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Sample records for direct myocardial revascularization

  1. Chronic response to direct myocardial revascularization: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Peter; Zheng, Shi-Ming; Kloner, Robert A.

    1993-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that laser revascularization has long-term benefits on tissue perfusion, perhaps by stimulating angiogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we made 6 transmural channels in rat hearts randomized to either; (1) laser: channels made using a 500 micrometers diameter optic fiber coupled to a holmium:YAG laser, (2) needle: channels made using a 500 micrometers diameter needle, or (3) control: no channels made. Two months later, the rats underwent 90 minutes of coronary artery occlusion followed by 41/2 hours of reperfusion. Prior to the end of the experiment, the artery was reoccluded and the heart perfused with blue dye to detect collateral perfusion within the risk region. Microscopic analysis revealed more dye-containing vessels in needle-treated hearts than in laser or control groups (12 +/- 6*, 3 +/- 1, 2 +/- 1 vessels per field of view, * p < 0.05). Needle channels also appeared to limit necrosis: infarct size was 41 +/- 6* (needle), 61 +/- 6 (laser), 70 +/- 5 (control) % of the risk region in the three groups (*p < 0.05 versus control). Thus, needle- treatment may be capable of reducing infarct size by supplying blood via a collateral circulation apparently stimulated by the channels making process.

  2. Myocardial revascularization in Jehovah Witnesses.

    PubMed

    Seifert, P E; Auer, J E; Hohensee, P

    1989-04-01

    The refusal of certain patients to accept blood transfusions need not be a deterrent to surgery. We report on nine Jehovah's Witnesses who over a one-year period underwent myocardial revascularization without significant blood loss or decrease in hematocrit values.

  3. [Percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization (PMR)].

    PubMed

    Lauer, B; Stahl, F; Bratanow, S; Schuler, G

    2000-09-01

    In patients with severe angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease, who are not candidates for either percutaneous coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery, transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) often leads to improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity. One drawback of TMR is the need for surgical thoracotomy in order to gain access to the epicardial surface of the heart. Therefore, a catheter-based system has been developed, which allows creation of laser channels into the myocardium from the left ventricular cavity. Between January 1997 and November 1999, this "percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization" (PMR) has been performed in 101 patients at the Herzzentrum Leipzig. In 63 patients, only 1 region of the heart (anterior, lateral, inferior or septal) was treated with PMR, in 38 patients 2 or 3 regions were treated in 1 session. There were 12.3 +/- 4.5 (range 4 to 22) channels/region created into the myocardium. After 3 months, the majority of patients reported significant improvement of clinical symptoms (CCS class at baseline: 3.3 +/- 0.4, after 6 months: 1.6 +/- 0.8) (p < 0.001) and an increased exercise capacity (baseline: 397 +/- 125 s, after 6 months: 540 +/- 190 s) (p < 0.05). After 2 years, the majority of patients had experienced sustained clinical benefit after PMR, the CCS class after 2 years was 1.3 +/- 0.7, exercise capacity was 500 +/- 193 s. However, thallium scintigraphy failed to show increased perfusion in the PMR treated regions. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of myocardial laser revascularization is not yet understood. Most of the laser channels are found occluded after various time intervals after intervention. Other possible mechanisms include myocardial denervation or angioneogenesis after laser revascularization, however, unequivocal evidence for these theories is not yet available. In conclusion, PMR seems to be a safe and feasible new therapeutic option for patients with refractory

  4. [Indications for percutaneous myocardial revascularization].

    PubMed

    Sganzerla, Paolo; Centonze, Fabrizio; Tavasci, Emanuela

    2012-10-01

    Indications and timing of myocardial revascularization procedures are discussed based on the case of a 78-year-old woman suffering from effort angina due to three-vessel coronary artery disease with normal left ventricular function. At present, atherosclerotic patients have a relatively long history of their disease, so that physicians should organize therapeutic strategies resulting from a right trade-off between guidelines of international scientific societies and the peculiar clinical requirements of the individual patient in the particular stage of his/her disease. This kind of tailored therapy may result from a multidisciplinary approach (heart team), which should involve many specialists as comorbidities and frailty of the patients are numerous and significant.

