissues of 2–4-month-old C57BL/6 male mice had atRA concentrations of 7–9.6 pmol/g and serum atRA of 1.9±0.6 pmol/ml (±S.E.M.). Tissue 13-cis-RA ranged from 2.9 to 4.2 pmol/g, and serum 13-cis-RA was 1.2±0.3 pmol/ml. CRBP (cellular retinol-binding protein)-null mouse liver had atRA ∼30% lower than wild-type (P<0.05), but kidney, testis, brain and serum atRA were similar to wild-type. atRA in brain areas of 12-month-old female C57BL/6 mice were (±S.E.M.): whole brain, 5.4±0.4 pmol/g; cerebellum, 10.7±0.3 pmol/g; cortex, 2.6±0.4 pmol/g; hippocampus, 8.4±1.2 pmol/g; striatum, 15.3±4.7 pmol/g. These data provide the first analytically robust quantification of atRA in animal brain and in CRBP-null mice. Direct measurements of endogenous RA should have a substantial impact on investigating target tissues of RA, mechanisms of RA action, and the relationship between RA and chronic disease. PMID:15628969
Hansen, Rebecca L.; Lee, Young Jin
Metabolomics experiments require chemical identifications, often through MS/MS analysis. In mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), this necessitates running several serial tissue sections or using a multiplex data acquisition method. We have previously developed a multiplex MSI method to obtain MS and MS/MS data in a single experiment to acquire more chemical information in less data acquisition time. In this method, each raster step is composed of several spiral steps and each spiral step is used for a separate scan event (e.g., MS or MS/MS). One main limitation of this method is the loss of spatial resolution as the number of spiral steps increases, limiting its applicability for high-spatial resolution MSI. In this work, we demonstrate multiplex MS imaging is possible without sacrificing spatial resolution by the use of overlapping spiral steps, instead of spatially separated spiral steps as used in the previous work. Significant amounts of matrix and analytes are still left after multiple spectral acquisitions, especially with nanoparticle matrices, so that high quality MS and MS/MS data can be obtained on virtually the same tissue spot. This method was then applied to visualize metabolites and acquire their MS/MS spectra in maize leaf cross-sections at 10 μm spatial resolution. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Yang, He S; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L
With the rise in the use and misuse of prescription opioids, there is an increasing need for the confirmed identification of opioid analgesics in toxicology laboratories. The goals of this study were to (i) systematically evaluate the hydrolysis efficiency of four β-glucuronidase enzymes under optimized condition; (ii) evaluate compound recovery, matrix effects and precision of three protein precipitation plates and (iii) develop and validate a qualitative liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay to identify 13 opioids in urine. A recombinant β-glucuronidase exhibited the best overall hydrolysis efficiency for seven opioid glucuronide conjugates compared with β-glucuronidase from red abalone, Escherichia coli and Patella vulgata One of the protein precipitation plates tested exhibited overall better recovery of the opioids and lower ion suppression compared with the other two plates. An ESI positive mode LC-MS/MS assay for qualitative opioid analysis was developed and validated. Linearity, LOD, precision, matrix effect, recovery, carryover and interference of the method were evaluated. Sixty-two patient samples were analyzed by both a legacy GC-MS opioid method and the LC-MS/MS method, and 22 samples were analyzed by the LC-MS/MS and an LC-MS/MS reference method. The results of the comparisons showed good concordance. Overall, we described an efficient sample preparation procedure for a sensitive qualitative opioid confirmation assay in urine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) multi-residue method for the simultaneous quantification and identification of 38 residues of the most widely used anthelmintic veterinary drugs (including benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones, and flukicides) in milk and liver has been d...
Berg, Thomas; Kaur, Lakhwinder; Risnes, Anna; Havig, Stine Marie; Karinen, Ritva
Two different analytical techniques, ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS/MS) and reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), were used for the determination of two synthetic cannabinoids and eleven metabolites in urine; AM-2201 N-4-OH-pentyl, AM-2233, JWH-018 N-5-OH-pentyl, JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid, JWH-073 N-4-OH-butyl, JWH-073 N-butanoic acid, JWH-122 N-5-OH-pentyl, MAM-2201, MAM-2201 N-4-OH-pentyl, RCS-4 N-5-OH-pentyl, UR-144 degradant N-pentanoic acid, UR-144 N-4-OH-pentyl, and UR-144 N-pentanoic acid. Sample preparation included a liquid-liquid extraction after deconjugation with ß-glucuronidase. The UHPSFC-MS/MS method used an Acquity UPC(2 TM) BEH column with a mobile phase consisting of CO2 and 0.3% ammonia in methanol, while the UHPLC-MS/MS method used an Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of 5 mM ammonium formate (pH 10.2) and methanol. MS/MS detection was performed with positive electrospray ionization and two multiple reaction monitoring transitions. Deuterated internal standards were used for six of the compounds. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.04 and 0.4 µg/L. Between-day relative standard deviations at concentrations ≥ LOQ were ≤20%, with biases within ±19%. Recoveries ranged from 40 to 90%. Corrected matrix effects were within 100 ± 10%, except for MAM-2201 with UHPSFC-MS/MS, and for UR-144 N-pentanoic acid and MAM-2201 N-4-OH-pentyl with UHPLC-MS/MS. Elution order obtained by UHPSFC-MS/MS was almost opposite to that obtained by UHPLC-MS/MS, making this instrument setup an interesting combination for screening and confirmation analyses in forensic cases. The UHPLC-MS/MS method has, since August 2014, been successfully used for confirmation of synthetic cannabinoids in urine samples revealing a positive immunoassay screening result. Copyright © 2015
Pellati, Federica; Orlandini, Giulia; Pinetti, Diego; Benvenuti, Stefania
In this study, the composition of polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) in propolis extracts was investigated by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS by comparing the performance of ion trap and triple quadrupole mass analyzers. The analyses were carried out on an Ascentis C(18) column (250mm×4.6mm I.D., 5μm), with a mobile phase composed by 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Overall, the UV spectra, the MS and MS/MS data allowed the identification of 40 compounds. In the case of flavonoids, the triple quadrupole mass analyzer provided more collision energy if compared with the ion trap, originating product ions at best sensitivity. The HPLC method was validated in agreement with ICH guidelines: the correlation coefficients were >0.998; the limit of detection was in the range 1.6-4.6μg/ml; the recovery range was 96-105%; the intra- and inter-day %RSD values for retention times and peak areas were found to be <0.3 and 1.9%, respectively. The developed technique was applied to the analysis of hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis available on the Italian market. Although the chromatographic profile of the analyzed samples was similar, the quantitative analysis indicated that there is a great variability in the amount of the active compounds: the content of total phenolic acids ranged from 0.17 to 16.67mg/ml and the level of total flavonoids from 2.48 to 41.10mg/ml. The proposed method can be considered suitable for the phytochemical analysis of propolis extracts used in phytotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Samson-Thibault, Francois; Madugundu, Guru S; Gao, Shanshan; Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard
Spontaneous and oxidant-induced damage to cytosine is probably the main cause of CG to TA transition mutations in mammalian genomes. The reaction of hydroxyl radical (·OH) and one-electron oxidants with cytosine derivatives produces numerous oxidation products, which have been identified in large part by model studies with monomers and short oligonucleotides. Here, we developed an analytical method based on LC-MS/MS to detect 10 oxidized bases in DNA, including 5 oxidation products of cytosine. The utility of this method is demonstrated by the measurement of base damage in isolated calf thymus DNA exposed to ionizing radiation in aerated aqueous solutions (0-200 Gy) and to well-known Fenton-like reactions (Fe(2+) or Cu(+) with H(2)O(2) and ascorbate). The following cytosine modifications were quantified as modified 2'-deoxyribonucleosides upon exposure of DNA to ionizing radiation in aqueous aerated solution: 5-hydroxyhydantoin (Hyd-Ura) > 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHUra) > 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OHCyt) > 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrouracil (Ura-Gly) > 1-carbamoyl-4,5-dihydroxy-2-oxoimidazolidine (Imid-Cyt). The total yield of cytosine oxidation products was comparable to that of thymine oxidation products (5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (Thy-Gly), 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantotin (Hyd-Thy), 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil (5-HmUra), and 5-formyluracil (5-ForUra)) as well as the yield of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua). The major oxidation product of cytosine in DNA was Hyd-Ura. In contrast, the formation of Imid-Cyt was a minor pathway of DNA damage, although it is the major product arising from irradiation of the monomers, cytosine, and 2'-deoxycytidine. The reaction of Fenton-like reagents with DNA gave a different distribution of cytosine derived products compared to ionizing radiation, which likely reflects the reaction of metal ions with intermediate peroxyl radicals or hydroperoxides. The analysis of the main cytosine oxidation products will help elucidate the complex
Chamrad, Daniel C; Körting, Gerhard; Schäfer, Heike; Stephan, Christian; Thiele, Herbert; Apweiler, Rolf; Meyer, Helmut E; Marcus, Katrin; Blüggel, Martin
A novel software tool named PTM-Explorer has been applied to LC-MS/MS datasets acquired within the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) Brain Proteome Project (BPP). PTM-Explorer enables automatic identification of peptide MS/MS spectra that were not explained in typical sequence database searches. The main focus was detection of PTMs, but PTM-Explorer detects also unspecific peptide cleavage, mass measurement errors, experimental modifications, amino acid substitutions, transpeptidation products and unknown mass shifts. To avoid a combinatorial problem the search is restricted to a set of selected protein sequences, which stem from previous protein identifications using a common sequence database search. Prior to application to the HUPO BPP data, PTM-Explorer was evaluated on excellently manually characterized and evaluated LC-MS/MS data sets from Alpha-A-Crystallin gel spots obtained from mouse eye lens. Besides various PTMs including phosphorylation, a wealth of experimental modifications and unspecific cleavage products were successfully detected, completing the primary structure information of the measured proteins. Our results indicate that a large amount of MS/MS spectra that currently remain unidentified in standard database searches contain valuable information that can only be elucidated using suitable software tools.
Wen, Bo; Du, Chaoqin; Li, Guilin; Ghali, Fawaz; Jones, Andrew R; Käll, Lukas; Xu, Shaohang; Zhou, Ruo; Ren, Zhe; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun
Liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an important technique for detecting peptides in proteomics studies. Here, we present an open source software tool, termed IPeak, a peptide identification pipeline that is designed to combine the Percolator post-processing algorithm and multi-search strategy to enhance the sensitivity of peptide identifications without compromising accuracy. IPeak provides a graphical user interface (GUI) as well as a command-line interface, which is implemented in JAVA and can work on all three major operating system platforms: Windows, Linux/Unix and OS X. IPeak has been designed to work with the mzIdentML standard from the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) as an input and output, and also been fully integrated into the associated mzidLibrary project, providing access to the overall pipeline, as well as modules for calling Percolator on individual search engine result files. The integration thus enables IPeak (and Percolator) to be used in conjunction with any software packages implementing the mzIdentML data standard. IPeak is freely available and can be downloaded under an Apache 2.0 license at https://code.google.com/p/mzidentml-lib/. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Sanchez, Jon A.; Otero, Paz; Alfonso, Amparo; Ramos, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi; Vieytes, Mercedes R.; Botana, Luis M.
Anatoxin-a (ATX) is a potent neurotoxin produced by several species of Anabaena spp. Cyanobacteria blooms around the world have been increasing in recent years; therefore, it is urgent to develop sensitive techniques that unequivocally confirm the presence of these toxins in fresh water and cyanobacterial samples. In addition, the identification of different ATX analogues is essential to later determine its toxicity. In this paper we designed a fluorescent polarization (FP) method to detect ATXs in water samples. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) labeled with a fluorescein derivative was used to develop this assay. Data showed a direct relationship between the amount of toxin in a sample and the changes in the polarization degree of the emitted light by the labeled nAChR, indicating an interaction between the two molecules. This method was used to measure the amount of ATX in three Anabaena spp. cultures. Results indicate that it is a good method to show ATXs presence in algal samples. In order to check the toxin profile of Anabaena cultures a LC-MS/MS method was also developed. Within this new method, ATX-a, retention time (RT) 5 min, and three other molecules with a mass m/z 180.1 eluting at 4.14 min, 5.90 min and 7.14 min with MS/MS spectra characteristic of ATX toxin group not previously identified were detected in the Anabaena spp. cultures. These ATX analogues may have an important role in the toxicity of the sample. PMID:24469431
Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Kroeger, Nicholas M.; Gill, Emily L.; Ulmer, Candice Z.; Bowden, John A.; Patterson, Rainey E.; Yost, Richard A.; Garrett, Timothy J.
Untargeted omics analyses aim to comprehensively characterize biomolecules within a biological system. Changes in the presence or quantity of these biomolecules can indicate important biological perturbations, such as those caused by disease. With current technological advancements, the entire genome can now be sequenced; however, in the burgeoning fields of lipidomics, only a subset of lipids can be identified. The recent emergence of high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS), in combination with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, has resulted in an increased coverage of the lipidome. Nevertheless, identifications from MS/MS are generally limited by the number of precursors that can be selected for fragmentation during chromatographic elution. Therefore, we developed the software IE-Omics to automate iterative exclusion (IE), where selected precursors using data-dependent topN analyses are excluded in sequential injections. In each sequential injection, unique precursors are fragmented until HR-MS/MS spectra of all ions above a user-defined intensity threshold are acquired. IE-Omics was applied to lipidomic analyses in Red Cross plasma and substantia nigra tissue. Coverage of the lipidome was drastically improved using IE. When applying IE-Omics to Red Cross plasma and substantia nigra lipid extracts in positive ion mode, 69% and 40% more molecular identifications were obtained, respectively. In addition, applying IE-Omics to a lipidomics workflow increased the coverage of trace species, including odd-chained and short-chained diacylglycerides and oxidized lipid species. By increasing the coverage of the lipidome, applying IE to a lipidomics workflow increases the probability of finding biomarkers and provides additional information for determining etiology of disease.
We developed a rapid method with ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant proanthocyanidins (PAs) directly from crude plant extracts. The method utilizes a range of cone voltages to achieve the depolymeriza...
Van De Steene, Jet C; Lambert, Willy E
When developing an LC-MS/MS-method matrix effects are a major issue. The effect of co-eluting compounds arising from the matrix can result in signal enhancement or suppression. During method development much attention should be paid to diminishing matrix effects as much as possible. The present work evaluates matrix effects from aqueous environmental samples in the simultaneous analysis of a group of 9 specific pharmaceuticals with HPLC-ESI/MS/MS and UPLC-ESI/MS/MS: flubendazole, propiconazole, pipamperone, cinnarizine, ketoconazole, miconazole, rabeprazole, itraconazole and domperidone. When HPLC-MS/MS is used, matrix effects are substantial and can not be compensated for with analogue internal standards. For different surface water samples different matrix effects are found. For accurate quantification the standard addition approach is necessary. Due to the better resolution and more narrow peaks in UPLC, analytes will co-elute less with interferences during ionisation, so matrix effects could be lower, or even eliminated. If matrix effects are eliminated with this technique, the standard addition method for quantification can be omitted and the overall method will be simplified. Results show that matrix effects are almost eliminated if internal standards (structural analogues) are used. Instead of the time-consuming and labour-intensive standard addition method, with UPLC the internal standardization can be used for quantification and the overall method is substantially simplified.
Hardware ion scan functions unique to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) mode of data acquisition, such as precursor ion scan (PIS) and neutral loss scan (NLS), are important for selective extraction of key structural data from complex MS/MS spectra. However, their software counterparts, software ion scan (SIS) functions, are still not regularly available. Software ion scan functions can be easily coded for additional functionalities, such as software multiple precursor ion scan, software no ion scan, and software variable ion scan functions. These are often necessary, since they allow more efficient analysis of complex MS/MS datasets, often encountered in glycomics and lipidomics. Software ion scan functions can be easily coded by using modern script languages and can be independent of instrument manufacturer. Here we demonstrate the utility of SIS functions on a medium-size glycomic MS/MS dataset. Knowledge of sample properties, as well as of diagnostic and conditional diagnostic ions crucial for data analysis, was needed. Based on the tables constructed with the output data from the SIS functions performed, a detailed analysis of a complex MS/MS glycomic dataset could be carried out in a quick, accurate, and efficient manner. Glycomic research is progressing slowly, and with respect to the MS experiments, one of the key obstacles for moving forward is the lack of appropriate bioinformatic tools necessary for fast analysis of glycomic MS/MS datasets. Adding novel SIS functionalities to the glycomic MS/MS toolbox has a potential to significantly speed up the glycomic data analysis process. Similar tools are useful for analysis of lipidomic MS/MS datasets as well, as will be discussed briefly. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.
An important piece of information, which can be extracted from parameters of empirical models, is quantitative characteristics of couplings between processes under study. The problem of coupling detection is encountered in multiple fields including physics (Bezruchko et al., 2003), geophysics (Maraun and Kurths, 2005; Mokhov and Smirnov, 2006, 2008; Mosedale et al., 2006; Palus and Novotna, 2006; Verdes, 2005; Wang et al., 2004), cardiology (Rosenblum et al., 2002; Palus and Stefanovska, 2003) and neurophysiology (Arnhold et al., 1999; Brea et al., 2006; Faes et al., 2008; Friston et al., 2003; Kreuz et al., 2007; Kiemel et al., 2003; Le Van Quyen et al., 1999; Mormann et al., 2000; Osterhage et al., 2007; Pereda et al., 2005; Prusseit and Lehnertz, 2008; Smirnov et al., 2005; Romano et al., 2007; Schelter et al., 2006; Schiff et al., 1996; Sitnikova et al., 2008; Smirnov et al., 2008, Staniek and Lehnertz, 2008; Tass, 1999; Tass et al., 2003). Numerous investigations are devoted to synchronisation, which is an effect of interaction between non-linear oscillatory systems (see, e.g., Balanov et al., 2008; Boccaletti et al., 2002; Hramov and Koronovskii, 2004; Kreuz et al., 2007; Maraun and Kurths, 2005; Mormann et al., 2000; Mosekilde et al., 2002; Osipov et al., 2007; Palus and Novotna, 2006; Pikovsky et al., 2001; Prokhorov et al., 2003; Tass et al., 2003). In the last decade, more careful attention is paid to directional coupling analysis. Such characteristics might help, e.g., to localise an epileptic focus (a pathologic area) in the brain from electroencephalogram (EEG) or magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings: hypothetically, an increasing influence of an epileptic focus on adjacent areas leads to the seizure onset for some kinds of epilepsy.
Salgado, Francisco; Albornoz, Laura; Cortéz, Carmen; Stashenko, Elena; Urrea-Vallejo, Kelly; Nagles, Edgar; Galicia-Virviescas, Cesar; Cornejo, Alberto; Ardiles, Alejandro; Simirgiotis, Mario; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Areche, Carlos
Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria, which are considered among the slowest growing organisms, with strong tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. There are about 400 genera and 1600 species of lichens and those belonging to the Usnea genus comprise about 360 of these species. Usnea lichens have been used since ancient times as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, deodorants and folk medicines. The phytochemistry of the Usnea genus includes more than 60 compounds which belong to the following classes: depsides, depsidones, depsones, lactones, quinones, phenolics, polysaccharides, fatty acids and dibenzofurans. Due to scarce knowledge of metabolomic profiles of Usnea species ( U. barbata , U. antarctica , U. rubicunda and U. subfloridana ), a study based on UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS was performed for a comprehensive characterization of their secondary metabolites. From the methanolic extracts of these species a total of 73 metabolites were identified for the first time using this hyphenated technique, including 34 compounds in U. barbata , 21 in U. antarctica , 38 in U. rubicunda and 37 in U. subfloridana . Besides, a total of 13 metabolites were not identified and reported so far, and could be new according to our data analysis. This study showed that this hyphenated technique is rapid, effective and accurate for phytochemical identification of lichen metabolites and the data collected could be useful for chemotaxonomic studies.
Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.
Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.
Liu, Honghe; Mao, Lisha; Zhu, Zhou; Liu, Guihua; Chen, Yuhua
A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was established for determination of five microcystins( MC-LR,MC-LW,MC-RR, MC-LF, MC-YR)in drinking water and source water. The five microcystins in water was cleaned by 0.22 microm millipore filter, then detected by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Identification was achieved by electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring. The calibration curves of five microcystins showed good linearity in the range of 0.5-50 microg/L with correlation coefficient in the range of 0.9994 -1.0000. The detection limit of the method was from 0.06 microg/L to 0.08 microg/L, the recoveries of two spiking levels ranged from 91.2% to 102%, and RSDs of range from 2.11% to 3.26% were obtained. The method for determination of five microcystins in drinking water and source water by HPLC-MS/MS was of operation convenience, less interference from impurities and good accuracy, which could meet the requirements of national health standard method for the determination of microcystins in drinking water.
Hartler, Jürgen; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Stocker, Gernot; Sturn, Alexander; Burkard, Thomas R; Körner, Erik; Rader, Robert; Schmidt, Andreas; Mechtler, Karl; Trajanoski, Zlatko
Background The advancements of proteomics technologies have led to a rapid increase in the number, size and rate at which datasets are generated. Managing and extracting valuable information from such datasets requires the use of data management platforms and computational approaches. Results We have developed the MAss SPECTRometry Analysis System (MASPECTRAS), a platform for management and analysis of proteomics LC-MS/MS data. MASPECTRAS is based on the Proteome Experimental Data Repository (PEDRo) relational database schema and follows the guidelines of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI). Analysis modules include: 1) import and parsing of the results from the search engines SEQUEST, Mascot, Spectrum Mill, X! Tandem, and OMSSA; 2) peptide validation, 3) clustering of proteins based on Markov Clustering and multiple alignments; and 4) quantification using the Automated Statistical Analysis of Protein Abundance Ratios algorithm (ASAPRatio). The system provides customizable data retrieval and visualization tools, as well as export to PRoteomics IDEntifications public repository (PRIDE). MASPECTRAS is freely available at Conclusion Given the unique features and the flexibility due to the use of standard software technology, our platform represents significant advance and could be of great interest to the proteomics community. PMID:17567892
Heo, Seok; Yoo, Geum Joo; Choi, Ji Yeon; Park, Hyoung Joon; Do, Jung-Ah; Cho, Sooyeul; Baek, Sun Young; Park, Sung-Kwan
The primary purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method based on UPLC with UV and UPLC-MS-MS for the simultaneous analysis of different cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids in food as well as in herbal and dietary supplements. The limits of detection and quantitation of the method ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 and 0.3 to 0.9 μg/mL by UPLC with UV, respectively. The coefficient of determination was >0.999; the intra- and interday precision of the method were 0.1-3.7 and 0.9-4.1%, respectively. The intra- and interday accuracy were 94.8-103.1 and 98.3-100.9%, respectively. The mean recoveries of nine cannabinoids obtained from tablet samples ranged from 81.1 to 105.4%. The mean extraction recoveries of nine target cannabinoids obtained from various types of samples (tablets, capsules, powders, liquids, cookies and candies) ranged from 82.26 to 112.40%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the stability of the prepared sample solutions was <1.80%. Identification and quantification of the nine cannabinoids were accomplished by ion spray UPLC-MS-MS using multiple reaction monitoring. The UPLC-MS-MS method was validated for linearity (R(2) > 0.99); the precision was 0.1-4.0% (intraday) and 0.1-2.8% (interday), and the accuracy was 98.0-103.5% (intraday) and 97.1-103.2% (interday). The mean extraction recoveries of six types of samples were 82.2-114.5% and the RSD of stability was <6.54%, complying with the established international guidelines. The results indicated that the method can be used for rapid and accurate screening of cannabinoids present in food. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background Microalgae have attracted major interest as a sustainable source for biodiesel production on commercial scale. This paper describes the screening of six microalgal species, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Nannochloropsis sp., Anabaena sp., Chlorella sp. and Oscillatoria sp., isolated from fresh and marine water resources of southern Pakistan for biodiesel production and the GC-MS/MS analysis of their fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Results Growth rate, biomass productivity and oil content of each algal species have been investigated under autotrophic condition. Biodiesel was produced from algal oil by acid catalyzed transesterification reaction and resulting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content was analyzed by GC/MS. Fatty acid profiling of the biodiesel, obtained from various microalgal oils showed high content of C-16:0, C-18:0, cis-Δ9C-18:1, cis-Δ11C-18:1 (except Scenedesmus quadricauda) and 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic (except Scenedesmus acuminatus). Absolute amount of C-14:0, C-16:0 and C-18:0 by a validated GC-MS/MS method were found to be 1.5-1.7, 15.0-42.5 and 4.2-18.4 mg/g, respectively, in biodiesel obtained from various microalgal oils. Biodiesel was also characterized in terms of cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value and compared with the standard values. Conclusion Six microalgae of local origin were screened for biodiesel production. A method for absolute quantification of three important saturated fatty acid methyl esters (C-14, C-16 and C-18) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode, was employed for the identification and quantification of biodiesels obtained from various microalgal oils. The results suggested that locally found microalgae can be sustainably harvested for the production of biodiesel. This offers the tremendous economic opportunity for an energy-deficient nation. PMID:23216896
Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y.; Yu, Yi-Kuo
Statistically meaningful comparison/combination of peptide identification results from various search methods is impeded by the lack of a universal statistical standard. Providing an -value calibration protocol, we demonstrated earlier the feasibility of translating either the score or heuristic -value reported by any method into the textbook-defined -value, which may serve as the universal statistical standard. This protocol, although robust, may lose spectrum-specific statistics and might require a new calibration when changes in experimental setup occur. To mitigate these issues, we developed a new MS/MS search tool, RAId_aPS, that is able to provide spectrum-specific -values for additive scoring functions. Given a selection of scoring functions out of RAId score, K-score, Hyperscore and XCorr, RAId_aPS generates the corresponding score histograms of all possible peptides using dynamic programming. Using these score histograms to assign -values enables a calibration-free protocol for accurate significance assignment for each scoring function. RAId_aPS features four different modes: (i) compute the total number of possible peptides for a given molecular mass range, (ii) generate the score histogram given a MS/MS spectrum and a scoring function, (iii) reassign -values for a list of candidate peptides given a MS/MS spectrum and the scoring functions chosen, and (iv) perform database searches using selected scoring functions. In modes (iii) and (iv), RAId_aPS is also capable of combining results from different scoring functions using spectrum-specific statistics. The web link is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/raid_aps/index.html. Relevant binaries for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available from the same page. PMID:21103371
Shah, Iltaf; James, Ricky; Barker, James; Petroczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P
Recently, the accuracies of many commercially available immunoassays for Vitamin D have been questioned. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC- MS/MS) has been shown to facilitate accurate separation and quantification of the major circulating metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25OHD3) and 25-hydroxyvitamin-D2 (25OHD2) collectively termed as 25OHD. However, among other interferents, this method may be compromised by overlapping peaks and identical masses of epimers and isobars, resulting in inaccuracies in circulating 25OHD measurements. The aim of this study was to develop a novel LC-MS/MS method that can accurately identify and quantitate 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 through chromatographic separation of 25OHD from its epimers and isobars. A positive ion electrospray ionisation (ESI) LC-MS/MS method was used in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode for quantification. It involved i) liquid-liquid extraction, ii) tandem columns (a high resolution ZORBAX C18 coupled to an ULTRON chiral, with guard column and inlet filter), iii) Stanozolol-D3 as internal standard, and iv) identification via ESI and monitoring of three fragmentation transitions. To demonstrate the practical usefulness of our method, blood samples were collected from 5 healthy male Caucasian volunteers; age range 22 to 37 years and 25OHD2, 25OHD3 along with co-eluting epimers and analogues were quantified. The new method allowed chromatographic separation and quantification of 25OHD2, 25OHD3, along with 25OHD3 epimer 3-epi-25OHD3 and isobars 1-α-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (1αOHD3), and 7-α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4). The new assay was capable of detecting 0.25 ng/mL of all analytes in serum. To our knowledge, this is the first specific, reliable, reproducible and robust LC-MS/MS method developed for the accurate detection of 25OHD (Vitamin D). The method is capable of detecting low levels of 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 together with chromatographic separation from the co-eluting epimers and isobars and
Background Recently, the accuracies of many commercially available immunoassays for Vitamin D have been questioned. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC- MS/MS) has been shown to facilitate accurate separation and quantification of the major circulating metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25OHD3) and 25-hydroxyvitamin-D2 (25OHD2) collectively termed as 25OHD. However, among other interferents, this method may be compromised by overlapping peaks and identical masses of epimers and isobars, resulting in inaccuracies in circulating 25OHD measurements. The aim of this study was to develop a novel LC-MS/MS method that can accurately identify and quantitate 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 through chromatographic separation of 25OHD from its epimers and isobars. Methods A positive ion electrospray ionisation (ESI) LC-MS/MS method was used in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode for quantification. It involved i) liquid-liquid extraction, ii) tandem columns (a high resolution ZORBAX C18 coupled to an ULTRON chiral, with guard column and inlet filter), iii) Stanozolol-D3 as internal standard, and iv) identification via ESI and monitoring of three fragmentation transitions. To demonstrate the practical usefulness of our method, blood samples were collected from 5 healthy male Caucasian volunteers; age range 22 to 37 years and 25OHD2, 25OHD3 along with co-eluting epimers and analogues were quantified. Results The new method allowed chromatographic separation and quantification of 25OHD2, 25OHD3, along with 25OHD3 epimer 3-epi-25OHD3 and isobars 1-α-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (1αOHD3), and 7-α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4). The new assay was capable of detecting 0.25 ng/mL of all analytes in serum. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first specific, reliable, reproducible and robust LC-MS/MS method developed for the accurate detection of 25OHD (Vitamin D). The method is capable of detecting low levels of 25OHD3 and 25OHD2 together with chromatographic separation from
Lee, Junhui; Park, Jiwon; Go, Ahra; Moon, Heesung; Kim, Sujin; Jung, Sohee; Jeong, Wonjoon; Chung, Heesun
To intoxicated patients in the emergency room, toxicological analysis can be considerably helpful for identifying the involved toxicants. In order to develop a urine multi-drug screening (UmDS) method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) were used to determine targeted and unknown toxicants in urine. A GC-MS method in scan mode was validated for selectivity, limit of detection (LOD) and recovery. An LC-MS-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was validated for lower LOD, recovery and matrix effect. The results of the screening analysis were compared with patient medical records to check the reliability of the screen. Urine samples collected from an emergency room were extracted through a combination of salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and hybrid protein precipitation/solid phase extraction (hybrid PPT/SPE) plates and examined by GC-MS and LC-MS-MS. GC-MS analysis was performed as unknown drug screen and LC-MS-MS analysis was conducted as targeted drug screen. After analysis by GC-MS, a library search was conducted using an in-house library established with the automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system (AMDISTM). LC-MS-MS used Cliquid®2.0 software for data processing and acquisition in MRM mode. An UmDS method by GC-MS and LC-MS-MS was developed by using a SALLE-hybrid PPT/SPE and in-house library. The results of UmDS by GC-MS and LC-MS-MS showed that toxicants could be identified from 185 emergency room patient samples containing unknown toxicants. Zolpidem, acetaminophen and citalopram were the most frequently encountered drugs in emergency room patients. The UmDS analysis developed in this study can be used effectively to detect toxic substances in a short time. Hence, it could be utilized in clinical and forensic toxicology practices.
Jahouh, Farid; Hou, Shu-jie; Kováč, Pavol; Banoub, Joseph H.
We present herein an efficient mass spectrometric method for the localization of the glycation sites of a model neoglycoconjugate vaccine formed by a construct of the tetrasaccharide side chain of the Bacillus anthracis exosporium and the protein carrier bovine serum albumin. The glycoconjugate was digested with both trypsin and GluC V8 endoproteinases, and the digests were then analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-CID-MS/MS and nano-LC-ESI-QqTOF-CID-MS/MS. The sequences of the unknown peptides analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-CID-MS/MS, following digestion with the GluC V8 endoproteinase, allowed us to recognize three glycopeptides whose glycation occupancies were, respectively, on Lys 235, Lys 420, and Lys 498. Similarly, the same analysis was performed on the tryptic digests, which permitted us to recognize two glycation sites on Lys 100 and Lys 374. In addition, we have also used LC-ESI-QqTOF-CID-MS/MS analysis for the identification of the tryptic digests. However, this analysis identified a higher number of glycopeptides than would be expected from a glycoconjugate composed of a carbohydrate–protein ratio of 5.4:1, which would have resulted in glycation occupancies of 18 specific sites. This discrepancy was due to the large number of glycoforms formed during the synthetic carbohydrate–spacer–carrier protein conjugation. Likewise, the LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS analysis of the GluC V8 digest also identified 17 different glycation sites on the synthetic glycoconjugate. PMID:22012665
Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use since the 1960s. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market. A fully validated, sensitive and reproducible method for the quantification of GHB by methanolic precipitation and GC-MS/MS (TQD) in whole blood is presented. Using 100μL of whole blood, obtained results included a LOD and LLOQ of 0.1mg/L and a recovery of 86% in a working range between 0.1 and 100mg/L. This method is sensitive and specific to detect the presence of GHB in small amounts of whole blood (both ante-mortem or post-mortem), and is, to the authors' knowledge, the first GC-MS-MS TQD method that uses different precursor ions and product ions for the identification of GHB and GHB-D6 (internal standard). Hence, this method may be especially useful for the study of endogenous values in this biological sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Canzani, Daniele; Hsieh, Kevin; Standland, Matthew; Hammack, Walter; Aldeek, Fadi
Penicillin G has been applied to citrus trees as a potential treatment in the fight against Huanglongbing (HLB). Here, we have developed and validated a method to identify and quantitate penicillin G and two of its metabolites, penillic acid and penilloic acid, in citrus fruit using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). This method improves upon a previous method by incorporating isotopically labeled internal standards, namely, penillic acid-D 5 , and penilloic acid-D 5 . These standards greatly enhanced the accuracy and precision of our measurements by compensating for recovery losses, degradation, and matrix effects. When 2g of citrus fruit sample is extracted, the limits of detection (LOD) were determined to be 0.1ng/g for penicillin G and penilloic acid, and 0.25ng/g for penillic acid. At fortification levels of 0.1, 0.25, 1, and 10ng/g, absolute recoveries for penillic and penilloic acids were generally between 50-70%. Recoveries corrected with the isotopically labeled standards were approximately 90-110%. This method will be useful for the identification and quantitation of drug residues and their degradation products using isotopically labeled standards and UHPLC-MS/MS. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Andersen, David W; Linnet, Kristian
A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jiyang; Xu, Changming; Li, Ning; Liu, Hui; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Yunping; Xie, Hongwei
Database searching based methods for label-free quantification aim to reconstruct the peptide extracted ion chromatogram based on the identification information, which can limit the search space and thus make the data processing much faster. The random effect of the MS/MS sampling can be remedied by cross-assignment among different runs. Here, we present a new label-free fast quantitative analysis tool, LFQuant, for high-resolution LC-MS/MS proteomics data based on database searching. It is designed to accept raw data in two common formats (mzXML and Thermo RAW), and database search results from mainstream tools (MASCOT, SEQUEST, and X!Tandem), as input data. LFQuant can handle large-scale label-free data with fractionation such as SDS-PAGE and 2D LC. It is easy to use and provides handy user interfaces for data loading, parameter setting, quantitative analysis, and quantitative data visualization. LFQuant was compared with two common quantification software packages, MaxQuant and IDEAL-Q, on the replication data set and the UPS1 standard data set. The results show that LFQuant performs better than them in terms of both precision and accuracy, and consumes significantly less processing time. LFQuant is freely available under the GNU General Public License v3.0 at http://sourceforge.net/projects/lfquant/. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Aburaya, Shunsuke; Aoki, Wataru; Minakuchi, Hiroyoshi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi
In proteomics, more than 100,000 peptides are generated from the digestion of human cell lysates. Proteome samples have a broad dynamic range in protein abundance; therefore, it is critical to optimize various parameters of LC-ESI-MS/MS to comprehensively identify these peptides. However, there are many parameters for LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. In this study, we applied definitive screening design to simultaneously optimize 14 parameters in the operation of monolithic capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS to increase the number of identified proteins and/or the average peak area of MS1. The simultaneous optimization enabled the determination of two-factor interactions between LC and MS. Finally, we found two parameter sets of monolithic capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS that increased the number of identified proteins by 8.1% or the average peak area of MS1 by 67%. The definitive screening design would be highly useful for high-throughput analysis of the best parameter set in LC-ESI-MS/MS systems.
Villar-González, Adriano; Rodríguez-Velasco, María Luisa; Gago-Martínez, Ana
An LC/MS/MS method has been developed, assessed, and intralaboratory-validated for the analysis of the lipophilic toxins currently regulated by European Union legislation: okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins 1 and 2, including their ester forms; azaspiracids 1, 2, and 3; pectenotoxins 1 and 2; yessotoxin (YTX), and the analogs 45 OH-YTX, Homo YTX, and 45 OH-Homo YTX; as well as for the analysis of 13-desmetil-spirolide C. The method consists of duplicate sample extraction with methanol and direct analysis of the crude extract without further cleanup or concentration. Ester forms of OA and dinophysistoxins are detected as the parent ions after alkaline hydrolysis of the extract. The validation process of this method was performed using both fortified and naturally contaminated samples, and experiments were designed according to International Organization for Standardization, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, and AOAC guidelines. With the exception of YTX in fortified samples, RSDr below 15% and RSDR were below 25%. Recovery values were between 77 and 95%, and LOQs were below 60 microg/kg. These data together with validation experiments for recovery, selectivity, robustness, traceability, and linearity, as well as uncertainty calculations, are presented in this paper.
Móricz, Ágnes M; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Alberti, Ágnes; Darcsi, András; Horváth, Györgyi; Csontos, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs; Ott, Péter G
The antibacterial profiling of Onopordum acanthium L. leaf extract and subsequent targeted identification of active compounds is demonstrated. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and off-line overpressured layer chromatography (OPLC) coupled with direct bioautography were utilized for investigation of the extract against eight bacterial strains including two plant and three human pathogens and a soil, a marine and a probiotic human gut bacteria. Antibacterial fractions obtaining infusion-transfusion OPLC were transferred to HPLC-MS/MS analysis that resulted in the characterization of three active compounds and two of them were identified as, linoleic and linolenic acid. OPLC method was adopted to preparative-scale flash chromatography for the isolation of the third active compound, which was identified after a further semi-preparative HPLC purification as the germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone onopordopicrin. Pure onopordopicrin exhibited antibacterial activity that was specified as minimal inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This presentation will describe the U.S. EPA’s drinking water and ambient water method development program in relation to the process employed and the typical challenges encountered in developing standardized LC/MS/MS methods for chemicals of emerging concern. The EPA’s Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List and Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulations, which are the driving forces behind drinking water method development, will be introduced. Three drinking water LC/MS/MS methods (Methods 537, 544 and a new method for nonylphenol) and two ambient water LC/MS/MS methods for cyanotoxins will be described that highlight some of the challenges encountered during development of these methods. This presentation will provide the audience with basic understanding of EPA's drinking water method development program and an introduction to two new ambient water EPA methods.
Roach, John A G; Andrzejewski, Denis; Gay, Martha L; Nortrup, David; Musser, Steven M
The described liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of acrylamide in food entails aqueous room temperature extraction, SPE cleanup, and analysis by LC-MS/MS. The method is applicable to a wide variety of foods. [(13)C(3)]acrylamide is the internal standard. The limit of quantitation is 10 ppb (microg/kg). Data were obtained in duplicate from >450 products representing >35 different food types. The variability in analyte levels in certain food types suggests that it may be possible to reduce acrylamide levels in those foods.
Slotta, Douglas J.; McFarland, Melinda A.; Markey, Sanford P.