  5. Complete myocardial revascularization using arterial grafts.

    PubMed

    Dallan, L A; de Oliveira, S A; Lisboa, L A; Platania, F; Jatene, F B; Iglezias, J C; Filho, C A; Cabral, R; Jatene, A D

    2001-01-01

    Complete arterial revascularization is important in younger patients to reduce the likelihood of future reoperation. We assessed the short-term outcome of a strategy to provide complete arterial revascularization in a cohort of young patients. Three hundred and eighty-five patients underwent myocardial revascularization using artery grafts alone and were followed up for 30 months. One hundred fourteen patients (29.6%) had single-vessel disease, 118 (30.6%) had two-vessel disease, and 153 (39.7%) had three or more obstructed coronary arteries. Eight of the patients had undergone previous surgical revascularization. The left internal thoracic artery (LITA) was routinely used for the left anterior descending branch (LAD). In 103 patients (28.1%), the in situ right internal thoracic artery (RITA) was used for revascularization of the right coronary artery (RCA) and its branches. The RITA was sometimes used as a free graft from the aorta or as an artificial "Y" from the LITA to the diagonal and marginal branches. Other arterial conduits included the radial artery (RA) in 215 patients (55.8%), the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) in 24 patients (6.3%), and the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) in four patients (1.1%). In patients having lesions in three or more arteries, the mean number of distal anastomoses was 3.2 per patient. There were no intraoperative deaths. Hospital mortality was 1.8% (n = 7). Of the fatal cases, two were redos and two underwent combined procedures (one for left ventricular aneurysm and one for double valve replacement), while only three of the fatal cases underwent revascularization as a primary and isolated procedure. Complete arterial reconstruction carries an acceptably low operative mortality and excellent short-term follow-up. This strategy is particularly important for young patients to reduce the probability of future reoperation.

  6. [Valvular surgical treatment concurrent with myocardial revascularization].

    PubMed

    Lavítola, P de L; Dallan, L A; Tarasoutchi, F; Grinberg, M; da Luz, P L; Pileggi, F; Jatene, A D

    1992-12-01

    To study the morbidity and mortality due to valvar surgical treatment performed concomitantly to myocardial revascularization. From 1650 patients submitted to mitral or aortic valve surgical treatment, 103 (6.24%) had it associated to myocardial revascularization. Coronary insufficiency was associated to aortic valvar lesion in 66 (64.0%) patients, group I, with mean age of 62.3 +/- 8 years; and in 37 (35.9%) patients with mitral valve lesion, group II, with mean age of 57.8 +/- 5.8 years. Diagnosis was based upon the anamnesis, physical examination and confirmed by cine-coronarographic findings. I-Complications at the immediate postoperative; a) mortality 11 (10.6%) patients, 6 (9.09%) from group I: by low cardiac output 3, uncontrolled arrhythmia 1, mediastinitis 1; acute infarction with cardiogenic shock 1, and 5 (134.5%) of group II: uncontrolled hemorrhage 2, sudden death 1, saphenous vein graft occlusion, respiratory insufficiency and sepsis 2; b) controlled intercurrences that increased the time of hospitalization: mental disorder 5 patients; CVA 7, diabetes decompensation 2, worsening of chronic renal insufficiency 1, upper level digestive hemorrhage 1 and respiratory insufficiency 3 patients. II-late postoperative complications of 77 (83.6%) patients which could be followed up during a period of 60 months: 1) mortality: 3 (3.89%) patients; 2 due to cardiomyopathy and 1 by acute myocardial infarction; 2) late evolution-functional capacity III (NYHA) by cardiomyopathy 6; I/II 68 patients; mild angina 6 patients, 2 underwent revascularization at the end of final 36-42 months. The clinical improvement and mortality indexes statistically similar to the isolate surgical acts stimulate us to keep up with such associate procedures.

  7. Concomitant aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization.

    PubMed Central

    Craver, J M; Jones, E L; Hatcher, C R; Farmer, J H

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six consecutive patients underwent combined aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization at the Emory University Affiliated Hospitals between May, 1973 and March, 1976. Acute myocardial infarction resulted in two operative deaths (8%). There have been four late deaths, all Class IV preoperative. The age range was 37 to 79 years with an average age of 60. Preoperatively all patients were Class IV or late Class III. Twenty-three patients had symptoms of angina pectoris; congestive heart failure was evident in 56%. Postoperatively, 70% are now Class 1 or II. Single coronary bypass was performed in 16 patients, double in 6, and triple in three. Double bypass plus mitral valve replacement was required in two with aneurysmectomy in one. The rate of intraoperative infarction was 27% for the series but only 7% in the last year. The methods of intraoperative myocardial preservation and the technical approach for the operative procedures were variable. Results with each method are correlated, and currently preferred techniques are presented and discussed. Best results were obtained in patients who presented early in their symptomatic course with isolated proximal coronary lesions and good renoff vessels. Excellent results could be achieved despite advanced age of patients, requirement for multiple bypass grafts, and correction of other associated cardiac lesions. Poorest results were obtained when long-standing ventricular failure was combined with poor vessels distal to coronary stenoses. PMID:860881

  8. [Myocardial revascularization surgery via a left minithoracotomy].

    PubMed

    da Silveira, W L; Leite, A F; Artiaga, E P; Queiroz, F C; Ferreira, K A; de Carvalho, M C; da Silva, M A; Abdulmassih del Papa, M; Costa, L H; da Cunha, O M; Nazzeta, H; de Oliveira, V G

    1998-12-01

    There is, today, a global tendency towards a surgical approach privileging very small incisions, the so-called minimally invasive intervention, which results in a less aggressive action. The introduction of this new technique makes it possible to dissect the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) and to perform in the anastomosis with the anterior interventricular artery (AIA) through a left minithoracotomy. From May of 1996 to october of 1997, 11 patients with ischemic heart disease and a single proximal lesion of the AIA were submitted to a myocardial revascularization (MR). The surgical approach consisted of a left anterolateral thoracotomy through the 4th left intercostal space, of approximately 10 cm, and in the last 6 cases, resection of part of the cartilage of the 4th and 5th ribs, dissection of the LITA, as well as opening and repair of the pericardium adjacent to the AIA was done. All patients received a single bypass to the AIA with a graft of the LITA, without extracorporeal circulation. The patients' age varied between 46 and 76 years (mean = 58.55). Ten patients (90.90%) were males and 1 (9.09%) was a female. Hospital stay ranged from 4 to 8 days, with the average of 5.2 days. None of the patients presented any electrocardiographic change in the immediate post-operatory period. During the control period one patient developed a clot in the distal LITA, with important compromise of the flow. In another patient the stenosis was at the level of the anastomosis. Both were successfully submitted to angioplasty. There were no deaths in the groups studied. The absence of deaths suggests to us that MR surgery carried out with this minimally invasive technique, in selected groups and is an excellent alternative to the revascularization of the AIA.

  9. Off-pump technique: a systematic alternative for myocardial revascularization?

    PubMed

    Da Col, Uberto; Di Bella, Isidoro; Pasquino, Stefano; Ramoni, Enrico; Paris, Marco; Stracci, Fabrizio; Ragni, Temistocle