We present MassSieve, a Java-based platform for visualization and parsimony analysis of single and comparative LC-MS/MS database search engine results. The success of mass spectrometric peptide sequence assignment algorithms has led to the need for a tool to merge and evaluate the increasing data set sizes that result from LC-MS/MS-based shotgun proteomic experiments. MassSieve supports reports from multiple search engines with differing search characteristics, which can increase peptide sequence coverage and/or identify conflicting or ambiguous spectral assignments. PMID:20564260
Stajić, A; Anđelković, M; Dikić, N; Rašić, J; Vukašinović-Vesić, M; Ivanović, D; Jančić-Stojanović, B
From 1st January 2017 higenamine was added on the WADA (World Anti-doping Agency) Prohibited list under S3 group beta-2 agonists as at all times banned substance for the athletes. The main origine of higenamine (or norcoclaurine) are different plants including Nandina domestica, Aconitum carmichaelii, Asarum heterotropioides, Galium divaricatum, Annona squamosa, Nelumbo nucifera etc. Higenamine main use is related to weight loss and it could be found (un)labeled in different dietary supplements. The objective of this study was development of sensitive and reliable UHPLC/MS/MS method for determination of higenamine in various dietary supplement samples. In order to obtain high method sensitivity, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode was applied. Separation was carried out on UHPLC Acquity BEH HILIC analytical column (2.1mm×100mm, 1.7μm particle size). Mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile, respectively, was mixed in ratio of 30:70, v/v. Flow rate was set at 0.2mLmin -1 . Quercetin was used as an internal standard. ESI (+) source ionization mode using multi reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was utilized and three ion transitions of higenamine were followed 272.08→107.01, 272.08→161.07 and 272.08→77.08. Developed method was fully validated and applied for identification and quantification of higenamine in different dietary supplements. According to the results, the most of investigated supplements were free of higenamine, and on the other hand, presence of higenamine was confirmed in some samples while it was not declared on the label. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Raab, Andrea; Ronzan, Marilena; Feldmann, Joerg
Garlic (A. sativum) contains a large number of small sulphur (S)-containing metabolites, which are important for its taste and smell and vary with A. sativum variety and growth conditions. This study was designed to investigate the influence of different sulphur-fertilization regimes on low molecular weight S-species by attempting the first sulphur mass balance in A. sativum roots and bulbs using HPLC-ICPMS/MS-ESI-MS/MS. Species unspecific quantification of acid soluble S-containing metabolites was achieved using HPLC-ICP-MS/MS. For identification of the compounds, high resolution ESI-MS (Orbitrap LTQ and q-TOF) was used. The plants contained up to 54 separated sulphur-containing compounds, which constitute about 80% of the total sulphur present in A. sativum. The roots and bulbs of A. sativum contained the same compounds, but not necessarily the same amounts and proportions. The S-containing metabolites in the roots reacted more sensitively to manipulations of sulphur fertilization than those compounds in the bulbs. In addition to known compounds (e.g. γ-glutamyl-S-1-propenylcysteine) we were able to identify and partially quantify 31 compounds. Three as yet undescribed S-containing compounds were also identified and quantified for the first time. Putative structures were assigned to the oxidised forms of S-1-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-2-propenylmercaptoglutathione, S-allyl/propenyl-containing PC-2 and 2-amino-3-[(2-carboxypropyl)sulfanyl]propanoic acid. The parallel use of ICP-MS/MS as a sulphur-specific detector and ESI-MS as a molecular detector simplifies the identification and quantification of sulphur containing metabolites without species specific standards. This non-target analysis approach enables a mass balance approach and identifies the occurrence of the so far unidentified organosulphur compounds. The experiments showed that the sulphur-fertilization regime does not influence sulphur-speciation, but the concentration of some S
Herrera-Lopez, S; Hernando, M D; García-Calvo, E; Fernández-Alba, A R; Ulaszewska, M M
Simultaneous high-resolution full-scan and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis using time of flight mass spectrometry brings an answer for increasing demand of retrospective and non-targeted data analysis. Such analysis combined with spectral library searching is a promising tool for targeted and untargeted screening of small molecules. Despite considerable extension of the panel of compounds of tandem mass spectral libraries, the heterogeneity of spectral data poses a major challenge against the effective usage of spectral libraries. Performance evaluation of available LC-MS/MS libraries will significantly increase credibility in the search results. The present work was aimed to evaluate fluctuation of MS/MS pattern, in the peak intensities distribution together with mass accuracy measurements, and in consequence, performance compliant with ion ratio and mass error criteria as principles in identification processes for targeted and untargeted contaminants at trace levels. Matrix effect and ultra-trace levels of concentration (from 50 ng l(-1) to 1000 ng l(-1) were evaluated as potential source of inaccuracy in the performance of spectral matching. Matrix-matched samples and real samples were screened for proof of applicability. By manual review of data and application of ion ratio and ppm error criteria, false negatives were obtained; this number diminished when in-house library was used, while with on-line MS/MS databases 100% of positive samples were found. In our experience, intensity of peaks across spectra was highly correlated to the concentration effect and matrix complexity. In turn, analysis of spectra acquired at trace concentrations and in different matrices results in better performance in providing correct and reliable identification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Specht, Michael; Kuhlgert, Sebastian; Fufezan, Christian; Hippler, Michael
We present Proteomatic, an operating system independent and user-friendly platform that enables the construction and execution of MS/MS data evaluation pipelines using free and commercial software. Required external programs such as for peptide identification are downloaded automatically in the case of free software. Due to a strict separation of functionality and presentation, and support for multiple scripting languages, new processing steps can be added easily. Proteomatic is implemented in C++/Qt, scripts are implemented in Ruby, Python and PHP. All source code is released under the LGPL. Source code and installers for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux are freely available at http://www.proteomatic.org. firstname.lastname@example.org Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Gritsenko, Marina A; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D
Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their posttranslational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labeling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification and quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.
Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Fruhmann, Philipp; Berthiller, Franz; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Hametner, Christian; Adam, Gerhard; Fröhlich, Johannes; Krska, Rudolf
The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant mycotoxins worldwide and poses many adverse health effects to human and animals. Consequently, regulatory limits and a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for this important type B-trichothecene were assigned. We conducted a pilot survey to investigate the level of DON exposure in Austrian adults by measurements of DON and its glucuronide conjugates (DON-GlcA's), as biomarkers of exposure, in first morning urine. The average concentration of total DON (free DON+DON-GlcA's) was estimated to be 20.4±2.4 μg L⁻¹ (max. 63 μg L⁻¹). Surprisingly, we found that one third of the volunteers (n=27) exceeded the established PMTDI when consuming regular diet. DON-GlcA's were directly quantified by LC-MS/MS and the results were compared with indirect quantification after enzymatic hydrolysis and confirmed the suitability of the direct method. Moreover, we investigated the in vivo metabolism of DON in humans and were able to determine two closely eluting DON-GlcA's in naturally contaminated urine samples for the first time. In contrast to previous findings we have tentatively identified DON-15-glucuronide as a major DON metabolite in human urine based on the analysis of these samples. About 75% of total glucuronides were derived from this metabolite while DON-3-glucuronide accounted for approximately 25%. The reported new findings clearly demonstrate the great potential of suitable biomarkers to critically assess exposure of humans and animals to DON. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saliva has recently been attracting attention as a patient-friendly available bio-fluid and an alternative to serum/plasma for hormone tests. LC coupled with atmospheric pressure ionization-MS/MS, especially electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS, has been recently valued as a highly specific method in the analysis of salivary hormones. In this article, LC/ESI-MS/MS assays for salivary hormones are overviewed according to the papers that have been published during the last 5 years. Practical derivatization to enhance the detectabilities of hormones in ESI-MS/MS is also discussed, because a major disadvantage of using saliva is low hormone concentrations.
Jirásko, Robert; Mikysek, Tomáš; Chagovets, Vitaliy; Vokřál, Ivan; Holčapek, Michal
Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-mass-accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) has been used for elucidation of the structures of oxidation products of atorvastatin (AT), one of the most popular commercially available drugs. The purpose of the study was identification of AT metabolites in rat hepatocytes and comparison with electrochemically generated oxidation products. AT was incubated with rat hepatocytes for 24 h. Electrochemical oxidation of AT was performed by use of a three-electrode off-line system with a glassy carbon working electrode. Three supporting electrolytes (0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4, 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl, and 0.1 mol L(-1) NaCl) were tested, and dependence on pH was also investigated. AT undergoes oxidation by a single irreversible process at approximately +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode. The results obtained revealed a simple and relatively fast way of determining the type of oxidation and its position, on the basis of characteristic neutral losses (NLs) and fragment ions. Unfortunately, different products were obtained by electrochemical oxidation and biotransformation of AT. High-mass-accuracy measurement combined with different UHPLC-MS-MS scans, for example reconstructed ion-current chromatograms, constant neutral loss chromatograms, or exact mass filtering, enable rapid identification of drug-related compounds. β-Oxidation, aromatic hydroxylation of the phenylaminocarbonyl group, sulfation, AT lactone and glycol formation were observed in rat biotransformation samples. In contrast, a variety of oxidation reactions on the conjugated skeleton of isopropyl substituent of AT were identified as products of electrolysis.
A new UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry) method was developed and validated to detect 38 anthelmintic drug residues, consisting of benzimidazoles, avermectins and flukicides. A modified QuEChERS-type extraction method was developed with an added...
The increased efficiency permitted by multiclass, multiresidue methods has made such approaches very attractive to laboratories involved in monitoring veterinary drug residues in animal tissues. In this current work, evaluation of a multiclass multiresidue LC-MS/MS method in bovine kidney is describ...
What is the study?
An invited review article. Measurement of oxidative stress parameters using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS)
Why was it done?
Although oxidative stress is frequently cited as a cause of various adverse biological eff...
We have achieved sensitive and efficient detection of aflatoxin B1(AFB1) through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF) and post-source decay (PSD) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an acetic acid – a-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic a...
Williams, Brad J; Ciavarini, Steve J; Devlin, Curt; Cohn, Steven M; Xie, Rong; Vissers, Johannes P C; Martin, LeRoy B; Caswell, Allen; Langridge, James I; Geromanos, Scott J
In proteomics studies, it is generally accepted that depth of coverage and dynamic range is limited in data-directed acquisitions. The serial nature of the method limits both sensitivity and the number of precursor ions that can be sampled. To that end, a number of data-independent acquisition (DIA) strategies have been introduced with these methods, for the most part, immune to the sampling issue; nevertheless, some do have other limitations with respect to sensitivity. The major limitation with DIA approaches is interference, i.e., MS/MS spectra are highly chimeric and often incapable of being identified using conventional database search engines. Utilizing each available dimension of separation prior to ion detection, we present a new multi-mode acquisition (MMA) strategy multiplexing both narrowband and wideband DIA acquisitions in a single analytical workflow. The iterative nature of the MMA workflow limits the adverse effects of interference with minimal loss in sensitivity. Qualitative identification can be performed by selected ion chromatograms or conventional database search strategies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Maragou, Niki C.; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Koupparis, Michael A.
A systematic and detailed optimization strategy for the development of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) LC-MS/MS methods for the determination of Irgarol 1051, Diuron, and their degradation products (M1, DCPMU, DCPU, and DCA) in water, sediment, and mussel is described. Experimental design was applied for the optimization of the ion sources parameters. Comparison of ESI and APCI was performed in positive- and negative-ion mode, and the effect of the mobile phase on ionization was studied for both techniques. Special attention was drawn to the ionization of DCA, which presents particular difficulty in API techniques. Satisfactory ionization of this small molecule is achieved only with ESI positive-ion mode using acetonitrile in the mobile phase; the instrumental detection limit is 0.11 ng/mL. Signal suppression was qualitatively estimated by using purified and non-purified samples. The sample preparation for sediments and mussels is direct and simple, comprising only solvent extraction. Mean recoveries ranged from 71% to 110%, and the corresponding (%) RSDs ranged between 4.1 and 14%. The method limits of detection ranged between 0.6 and 3.5 ng/g for sediment and mussel and from 1.3 to 1.8 ng/L for sea water. The method was applied to sea water, marine sediment, and mussels, which were obtained from marinas in Attiki, Greece. Ion ratio confirmation was used for the identification of the compounds.
Reitzle, Lukas; Maier, Barbara; Stojanov, Silvia; Teupser, Daniel; Muntau, Ania C; Vogeser, Michael; Gersting, Søren W
Mevalonate kinase deficiency, a rare autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease, is caused by mutations in the MVK gene encoding mevalonate kinase (MK). MK catalyzes the phosphorylation of mevalonic acid to mevalonate-5-phosphate (MVAP) in the pathway of isoprenoid and sterol synthesis. The disease phenotype correlates with residual activity ranging from <0.5% for mevalonic aciduria to 1-7% for the milder hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS). Hence, assessment of loss-of-function requires high accuracy measurements. We describe a method using isotope dilution UPLC-MS/MS for precise and sensitive determination of MK activity. Wild-type MK and the variant V261A, which is associated with HIDS, were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme activity was determined by formation of MVAP over time quantified by isotope dilution UPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated according to the FDA Guidance for Bioanalytical Method Validation. Sensitivity for detection of MAVP by UPLC-MS/MS was improved by derivatization with butanol-HCl (LLOQ, 5.0 fmol) and the method was linear from 0.5 to 250 μmol/L (R(2) > 0.99) with a precision of ≥ 89% and an accuracy of ± 2.7%. The imprecision of the activity assay, including the enzymatic reaction and the UPLC-MS/MS quantification, was 8.3%. The variant V261A showed a significantly decreased activity of 53.1%. Accurate determination of MK activity was enabled by sensitive and reproducible detection of MVAP using UPLC-MS/MS. The novel method may improve molecular characterization of MVK mutations, provide robust genotype-phenotype correlations, and accelerate compound screening for drug candidates restoring variant MK activity. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fu, Liang; Xie, Hualin; Shi, Shuyun
The concentrations of trace elements (Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. essential oil (ZBMEO) were determined by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry. The ZBMEO sample was directly analyzed after simple dilution with n-hexane. Aiming for a relatively high vapor pressure of n-hexane and its resultant loading on plasma, we used a narrow injector torch and optimized plasma radio frequency power and carrier gas flow to ensure stable operation of the plasma. An optional gas flow of 20% O 2 in Ar was added to the carrier gas to prevent the incomplete combustion of highly concentrated organic carbon in plasma and the deposition of carbon on the sampling and skimmer cone orifices. In tandem mass spectrometry mode, O 2 was added to the collision/reaction cell to eliminate the interferences. The limits of detection for Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were 2.26, 1.64, 2.02, 1.35, 1.76, and 0.97 ng L -1 , respectively. After determination of 23 ZBMEO samples from different regions in China, we found that the average concentration ranges of trace elements in the 23 ZBMEO samples were 0.72-6.02 ng g -1 , 0.09-2.87 ng g -1 , 0.21-5.84 ng g -1 , 0.16-2.15 ng g -1 , 0.13-0.92 ng g -1 , and 0.17-0.73 ng g -1 for Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, respectively. The trace elements in ZBMEO differed significantly when different extraction technologies were used. The study revealed that the contents of the toxic elements As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were extremely low, and hence they are unlikely to pose a health risk following ZBMEO ingestion. Graphical abstract The working mechanism of sample analysis by ICP-MS/MS.
Le Bihan, Thierry; Robinson, Mark D; Stewart, Ian I; Figeys, Daniel
Although HPLC-ESI-MS/MS is rapidly becoming an indispensable tool for the analysis of peptides in complex mixtures, the sequence coverage it affords is often quite poor. Low protein expression resulting in peptide signal intensities that fall below the limit of detection of the MS system in combination with differences in peptide ionization efficiency plays a significant role in this. A second important factor stems from differences in physicochemical properties of each peptide and how these properties relate to chromatographic retention and ultimate detection. To identify and understand those properties, we compared data from experimentally identified peptides with data from peptides predicted by in silico digest of all corresponding proteins in the experimental set. Three different complex protein mixtures extracted were used to define a training set to evaluate the amino acid retention coefficients based on linear regression analysis. The retention coefficients were also compared with other previous hydrophobic and retention scale. From this, we have constructed an empirical model that can be readily used to predict peptides that are likely to be observed on our HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system based on their physicochemical properties. Finally, we demonstrated that in silico prediction of peptides and their retention coefficients can be used to generate an inclusion list for a targeted mass spectrometric identification of low abundance proteins in complex protein samples. This approach is based on experimentally derived data to calibrate the method and therefore may theoretically be applied to any HPLC-MS/MS system on which data are being generated.
Cheng, Keding; Sloan, Angela; McCorrister, Stuart; Peterson, Lorea; Chui, Huixia; Drebot, Mike; Nadon, Celine; Knox, J David; Wang, Gehua
The need for rapid and accurate H typing is evident during Escherichia coli outbreak situations. This study explores the transition of MS-H, a method originally developed for rapid H antigen typing of E. coli using LC-MS/MS of flagella digest of reference strains and some clinical strains, to E. coli isolates in clinical scenario through quantitative analysis and method validation. Motile and nonmotile strains were examined in batches to simulate clinical sample scenario. Various LC-MS/MS batch run procedures and MS-H typing rules were compared and summarized through quantitative analysis of MS-H data output for a standard method development. Label-free quantitative data analysis of MS-H typing was proven very useful for examining the quality of MS-H result and the effects of some sample carryovers from motile E. coli isolates. Based on this, a refined procedure and protein identification rule specific for clinical MS-H typing was established and validated. With LC-MS/MS batch run procedure and database search parameter unique for E. coli MS-H typing, the standard procedure maintained high accuracy and specificity in clinical situations, and its potential to be used in a clinical setting was clearly established. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ali, Arslan; Khan, Naik Tameem; Yousuf, Maria; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman
Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used to investigate the effect of different substitutions introduced during metabolism on fragmentation patterns of four anabolic steroids including methyltestosterone, methandrostenolone, cis-androsterone and adrenosterone, along with their metabolites. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) analysis was performed to correlate the major product ions of 19 steroids with structural features. The analysis is done to portray metabolic alteration, such as incorporation or reduction of double bonds, hydroxylations, and/or oxidation of hydroxyl moieties to keto functional group on steroidal skeleton which leads to drastically changed product ion spectra from the respective classes of steroids, therefore, making them difficult to identify. The comparative ESI-MS/MS study also revealed some characteristic peaks to differentiate different steroidal metabolites and can be useful for the unambiguous identification of anabolic steroids in biological fluid. Moreover, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fermented extract of methyltestosterone, obtained by Macrophomina phaseolina was also investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ujang, Jorim Anak; Kwan, Soon Hong; Ismail, Mohd Nazri; Lim, Boon Huat; Noordin, Rahmah; Othman, Nurulhasanah
Excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of E. histolytica are thought to play important roles in the host invasion, metabolism, and defence. Elucidation of the types and functions of E. histolytica ES proteins can further our understanding of the disease pathogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study is to use proteomics approach to better understand the complex ES proteins of the protozoa. E. histolytica ES proteins were prepared by culturing the trophozoites in protein-free medium. The ES proteins were identified using two mass spectrometry tools, namely, LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF. The identified proteins were then classified according to their biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components using the Panther classification system (PantherDB). A complementary list of 219 proteins was identified; this comprised 201 proteins detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS and 107 proteins by LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF. Of the 219 proteins, 89 were identified by both mass-spectrometry systems, while 112 and 18 proteins were detected exclusively by LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF respectively. Biological protein functional analysis using PantherDB showed that 27% of the proteins were involved in metabolic processes. Using molecular functional and cellular component analyses, 35% of the proteins were found to be involved in catalytic activity, and 21% were associated with the cell parts. This study showed that complementary use of LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF has improved the identification of ES proteins. The results have increased our understanding of the types of proteins excreted/secreted by the amoeba and provided further evidence of the involvement of ES proteins in intestinal colonisation and evasion of the host immune system, as well as in encystation and excystation of the parasite.
Fraige, Karina; Dametto, Alessandra Cristina; Zeraik, Maria Luiza; de Freitas, Larissa; Saraiva, Amanda Correia; Medeiros, Alexandra Ivo; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto José; Silva, Dulce Helena S; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Bolzani, Vanderlan S
Byrsonima species have been used in the treatment of gastrointestinal and gynecological inflammations, skin infections and snakebites. Based on their biological activities, it is important to study other organisms from this genus and to identify their metabolites. To determine the metabolic fingerprinting of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of four Byrsonima species (B. intermedia, B. coccolobifolia, B. verbascifolia and B. sericea) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant, anti-glycation, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH˙, ABTS˙ + and ROO˙ scavenging assays. Anti-glycation activity was evaluated by the ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264-7) in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitrite (NO 2 - ) production were measured by ELISA and the Griess reaction, respectively. The compounds present in the extracts were tentatively identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The evaluation of the biological activities showed the potential of the extracts. The activities were assigned to the presence of glycoside flavonoids mainly derived from quercetin, quinic acid derivatives, gallic acid derivatives, galloylquinic acids and proanthocyanidins. Two isomers of sinapic acid-O-hexoside were described for the first time in a Byrsonima species. This research contributes to the study of the genus, it is the first report of the chemical composition of B. sericea and demonstrates the importance of the dereplication process, allowing the identification of known compounds without time-consuming procedures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Huang, Jingwei; Liu, Tingqi; Li, Ke; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui
Eimeria maxima initiates infection by invading the jejunal epithelial cells of chicken. However, the proteins involved in invasion remain unknown. The research of the molecules that participate in the interactions between E. maxima sporozoites and host target cells will fill a gap in our understanding of the invasion system of this parasitic pathogen. In the present study, chicken jejunal epithelial cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. Western blot was employed to analyze the soluble proteins of E. maxima sporozoites that bound to chicken jejunal epithelial cells. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay was used to separate the E. maxima proteins that bound to chicken jejunal epithelial cells. Shotgun LC-MS/MS technique was used for proteomics identification and Gene Ontology was employed for the bioinformatics analysis. The results of Western blot analysis showed that four proteins bands from jejunal epithelial cells co-cultured with soluble proteins of E. maxima sporozoites were recognized by the positive sera, with molecular weights of 70, 90, 95 and 130 kDa. The co-IP dilutions were analyzed by shotgun LC-MS/MS. A total of 204 proteins were identified in the E. maxima protein database using the MASCOT search engine. Thirty-five proteins including microneme protein 3 and 7 had more than two unique peptide counts and were annotated using Gene Ontology for molecular function, biological process and cellular localization. The results revealed that of the 35 annotated peptides, 22 (62.86%) were associated with binding activity and 15 (42.86%) were involved in catalytic activity. Our findings provide an insight into the interaction between E. maxima and the corresponding host cells and it is important for the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying E. maxima invasion.
Parr, Maria K; Fusshöller, Gregor; Schlörer, Nils; Opfermann, Georg; Geyer, Hans; Rodchenkov, Grigory; Schänzer, Wilhelm
Since a few years more and more products have appeared on the market for dietary supplements containing steroids that had never been marketed as approved drugs, mostly without proper labeling of the contents. Syntheses and few data on pharmacological effects are available dated back mainly to the 1950s or 1960s. Only little knowledge exists about effects and side effects of these steroids in humans. The present study reports the identification of Δ6-methyltestosterone in a product named "Jungle Warfare", which was obtained from a web-based supplement store. The main urinary metabolites, 17α-hydroxy-17β-methylandrosta-4,6-dien-3-one (Δ6-epimethyl-testosterone), 17α-methyl-5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol (3α,5β-THMT), and 17β-methyl-5β-androstane-3α,17α-diol, as well as the parent compound excreted after a single oral administration were monitored by GC-MS/MS. Δ6-Epimethyltestosterone and 3α,5β-THMT served for long-term detection (still present in the 181-189 h urine). 17α-Methyltestosterone and its 17-epimer were not detected in the urines (LOD 0.3ng/mL). The highest concentrations were found in the 14-20.5h urine for Δ6-epimethyltestosterone (600 ng/mL), and 3α,5β-THMT (240 ng/mL) and in the 36-44.5h urine for 17β-methyl-5β-androstane-3α,17α-diol (7 ng/mL). For reference methyltestosterone and epimethyltestosterone were dehydrogenated with chloranil. The characterization of the products was performed by GC-MS(/MS) and NMR. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Gómez-Ramos, María del Mar; Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Uclés, Samanta; Uclés, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R
Instrumental capabilities and software tools of modern hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) instruments such as high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF), and quadrupole linear ion trap (QLIT) were experimentally investigated for the study of emerging contaminants in Henares River water samples. Automated screening and confirmatory capabilities of QTOF working in full-scan MS and tandem MS (MS/MS) were explored when dealing with real samples. Investigations on the effect of sensitivity and resolution power influence on mass accuracy were studied for the correct assignment of the amoxicillin transformation product 5(R) amoxicillin-diketopiperazine-2',5' as an example of a nontarget compound. On the other hand, a comparison of quantitative and qualitative strategies based on direct injection analysis and off-line solid-phase extraction sample treatment were assayed using two different QLIT instruments for a selected group of emerging contaminants when operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and information-dependent acquisition (IDA) modes. Software-aided screening usually needs a further confirmatory step. Resolving power and MS/MS feature of QTOF showed to confirm/reject most findings in river water, although sensitivity-related limitations are usually found. Superior sensitivity of modern QLIT-MS/MS offered the possibility of direct injection analysis for proper quantitative study of a variety of contaminants, while it simultaneously reduced the matrix effect and increased the reliability of the results. Confirmation of ethylamphetamine, which lacks on a second SRM transition, was accomplished by using the IDA feature. Hybrid MS instruments equipped with high resolution and high sensitivity contributes to enlarge the scope of targeted analytes in river waters. However, in the tested instruments, there is a margin of improvement principally in required sensitivity and data treatment software tools devoted to reliable confirmation
Bruschettini, Matteo; Barco, Sebastiano; Romantsik, Olga; Risso, Francesco; Gennai, Iulian; Chinea, Benito; Ramenghi, Luca A; Tripodi, Gino; Cangemi, Giuliana
DBS might be an appropriate microsampling technique for therapeutic drug monitoring of caffeine in infants. Nevertheless, its application presents several issues that still limit its use. This paper describes a validated DBS-LC-MS/MS method for caffeine. The results of the method validation showed an hematocrit dependence. In the analysis of 96 paired plasma and DBS clinical samples, caffeine levels measured in DBS were statistically significantly lower than in plasma but the observed differences were independent from hematocrit. These results clearly showed the need for extensive validation with real-life samples for DBS-based methods. DBS-LC-MS/MS can be considered to be a good alternative to traditional methods for therapeutic drug monitoring or PK studies in preterm infants.
Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Kim, Pil; Sok, Dai-Eun; Nam, Soo-Wan; Lee, Choong Hwan
Myxobacteria, Gram-negative soil bacteria, are a well-known producer of bioactive secondary metabolites. Therefore, this study presents a methodological approach for the high-throughput screening of secondary metabolites from 4 wild-type Myxococcus xanthus strains. First, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was performed using extracellular crude extracts. As a result, 22 metabolite peaks were detected, and the metabolite profiling was then conducted using the m/z value, retention time, and MS/MS fragmentation pattern analyses. Among the peaks, one unknown compound peak was identified as analogous to the myxalamid A, B, and C series. An analysis of the tandem mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns and HR-MS identified myxalamid K as a new compound derived from M. xanthus. In conclusion, LC-MS/MS-based chemical screening of diverse secondary metabolites would appear to be an effective approach for discovering unknown microbial secondary metabolites.
Peat, Judy; Frazee, Clint; Garg, Uttam
Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin) is an anticonvulsant drug that has been used for decades for the treatment of many types of seizures. The drug is highly protein bound and measurement of free-active form of the drug is warranted particularly in patients with conditions that can affect drug protein binding. Here, we describe a LC/MS/MS method for the measurement of free phenytoin. Free drug is separated by ultrafiltration of serum or plasma. Ultrafiltrate is treated with acetonitrile containing internal standard phenytoin d-10 to precipitate proteins. The mixture is centrifuged and supernatant is injected onto LC-MS-MS, and analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring. This method is linear from 0.1 to 4.0 μg/mL and does not demonstrate any significant ion suppression or enhancement.
Watanabe, Minae; Ueno, Eiji; Inoue, Tomomi; Ohno, Haruka; Ikai, Yoshitomo; Morishita, Toshio; Oshima, Harumi; Hayashi, Rumiko
A method for the simultaneous determination of multiple pesticide residues in agricultural products was developed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with acetonitrile. Co-extractives were removed by GPC/graphitized carbon column SPE, and silica gel/PSA cartridge column SPE. Pesticides in the test solution were determined by LC-MS/MS using scheduled MRM. Recoveries of 124 pesticides from spinach, brown rice, soybean, orange and tomato were tested at the level of 0.1 µg/g, and those of 121 pesticides ranged from 70 to 120% (RSD≤15%). Pesticide residues in 239 agricultural products were investigated by this method, and residues of 49 pesticides were detected in 98 agricultural products.
Cebi, Nur; Dogan, Canan Ekinci; Olgun, Elmas Oktem; Sagdic, Osman
An effective and simultaneous liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used with the aim of quantifying monosodium glutamate (MSG) in foodstuffs, such as chips, taste cubes, sauces and soups. The results were linear (R 2 = 1), with very low LOD and LOQ values, 1.0 µg/kg, 5.0 µg/kg, respectively. Excellent repeatability and reproducibility were also achieved. This highly sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS technique was applied successfully for the detection and quantification of MSG in a wide variety of foodstuffs. MSG contents ranged from 0.01 g/100 g to 15.39 g/100 g in food samples. Importantly, determination of free glutamic acid in the daily diet could also prevent various side effects associated with consumption of excess free glutamic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tan, Aimin; Fanaras, John C
LC-MS/MS has been the dominant analytical technology for quantitative bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites for more than two decades. Despite this, a very fundamental question like how much separation is required for LC-MS/MS quantitative bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites has not been adequately addressed. Some think that no or only very limited separation is necessary thanks to the unparalleled selectivity offered by tandem mass spectrometry. Others think that the more separation, the better, because of the potential detrimental impact of matrix effect (ion suppression or enhancement). Still others just use a rule-of-thumb approach by keeping the adjusted retention/capacity factor always between 2 and 5. The purpose of this article is to address this fundamental question through rational thinking together with various real case examples drawn from regulated bioanalytical laboratories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adamo, Mark E; Gerber, Scott A
MS/MS database search algorithms derive a set of candidate peptide sequences from in silico digest of a protein sequence database, and compute theoretical fragmentation patterns to match these candidates against observed MS/MS spectra. The original Tempest publication described these operations mapped to a CPU-GPU model, in which the CPU (central processing unit) generates peptide candidates that are asynchronously sent to a discrete GPU (graphics processing unit) to be scored against experimental spectra in parallel. The current version of Tempest expands this model, incorporating OpenCL to offer seamless parallelization across multicore CPUs, GPUs, integrated graphics chips, and general-purpose coprocessors. Three protocols describe how to configure and run a Tempest search, including discussion of how to leverage Tempest's unique feature set to produce optimal results. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Adamo, Mark E.; Gerber, Scott A.
MS/MS database search algorithms derive a set of candidate peptide sequences from in-silico digest of a protein sequence database, and compute theoretical fragmentation patterns to match these candidates against observed MS/MS spectra. The original Tempest publication described these operations mapped to a CPU-GPU model, in which the CPU generates peptide candidates that are asynchronously sent to a discrete GPU to be scored against experimental spectra in parallel (Milloy et al., 2012). The current version of Tempest expands this model, incorporating OpenCL to offer seamless parallelization across multicore CPUs, GPUs, integrated graphics chips, and general-purpose coprocessors. Three protocols describe how to configure and run a Tempest search, including discussion of how to leverage Tempest's unique feature set to produce optimal results. PMID:27603022
Lo, Sheng-Ying; Gordon, Cindy; Sadilkova, Katerina; Jack, Rhona M; Dickerson, Jane A
Analysis of serum/plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) is important for the diagnosis and management of methylmalonic acidemia in pediatric populations. This work focuses on developing and validating a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to monitor methylmalonic acidemia using a simple method preparation. MMA and stable isotope labeled d3-MMA was extracted using supported liquid extraction (SLE). Assay imprecision, bias, linearity, recovery and carryover were determined. The relationship between MMA and propionyl acylcarnitine (C3-acylcarnitine) was also evaluated using historical paired results from 51 unique individuals. Baseline separation between MMA and succinic acid was completed in 7min. The assay was linear from 0.1 to 500μM. The intra-day and inter-day imprecision CV ranged from 4.1 to 13.2% (0.3 to 526μM) and 5.0 to 15.7% (0.3 to 233μM), respectively. Recovery ranged from 93 to 125%. The correlation with a national reference laboratory LC-MS/MS assay showed a Deming regression of 1.026 and intercept of -1.335. Carryover was determined to be <0.04%. Patient-specific correlation was observed between MMA and C3-acylcarnitine. This report describes the first LC-MS/MS method using SLE for MMA extraction. In addition, we illustrate the challenges encountered during this method development that should be assessed and resolved by any laboratory implementing a SLE LC-MS/MS assay designed to quantify analytes across several orders of magnitude. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vemula, Harika; Kitase, Yukiko; Ayon, Navid J.; Bonewald, Lynda; Gutheil, William G.
Isomeric molecules present a challenge for analytical resolution and quantification, even with MS-based detection. The eight-aminobutyric acid (ABA) isomers are of interest for their various biological activities, particularly γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the d- and l-isomers of β-aminoisobutyric acid (β-AIBA; BAIBA). This study aimed to investigate LC-MS/MS-based resolution of these ABA isomers as their Marfey's (Mar) reagent derivatives. HPLC was able to separate three Mar-ABA isomers l-β-ABA (l-BABA), and l- and d-α-ABA (AABA) completely, with three isomers (GABA, and d/l-BAIBA) in one chromatographic cluster, and two isomers (α-AIBA (AAIBA) and d-BABA) in a second cluster. Partially separated cluster components were deconvoluted using Gaussian peak fitting except for GABA and d-BAIBA. MS/MS detection of Marfey's derivatized ABA isomers provided six MS/MS fragments, with substantially different intensity profiles between structural isomers. This allowed linear deconvolution of ABA isomer peaks. Combining HPLC separation with linear and Gaussian deconvolution allowed resolution of all eight ABA isomers. Application to human serum found a substantial level of l-AABA (13 μM), an intermediate level of l-BAIBA (0.8 μM), and low but detectable levels (<0.2 μM) of GABA, l-BABA, AAIBA, d-BAIBA, and d-AABA. This approach should be useful for LC-MS/MS deconvolution of other challenging groups of isomeric molecules. PMID:27771391
Abbas, Ioana M; Hoffmann, Holger; Montes-Bayón, María; Weller, Michael G
Mass spectrometry-based methods play a crucial role in the quantification of the main iron metabolism regulator hepcidin by singling out the bioactive 25-residue peptide from the other naturally occurring N-truncated isoforms (hepcidin-20, -22, -24), which seem to be inactive in iron homeostasis. However, several difficulties arise in the MS analysis of hepcidin due to the "sticky" character of the peptide and the lack of suitable standards. Here, we propose the use of amino- and fluoro-silanized autosampler vials to reduce hepcidin interaction to laboratory glassware surfaces after testing several types of vials for the preparation of stock solutions and serum samples for isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, we have investigated two sample preparation strategies and two chromatographic separation conditions with the aim of developing a LC-MS/MS method for the sensitive and reliable quantification of hepcidin-25 in serum samples. A chromatographic separation based on usual acidic mobile phases was compared with a novel approach involving the separation of hepcidin-25 with solvents at high pH containing 0.1% of ammonia. Both methods were applied to clinical samples in an intra-laboratory comparison of two LC-MS/MS methods using the same hepcidin-25 calibrators with good correlation of the results. Finally, we recommend a LC-MS/MS-based quantification method with a dynamic range of 0.5-40 μg/L for the assessment of hepcidin-25 in human serum that uses TFA-based mobile phases and silanized glass vials. Graphical abstract Structure of hepcidin-25 (Protein Data Bank, PDB ID 2KEF).
Kyle, Jennifer E; Crowell, Kevin L; Casey, Cameron P; Fujimoto, Grant M; Kim, Sangtae; Dautel, Sydney E; Smith, Richard D; Payne, Samuel H; Metz, Thomas O
We introduce an open-source software, LIQUID, for semi-automated processing and visualization of LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics data. LIQUID provides users with the capability to process high throughput data and contains a customizable target library and scoring model per project needs. The graphical user interface provides visualization of multiple lines of spectral evidence for each lipid identification, allowing rapid examination of data for making confident identifications of lipid molecular species. LIQUID was compared to other freely available software commonly used to identify lipids and other small molecules (e.g. CFM-ID, MetFrag, GNPS, LipidBlast and MS-DIAL), and was found to have a faster processing time to arrive at a higher number of validated lipid identifications. LIQUID is available at http://github.com/PNNL-Comp-Mass-Spec/LIQUID . email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Tokumura, Masahiro; Miyake, Yuichi; Wang, Qi; Nakayama, Hayato; Amagai, Takashi; Ogo, Sayaka; Kume, Kazunari; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takasu, Shinji; Ogawa, Kumiko
Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) are extensively used as alternatives to banned polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). In this study, we analyzed 14 PFRs by means of four mass-spectrometry-based methods: gas chromatography combined with electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) or negative-chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LC-APCI-MS/MS). The limits of quantification (LOQs) for LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-APCI-MS/MS (0.81-970 pg) were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the LOQs for GC-EI-MS and GC-NCI-MS (2.3-3900 pg). LC-APCI-MS/MS showed the lowest LOQs (mean = 41 pg; median = 3.4 pg) for all but two of the PFRs targeted in this study. For LC-APCI-MS/MS, the lowest LOQ was observed for tributyl phosphate (TBP) (0.81 pg), and the highest was observed for tris(butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) (36 pg). The results of this study indicate that LC-APCI-MS/MS is the optimum analytical method for the target PFRs, at least in terms of LOQ.
Andrzejewski, Denis; Roach, John A G; Gay, Martha L; Musser, Steven M
A variety of popular instant, ground, and brewed coffees were analyzed using a modified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method specifically developed for the determination of acrylamide in foods. Coffee test portions were spiked with 13C3-labeled acrylamide as an internal standard prior to their extraction and cleanup. Ground coffees (1 g) and instant coffees (0.5 g) were extracted by shaking with 9 mL of water for 20 min. Brewed coffee test portions (9 mL) were taken through the cleanup procedure without further dilution with extraction solvent. Coffee test portions were cleaned up by passing 1.5 mL first through an Oasis HLB (hydrophilic/lipophilic copolymer sorbent) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and then a Bond Elut-Accucat (cation and anion exchange sorbent) SPE cartridge. The cleaned up extracts were analyzed by positive ion electrospray LC-MS/MS. The MS/MS data was used to detect, confirm, and quantitate acrylamide. The limit of quantitation of the method was 10 ng/g for ground and instant coffees and 1.0 ng/mL for brewed coffee. The levels of acrylamide ranged from 45 to 374 ng/g in unbrewed coffee grounds, from 172 to 539 ng/g in instant coffee crystals, and from 6 to 16 ng/mL in brewed coffee.
Zhu, Rui; Song, Ehwang; Hussein, Ahmed; Kobeissy, Firas H; Mechref, Yehia
Proteins and glycoproteins play important biological roles in central nervous systems (CNS). Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of proteins and glycoproteins expression in CNS is critical to reveal the inherent biomolecular mechanism of CNS diseases. This chapter describes proteomic and glycoproteomic approaches based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS or LC-MS/MS) for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of proteins and glycoproteins expressed in CNS. Proteins and glycoproteins, extracted by a mass spectrometry friendly surfactant from CNS samples, were subjected to enzymatic (tryptic) digestion and three down-stream analyses: (1) a nano LC system coupled with a high-resolution MS instrument to achieve qualitative proteomic profile, (2) a nano LC system combined with a triple quadrupole MS to quantify identified proteins, and (3) glycoprotein enrichment prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Enrichment techniques can be applied to improve coverage of low abundant glycopeptides/glycoproteins. An example described in this chapter is hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) enrichment to capture glycopeptides, allowing efficient removal of peptides. The combination of three LC-MS/MS-based approaches is capable of the investigation of large-scale proteins and glycoproteins from CNS with an in-depth coverage, thus offering a full view of proteins and glycoproteins changes in CNS.
Lv, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Li, Wentao; Li, Haiyu; Li, Pi; Ma, Qiang; Meng, Xianshuang; Qi, Meiling; Bai, Hua
This paper presents a method for the simultaneous determination of 48 fragrance allergens in four types of toys (plastic toys, play clays, plush toys, and paper toys) based on GC with ion trap MS/MS. Compared with single-stage MS, MS/MS is superior in terms of the qualification and quantification of a large range of compounds in complicated matrices. Procedures for extraction and purification were optimized for each toy type. The method proved to be linear over a wide range of concentrations for all analytes with correlation coefficients between 0.9768 and 0.9999. Validation parameters, namely, LODs and LOQs, ranged from 0.005-5.0 and from 0.02-20 mg/kg, respectively. Average recoveries of target compounds (spiked at three concentration levels) were in the range of 79.5-109.1%. Intraday and interday repeatabilities of the proposed method varied from 0.7-10.5% and from 3.1-13.4%, respectively. The proposed method was used to monitor fragrance allergens in commercial toy products. Our findings indicate that this method is an accurate and effective technique for analyzing fragrance allergens in materials composed of complex components. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Ono, H; Chuda, Y; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M; Yada, H; Ishizaka, M; Kobayashi, H; Yoshida, M
Acrylamide concentrations in processed foods (63 samples covering 31 product types) from Japan were analysed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of acrylamide were 0.2 ng x ml(-1) (6 fmol) and 0.8 ng x ml(-1) (22 fmol), respectively, by LC-MS/MS, and those of 2,3-dibromopropionamide derived from acrylamide were 12 ng x ml(-1) (52 fmol) and 40 ng x ml(-1) (170 fmol), respectively, by GC-MS. Repeatability given as RSD was <5 and <15% for the LC-MS/MS and GC-MS methods, respectively. High correlation (r(2) - 0.946) was observed between values obtained by the two methods. Most potato crisps and whole potato-based fried snacks showed acrylamide concentrations >1000 microg x kg(-1). The concentrations in non-whole potato-based snacks, rice crackers processed by grilling or frying, and candied sweet potatoes were lower compared with those in the potato crisps and the whole potato-based fried snacks. One of the whole potato-based fried snacks, however, showed low acrylamide concentration (<50 microg x kg(-1)) suggesting the formation of acrylamide is strongly influenced by processing conditions. Acrylamide concentrations in instant precooked noodles and won-tons were <100 microg x kg(-1) with only one exception. Roasted barley grains for 'Mugi-cha' tea contained 200-600 microg x kg(-1) acrylamide.
Zhou, Xie-Xuan; Zeng, Wen-Feng; Chi, Hao; Luo, Chunjie; Liu, Chao; Zhan, Jianfeng; He, Si-Min; Zhang, Zhifei
In tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based proteomics, search engines rely on comparison between an experimental MS/MS spectrum and the theoretical spectra of the candidate peptides. Hence, accurate prediction of the theoretical spectra of peptides appears to be particularly important. Here, we present pDeep, a deep neural network-based model for the spectrum prediction of peptides. Using the bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM), pDeep can predict higher-energy collisional dissociation, electron-transfer dissociation, and electron-transfer and higher-energy collision dissociation MS/MS spectra of peptides with >0.9 median Pearson correlation coefficients. Further, we showed that intermediate layer of the neural network could reveal physicochemical properties of amino acids, for example the similarities of fragmentation behaviors between amino acids. We also showed the potential of pDeep to distinguish extremely similar peptides (peptides that contain isobaric amino acids, for example, GG = N, AG = Q, or even I = L), which were very difficult to distinguish using traditional search engines.
Panzenhagen, Pedro Henrique N; Aguiar, Waldemir S; Gouvêa, Raquel; de Oliveira, Andréa M G; Barreto, Fabiano; Pereira, Virgínia L A; Aquino, Maria Helena C
This study investigated the efficiency of an enrofloxacin ELISA test kit to detect the presence of enrofloxacin residues in broiler tissues compared with LC-MS/MS. Broiler tissues from 72 samples consisting of 60 breast muscle, six pools of livers (500 g each) and six pools of kidneys (500 g each) were obtained from six different slaughterhouses. Breast muscle from 10 carcasses and pools of livers and kidneys from approximately 200 carcasses of the same flock were collected from each slaughterhouse. ELISA and HPLC were used to identify and quantify the contamination of the samples with enrofloxacin. A total of 72% of the analysed samples contained enrofloxacin residues detected by the ELISA and 22.2% were detected by LC-MS/MS. The mean values of enrofloxacin contamination found in chicken breast by ELISA and HPLC were 8.63 and 12.25 μg kg(-1), respectively. None of the samples exceeded the maximum limit of 100 μg kg(-1) by both methods set by the European Union as well as the Brazilian Agriculture Ministry. All positive samples for enrofloxacin residues detected by LC-MS/MS were also positive by ELISA. These data confirm the efficiency of the ELISA test, and suggest its use as a screening method for enrofloxacin residues in poultry tissues due to its quick results, low price and ease of applicability.
Derogis, Priscilla Bento Matos; Sanches, Livia Rentas; de Aranda, Valdir Fernandes; Colombini, Marjorie Paris; Mangueira, Cristóvão Luis Pitangueira; Katz, Marcelo; Faulhaber, Adriana Caschera Leme; Mendes, Claudio Ernesto Albers; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos; França, Carolina Nunes; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos
Rivaroxaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, therapeutically indicated in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases. As other new oral anticoagulants, routine monitoring of rivaroxaban is not necessary, but important in some clinical circumstances. In our study a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was validated to measure rivaroxaban plasmatic concentration. Our method used a simple sample preparation, protein precipitation, and a fast chromatographic run. It was developed a precise and accurate method, with a linear range from 2 to 500 ng/mL, and a lower limit of quantification of 4 pg on column. The new method was compared to a reference method (anti-factor Xa activity) and both presented a good correlation (r = 0.98, p < 0.001). In addition, we validated hemolytic, icteric or lipemic plasma samples for rivaroxaban measurement by HPLC-MS/MS without interferences. The chromogenic and HPLC-MS/MS methods were highly correlated and should be used as clinical tools for drug monitoring. The method was applied successfully in a group of 49 real-life patients, which allowed an accurate determination of rivaroxaban in peak and trough levels. PMID:28170419
Zhao, Zhiyong; Liu, Na; Yang, Lingchen; Deng, Yifeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Suquan; Lin, Shanhai; Wu, Aibo; Zhou, Zhenlei; Hou, Jiafa
Mycotoxins have the potential to enter the human food chain through carry-over of contaminants from feed into animal-derived products. The objective of the study was to develop a reliable and sensitive method for the analysis of 30 mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food (meat, edible animal tissues, and milk) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In the study, three extraction procedures, as well as various cleanup procedures, were evaluated to select the most suitable sample preparation procedure for different sample matrices. In addition, timed and highly selective reaction monitoring on LC-MS/MS was used to filter out isobaric matrix interferences. The performance characteristics (linearity, sensitivity, recovery, precision, and specificity) of the method were determined according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and 401/2006/EC. The established method was successfully applied to screening of mycotoxins in animal feed and animal-derived food. The results indicated that mycotoxin contamination in feed directly influenced the presence of mycotoxin in animal-derived food. Graphical abstract Multi-mycotoxin analysis of animal feed and animal-derived food using LC-MS/MS.
Derogis, Priscilla Bento Matos; Sanches, Livia Rentas; de Aranda, Valdir Fernandes; Colombini, Marjorie Paris; Mangueira, Cristóvão Luis Pitangueira; Katz, Marcelo; Faulhaber, Adriana Caschera Leme; Mendes, Claudio Ernesto Albers; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo Dos Santos; França, Carolina Nunes; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos
Rivaroxaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, therapeutically indicated in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases. As other new oral anticoagulants, routine monitoring of rivaroxaban is not necessary, but important in some clinical circumstances. In our study a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was validated to measure rivaroxaban plasmatic concentration. Our method used a simple sample preparation, protein precipitation, and a fast chromatographic run. It was developed a precise and accurate method, with a linear range from 2 to 500 ng/mL, and a lower limit of quantification of 4 pg on column. The new method was compared to a reference method (anti-factor Xa activity) and both presented a good correlation (r = 0.98, p < 0.001). In addition, we validated hemolytic, icteric or lipemic plasma samples for rivaroxaban measurement by HPLC-MS/MS without interferences. The chromogenic and HPLC-MS/MS methods were highly correlated and should be used as clinical tools for drug monitoring. The method was applied successfully in a group of 49 real-life patients, which allowed an accurate determination of rivaroxaban in peak and trough levels.
He, Lidong; Anderson, Lissa C.; Barnidge, David R.; Murray, David L.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.
With the rapid growth of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), stringent quality control is needed to ensure clinical safety and efficacy. Monoclonal antibody primary sequence and post-translational modifications (PTM) are conventionally analyzed with labor-intensive, bottom-up tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is limited by incomplete peptide sequence coverage and introduction of artifacts during the lengthy analysis procedure. Here, we describe top-down and middle-down approaches with the advantages of fast sample preparation with minimal artifacts, ultrahigh mass accuracy, and extensive residue cleavages by use of 21 tesla FT-ICR MS/MS. The ultrahigh mass accuracy yields an RMS error of 0.2-0.4 ppm for antibody light chain, heavy chain, heavy chain Fc/2, and Fd subunits. The corresponding sequence coverages are 81%, 38%, 72%, and 65% with MS/MS RMS error 4 ppm. Extension to a monoclonal antibody in human serum as a monoclonal gammopathy model yielded 53% sequence coverage from two nano-LC MS/MS runs. A blind analysis of five therapeutic monoclonal antibodies at clinically relevant concentrations in human serum resulted in correct identification of all five antibodies. Nano-LC 21 T FT-ICR MS/MS provides nonpareil mass resolution, mass accuracy, and sequence coverage for mAbs, and sets a benchmark for MS/MS analysis of multiple mAbs in serum. This is the first time that extensive cleavages for both variable and constant regions have been achieved for mAbs in a human serum background.
Wang, Zhi; Shi, Zongwei; Xi, Cunxian; Wang, Guomin; Cao, Shurui; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Bobin; Mu, Zhaode
An analytical method was established for the rapid detection of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in bovine muscle, and bovine blood and bovine urine, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After the addition of an aqueous solution of EDTA-Na 2 , the pH of bovine urine samples was directly adjusted to 5.2 by acetic acid-ammonium acetate and purified by HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge; bovine muscle and bovine blood samples processing were extracted with acetonitrile (ACN) and ACNwater (90:10; v/v) without any purification step. The samples were then centrifuged, concentrated and analysed by UPLC-MS/MS on an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 column using gradient elution. The developed method was validated and mean recovery percentages at three spiked levels were 74-119%, 76-115% and 76-119%, respectively, in bovine muscle, bovine blood, and bovine urine. The relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1.0% to 14.7% in spiked bovine muscle, bovine blood and bovine urine. The limits of detection (LOD) of all analytes were in the ranges 0.11-3.82 µg kg -1 , 0.10-2.49 µg kg -1 and 0.06-4.53 µg kg -1 in bovine muscle, bovine blood, and bovine urine, respectively. The method was sensitive, accurate and was applied to monitor real samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is first method available for simultaneous determination of several classes of APGs in bovine muscle, and bovine blood and bovine urine.
Ramadan, Gouda; Al Jabir, Muna; Alabdulmalik, Najat; Mohammed, Ali
Most countries have clearly defined regulations governing the use of pesticides in agricultural activity. The application of pesticides in agriculture usually leads to a residual amount of these pesticides on food products such as fruit and vegetables. The presence of pesticide residues on these foods destined for human consumption may pose food safety risks to consumers. To protect consumers, national authorities have established maximum limits for pesticide residues in foods. These limits can only be enforced if there are methods available to detect and monitor their concentrations in the applicable food products. To support the enforcement of this legislation, we have developed a multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 120 pesticide residues in apples and cucumbers which has been validated and implemented in the routine monitoring and surveillance programme for these pesticides. In this method, apple and cucumber samples are extracted using the QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) and the extracts were analyzed directly by LC-MS/MS. The mean recoveries at three different concentrations of 0.01 µg/g , 0.05 µg/g, and 0.1 µg/g over the analytical range varied between 70 and 120%. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD was less than 20%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method ranged between 0.0014 and 0.0110 µg/g for apples and between 0.0012 and 0.0075 µg/g for cucumbers. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 µg/g for apples and cucumbers. The method has been used for the analysis of over 600 apple and 550 cucumber samples over the past two years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Grassetti, Andrew V; Hards, Rufus; Gerber, Scott A
Technological advances in liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have enabled comprehensive analyses of proteins and their post-translational modifications from cell culture and tissue samples. However, sample complexity necessitates offline prefractionation via a chromatographic method that is orthogonal to online reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). This additional fractionation step improves target identification rates by reducing the complexity of the sample as it is introduced to the instrument. A commonly employed offline prefractionation method is high pH reversed-phase (Hi-pH RP) chromatography. Though highly orthogonal to online RP-HPLC, Hi-pH RP relies on buffers that interfere with electrospray ionization. Thus, samples that are prefractionated using Hi-pH RP are typically desalted prior to LC-MS/MS. In the present work, we evaluate an alternative offline prefractionation method, pentafluorophenyl (PFP)-based reversed-phase chromatography. Importantly, PFP prefractionation results in samples that are dried prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. This reduction in sample handling relative to Hi-pH RP results in time savings and could facilitate higher target identification rates. Here, we have compared the performances of PFP and Hi-pH RP in offline prefractionation of peptides and phosphopeptides that have been isolated from human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells. Given the prevalence of isobaric mass tags for peptide quantification, we evaluated PFP chromatography of peptides labeled with tandem mass tags. Our results suggest that PFP is a viable alternative to Hi-pH RP for both peptide and phosphopeptide offline prefractionation.
LC-MS/MS suggests that hole hopping in cytochrome c peroxidase protects its heme from oxidative modification by excess H2O2 † †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc03125k Click here for additional data file.
We recently reported that cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp1) functions as a H2O2 sensor protein when H2O2 levels rise in respiring yeast. The availability of its reducing substrate, ferrocytochrome c (CycII), determines whether Ccp1 acts as a H2O2 sensor or peroxidase. For H2O2 to serve as a signal it must modify its receptor so we employed high-performance LC-MS/MS to investigate in detail the oxidation of Ccp1 by 1, 5 and 10 M eq. of H2O2 in the absence of CycII to prevent peroxidase activity. We observe strictly heme-mediated oxidation, implicating sequential cycles of binding and reduction of H2O2 at Ccp1's heme. This results in the incorporation of ∼20 oxygen atoms predominantly at methionine and tryptophan residues. Extensive intramolecular dityrosine crosslinking involving neighboring residues was uncovered by LC-MS/MS sequencing of the crosslinked peptides. The proximal heme ligand, H175, is converted to oxo-histidine, which labilizes the heme but irreversible heme oxidation is avoided by hole hopping to the polypeptide until oxidation of the catalytic distal H52 in Ccp1 treated with 10 M eq. of H2O2 shuts down heterolytic cleavage of H2O2 at the heme. Mapping of the 24 oxidized residues in Ccp1 reveals that hole hopping from the heme is directed to three polypeptide zones rich in redox-active residues. This unprecedented analysis unveils the remarkable capacity of a polypeptide to direct hole hopping away from its active site, consistent with heme labilization being a key outcome of Ccp1-mediated H2O2 signaling. LC-MS/MS identification of the oxidized residues also exposes the bias of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) detection toward transient radicals with low O2 reactivity. PMID:28451256
John, Harald; Eddleston, Michael; Clutton, R Eddie; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst
Dimethoate is an organophosphorus toxicant used in agri- and horticulture as a systemic broad-spectrum insecticide. It also exhibits toxic activity towards mammalian organism provoked by catalytic desulfuration in the liver producing its oxon-derivative omethoate thus inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, initiating cholinergic crisis and ultimately leading to death by respiratory paralysis and cardiovascular collapse. Pharmaco- and toxicokinetic studies in animal models help to broaden basic understanding of medical intervention by antidotes and supportive care. Therefore, we developed and validated a LC-ESI-MS/MS method suitable for the simultaneous, selective, precise (RSD(intra-day) 1-8%; RSD(inter-day) 5-14%), accurate (intra-day: 95-107%; inter-day: 90-115%), and robust quantification of both pesticides from porcine urine and plasma after deproteinization by precipitation and extensive dilution (1:11,250 for plasma and 1:40,000 for urine). Accordingly, lower limits of quantification (0.24-0.49 microg/ml plasma and 0.78-1.56 microg/ml urine) and lower limits of detection (0.12-0.24 microg/ml plasma and 0.39-0.78 microg/ml urine) were equivalent to quite low absolute on-column amounts (1.1-2.1 pg for plasma and 2.0-3.9 pg for urine). The calibration range (0.24-250 microg/ml plasma and 0.78-200 microg/ml urine) was subdivided into two linear ranges (r(2)>or=0.998) each covering nearly two orders of magnitude. The lack of any interfering peak in 6 individual blank specimens from plasma and urine demonstrated the high selectivity of the method. Furthermore, extensive sample dilution causing lowest concentration of potentially interfering matrix ingredients prompted us to develop and validate an additional flow-injection method (FI-ESI-MS/MS). Validation characteristics were as good as for the chromatographic method but sample throughput was enhanced by a factor of 6. Effects on ionization provoked by plasma and urine matrix from 6 individuals as well as in the
Fung, Eliza N; Bryan, Peter; Kozhich, Alexander
LC-MS/MS has been investigated to quantify protein therapeutics in biological matrices. The protein therapeutics is digested by an enzyme to generate surrogate peptide(s) before LC-MS/MS analysis. One challenge is isolating protein therapeutics in the presence of large number of endogenous proteins in biological matrices. Immunocapture, in which a capture agent is used to preferentially bind the protein therapeutics over other proteins, is gaining traction. The protein therapeutics is eluted for digestion and LC-MS/MS analysis. One area of tremendous potential for immunocapture-LC-MS/MS is to obtain quantitative data where ligand-binding assay alone is not sufficient, for example, quantitation of antidrug antibody complexes. Herein, we present an overview of recent advance in enzyme digestion and immunocapture applicable to protein quantitation.
Zitomer, Nicholas; Rybak, Michael E.; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J.; Holman, Matthew R.
We have developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantitation of aflatoxins in smokeless tobacco products and used it to determine aflatoxin B1 concentrations in 32 smokeless tobacco products commercially available in the US. Smokeless tobacco products were dried, milled and amended with 13C17-labelled internal standards, extracted in water/methanol solution in the presence of a surfactant, isolated through use of immunoaffinity column chromatography and reconstituted in mobile phase prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. Our method was capable of baseline separation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in a 2.5 min run by use of a fused core C18 column and a water/methanol gradient. MS/MS transition (m/z) 313.3>241.2 was used for aflatoxin B1 quantitation, with 313.3>285.1 used for confirmation. The limit of detection (LOD) for aflatoxin B1 was 0.007 parts per billion (ppb). Method imprecision for aflatoxin B1 (expressed as coefficient of variation) ranged from 5.5% to 9.4%. Spike recoveries were 105–111%. Aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the smokeless tobacco products analysed ranged from
Heath, D D; Flat, S W; Wu, A H B; Pruitt, M A; Rock, C L
Epidemiological and laboratory evidence suggests that quantification of serum or plasma levels of tamoxifen and its metabolites, 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen (endoxifen), Z-4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT), N-desmethyl-tamoxifen (ND-tam), is a clinically useful tool in the assessment and monitoring of breast cancer status in patients taking adjuvant tamoxifen. A liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was used to measure the blood levels of tamoxifen and its metabolites. This fully automated analytical method is specific, accurate and sensitive. The LC-MS/MS automated technique has now become a widely accepted reference method. This study analysed a randomly selected batch of blood samples from participants enrolled in a breast cancer study to compare results from this reference method in 40 samples with those obtained from a recently developed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. The mean (SD) concentrations for the LC-MS/MS method (endoxifen 12.6 [7.5] ng/mL, tamoxifen 105  ng/mL, 4-HT 1.9 [1.0] ng/mL, ND-tam 181  ng/mL) and the HPLC method (endoxifen 13.1 [7.8] ng/mL, tamoxifen 108  ng/mL, 4-HT 1.8 [0.8] ng/mL, ND-tam 184  ng/mL) did not show any significant differences. The results confirm that the HPLC method offers an accurate and comparable alternative for the quantification of tamoxifen and tamoxifen metabolites.
Heath, D.D.; Flatt, S.W.; Wu, A.H.B.; Pruitt, M.A.; Rock, C.L.
Epidemiological and laboratory evidence suggests that quantification of serum or plasma levels of tamoxifen and the metabolites of tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen (endoxifen), Z-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4HT), N-desmethyl-tamoxifen (ND-tam) is a clinically useful tool in the assessment and monitoring of breast cancer status in patients taking adjuvant tamoxifen. A liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method (LC-MS/MS) was used to measure the blood levels of tamoxifen and the metabolites of tamoxifen. This fully automated analytical method is specific, accurate and sensitive. The LC-MS/MS automated technique has now become a widely accepted reference method. We analyzed a randomly selected batch of blood samples from participants enrolled in a breast cancer study to compare results from this reference method in 40 samples with those obtained from a recently developed high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. The mean (SD) concentration for the LC-MS/MS (endoxifen 12.6 [7.5] ng/mL, tamoxifen 105  ng/mL, 4-HT 1.9 [1.0] ng/mL, ND-tam 181  ng/mL) and the HPLC (endoxifen 13.1 [7.8] ng/mL, tamoxifen 108ng/mL, 4-HT 1.8 [0.8] ng/mL, ND-tam 184  ng/mL), the methods did not show any significant differences. Our results confirm that the HPLC method offers an accurate and comparable alternative for the quantification of tamoxifen and tamoxifen metabolites. PMID:24693573
Deshmukh, Nawed; Hussain, Iltaf; Barker, James; Petroczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P
New highly sensitive, specific, reliable, reproducible and robust LC-MS/MS methods were developed to detect the anabolic steroids, nandrolone and stanozolol, in human hair for the first time. Hair samples from 180 participants (108 males, 72 females, 62% athletes) were screened using ELISA which revealed 16 athletes as positive for stanozolol and 3 for nandrolone. Positive samples were confirmed on LC-MS/MS in selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The assays for stanozolol and nandrolone showed good linearity in the range 1-400pg/mg and 5-400pg/mg, respectively. The methods were validated for LLOD, interday precision, intraday precision, specificity, extraction recovery and accuracy. The assays were capable of detecting 0.5pg stanozolol and 3.0pg nandrolone per mg of hair, when approximately 20mg of hair were processed. Analysis using LC-MS/MS confirmed 11 athletes' positive for stanozolol (5.0pg/mg to 86.3pg/mg) and 1 for nandrolone (14.0pg/mg) thus avoiding false results from ELISA screening. The results obtained demonstrate the application of these hair analysis methods to detect both steroids at low concentrations, hence reducing the amount of hair required significantly. The new methods complement urinalysis or blood testing and facilitate improved doping testing regimes. Hair analysis benefits from non-invasiveness, negligible risk of infection and facile sample storage and collection, whilst reducing risks of tampering and cross-contamination. Owing to the wide detection window, this approach may also offer an alternative approach for out-of-competition testing.
Lee, Heesang; Park, Yujin; Jo, Jiyeong; In, Sangwhan; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Eunmi; Pyo, Jaesung; Choe, Sanggil
Dried Blood Spot (DBS) has been used a blood extraction method for inherited metabolic disorder screening since 1960s. With introduction of LC-MS/MS, not only DBS could be used to analysis drugs in small blood volume, but in various fields, such as toxicology, drug therapeutic monitoring, drug diagnostic screening, and illicit drugs. In toxicology field, many drugs (e.g. benzodiazepines, acetaminophen, small molecule drugs) have been tested with DBS. Compared with earlier blood extraction methods (SPE and LLE), DBS has lots of advantages; lower blood volume (less than 50μL), shorter analysis time caused by a more concise analysis procedure and lower cost. We optimized the DBS procedure and LC-MS/MS conditions for 18 benzodiazepines, seven benzodiazepine metabolites, and one z-drug (zolpidem) analysis in blood. 30μL of whole blood was spotted on FTA DMPK card C and dried for 2h in a desiccator. A 6-mm disk was punched and vortexed for 1min in a centrifuge tube with 300μL methanol/acetonitrile mixture (1:1, v/v). After evaporation, redissolved in 100μL mobile phase of LC-MS/MS and 5μL was injected. In the analysis for 26 target compounds in blood, all of the method validation parameters - LLOD, LLOQ, accuracy (intra- and inter-assay), and precision (intra- and inter-assay) - were satisfied with method validation criteria, within 15%. The results of matrix effect, recovery, and process efficiency were good. We developed a fast and reliable sample preparation method using DBS for 26 benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine metabolites, and z-drug (zolpidem). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Takahashi, Daisuke; Li, Bin; Nakayama, Takato; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo
Shotgun proteomics allows the comprehensive analysis of proteins extracted from plant cells, subcellular organelles, and membranes. Previously, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics was used for mass spectrometric analysis of plasma membrane proteins. In order to get comprehensive proteome profiles of the plasma membrane including highly hydrophobic proteins with a number of transmembrane domains, a mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics method using nano-LC-MS/MS for proteins from the plasma membrane proteins and plasma membrane microdomain fraction is described. The results obtained are easily applicable to label-free protein semiquantification.
Di Donna, Leonardo; Bartella, Lucia; Napoli, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni; Mazzotti, Fabio
Monacolin K, the active ingredient present in dietary supplement, is a nutraceutical whose health benefits have been widely documented. A fast approach for the assay of lovastatin in both form, lactone and acid, by mass spectrometry is presented. The quantitative assay is carried out by HPLC-MS/MS using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and simvastatin and pravastatin as internal standards. The accuracy values ranged from 97 to 101%; the analytical parameters values of LOQ, LOD, recovery and reproducibility, were calculated analyzing fortified samples, confirming the reliability of the proposed approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Eng, Jimmy K; Jahan, Tahmina A; Hoopmann, Michael R
Proteomics research routinely involves identifying peptides and proteins via MS/MS sequence database search. Thus the database search engine is an integral tool in many proteomics research groups. Here, we introduce the Comet search engine to the existing landscape of commercial and open-source database search tools. Comet is open source, freely available, and based on one of the original sequence database search tools that has been widely used for many years. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Silinsin, Muzaffer; Bursal, Ercan
Inula graveolens (L.) Desf. is an annual aromatic herb which has various uses on alternative medicine in many region of the world. In this study, antioxidant activities of ethanol and water extracts of the plant leaves were determined by in vitro DPPH method and phenolic composition of the plant sample was determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. The results showed that chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, hyperoside, protocatechuic acid and quercetin were the major phenolic compounds among the 27 standard compounds. The significant antioxidant capacity of the plant might be related with the high abundance of phenolic compounds.
Medina, Sonia; Collado-González, Jacinta; Ferreres, Federico; Londoño-Londoño, Julián; Jiménez-Cartagena, Claudio; Guy, Alexandre; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel
The genus Passiflora, comprising about 500 species, is the largest in the Passion flower family. Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis (gulupa) is one of the most important fruits cultivated in Colombia. In recent years and due to its organoleptic and bioactive properties, its exports have significantly increased. In this work, six new bioactive oxylipins -phytoprostanes - were detected in gulupa shell by a UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method: F 1t -phytoprostanes and D 1t -phytoprostanes were the predominant and minor classes, respectively. Moreover, the polyphenol profile of the shell was investigated and we were able to detect and quantify phenolic compounds that have not been described previously, like luteolin-8-C-(2-O-rhamnosyl)hexoside and quercetin-3-O-(6″-acetyl)glucosyl-2″-sinapic acid. Consequently, this study provides new insights into the importance of gulupa shell as a valuable option in the design of new beverages rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, as part of a well-balanced diet, and in the process and quality control of such products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Kai; Schaab, Matthew R; Southwood, Gavin; Tor, Elizabeth R; Aston, Linda S; Song, Wenlu; Eitzer, Brian; Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Lapainis, Theodore; Mai, Huy; Tran, Kevin; El-Demerdash, Aref; Vega, Victor; Cai, Yanxuan; Wong, Jon W; Krynitsky, Alexandra J; Begley, Timothy H
A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) and LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , and G 2 ; deoxynivalenol; fumonisins B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 ; ochratoxin A; HT-2 toxin; T-2 toxin; and zearalenone in foods. Samples were fortified with 12 13 C uniformly labeled mycotoxins ( 13 C-IS) corresponding to the native mycotoxins and extracted with acetonitrile/water (50:50 v/v), followed by centrifugation, filtration, and LC-MS/MS analysis. In addition to certified reference materials, the six participating laboratories analyzed corn, peanut butter, and wheat flour fortified with the 12 mycotoxins at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 1000 ng/g. Using their available LC-MS/MS platform, each laboratory developed in-house instrumental conditions for analysis. The majority of recoveries ranged from 80 to 120% with relative standard derivations (RSDs) <20%. Greater than 90% of the average recoveries of the participating laboratories were in the range of 90-110%, with repeatability RSD r (within laboratory) < 10% and reproducibility RSD R (among laboratory) < 15%. All Z scores of the results of certified reference materials were between -2 and 2. Using 13 C-IS eliminated the need for matrix-matched calibration standards for quantitation, simplified sample preparation, and achieved simultaneous identification and quantitation of multiple mycotoxins in a simple LC-MS/MS procedure.
Mei, Shenghui; Wang, Jiaqing; Zhu, Leting; Chen, Ruiling; Li, Xingang; Chen, Kai; Chen, Guangqiang; Zhou, Jianxin; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Zhigang
Vancomycin (VCM) is clinically used in treating patients with postoperative intracranial infections. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of VCM varies greatly among patients. To guide the dosage regimens, monitoring of VCM in CSF is needed. However a method for analysis of VCM in human CSF is lacking. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for analysis of VCM in human CSF, and the agreement of UPLC-MS/MS and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) in the analysis of CSF VCM was evaluated. The ion transitions were m/z 725.5 > 144.1 for VCM and m/z 455.2 > 308.2 for methotrexate (internal standard). The agreement between UPLC-MS/MS and CLIA was evaluated by Bland-Altman plot in 179 samples. The calibration range of the UPLC-MS/MS method was 1-400 mg/L. The inaccuracy and imprecision were -0.69-10.80% and <4.95%. The internal standard normalized recovery and matrix factor were 86.14-99.31 and 85.84-92.07%, respectively. The measurements of CLIA and UPLC-MS/MS were strongly correlated (r > 0.98). The 95% limit of agreement of the ratio of CLIA to UPLC-MS/MS was 61.66-107.40%. Further studies are warranted to confirm the results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Smith, Scott A; Kalcic, Christine L; Safran, Kyle A; Stemmer, Paul M; Dantus, Marcos; Reid, Gavin E
To develop an improved understanding of the regulatory role that post-translational modifications (PTMs) involving phosphorylation play in the maintenance of normal cellular function, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) strategies coupled with ion activation techniques such as collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) are typically employed to identify the presence and site-specific locations of the phosphate moieties within a given phosphoprotein of interest. However, the ability of these techniques to obtain sufficient structural information for unambiguous phosphopeptide identification and characterization is highly dependent on the ion activation method employed and the properties of the precursor ion that is subjected to dissociation. Herein, we describe the application of a recently developed alternative ion activation technique for phosphopeptide analysis, termed femtosecond laser-induced ionization/dissociation (fs-LID). In contrast to CID and ETD, fs-LID is shown to be particularly suited to the analysis of singly protonated phosphopeptide ions, yielding a wide range of product ions including a, b, c, x, y, and z sequence ions, as well as ions that are potentially diagnostic of the positions of phosphorylation (e.g., 'a(n)+1-98'). Importantly, the lack of phosphate moiety losses or phosphate group 'scrambling' provides unambiguous information for sequence identification and phosphorylation site characterization. Therefore, fs-LID-MS/MS can serve as a complementary technique to established methodologies for phosphoproteomic analysis. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sahu, Neha; Meena, Sanjeev; Shukla, Vijaya; Chaturvedi, Priyank; Kumar, Brijesh; Datta, Dipak; Arya, K R
determination revealed the presence of 17 compounds in AR-01. Among them, 4 compounds were reported for the first time in this species. However, 3 identified compounds (artemorin, β-santonin and caryophyllene oxide) in AR-03E sub-fraction were commonly present in each bioactive fraction and may be considered as potential and safest cytotoxic agents for anticancer activity. Experimental evidences reported in this paper for anticancer activity validate the traditional wisdom of Artemisia nilagirica as an anticancer herbal drug. To our knowledge, this is our first novel observation of cytotoxicity and selectivity of ethyl acetate and hexane sub-fraction of AR-01 i.e. AR-03E and AR-04A respectively against DLD-1 human cancer cell lines. HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS determination attributes the identification of cytotoxic compounds which may be used for further preclinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xiangmin; Højlund, Kurt; Luo, Moulun; Meyer, Christian; Thangiah, Geetha; Yi, Zhengping
Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a fundamental role in many cellular processes including differentiation, growth and insulin signaling. In insulin resistant muscle, aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins has been detected. However, due to the low abundance of tyrosine phosphorylation (<1% of total protein phosphorylation), only a few tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been identified in mammalian skeletal muscle to date. Here, we used immunoprecipitation of phosphotyrosine peptides prior to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to improve the discovery of tyrosine phosphorylation in relatively small skeletal muscle biopsies from rats. This resulted in the identification of 87 distinctly localized tyrosine phosphorylation sites in 46 muscle proteins. Among them, 31 appear to be novel. The tyrosine phosphorylated proteins included major enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and glycogen metabolism, sarcomeric proteins, and proteins involved in Ca2+ homeostasis and phosphocreatine resynthesis. Among proteins regulated by insulin, we found tyrosine phosphorylation sites in glycogen synthase, and two of its inhibitors, GSK-3α and DYRK1A. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation sites were identified in several MAP kinases and a protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHPTP2. These results provide the largest catalogue of mammalian skeletal muscle tyrosine phosphorylation sites to date and provide novel targets for the investigation of human skeletal muscle phosphoproteins in various disease states. PMID:22609512
Napolitano, José G.; Gödecke, Tanja; Lankin, David C.; Jaki, Birgit U.; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.
The development of analytical methods for parallel characterization of multiple phytoconstituents is essential to advance the quality control of herbal products. While chemical standardization is commonly carried out by targeted analysis using gas or liquid chromatography-based methods, more universal approaches based on quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) measurements are being used increasingly in the multi-targeted assessment of these complex mixtures. The present study describes the development of a 1D qHNMR-based method for simultaneous identification and quantification of green tea constituents. This approach utilizes computer-assisted 1H iterative Full Spin Analysis (HiFSA) and enables rapid profiling of seven catechins in commercial green tea extracts. The qHNMR results were cross-validated against quantitative profiles obtained with an orthogonal LC-MS/MS method. The relative strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are discussed, with special emphasis on the role of identical reference standards in qualitative and quantitative analyses. PMID:23870106
Gritsenko, Marina A.; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Tao
Comprehensive, quantitative information on abundances of proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) can potentially provide novel biological insights into diseases pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention. Herein, we introduce a quantitative strategy utilizing isobaric stable isotope-labelling techniques combined with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) for large-scale, deep quantitative proteome profiling of biological samples or clinical specimens such as tumor tissues. The workflow includes isobaric labeling of tryptic peptides for multiplexed and accurate quantitative analysis, basic reversed-phase LC fractionation and concatenation for reduced sample complexity, and nano-LC coupled to high resolution and high mass accuracy MS analysis for high confidence identification andmore » quantification of proteins. This proteomic analysis strategy has been successfully applied for in-depth quantitative proteomic analysis of tumor samples, and can also be used for integrated proteome and PTM characterization, as well as comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis across samples from large clinical cohorts.« less
Arimboor, Ranjith; Arumughan, C
This study was aimed at the chemical profiling of flavonoid glycosides in antioxidant (AO) fractions of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seed. Seed fractions were evaluated for their DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferric reduction, ferrous chelation and xanthine oxidase inhibitory capacities. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analytical conditions for the profiling of seed flavonoids were optimized and the AO-rich fraction was analysed. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (5.9%), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (4.9%) and isorhamnetin-3-O-sophroside-7-O-rhamnoside (3.7%) were found as the major flavonoid glycosides in the fraction. Significant amounts of isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (2.8%), 3-O-sophroside-7-O-rhamnosides of quercetin (2.4%) and kaempherol (1.3%), and 3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnosides of quercetin (1.1%) and isorhamnetin (1.1%) along with their free forms: isorhamnetin (2.7%), quercetin (1.1%) and kaempherol (0.6%) were also found in the fraction. The identification of flavonoids as the major less polar AO phenolics in the seeds was rationalized by demonstrating the high AO activity of isorhamnetin, quercetin, kaempherol and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside.
Rak, Gábor; Fodor, Péter; Abrankó, László
A three-step HPLC-ESI-MS/MS procedure is designed for screening and identification of non-target flavonoid derivatives of selected flavonoid aglycones. In this method the five commonly appearing aglycones (apigenin, luteolin, myricetin, naringenin and quercetin) were selected. The method consists of three individual mass spectrometric experiments of which the first two were implemented within a single chromatographic acquisition. The third step was carried out during a replicate chromatographic run using the same RP-HPLC conditions. The first step, a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan of the aglycones was performed to define the number of derivatives relating to the selected aglycones. For this purpose the characteristic aglycone parts of the unknowns were used as specific tags of the molecules, which were generated as in-source fragments. Secondly, a full scan MS experiment is performed to identify the masses of the potential derivatives of the selected aglycones. Finally, the third step had the capability to confirm the supposed derivatives. The developed method was applied to a commercially available black currant juice to demonstrate its capability to detect and identify various flavonoid glycosides without any preliminary information about their presence in the sample. As a result 13 compounds were detected and identified in total. Namely, 3 different myricetin glycosides and the myricetin aglycone 2 luteolin glycosides plus the aglycone and 3 quercetin glycosides plus the aglycone could be identified from the tested black currant sample. In the case of apigenin and naringenin only the aglycones could be detected.
Kim, Hohyun; Yoo, Jeong-Yeon; Han, Sang Beom; Lee, Hee Joo; Lee, Kyung Ryul
A sensitive and selective liquid chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of ambroxol in human plasma. Domperidone was used as internal standard, with plasma samples extracted using diethyl ether under basic condition. A centrifuged upper layer was then evaporated and reconstituted with 200 microl methanol. The reconstituted samples were injected into a C(18) XTerra MS column (2.1 x 30 mm) with 3.5 microm particle size. The analytical column lasted for at least 600 injections. The mobile phase was composed of 20 mM ammonium acetate in 90% acetonitrile (pH 8.8), with flow rate at 250 microl/min. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode using turbo electrospray ionization. Nitrogen was used as the nebulizer, curtain, collision, and auxiliary gases. Using MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, ambroxol was detected without severe interferences from plasma matrix. Ambroxol produced a protonated precursor ion ([M+H](+)) at m/z 379 and a corresponding product ion at m/z 264. And internal standard (domperidone) produced a protonated precursor ion ([M+H](+)) at m/z 426 and a corresponding product ion at m/z 174. Detection of ambroxol in human plasma was accurate and precise, with quantification limit at 0.2 ng/ml. This method has been successfully applied to a study of ambroxol in human specimens.
Zhan, Lan-fen; Liu, Ming-dong; Yan, You-yi; Ye, Yi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhi-hui; Zhao, Jun-hong; Liao, Lin-chuan
To establish a method for determination of strychnine and brucine in formaldehyde fixed tissue by LC-MS/MS analysis. The samples were pretreated with solid phase extraction using SCX cartridges and separated on SB-C18 column with mobile phase 0.1% formic acid : 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile (75:25). Electrospray ionization (ESI) source was utilized and operated in positive ion mode. Multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was applied. External standard method was applied for quantitation. The chromatographic separation of strychnine and brucine in formaldehyde fixed nephritic and hepatic tissues resulted successfully. The standard curve was linear in the range of 0.002-2.0 microg/g for strychnine and brucine in formaldehyde fixed tissues, and the correlation coefficient was more than 0.996. The limits of detection (LOD) of strychnine and brucine in nephritic tissues were 0.06ng/g and 0.03 ng/g, respectively. The LOD of both chemicals were 0.3 ng/g in hepatic tissues. The extraction recovery rate was more than 74.5%. The precision of intra-day and inter-day were both less than 8.2%. Strychnine and brucine can be sensitive to be determined in formaldehyde fixed tissue by LC-MS/MS analysis. It can be applied in the forensic toxicological analysis.
Yi, Lin; Sun, Xue; Du, Kenze; Ouyang, Yilan; Wu, Chengling; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J; Zhang, Zhenqing
Investigation of the action pattern of enzymes acting on carbohydrates is challenging, as both the substrate and the digestion products are complex mixtures. Dextran and its enzyme-derived oligosaccharides are widely used for many industrial applications. In this work, a new method relying on ultra-performance hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UP-HILIC-Q/TOF-MS/MS) was developed to analyze a complex mixture of dextran oligosaccharide products to determine the action pattern of dextranase. No derivatization of oligosaccharides was required and the impact of the α- and β-configurations of the native oligosaccharides on the chromatographic separation was eliminated. The 1→6, 1→3, 1→4 backbone linkages and the branch linkages of these oligosaccharides were all distinguished from diagnostic ions in their MS/MS spectra, including fragments corresponding to (0,2)A, (0,3)A, (0,4)A, B-H2O, (2,5)A, and (3,5)A. The sequences of the oligosaccharide products were similarly established. Thus, the complex oligosaccharide mixtures in dextran digestion products were profiled and identified using this method. The more enzyme-resistant structures in dextran were established using much less sample, labor, time, and uncertainty than in previous studies. This method provides an efficient, sensitive, and straightforward way to monitor the entire process of digestion, establish the action pattern of the dextranase from Penicillium sp., and to support the proper industrial application of dextranase.
Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Tsilia, Varvara; Rajkovic, Andreja; De Cremer, Koen; Van Loco, Joris
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important aetiological agents of food intoxications in Europe and can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. Due to their stability and ease of production and dissemination, some SEs have also been studied as potential agents for bioterrorism. Therefore, specific and accurate analytical tools are required to detect and quantify SEs. Online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to detect and quantify two types of SE (A and B) spiked in milk and buffer solution. SE extraction and concentration was performed according to the European Screening Method developed by the European Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci. Trypsin digests were screened for the presence of SEs using selected proteotypic heavy-labeled peptides as internal standards. SEA and SEB were successfully detected in milk samples using LC-MS/MS in MRM mode. The selected SE peptides were proteotypic for each toxin, allowing the discrimination of SEA and SEB in a single run. The detection limit of SEA and SEB was approximately 8 and 4 ng/g, respectively.
Antonelli, Giorgia; Padoan, Andrea; Artusi, Carlo; Marinova, Mariela; Zaninotto, Martina; Plebani, Mario
The aim of this study was to implement in our routine practice an automated saliva preparation protocol for quantification of cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) by LC-MS/MS using a liquid handling platform, maintaining the previously defined reference intervals with the manual preparation. Addition of internal standard solution to saliva samples and calibrators and SPE on μ-elution 96-well plate were performed by liquid handling platform. After extraction, the eluates were submitted to LC-MS/MS analysis. The manual steps within the entire process were to transfer saliva samples in suitable tubes, to put the cap mat and transfer of the collection plate to the LC auto sampler. Transference of the reference intervals from the manual to the automated procedure was established by Passing Bablok regression on 120 saliva samples analyzed simultaneously with the two procedures. Calibration curves were linear throughout the selected ranges. The imprecision ranged from 2 to 10%, with recoveries from 95 to 116%. Passing Bablok regression demonstrated no significant bias. The liquid handling platform translates the manual steps into automated operations allowing for saving hands-on time, while maintaining assay reproducibility and ensuring reliability of results, making it implementable in our routine with the previous established reference intervals. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maoka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Keiji; Akimoto, Naoshige
The characterization and structure of epoxy carotenoids possessing 5,6-epoxy, 5,8-epoxy and 3,6-epoxy end groups conjugated to the polyene chain were investigated using high-energy fast atom bombardment collision-induced dissociation MS/MS methods. In addition to [M - 80](+*), a characteristic fragment ion of an epoxy carotenoid, product ions resulting from the cleavage of C-C bonds in the polyene chain from the epoxy end group, such as m/z 181 (b ion) and 121 (c ion), were detected. On the other hand, diagnostic ions of m/z 286 (e-H ion) and 312 (f-H ion) were observed, not in the 5,6-epoxy or 5,8-epoxy carotenoid but in the 3,6-epoxy carotenoid. These fragmentation patterns can be used to distinguish 3,6-epoxy carotenoids from 5,6-epoxy or 5,8-epoxy carotenoids. The structure of an epoxy carotenoid, 3,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-7',8'-didehydro-beta,beta-carotene-5,3'-diol (8), isolated from oyster, was characterized using FAB CID-MS/MS by comparing fragmentation patterns with those of related known compounds.