    2008-09-01

    Many studies failed to show that off-pump myocardial revascularization achieved better results than on-pump revascularization, and also invited a lot of criticism for the criteria used for selection and inclusion of patients. To avoid these limitations, we systematically treated all candidates for coronary surgery with this technique evaluating early and follow-up results. In 257 prospective consecutive patients, off-pump myocardial revascularization was performed by the same surgeon without any exclusion criteria. Hospital mortality and main postoperative complications were analysed. After a mean follow-up of 27.50 months, 245 patients (98.4%) were contacted to evaluate late mortality, recurrence of angina, myocardial infarction and need for new revascularization. Conversion to extracorporeal circulation was necessary in 10 cases. Hospital mortality was eight patients (3.11%). Postoperative complications were reexploration for bleeding (2.72%), myocardial infarction (1.17%), atrial fibrillation (21.01%), stroke (0.39%) and renal failure (3.5%). Follow-up overall mortality was 16 patients (6.53%) with two cardiac-related deaths (0.82%). Total cardiac events at follow-up occurred in 20 patients (8.16%). There were two cardiac deaths, angina in 15 cases, silent myocardial ischaemia in two and myocardial infarction in one. New revascularization procedures were necessary in seven cases (2.86%). Statistical results showed that the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation rate was predictor of 30-day and overall mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that age was a predictor of overall mortality whereas female sex was a predictor of cardiac events. In conclusion, systematic off-pump surgery was not associated with a higher rate of mortality, morbidity and cardiac events compared to on-pump technique.

  10. How much myocardial revascularization can we do without extracorporeal circulation?

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Lima, Ricardo; de Escobar, Mozart Augusto Soares; Diniz, Roberto; de Alencar França, Nadja Arraes; Cabral, Eugênia; da Luz, José

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to present a technical alternative that allows myocardial revascularization to be performed on the marginal branches of the circumflex coronary artery without the use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC). The technique for exposing the coronary vessels is performed by placing a stitch in the posterior pericardium. The surgeon lifts the heart using his or her left hand with the aim of exposing the posterior pericardium. A single polypropylene "O" stitch on a #4 needle is threaded into a cardiac ribbon folded back on itself and run twice through the region between the inferior pulmonary vein and the inferior vena cava. The suture thread is run along a tourniquet-type rubber tube and the latter is then directed down to the pericardium, bringing the cardiac ribbon with it. Handling the thread by means of such a tourniquet and the two parts of the ribbon makes it possible to maneuver the heart into different positions in order to expose the coronary arteries: anterior interventricular, diagonal, circumflex, and right coronary. In the present study, the position exposing the coronary arteries was adopted. The circumflex artery was exposed by separating the two legs of the ribbon and pulling one of them +/- 90 degrees to the right and the other +/- 90 degrees to the left of the patient's main axis, with the polypropylene thread being pulled in the direction of the patient's main axis and fixed in the inferior angle of the surgical wound. From August 1981 to June 1999, 609 patients had their arteries revascularized without the use of ECC. Among this group, 147 patients (24.14%) had the circumflex artery revascularized. Of the 609 patients, 48 (7.88%) presented serious complications and 21 (3.44%) died. It was possible to modify the anatomical position of the heart by exposing the circumflex artery with its marginal obtuse branches and performing anastomosis in a simple manner with no loss of quality or hemodynamic involvement, permitting a

  11. Current State of Surgical Myocardial Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Sellke, Frank W.; Chu, Louis M.; Cohn, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing competition from percutaneous interventions and other novel methods of non-surgical coronary revascularization, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains one of the most definitive and durable treatments for coronary artery disease, especially for those patients with extensive and diffuse disease. In recent years the CABG procedure itself has undergone innovation and evolution. This review article provides a brief historical perspective on the procedure, and examines the current state of modern variations including off-pump, limited-access, and robotic-assisted CABG. PMID:20467145

  12. Experimental study of myocardial revascularization by CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingying; Li, Gongsong; Li, Junheng

    1993-03-01

    The coronary lesions are usually diffuse, so bypass and PTCA are indicated in only a limited proportion of coronary patients. Revascularization with laser was studied in our laboratory. Fifteen dogs with mimic myocardial ischemia by multiple coronary artery ligation were divided into two groups, five acting as a control group. In 10, CO2 laser was adopted in making a series of channels in the myocardium. We aimed to evaluate the effect of laser in revascularization, and to document long-term follow up. Our experiment demonstrated that laser-producing channels protect myocardium from ischemic events. Postoperative improvement of ventricular function and increased regional myocardial perfusion were observed. Microscopic and SEM examination at intervals of 3 days to 3 months showed the patency of channels and development of collateral circulation.