Siegle, Lydia; Pietsch, Jörg
Taxus baccata L. is an evergreen conifer whose plant parts are cardiotoxic. Only the red arils of the berries are described as non-toxic and taxane-free. Extraction and HPLC-MS/MS methods were developed for the investigation of the Taxus compounds 3,5-dimethoxyphenol, 10-deacetylbaccatin III, baccatin III, cephalomannine, taxol A and taxinine M in the red arils of the yew berries. MethodologyA liquid-liquid extraction method for the red arils of the fruits from three yews were developed. An accurate (ESI+) HPLC-MS/MS method was performed for the simultaneous detection and determination of the target compounds in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. All Taxus agents obtained were detected in the red arils. Highest concentrations were determined for baccatin III and 10-deacetylbaccatin III. The developed quantitative method is reliable and selective and was successfully applied for quantification of selected Taxus ingredients in red arils of Taxus baccata. It was disproved that the red arils of the berries do not contain the selected Taxus compounds. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pang, Ni-Hong; Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiang-Ran; Yang, Su-Fen; Lin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Guo-Xin
Enasidenib, an oral product for treating Acute Myeloid Leukemia, has been approved by FDA in Aug, 2017. In this study, we set up an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for measuring Enasidenib and imatinib (internal standard, IS), simultaneously. Enasidenib and imatinib were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C 18 Column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm, 132 Å). Mass detection was carried out by electrospray ionization in the position mode, and the multiple reaction monitoring transitions were m/z 474.23 → 456.17 and m/z 494.30 → 394.20 for Enasidenib and imatinib, respectively. Linearity (2 - 500 ng·mL -1 , R 2 > 0.999), precision and accuracy (RE < ± 15%), extraction recovery (≥ 96.69%), matrix effect (≥ 96.47%) and stability (RE < ± 10%) were validated which demonstrated the robustness of our method. This rapid, efficient and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method shows specificity and repeatability of Enasidenib in rat plasma and can be used in further pharmacokinetic studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tao, Huang; Yun-Hai, Guo; He-Xiang, Liu; Yi, Zhang
To establish a method for the quantitative determination of serotonin and dopamine in the nervous system of Biomphalaria glabrata by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC MS/MS) . The B. glabrata nervous system was broken in the pure methanol solution after obtaining it by dissecting with microscope. Then, the supernatant containing the target substance after twice high speed centrifugation was got. The extraction was separated on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Amide column with Waters TQ-XS series mass spectrometry detector, with ESI source and positive electrospray ionization mode when the machine testing. The detection limit of serotonin was 0.03 ng/ml and the limit of quantification was 0.1 ng/ml. The detection limit of dopamine was 0.05 ng/ml and the limit of quantification was 0.15 ng/ml. The recoveries of serotonin ranged from 90.68% to 94.72% over the range of 1 to 40 ng/ml. The recoveries of dopamine ranged from 91.68% to 96.12% over the range of 1.0 ng/ml to 40 ng/ml. The established UPLC MS/MS method is simple, stable and reproducible. It can be used for the quantitative analysis of serotonin and dopamine in the nervous system of B. glabrata snails.
Carlier, Mieke; Stove, Veronique; De Waele, Jan J; Verstraete, Alain G
There is an increasing interest in monitoring plasma concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a fast ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometric detection (UPLC-MS/MS) for simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, meropenem and piperacillin with minimal turn around time. Sample clean-up included protein precipitation with acetonitrile containing 5 deuterated internal standards, and subsequent dilution of the supernatant with water after centrifugation. Runtime was only 2.5 min. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system using a BEH C18 column (1.7 μm, 100 mm × 2.1 mm) applying a binary gradient elution of water and methanol both containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate on a Water TQD instrument in MRM mode. All compounds were detected in electrospray positive ion mode and could be quantified between 1 and 100 mg/L for amoxicillin and cefuroxime, between 0.5 and 80 mg/L for meropenem and ceftazidime, and between 1 and 150 mg/L for piperacillin. The method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, linearity, matrix effect and recovery and has been compared to a previously published UPLC-MS/MS method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Monbaliu, Sofie; Wu, Aibo; Zhang, Dabing; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah
In recent years the consumption of tea and herbal infusions has increased. These hot drinks are consumed as daily drinks as well as for medicinal purposes. All tea varieties (white, yellow, green, oolong, black and puerh) originate from the leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. All extracts made of plant or herbal materials which do not contain Camellia sinensis are referred as herbal infusions or tisanes. During processing and manufacturing fungal contamination of the plant materials is possible, enabling contamination of these products with mycotoxins. In this study a multimycotoxin UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of the raw tea and herbal infusion materials as well as for their drinkable products. The samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), with a mobile phase consisting of variable mixtures of water and methanol with 0.3% formic acid. The limits of detection for the different mycotoxins varied between 2.1 μg/kg and 121 μg/kg for raw materials and between 0.4 μg/L and 46 μg/L for drinkable products. Afterward 91 different tea and herbal infusion samples were analyzed. Only in one sample, Ceylon melange, 76 μg/kg fumonisin B(1) was detected. No mycotoxins were detected in the drinkable products.
Poulsen, M E; Christensen, H B; Sørensen, M T; Leffers, H; Andersen, J H
Chlormequat is a plant growth regulator widely used on cereals, and there is general concern that it may impair human fertility. A LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of chlormequat in milk and serum was developed and validated in connection with an investigation on the effect of chlormequat on pig reproduction. Validation of the method was based on recovery tests at three spiking levels, determined as double determinations and repeated at least four times. Samples were extracted with methanol-water-acetic acid, centrifuged, filtrated and determined by LC-MS/MS. The mean recoveries were in the range 80-110%, and the LOD was 0.2 ng/g for serum and 0.3 ng/g for milk. The values for repeatability and reproducibility were within 2/3 of the limits given by the Horwitz equation. Samples of pig serum (59) and sow milk (27) were analyzed using the method. Chlormequat was determined in four milk samples in the range of 0.4 ng/g to 1.2 ng/g and in all serum samples in the range of 0.2 ng/g-4.0 ng/g.
Lopez, Mayda I; Pettis, Jeffery S; Smith, I Barton; Chu, Pak-Sin
A multiclass method has been developed for the determination and confirmation in honey of tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sarafloxacin), macrolides (tylosin), lincosamides (lincomycin), aminoglycosides (streptomycin), sulfonamides (sulfathiazole), phenicols (chloramphenicol), and fumagillin residues using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Erythromycin (a macrolide) and monensin (an ionophore) can be detected and confirmed but not quantitated. Honey samples (approximately 2 g) are dissolved in 10 mL of water and centrifuged. An aliquot of the supernatant is used to determine streptomycin. The remaining supernatant is filtered through a fine-mesh nylon fabric and cleaned up by solid phase extraction. After solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution, 15 antibiotics are assayed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion mode. Afterward, chloramphenicol is assayed using ESI in negative ion mode. The method has been validated at the low part per billion levels for most of the drugs with accuracies between 65 and 104% and coefficients of variation less than 17%. The evaluation of matrix effects caused by honey of different floral origin is presented.
Zheng, Jia-Hua; Guida, Louis A; Rower, Caitlin; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose; Meditz, Amie; Klein, Brandon; Kerr, Becky Jo; Langness, Jacob; Bushman, Lane; Kiser, Jennifer; Anderson, Peter L.
A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (LC), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) assay for the determination of tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC) in dried blood spots (DBS) from human whole blood was developed and validated. Whole blood samples were spotted, dried, and a 3mm punch was extracted with methanol for analysis by LC-MS/MS utilizing stable isotope labeled internal standards. The assay was validated over the range of 2.5ng/mL to 1,000ng/mL for TFV and 2.5ng/mL to 5,000ng/mL for FTC. The method was accurate (within ± 15% of control) and precise (coefficient of variation ≤ 15%) for hematocrit concentrations ranging from 25% to 76%; using edge punches versus center punches; and spot volumes of 10µL to 50µL. Analytes were stable for five freeze/thaw cycles and up to 6 days at room temperature, whereas long-term storage required −20°C or −80°C. Comparison of TFV and FTC in DBS versus plasma yielded r2 ≥ 0.96, indicating that DBS can be used as a plasma alternative for pharmacokinetic analyses in vivo. PMID:24055850
Ravindran, Selvan; Basu, Sudipta; Gorti, Santosh Kapil Kumar; Surve, Prashant; Sloka, Navya
The sulfonylurea urea drug glyburide (glibenclamide) is widely used for the treatment of diabetes milletus and gestational diabetes. In previous studies monohydroxylated metabolites were identified and characterized for glyburide in different species, but the metabolite owing to the loss of cyclohexyl ring was identified only in mouse. Glyburide upon incubation with hepatic microsomes resulted in 10 metabolites for human. The current study identifies new metabolites of glyburide along with the hydroxylated metabolites that were reported earlier. The newly identified drug metabolites are dihydroxylated metabolites, a metabolite owing to the loss of cyclohexyl ring and one owing to hydroxylation with dehydrogenation. Among the 10 identified metabolites, there were six monohydroxylated metabolites, one dihydroxylated metabolite, two metabolites owing to hydroxylation and dehydrogenation, and one metabolite owing to the loss of cyclohexyl ring. New metabolites of glyburide were identified and characterized using liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadruple-ion trap-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Q-TRAP-MS/MS). An enhanced mass scan-enhanced product ion scan with information-dependent acquisition mode in a Q-TRAP-MS/MS system was used to characterize the metabolites. Liquid chromatography with diode array detection was used as a complimentary technique to confirm and identify the metabolites. Metabolites formed in higher amounts were detected in both diode array detection and mass spectrometry detection. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Yi, Lin; Sun, Xue; Du, Kenze; Ouyang, Yilan; Wu, Chengling; Xu, Naiyu; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Zhenqing
Investigation of the action pattern of enzymes acting on carbohydrates is challenging, as both the substrate and the digestion products are complex mixtures. Dextran and its enzyme-derived oligosaccharides are widely used for many industrial applications. In this work, a new method relying on ultra-performance hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UP-HILIC- Q/TOF-MS/MS) was developed to analyze a complex mixture of dextran oligosaccharide products to determine the action pattern of dextranase. No derivatization of oligosaccharides was required and the impact of the α- and β-configurations of the native oligosaccharides on the chromatographic separation was eliminated. The 1→6, 1→3, 1→4 backbone linkages and the branch linkages of these oligosaccharides were all distinguished from diagnostic ions in their MS/MS spectra, including fragments corresponding to 0,2A, 0,3A, 0,4A, B-H2O, 2,5A, and 3,5A. The sequences of the oligosaccharide products were similarly established. Thus, the complex oligosaccharide mixtures in dextran digestion products were profiled and identified using this method. The more enzyme-resistant structures in dextran were established using much less sample, labor, time, and uncertainty than in previous studies. This method provides an efficient, sensitive, and straightforward way to monitor the entire process of digestion, establish the action pattern of the dextranase from Penicillium sp., and to support the proper industrial application of dextranase.
Peng, Minzhi; Liu, Li; Jiang, Minyan; Liang, Cuili; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Cai, Yanna; Sheng, Huiying; Ou, Zhiying; Luo, Hong
Measurement of carnitine and acylcarnitines in plasma is important in diagnosis of fatty acid β-oxidation disorders and organic acidemia. The usual method uses flow injection tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS), which has limitations. A rapid and more accurate method was developed to be used for high-risk screening and diagnosis. Carnitine and acylcarnitines were separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) without derivatization and detected with a QTRAP MS/MS System. Total analysis time was 9.0min. The imprecision of within- and between-run were less than 6% and 17%, respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 85-110% at three concentrations. Some acylcarnitine isomers could be separated, such as dicarboxylic and hydroxyl acylcarnitines. The method could also separate interferent to avoid false positive results. 216 normal samples and 116 patient samples were detected with the validated method, and 49 patients were identified with fatty acid oxidation disorders or organic acidemias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Huihui; Han, Dianfeng; Huang, Hui; Xu, Yingjiang; Gong, Xianghong
This study developed an ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the detection of three major metabolites of mequindox, including 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid, 1-desoxymequindox, and 1,4-bisdesoxymequindox (MQCA, 1-DMEQ, and BDMEQ), in holothurian. Target analytes were simplified with ultrasound-assisted acidolysis extracted without complicated enzymolysis steps. After that, each sample was centrifuged and purified by an Oasis MAX cartridge. Then, the processed samples were separated and monitored by UPLC-MS/MS. This developed method has been validated according to FDA criteria. At fortified levels of 2, 10, and 20 μg/kg, recoveries ranged from 82.5% to 93.5% with the intraday RSD less than 7.27% and interday RSD less than 11.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) of all the three metabolites ranged from 0.21 to 0.48 μg/kg, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.79 to 1.59 μg/kg. On application to commercial samples, 14 of 20 samples were detected positive for the three target analytes, with positive rate at 70 percentage. The result indicated that this method was specific, sensitive, and suitable for the quantification and conformation of the three major metabolites of MEQ in holothurian. PMID:29805832
Liu, Huihui; Ren, Chuanbo; Han, Dianfeng; Huang, Hui; Zou, Rongjie; Zhang, Huawei; Xu, Yingjiang; Gong, Xianghong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Li, Yanshen
This study developed an ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the detection of three major metabolites of mequindox, including 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid, 1-desoxymequindox, and 1,4-bisdesoxymequindox (MQCA, 1-DMEQ, and BDMEQ), in holothurian. Target analytes were simplified with ultrasound-assisted acidolysis extracted without complicated enzymolysis steps. After that, each sample was centrifuged and purified by an Oasis MAX cartridge. Then, the processed samples were separated and monitored by UPLC-MS/MS. This developed method has been validated according to FDA criteria. At fortified levels of 2, 10, and 20 μ g/kg, recoveries ranged from 82.5% to 93.5% with the intraday RSD less than 7.27% and interday RSD less than 11.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) of all the three metabolites ranged from 0.21 to 0.48 μ g/kg, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.79 to 1.59 μ g/kg. On application to commercial samples, 14 of 20 samples were detected positive for the three target analytes, with positive rate at 70 percentage. The result indicated that this method was specific, sensitive, and suitable for the quantification and conformation of the three major metabolites of MEQ in holothurian.
Carter, Melissa D; Calcutt, M Wade; Malow, Beth A; Rose, Kristie L; Hachey, David L
Melatonin (MEL) and its chemical precursor N-acetylserotonin (NAS) are believed to be potential biomarkers for sleep-related disorders. Measurement of these compounds, however, has proven to be difficult due to their low circulating levels, especially that of NAS. Few methods offer the sensitivity, specificity and dynamic range needed to monitor MEL and its precursors and metabolites in small blood samples, such as those obtained from pediatric patients. In support of our ongoing study to determine the safety, tolerability and PK dosing strategies for MEL in treating insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorder, two highly sensitive LC-MS/MS assays were developed for the quantitation of MEL and precursor NAS at pg/mL levels in small volumes of human plasma. A validated electrospray ionization (ESI) method was used to quantitate high levels of MEL in PK studies, and a validated nanospray (nESI) method was developed for quantitation of MEL and NAS at endogenous levels. In both assays, plasma samples were processed by centrifugal membrane dialysis after addition of stable isotopic internal standards, and the components were separated by either conventional LC using a Waters SymmetryShield RP18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 3.5 µm) or on a polyimide-coated, fused-silica capillary self-packed with 17 cm AquaC18 (3 µm, 125 Å). Quantitation was done using the SRM transitions m/z 233 → 174 and m/z 219 → 160 for MEL and NAS, respectively. The analytical response ratio versus concentration curves were linear for MEL (nanoflow LC: 11.7-1165 pg/mL, LC: 1165-116,500 pg/mL) and for NAS (nanoflow LC: 11.0-1095 pg/mL). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Carter, Melissa D.; Calcutt, M. Wade; Malow, Beth A.; Rose, Kristie L.; Hachey, David L.
Melatonin (MEL) and its chemical precursor N-acetylserotonin (NAS) are believed to be potential biomarkers for sleep-related disorders. Measurement of these compounds, however, has proven to be difficult due to their low circulating levels, especially that of NAS. Few methods offer the sensitivity, specificity and dynamic range needed to monitor MEL and its precursors and metabolites in small blood samples, such as those obtained from pediatric patients. In support of our ongoing study to determine the safety, tolerability, and PK dosing strategies for MEL in treating insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorder, two highly sensitive LC-MS/MS assays were developed for the quantitation of MEL and precursor NAS at pg/mL levels in small volumes of human plasma. A validated electrospray ionization (ESI) method was used to quantitate high levels of MEL in PK studies and a validated nanospray (nESI) method was developed for quantitation of MEL and NAS at endogenous levels. In both assays plasma samples were processed by centrifugal membrane dialysis after addition of stable isotopic internal standards, and the components were separated by either conventional LC using a Waters SymmetryShield RP18 column (2.1×100 mm, 3.5 μm) or on a polyimide-coated, fused-silica capillary self-packed with 17 cm AquaC18 (3 μm, 125 Å). Quantitation was done using the SRM transitions m/z 233→174 and m/z 219→160 for MEL and NAS, respectively. The analytical response ratio vs. concentration curves were linear for MEL (nanoflow LC: 11.7–1165 pg/mL, LC: 1165–116500 pg/mL) and for NAS (nanoflow LC: 11.0–1095 pg/mL). PMID:22431453
Márta, Zoltán; Bobály, Balázs; Fekete, Jenő; Magda, Balázs; Imre, Tímea; Mészáros, Katalin Viola; Bálint, Mária; Szabó, Pál Tamás
Ultratrace analysis of sample components requires excellent analytical performance in terms of limits of quantitation (LOQ). Micro UHPLC coupled to sensitive tandem mass spectrometry provides state of the art solution for such analytical problems. Using on-line SPE with column switching on a micro UHPLC-MS/MS system allowed to decrease LOQ without any complex sample preparation protocol. The presented method is capable of reaching satisfactory low LOQ values for analysis of thirteen different steroid molecules from human plasma without the most commonly used off-line SPE or compound derivatization. Steroids were determined by using two simple sample preparation methods, based on lower and higher plasma steroid concentrations. In the first method, higher analyte concentrations were directly determined after protein precipitation with methanol. The organic phase obtained from the precipitation was diluted with water and directly injected into the LC-MS system. In the second method, low steroid levels were determined by concentrating the organic phase after steroid extraction. In this case, analytes were extracted with ethyl acetate and reconstituted in 90/10 water/acetonitrile following evaporation to dryness. This step provided much lower LOQs, outperforming previously published values. The method has been validated and subsequently applied to clinical laboratory measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Barker, Steven A; Borjigin, Jimo; Lomnicka, Izabela; Strassman, Rick
We report a qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analysis of the three known N,N-dimethyltryptamine endogenous hallucinogens, their precursors and metabolites, as well as melatonin and its metabolic precursors. The method was characterized using artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) as the matrix and was subsequently applied to the analysis of rat brain pineal gland-aCSF microdialysate. The method describes the simultaneous analysis of 23 chemically diverse compounds plus a deuterated internal standard by direct injection, requiring no dilution or extraction of the samples. The results demonstrate that this is a simple, sensitive, specific and direct approach to the qualitative analysis of these compounds in this matrix. The protocol also employs stringent MS confirmatory criteria for the detection and confirmation of the compounds examined, including exact mass measurements. The excellent limits of detection and broad scope make it a valuable research tool for examining the endogenous hallucinogen pathways in the central nervous system. We report here, for the first time, the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in pineal gland microdialysate obtained from the rat. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi
Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.
Methlie, Paal; Hustad, Steinar; Kellman, Ralf; Almås, Bjørg; Erichsen, Martina M; Husebye, Eystein S; Løvås, Kristian
Objective Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) offers superior analytical specificity compared with immunoassays, but it is not available in many regions and hospitals due to expensive instrumentation and tedious sample preparation. Thus, we developed an automated, high-throughput LC–MS/MS assay for simultaneous quantification of ten endogenous and synthetic steroids targeting diseases of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and gonads. Methods Deuterated internal standards were added to 85 μl serum and processed by liquid–liquid extraction. Cortisol, cortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, 11-deoxycortisol, dexamethasone, testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone were resolved by ultra-high-pressure chromatography on a reversed-phase column in 6.1 min and detected by triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. The method was used to assess steroid profiles in women with Addison's disease (AD, n=156) and blood donors (BDs, n=102). Results Precisions ranged from 4.5 to 10.1% relative standard deviations (RSD), accuracies from 95 to 108% and extraction recoveries from 60 to 84%. The method was practically free of matrix effects and robust to individual differences in serum composition. Most postmenopausal AD women had extremely low androstenedione concentrations, below 0.14 nmol/l, and median testosterone concentrations of 0.15 nmol/l (interquartile range 0.00–0.41), considerably lower than those of postmenopausal BDs (1.28 nmol/l (0.96–1.64) and 0.65 nmol/l (0.56–1.10) respectively). AD women in fertile years had androstenedione concentrations of 1.18 nmol/l (0.71–1.76) and testosterone concentrations of 0.44 nmol/l (0.22–0.63), approximately half of those found in BDs of corresponding age. Conclusion This LC–MS/MS assay provides highly sensitive and specific assessments of glucocorticoids and androgens with low sample volumes and is suitable for endocrine laboratories and research. Its utility has been
Becalski, A; Feng, S Y; Lau, B P-Y; Zhao, T
An improved method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the analysis of glycidyl fatty acid esters in oils was developed. The method incorporates stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA) for quantifying the five target analytes: glycidyl esters of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). For the analysis, 10 mg sample of edible oil or fat is dissolved in acetone, spiked with deuterium labelled analogs of glycidyl esters and purified by a two-step chromatography on C18 and normal silica solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using methanol and 5% ethyl acetate in hexane, respectively. If the concentration of analytes is expected to be below 0.5 mg/kg, 0.5 g sample of oil is pre-concentrated first using a silica column. The dried final extract is re-dissolved in 250 μL of a mixture of methanol/isopropanol (1:1, v/v), 15 μL is injected on the analytical C18 LC column and analytes are eluted with 100% methanol. Detection of target glycidyl fatty acid esters is accomplished by LC-MS/MS using positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization operating in Multiple Reaction Monitoring mode monitoring 2 ion transitions for each analyte. The method was tested on replicates of a virgin olive oil which was free of glycidyl esters. The method detection limit was calculated to be in the range of 70-150 μg/kg for each analyte using 10 mg sample and 1-3 μg/kg using 0.5 g sample of oil. Average recoveries of 5 glycidyl esters spiked at 10, 1 and 0.1 mg/kg were in the range 84% to 108%. The major advantage of our method is use of SIDA for all analytes using commercially available internal standards and detection limits that are lower by a factor of 5-10 from published methods when 0.5 g sample of oil is used. Additionally, MS/MS mass chromatograms offer greater specificity than liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring mode. The method will be applied to
Proteomics provides a powerful approach to screen and analyze responses to environmental exposures which induce alterations in protein expression, phosphorylation. ubiquitinylation, oxidation. and modulation of general proteome function. Post-translational modifications (PTM) of ...
Politi, Lucia; Vignali, Claudia; Polettini, Aldo
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) analysis of biological fluids (blood, urine, gastric content, and bile) collected at autopsy in a case of suspected 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) fatal poisoning allowed the determination of DNP and its known metabolites (2-amino-4-nitrophenol and nitro-4-aminophenol). The tentative identification of three conjugated metabolites (DNP glucuronide, DNP sulfate, and 2-amino-4-nitrophenol glucuronide) could be made on the basis of their pseudomolecular ion, isotopic and fragmentation patterns, and retention characteristics. Another DNP metabolite reported in the literature, 2,4-diaminophenol, was not detected in the samples. Postmortem blood concentrations were 48.4 mg/L for DNP and 1.2 mg/L for 2-amino-4-nitrophenol. Gas chromatography-MS screening and quantification in postmortem blood revealed the presence of toxic concentrations of citalopram and its desmethylated metabolite (0.58 and 0.40 mg/L, respectively) and therapeutic or lower than therapeutic levels of olanzapine (0.04 mg/L), desalkylflurazepam (0.02 mg/L), and nordazepam (0.01 mg/L). Based on LC-MS-MS results and on available literature data on DNP poisonings, it was concluded that DNP poisoning played a contributing role, together with citalopram, in the cause of death.
de Jager, Andrew D; Bailey, Neville L
A rapid LC-MS/MS method for confirmatory testing of five major categories of drugs of abuse (amphetamine-type substances, opiates, cocaine, cannabis metabolites and benzodiazepines) in urine has been developed. All drugs of abuse mandated by the Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4308:2008 are quantified in a single chromatographic run. Urine samples are diluted with a mixture of isotope labelled internal standards. An on-line trap-and-flush approach, followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS has been successfully used to process samples in a functioning drugs of abuse laboratory. Following injection of diluted urine samples, compounds retained on the trap cartridge are flushed onto a reverse-phase C18 HPLC column (5-μm particle size) with embedded hydrophylic functionality. A total chromatographic run-time of 15 min is required for adequate resolution. Automated quantitation software algorithms have been developed in-house using XML scripting to partially automate the identification of positive samples, taking into account ion ratio (IR) and retention times (Rt). The sensitivity of the assay was found to be adequate for the quantitation of drugs in urine at and below the confirmation cut-off concentrations prescribed by AS/NZS 4308:2008. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Xiangsheng; Wei, Jianhe; Yang, Meihua
Morinda officinalis is an important herbal medicine and functional food, and its main constituents include anthraquinone and iridoid glycosides. Quantification of the main compounds is a necessary step to understand the quality and therapeutic properties of M. officinalis , but this has not yet been performed based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analytes were extracted from M. officinalis by reflux method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for quantification. Fragmentation pathways of deacetyl asperulosidic acid and rubiadin were investigated based on UPLC with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS) in the MS E centroid mode. The method showed a good linearity over a wide concentration range (R² ≥ 0.9930). The limits of quantification of six compounds ranged from 2.6 to 27.57 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions of the investigated components exhibited an RSD within 4.5% with mean recovery rates of 95.32⁻99.86%. Contents of selected compounds in M. officinalis varied significantly depending on region. The fragmentation pathway of deacetyl asperulosidic and rubiadin was proposed. A selective and sensitive method was developed for determining six target compounds in M. officinalis by UPLC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the proposed method will be helpful for quality control and identification main compounds of M. officinalis .
Ferrarini, Alessia; Righetti, Laura; Martínez, Ma Paz; Fernández-López, Mariano; Mastrangelo, Annalaura; Horcajada, Juan P; Betbesé, Antoni; Esteban, Andrés; Ordóñez, Jordi; Gea, Joaquín; Cabello, Jesús Ruiz; Pellati, Federica; Lorente, José A; Nin, Nicolás; Rupérez, Francisco J
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious complication of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Its pathogenesis is unknown and biomarkers are lacking. Untargeted metabolomics allows the analysis of the whole metabolome in a biological compartment, identifying patterns associated with specific conditions. We hypothesized that LC-MS could help identify discriminant metabolites able to define the metabolic alterations occurring in patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection that developed ARDS. Serum samples from patients diagnosed with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection with (n = 25) or without (n = 32) ARDS were obtained on the day of hospital admission and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Metabolite identification was determined by MS/MS analysis and analysis of standards. The specificity of the patterns identified was confirmed in patients without 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus pneumonia (15 without and 17 with ARDS). Twenty-three candidate biomarkers were found to be significantly different between the two groups, including lysophospholipids and sphingolipids related to inflammation; bile acids, tryptophan metabolites, and thyroxine, related to the metabolism of the gut microflora. Confirmation results demonstrated the specificity of major alterations occurring in ARDS patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nakata, Katsunori; Saitoh, Ryoichi; Ishigai, Masaki; Imai, Kazuhiro
Biological functions in organisms are usually controlled by a set of interacting proteins, and identifying the proteins that interact is useful for understanding the mechanism of the functions. Immunoprecipitation is a method that utilizes the affinity of an antibody to isolate and identify the proteins that have interacted in a biological sample. In this study, the FD-LC-MS/MS method, which involves fluorogenic derivatization followed by separation and quantification by HPLC and finally identification of proteins by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry, was used to identify proteins in immunoprecipitated samples, using heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) as a model of an interacting protein in HepaRG cells. As a result, HSC70 protein, which was known to form a complex with HSP90, was isolated, together with three different types of HSP90-beta. The results demonstrated that the proposed immunoaffinity-FD-LC-MS/MS method could be useful for simultaneously detecting and identifying the proteins that interact with a certain protein. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Soto-Chinchilla, Jorge J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura
This paper presents two methods based on CZE-MS detection and CZE-MS/MS detection developed for the multiresidue determination of ten sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadoxin, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfameter, sulfamerazine, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfamethizole) and a potentiator, trimethoprim (TMP), whose contents are regulated by the EU Council Regulation no. 2377/90 in animal edible tissues. Experimental designs were employed to optimize the electrospray conditions. MS/MS experiments using an IT as analyzer operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were carried out to achieve the minimum number of points according to the 2002/657/EC European Decision for unambiguous identification. The proposed procedures have been compared in terms of the performance characteristics and trueness. The limits of detection and quantification were in all cases lower than the maximum residue limits legislated for these compounds and the recoveries were satisfactory, being possible the application for their monitoring in foodstuff of animal origin and in environmental samples, allowing the determination of sulfonamides and TMP residues in meat and in superficial water in the low microg/L range.
Byeon, Seul Kee; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Jin-Sung; Moon, Myeong Hee
A deficiency of α-galactosidase A causes Fabry disease (FD) by disrupting lipid metabolism, especially trihexosylceramide (THC). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is clinically offered to FD patients in an attempt to lower the accumulated lipids. Studies on specific types of lipids that are directly or indirectly altered by FD are very scarce, even though they are crucial in understanding the biological process linked to the pathogenesis of FD. We performed a comprehensive lipid profiling of plasma and urinary lipids from FD patients with nanoflow liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) and identified 129 plasma and 111 urinary lipids. Among these, lipids that exhibited alternations (>twofold) in patients were selected as targets for selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based high-speed quantitation using nanoflow ultra-performance LC-ESI-MS/MS (nUPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and 31 plasma and 26 urinary lipids showed significant elevation among FD patients. Higher percentages of sphingolipids (SLs; 48% for plasma and 42% for urine) were highly elevated in patients; whereas, a smaller percentage of phospholipids (PLs; 15% for plasma and 13% for urine) were significantly affected. Even though α-galactosidase A is reported to affect THC only, the results show that other classes of lipids (especially SLs) are changed as well, indicating that FD not only alters metabolism of THC but various classes of lipids too. Most lipids showing significant increases in relative amounts before ERT decreased after ERT, but overall, ERT influenced plasma lipids more than urinary lipids.
Park, Ah Yeon; Park, So-Young; Lee, Jaehyun; Jung, Mihye; Kim, Jinwoong; Kang, Sam Sik; Youm, Jeong-Rok; Han, Sang Beom
Rapid, simple and reliable HPLC/UV and LC-ESI-MS/MS methods for the simultaneous determination of five active coumarins of Angelicae dahuricae Radix, byakangelicol (1), oxypeucedanin (2), imperatorin (3), phellopterin (4) and isoimperatorin (5) were developed and validated. The separation condition for HPLC/UV was optimized using a Develosil RPAQUEOUS C(30) column using 70% acetonitrile in water as the mobile phase. This HPLC/UV method was successful for providing the baseline separation of the five coumarins with no interfering peaks detected in the 70% ethanol extract of Angelicae dahuricae Radix. The specific determination of the five coumarins was also accomplished by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the positive mode was used to enhance the selectivity of detection. The LC-ESI-MS/MS methods were successfully applied for the determination of the five major coumarins in Angelicae dahuricae Radix. These HPLC/UV and LC-ESI-MS/MS methods were validated in terms of recovery, linearity, accuracy and precision (intra- and inter-day validation). Taken together, the shorter analysis time involved makes these HPLC/UV and LC-ESI-MS/MS methods valuable for the commercial quality control of Angelicae dahuricae Radix extracts and its pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chen, Yong-Hong; Xia, En-Qin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Deng, Gui-Fang; Zou, Zhi-Fei; Zhou, Jing; Li, Hua-Bin
Acrylamide is potential carcinogenic compound that possesses neurotoxicity activity. In this study, the levels of acrylamide in 123 selected food samples from China was evaluated using a LC/MS/MS method. One hundred and fifteen (115) out of 123 samples showed positive levels of acrylamide in the range of 0.41 to 4,126.26 µg/kg. Generally, the highest acrylamide levels were found in fried products, such as potato, prawn strips and rice crust, with average values of 604.27, 341.40, and 201.51 µg/kg, respectively. Heated protein-rich food also showed some acrylamide content (ranging from 2.31 to 78.57 µg/kg). The results revealed that a potential acrylamide public health risk occurred in processed snacks, as well as the food consumed daily. This study supplied new information on acrylamide content of a variety of heat-treated foods from China. PMID:23202837
Feil, Regina; Lunn, John Edward
Sugars are simple carbohydrates composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They play a central role in metabolism as sources of energy and as building blocks for synthesis of structural and nonstructural polymers. Many different techniques have been used to measure sugars, including refractometry, colorimetric and enzymatic assays, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this chapter we describe a method that combines an initial separation of sugars by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with detection and quantification by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). This combination of techniques provides exquisite specificity, allowing measurement of a diverse range of high- and low-abundance sugars in biological samples. This method can also be used for isotopomer analysis in stable-isotope labeling experiments to measure metabolic fluxes.
Abu Kassim, Nur Sofiah; Gomes, Fabio P; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K
It has been suggested that each member of the family of vitamin D compounds may have different function(s). Therefore, selective quantification of each compound is important in clinical research. Development and validation attempts of a simultaneous determination method of 12 vitamin D compounds in human blood using precolumn derivatization followed by LC-MS/MS is described. Internal standard calibration with 12 stable isotope labeled analogs was used to correct for matrix effects in MS detector. Nine vitamin D compounds were quantifiable in blood samples with detection limits within femtomole levels. Serum (compared with plasma) was found to be a more suitable sample type, and protein precipitation (compared with saponification) a more effective extraction method for vitamin D assay.
Naturally occurring native peptides provide important information about physiological states of an organism and its changes in disease conditions but protocols and methods for assessing their abundance are not well-developed. In this paper, we describe a simple procedure for the quantification of non-tryptic peptides in body fluids. The workflow includes an enrichment step followed by two-dimensional fractionation of native peptides and MS/MS data management facilitating the design and validation of LC- MRM MS assays. The added value of the workflow is demonstrated in the development of a triplex LC-MRM MS assay used for quantification of peptides potentially associated with the progression of liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:22304756
Wang, Wanfeng; Hu, Jianying; Yu, Jianwei; Yang, Min
The method for detecting N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in drinking water using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was improved by optimizing the clean-up procedure to remove the matrix interference in pretreatment process, and was then applied to a survey of NDMA in both raw and finished water samples from five water treatment plants in South China. The NDMA concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 15.1 ng/L in raw water samples, and from 4.68 to 46.9 ng/L in finished water. The NDMA concentration in raw water was found to be related with nitrite concentration, and during the treatment, the NDMA concentration increased following ozonation but decreased after subsequent activated carbon treatment.
Peifer, Susanne; Schneider, Konstantin; Nürenberg, Gudrun; Volmer, Dietrich A; Heinzle, Elmar
Intermediates of the purine biosynthesis pathway play key roles in cellular metabolism including nucleic acid synthesis and signal mediation. In addition, they are also of major interest to the biotechnological industry as several intermediates either possess flavor-enhancing characteristics or are applied in medical therapy. In this study, we have developed an analytical method for quantitation of 12 intermediates from the purine biosynthesis pathway including important nucleotides and their corresponding nucleosides and nucleobases. The approach comprised a single-step acidic extraction/quenching procedure, followed by quantitative electrospray LC-MS/MS analysis. The assay was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and applicability for complex biological matrices. The method was subsequently applied for determination of free intracellular pool sizes of purine biosynthetic pathway intermediates in the two Gram-positive bacteria Corynebacterium glutamicum and Corynebacterium ammoniagenes. Importantly, no ion pair reagents were applied in this approach as usually required for liquid chromatography analysis of large classes of diverse metabolites.
Kıvrak, İbrahim; Kıvrak, Şeyda; Harmandar, Mansur
Wild edible and medicinal mushroom, Calvatia gigantea, was quantitatively analyzed for the determination of its free amino acids using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The concentrations of total free amino acids, essential and non-essential amino acids were 199.65 mg/100 g, 113.69 mg/100 g, and 85.96 mg/100 g in C. gigantea, respectively. This study showed that C. gigantea, so called a giant puffball mushroom, has free amino acids content. The essential amino acids: tryptophan, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, leucine, threonine, lysine, histidine, methionine, and the non-essential amino acids: tyrosine, 4-hyrdroxy proline, arginine, proline, glycine, serine, alanine, glutamine, glutamic acid, aspargine, aspartic acid were detected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Well, Caroline; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas
Meeting the rising consumer demand for natural food ingredients, steviol glycosides, the sweet principle of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni), have recently been approved as food additives in the European Union. As regulatory constraints require sensitive methods to analyze the sweet-tasting steviol glycosides in foods and beverages, a HILIC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the accurate and reliable quantitation of the major steviol glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, steviolbioside, rubusoside, and dulcoside A by using the corresponding deuterated 16,17-dihydrosteviol glycosides as suitable internal standards. This quantitation not only enables the analysis of the individual steviol glycosides in foods and beverages but also can support the optimization of breeding and postharvest downstream processing of Stevia plants to produce preferentially sweet and least bitter tasting Stevia extracts.
Phyo Lwin, Ei Mon; Gerber, Cobus; Song, Yunmei; Leggett, Catherine; Ritchie, Usha; Turner, Sean; Garg, Sanjay
A new sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of atenolol in human plasma and milk has been developed for clinical lactation studies. Atenolol and the internal standard, phenazone, were extracted from biological matrices by protein precipitation. A Phenomenex ® C-18 column and gradient chromatographic conditions were used for separation of the analyte, followed by detection with MS. Stability of samples was confirmed for atenolol in human plasma and milk for up to 3 months. Linearity range of 1-800 ng/ml (r 2 = 0.9995), the precision within 15% CV and the recovery of the analyte (80-100% range) were achieved. A new validated analytical method for atenolol in plasma and milk was developed.
Verslues, Paul E
Drought and low water potential induce large increases in Abscisic Acid (ABA ) content of plant tissue. This increased ABA content is essential to regulate downstream stress resistance responses; however, the mechanisms regulating ABA accumulation are incompletely known. Thus, the ability to accurately quantify ABA at high throughput and low cost is important for plant stress research. We have combined and modified several previously published protocols to establish a rapid ABA analysis protocol using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Derivatization of ABA is performed with (trimethylsilyl)-diazomethane rather than the harder to prepare diazomethane. Sensitivity of the analysis is sufficient that small samples of low water potential treated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings can be routinely analyzed in reverse genetic studies of putative stress regulators as well as studies of natural variation in ABA accumulation.
McCollom, Megan M; Villinski, Jacquelyn R; McPhail, Kerry L; Craker, Lyle E; Gafner, Stefan
The macamides are a distinct class of secondary metabolites that have so far been found only in Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Maca). Using HPLC-UV-MS/MS, the main macamides have been identified as n-benzylhexadecanamide, n-benzyl-(9Z)-octadecenamide, n-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z)-octadecadienamide, n-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadecatrienamide and n-benzyloctadecanamide. The identities of n-benzyl-(9Z)-octadecenamide and n-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z)-octadecadienamide were confirmed by comparison of chromatographic and spectral properties with synthetic analogues. Total macamides have been quantified by HPLC-UV in plant material from different vendors using n-benzylhexadecanamide as an external standard. The amount of macamides in the dried plant material ranged from 0.0016 to 0.0123%.
Barton, Chris; Beck, Paul; Kay, Richard; Teale, Phil; Roberts, Jane
The development of protein biomarkers for the indirect detection of doping in horse is a potential solution to doping threats such as gene and protein doping. A method for biomarker candidate discovery in horse plasma is presented using targeted analysis of proteotypic peptides from horse proteins. These peptides were first identified in a novel list of the abundant proteins in horse plasma. To monitor these peptides, an LC-MS/MS method using multiple reaction monitoring was developed to study the quantity of 49 proteins in horse plasma in a single run. The method was optimised and validated, and then applied to a population of race-horses to study protein variance within a population. The method was finally applied to longitudinal time courses of horse plasma collected after administration of an anabolic steroid to demonstrate utility for hypothesis-driven discovery of doping biomarker candidates.
Hickert, Sebastian; Bergmann, Marian; Ersen, Seyma; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich
A HPLC-MS/MS-based method for the quantification of nine mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria in various food matrices was developed. The method relies on a single-step extraction, followed by dilution of the raw extract and direct analysis. In combination with an analysis time per sample of 12 min, the sample preparation is cost-effective and easy to handle. The method covers alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA), altenuene (ALT), iso-altenuene (isoALT), tentoxin (TEN), altertoxin-I (ATX-I), and the AAL toxins TA1 and TA2. Some Alternaria toxins which are either not commercially available or very expensive, namely AOH, AME, ALT, isoALT, and ATX-I, were isolated as reference compounds from fungal cultures. The method was extensively validated for tomato products, bakery products, sunflower seeds, fruit juices, and vegetable oils. AOH, AME, TeA, and TEN were found in quantifiable amounts and 92.1% of all analyzed samples (n = 96) showed low level contamination with one or more Alternaria toxins. Based on the obtained results, the average daily exposure to Alternaria toxins in Germany was calculated.
Ates, Ebru; Mittendorf, Klaus; Senyuva, Hamide
An automated sample preparation technique involving cleanup and analytical separation in a single operation using an online coupled TurboFlow (RP-LC system) is reported. This method eliminates time-consuming sample preparation steps that can be potential sources for cross-contamination in the analysis of plasticizers. Using TurboFlow chromatography, liquid samples were injected directly into the automated system without previous extraction or cleanup. Special cleanup columns enabled specific binding of target compounds; higher MW compounds, i.e., fats and proteins, and other matrix interferences with different chemical properties were removed to waste, prior to LC/MS/MS. Systematic stepwise method development using this new technology in the food safety area is described. Selection of optimum columns and mobile phases for loading onto the cleanup column followed by transfer onto the analytical column and MS detection are critical method parameters. The method was optimized for the assay of 10 phthalates (dimethyl, diethyl, dipropyl, butyl benzyl, diisobutyl, dicyclohexyl, dihexyl, diethylhexyl, diisononyl, and diisododecyl) and one adipate (diethylhexyl) in beverages and milk.
Scollo, Emanuele; Neville, David; Oruna-Concha, M Jose; Trotin, Martine; Cramer, Rainer
Cocoa seed storage proteins play an important role in flavour development as aroma precursors are formed from their degradation during fermentation. Major proteins in the beans of Theobroma cacao are the storage proteins belonging to the vicilin and albumin classes. Although both these classes of proteins have been extensively characterized, there is still limited information on the expression and abundance of other proteins present in cocoa beans. This work is the first attempt to characterize the whole cocoa bean proteome by nano-UHPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis using tryptic digests of cocoa bean protein extracts. The results of this analysis show that >1000 proteins could be identified using a species-specific Theobroma cacao database. The majority of the identified proteins were involved with metabolism and energy. Additionally, a significant number of the identified proteins were linked to protein synthesis and processing. Several proteins were also involved with plant response to stress conditions and defence. Albumin and vicilin storage proteins showed the highest intensity values among all detected proteins, although only seven entries were identified as storage proteins. A comparison of MS/MS data searches carried out against larger non-specific databases confirmed that using a species-specific database can increase the number of identified proteins, and at the same time reduce the number of false positives. The results of this work will be useful in developing tools that can allow the comparison of the proteomic profile of cocoa beans from different genotypes and geographic origins. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005586. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Johänning, Janina; Heinkele, Georg; Precht, Jana C; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eichelbaum, Michel; Schwab, Matthias; Schroth, Werner; Mürdter, Thomas E
Tamoxifen is a mainstay in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and is metabolized to more than 30 different compounds. Little is known about in vivo concentrations of estrogenic metabolites E-metabolite E, Z-metabolite E, and bisphenol and their relevance for tamoxifen efficacy. Therefore, we developed a highly sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method for tamoxifen metabolites bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E as well as for the sex steroid hormones estradiol, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone. Plasma samples were subjected to protein precipitation followed by solid phase extraction. Upon derivatization with 3-[(N-succinimide-1-yl)oxycarbonyl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide, all analytes were separated on a sub-2-μm column with a gradient of acetonitrile in water with 0.1 % of formic acid. Analytes were detected on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Our method demonstrated high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The lower limits of quantification were 12, 8, and 25 pM for bisphenol, E-metabolite E, and Z-metabolite E, respectively, and 4 pM for estradiol and estrogen, 50 pM for testosterone and androstenedione, and 25 pM for progesterone. The method was applied to plasma samples of postmenopausal patients taken at baseline and under tamoxifen therapy. Graphical Abstract Sample preparation and derivatization for highly sensitive quantification of estrogenic tamoxifen metabolites and steroid hormones by HPLC-MS/MS.
Amaratunga, Piyadarsha; Clothier, Morgan; Lorenz Lemberg, Bridget; Lemberg, Dave
Dextromethorphan (DXM) is an antitussive drug found in commonly used nonprescription cold and cough medications. At low doses, DXM is a safe drug that does not produce adverse reactions. However, abuse of DXM has been reported among adolescents and young adults using the drug at higher doses. DXM is not a scheduled drug in the USA, and the primary reason for its abuse is the ease of availability. DXM is available to purchase in the form of over-the-counter cough medications, such as Robitussin(®) and Coricidin(®), or it can be purchased over the Internet in the form of a powder. In this research work, we developed an LC-MS-MS method that can quantify DXM and dextrorphan (DXO) in oral fluid in a high-throughput toxicology laboratory setting. The developed method was validated according to the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology guidelines. The linear dynamic range was 5-100 ng/mL with a lowest limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 5.0 ng/mL for DXM and DXO. Overall, the results of the accuracy and the precision values were within the acceptance criteria for both drugs. In addition, selectivity, matrix effect and recovery were calculated for the LC-MS-MS method. Authentic samples (n = 59) were tested to evaluate the applicability of the method. Thirty samples were found to be positive for DXM and DXO and two samples were found to be positive for DXM only. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Delatour, Thierry; Racault, Lucie; Bessaire, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Aurélien
Regulatory agencies and government authorities have established maximum residue limits (MRL) in various food matrices of animal origin for supporting governments and food operators in the monitoring of veterinary drug residues in the food chain, and ultimately in the consumer's plate. Today, about 200 veterinary drug residues from several families, mainly with antibiotic, antiparasitic or antiinflammatory activities, are regulated in a variety of food matrices such as milk, meat or egg. This article provides a review of the regulatory framework in milk and muscle including data from Codex Alimentarius, Europe, the U.S.A., Canada and China for about 220 veterinary drugs. The article also provides a comprehensive overview of the challenge for food control, and emphasizes the pivotal role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), either in tandem with quadrupoles (LC-MS/MS) or high resolution MS (LC-HRMS), for ensuring an adequate consumer protection combined with an affordable cost. The capability of a streamlined LC-MS/MS platform for screening 152 veterinary drug residues in a broad range of raw materials and finished products is highlighted in a production line perspective. The rationale for a suite of four methods intended to achieve appropriate performance in terms of scope and sensitivity is presented. Overall, the platform encompasses one stream for the determination of 105 compounds in a run (based on acidic QuEChERS-like), plus two streams for 23 β-lactams (alkaline QuEChERS-like) and 10 tetracyclines (low-temperature partitioning), respectively, and a dedicated stream for 14 aminoglycosides (molecularly-imprinted polymer).
Nieddu, Maria; Burrai, Lucia; Demontis, Maria Piera; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Baralla, Elena; Trignano, Claudia; Boatto, Gianpiero
Existing phenethylamines are a class of synthetic compounds that differ from each other only in small changes to a largely conserved chemical structure. The recreational and illicit use of phenethylamines is a widespread problem. A simple procedure for the simultaneous quantitative determination in hair of 11 phenethylamines that are officially recognized as illicit by Italian legislation (p-methoxyamphetamine; p-methoxymethamphetamine; 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-n-propylthiophenethylamine) has been developed and validated. Extraction from the matrix was performed after incubation in methanolic HCl and filtered reconstituted extracts were injected into a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry system (LC-MS-MS) without any further purification steps. This validated LC-MS-MS method has been used to determine the in vivo accumulation/retention of the above target analytes in hair after repeat oral administration to rats. This experiment further permitted investigation of the effect of pigmentation on the uptake of these phenethylamines by hair and the effect of hair pigmentation. The developed method could potentially be used for forensic and toxicological purposes, in the detection and quantitation of these illicit substances in human hair in workplace drug testing; drug-facilitated crime investigation; driver re-licensing; determining drug abuse history and postmortem toxicology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Dong, Zhen; Wang, Caihong; Zhang, Jinlan; Wang, Zhe
It is important to profile steroids in many physiological and pathological processes. Recently, hair has been used for the long-term measurement of endogenous steroid hormones. Analyzing hair has advantages of being noninvasive and time sequential compared with other bio-specimens. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques have been widely used over the past decades; however, it is challenging to profile estrogens in hair by LC-MS, and more comprehensive steroid profiling is required. In this paper, an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously profile 28 multifunctional steroids, including corticosteroids (n = 6), estrogens (n = 13), androgens (n = 5) and progestogens (n = 4), in human scalp hair in a single run. To optimize the sample preparation procedure, we evaluated extraction time, post-incubation purification and hair fragment length; 30 mg hair samples were washed with hexane, cut into 5 mm pieces and incubated in methanol for 18 h at 25 °C. Methanol extraction derivatized using Girard P and dansyl chloride reagent was analyzed within 25 min using an automated injection program combined with a diverter valve switch and step analysis (AIDSA). The method was well validated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, matrix effect and recovery, and was successfully applied to a steroid profile from male and female hairs. Significant differences were observed between genders. In addition, steroids showed a declining trend from the proximal to more distal hair segments; thus, care should be taken when obtaining hair samples for analysis to account for this difference in steroid levels along the length of hair. Graphical Abstract The workflow of the estabished UHPLC-MS/MS method.
Kulaksizoglu, S; Kulaksizoglu, B; Ellidag, H Y; Eren, E; Yilmaz, N; Baykal, A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma methionine levels by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in schizophrenic patients. A twelve-point standard graph was drawn, and the recovery rate, the intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV), the limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were evaluated. The y and R2 values of the standard graph equation were determined as 0.011x + 0.0179 and 0.9989, respectively, and the graph remained linear until the 200 µmol/l level. The intra-day coefficients of variation of the samples (n = 10) containing 8, 28, and 58 µmol/l methionine were determined as 2.68, 3.10, and 3.79%, respectively; while their inter-day coefficients of variation were determined as 2.98, 3.19, and 3.84%. The LOD and LOQ values were determined as 0.04 and 0.1 µmol/l, respectively, while the mean recovery rates were determined as 101.7 and 99.3%. Plasma methionine values were measured as 21.5 (19.5-24,6) µmol/l for the patient group, 17.8 (16.3-20.1) µmol/l for the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.03). LC-ESI-MS/MS method represents a fairly sensitive, economic, and rapid analysis that requires very little sample and is suitable for measuring methionine levels in schizophrenic patients.
Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Strobel, Bjarne W
The naturally occurring carcinogen ptaquiloside and its degradation product pterosin B are found in water leaching from bracken stands. The objective of this work is to present a new sample preservation method and a fast UPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of ptaquiloside and pterosin B in environmental water samples, employing a novel internal standard. A faster, reliable, and efficient method was developed for isolation of high purity ptaquiloside and pterosin B from plant material for use as analytical standards, with purity verified by 1 H-NMR. The chemical analysis was performed by cleanup and preconcentration of samples with solid phase extraction, before analyte quantification with UPLC-MS/MS. By including gradient elution and optimizing the liquid chromatography mobile phase buffer system, a total run cycle of 5 min was achieved, with method detection limits, including preconcentration, of 8 and 4 ng/L for ptaquiloside and pterosin B, respectively. The use of loganin as internal standard improved repeatability of the determination of both analytes, though it could not be employed for sample preparation. Buffering raw water samples in situ with ammonium acetate to pH ∼5.5 decisively increased sample integrity at realistic transportation and storing conditions prior to extraction. Groundwater samples collected in November 2015 at the shallow water table below a Danish bracken stand were preserved and analyzed using the above methods, and PTA concentrations of 3.8 ± 0.24 μg/L (±sd, n = 3) were found, much higher than previously reported. Graphical abstract Workflow overview of ptaquiloside determination.
Blue, Steven W; Winchell, Andrea J; Kaucher, Amy V; Lieberman, Rachel A; Gilles, Christopher T; Pyra, Maria N; Heffron, Renee; Hou, Xuanlin; Coombs, Robert W; Nanda, Kavita; Davis, Nicole L; Kourtis, Athena P; Herbeck, Joshua T; Baeten, Jared M; Lingappa, Jairam R; Erikson, David W
The objective was to develop a method to simultaneously quantify five commonly used hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and two endogenous sex steroids by liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and apply this method to human serum samples. We developed a method to simultaneously analyze ethinyl estradiol (EE2), etonogestrel (ENG), levonorgestrel (LNG), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and norethisterone (NET), along with estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), in human serum for a Shimadzu Nexera-LCMS-8050 LC-MS/MS platform. We analyzed serum collected from women self-reporting use of oral contraceptives, contraceptive implants or injectable contraceptives (n=14) and normally cycling women using no HC (n=15) as well as pooled samples from women administered various HCs (ENG, n=6; LNG, n=14; MPA, n=7; NET, n=5). Limits of quantitation were 0.010ng/mL for E2, EE2 and P4; 0.020ng/mL for ENG, LNG and MPA; and 0.040ng/mL for NET. Precisions for all assays, as indicated by coefficient of variation, were less than or equal to 12.1%. Accuracies for all assays were in the range of 95%-108%. Endogenous hormone values obtained from analysis of human serum samples are in agreement with levels previously reported in the literature for normally cycling women as well as for women taking the appropriate HC. We have developed a robust, accurate and sensitive method for simultaneously analyzing commonly used contraceptive steroids and endogenous sex steroids in human serum. This analytical method can be used for quantitating contraceptive steroid levels in women for monitoring systemic exposure to determine drug interactions, nonadherence, misreporting and proper dosing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jakobsson, Gerd; Kronstrand, Robert
A sensitive and robust ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine in hair samples. Segmented hair (10 mg) was incubated in 2M sodium hydroxide (80°C, 10 min) before liquid-liquid extraction with isooctane followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the organic phase to dryness. The residue was reconstituted in methanol:formate buffer pH 3 (20:80). The total run time was 4 min and after optimization of UHPLC-MS/MS-parameters validation included selectivity, matrix effects, recovery, process efficiency, calibration model and range, lower limit of quantification, precision and bias. The calibration curve ranged from 0.02 to 12.5 ng/mg, and the recovery was between 62 and 83%. During validation the bias was less than ±7% and the imprecision was less than 5% for all analytes. In routine analysis, fortified control samples demonstrated an imprecision <13% and control samples made from authentic hair demonstrated an imprecision <26%. The method was applied to samples from a controlled study of amphetamine intake as well as forensic hair samples previously analyzed with an ultra high performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF-MS) screening method. The proposed method was suitable for quantification of these drugs in forensic cases including violent crimes, autopsy cases, drug testing and re-granting of driving licences. This study also demonstrated that if hair samples are divided into several short segments, the time point for intake of a small dose of amphetamine can be estimated, which might be useful when drug facilitated crimes are investigated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Charles, Laurence; Cavallo, Gianni; Monnier, Valérie; Oswald, Laurence; Szweda, Roza; Lutz, Jean-François
In order to improve their MS/MS sequencing, structure of sequence-controlled synthetic polymers can be optimized based on considerations regarding their fragmentation behavior in collision-induced dissociation conditions, as demonstrated here for two digitally encoded polymer families. In poly(triazole amide)s, the main dissociation route proceeded via cleavage of the amide bond in each monomer, hence allowing the chains to be safely sequenced. However, a competitive cleavage of an ether bond in a tri(ethylene glycol) spacer placed between each coding moiety complicated MS/MS spectra while not bringing new structural information. Changing the tri(ethylene glycol) spacer to an alkyl group of the same size allowed this unwanted fragmentation pathway to be avoided, hence greatly simplifying the MS/MS reading step for such undecyl-based poly(triazole amide)s. In poly(alkoxyamine phosphodiester)s, a single dissociation pathway was achieved with repeating units containing an alkoxyamine linkage, which, by very low dissociation energy, made any other chemical bonds MS/MS-silent. Structure of these polymers was further tailored to enhance the stability of those precursor ions with a negatively charged phosphate group per monomer in order to improve their MS/MS readability. Increasing the size of both the alkyl coding moiety and the nitroxide spacer allowed sufficient distance between phosphate groups for all of them to be deprotonated simultaneously. Because the charge state of product ions increased with their polymerization degree, MS/MS spectra typically exhibited groups of fragments at one or the other side of the precursor ion depending on the original α or ω end-group they contain, allowing sequence reconstruction in a straightforward manner. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Site-specific N-glycosylation analysis: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectral signatures for recognition and identification of glycopeptides.
Krokhin, Oleg; Ens, Werner; Standing, Kenneth G; Wilkins, John; Perreault, Hélène
The identification of glycosylation sites in proteins is often possible through a combination of proteolytic digestion, separation, mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem MS (MS/MS). Liquid chromatography (LC) in combination with MS/MS has been a reliable method for detecting glycopeptides in digestion mixtures, and for assigning glycosylation sites and glycopeptide sequences. Direct interfacing of LC with MS relies on electrospray ionization, which produces ions with two, three or four charges for most proteolytic peptides and glycopeptides. MS/MS spectra of such glycopeptide ions often lead to ambiguous interpretation if deconvolution to the singly charged level is not used. In contrast, the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) technique usually produces singly charged peptide and glycopeptide ions. These ions require an extended m/z range, as provided by the quadrupole-quadrupole time-of-flight (QqTOF) instrument used in these experiments, but the main advantages of studying singly charged ions are the simplicity and consistency of the MS/MS spectra. A first aim of the present study is to develop methods to recognize and use glycopeptide [M+H]+ ions as precursors for MS/MS, and thus for glycopeptide/glycoprotein identification as part of wider proteomics studies. Secondly, this article aims at demonstrating the usefulness of MALDI-MS/MS spectra of N-glycopeptides. Mixtures of diverse types of proteins, obtained commercially, were prepared and subjected to reduction, alkylation and tryptic digestion. Micro-column reversed-phase separation allowed deposition of several fractions on MALDI plates, followed by MS and MS/MS analysis of all peptides. Glycopeptide fractions were identified after MS by their specific m/z spacing patterns (162, 203, 291 u) between glycoforms, and then analyzed by MS/MS. In most cases, MS/MS spectra of [M+H]+ ions of glycopeptides featured peaks useful for determining sugar composition, peptide sequence, and thus probable
Shen, Diandian; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Wu, Qing-Li; Park, Chung-Heon; Juliani, H Rodolfo; Ho, Chi-Tang; Simon, James E
Mints (Mentha spp.), aromatic crops grown largely for their essential oils, also are rich sources of nonvolatile antiinflammatory agents. Identification and quantitation of the constituents responsible for their antiinflammatory activity is challenging owing to the lack of suitable chromatographic methodology. In the present research, the simultaneous quantitation of antiinflammatory constituents rosmarinic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid in mints was attained by using a unique tandem HPLC column system coupled with an electrospray ionization mass detection (MRM mode). The ion mode optimization for rosmarinic acid under negative and triterpenoid acids under positive was achieved by setting 2 time segments in a single run where the polarity mode was switched from negative (0 to 10 min) to positive (10 to 40 min). For the investigated concentration ranges of antiinflammatory agents in mints, good linearities (r² ≥ 0.998) were obtained for each calibration curve. Validation of precision and accuracy for this method showed that intra- and inter-day repeatabilities for all analytes were less than 5.51%, and the recoveries varied from 97.8% to 99.3%. The developed LC/MS/MS assay provides a suitable quality control method for the determination of antiinflammatory constituents in Mentha spp. There is a wide range of diversity in the natural product composition for these acids across the Mentha germplasm collection evaluated. The presence of these antiinflammatory acids in post-distilled mints shows that value-added nutraceutical enriched products can be developed with proper processing and recovery systems in addition to the distillation and capture of the valuable volatile essential oils. Results from this research would benefit both commercial farmers growing mint for essential oil and those in the food industry where value-added phytopharmaceutical enriched products can be developed with proper processing, quality control, and recovery systems during
Richards, S L; Cawley, A T; Cavicchioli, R; Suann, C J; Pickford, R; Raftery, M J
Over recent years threats to racing have expanded to include naturally occurring biological molecules, such as peptides and proteins, and their synthetic analogues. Traditionally, antibodies have been used to enable detection of these compounds as they allow purification and concentration of the analyte of interest. The rapid expansion of peptide-based therapeutics necessitates a similarly rapid development of suitable antibodies or other means of enrichment. Potential alternative enrichment strategies include the use of aptamers, which offer the significant advantage of chemical synthesis once the nucleic acid sequence is known. A method was developed for the enrichment, detection and quantitation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in equine urine using aptamer-based enrichment and LC-MS/MS. The method achieved comparable limits of detection (1 pg/mL) and quantification (2.5 pg/mL) to previously published antibody-based enrichment methods. The intra- and inter-assay precision achieved was less than 10% at both 5 and 20 pg/mL, and displayed a working dynamic range of 2.5-100 pg/mL. Significant matrix enhancement (170 ± 8%) and low analytical recovery (29 ± 15%) was observed, although the use of an isotopically heavy labelled GnRH peptide, GnRH (Pro(13)C5,(15)N), as the internal standard provides compensation for these parameters. Within the current limits of detection GnRH was detectable up to 1h post administration in urine and identification of a urinary catabolite extended this detection window to 4h. Based on the results of this preliminary investigation we propose the use of aptamers as a viable alternative to antibodies in the enrichment of peptide targets from equine urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry- (LC-MS-) based multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods have been used to detect and quantify metabolites for years. These approaches rely on the monitoring of various fragmentation pathways of multiple precursors and the subsequent corresponding product ions. However, MRM methods are incapable of confidently discriminating between isomeric and isobaric molecules and, as such, the development of methods capable of overcoming this challenge has become imperative. Due to increasing scanning rates of recent MS instruments, it is now possible to operate MS instruments both in the static and dynamic modes. One such method is known as synchronized survey scan (SSS), which is capable of acquiring a product ion scan (PIS) during MRM analysis. The current study shows, for the first time, the use of SSS-based PIS approach as a feasible identification feature of MRM. To achieve the above, five positional isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs) were studied with the aid of SSS-based PIS method. Here, the MRM transitions were automatically optimized using a 3,5-diCQA isomer by monitoring fragmentation transitions common to all five isomers. Using the mixture of these isomers, fragmentation spectra of the five isomers achieved with SSS-based PIS were used to identify each isomer based on previously published hierarchical fragmentation keys. The optimized method was also used to detect and distinguish between diCQA components found in Bidens pilosa and their isobaric counterparts found in Moringa oleifera plants. Thus, the method was shown to distinguish (by differences in fragmentation patterns) between diCQA and their isobars, caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) glycosides. In conclusion, SSS allowed the detection and discrimination of isomeric and isobaric compounds in a single chromatographic run by producing a PIS spectrum, triggered in the automatic MS/MS synchronized survey scan mode. PMID:29805830
Schrimpe-Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Fontès, Ghislaine; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Anderson, David J.; Waters, Katrina M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Poitout, Vincent; Metz, Thomas O.
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing dramatically throughout the world, and the disease has become a major public health issue. The most common form of the disease, type 2 diabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance and insufficient insulin production from the pancreatic beta-cell. Since glucose is the most potent regulator of beta-cell function under physiological conditions, identification of the insulin secretory defect underlying type 2 diabetes requires a better understanding of glucose regulation of human beta-cell function. To this aim, a bottom-up LC-MS/MS-based proteomics approach was used to profile pooled islets from multiple donors under basal (5 mM) or high (15 mM) glucose conditions. Our analysis discovered 256 differentially abundant proteins (~p<0.05) after 24 h of high glucose exposure from more than 4500 identified in total. Several novel glucose-regulated proteins were elevated under high glucose conditions, including regulators of mRNA splicing (Pleiotropic regulator 1), processing (Retinoblastoma binding protein 6), and function (Nuclear RNA export factor 1), in addition to Neuron navigator 1 and Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. Proteins whose abundances markedly decreased during incubation at 15 mM glucose included Bax inhibitor 1 and Synaptotagmin-17. Up-regulation of Dicer 1 and SLC27A2 and down-regulation of Phospholipase Cβ4 were confirmed by Western blots. Many proteins found to be differentially abundant after high glucose stimulation are annotated as uncharacterized or hypothetical. These findings expand our knowledge of glucose regulation of the human islet proteome and suggest many hitherto unknown responses to glucose that require additional studies to explore novel functional roles. PMID:22578083
Metabolic profile of naringenin in the stomach and colon using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) and LC-ESI-MS/MS.
Orrego-Lagarón, Naiara; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Escribano-Ferrer, Elvira
Several biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic) are attributed to naringenin (NAR)-a predominant flavonoid of citrus fruit and tomato-despite its low bioavailability after ingestion. NAR undergoes extensive metabolism when crossing the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in enteric, hepatic and microbial metabolites, some of them with recognized beneficial effects on human health. This study sought to provide new insights into the metabolism of NAR in regions of the gastrointestinal tract where it has been less studied: the stomach and colon. With this purpose, liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization hybrid linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry technique (LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) was used for an accurate identification of NAR metabolites, and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) on a triple quadrupole was used for their identification and quantification. The combination of both analytical techniques provided a broader metabolic profile of NAR. As far as we know, this is the first in-depth metabolic profiling study of NAR in the stomach of mice. Three of the metabolites determined using the LC-LTQ-Orbitrap could not be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS in stomach perfusion samples: apigenin, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid and phloroglucinol. The number of colonic metabolites determined using the LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was more than twice the number identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Qu, Jun; Chen, Wei; Luo, Guoan; Wang, Yiming; Xiao, Shengyuan; Ling, Zhihua; Chen, Guoqiang
Determination of amino acids in a complex matrix without derivatization is advantageous, however, difficulties are found in both the detection and the separation of those compounds. In this study, a rapid and reliable LC-MS-MS method for the quantitation of underivatized amino acids in exocellular media was established. Injections were made directly after centrifugation of the samples, without further preparation. The separation of seven underivatized amino acids was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column with pentadecafluorooctanoic acid as a volatile ion-pair reagent, and the specific detection of most amino acids was achieved by MS-MS of the specific transitions [M + H]+-->[M + H - 46]+. The calibration curves of all analytes were linear over the range of 1.0-1000 microg ml(-1) and the detection limits ranged from 0.1 to 5 ng ml(-1), with an injection volume of 20 microl. The inter-day and intra-day precisions ranged from 2.6 to 5.7% and 4.8 to 8.2%, respectively; the mean recoveries of the seven analytes were 81-104%, 91-107% and 93-101% respectively at the spiked level of 10, 40 and 200 microg ml(-1). A large number of fermentation samples were analysed using this method. The technique is simple, rapid, selective and sensitive, and shows potential for the high-throughput quantitation of amino acids from other biological matrices.
Grigori, Katerina; Loukas, Yannis L; Malenović, Anđelija; Samara, Vicky; Kalaskani, Anastasia; Dimovasili, Efi; Kalovidouri, Magda; Dotsikas, Yannis
A sensitive Liquid Chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of three potential genotoxic impurities (318BP, M9, S5) in meropenem Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API). Due to the requirement for LOD values in ppb range, a high concentration of meropenem API (30mg/mL) had to be injected. Therefore, efficient determination of meropenem from its impurities became a critical aim of this study, in order to divert meropenem to waste, via a switching valve. After the selection of the important factors affecting analytes' elution, a Box-Behnken design was utilized to set the plan of experiments conducted with UV detector. As responses, the separation factor s between the last eluting impurity and meropenem, as well as meropenem retention factor k were used. Grid point search methodology was implemented aiming to obtain the optimal conditions that simultaneously comply to the conflicted criteria. Optimal mobile phase consisted of ACN, methanol and 0.09% HCOOH at a ratio 71/3.5/15.5v/v. All impurities and internal standard omeprazole were eluted before 7.5min and at 8.0min the eluents were directed to waste. The protocol was transferred to LC-MS/MS and validated according to ICH guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Faassen, Elisabeth J.; Antoniou, Maria G.; Beekman-Lukassen, Wendy; Blahova, Lucie; Chernova, Ekaterina; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Combes, Audrey; Edwards, Christine; Fastner, Jutta; Harmsen, Joop; Hiskia, Anastasia; Ilag, Leopold L.; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Lopicic, Srdjan; Lürling, Miquel; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Porojan, Cristina; Viner-Mozzini, Yehudit; Zguna, Nadezda
Exposure to β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) might be linked to the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Analytical chemistry plays a crucial role in determining human BMAA exposure and the associated health risk, but the performance of various analytical methods currently employed is rarely compared. A CYANOCOST initiated workshop was organized aimed at training scientists in BMAA analysis, creating mutual understanding and paving the way towards interlaboratory comparison exercises. During this workshop, we tested different methods (extraction followed by derivatization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, or directly followed by LC-MS/MS analysis) for trueness and intermediate precision. We adapted three workup methods for the underivatized analysis of animal, brain and cyanobacterial samples. Based on recovery of the internal standard D3BMAA, the underivatized methods were accurate (mean recovery 80%) and precise (mean relative standard deviation 10%), except for the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya. However, total BMAA concentrations in the positive controls (cycad seeds) showed higher variation (relative standard deviation 21%–32%), implying that D3BMAA was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms. Significant losses occurred during workup for the derivatized method, resulting in low recovery (<10%). Most BMAA was found in a trichloroacetic acid soluble, bound form and we recommend including this fraction during analysis. PMID:26938542
Faassen, Elisabeth J; Antoniou, Maria G; Beekman-Lukassen, Wendy; Blahova, Lucie; Chernova, Ekaterina; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Combes, Audrey; Edwards, Christine; Fastner, Jutta; Harmsen, Joop; Hiskia, Anastasia; Ilag, Leopold L; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Lopicic, Srdjan; Lürling, Miquel; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Porojan, Cristina; Viner-Mozzini, Yehudit; Zguna, Nadezda
Exposure to β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) might be linked to the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Analytical chemistry plays a crucial role in determining human BMAA exposure and the associated health risk, but the performance of various analytical methods currently employed is rarely compared. A CYANOCOST initiated workshop was organized aimed at training scientists in BMAA analysis, creating mutual understanding and paving the way towards interlaboratory comparison exercises. During this workshop, we tested different methods (extraction followed by derivatization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, or directly followed by LC-MS/MS analysis) for trueness and intermediate precision. We adapted three workup methods for the underivatized analysis of animal, brain and cyanobacterial samples. Based on recovery of the internal standard D₃BMAA, the underivatized methods were accurate (mean recovery 80%) and precise (mean relative standard deviation 10%), except for the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya. However, total BMAA concentrations in the positive controls (cycad seeds) showed higher variation (relative standard deviation 21%-32%), implying that D₃BMAA was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms. Significant losses occurred during workup for the derivatized method, resulting in low recovery (<10%). Most BMAA was found in a trichloroacetic acid soluble, bound form and we recommend including this fraction during analysis.
Barbosa, Marta O; Ribeiro, Ana R; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T
Organic micropollutants present in drinking water (DW) may cause adverse effects for public health, and so reliable analytical methods are required to detect these pollutants at trace levels in DW. This work describes the first green analytical methodology for multi-class determination of 21 pollutants in DW: seven pesticides, an industrial compound, 12 pharmaceuticals, and a metabolite (some included in Directive 2013/39/EU or Decision 2015/495/EU). A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (offline SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized using eco-friendly solvents, achieving detection limits below 0.20 ng L -1 . The validated analytical method was successfully applied to DW samples from different sources (tap, fountain, and well waters) from different locations in the north of Portugal, as well as before and after bench-scale UV and ozonation experiments in spiked tap water samples. Thirteen compounds were detected, many of them not regulated yet, in the following order of frequency: diclofenac > norfluoxetine > atrazine > simazine > warfarin > metoprolol > alachlor > chlorfenvinphos > trimethoprim > clarithromycin ≈ carbamazepine ≈ PFOS > citalopram. Hazard quotients were also estimated for the quantified substances and suggested no adverse effects to humans. Graphical Abstract Occurrence and removal of multi-class micropollutants in drinking water, analyzed by an eco-friendly LC-MS/MS method.
Wang, Zuwei; Vaksman, Zalman; Boyd, Jason; Putcha, Lakshmi
Purpose: Scopolamine is the preferred treatment for motion sickness during space flight because of its quick onset of action, short half-life and favorable side-effect profile. The dose administered depends on the mode of administration and usually ranges between 0.1 and 0.8 mg. Such small doses make it difficult to detect concentrations of scopolamine in biological fluids by using conventional HPLC methods. To measure scopolamine in saliva and thereby to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of scopolamine, we developed an LC/MS/MS method using off-line solid phase extraction. Method: Samples (0.5mL) were loaded onto Waters Oasis HLB co-polymer cartridges (10 mg, 1 mL) and eluted with 0.5 mL methanol without evaporation and reconstitution. HPLC separation of the eluted sample was performed using an Agilent Zorbax SB-CN column (50 x 2.1 mm) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min for 4 minutes. The mobile phase for separation was 90:10 (v/v) methanol: ammonium acetate (2 mM) in water, pH 5.0 +/- 0.1. Concentrations of scopolamine were determined using a Micromass Quattro Micro(TM) mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI). ESI mass spectra were acquired in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring for the determination of scopolamine m/z = 304.2 yields 138.1 and internal standard (IS) hyoscyamine m/z = 290.2 yields 124.1. Results: The method is rapid, reproducible, specific and has the following parameters: scopolamine and the IS are eluted at 1.7 and 3.2 min respectively. The linear range is 50-5000 pg/mL for scopolamine in saliva with correlation coefficients > 0.99 with a CV < 0.5 %. The intra-day and inter-day CVs are < 15 % for quality control samples with concentrations of 75, 300, 750 and 3000 pg/mL of scopolamine in human saliva. Conclusion: Solid phase extraction allows more rapid sample preparation and greater precision than liquid extraction. Furthermore, we increased the sensitivity and specificity by adjusting the LC mobile phase and using an MS/MS
Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shi-Jia; Hu, Jie-Hui; Xu, Mei-Juan; Liu, Zi-Xiu; Zhou, Ling; Ju, Wen-Zheng
To establish a LC-MS/MS method for determination of tripterine in Beagle plasma and study its pharmacokinetics after oral administration of tripterygium tablet. Plasma samples were extracted with dichloromethane and separated on a Phenomenex Luna C₈ (2.0 mm×50 mm, 3 μm) column with methanol-acetonitrile isopropanol(1∶1)-1‰formic acid (15∶55 ∶30) as the mobile phase. Tripterine ([M+H] ⁺, m/z 451.3/201.1) and internal standard prednisolone ([M+H] ⁺, m/z 361.1/147.1) were monitored in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The concentration-time curves were simulated by drug and statistic software 1.0 and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. There was a good linear relationship between peak area ratio and concentration of tripterine and internal standard prednisolone within range of 0.680 0-136.0 μg•L⁻¹. The limit of quantitation was 0.680 0 μg•L⁻¹ and the intra- and inter-day precision was within 6.15%. The absolute recovery rate was between 50.42% to 51.65%. The concentration-time curves were consistent with the one-compartment model(w=1/cc). The main pharmacokinetic parameters after a single dose were as follows： Cmax (35.64±9.540) μg •L⁻¹,Tmax(2.62±0.69) h,T1/2(2.93±0.29) h, CL (0.308±0.056) L•kg⁻¹•h⁻¹, AUC0-12 (131.16±31.94) μg•L•h⁻¹, AUC0-∞ (142.83±37.57) μg•L•h⁻¹. The established LC-MS/MS method was proved to be sensitive, accurate and convenient, suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of Tripterygium tablet in Beagle dogs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Huang, Liusheng; Lizak, Patricia; Aweeka, Francesca; Long-Boyle, Janel
Fludarabine is a nucleoside analog routinely used in conditioning regimens of pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation to promote stem cell engraftment. In children, it remains a challenge to accurately and precisely quantify the active intracellular triphosphate species of fludarabine in vivo, primarily due to limitations on blood volume and inadequate assay sensitivity. Here we report a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of fludarabine triphosphate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC (∼5 million cells) were collected and lysed in 1mL 70% methanol containing 1.2mM tris buffer (pH 7.4). The lysate (80μL) was mixed with internal standard (2-chloro-adenosine triphosphate, 150ng/mL, 20μL) and injected onto an API5000 LC-MS/MS system. Separation was achieved on a hypercarb column (100mm×2.1mm, 3μm) eluted with 100mM ammonium acetate (pH 9.8) and acetonitrile in a gradient mode at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. Multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) and electrospray ionization in negative mode (ESI(-)) were used for detection. The ion pairs 524.0/158.6 for the drug and 540.0/158.8 for the IS were selected for quantification and 524.0/425.7 used for confirmation. Retention time was 3.0 and 3.4min for fludarabine triphosphate and the IS, respectively. The concentration range for the calibration curve was 1.52-76nM. Our method is simple, fast, and has been successfully applied in a clinical dose-concentration study in children to quantify intracellular fludarabine in low volume clinical samples. The median concentration was 1.03 and 3.19pmole/million PBMC at trough and peak time points, respectively. Fludarabine triphosphate is degraded in water within hours but relatively stable in 70% methanol-tris (1.2mM, pH 7.4). One limitation is that the hypercarb column takes a longer time to equilibrate than conventional reverse phase columns, and peaks become broad and distorted if the column is not washed
Kaul, Swetha; Williams, Todd D.; Lunte, Craig E.; Faiman, Morris D.
A selective liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of S-(N, N-diethylcarbamoyl) glutathione (carbamathione) in microdialysis samples from rat brain and plasma. S-(N, N-Diethylcarbamoyl) glutathione (carbamathione) is a metabolite of disulfiram. This metabolite may be responsible for disulfiram’s effectiveness in the treatment of cocaine dependence. An analytical method using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) was developed to determine carbamathione in vivo using microdialysis sampling from rat brain and plasma. Chromatographic separations were carried out on an Alltech Altima C-18 (50 mm long × 2.1 mm i.d., 3 μm particles) analytical column at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. Solvent A consisted of 10 mM ammonium formate, methanol, and formic acid (99:1:0.06, v/v/v). Solvent B consisted of methanol, 10 mM ammonium formate and formic acid (99:1:0.06, v/v/v). A 20 min linear gradient from 95% aqueous to 95% organic was used. Tandem mass spectra were acquired on a Micromass Quattro Ultima “triple” quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI interface. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis was conducted in positive ion mode selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode looking at the transition of m/z 407–100 and 175 for carbamathione and m/z 392–263 for the internal standard S-hexyl glutathione. The simultaneous collection of microdialysate from blood and brain was used to monitor carbamathione concentrations centrally and peripherally. Good linearity was obtained over a concentration range of 0.25–10,000 nM. The lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ) was determined to be 1 nM and the lowest limit of detection (LLOD) was calculated to be 0.25 nM. Intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were determined and for all the samples evaluated, the variability was less that 10% (R.S.D.). PMID:19709836
Gavilán, Rosa Elvira; Nebot, Carolina; Patyra, Ewelina; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto
Taking into consideration the maximum level for coccidiostats included in the European Regulation 574/2011 and the fact that the presence of residues of sulfonamides in non-target feed is forbidden, the aim of this article is to present an analytical method based on HPLC-MS/MS for the identification and quantification of sulfonamides and coccidiostats in non-target feeds. The method was validated following Decision 2002/657/EC and recovery, repeatability, and reproducibility were within the limits stablished in the Decision. For coccidiostats, the decision limit and detection capability were calculated for the different species taking into account the maximum level allowed in Regulation 574/2011. The applicability of the method was investigated in 50 feed samples collected from dairy farms, 50 obtained from feed mills, and 10 interlaboratory feed samples.
Adam, Aileen; Webster, Lucy M I; Mullen, William; Keller, Lukas F; Johnson, Paul C D
On red grouse estates in the UK the nematode parasite Trichostrongylus tenuis is often controlled by application of grit medicated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ). To date, assessment of the efficacy has been inhibited by the inability to quantify uptake of FBZ by the birds. We have developed a simple and sensitive HPLC-MS-MS method for detecting and quantifying FBZ and its metabolites from a 300 mg sample of red grouse liver. This method could be used to improve the efficacy of medicated grit treatment by allowing the identification of conditions and application methods that optimize the uptake of FBZ. With the necessary modifications, our method will also be applicable to other wildlife species where self-medication is used for parasite control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
LeBlanc, André; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René; Sleno, Lekha
Acetaminophen is known to cause hepatoxicity via the formation of a reactive metabolite, N-acetyl p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), as a result of covalent binding to liver proteins. Serum albumin (SA) is known to be covalently modified by NAPQI and is present at high concentrations in the bloodstream and is therefore a potential biomarker to assess the levels of protein modification by NAPQI. A newly developed method for the absolute quantitation of serum albumin containing NAPQI covalently bound to its active site cysteine (Cys34) is described. This optimized assay represents the first absolute quantitation of a modified protein, with very low stoichiometric abundance, using a protein-level standard combined with isotope dilution. The LC-MS/MS assay is based on a protein standard modified with a custom-designed reagent, yielding a surrogate peptide (following digestion) that is a positional isomer to the target peptide modified by NAPQI. To illustrate the potential of this approach, the method was applied to quantify NAPQI-modified SA in plasma from rats dosed with acetaminophen. The resulting method is highly sensitive (capable of quantifying down to 0.0006% of total RSA in its NAPQI-modified form) and yields excellent precision and accuracy statistics. A time-course pharmacokinetic study was performed to test the usefulness of this method for following acetaminophen-induced covalent binding at four dosing levels (75-600 mg/kg IP), showing the viability of this approach to directly monitor in vivo samples. This approach can reliably quantify NAPQI-modified albumin, allowing direct monitoring of acetaminophen-related covalent binding.
Chavan, Balasaheb B; Tiwari, Shristy; G, Shankar; Nimbalkar, Rakesh D; Garg, Prabha; R, Srinivas; Talluri, M V N Kumar
Palbociclib (PAB) is a CDK4/6 inhibitor and U. S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted regular approval for the treatment of hormone receptor (HR) positive, metastatic breast cancer in combination with an aromatase inhibitor in postmenopausal women. Metabolite identification is a crucial aspect during drug discovery and development as the drug metabolites may be pharmacologically active or possess toxicological activity. As there are no reports on the metabolism studies of the PAB, the present study focused on investigation of the in vitro and in vivo metabolic fate of the drug. The in vitro metabolism studies were carried out by using microsomes (HLM and RLM) and S9 fractions (Human and rat). The in vivo metabolism of the drug was studied by administration of the PAB orally to the Sprague-Dawley rats followed by analysis of urine, faeces and plasma samples. The sample preparation includes simple protein precipitation (PP) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE). The extracted samples were analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS/MS). A total of 14 metabolites were detected in in vivo matrices. The PAB was metabolized via hydroxylation, oxidation, sulphation, N-dealkylation, acetylation and carbonylation pathways. A few of the metabolites were also detected in in vitro samples. Metabolite identification and characterization were performed by using UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS/MS in combination with HRMS data. To identify the toxicity potential of these metabolites, in silico toxicity assessment was carried out using TOPKAT and DEREK softwares. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed capable of simultaneously measuring chlortetracycline (CTC), epi-chlortetracycline (epi-CTC) and isochlortetracycline (ICTC), as well as other structurally related tetracyclines in swine manur...