  13. Interhospital Transfers among Medicare Beneficiaries Admitted for Acute Myocardial Infarction at Non-Revascularization Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Iwashyna, Theodore J.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; Hayward, Rodney A.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) who are admitted to hospitals without coronary revascularization are frequently transferred to hospitals with this capability, yet we know little about the basis for how such revascularization hospitals are selected. Methods and Results We examined interhospital transfer patterns in 71,336 AMI patients admitted to hospitals without revascularization capabilities in the 2006 Medicare claims using network analysis and regression models. A total of 31,607 (44.3%) AMI patients were transferred from 1,684 non-revascularization hospitals to 1,104 revascularization hospitals. Median time to transfer was 2 days. Median transfer distance was 26.7 miles, with 96.1% within 100 miles. In 45.8% of cases, patients bypassed a closer hospital to go to farther hospital that had a better 30-day risk standardized mortality rates. However, in 36.8% of cases, another revascularization hospital with lower 30-day risk-standardized mortality was actually closer to the original admitting non-revascularization hospital than the observed transfer destination. Adjusted regression models demonstrated that shorter transfer distances were more common than transfers to the hospitals with lowest 30-day mortality rates. Simulations suggest that an optimized system that prioritized the transfer of AMI patients to a nearby hospital with the lowest 30-day mortality rate might produce clinically meaningful reduction in mortality. Conclusions Over 40% of AMI patients admitted to non-revascularization hospitals are transferred to revascularization hospitals. Many patients are not directed to nearby hospitals with the lowest 30-day risk-standardized mortality, and this may represent an opportunity for improvement. PMID:20682917

  14. [Usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography during myocardial revascularization surgery without extracorporeal circulation].

    PubMed

    Cabrera Schulmeyer, M C; Delgado Saavedra, P; de la Maza Calvert, J C; Vega Sepúlveda, R; Santelices Cuevas, E; Allamand, F; Hernández Viehmeister, R; de la Fuente, E U L

    2006-01-01

    Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography can be a highly useful monitoring technique during myocardial revascularization surgery when extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is not being used. Transesophageal echocardiography provides real-time images on both volume status and segmental myocardial contractility without interfering with the surgical field. A total of 25 patients undergoing myocardial revascularization by sternotomy without ECC were monitored by transesophageal echocardiography during surgery. The 18 men and 7 women studied had a mean (SD) age of 71.3 (8) years. A third of them had hypertension and diabetes, 3 had suffered a cerebrovascular accident, and 2 had renal failure. Nine patients had a history of acute myocardial infarction and 3 had undergone angioplasty. Baseline echocardiograms on all patients established that 6 had a low ejection fraction (<30%). Twelve had altered segmental contractility, which was transient in 11 cases. Six patients had improved ejection fraction at the final assessment. Transesophageal electrocardiography also monitored volume status and the effects of inotropic drugs and beta-blockers in 83% of the patients. Transesophageal electrocardiography is a minimally invasive, safe, and precise way to directly monitor the beating heart in real time during myocardial revascularization without ECC. Image quality is good.

  15. Investigation of myocardial photodynamic revascularization method on ischemic rat myocardium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilchenko, S. Yu.; Stratonnikov, A. A.; Volkova, A. I.; Loschenov, V. B.; Sheptak, E. A.; Kharnas, S. S.

    2006-08-01

    Ischemic heart disease is one of the leading reasons of invalidisation and death rate of able-bodied citizens in the world. There are many various surgical and medicamentous methods of its treatment for today, however all these methods have restrictions in application. Our work was directed at initiation possibility clarification of ischemic myocardium revascularization by means of making necrosis with photodynamic therapy. The investigation was carried out in rats with the ischemia artificial made by means of left coronary artery ligation. Level of Photosense photosensitizer accumulation in ischemic and normal rat myocardium zones was defined. Myocardial photodynamic revascularization procedure of ischemic rat myocardium was carried out. Morphological analysis of the myocardium preparations showed the presence of active revascularization of ischemic myocardium after photodynamic therapy. The method of ischemia level estimation based on spectral optical definition of blood oxygen saturation was developed.