Analytical methods for selenium (Se) speciation were developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Separations of selenomethionine (Se-Met) and sel...
status can sometimes be reflected in the infectious potential or drug resistance of those pathogens. For example, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis , its antibiotic resistance and prediction of pathogenicity amongst Mycobacterium spp. based on signature lipid biomarkers ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rapid, Potentially Automatable, Method Extract Biomarkers for HPLC/ESI/MS/MS to Detect and Identify BW Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b
Wang, Zhangjie; Zhang, Tianji; Xie, Shaoshuai; Liu, Xinyue; Li, Hongmei; Linhardt, Robert J; Chi, Lianli
Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are widely used anticoagulant drugs. The composition and sequence of LMWH oligosaccharides determine their safety and efficacy. The short oligosaccharide pool in LMWHs undergoes more depolymerization reactions than the longer chains and is the most sensitive indicator of the manufacturing process. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) has been demonstrated as a powerful tool to sequence synthetic heparin oligosaccharide but never been applied to analyze complicated mixture like LMWHs. We established an offline strong anion exchange (SAX)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ESI-MS/MS approach to sequence the short oligosaccharides of dalteparin sodium. With the help of in-house developed MS/MS interpretation software, the sequences of 18 representative species ranging from tetrasaccharide to octasaccharide were obtained. Interestingly, we found a novel 2,3-disulfated hexauronic acid structure and reconfirmed it by complementary heparinase digestion and LC-MS/MS analysis. This approach provides straightforward and in-depth insight to the structure of LMWHs and the reaction mechanism of heparin depolymerization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kumar, K; Siva, Bandi; Sarma, V U M; Mohabe, Satish; Reddy, A Madhusudana; Boustie, Joel; Tiwari, Ashok K; Rao, N Rama; Babu, K Suresh
Comparative phytochemical analysis of five lichen species [Parmotrema tinctorum (Delise ex Nyl.) Hale, P. andinum (Mull. Arg.) Hale, P. praesorediosum (Nyl.) Hale, P. grayanum (Hue) Hale, P. austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale] of Parmotrema genus were performed using two complementary UPLC-MS systems. The first system consists of high resolution UPLC-QToF-MS/MS spectrometer and the second system consisted of UPLC-MS/MS in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode for quantitative analysis of major constituents in the selected lichen species. The individual compounds (47 compounds) were identified using Q-ToF-MS/MS, via comparison of the exact molecular masses from their MS/MS spectra, the comparison of literature data and retention times to those of standard compounds which were isolated from crude extract of abundant lichen, P. tinctorum. The analysis also allowed us to identify unknown peaks/compounds, which were further characterized by their mass fragmentation studies. The quantitative MRM analysis was useful to have a better discrimination of species according to their chemical profile. Moreover, the determination of antioxidant activities (ABTS + inhibition) and Advance Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) inhibition carried out for the crude extracts revealed a potential antiglycaemic activity to be confirmed for P. austrosinense. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Objective is to develop analytical methods including SPE and UPLC/MS/MS needed to analyze over 60 human prescription pharamceuticals and metabolites belonging to a multitude of different classes in surface waters and wastewater effluent. The methods will be used in future studies...
Wang, Shuya; Li, Ding; Pi, Jiaxin; Li, Wen; Zhang, Bing; Qi, Dongli; Li, Nan; Guo, Pan; Liu, Zhidong
The purpose of this work was to determine and investigate the absorption of ginkgo terpenoids (GT) in plasma and aqueous humour after oral administration of ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) by UPLC-MS/MS method. The UPLC-MS/MS determination of GT employed the multiple reaction monitoring mode using an electrospray negative ionization. The rabbits were orally administered the suspension of GBE at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Serial plasma and dialysate samples were collected at the corresponding time and then analysed by UPLC-MS/MS. In plasma, the mean AUC from 0 to 48 h was 14.12, 12.59, 23.75, 1.51 h μg/ml for GLJ and 5.34 h μg/ml for GLA, GLB, GLC, GLJ and BLL, respectively. In aqueous humour, the five ginkgo terpenoids have been detected. Compared with the other four GT, BLL has better absorption in the eyes. A selective and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine and investigate the absorption of ginkgo terpenoids in plasma and aqueous humour of rabbits after oral administration of GBE. The main five ginkgo terpenoids could be absorbed into eyes. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Mei, Shenghui; Zhu, Leting; Li, Xingang; Wang, Jiaqing; Jiang, Xueyun; Chen, Haiyan; Huo, Jiping; Yang, Li; Lin, Song; Zhao, Zhigang
Methotrexate (MTX) plasma concentration is routinely monitored to guide the dosage regimen of rescue drugs. This study aims to develop and validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for plasma MTX analysis, and to establish its agreement with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) in patients with high-dose MTX therapy. Separation was achieved by gradient elution with methanol and water (0.05% formic acid) at 40°C with a run time of 3 min. The intra- and inter-day inaccuracy and imprecision of the UPLC-MS/MS method were -4.25 to 3.1 and less than 7.63%, respectively. The IS-normalized recovery and matrix effect were 87.05 to 92.81 and 124.43 to 134.57%. The correlation coefficients between UPLC-MS/MS and FPIA were greater than 0.98. The UPLC-MS/MS method was in agreement with the FPIA at high levels of MTX (1.0 - 100 μmol/L), but not at low levels (0.01 - 1.0 μmol/L). Further studies are warranted to confirm these results.
Everest-Dass, Arun V.; Abrahams, Jodie L.; Kolarich, Daniel; Packer, Nicolle H.; Campbell, Matthew P.
Glycomics is the comprehensive study of glycan expression in an organism, cell, or tissue that relies on effective analytical technologies to understand glycan structure-function relationships. Owing to the macro- and micro-heterogeneity of oligosaccharides, detailed structure characterization has required an orthogonal approach, such as a combination of specific exoglycosidase digestions, LC-MS/MS, and the development of bioinformatic resources to comprehensively profile a complex biological sample. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has emerged as a key tool in the structural analysis of oligosaccharides because of its high sensitivity, resolution, and robustness. Here, we present a strategy that uses LC-ESI-MS/MS to characterize over 200 N- and O-glycans from human saliva glycoproteins, complemented by sequential exoglycosidase treatment, to further verify the annotated glycan structures. Fragment-specific substructure diagnostic ions were collated from an extensive screen of the literature available on the detailed structural characterization of oligosaccharides and, together with other specific glycan structure feature ions derived from cross-ring and glycosidic-linkage fragmentation, were used to characterize the glycans and differentiate isomers. The availability of such annotated mass spectrometric fragmentation spectral libraries of glycan structures, together with such substructure diagnostic ions, will be key inputs for the future development of the automated elucidation of oligosaccharide structures from MS/MS data.
Three types of solid phase chemical exposure sampling media: cellulose, polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2, were analyzed for 2,4-D and the amine salts of 2,4-D. Individual samples were extracted into acidified methanol and the extracts were analyzed via LC/MS/MS using electrospra...
An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed capable of simultaneously measuring chlortetracycline (CTC), epi-chlortetracycline (epi-CTC), isochlortetracycline (ICTC), oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in swine manure. A simple sample pr...
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are generally accepted as the preferred techniques for detecting and quantitating analytes of interest in biological matrices on the basis of the rule that one chemical compound yields one LC-...
Higashi, Tatsuya; Ogawa, Shoujiro
Sensitive and specific methods for the detection, characterization and quantification of endogenous steroids in body fluids or tissues are necessary for the diagnosis, pathological analysis and treatment of many diseases. Recently, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) has been widely used for these purposes due to its specificity and versatility. However, the ESI efficiency and fragmentation behavior of some steroids are poor, which lead to a low sensitivity. Chemical derivatization is one of the most effective methods to improve the detection characteristics of steroids in ESI-MS/MS. Based on this background, this article reviews the recent advances in chemical derivatization for the trace quantification of steroids in biological samples by LC/ESI-MS/MS. The derivatization in ESI-MS/MS is based on tagging a proton-affinitive or permanently charged moiety on the target steroid. Introduction/formation of a fragmentable moiety suitable for the selected reaction monitoring by the derivatization also enhances the sensitivity. The stable isotope-coded derivatization procedures for the steroid analysis are also described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This presentation will describe the U.S. EPA’s drinking water and ambient water method development program in relation to the process employed and the typical challenges encountered in developing standardized LC/MS/MS methods for chemicals of emerging concern. The EPA&rsquo...
Bae, Yoon Ju; Gaudl, Alexander; Jaeger, Sonia; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Hiemisch, Andreas; Kiess, Wieland; Willenberg, Anja; Schaab, Michael; von Klitzing, Kai; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Döhnert, Mirko; Kratzsch, Juergen
Dysregulation of the adrenal cortex has been assessed with measurement of salivary cortisol. So far salivary cortisol is routinely measured with immunoassay (IA). However, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) is known to offer better specificity. We compared the concentrations of salivary cortisol measured by MS and IA at basal and stress induced conditions and evaluated reasons for the difference in method-dependent cortisol results. Saliva samples (n=2703) were collected from 169 children (age range: 8-14 years; 81 healthy children; 55 with internalizing and 33 with externalizing disorders) under circadian conditions and during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Biochemical analyses were performed with MS for cortisol and cortisone, IA (IBL, RE62011) for cortisol, and enzyme kinetic assay for α-amylase. MS and IA showed mostly comparable results for circadian activity and TSST-C response with similar statistical power. However, IA measured cortisol concentrations about 2.39-fold higher than MS. We found that this difference in measured values between MS and IA was mainly due to different standardization of IA compared to MS. In addition, at cortisol IA concentration below 5 nmol/L, cross-reactivity with cortisone was found to contribute to the lower concordance between MS and IA. Immunoassay and LC-MS/MS were largely comparable in the interpretation of salivary cortisol dynamics in stress research. But the IA method revealed a restricted accuracy in the measuring range below 5 nmol/L.
Escrivá, Laura; Font, Guillermina
The lower mycotoxin levels detected in urine make the development of sensitive and accurate analytical methods essential. Three extraction methods, namely salting-out liquid–liquid extraction (SALLE), miniQuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe), and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME), were evaluated and compared based on analytical parameters for the quantitative LC-MS/MS measurement of 11 mycotoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA, ZEA, BEA, EN A, EN B, EN A1 and EN B1) in human urine. DLLME was selected as the most appropriate methodology, as it produced better validation results for recovery (79–113%), reproducibility (RSDs < 12%), and repeatability (RSDs < 15%) than miniQuEChERS (71–109%, RSDs <14% and <24%, respectively) and SALLE (70–108%, RSDs < 14% and < 24%, respectively). Moreover, the lowest detection (LODS) and quantitation limits (LOQS) were achieved with DLLME (LODs: 0.005–2 μg L−1, LOQs: 0.1–4 μg L−1). DLLME methodology was used for the analysis of 10 real urine samples from healthy volunteers showing the presence of ENs B, B1 and A1 at low concentrations. PMID:29048356
García Marrero, Danny E; Glasser, Wolfgang G; Pizzi, Antonio; Paczkowski, Sebastian; Laborie, Marie-Pierre G
The structure of condensed tannins (CTs) from Pinus pinaster bark extract and their hydroxypropylated derivatives with four degrees of substitution (DS 1, 2, 3 and 4) has been characterized for the first time using negative-ion mode electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(-)-MS/MS). The results showed that P. pinaster bark CTs possess structural homogeneity in terms of monomeric units (C(15), catechin). The oligomer sizes were detected to be dimers to heptamers. The derivatives showed typical phenyl-propyl ether mass fragmentation by substituent elimination (58 amu) and inherent C(15) flavonoid fissions. The relative abundance of the product ions revealed a preferential triple, tetra-/penta- and octa- hydroxypropylation substitution pattern in the monomer, dimer and trimer derivatives, respectively. A defined order of -OH reactivity towards propylene oxide was established by means of multistage experiments (A-ring ≥ B-ring > C-ring). A high structural heterogeneity of the modified oligomers was detected. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Choi, B K; Hercules, D M; Gusev, A I
The application of LC separation and mobile phase additives in addressing LC-MS/MS matrix signal suppression effects for the analysis of pesticides in a complex environmental matrix was investigated. It was shown that signal suppression is most significant for analytes eluting early in the LC-MS analysis. Introduction of different buffers (e.g. ammonium formate, ammonium hydroxide, formic acid) into the LC mobile phase was effective in improving signal correlation between the matrix and standard samples. The signal improvement is dependent on buffer concentration as well as LC separation of the matrix components. The application of LC separation alone was not effective in addressing suppression effects when characterizing complex matrix samples. Overloading of the LC column by matrix components was found to significantly contribute to analyte-matrix co-elution and suppression of signal. This signal suppression effect can be efficiently compensated by 2D LC (LC-LC) separation techniques. The effectiveness of buffers and LC separation in improving signal correlation between standard and matrix samples is discussed.
Fu, Yan; Yang, Ting; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Ruoxia; Wu, Yinliang
A LC-MS/MS method for determination of eight pesticides (triadimefon, sulfoxaflor, flusilazole, tebuconazole, difenoconazole, amitraz, azoxystrobin, and thiophanate-methyl) in Lycium barbarum was established. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned up by primary secondary amine. The extracts were diluted with 0.1% formic acid in water. The results showed that at the fortified levels of 0.01-10mg/kg, the average recoveries of these pesticides ranged from 82.1% to 96.2% with the relative standard deviations lower than 7%. The half-lives of eight pesticides were 1.3-5.0days in Lycium barbarum fruits. The pre-harvest interval of all pesticides mentioned above were investigated. Tebuconazole (14days), sulfoxaflor (14days) and flusilazole (28days) have longer pre-harvest interval than the others which have 7days. The dietary risks, assessed as hazard quotients, were far below 100%. The results showed that the eight pesticides applied to Lycium barbarum were comparably safe for the consumer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Appolonova, S. A.; Dikunets, M. A.; Rodchenkov, G. M.
The polypeptide hormone erythropoietin (EPO), which is a forbidden doping drug, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The hypothesis about the influence of EPO on the asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)-dimethylargininedime-thylaminohydrolase (DDAH)-NO-synthase system was verified. Changes in this system can serve as indirect biochemical markers of the presence of the forbidden EPO drug in the organism. In the test group, the concentrations of biochemical markers varied from 10 to 40 μg/ml for ADMA and symmetrical DMA (SDMA) and from 0.5 to 10 μg/ml for arginine and citrulline. A single intravenous administration of r-HuEPO (Epocrin, 2000 ME/day) for two volunteers reliably increased ADMA, SDMA, arginine, and citrulline concentrations to 40-270 μg/ml, 40-240μg/ml, 10-60 μg/ml, and 12-140 μg/ml, respectively, with respect to the reference values. The simultaneous increase in arginine, methylarginines, and citrulline contents could be an indirect marker of EPO abuse. The method is recommended for fast screening analysis.
Gao, Jun; Liao, Rijing; Yu, Yanyan; Zhai, Huili; Wang, Yingqi; Sack, Ragna; Peters, Antoine H F M; Chen, Jiajia; Wu, Haiping; Huang, Zheng; Hu, Min; Qi, Wei; Lu, Chris; Atadja, Peter; Oyang, Counde; Li, En; Yi, Wei; Zhou, Shaolian
The N-terminal tails of core histones harbor the sites of numerous post-translational modifications (PTMs) with important roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. Profiling histone PTM marks provides data that help understand the epigenetics events in cells and their connections with cancer and other diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that specific derivatization of histone peptides by NHS propionate significantly improved their chromatographic performance on reversed phase columns for LC/MS analysis. As a step forward, we recently developed a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) based LC-MS/MS method to analyze 42 targeted histone peptides. By using stable isotopic labeled peptides as internal standards that are spiked into the reconstituted solutions, this method allows to measure absolute concentration of the tryptic peptides of H3 histone proteins extracted from cancer cell lines. The method was thoroughly validated for the accuracy and reproducibility through analyzing recombinant histone proteins and cellular samples. The linear dynamic range of the MRM assays was achieved in 3 orders of magnitude from 1 nM to 1 μM for all targeted peptides. Excellent intrabatch and interbatch reproducibility (<15% CV) was obtained. This method has been used to study translocated NSD2 (a histone lysine methyltransferase that catalyzes the histone lysine 36 methylation) function with its overexpression in KMS11 multiple myeloma cells. From the results we have successfully quantitated both individual and combinatorial histone marks in parental and NSD2 selective knockout KMS11 cells.
Tang, Qun-Xing; Liu, Ming-Dong; Yan, You-Yi; Ye, Yi; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Zhan, Lan-Fen; Liao, Lin-Chuan
To detect unknown impurities in raw drug material of cefotiam hexetil. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was employed for the determination of impurities in cefotiam hexetil. Agilent SB-C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm i. d. , 3.5 microm particles) was used for chromatographic separations of cofotiam hexetil dissolved in deionized water, with mobile phase consisting of (A) 0.1% formic acid and (B) acetonitrile and timed gradient program T (min)/B (%): 0/3, 5/3, 15/20, 20/40, 30/60, 40/80. The flow rate was set at 0. 3 mL/min with DAD detector wavelength fixed at 254 nm. Electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion MRM mode. The source voltage was kept at 4 kV and cone voltage was 100 V with the mass range m/z 50-1000. Nitrogen was used as nebulizing gas and the nebulizer pressure was 40 psi. The drying gas temperature was 350 degrees C and the drying gas flow was 10 L/min. Results Unknown impurities of cefotiam hexetil were identified. Substance 1 was delta3-isomer of cefotiam hexetil. The structures of 3 other substances were also determined. The method is sensitive, rapid and credible for the analysis of cefotiam hexetil and its related impurities, which can be applied in quality control of cefotiam hexetil.
Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Moltó, Juan Carlos; Mañes, Jordi; Berrada, Houda
In this pilot survey human urine samples were analyzed for presence of 15 mycotoxins and some of their metabolites using a novel urinary multi-mycotoxin GC-MS/MS method following salting-out liquid-liquid extraction. Fifty-four urine samples from children and adults residents in Valencia were analyzed for presence of urinary mycotoxin and expressed in gram of creatinine. Three out of 15 mycotoxins were detected namely, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and deoxynivalenol (DON). 37 samples showed quantifiable values of mycotoxins. Co-occurrence of these contaminants was also observed in 20.4% of assayed samples. DON was the most frequently detected mycotoxin (68.5%) with mean levels of 23.3 μg/g creatinine (range: 2.8-69.1 μg/g creatinine). The levels of urinary DON were used to carry out an exposure assessment approach. 8.1% of total subjects were estimated to exceed the DON provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) (1 μg/kg b.w.). Two out of 9 exposed children exceeded the DON PMTDI thus, making them the most exposed based on the urinary results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Hai-Pei; Meng, Fan-Hua; Guo, Ji-Fen; Si, Duan-Yun; Zhu, Xiao-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Min
The paper is to report the development of a high-performance liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of icaritin (ICT) in rat plasma. After precipitated with acetonitrile from the plasma, ICT was isolated chromatographically on a Dikma C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (72 : 28 : 1.5, v/v/v). Electrospray ionization (ESI) source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with the transitions of m/z 387 --> m/z 313 and m/z 331 --> m/z 315 were used to quantify ICT and the internal standard, respectively. The linear calibration curve was obtained in the concentration range of 2.5-1,000 ng x mL(-1). The lower limit of quantification was 2.5 ng x mL(-1). The inter- and intra-day precision (RSD) were less than 9.63%, and the accuracy (relative error) was within +/-7.42%. The method was proved to be suitable for the pharmacokinetics of ICT, which offers advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity.
Wu, Yahui; Jiang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Dai, Xinlong; Liu, Yajun; Tan, Huarong; Gao, Liping; Xia, Tao
Phenolic compounds are major components of tea flavour, in which catechins and flavonol glycosides play important roles in the astringent taste of tea infusion. However, the flavonol glycosides are difficult to quantify because of the large variety, as well as the inefficient seperation on chromatography. In this paper, a total of 15 flavonol glycosides in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) were identified by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), and a quantitative method was established based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (QQQ-MS/MS). It provided the limit of detection and quantification to the order of picogram, which was more sensitive than the HPLC detection of the order of nanogram. The relative standard deviations of the intra- and inter-day variations in retention time and signal intensity (peak area) of six analytes were less than 0.26% and 4%, respectively. The flavonol glycosides of four tea cultivars were relatively quantified using the signal intensity (peak area) of product ion, in which six flavonol glycosides were quantified by the authentic standards. The results showed that the flavonol mono-, di- and tri-glycoside mostly accumulated in young leaves of the four tea cultivars. Notably, the myricetin 3-O-galactoside was the major component among the six flavonol glycosides detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leung, K Wing; Wong, Zack C F; Ho, Janet Y M; Yip, Ada W S; Cheung, Jerry K H; Ho, Karen K L; Duan, Ran; Tsim, Karl W K
The aim of this study is to reveal the habits of drug abusers in hair samples from drug rehabilitation units in Hong Kong. With the application of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology, a total of 1771 hair samples were analyzed during the period of hair testing service (January 2012 to March 2016) provided to 14 drug rehabilitation units including non-governmental organizations (NGOs), rehabilitation centers, and medical clinics. Hair samples were analyzed for abused drugs and their metabolites simultaneously, including ketamine, norketamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, norcocaine, codeine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, amphetamine, methamphetamine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, phencyclidine, and methadone. The results showed that ketamine (77.2%), cocaine (21.3%), and methamphetamine (16.5%) were the frequently detected drugs among those drug abusers, which is consistent with the reported data. In addition, the usage of multiple drugs was also observed in the hair samples. About 29% of drug-positive samples were detected with multiple drug use. Our studies prove that our locally developed hair drug-testing method and service can be a valid tool to monitor the use of abused drugs, and which could facilitate rehabilitation program management. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Liu, Gangyi; Dong, Chunxia; Shen, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaopei; Zhang, Mengqi; Gui, Yuzhou; Zhou, Qinyi; Yu, Chen
A quantitative method for clopidogrel using online-SPE tandem LC–MS/MS was developed and fully validated according to the well-established FDA guidelines. The method achieves adequate sensitivity for pharmacokinetic studies, with lower limit of quantifications (LLOQs) as low as 10 pg/mL. Chromatographic separations were performed on reversed phase columns Kromasil Eternity-2.5-C18-UHPLC for both methods. Positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was employed for signal detection and a deuterated analogue (clopidogrel-d4) was used as internal standard (IS). Adjustments in sample preparation, including introduction of an online-SPE system proved to be the most effective method to solve the analyte back-conversion in clinical samples. Pooled clinical samples (two levels) were prepared and successfully used as real-sample quality control (QC) in the validation of back-conversion testing under different conditions. The result showed that the real samples were stable in room temperature for 24 h. Linearity, precision, extraction recovery, matrix effect on spiked QC samples and stability tests on both spiked QCs and real sample QCs stored in different conditions met the acceptance criteria. This online-SPE method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 75 mg single dose clopidogrel tablets in 48 healthy male subjects. PMID:26904399
Roempp, A.; Moortgat, G.
Ambient aerosol samples were taken at different sites across Europe. The fine mode aerosol was collected on quartz filters at flow rates of 160 L/min and 500 L/min. These samples were analyzed for organic acids (C>4) by an HPLC system coupled to a hybrid mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer consists of a quadrupole mass analyzer, a quadrupole collision cell and a time-of-flight mass analyzer (TOF). Analytes were identified by standards when available or MS-MS experiments and exact mass measurements utilizing the high mass resolution of the TOF instrument. Monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, sabinene, limonene, 3-carene) were ozonolyzed in the laboratory and compared with field samples. Besides the commonly measured organic acids (pinic, pinonic and norpinic acid) sabinic, caric and caronic acid were identified for the first time in ambient aerosol. In addition, nearly all samples showed significant concentrations of newly identified keto dicarboxylic acids (C9 - C12). Laboratory experiments were used to investigate the formation mechanisms of these compounds. By comparing laboratory measurements of wood combustion and field samples from the Eastern Mediterranean region, nitrocatechol was identified as a possible tracer for biomass burning. The data obtained is used to determine the role of biogenic sources in secondary organic aerosol formation.
Snyder, Dalton T; Szalwinski, Lucas J; Cooks, R Graham
Methods of performing precursor ion scans as well as neutral loss scans in a single linear quadrupole ion trap have recently been described. In this paper we report methodology for performing permutations of MS/MS scan modes, that is, ordered combinations of precursor, product, and neutral loss scans following a single ion injection event. Only particular permutations are allowed; the sequences demonstrated here are (1) multiple precursor ion scans, (2) precursor ion scans followed by a single neutral loss scan, (3) precursor ion scans followed by product ion scans, and (4) segmented neutral loss scans. (5) The common product ion scan can be performed earlier in these sequences, under certain conditions. Simultaneous scans can also be performed. These include multiple precursor ion scans, precursor ion scans with an accompanying neutral loss scan, and multiple neutral loss scans. We argue that the new capability to perform complex simultaneous and sequential MS n operations on single ion populations represents a significant step in increasing the selectivity of mass spectrometry.
Pontarolo, Roberto; Gimenez, Ana Carolina; de Francisco, Thais Martins Guimarães; Ribeiro, Rômulo Pereira; Pontes, Flávia Lada Degaut; Gasparetto, João Cleverson
The objective of this work was to develop and validate a HILIC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of metformin and vildagliptin in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Atlantis HILIC Silica 150-mm × 2.1-mm, 3-μm particle size column maintained at 40°C. The isocratic mobile phase consisted of 20% water and 80% acetonitrile/water solution 95:5 (v/v), containing both 0.1% formic acid and 3mM ammonium formate. The flow rate was maintained at 400 μL min(-1). Data from validation studies demonstrated that the new method is highly selective, sensitive (limits of detection <1.5 ng mL(-1)) and free of matrix and residual effects. The new method was also precise (RSD<9.0%), accurate (RE<11.2%) and linear (r ≥ 0.99) over the ranges of 5-500 ng mL(-1) for each compound. The developed method was successfully applied to determine metformin and vildagliptin in plasma volunteers who orally received a single dose of metformin (850 mg), vildagliptin (50mg) or drug association (metformin 850 mg+vildagliptin 50mg). The new method can thus also be used as a tool for the clinical monitoring of metformin and vildagliptin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Habler, Katharina; Gotthardt, Marina; Schüler, Jan; Rychlik, Michael
A stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin method was developed for 12 different Fusarium toxins including modified mycotoxins in beer (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, HT2-toxin, T2-toxin, enniatin B, B1, A1, A, beauvericin and zearalenone). As sample preparation and purification of beer a combined solid phase extraction for trichothecenes, enniatins, beauvericin and zearalenone was firstly developed. The validation of the new method gave satisfying results: intra-day and inter-day precision and recoveries were 1-5%, 2-8% and 72-117%, respectively. In total, 61 different organic and conventional beer samples from Germany and all over the world were analyzed by using the newly developed multi-mycotoxin method. In summary, deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivaleneol and enniatin B were quantified in rather low contents in the investigated beer samples. None of the other monitored Fusarium toxins like 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, HT2- and T2-toxin, zearalenone, enniatin B1, A1, A or beauvericin were detectable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Páleníková, Agneša; Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Romero-González, Roberto; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Frenich, Antonia Garrido
An analytical method based on a modified QuEChERS extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was evaluated for the determination of 177 pesticides in soya-based nutraceutical products. The QuEChERS method was optimised and different extraction solvents and clean-up approaches were tested, obtaining the most efficient conditions with a mixture of sorbents (PSA, C18, GBC and Zr-Sep(+)). Recoveries were evaluated at 10, 50 and 100 μg/kg and ranged between 70% and 120%. Precision was expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), and it was evaluated for more than 160 pesticides as intra and inter-day precision, with values always below 20% and 25%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.1 to 10 μg/kg, whereas limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.5 to 20 μg/kg. The applicability of the method was proved by analysing soya-based nutraceuticals. Two pesticides were found in these samples, malathion and pyriproxyfen, at 11.1 and 1.5 μg/kg respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guidi, Letícia Rocha; Santos, Flávio Alves; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia S R; Fernandes, Christian; Silva, Luiza H M; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a fast, sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the screening of six classes of antibiotics (aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, macrolides, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines) in fish. Samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid. LC separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column and gradient elution using 0.1% heptafluorobutyric acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring mode via electrospray interface operated in the positive ionization mode, with sulfaphenazole as internal standard. The method was suitable for routine screening purposes of 40 antibiotics, according to EC Guidelines for the Validation of Screening Methods for Residues of Veterinary Medicines, taking into consideration threshold value, cut-off factor, detection capability, limit of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Real fish samples (n=193) from aquaculture were analyzed and 15% were positive for enrofloxacin (quinolone), one of them at a higher concentration than the level of interest (50µgkg -1 ), suggesting possible contamination or illegal use of that antibiotic. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Miranda Silva, Carolina; Rocha, Adriana; Tozatto, Eduardo; da Silva, Lucienir Maria; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Lanchote, Vera Lucia
Etodolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with preferential inhibition of cyclooxigenase-2 and is widely used in the management of pain in patients with inflammatory arthritis. Etodolac is available as a racemic mixture of (-)-(R)-Etodolac and (+)-(S)-Etodolac; cyclooxigenases inhibition is attributed to (+)-(S)-Etodolac. According to our knowledge, this is the first method for determination of etodolac enantiomers in plasma using LC-MS/MS. Plasma extraction were performed with 25μL of plasma and 1mL of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (95:5); racemic ibuprofen was used as internal standard. Resolution of enantiomers were performed in a Chiralcel(®)OD-H column; deprotonated [M-H](-) and their respective ion products were monitored at transitions of 286>242 for etodolac enantiomers and 205>161 for ibuprofen. The quantitation limit was 3.2ng/mL for both enantiomers in plasma. The method was applied to study the pharmacokinetics of etodolac enantiomers after the administration of a 300 and 400mg dose of racemic drug to a healthy volunteer. Analysis of plasma samples showed higher plasma concentration of (-)-(R)-Etodolacfor both doses (300mg dose: AUC(0-∞)49.80 versus 4.55ugh/mL;400mg dose: AUC(0-∞) 63.90 versus 6.00ugh/mL) with an (R)-(+)/(S)-(-) ratio of approximately 11. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hu, Xin; Chen, Lin; Shi, Shuyun; Cai, Ping; Liang, Xuejuan; Zhang, Shuihan
Lonicerae macranthoides with strong antioxidant activity is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and folk tea/beverage. However, detailed information about its antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds is limited. Then at first, we comparatively evaluated total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activities of water extract, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of L. macranthoides. Ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest level of TPC (207.38 mg GAE/g DW), TFC (53.06 mg RE/g DW) and the best DPPH scavenge activity and reducing power. n-Butanol fraction showed the best ABTS(+) and O2(-) scavenging activities. Interestingly, water extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed stronger antioxidant activities than positive control, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). After that, thirty-one antioxidant phenolic compounds, including twenty-two phenolic acids and nine flavonoids, were screened by DPPH-HPLC experiment and then identified using HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. It is noted that twenty-one compounds (1, 3-4, 6-17, 19, 23, 26, 28-29, and 31), as far as was known, were discovered from L. macranthoide for the first time, and eleven of them (3-4, 10-17, and 23) were reported in Lonicera species for the first time. Results indicated that L. macranthoides could serve as promising source of rich antioxidants in foods, beverages and medicines for health promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Ruili; Qiu, Mei; Zhao, Li; Cui, Liangliang; Wang, Chunyuan; Zhu, Jiajia; Hao, Zhihui
Pidotimod is widely used in children as an immune promoter but it has not been fully evaluated in animals. The pharmacokinetics of pidotimod and its oral bioavailability have not been described in broiler chickens. We developed a simple and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS assay for rapid determination of pidotimod levels in chicken blood. Recoveries were nearly 100% and the coefficients of accuracy and precision were minimal. Healthy broiler chickens were given 10 mg/kg pidotimod either orally or intravenously. The oral pidotimod was rapidly absorbed (time to reach maximum concentration, 1.25 h) and rapidly eliminated (the mean residence time was 3.2 h). A noncompartmental analysis of the intravenous route indicated a mean plasma clearance of 2.2 L (h kg) -1 with an estimated mean volume of distribution at steady state of 12.69 L/kg. The bioavailability of pidotimod after oral dosing was 27%. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abid, Mouna; Yaich, Héla; Cheikhrouhou, Salma; Khemakhem, Ibtihel; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A
Antioxidant contents and activities of different extracts from four Tunisian pomegranate peels, locally called "Acide", "Gabsi", "Nebli" and "Tounsi", were studied. Peels samples were extracted with three solvents (water, ethanol and acetone). For each extract, the total phenol contents and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The highest values of polyphenol, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins were recorded in the acetone extract of Acide ecotype with 304.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g; 292.23 mg gallic acid equivalent/g; 15.46 mg Quercetin/g and 54.51 mg cy-3-glu/100 g, respectively. The acetone extract of Acide ecotype also showed the highest free radical-scavenging and reducing power activity compared to other extracts. Besides, the phytochemical analysis by LC-MS/MS revealed a high content of ellagitannins with punicalagin and punicalagin derivatives as the major compounds that might be responsible for promising antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extracts. Two compounds (Castalagin derivative and Galloyl-bis-HHDP-hex derivative) were detected only in "Acide" ecotype in important contents.
Chen, Yu; Chen, Dongxin; Hu, Wenhao; Lin, Guanyang; Huang, Shiyong
Indocyanine Green is widely used in medical diagnosis and to evaluate liver function and other regional blood flows in clinical application or animal experiments. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of rutin as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 753.4→330.2 for Indocyanine Green, and m/z 611.1→303.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 20-5000 ng/mL for Indocyanine Green in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma ranged from 79.5% to 85.4%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both < 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.9% and 113.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of Indocyanine Green after intravenous administration.
Chen, Yu; Chen, Dongxin; Hu, Wenhao; Lin, Guanyang; Huang, Shiyong
Indocyanine Green is widely used in medical diagnosis and to evaluate liver function and other regional blood flows in clinical application or animal experiments. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of rutin as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 753.4→330.2 for Indocyanine Green, and m/z 611.1→303.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 20-5000 ng/mL for Indocyanine Green in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma ranged from 79.5% to 85.4%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both < 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.9% and 113.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of Indocyanine Green after intravenous administration. PMID:26629038
Pallarés, Noelia; Font, Guillermina; Mañes, Jordi; Ferrer, Emilia
The aim of the present study was to develop a multimycotoxin liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure (DLLME) for the analysis of AFs, 3aDON, 15aDON, NIV, HT-2, T-2, ZEA, OTA, ENNs, and BEA in tea beverages and to evaluate their mycotoxin contents. The proposed method was characterized in terms of linearity, limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs), recoveries, repeatability (intraday precision), reproducibility (interday precision), and matrix effects to check suitability. The results show LODs in the range of 0.05-10 μg/L, LOQs in the range of 0.2-33 μg/L, and recoveries in the range of 65-127% (RSD < 20%). The method developed in this study was applied to 44 commercial samples of black tea, red tea, green tea, and green mint tea. The results show that, of the analyzed mycotoxins, AFB2, AFG2, 15aDON, AFG1, and ENB were detected in the samples. AFB2 (14.4-32.2 μg/L) and 15aDON (60.5-61 μg/L) presented the highest levels. Green mint tea contained the highest concentration of mycotoxins. The risk assessment study shows that the population is not much exposed to mycotoxins through the consumption of tea beverages.
Foivas, Anargyros; Malenović, Anđelija; Kostić, Nađa; Božić, Marija; Knežević, Miroslav; Loukas, Yannis L; Dotsikas, Yannis
In the current study, a rapid and sensitive LC-QTOF-MS/MS method for the determination of brinzolamide in dried blood spots (DBS) was developed and validated. This novel sample collection, storage and transfer technique was suitable for analyzing a drug with high distribution into red blood cells and negligible plasma levels. The method included an isocratic mobile phase consisting of methanol and 10mM ammonium formate (90:10, v/v) and detection in positive electrospray mode (ESI+). The flow rate was adjusted to 0.350mL/min yielding retention times of 1.7min for both brinzolamide and internal standard (IS) rabeprazole on a Cyano analytical column, respectively. The validation of the proposed method over the concentration range 0.500-20.0μg/mL was performed in compliance with EMEA and FDA guidelines, assessing all major performance characteristics. Inter- and intra- assay precisions were less than 14%, while inter- and intra- assay accuracies varied from 92.2 to 111%. No matrix effect was observed and the mean brinzolamide extraction recovery was 93.5%. The method was successfully applied to real DBS samples from patients in steady state condition, receiving brinzolamide ophthalmic suspension 1% (w/v) for several months. Initial concentrations were corrected due to hematocrit effect, using image processing algorithm written in Matlab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Faria, A F; de Rosso, V V; Mercadante, A Z
Carotenoids are pigments responsible for the yellow-reddish color of many foods and are related to important functions and physiological actions, preventing several chronic-degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to confirm the carotenoid composition of jackfruit by high-performance liquid chromatography connected to photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS). The main carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (24-44%), all-trans-beta-carotene (24-30%), all-trans-neoxanthin (4-19%), 9-cis-neoxanthin (4-9%) and 9-cis-violaxanthin (4-10%). Either qualitative or quantitative differences, mainly related to the lutein proportion, were found among three batches of jackfruit. Since the fruits from batch A showed significantly lower contents for almost all carotenoids, it also had the lowest total carotenoid content (34.1 microg/100 g) and provitamin A value, whereas the total carotenoid ranged from 129.0 to 150.3 microg/100 g in the other batches. The provitamin A values from batches B and C were 3.3 and 4.3 microg RAE/100 g, respectively. The carotenoid composition of jackfruit was successfully determined, where 14 of the 18 identified carotenoids were reported for first time. Differences among batches may be due to genetic and/or agricultural factors.
Sun, Wei; Jiang, Zhe-li; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Rui-min; Wang, Zhe; Li, Wan-shu; Jiang, Shuo-min; Hu, Guo-xin; Chen, Rui-jie
A rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of pirfenidone in rat plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through a simple one-step deproteinization procedure with 0.2 mL of acetonitrile to a 0.1 mL plasma sample. Plasma samples were separated by UPLC on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water with gradient elution. The total run time was 3.0 min and the elution of pirfenidone was at 1.39 min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM) mode using the respective transitions m/z 186.2→92.1 for pirfenidone and m/z 237.1→194.2 for carbamazepine (IS), respectively. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 5-2000 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 5 ng/mL. Mean recovery of pirfenidone in plasma was in the range of 80.4-84.3%. Intra-day and inter-day precision were both <12.1%. This method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of 10.0mg/kg pirfenidone in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Protti, Michele; Rudge, James; Sberna, Angelo Eliseo; Gerra, Gilberto; Mercolini, Laura
Synthetic cannabinoids are new psychoactive substances (NPS) with similar effects when compared to natural ones found in Cannabis derivatives. They have rapidly integrated into the illicit market, often sold as alternatives under international control. The need to identify and quantify an unprecedented and growing number of new compounds represents a unique challenge for toxicological, forensic and anti-doping analysis. Dried blood spots have been used within the bioanalytical framework in place of plasma or serum, in order to reduce invasiveness, lower sample size, simplify handling, storage and shipping of samples and to facilitate home-based and on-field applications. However, DBS implementation has been limited mainly by concerns related to haematocrit effect on method accuracy. Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS™), a second generation dried miniaturized sampling technology, has been developed just in order to eliminate haematocrit effect, thus providing accurate sampling but still granting feasible sample processing. An original LC-MS/MS method was herein developed and validated for the analysis of THC and its 2 main metabolites, together with 10 representative synthetic cannabinoids in both DBS and VAMS dried microsamples. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide highly innovative DBS and VAMS analytical protocols, whose performances were extensively optimized and compared, in order to provide effective and alternative tools that can be applied for natural and synthetic cannabinoid determination, in place of classical analytical strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schelli, Katie; Rutowski, Joshua; Roubidoux, Julia; Zhu, Jiangjiang
Recently, novel bioanalytical methods, such as NMR and mass spectrometry based metabolomics approaches, have started to show promise in providing rapid, sensitive and reproducible detection of Staphylococcus aureus antibiotic resistance. Here we performed a proof-of-concept study focused on the application of HPLC-MS/MS based targeted metabolic profiling for detecting and monitoring the bacterial metabolic profile changes in response to sub-lethal levels of methicillin exposure. One hundred seventy-seven targeted metabolites from over 20 metabolic pathways were specifically screened and one hundred and thirty metabolites from in vitro bacterial tests were confidently detected from both methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively). The metabolic profiles can be used to distinguish the isogenic pairs of MSSA strains from MRSA strains, without or with sub-lethal levels of methicillin exposure. In addition, better separation between MSSA and MRSA strains can be achieved in the latter case using principal component analysis (PCA). Metabolite data from isogenic pairs of MSSA and MRSA strains were further compared without and with sub-lethal levels of methicillin exposure, with metabolic pathway analyses additionally performed. Both analyses suggested that the metabolic activities of MSSA strains were more susceptible to the perturbation of the sub-lethal levels of methicillin exposure compared to the MRSA strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dhanure, Shivanand; Savalia, Atulkumar; More, Pravinkumar; Shirode, Prashant; Kapse, Kailas; Shah, Virag
A simple, sensitive, and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of carbocisteine in human plasma. Rosiglitazone was used as the internal standard and heparin was used as the anticoagulant. The chromatographic separation was performed by using the Waters Symmetry Shield RP 8, 150 × 3.9 mm, 5 μ column at 40°C with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol and 0.5% formic acid solution in a 40:60 proportion. The flow rate was 500 μl/min along with a 5 μl injection volume. Protein precipitation was used as the extraction method. Mass spectrometric data were detected in positive ion mode. The MRM mode of the ions for carbocisteine was 180.0 > 89.0 and for rosiglitazone it was 238.1 > 135.1. The method was validated in the concentration curve range of 50.000 ng/mL to 6000.000 ng/mL. The retention times of carbocisteine and the internal standard rosiglitazone were approximately 2.20 and 3.01 min, respectively. The overall run time was 4.50 min. This method was found suitable to analyze human plasma samples for the application in pharmacokinetic and BA/BE studies.