  16. Perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pretto, Pericles; Martins, Gerez Fernandes; Biscaro, Andressa; Kruczan, Dany David; Jessen, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative myocardial infarction adversely affects the prognosis of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and its diagnosis was hampered by numerous difficulties, because the pathophysiology is different from the traditional instability atherosclerotic and the clinical difficulty to be characterized. Objective To identify the frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction and its outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft. Methods Retrospective cohort study performed in a tertiary hospital specialized in cardiology, from May 01, 2011 to April 30, 2012, which included all records containing coronary artery bypass graft records. To confirm the diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction criteria, the Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction was used. Results We analyzed 116 cases. Perioperative myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 28 patients (24.1%). Number of grafts and use and cardiopulmonary bypass time were associated with this diagnosis and the mean age was significantly higher in this group. The diagnostic criteria elevated troponin I, which was positive in 99.1% of cases regardless of diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction. No significant difference was found between length of hospital stay and intensive care unit in patients with and without this complication, however patients with perioperative myocardial infarction progressed with worse left ventricular function and more death cases. Conclusion The frequency of perioperative myocardial infarction found in this study was considered high and as a consequence the same observed average higher troponin I, more cases of worsening left ventricular function and death. PMID:25859867

  17. Access to myocardial revascularization procedures: Closing the gap with time?

    PubMed Central

    Vanasse, Alain; Niyonsenga, Théophile; Courteau, Josiane; Hemiari, Abbas

    2006-01-01

    Background Early access to revascularization procedures is known to be related to a more favorable outcome in myocardial infarction (MI) patients, but access to specialized care varies widely amongst the population. We aim to test if the early gap found in the revascularization rates, according to distance between patients' location and the closest specialized cardiology center (SCC), remains on a long term basis. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the Quebec's hospital discharge register (MED-ECHO). The study population includes all patients 25 years and older living in the province of Quebec, who were hospitalized for a MI in 1999 with a follow up time of one year after the index hospitalization. The main variable is revascularization (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or a coronary artery bypass graft). The population is divided in four groups depending how close they are from a SCC (<32 km, 32–64 km, 64–105 km and ≥105 km). Revascularization rates are adjusted for age and sex. Results The study population includes 11,802 individuals, 66% are men. The one-year incidence rate of MI is 244 individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. At index hospitalization, a significant gap is found between patients living close (< 32 km) to a SCC and patients living farther (≥32 km). During the first year, a gap reduction can be observed but only for patients living at an intermediate distance from the specialized center (64–105 km). Conclusion The gap observed in revascularization rates at the index hospitalization for MI is in favour of patients living closer (< 32 km) to a SCC. This gap remains unchanged over the first year after an MI except for patients living between 64 and 105 km, where a closing of the gap can be noticed. PMID:16524458

  18. Myocardial revascularization with both internal thoracic arteries 25 years after delayed repair for aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, Mario; Farina, Piero; Cammertoni, Federico; Massetti, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Aortic coarctation has been reported to cause alterations in the internal thoracic arteries that make these vessels unsuitable to be used as grafts for myocardial revascularization, especially if coarctation repair was performed in adulthood. This is the first reported bilateral internal thoracic grafting for myocardial revascularization in a patient who had undergone aortic coarctation repair 25 years earlier.

  19. Full myocardial revascularization with bilateral internal mammary artery Y grafts

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Rishendran; Byth, Karen; Chen, Cheng; Denniss, A. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) grafting in coronary artery surgery provides better long term outcomes than single internal mammary artery and saphenous vein grafting but the optimum configuration of BIMAs has not been established. This study analyzed perioperative and late outcomes of patients who underwent BIMA grafting with a composite Y configuration. Methods Patients (n=922) who underwent BIMA Y grafting were identified from a cardiac surgical database and then cross matched against hospital and cardiology databases and the state death register to identify episodes of repeat coronary angiography, cardiac surgical re-intervention and death. Analysis of repeat angiography was performed after retrieval of the angiogram reports. Results In 95% of patients, full myocardial revascularization was achieved with BIMAs alone, using a composite Y configuration with an average of 4.1 IMA to coronary artery anastomoses per patient. The perioperative mortality was 1.5% and the 5-, 10- and 15-year survival estimates were 95%, 87% and 77% respectively. Analysis of 166 symptom-driven post-discharge coronary angiograms showed grafts to the left anterior descending artery and increasing severity of coronary artery stenosis at preoperative angiography as predictors of anastomotic patency. Conclusions Full myocardial revascularization can be achieved with reasonable safety in most patients with triple vessel disease and good left ventricular function, and provides good late survival. PMID:23977621