Revealing the glycation sites in synthetic neoglycoconjugates formed by conjugation of the antigenic monosaccharide hapten of Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa with the BSA protein carrier using LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS
Jahouh, Farid; Saksena, Rina; Kováč, Pavol; Banoub, Joseph
In this manuscript, we present the determination of glycation sites in synthetic neoglycoconjugates formed by conjugation of the antigenic monosaccharide hapten of Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa to BSA using nano- liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS). The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF/TOF-MS/MS analyses of the tryptic digests of the glycoconjugates having a hapten:BSA ratio of 4.3:1, 6.6:1 and 13.2:1 revealed only three glycation sites, on the following lysine residues: Lys 235, Lys 437 and Lys 455. Digestion of the neoglycoconjugates with the proteases trypsin and GluC V8 gave complementary structural information and was shown to maximize the number of recognized glycation sites. Here, we report identification of 20, 27 and 33 glycation sites using LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS analysis of a series of synthetic neoglycoconjugates with a hapten:BSA ratio of, respectively, 4.3:1, 6.6:1 and 13.2:1. We also tentatively propose that all the glycated lysine residues are located mainly near the outer surface of the protein. PMID:22791257
Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Nagy, Tibor; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor
The residual tobacco smoke contamination (thirdhand smoke, THS) on the clothes of a smoker was examined by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry. DART-MS enabled sensitive and selective analysis of nicotine as the indicator of tobacco smoke pollution. Tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) experiments were also performed to confirm the identification of nicotine. Transferred thirdhand smoke originated from the fingers of a smoker onto other objects was also detected by DART mass spectrometry. DART-MS/MS was utilized for monitoring the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the air of the laboratory using nicotine as an indicator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the application of DART-MS and DART-MS/MS to the detection of thirdhand smoke and to the monitoring of secondhand smoke.
Development and validation of a sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of tramadol, dextromethorphan chlorpheniramine and their major metabolites in human plasma in forensic context: application to pharmacokinetics.
Heneedak, Hala M; Salama, Ismail; Mostafa, Samia; El-Kady, Ehab; El-Sadek, Mohamed
The prerequisites for forensic confirmatory analysis by LC/MS/MS with respect to European Union guidelines are chromatographic separation, a minimum number of two MS/MS transitions to obtain the required identification points and predefined thresholds for the variability of the relative intensities of the MS/MS transitions (MRM transitions) in samples and reference standards. In the present study, a fast, sensitive and robust method to quantify tramadol, chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan and their major metabolites, O-desmethyltramadol, dsmethyl-chlorpheniramine and dextrophan, respectively, in human plasma using ibuprofen as internal standard (IS) is described. The analytes and the IS were extracted from plasma by a liquid-liquid extraction method using ethyl acetate-diethyl-ether (1:1). Extracted samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was performed by pumping the mobile phase containing acetonitrile, water and formic acid (89.2:11.7:0.1) for 2.0 min at a flow rate of 0.25 μL/min into a Hypersil-Gold C18 column, 20 × 2.0 mm (1.9 µm) from Thermoscientific, New York, USA. The calibration curve was linear for the six analytes. The intraday precision (RSD) and accuracy (RE) of the method were 3-9.8 and -1.7-4.5%, respectively. The analytical procedure herein described was used to assess the pharmacokinetics of the analytes in 24 healthy volunteers after a single oral dose containing 50 mg of tramadol hydrochloride, 3 mg chlorpheniramine maleate and 15 mg of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tsikas, Dimitrios; Evans, Christopher E.; Denton, Travis T.; Mitschke, Anja; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Pinto, John T.; Khomenko, Tetyana; Szabo, Sandor; Cooper, Arthur J.L.
Aminoethylcysteine ketimine decarboxylated dimer [AECK-DD; systematic name: 1,2–3,4–5,6–7,8-octahydro-1,8a-diaza-4,6-dithiafluoren-9(8aH)-one] is a previously described metabolite of cysteamine that has been reported to be present in mammalian brain, urine, plasma, cells in culture and vegetables, and to possess potent anti-oxidative properties. Here, we describe a stable-isotope GC-MS/MS method for specific and sensitive determination of AECK-DD in biological samples. 13C2-AECK-DD was synthesized and used as the internal standard. Derivatization was carried out by N-pentafluorobenzylation with pentafluorobenzyl bromide in acetonitrile. Quantification was performed by selected-reaction monitoring of the mass transitions m/z 328 to m/z 268 for AECK-DD and m/z 330 to m/z 270 for 13C2-AECK-DD in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode. The procedure was systematically validated for human plasma and urine samples. AECK-DD was not detectable in human plasma above ~ 4 nM, but was present in urine samples of healthy humans at a maximal concentration of 46 nM. AECK-DD was detectable in rat brain at very low levels of about 8 pmol/g wet weight. Higher levels of AECK-DD were detected in mouse brain (~1 nmol/g wet weight). Among nine dietary vegetables evaluated, only shallots were found to contain trace amounts of AECK-DD (~ 6.8 pmol/g fresh tissue). PMID:22858756
Blanchard, Valentin; Ramin-Mangata, Stéphane; Billon-Crossouard, Stéphanie; Aguesse, Audrey; Durand, Manon; Chemello, Kevin; Nativel, Brice; Flet, Laurent; Chétiveaux, Maud; Jacobi, David; Bard, Jean-Marie; Ouguerram, Khadija; Lambert, Gilles; Krempf, Michel; Croyal, Mikaël
Human apoE exhibits three major isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4) corresponding to polymorphism in the APOE gene. Total plasma apoE concentrations are closely related to these isoforms, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We aimed to describe the kinetics of apoE individual isoforms to explore the mechanisms for variable total apoE plasma concentrations. We used LC-MS/MS to discriminate between isoforms by identifying specific peptide sequences in subjects (three E2/E3, three E3/E3, and three E3/E4 phenotypes) who received a primed constant infusion of 2 H 3 -leucine for 14 h. apoE concentrations and leucine enrichments were measured hourly in plasma. Concentrations of apoE2 were higher than apoE3, and concentrations of apoE4 were lower than apoE3. There was no difference between apoE3 and apoE4 catabolic rates and between apoE2 and apoE3 production rates (PRs), but apoE2 catabolic rates and apoE4 PRs were lower. The mechanisms leading to the difference in total plasma apoE concentrations are therefore related to contrasted kinetics of the isoforms. Production or catabolic rates are differently affected according to the specific isoforms. On these grounds, studies on the regulation of the involved biochemical pathways and the impact of pathological environments are now warranted. Copyright © 2018 Blanchard et al.
Kim, Hyung Joo; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Hyoung Joon; Cho, So-Hyun; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Woo Seong
Because of the rapid growth in dietary supplement availability and public concern for weight control, the investigation of foods and various dietary supplements illegally adulterated with weight loss compounds has become increasingly important. A total of 29 weight loss compounds, including sennoside, sibutramine, ephedrine and their analogues, found to be adulterated in foods and dietary supplements were simultaneously examined by LC-MS/MS. The 188 samples were collected between 2009 and 2012 in South Korea, and method validation was performed to determine the adulterants to the weight loss compounds. LODs, LOQs and linearity ranged from 0.03 to 7.5 ng ml⁻¹, from 0.08 to 30.00 ng ml⁻¹, and from 0.990 to 0.999, respectively. The results showed that nine weight loss compounds, namely bisacodyl, desmethylsibutramine, didesmethylsibutramine, ephedrine, fluoxetine, pseudoephedrine, sennoside A, sennoside B and sibutramine, were detected in 62 of all collected samples and were found in order of frequency as follows: sibutramine, 25.7%; sennoside A, 22.9%; sennoside B, 20.0%; fluoxetine, 8.6%; desmethylsibutramine, 7.1%; bisacodyl, ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine, 4.3%; and didesmethylsibutramine, 2.9%. Sibutramine, which was the most frequently found adulterant, ranged in levels from 0.03 to 132.40 mg g⁻¹ (2010), from 0.88 to 76.2 mg g⁻¹ (2011), and from 0.07 to 0.24 mg g⁻¹ (2012). Although the concentrations of most compounds ranged widely, some compounds such as bisacodyl and fluoxetine were found at high concentrations in several samples.
El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Elkady, Ehab F; El-Sherif, Zeinab Abdelaziz; Kadry, Ahmed M
Atorvastatin and ezetimibe are lipid-lowering drugs prescribed for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. An LC-MS-MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin and ezetimibe in human plasma using pitavastatin as an internal standard. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for the purification and preconcentration of analytes from human plasma matrix. The chromatographic separation was achieved within 3.0 min by an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 0.2% formic acid in water-acetonitrile (30:70, v/v), flowing through Agilent Eclipse-plus C18, 100 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 µm analytical column, at a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1). Multiple reaction monitoring transitions were measured in the positive ion mode for atorvastatin and internal standard, while ezetimibe was measured in negative ion mode. A detailed validation of the method was performed as per US-FDA guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 0.2-30.0 ng mL(-1) with a mean correlation coefficient >0.999 for both drugs. In human plasma, atorvastatin and ezetimibe were stable for at least 36 days at -70 ± 5 °C and 6 h at ambient temperature. After extraction from plasma, the reconstituted samples of atorvastatin and ezetimibe were stable in an autosampler at ambient temperature for 6 h. Also, the cited drugs were stable in plasma samples upon subjecting to three freeze thaw cycles. The method is simple, specific, sensitive, precise, accurate and suitable for bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic studies of this combination. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Paíga, Paula; Rodrigues, Manuela J E; Correia, Manuela; Amaral, Joana S; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina
A method based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was successfully developed and validated for the analysis of 26 pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different therapeutic classes (anorexics, stimulants, anxiolytics, antidepressants and laxatives), which are all prone to be illegally added into weight-loss plant food supplements (PFS) for their pharmacological activity. Internal standard calibration with six isotopically labelled compounds rendered good linearity in the range of 5 to 1000μg/l, depending on the compound, and good sensitivity with limits of quantification in the range of 0.02-9.80μg/l. Recoveries were assessed for all the 16 samples analysed and were found between 70% and 120% for over 90% of the analytes. The average recovery value was 90.8%, for the different studied matrices (liquids, liquid ampoules, tablets and capsules), with RSD values lower than 10% for all forms. The changes introduced to the QuEChERS procedure maintained the good performance characteristics of the extraction method while preserving the chromatographic system for the introduction of unwanted matrix compounds. Synephrine was the only compound detected and quantified in one sample, but at a very low concentration (768μg/l) and its presence may be due to the plant extracts used in the formulation, as synephrine is known to be a natural constituent of Citrus aurantium amara. Despite none of the 16 evaluated samples were found to be adulterated by the illegal addition of the drugs included in this work, the developed methodology can be very useful for monitoring the adulteration of weight-loss PFS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Injung; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Lee, Kwang-Pill
The separation of chiral compounds is an interesting and challenging topic in analytical chemistry, especially in environmental fields. Enantioselective degradation or bioaccumulation has been observed for several chiral pollutants. Polycyclic musks are chiral and are widely used as fragrances in a variety of personal care products such as soaps, shampoos, cosmetics and perfumes. In this study, the gas chromatographic separation of chiral polycyclic musks, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclo-penta-γ-2-benzopyrane (HHCB), 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydronaphthalene (AHTN), 6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindane (AHDI), 5-acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-iso-propylindane (ATII), and 6,7-dihydro-1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-4(5H)-indanone (DPMI) was achieved on modified cyclodextrin stationary phase (heptakis (2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl-β-CD in DV-1701)). Separation techniques are coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS), as it provides the sensitivity and selectivity needed. River and wastewaters (influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)) in the Nakdong River were investigated with regard to the concentrations and the enantiomeric ratios of polycyclic musks. HHCB was most frequently detected in river and wastewaters, and an enantiomeric enrichment was observed in the effluents of one of the investigated wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We reported the contamination of river and wastewaters in Korea by chiral polycyclic musks. The results of this investigation suggest that enantioselective transformation may occur during wastewater treatment. PMID:27011195
Goswami, Dipanjan; Kumar, Ajay; Khuroo, Arshad H; Monif, Tausif; Rab, Shamsur
A LC-MS/MS method for plasma topiramate analysis is delineated involving least number of healthy volunteers. Topiramate and amlodipine internal standard (IS) were extracted by simple centrifuge-coupled solid-phase extraction and reverse-phase chromatographic separation was performed on an Ascentis C(18) column. Turbo-spray negative-ion mode multiple-reaction monitoring was selected for mass pair detection at m/z 338.3 --> 78.0 and m/z 407.3 --> 295.5 for analyte and IS respectively. The method showed a dynamic linearity range from 10.4 to 2045.0 ng/mL, lower limit of quantitation achieved at 10.4 ng/mL and finally a mass spectrometric total run time of within 2.5 min for human sample analysis. Bioequivalence was assessed successfully using this fully validated method on 16 fasted Indian male subjects with 25 mg topiramate tablet administration. An appropriate study design describes plasma samples collection up to 216 h post dose in two periods, separated by a 28 day washout period. The challenge of half-life matching for test and reference drug was achieved with 73.43 +/- 9.68 and 73.06 +/- 14.03 h, respectively, and intra-subject coefficient of variation achieved within 11% for AUCs and C(max) evaluated by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The results of LCMS topiramate complete method validation supported by pharmacokinetic study have not been published before, and are presented and discussed for the first time in this article. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Whelan, Stephen A; He, Jianbo; Lu, Ming; Souda, Puneet; Saxton, Romaine E; Faull, Kym F; Whitelegge, Julian P; Chang, Helena R
We have begun an early phase of biomarker discovery in three clinically important types of breast cancer using a panel of human cell lines: HER2 positive, hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative, and triple negative (HER2-, ER-, PR-). We identified and characterized the most abundant secreted, sloughed, or leaked proteins released into serum free media from these breast cancer cell lines using a combination of protein fractionation methods before LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 249 proteins were detected in the proximal fluid of 7 breast cancer cell lines. The expression of a selected group of high abundance and/or breast cancer-specific potential biomarkers including thromobospondin 1, galectin-3 binding protein, cathepsin D, vimentin, zinc-α2-glycoprotein, CD44, and EGFR from the breast cancer cell lines and in their culture media were further validated by Western blot analysis. Interestingly, mass spectrometry identified a cathepsin D protein single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by alanine to valine replacement from the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Comparison of each cell line media proteome displayed unique and consistent biosignatures regardless of the individual group classifications, demonstrating the potential for stratification of breast cancer. On the basis of the cell line media proteome, predictive Tree software was able to categorize each cell line as HER2 positive, HER2 negative, and hormone receptor positive and triple negative based on only two proteins, muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and keratin 19. In addition, the predictive Tree software clearly identified MCF-7 cell line overexpresing the HER2 receptor with the SNP cathepsin D biomarker.
Koster, Remco A; Greijdanus, Ben; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C; Touw, Daan J
In order to monitor creatinine levels or to adjust the dosage of renally excreted or nephrotoxic drugs, the analysis of creatinine in dried blood spots (DBS) could be a useful addition to DBS analysis. We developed a LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of creatinine in the same DBS extract that was used for the analysis of tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, and cyclosporine A in transplant patients with the use of Whatman FTA DMPK-C cards. The method was validated using three different strategies: a seven-point calibration curve using the intercept of the calibration to correct for the natural presence of creatinine in reference samples, a one-point calibration curve at an extremely high concentration in order to diminish the contribution of the natural presence of creatinine, and the use of creatinine-[(2)H3] with an eight-point calibration curve. The validated range for creatinine was 120 to 480 μmol/L (seven-point calibration curve), 116 to 7000 μmol/L (1-point calibration curve), and 1.00 to 400.0 μmol/L for creatinine-[(2)H3] (eight-point calibration curve). The precision and accuracy results for all three validations showed a maximum CV of 14.0% and a maximum bias of -5.9%. Creatinine in DBS was found stable at ambient temperature and 32 °C for 1 week and at -20 °C for 29 weeks. Good correlations were observed between patient DBS samples and routine enzymatic plasma analysis and showed the capability of the DBS method to be used as an alternative for creatinine plasma measurement.
Alves, Marcela Nogueira Rabelo; Zanchetti, Gabriele; Piccinotti, Alberto; Tameni, Silvia; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa; Polettini, Aldo
A method for rapid, selective, and robust determination of cocaine (CO) and metabolites in 5-mg hair samples was developed and fully validated using a column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system (LC-MS-MS). Hair samples were decontaminated, segmented, incubated overnight in diluted HCl, and centrifuged, and the diluted (1:10 with distilled water) extracts were analyzed in positive ionization mode monitoring two reactions per analyte. Quantifier transitions were: m/z 304.2→182.2 for CO, m/z 290.1→168.1 for benzoylecgonine (BE), and m/z 318.2→196.2 for cocaethylene (CE). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was set at 0.05 ng/mg for CO and CE, and 0.012 ng/mg for BE. Imprecision and inaccuracy at LLOQ were lower than 20 % for all analytes. Linearity ranged between 0.05 and 50.0 ng/mg for CO and CE and 0.012 and 12.50 ng/mg for BE. Selectivity, matrix effect, process efficiency, recovery, carryover, cross talk, and autosampler stability were also evaluated during validation. Eighteen real hair samples and five samples from a commercial proficiency testing program were comparatively examined with the proposed multidimensional chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry procedure and our reference gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Compared with our reference GC-MS method, column-switching technique and the high sensitivity of the tandem mass spectrometry detection system allowed to significantly reduce sample amount (×10) with increased sensitivity (×2) and sample throughput (×4), to simplify sample preparation, and to avoid that interfering compounds and ions impaired the ionization and detection of the analytes and deteriorate the performance of the ion source.
Morrison, Lucas M; Renaud, Justin B; Sabourin, Lyne; Sumarah, Mark W; Yeung, Ken K C; Lapen, David R
Background : Neonicotinoids are among the most widely used insecticides. Recently, there has been concern associated with unintended adverse effects on honeybees and aquatic invertebrates at low parts-per-trillion levels. Objective : There is a need for LC-MS/MS methods that are capable of high-throughput measurements of the most widely used neonicotinoids at environmentally relevant concentrations in surface water. Methods : This method allows for quantitation of acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam in surface water. Deuterated internal standards are added to 20 mL environmental samples, which are concentrated by lyophilisation and reconstituted with methanol followed by acetonitrile. Results : A large variation of mean recovery efficiencies across five different surface water sampling sites within this study was observed, ranging from 45 to 74%. This demonstrated the need for labelled internal standards to compensate for these differences. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) performed better than electrospray ionization (ESI) with limited matrix suppression, achieving 71-110% of the laboratory fortified blank signal. Neonicotinoids were resolved on a C18 column using a 5 min LC method, in which MQL ranged between 0.93 and 4.88 ng/L. Conclusions : This method enables cost effective, accurate, and reproducible monitoring of these pesticides in the aquatic environment. Highlights : Lyophilization is used for high throughput concentration of neonicotinoids in surface water. Variations in matrix effects between samples was greatly reduced by using APCI compared with ESI. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were detected in all samples with levels ranging from below method quantitation limit to 65 ng/L.
Huang, Xiang-Xin; Li, Yun-Xuan; Li, Xiang-Yu; Hu, Xiao-Xia; Tang, Peng-Fei; Hu, Guo-Xin
Currently, crizotinib is the first generation drug, which has been used in the treatment of ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, more and more patients are found in crizotinib-resistance. In the last year, alectinib has been approved for treatment of patients with crizotinib-resistance. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a simple, rapid and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of alectinib in rat plasma. Diazepam was chosen as an internal standard (IS). Protein precipitation by acetonitrile was utilized to prepare plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 (2.1×50mm, 1.8μ) column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid). The analytes were detected by an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive mode. A dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was developed to detect specific precursor and product ions. The target fragment ions were m/z 483.2→396.1 for alectinib and m/z 285.0→192.9 for diazepam (IS). Linear calibration plots were achieved in the range of 1-500ng/ml for alectinib (R 2 =0.997) in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of alectinib in rat plasma ranged from 84.2% to 92.2%. The intra- and inter-day precision was below 9.3% and accuracy was from -1.4% to 12.1%. No obvious matrix effect was found. This method shows a good performance: accuracy, precision and stability. It has been fully validated and successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of alectinib. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ge, Jingqiu; Hu, Yijie; Wang, Hongxia; Huang, Yuanshe; Zhang, Peng; Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min
Anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato (PSP) are beneficial to human health. The leaf color (Lc) gene is a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. The anthocyanin profiles of wild-type PSP of Ayamurasaki and its three Lc-transgenic lines were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In vitro antioxidant activities of wild-type and Lc-transgenic lines, including reducing power activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity, ABTS free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity activity, were measured. The results showed that the total anthocyanin contents increased 1.5-1.9 times in three transgenic lines compared with that in wild-type PSP. Seventeen anthocyanins were found in wild-type PSP, while 19 in Lc-transgenic lines including cyanidin-based, peonidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins. Three pelargonidin-based anthocyanins were detected in three Lc-transgenic lines. Among them, the relative contents of cyanidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins increased 1.9-2.0 and 3.4-4.5 times respectively, while peonidin-based anthocyanins decreased 1.8-1.9 times in Lc-transgenic lines, compared with wild-type PSP. PSP from wild-type Ayamurasaki and three Lc-transgenic lines exhibited potent antioxidant activities, whereas there was no distinct difference among them. The transgene Lc significantly increased the content of total anthocyanins and remarkably changed the anthocyanin profiles in Ayamurasaki. Such novel and high content of anthocyanins obtained in the Lc-transgenic lines with potent antioxidant activities may provide unique functional products with potential helpful for human health. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Vanzo, Andreja; Janeš, Lucija; Požgan, Franc; Velikonja Bolta, Špela; Sivilotti, Paolo; Lisjak, Klemen
Varietal thiol precursors in grapes are subject to metabolic changes during post-harvest treatments. Metabolic activity should therefore be limited after sampling to understand their biosynthesis in the berry and genetic regulation. In this study, berries were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after harvesting, transported in dry ice, stored briefly at -80 °C, cryo-milled and extracted without being thawed in cold methanol in a ratio of 1:4 (w/v). A UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of the thiol precursors 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol (G3MH), 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol (Cys3MH), 4-S-glutathionyl-4-methylpentan-2-one (G4MMP) and 4-S-cysteinyl-4-methylpentan-2-one (Cys4MMP), glutathione, oxidized glutathione and L-methionine in grapes was developed. Reference material was provided through synthesis of precursors and their deuterium labelled analogues. The average thiol precursor content in grapes in 2013-15 was in the range 8-16 μg kg -1 for G3MH, 1-6 μg kg -1 for Cys3MH, 1-4 μg kg -1 for Cys4MMP and 0.3 μg kg -1 for G4MMP. In 2013 and 2014, the highest precursor content in mature Sauvignon Blanc grapes from vineyards located in Italy regarded G3MH, followed by Cys3MH, Cys4MMP and G4MMP. In 2015, G3MH was again the most abundant precursor, but followed by Cys4MMP, Cys3MH and G4MMP.
Jang, Moonhee; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Inhoi; Yang, Wonkyung
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is administered in low dosages, which makes its detection in biological matrices a major challenge in forensic toxicology. In this study, two sensitive and reliable methods based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were established and validated for the simultaneous determination of LSD and its metabolite, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), in hair and urine. Target analytes in hair were extracted using methanol at 38°C for 15h and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. For urine sample preparation, liquid-liquid extraction was performed. Limits of detection (LODs) in hair were 0.25pg/mg for LSD and 0.5pg/mg for O-H-LSD. In urine, LODs were 0.01 and 0.025ng/ml for LSD and O-H-LSD, respectively. Method validation results showed good linearity and acceptable precision and accuracy. The developed methods were applied to authentic specimens from two legal cases of LSD ingestion, and allowed identification and quantification of LSD and O-H-LSD in the specimens. In the two cases, LSD concentrations in hair were 1.27 and 0.95pg/mg; O-H-LSD was detected in one case, but its concentration was below the limit of quantification. In urine samples collected from the two suspects 8 and 3h after ingestion, LSD concentrations were 0.48 and 2.70ng/ml, respectively, while O-H-LSD concentrations were 4.19 and 25.2ng/ml, respectively. These methods can be used for documenting LSD intake in clinical and forensic settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Krock, Bernd; Busch, Julia A.; García-Camacho, Francisco; Sánchez-Mirón, Asterio; Gallardo-Rodríguez, Juan J.; López-Rosales, Lorenzo; Andree, Karl B.; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Witt, Matthias; Place, Allen R.
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the detection and quantitation of karlotoxins in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. This novel method was based upon the analysis of purified karlotoxins (KcTx-1, KmTx-2, 44-oxo-KmTx-2, KmTx-5), one amphidinol (AM-18), and unpurified extracts of bulk cultures of the marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum strain CCMP2936 from Delaware (Eastern USA), which produces KmTx-1 and KmTx-3. The limit of detection of the SRM method for KmTx-2 was determined as 2.5 ng on-column. Collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra of all putative karlotoxins were recorded to present fragmentation patterns of each compound for their unambiguous identification. Bulk cultures of K. veneficum strain K10 isolated from an embayment of the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean, yielded five previously unreported putative karlotoxins with molecular masses 1280, 1298, 1332, 1356, and 1400 Da, and similar fragments to KmTx-5. Analysis of several isolates of K. veneficum from the Ebro Delta revealed small-scale diversity in the karlotoxin spectrum in that one isolate from Fangar Bay produced KmTx-5, whereas the five putative novel karlotoxins were found among several isolates from nearby, but hydrographically distinct Alfacs Bay. Application of this LC-MS/MS method represents an incremental advance in the determination of putative karlotoxins, particularly in the absence of a complete spectrum of purified analytical standards of known specific potency. PMID:29258236
Gajbhiye, Narendra A; Makasana, Jayanti; Kumar, Satyanshu
A comprehensive experiment was conducted to study the accumulation pattern and determination of three important bioactive compounds namely withaferin-A (WA), 12-deoxywithastramonolide (WO) and withanolide-A (WD) and its determination by the liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method in root, stem, fruits and leaves of Withania somnifera. A rapid and sensitive LC-ESI-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of these three important bioactive compounds, having same molecular weight. The multiple reaction monitoring method was established by two transitions for each analyte and intense transition used for quantification. Separation of the three analytes was achieved within a run time of 5 min on an RP-18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid in water in an isocratic condition. The developed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The developed method was found to be suitable for identification and quantification of WA, WO and WD in different plant parts such as roots, stems, fruits and leaves of W. somnifera. The accumulation of WA was highest in leaves samples (8.84 ± 0.37 mg/g) and it was 2.23, 5.85 and 27.26 times higher than its concentration in fruits, stems and roots, respectively. WO and WD contents were highest (0.44 ± 0.016 and 0.72 ± 0.016 mg/g, respectively) in root. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Jacobs, Bart A W; Rosing, Hilde; de Vries, Niels; Meulendijks, Didier; Henricks, Linda M; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H
Quantification of the endogenous dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) substrate uracil (U) and the reaction product dihydrouracil (UH2) in plasma might be suitable for identification of patients at risk of fluoropyrimidine-induced toxicity as a result of DPD deficiency. In this paper, we describe the development and validation of a rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) assay for quantification of U and UH2 in human plasma. Analytes were extracted by protein precipitation, chromatographically separated on an Acquity UPLC(®) HSS T3 column with gradient elution and analyzed with a tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source. U was quantified in the negative ion mode and UH2 in the positive ion mode. Stable isotopes for U and UH2 were used as internal standards. Total chromatographic run time was 5min. Validated concentration ranges for U and UH2 were from 1 to 100ng/mL and 10 to 1000ng/mL, respectively. Inter-assay bias and inter-assay precision for U were within ±2.8% and ≤12.4%. For UH2, inter-assay bias and inter-assay precision were within ±2.9% and ≤7.2%. Adequate stability of U and UH2 in dry extract, final extract, stock solution and plasma was demonstrated. Stability of U and UH2 in whole blood was only satisfactory when stored up to 4hours at 2-8°C, but not at ambient temperatures. An accurate, precise and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for quantification of U and UH2 in plasma was developed. This assay is now applied to support clinical studies with fluoropyrimidine drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xavier, Jadriane de Almeida; Valentim, Iara Barros; Camatari, Fabiana O S; de Almeida, Alberto M M; Goulart, Henrique Fonseca; Ferro, Jamylle Nunes de Souza; Barreto, Emiliano de Oliveira; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coelho; Bottoli, Carla B G; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca
Propolis has promising biological activities. Propolis samples from the Northeast of Bahia, Brazil - sample A from Ribeira do Pombal and B, from Tucano - were investigated, with new information regarding their biological activities. This paper describes the chemical profile, antioxidant, anti-glycation and cytotoxic activities of these propolis samples. Ethanol extracts of these propolis samples (EEP) and their fractions were analyzed to determine total phenolic content (TPC); antioxidant capacity through DPPH • , FRAP and lipid peroxidation; anti-glycation activity, by an in vitro glucose (10 mg/mL) bovine serum albumine (1 mg/mL) assay, during 7 d; cytotoxic activity on cancer (SF295, HCT-116, OVCAR-8, MDA-MB435, MX-1, MCF7, HL60, JURKAT, MOLT-4, K562, PC3, DU145) and normal cell lines (V79) at 0.04-25 μg/mL concentrations, for 72 h. The determination of primary phenols by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and volatile organic compounds content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were also performed. The EEP polar fractions exhibited up to 90% protection against lipid peroxidation. The IC 50 value for anti-glycation activity of EEP was between 16.5 and 19.2 μg/mL, close to aminoguanidine (IC 50 = 7.7 μg/mL). The use of UHPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS allowed the identification of 12 bioactive phenols in the EEP and 24 volatile compounds, all already reported. The samples present good antioxidant/anti-glycation/cytotoxic activities and a plethora of biologically active compounds. These results suggest a potential role of propolis in targeting ageing and diseases associated with oxidative and carbonylic stress, aggregating value to them.
Camino-Sánchez, F J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Oliver-Rodríguez, B; Ballesteros, O; Navalón, A; Crovetto, G; Vílchez, J L
A rapid, simple and sensitive multi-residue method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification and confirmation of 69 pesticides in fruit and vegetables using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted following the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method known as QuEChERS. Mass spectrometric conditions were individually optimised for each analyte in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Using the developed chromatographic conditions, 69 pesticides can be separated in less than 17 min. Two selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assays were used for each pesticide to obtain simultaneous quantification and identification in one run. With this method in SRM mode, more than 150 pesticides can be analysed and quantified, but their confirmation is not possible in all cases according to the European regulations on pesticide residues. Nine common representative matrices (zucchini, melon, cucumber, watermelon, tomato, garlic, eggplant, lettuce and pepper) were selected to investigate the effect of different matrices on recovery and precision. Mean recoveries ranged from 70% to 120%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 20% for all the pesticides. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of more than 2000 vegetable samples from the extensive greenhouse cultivation in the province of Almeria, Spain, during one year. The methodology combines the advantages of both QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS producing a very rapid, sensitive, accurate and reliable procedure that can be applied in routine analytical laboratories. The method was validated and accredited according to UNE-EN-ISO/IEC 17025:2005 international standard (accreditation number 278/LE1027).
Krock, Bernd; Busch, Julia A; Tillmann, Urban; García-Camacho, Francisco; Sánchez-Mirón, Asterio; Gallardo-Rodríguez, Juan J; López-Rosales, Lorenzo; Andree, Karl B; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Witt, Matthias; Cembella, Allan D; Place, Allen R
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the detection and quantitation of karlotoxins in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. This novel method was based upon the analysis of purified karlotoxins (KcTx-1, KmTx-2, 44-oxo-KmTx-2, KmTx-5), one amphidinol (AM-18), and unpurified extracts of bulk cultures of the marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum strain CCMP2936 from Delaware (Eastern USA), which produces KmTx-1 and KmTx-3. The limit of detection of the SRM method for KmTx-2 was determined as 2.5 ng on-column. Collision induced dissociation (CID) spectra of all putative karlotoxins were recorded to present fragmentation patterns of each compound for their unambiguous identification. Bulk cultures of K. veneficum strain K10 isolated from an embayment of the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean, yielded five previously unreported putative karlotoxins with molecular masses 1280, 1298, 1332, 1356, and 1400 Da, and similar fragments to KmTx-5. Analysis of several isolates of K. veneficum from the Ebro Delta revealed small-scale diversity in the karlotoxin spectrum in that one isolate from Fangar Bay produced KmTx-5, whereas the five putative novel karlotoxins were found among several isolates from nearby, but hydrographically distinct Alfacs Bay. Application of this LC-MS/MS method represents an incremental advance in the determination of putative karlotoxins, particularly in the absence of a complete spectrum of purified analytical standards of known specific potency.
Dong, Xue; Zhou, Shiyue; Mechref, Yehia
Oligosaccharides in milk not only provide nutrition to the infants but also have significant immune biofunctions such as inhibition of pathogen binding to the host cell. The main component in milk oligosaccharides is free oligosaccharides. Since the proteins in milk are highly glycosylated, N-glycans in milk also play an import role. In this study, we investigated the permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans extracted from bovine, goat, and human milks using LC-MS/MS. Quantitation profiles of free oligosaccharides and N-glycans were reported. The number of free oligosaccharides observed in bovine, goat, and human milk samples (without isomeric consideration) were 11, 8, and 11, respectively. Human milk had more complex free oligosaccharides structures than the other two milk samples. Totally 58, 21, and 43 N-glycan structures (without isomeric consideration) were associated with whey proteins extracted from bovine, goat, and human milk samples, respectively. Bovine milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were highly sialylated and to a lesser extend fucosylated. Goat and human milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were both highly fucosylated. Also, the isomeric glycans in milk samples were determined by porous graphitic carbon LC at elevated temperatures. For example, separation of human milk free oligosaccharide Gal-GlcNAc-(Fuc)-Gal-Glc and Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-Fuc isomers was achieved using porous graphitic carbon column. Permethylation of the glycan structures facilitated the interpretation of MS/MS. For example, internal cleavage and glycosidic bond cleavage are readily distinguished in the tandem mass spectra of permethylated glycans. This feature resulted in the identification of several isomers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Barrett, Yu Chen; Akinsanya, Billy; Chang, Shu-Ying; Vesterqvist, Ole
A sensitive method for quantitation of urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol (6beta-HC) and cortisol using on-line SPE and LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. Human urine samples were injected directly onto an on-line solid phase extraction apparatus, Prospekt-2, followed by HPLC separation and electrospray triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS detection. The inter-day precision for the 6beta-HC:cortisol ratio was 7-9%. The lower limit of quantitation was 1 and 0.2 ng/mL for 6beta-HC and cortisol, respectively. Using the method we observed a diurnal variation on the 6beta-HC:cortisol ratio in healthy volunteers with the maximal ratio observed in the 2-10 pm urine collection period.
Parker, Patrick D.; Beers, Brandon; Vergne, Matthew J.
Laboratory experiments were developed to introduce students to the quantitation of drugs of abuse by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Undergraduate students were introduced to internal standard quantitation and the LC-MS/MS method optimization for cocaine. Cocaine extracted from paper currency was…
Method 544 is an accurate and precise analytical method to determine six microcystins (including MC-LR) and nodularin in drinking water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS/MS). The advantage of this SPE-LC/MS/MS is its sensi...
Montoro, Paola; Maldini, Mariateresa; Russo, Mariateresa; Postorino, Santo; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo
Liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) has been applied to the full characterization of saponins and phenolics in hydroalcoholic extracts of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Relative quantitative analyses of the samples with respect to the phenolic constituents and to a group of saponins related to glycyrrhizic acid were performed using LC-ESI/MS. For the saponin constituents, full scan LC-MS/MS fragmentation of the protonated (positive ion mode) or deprotonated (negative ion mode) molecular species generated diagnostic fragment ions that provided information concerning the triterpene skeleton and the number and nature of the substituents. On the basis of the specific fragmentation of glycyrrhizic acid, an LC-MS/MS method was developed in order to quantify the analyte in the liquorice root samples. Chinese G. glabra roots contained the highest levels of glycyrrhizic acid, followed by those from Italy (Calabria). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
West, Robert; Pesce, Amadeo; West, Cameron; Crews, Bridgit; Mikel, Charles; Almazan, Perla; Rosenthal, Murray; Latyshev, Sergey
Physicians determine patient compliance with their medications by use of urine drug testing. It is known that measurement of benzodiazepines is limited by immunoassay specificity and cutoff limits and therefore does not offer physicians an accurate picture of their patients' compliance with these medications. A few studies have used lower cutoffs to demonstrate patient compliance. To define more appropriate cutoffs for compliance monitoring of patients prescribed clonazepam as determined using immunoassay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A diagnostic accuracy study of the urinary excretion of clonazepam. Millennium Laboratories performed measurements on the urinary excretion of pain patients prescribed clonazepam as the indicator test. This benzodiazepine was chosen because it forms one major metabolite, 7-aminoclonazepam which is specific for that drug. Patients whose only benzodiazepine medication was clonazepam were selected as the test population. The Millennium Laboratories test database was filtered first to select patients on clonazepam, then a second filter was used to eliminate patients with any other listed benzodiazepine medications. Samples were tested using the Microgenics DRI benzodiazepine assay with a 200 ng/mL cutoff. The same samples were quantitatively assessed for 7-aminoclonazepam by LC-MS/MS with a cutoff of 40 ng/mL. The results from the immunoassay were scored as positive or negative while the quantitative results from the LC-MS/MS were also scored as positive or negative depending upon their concentration. Samples from 180 patients met these medication criteria. The positivity rates were 21% (38 samples) by immunoassay. The positivity rate was 70% (126 samples) if the LC-MS/MS cutoff was set at 200 ng/mL. However, the positivity rate was 87% (157 samples) if the LC-MS/MS was set at 40 ng/mL. Concentration distributions revealed a significant fraction (7%) in the 40 - 100 ng/mL range. A limitation of the study
Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Félix
Sensitive and reliable analytical methodology has been developed for the measurement of patulin in regulated foodstuffs by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with triple quadrupole analyser. Solid samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, while liquid samples were directly injected into the chromatographic system after dilution and filtration without any clean-up step. Chromatographic separation was achieved in less than 4min. Electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) sources were evaluated, in order to assess matrix effects. The use of ESI source caused strong signal suppression in samples; however, matrix effect was negligible using APCI, allowing quantification with calibration standards prepared in solvent. The method was validated in four different apple matrices (juice, fruit, puree and compote) at two concentrations at the low μgkg(-1) level. Average recoveries (n=5) ranged from 71% to 108%, with RSDs lower than 14%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ferreira, Jordana Alves; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; Talamini, Viviane; Facco, Janice de Fátima; Rizzetti, Tiele Medianeira; Prestes, Osmar Damian; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan
The use of pesticides is directly linked to improvements in productivity and to the preservation of coconut palms. However pesticide analysis is necessary to determine whether pesticide residues in the food products containing coconut are within the maximum residue limits (MRLs), ensuring the quality of these products. This work aimed to develop a method for multiresidue determination of ten pesticides in coconut water and pulp using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS. The method was effective in terms of selectivity, linearity, matrix effect, accuracy and precision, providing LOD of 3μgkg(-1), LOQ of 10μgkg(-1) and recoveries between 70 and 120% with RSD lower than 20%. The developed method was applied to 36 samples in which residues of carbendazim, carbofuran, cyproconazole and thiabendazole were found below the LOQ in coconut water and pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bereman, Michael S; Johnson, Richard; Bollinger, James; Boss, Yuval; Shulman, Nick; MacLean, Brendan; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; MacCoss, Michael J
Statistical process control (SPC) is a robust set of tools that aids in the visualization, detection, and identification of assignable causes of variation in any process that creates products, services, or information. A tool has been developed termed Statistical Process Control in Proteomics (SProCoP) which implements aspects of SPC (e.g., control charts and Pareto analysis) into the Skyline proteomics software. It monitors five quality control metrics in a shotgun or targeted proteomic workflow. None of these metrics require peptide identification. The source code, written in the R statistical language, runs directly from the Skyline interface, which supports the use of raw data files from several of the mass spectrometry vendors. It provides real time evaluation of the chromatographic performance (e.g., retention time reproducibility, peak asymmetry, and resolution), and mass spectrometric performance (targeted peptide ion intensity and mass measurement accuracy for high resolving power instruments) via control charts. Thresholds are experiment- and instrument-specific and are determined empirically from user-defined quality control standards that enable the separation of random noise and systematic error. Finally, Pareto analysis provides a summary of performance metrics and guides the user to metrics with high variance. The utility of these charts to evaluate proteomic experiments is illustrated in two case studies.