  20. Full myocardial revascularization with bilateral internal mammary artery Y grafts.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Hugh S; Naidoo, Rishendran; Byth, Karen; Chen, Cheng; Denniss, A Robert

    2013-07-01

    Bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) grafting in coronary artery surgery provides better long term outcomes than single internal mammary artery and saphenous vein grafting but the optimum configuration of BIMAs has not been established. This study analyzed perioperative and late outcomes of patients who underwent BIMA grafting with a composite Y configuration. Patients (n=922) who underwent BIMA Y grafting were identified from a cardiac surgical database and then cross matched against hospital and cardiology databases and the state death register to identify episodes of repeat coronary angiography, cardiac surgical re-intervention and death. Analysis of repeat angiography was performed after retrieval of the angiogram reports. In 95% of patients, full myocardial revascularization was achieved with BIMAs alone, using a composite Y configuration with an average of 4.1 IMA to coronary artery anastomoses per patient. The perioperative mortality was 1.5% and the 5-, 10- and 15-year survival estimates were 95%, 87% and 77% respectively. Analysis of 166 symptom-driven post-discharge coronary angiograms showed grafts to the left anterior descending artery and increasing severity of coronary artery stenosis at preoperative angiography as predictors of anastomotic patency. Full myocardial revascularization can be achieved with reasonable safety in most patients with triple vessel disease and good left ventricular function, and provides good late survival.

  1. [Myocardial revascularization surgery without extracorporeal circulation. (Preliminary experience)].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Zambrano, C A; Croston, J A; Tuñón, L

    1998-01-01

    Two hundred and three (203) open heart surgical procedures have been performed at the Complejo Hospitalario Metropolitano, from January 1997 to august 1998; Hundred and twenty-three (123) were of myocardial revascularization and twenty-four (24) of these patients were selected for revascularization without the assistance of the extracorporeal circulation machine. They were patients with chronic stable angina and had lesions of more than 95% in the descending anterior artery, high ventriculo-lateral branch and right coronary artery up to the crux cordis. In nineteen (19) patients the surgical approach was though a medical sternotomy; in four (4) through a left anterolateral thoracostomy and in three (3) of these patients a transverse sternotomy was added. There were no deaths perioperatively and at thirty (30) days there were no evidences of new Q waves or residual angina. With this technique, the time in the Intensive Care Unit and in the hospital has diminished; the patients also required less time in mechanical ventilation; less vasoactive amines are needed. In the operating room less equipment is necessary and the costs are significantly lower.

  2. Comparison of ESC and ACC/AHA guidelines for myocardial revascularization.

    PubMed

    Stirrup, Jim; Velasco, Alejandro; Hage, Fadi G; Reyes, Eliana

    2017-02-21

    In 2014, the Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery with the special contribution of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions published a comprehensive set of recommendations on myocardial revascularization in patients presenting with acute or chronic coronary artery disease. In the United States, pertinent guidance on this topic has been published by the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association and other relevant societies in multiple guideline documents that have been published in recent years. This document brings together European and American recommendations on myocardial revascularization with a focus on the role of cardiac imaging.

  3. Myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation; Why hasn't it convinced yet?

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Efstratios; Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos A; Koniari, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal circulation has led to a great development in cardiovascular surgery during the last five decades. Its time-proven efficacy and safety have made on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) the gold standard method of surgical revascularization. However, coronary revascularization on cardiopulmonary bypass and the accompanying aortic manipulation are related to plenty of deleterious complications. Therefore, off-pump CABG surgery was established to avoid complications. Nevertheless, despite the initial enthusiasm on this technique, only 20% of myocardial revascularization procedures worldwide are performed off-pump. Not only are off-pump cardiac procedures more technically difficult but also they do not provide better results in terms of graft patency, completeness of revascularization, repeat revascularization requirement, cost, and quality of life. Completeness of revascularization and anastomotic quality should not be compromised to avoid cardiopulmonary bypass.