Smalley, James; Marino, Anthony M; Xin, Baomin; Olah, Timothy; Balimane, Praveen V
Caco-2 cells, the human colon carcinoma cells, are typically used for screening compounds for their permeability characteristics and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) interaction potential during discovery and development. The P-gp inhibition of test compounds is assessed by performing bi-directional permeability studies with digoxin, a well established P-gp substrate probe. Studies performed with digoxin alone as well as digoxin in presence of test compounds as putative inhibitors constitute the P-gp inhibition assay used to assess the potential liability of discovery compounds. Radiolabeled (3)H-digoxin is commonly used in such studies followed by liquid scintillation counting. This manuscript describes the development of a sensitive, accurate, and reproducible LC-MS/MS method for analysis of digoxin and its internal standard digitoxin using an on-line extraction turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometric detection that is amendable to high throughput with use of 96-well plates. The standard curve for digoxin was linear between 10 nM and 5000 nM with regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.99. The applicability and reliability of the analysis method was evaluated by successful demonstration of efflux ratio (permeability B to A over permeability A to B) greater than 10 for digoxin in Caco-2 cells. Additional evaluations were performed on 13 marketed compounds by conducting inhibition studies in Caco-2 cells using classical P-gp inhibitors (ketoconazole, cyclosporin, verapamil, quinidine, saquinavir etc.) and comparing the results to historical data with (3)H-digoxin studies. Similarly, P-gp inhibition studies with LC-MS/MS analytical method for digoxin were also performed for 21 additional test compounds classified as negative, moderate, and potent P-gp inhibitors spanning multiple chemo types and results compared with the historical P-gp inhibition data from the (3)H-digoxin studies. A very good correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.89 between the results
Salazar, Carolina; Armenta, Jenny M.; Shulaev, Vladimir
In spite of the large arsenal of methodologies developed for amino acid assessment in complex matrices, their implementation in metabolomics studies involving wide-ranging mutant screening is hampered by their lack of high-throughput, sensitivity, reproducibility, and/or wide dynamic range. In response to the challenge of developing amino acid analysis methods that satisfy the criteria required for metabolomic studies, improved reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-MS) methods have been recently reported for large-scale screening of metabolic phenotypes. However, these methods focus on the direct analysis of underivatized amino acids and, therefore, problems associated with insufficient retention and resolution are observed due to the hydrophilic nature of amino acids. It is well known that derivatization methods render amino acids more amenable for reverse phase chromatographic analysis by introducing highly-hydrophobic tags in their carboxylic acid or amino functional group. Therefore, an analytical platform that combines the 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) pre-column derivatization method with ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) is presented in this article. For numerous reasons typical amino acid derivatization methods would be inadequate for large scale metabolic projects. However, AQC derivatization is a simple, rapid and reproducible way of obtaining stable amino acid adducts amenable for UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the applicability of the method for high-throughput metabolomic analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana is demonstrated in this study. Overall, the major advantages offered by this amino acid analysis method include high-throughput, enhanced sensitivity and selectivity; characteristics that showcase its utility for the rapid screening of the preselected plant metabolites without compromising the quality of the metabolic data. The
Salazar, Carolina; Armenta, Jenny M; Shulaev, Vladimir
In spite of the large arsenal of methodologies developed for amino acid assessment in complex matrices, their implementation in metabolomics studies involving wide-ranging mutant screening is hampered by their lack of high-throughput, sensitivity, reproducibility, and/or wide dynamic range. In response to the challenge of developing amino acid analysis methods that satisfy the criteria required for metabolomic studies, improved reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-MS) methods have been recently reported for large-scale screening of metabolic phenotypes. However, these methods focus on the direct analysis of underivatized amino acids and, therefore, problems associated with insufficient retention and resolution are observed due to the hydrophilic nature of amino acids. It is well known that derivatization methods render amino acids more amenable for reverse phase chromatographic analysis by introducing highly-hydrophobic tags in their carboxylic acid or amino functional group. Therefore, an analytical platform that combines the 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) pre-column derivatization method with ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) is presented in this article. For numerous reasons typical amino acid derivatization methods would be inadequate for large scale metabolic projects. However, AQC derivatization is a simple, rapid and reproducible way of obtaining stable amino acid adducts amenable for UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the applicability of the method for high-throughput metabolomic analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana is demonstrated in this study. Overall, the major advantages offered by this amino acid analysis method include high-throughput, enhanced sensitivity and selectivity; characteristics that showcase its utility for the rapid screening of the preselected plant metabolites without compromising the quality of the metabolic data. The
Rama Raju, Kanumuri Siva; Taneja, Isha; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap; Tripathi, Amit; Mishra, Durga Prasad; Hussain, K Mahaboob; Gayen, Jiaur Rahman; Singh, Shio Kumar; Wahajuddin, Muhammad
Tamoxifen and centchroman are two non-steroidal, selective estrogen receptors modulators, intended for long term therapy in the woman. Because of their wide spread use, there is a possibility of co-prescription of these agents. We studied the probable pharmacokinetic interaction between these agents in breast cancer model rats. A simple, sensitive and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of tamoxifen, centchroman and their active metabolites. The method was linear over a range of 0.2-200 ng/ml. All validation parameters met the acceptance criteria according to regulatory guidelines. LC-MS/MS method for determination of tamoxifen, centchroman and their metabolites was developed and validated. Results show the potential of drug-drug interaction upon co-administration these two marketed drugs.
Fuertig, René; Ceci, Angelo; Camus, Sandrine M; Bezard, Erwan; Luippold, Andreas H; Hengerer, Bastian
The kynurenine (KYN) pathway is implicated in diseases such as cancer, psychiatric, neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. Measurement of KYN metabolite levels will help elucidating the involvement of the KYN pathway in the disease pathology and inform drug development. Samples of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid or brain tissue were spiked with deuterated internal standards, processed and analyzed by LC-MS/MS; analytes were chromatographically separated by gradient elution on a C18 reversed phase analytical column without derivatization. We established an LC-MS/MS method to measure 11 molecules, namely tryptophan, KYN, 3-OH-KYN, 3-OH-anthranilic acid, quinolinic acid, picolinic acid, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, serotonin, dopamine and neopterin within 5.5 min, with sufficient sensitivity to quantify these molecules in small sample volumes of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue.
Ichibangase, Tomoko; Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Yamabe, Akio; Koshiyama, Akiyo; Yoshimura, Akari; Enomoto, Takemi; Imai, Kazuhiro
Systems biology aims to understand biological phenomena in terms of complex biological and molecular interactions, and thus proteomics plays an important role in elucidating protein networks. However, many proteomic methods have suffered from their high variability, resulting in only showing altered protein names. Here, we propose a strategy for elucidating cellular protein networks based on an FD-LC-MS/MS proteomic method. The strategy permits reproducible relative quantitation of differences in protein levels between different cell populations and allows for integration of the data with those obtained through other methods. We demonstrate the validity of the approach through a comparison of differential protein expression in normal and conditional superoxide dismutase 1 gene knockout cells and believe that beginning with an FD-LC-MS/MS proteomic approach will enable researchers to elucidate protein networks more easily and comprehensively. PMID:23029042
Montoro, Paola; Maldini, Mariateresa; Piacente, Sonia; Macchia, Mario; Pizza, Cosimo
The major phytochemical constituents, namely, alkaloids, flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives, of leaves of Camptotheca acuminata were identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in extracts of plants cultivated in Italy and collected at different growth stages. Alkaloids related to camptothecin were identified and quantified by HPLC coupled with ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) employing, respectively, an ion trap and a triple quadrupole mass analyser. The fragmentation patterns of alkaloids related to camptothecin were analysed and a specific Multiple Reaction Monitoring HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative determination of these constituents. The described method provides high sensitivity and specificity for the characterisation and quantitative determination of the alkaloids in C. acuminata.
Molinaro, Ross J; Ritchie, James C
The following chapter describes a method to measure iothalamate in plasma and urine samples using high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Methanol and water are spiked with the internal standard (IS) iohexol. Iothalamate is isolated from plasma after IS spiked methanol extraction and from urine by IS spiked water addition and quick-spin filtration. The plasma extractions are dried under a stream of nitrogen. The residue is reconstituted in ammonium acetate-formic acid-water. The reconstituted plasma and filtered urine are injected into the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Iothalamate and iohexol show similar retention times in plasma and urine. Quantification of iothalamate in the samples is made by multiple reaction monitoring using the hydrogen adduct mass transitions, from a five-point calibration curve.
Wang, Qing; Zhao, Hua; Xi, Cunxian; Wang, Guomin; Chen, Dongdong; Ding, Shijia
An immunoaffinity column clean-up and LC-MS/MS method was successfully developed for simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, zearalanone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol, zearalenone, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol in pig muscle. The sample was extracted with diethyl ether after enzymatic digestion by β-glucuronidase/sulfatase. The extracted solution was evaporated to dryness and the residue was then dissolved in 1 ml of 50% acetonitrile solution. After filtration and dilution with phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the reconstituted solution was cleaned-up with an IAC-CZ immunoaffinity column and then analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. The established method were validated by linearity (r ≥ 0.9990), precision (RSD ≥ 2.9%), average recovery (74.5-105.0%) and limit of detection (0.04-0.10 μg kg(-1)). The developed method is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and has good applicability for real samples.
Bi, Yun-Feng; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Rui-Xing; Song, Feng-Rui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang
Mesaconitine was incubated with rat liver microsomes in vitro. The metabolites of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomes were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method with high resolution power. A typical reaction mixture of 100 mol L-1 Tris-HCI buffer (pH 7.4) containing 0.5 gL-1 microsomal protein and 50 micro molL-1 mesaconitine was prepared. The above reaction mixture was divided into six groups, and the volume of each group was 200 micro L. The incubation mixture was pre-incubated at 37 degrees C for 2 min and the reactions were initiated by adding NADPH generating system. After 90 min incubation at 37 degrees C, 200 micro L of acetonitrile was added to each group to stop the reaction. The metabolites of mesaconitine were investigated by UPLC-MS/MS method. Mesaconitine and 6 metabolites M1-M6 were found in the incubation system. The structures were characterized according to the data from MS/MS spectra and literatures. The metabolic reactions of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomes included the demethylation, deacetylation, dehydrogenation and hydroxylation. The major metabolic pathways of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomes were determined by UPLC-MS/MS on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode combined with specific inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms, including alpha-naphthoflavone (CYP1A2), quinine (CYP2D), diethyldithiocarbamate (CYP2E1), ketoconazole (CYP3A) and sulfaphenazole (CYP2C), separately. Mesaconitine was mainly metabolized by CYP3A. CYP2C and CYP2D were also more important CYP isoforms for the metabolism reactions of mesaconitine, but CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 haven't any contribution to MA metabolism in rat liver microsomes.
Yang, Wen; Li, Tengfei; Shu, Chang; Ji, Shunli; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yan; Li, Duo; Mtalimanja, Michael; Sun, Luning; Ding, Li
A method is described for the determination of proteins with LC-MS/MS enabled by a small molecule (adenosine) barcode and based on a double-recognition sandwich structure. The coagulation protein thrombin was chosen as the model analyte. Magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with aptamer29 (MNP/apt29) and used to capture thrombin from the samples. MNP/apt29 forms a sandwich with functionalized gold nanoparticles modified with (a) aptamer15 acting as thrombin-recognizing element and (b) a large number of adenosine as mass barcodes. The sandwich formed (MNP/apt29-thrombin-apt15/AuNP/adenosine) can ben magnetically separated from the sample. Mass barcodes are subsequently released from the sandwiched structure for further analysis by adding 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid. Adenosine is then detected by LC-MS/MS as it reflects the level of thrombin with impressively amplified signal. Numerous adenosines introduced into the sandwich proportional to the target concentration further amplify the signal. Under optimized conditions, the response is linearly proportional to the thrombin concentration in the range of 0.02 nM to 10 nM, with a detection limit of 9 fM. The application of this method to the determination of thrombin in spiked plasma samples gave recoveries that ranged from 92.3% to 104.7%. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of a method for the determination of thrombin with LC-MS/MS. The method is based on a double-recognition sandwiched structure. With LC-MS/MS, mass barcodes (adenosine) are detected to quantify thrombin, which amplifies the detection signal impressively.
Bruno, C; Dufour-Rainfray, D; Patin, F; Vourc'h, P; Guilloteau, D; Maillot, F; Labarthe, F; Tardieu, M; Andres, C R; Emond, P; Blasco, H
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder leading to high concentrations of phenylalanine (Phe) and low concentrations of tyrosine (Tyr) in blood and brain that may be neurotoxic. This disease requires a regular monitoring of plasma Phe and Tyr as well as branched-chain amino-acids concentrations to adapt the Phe-restricted diet and other therapy that may be prescribed in PKU. We validated a Flow Injection Analysis tandem Mass Spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS) to replace the enzymatic method routinely used for neonatal screening in order to monitor in parallel to Phe, Tyr and branched-chain amino-acids not detected by the enzymatic method. We ascertained the performances of the method: linearity, detection and quantification limits, contamination index, accuracy. We cross validated the FIA-MS/MS and enzymatic methods and we evaluated our own reference ranges to monitor Phe, Tyr, Leu, Val on 59 dried blood spots of normal controls. We also evaluated Tyr, Leu and Val concentrations in PKU patients to detect some potential abnormalities, not evaluated by the enzymatic method. We developed a rapid method with excellent performances including precision and accuracy <15%. We noted an excellent correlation of Phe concentrations between FIA-MS/MS and enzymatic methods (p<0.0001) based on our database which are similar to references ranges published. We observed that 50% of PKU patients had lower concentrations of Tyr, Leu and/or Val that could not be detected by the enzymatic method. Based on laboratory accreditation recommendations, we validated a robust, rapid and reliable FIA-MS/MS method to monitor plasma Phe concentrations but also Tyr, Leu and Val concentrations, suitable for PKU management. We evaluated our own reference ranges of concentration for a routine application of this method. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John D.; Henderson, John J.
A directional radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag reader has been designed to facilitate finding a specific object among many objects in a crowded room. The device could be an adjunct to an electronic inventory system that tracks RFID-tagged objects as they move through reader-equipped doorways. Whereas commercial RFID-tag readers do not measure directions to tagged objects, the device is equipped with a phased-array antenna and a received signal-strength indicator (RSSI) circuit for measuring direction. At the beginning of operation, it is set to address only the RFID tag of interest. It then continuously transmits a signal to interrogate that tag while varying the radiation pattern of the antenna. It identifies the direction to the tag as the radiation pattern direction of peak strength of the signal returned by the tag. An approximate distance to the tag is calculated from the peak signal strength. The direction and distance can be displayed on a screen. A prototype containing a Yagi antenna was found to be capable of detecting a 915.5-MHz tag at a distance of approximately equal to 15 ft (approximately equal to 4.6 m).
Pascali, Jennifer P; Fais, Paolo; Vaiano, Fabio; Bertol, Elisabetta
The growing market of herbal remedies worldwide could pose severe problems to consumers' health due to the possible presence of potentially harmful, undeclared synthetic substances or analogues of prescription drugs. The present work shows a simple but effective approach to unequivocally identify synthetic anorectic compounds in allegedly 'natural' herbal extracts, by exploiting liquid chromatography/time of flight (Q-TOF LC/MS) technology coupled to liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole (LC-MS/MS) confirmation and quantitation. The procedure was applied to five tea herbal extracts and pills sold as coadjutant for weigh loss. The method exploited liquid-liquid sample extraction (LLE) and separation in a C18 (2.1mm×150mm, 1.8μm) column. QTOF acquisitions were carried out both in scan mode and all ion MS/MS mode and results were obtained after search against ad hoc prepared library. Sibutramine, 4-hydroxyamphetamine, caffeine and theophylline were preliminary identified samples. Confirmation and quantitation of the preliminary identified compounds were obtained in LC-MS/MS after preparation of appropriated standards. Sibutramine, caffeine and theophylline were finally confirmed and quantitate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Di Rago, Matthew; Saar, Eva; Rodda, Luke N; Turfus, Sophie; Kotsos, Alex; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H
The aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS based screening technique that covers a broad range of acidic and neutral drugs and poisons by combining a small sample volume and efficient extraction technique with simple automated data processing. After protein precipitation of 100μL of whole blood, 132 common acidic and neutral drugs and poisons including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, anticonvulsants, antidiabetics, muscle relaxants, diuretics and superwarfarin rodenticides (47 quantitated, 85 reported as detected) were separated using a Shimadzu Prominence HPLC system with a C18 separation column (Kinetex XB-C18, 4.6mm×150mm, 5μm), using gradient elution with a mobile phase of 25mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 7.5)/acetonitrile. The drugs were detected using an ABSciex(®) API 2000 LC-MS/MS system (ESI+ and -, MRM mode, two transitions per analyte). The method was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines. Quantification data obtained using one-point calibration compared favorably to that using multiple calibrants. The presented LC-MS/MS assay has proven to be applicable for determination of the analytes in blood. The fast and reliable extraction method combined with automated processing gives the opportunity for high throughput and fast turnaround times for forensic and clinical toxicology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Honda, Akira; Yamashita, Kouwa; Ikegami, Tadashi; Hara, Takashi; Miyazaki, Teruo; Hirayama, Takeshi; Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Matsuzaki, Yasushi
We describe a new sensitive and specific method for the quantification of serum malonate (malonic acid, MA), which could be a new biomarker for de novo lipogenesis (fatty acid synthesis). This method is based upon a stable isotope-dilution technique using LC-MS/MS. MA from 50 μl of serum was derivatized into di-(1-methyl-3-piperidinyl)malonate (DMP-MA) and quantified by LC-MS/MS using the positive electrospray ionization mode. The detection limit of the DMP-MA was approximately 4.8 fmol (500 fg) (signal-to-noise ratio = 10), which was more than 100 times more sensitive compared with that of MA by LC-MS/MS using the negative electrospray ionization mode. The relative standard deviations between sample preparations and measurements made using the present method were 4.4% and 3.2%, respectively, by one-way ANOVA. Recovery experiments were performed using 50 μl aliquots of normal human serum spiked with 9.6 pmol (1 ng) to 28.8 pmol (3 ng) of MA and were validated by orthogonal regression analysis. The results showed that the estimated amount within a 95% confidence limit was 14.1 ± 1.1 pmol, which was in complete agreement with the observed X¯0 = 15.0 ± 0.6 pmol, with a mean recovery of 96.0%. This method provides reliable and reproducible results for the quantification of MA in human serum. PMID:19403942
Konz, Tobias; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Dayon, Loïc; Bowman, Gene; Oikonomidi, Aikaterini; Popp, Julius; Rezzi, Serge
We here describe the development, validation and application of a quantitative methodology for the simultaneous determination of 29 elements in human serum using state-of-the-art inductively coupled plasma triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). This new methodology offers high-throughput elemental profiling using simple dilution of minimal quantity of serum samples. We report the outcomes of the validation procedure including limits of detection/quantification, linearity of calibration curves, precision, recovery and measurement uncertainty. ICP-MS/MS-based ionomics was used to analyze human serum of 120 older adults. Following a metabolomic data mining approach, the generated ionome profiles were subjected to principal component analysis revealing gender and age-specific differences. The ionome of female individuals was marked by higher levels of calcium, phosphorus, copper and copper to zinc ratio, while iron concentration was lower with respect to male subjects. Age was associated with lower concentrations of zinc. These findings were complemented with additional readouts to interpret micronutrient status including ceruloplasmin, ferritin and inorganic phosphate. Our data supports a gender-specific compartmentalization of the ionome that may reflect different bone remodelling in female individuals. Our ICP-MS/MS methodology enriches the panel of validated "Omics" approaches to study molecular relationships between the exposome and the ionome in relation with nutrition and health.
Ni, Jinsong; Ouyang, Hui; Seto, Carmai; Sakuma, Takeo; Ellis, Robert; Rowe, Josh; Acheampong, Andrew; Welty, Devin; Szekely-Klepser, Gabriella
The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity requirement for LC-MS/MS as an analytical tool to characterize metabolites in plasma and urine at microdoses in rats and to investigate proportionality of metabolite exposure from a microdose of 1.67 µg/kg to a high dose of 5000 µg/kg for atorvastatin, ofloxacin, omeprazole and tamoxifen. Only the glucuronide metabolite of ofloxacin, the hydroxylation metabolite of omeprazole and the hydration metabolite of tamoxifen were characterized in rat plasma at microdose by LC-MS/MS. The exposure of detected metabolites of omeprazole and tamoxifen appeared to increase in a nonproportional manner with increasing doses. Exposure of ortho- and para-hydroxyatorvastatin, but not atorvastatin and lactone, increased proportionally with increasing doses. LC-MS/MS has demonstrated its usefulness for detecting and characterizing the major metabolites in plasma and urine at microdosing levels in rats. The exposure of metabolites at microdose could not simply be used to predict their exposure at higher doses.
Krock, Kevin; Pesce, Amadeo; Ritz, Dennis; Thomas, Richard; Cua, Agnes; Rogers, Ryan; Lipnick, Phil; Kilbourn, Kristen
Urine drug testing is used by health care providers to determine a patient's compliance to their prescribed regimen and to detect non-prescribed medications and illicit drugs. However, the cutoff levels used by clinical labs are often arbitrarily set and may not reflect the urine drug concentrations of compliant patients. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that commonly used cutoffs for many prescribed and illicit drugs were set too high, and methods using these cutoffs may yield a considerable number of false-negative results. The goals of this study were to outline the way to analyze patient results and estimate a more appropriate cutoff, develop and validate a high sensitivity analytical method capable of quantitating drugs and metabolites at lower than the commonly used cutoffs, and determine the number of true positive results that would have been missed when using the common cutoffs. This was a retrospective study of urine specimens submitted for urine drug testing as part of the monitoring of prescription drug compliance described in chronic opioid therapy treatment guidelines. The study was set in a clinical toxicology laboratory, using specimens submitted for routine analysis by health care providers in the normal course of business. Lognormal distributions of test results were generated and fitted with a trendline to estimate the required cutoff level necessary to capture the normal distributions of each drug for the patient population study. A validated laboratory derived liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis capable of achieving the required cutoff levels was developed for each drug and/or metabolite. The study shows that a lognormal distribution of patient urine test results fitted with a trendline is appropriate for estimating the required cutoff levels needed to assess medication adherence. The study showed a wide variation in the false-negative rate, ranging from 1.5% to 94.3% across a range of prescribed and illicit
Shokati, Touraj; Bodenberger, Nicholas; Gadpaille, Holly; Schniedewind, Björn; Vinks, Alexander A.; Jiang, Wenlei; Alloway, Rita R.; Christians, Uwe
The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is the cornerstone of most immunosuppressive treatment protocols after solid organ transplantation in the United States. Tacrolimus is a narrow therapeutic index drug and as such requires therapeutic drug monitoring and dose adjustment based on its whole blood trough concentrations. To facilitate home therapeutic drug and adherence monitoring, the collection of dried blood spots is an attractive concept. After a finger stick, the patient collects a blood drop on filter paper at home. After the blood is dried, it is mailed to the analytical laboratory where tacrolimus is quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in combination with a simple manual protein precipitation step and online column extraction. For tacrolimus analysis, a 6-mm disc is punched from the saturated center of the blood spot. The blood spot is homogenized using a bullet blender and then proteins are precipitated with methanol/0.2 M ZnSO4 containing the internal standard D2,13C-tacrolimus. After vortexing and centrifugation, 100 µl of supernatant is injected into an online extraction column and washed with 5 ml/min of 0.1 formic acid/acetonitrile (7:3, v:v) for 1 min. Hereafter, the switching valve is activated and the analytes are back-flushed onto the analytical column (and separated using a 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile gradient). Tacrolimus is quantified in the positive multi reaction mode (MRM) using a tandem mass spectrometer. The assay is linear from 1 to 50 ng/ml. Inter-assay variability (3.6%-6.1%) and accuracy (91.7%-101.6%) as assessed over 20 days meet acceptance criteria. Average extraction recovery is 95.5%. There are no relevant carry-over, matrix interferences and matrix effects. Tacrolimus is stable in dried blood spots at RT and at +4 °C for 1 week. Extracted samples in the autosampler are stable at +4 °C for at least 72 hr. PMID:26575262
High Throughput Analytical Techniques for the Determination and Confirmation of Residues of 653 Multiclass Pesticides and Chemical Pollutants in Tea by GC/MS, GC/MS/MS, and LC/MS/MS: Collaborative Study, First Action 2014.09.
Pang, Guo-Fang; Fan, Chun-Lin; Cao, Yan-Zhong; Yan, Fang; Li, Yan; Kang, Jian; Chen, Hui; Chang, Qiao-Ying
Thirty laboratories from fom North and South America, Europe, and Asia participated in this AOAC collaborative study (15 from China; five from Germany; two each from Italy and the United States; and one each from the Republic of Korea, Canada, Spain, Japan, Belgium, and India). Participants represented government regulatory, commercial testing, university, research institute, and private laboratories. The single-laboratory validated (SLV) tea method was evaluated in the collaborative study to determine the recovery and reproducibility of the method under multilaboratory conditions. Since there were no restrictions regarding the type of analytical instrumentation to use for the analyses, laboratories used a combination of equipment that included GC/MS, GC/MS/MS, and LC/MS/MS instruments from 22 different manufacturers, 21 brands of GC and LC columns, 13 different GC temperature programming profiles, 11 LC gradient elution programs, and six different vendor manufactured SPE cartridges. Even though all the analytical performance parameters for all the 653 compounds had been determined in the SLV study, guidance was obtained from an expert review panel of the AOAC Method-Centric Committee on Pesticide Residues to conduct the multilaboratory collaborative study based on 20 selected compounds that can be analyzed by GC/MS and 20 compounds that can be analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Altogether, 560 samples covering the 40 selected pesticides were analyzed in the study. These samples included green tea and oolong tea samples fortified typically at the European Union maximum residue limit for regulatory guidance and compliance, aged tea samples incurred with 20 pesticides, and green tea and oolong tea samples incurred with five pesticides. The analysis of the 560 samples generated a total of 82 459 test results by the 30 participating laboratories. One laboratory failed to meet the proficiency requirements in the precollaborative study. Therefore, its data submitted for the
Dong, Ying; Yan, Kuan; Ma, Yanhua; Wang, Shan; He, Genye; Deng, Jing; Yang, Zhiyong
A novel, reliable and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed with dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (dMRM) mode for the simultaneous screening of 71 stimulants and 7 metabolites in human urine using unsophisticated MS instruments (Agilent triple-quadruple 6410 B mass spectrometer). With a known retention time of an analyte, dMRM algorithm monitors each MRM transition only around its expected retention time. Therefore, dMRM enables the maximization of dwell times and provides much higher sensitivity and reproducibility than the conventional multiple reaction monitoring mode (cMRM). After precipitation of protein, the urine sample was injected into LC-MS-MS system directly without sample pre-concentration. For comparison, cMRM and dMRM acquisitions were performed under the same chromatographic conditions. The result showed that the signal response and quality of the chromatograms for each stimulant improved significantly with dMRM over cMRM. The method has been fully validated giving limits of detection (0.1-25 ng/mL) satisfactory for its application to anti-doping analysis. The repeatability of the concentrations and the retention times are good both for intra- and for inter-day experiments (%CV of concentrations always <20 and %CV of retention times <0.5). The method also afforded satisfactory results in terms of accuracy, matrix effect and specificity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background Aliphatic molecules containing free carboxyl groups are important intermediates in many metabolic and signalling reactions, however, they accumulate to low levels in tissues and are not efficiently ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI) compared to more polar substances. Quantification of aliphatic molecules becomes therefore difficult when small amounts of tissue are available for analysis. Traditional methods for analysis of these molecules require purification or enrichment steps, which are onerous when multiple samples need to be analyzed. In contrast to aliphatic molecules, more polar substances containing free carboxyl groups such as some phytohormones are efficiently ionized by ESI and suitable for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the development of a method with which aliphatic and polar molecules -which their unmodified forms differ dramatically in their efficiencies of ionization by ESI- can be simultaneously detected with similar sensitivities would substantially simplify the analysis of complex biological matrices. Results A simple, rapid, specific and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of free aliphatic molecules (e.g., free fatty acids (FFA)) and small polar molecules (e.g., jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA)) containing free carboxyl groups by direct derivatization of leaf extracts with Picolinyl reagent followed by LC-MS/MS analysis is presented. The presence of the N atom in the esterified pyridine moiety allowed the efficient ionization of 25 compounds tested irrespective of their chemical structure. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained after analysis of Nicotiana attenuata leaf material with previously described analytical methods. Conclusion The method presented was used to detect 16 compounds in leaf extracts of N. attenuata plants. Importantly, the method can be adapted based on the specific analytes of interest with the only consideration that the molecules must contain at
Jensen, Berit P; Saraf, Rajneeta; Ma, Jing; Berry, Sarah; Grant, Cameron C; Camargo, Carlos A; Sies, Christiaan W
Demand for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is growing and dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is attractive as samples are easier to collect, transport and store. A 2D LC-MS/MS assay without derivatization was developed. DBS punches (3.2 mm) were ultrasonicated with d 6 -25OHD 3 in 70% methanol followed by hexane extraction, dry-down and reconstitution. The assay was validated and applied to two studies comparing whole blood adult DBS with serum samples (n = 40) and neonatal whole blood DBS with cord serum samples (n = 80). The assay was validated in whole blood DBS over the range 13-106 nmol/L 25OHD 3 and 11-91 nmol/L 25OHD 2 with a limit of detection of 3 nmol/L. Intra- and inter-day imprecision was <13% CV and bias <12%. The assay had high recovery and minimal matrix effects. Triplicate DBS study samples had a mean CV of ≤13% for 25OHD 3. No 25OHD 2 was detected. DBS calculated serum 25OHD 3 concentrations correlated strongly with serum concentrations in the adult DBS/serum study (r = 0.94) and moderately in the neonatal DBS/cord serum study (r = 0.69). Direct quantitation of 25OHD in DBS by 2D LC-MS/MS without derivatization was found to be an alternative to serum quantitation applicable to clinical research studies on adult DBS samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Baumjohann, Nina; Harms, Diedrich
During storage, acetaldehyde migration from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles can affect the quality of mineral water even in the low µg l(-1) range negatively, as it features a fruity or plastic-like off-flavour. For a sensitive and fast analysis of acetaldehyde in mineral water, a new analysis method of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatisation followed by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Acetaldehyde was directly derivatised in the mineral water sample avoiding extraction and/or pre-concentration steps and then analysed by reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Along with method development, the optimum molar excess of DNPH in contrast to acetaldehyde was studied for the mineral water matrix, because no specific and robust data were yet available for this critical parameter. Best results were obtained by using a calibration via the derivatisation reaction. Without any analyte enrichment or extraction, an LOD of 0.5 µg l(-1) and an LOQ of 1.9 µg l(-1) were achieved. Using the developed method, mineral water samples packed in PET bottles from Germany were analysed and the correlation between the acetaldehyde concentration and other characteristics of the samples was evaluated illustrating the applicability of the method. Besides a relationship between bottle size and CO2 content of the mineral water and acetaldehyde migration, a correlation with acetaldehyde migration and the material composition of the bottle, e.g. recycled PET, was noted. Investigating the light influence on the acetaldehyde migration with a newly developed, reproducible light exposure setup, a significant increase of the acetaldehyde concentration in carbonated mineral water samples was observed.
Wang, Zhibin; Cao, Yanzhong; Ge, Na; Liu, Xiaomao; Chang, Qiaoying; Fan, Chunlin; Pang, Guo-Fang
This paper presents an application of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) for simultaneous screening and identification of 427 pesticides in fresh fruit and vegetable samples. Both full MS scan mode for quantification, and an artificial-intelligence-based product ion scan mode information-dependent acquisition (IDA) providing automatic MS to MS/MS switching of product ion spectra for identification, were conducted by one injection. A home-in collision-induced-dissociation all product ions accurate mass spectra library containing more than 1700 spectra was developed prior to actual application. Both qualitative and quantitative validations of the method were carried out. The result showed that 97.4 % of the pesticides had the screening detection limit (SDL) less than 50 μg kg -1 and more than 86.7 % could be confirmed by accurate MS/MS spectra embodied in the home-made library. Meanwhile, calibration curves covering two orders of magnitude were performed, and they were linear over the concentration range studied for the selected matrices (from 5 to 500 μg kg -1 for most of the pesticides). Recoveries between 80 and 110 % in four matrices (apple, orange, tomato, and spinach) at two spiked levels, 10 and 100 μg kg -1 , was 88.7 or 86.8 %. Furthermore, the overall relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 12) for 94.3 % of the pesticides in 10 μg kg -1 and 98.1 % of the pesticides in 100 μg kg -1 spiked levels was less than 20 %. In order to validate the suitability for routine analysis, the method was applied to 448 fruit and vegetable samples purchased in different local markets. The results show 83.3 % of the analyzed samples have positive findings (higher than the limits of identification and quantification), and 412 commodity-pesticide combinations are identified in our scope. The approach proved to be a cost-effective, time-saving and powerful strategy for routine large
Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Späth, Jana; Zivkovic, Angela M; Nording, Malin L
Bioactive lipids, including oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds may function as specific biochemical markers of certain aspects of inflammation. However, the postprandial responsiveness of these compounds is largely unknown; therefore, changes in the circulating oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in response to a challenge meal were investigated at six occasions in a subject who freely modified her usual diet. The dietary change, and especially the challenge meal itself, represented a modification of precursor fatty acid status, with expectedly subtle effects on bioactive lipid levels. To detect even the slightest alteration, highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods for bioactive lipid profiling was employed. A previously validated UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for profiling the endocannabinoid metabolome was used, while validation of an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for oxylipin analysis was performed with acceptable outcomes for a majority of the parameters according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for linearity (0.9938 < R2 < 0.9996), limit of detection (0.0005-2.1 pg on column), limit of quantification (0.0005-4.2 pg on column), inter- and intraday accuracy (85-115%) and precision (< 5%), recovery (40-109%) and stability (40-105%). Forty-seven of fifty-two bioactive lipids were detected in plasma samples at fasting and in the postprandial state (0.5, 1, and 3 hours after the meal). Multivariate analysis showed a significant shift of bioactive lipid profiles in the postprandial state due to inclusion of dairy products in the diet, which was in line with univariate analysis revealing seven compounds (NAGly, 9-HODE, 13-oxo-ODE, 9(10)-EpOME, 12(13)-EpOME, 20-HETE, and 11,12-DHET) that were significantly different between background diets in the postprandial state (but not at fasting). The only change in baseline levels at fasting was
Gremmel, Christoph; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P
Two quantitative methods using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were developed to determine perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in aqueous samples. The first HPLC-MS/MS method was applied to 47 PFASs of 12 different substance classes with acidic characteristics such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), as well as precursor substances and biotransformation intermediates (e.g., unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids). In addition, 25 13 C-, 18 O-, and 2 H-labeled PFASs were used as internal standards in this method. The second HPLC-MS/MS method was applied to fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols as these compounds have physicochemical properties different from those of the previous ones. Accuracy between 82% and 110% and a standard deviation in the range from 2% to 22% depending on the substances were determined during the evaluation of repeatability and precision. The method quantification limit after solid-phase extraction ranged from 0.3 to 199 ng/L depending on the analyte and matrix. The HPLC-MS/MS methods developed were suitable for the determination of PFASs in aqueous samples (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents or influents after solid-phase extraction). These methods will be helpful in monitoring campaigns to evaluate the relevance of precursor substances as indirect sources of perfluorinated substances in the environment. In one exemplary application in an industrial wastewater treatment plant, FTOHs were found to be the major substance class in the influent; in particular, 6:2-FTOH was the predominant compound in the industrial samples and accounted for 74% of the total PFAS concentration. The increase in the concentration of the transformation products of FTOHs in the corresponding effluent, such as fluorotelomer carboxylic acids, unsaturated fluorotelomer
Jiang, Hui; Sidhu, Rohini; Fujiwara, Hideji; De Meulder, Marc; de Vries, Ronald; Gong, Yong; Kao, Mark; Porter, Forbes D.; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Carillo-Carasco, Nuria; Xu, Xin; Ottinger, Elizabeth; Woolery, Myra; Ory, Daniel S.; Jiang, Xuntian
2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), a widely used excipient for drug formulation, has emerged as an investigational new drug for the treatment of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease, a neurodegenerative cholesterol storage disorder. Development of a sensitive quantitative LC-MS/MS assay to monitor the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of HP-β-CD required for clinical trials has been challenging owing to the dispersity of the HP-β-CD. To support a phase 1 clinical trial for ICV delivery of HP-β-CD in NPC1 patients, novel methods for quantification of HP-β-CD in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using LC-MS/MS were developed and validated: a 2D-LC-in-source fragmentation-MS/MS (2D-LC-IF-MS/MS) assay and a reversed phase ultra performance LC-MS/MS (RP-UPLC-MS/MS) assay. In both assays, protein precipitation and “dilute and shoot” procedures were used to process plasma and CSF, respectively. The assays were fully validated and in close agreement, and allowed determination of PK parameters for HP-β-CD. The LC-MS/MS methods are ∼100-fold more sensitive than the current HPLC assay, and were successfully employed to analyze HP-β-CD in human plasma and CSF samples to support the phase 1 clinical trial of HP-β-CD in NPC1 patients. PMID:24868096
Hasan, Mahmoud; Schumacher, Gitta; Seekamp, Anne; Taedken, Tobias; Siegmund, Werner; Oswald, Stefan
Clodronate belongs to the class of bisphosphonates which are used for the treatment of bone disorders. Due to its high polarity it has a low and highly variable oral bioavailability which results in low plasma concentrations and requires sensitive bioanalytical methods to characterize its pharmacokinetics in human. Here, we describe for the first time the development and validation of a LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of clodronate in human plasma. The bisphosphonate was isolated from the biological matrix by protein precipitation using perchloric acid (10%), and derivatized with trimethylorthoacetate prior sample clean-up with liquid-liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether. The chromatography was performed using an isocratic elution with ammonium acetate 5mM (85% v/v, pH 3.8) and acetonitrile (15% v/v) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 300μl/min on a reversed-phase column (Supelco Ascentis(®), C18) temporized at 50°C. The mass spectrometric detection was done using the API4000 triple quadruple mass spectrometer monitoring the mass/charge transitions 301.0/145 for clodronate and 305.2/137.1 for the internal standard etidronate. The analytical range was set to 5-800ng/ml, allowing an evaluation of the plasma concentration-time profiles of clodronate for approximately 7-8 half-life (∼24h). The method was validated according to current FDA/EMA guidelines on bioanalytical method validation with respect to specificity, linearity, intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision, matrix effect, recovery as well as stability. The precision of the assay was 0.6-6.9% and 0.6-8.1% for the intra-day and inter-day variability, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy (error) was 0.6-8.8% and 2.2-4.5%. The recovery of the analyte was low (2-3%) but reproducible over the entire validation range and sufficient to monitor the target concentrations in human plasma. The drug was shown to be stable in plasma at room temperature for at least 3h (96.0±6%) and
Vaiano, Fabio; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Focardi, Martina; Fioravanti, Alessia; Mari, Francesco; Bertol, Elisabetta
Propofol is a short-acting hypnotic agent that is commonly used to induce and maintain anesthesia. Propofol abuse and its involvement in suicide deaths have increased in recent years, especially among healthcare personnel. An example is the suicide of a 61-year-old nurse found with a propofol drip in his left arm. We describe the postmortem concentration of propofol in various tissues (femoral and cardiac blood, bile, urine, brain, and liver) and in the drip. The toxicological analyses were performed through two analytical methods, differing in derivatization reaction and in instrumentation: silylation for gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), as routinely performed in our laboratory for this kind of analyses (lower limits of quantification-LLOQ-in urine and blood: 0.3 and 5ng/ml); for liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) an innovative azo-coupling derivatization (LLOQ: 0.0004 and 0.1ng/ml). This latter produces an azo-derivative (molecular composition: C18H22ON2; molecular weight: 282Da) highly ionizable in electro-spray ion source, both in negative and positive ionizations. These two methods were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of this new LC-MS/MS analysis. An acidic hydrolysis (HCl 6N, 100°C, and 1h) was performed for the biological samples (1ml or 1g) irrespective of the analytical method applied. The drip content was extracted adding phosphate buffer (pH 8) and a dichloromethane/ethylacetate 8:2 (v:v) mixture. Derivatization steps were: silylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)+tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) for GC-MS; regarding LC-MS/MS, azo-coupling reaction with the aryl-diazonium salt (0-5°C, and 30min). The analyses were achieved in selected-ion monitoring for GC-MS (m/z, 235,250,73 propofol"; m/z, 252,267,27 propofol-d17) and in multiple reaction monitoring ([M-H](-): m/z 283→241,77, azo-propofol; m/z 299→251,77, azo-propofol-d17) for LC-MS/MS. Autopsy showed no significant findings
This document is a standardized single laboratory validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the detection and quantification of cyanotoxins (combined intracellular and extracellular) in ambient freshwaters.
Storbeck, Karl-Heinz; Gilligan, Lorna; Jenkinson, Carl; Baranowski, Elizabeth S; Quanson, Jonathan L; Arlt, Wiebke; Taylor, Angela E
Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays are considered the reference standard for serum steroid hormone analyses, while full urinary steroid profiles are only achievable by gas chromatography (GC-MS). Both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS have well documented strengths and limitations. Recently, commercial ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS/MS) systems have been developed. These systems combine the resolution of GC with the high-throughput capabilities of UHPLC. Uptake of this new technology into research and clinical labs has been slow, possibly due to the perceived increase in complexity. Here we therefore present fundamental principles of UHPSFC-MS/MS and the likely applications for this technology in the clinical research setting, while commenting on potential hurdles based on our experience to date. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Method MS014 describes procedures for solvent extraction of aldicarb, bromadiolone, carbofuran, oxamyl and methomyl from water samples, followed by analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).