  4. Recovery and viability of an acute myocardial infarct after transmyocardial laser revascularization.

    PubMed

    Horvath, K A; Smith, W J; Laurence, R G; Schoen, F J; Appleyard, R F; Cohn, L H

    1995-01-01

    The short- and long-term effectiveness of transmyocardial laser revascularization was evaluated in the setting of an acute myocardial infarction. Theoretically, transmyocardial laser revascularization allows direct perfusion of the ischemic area as ventricular blood flows through the channels to the myocardium. Infarcts were created by coronary occlusion in 30 sheep. Eighteen of these sheep were studied to assess short-term efficacy. The infarct was reperfused after 1 h by either removing the occlusion or by laser drilling using a high power carbon dioxide laser. The occlusions were left in place for the control group. To monitor regional recovery, percent systolic shortening was measured. To evaluate long-term effectiveness, 12 additional sheep underwent creation of an infarct. Six were treated with the laser, and six were untreated. The animals were restudied 30 days later. In the short-term experiment, the control and reperfusion groups exhibited no recovery of regional contractility. The laser group demonstrated improvement throughout the recovery period. There was a significant difference in the area of necrosis within the same area at risk (reperfusion group 44 +/- 6% and control group 39 +/- 5% vs. laser group 6 +/- 2%). After 30 days, none of the control animals showed evidence of contraction in the infarct, whereas the laser-treated animals did. Histologic analysis of the laser-treated infarcts revealed patent channels surrounded by viable myocardium. The control-group infarcts were necrotic and scarred. On the basis of both short- and long-term improved contractility, as well as diminished necrosis in the area at risk, these results indicate that transmyocardial laser revascularization may be an alternative method of treating ischemic heart disease.

  5. Colchicine to Reduce Atrial Fibrillation in the Postoperative Period of Myocardial Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zarpelon, Camila Stuchi; Netto, Miguel Chomiski; Jorge, José Carlos Moura; Fabris, Cátia Carolina; Desengrini, Dieli; Jardim, Mariana da Silva; da Silva, Diego Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the postoperative period of myocardial revascularization surgery increases morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess the efficacy of colchicine to prevent AF in the postoperative period of myocardial revascularization surgery, the impact of AF on hospital length of stay and death, and to identify its risk factors. Methods Between May 2012 and November 2013, 140 patients submitted to myocardial revascularization surgery were randomized, 69 to the control group and 71 to the colchicine group. Colchicine was used at the dose of 1 mg orally, twice daily, preoperatively, and of 0.5 mg, twice daily, until hospital discharge. A single dose of 1 mg was administered to those admitted 12 hours or less before surgery. Results The primary endpoint was AF rate in the postoperative period of myocardial revascularization surgery. Colchicine group patients showed no reduction in AF incidence as compared to control group patients (7.04% versus 13.04%, respectively; p = 0.271). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding death from any cause rate (5.6% versus 10.1%; p = 0,363) and hospital length of stay (14.5 ± 11.5 versus 13.3 ± 9.4 days; p = 0.490). However, colchicine group patients had a higher infection rate (26.8% versus 8.7%; p = 0.007). Conclusion The use of colchicine to prevent AF after myocardial revascularization surgery was not effective in the present study. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials number RBR-556dhr. PMID:27223641

  6. [ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS OF THE SEVERITY OF THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD IN PATIENTS AFTER SURGICAL MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION].

    PubMed

    Bockeria, L A; Sokolskaya, N O; Kopylova, N S; Alshibaya, M M

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive and easily interpretable methods for assessing cardiac hemodynainic parameters including various echocardiographic technologies are highly valuable diagnostic methods in cardiac surgery patients admitting the intensive care unit in the postoperative period. The article presents echocardiographic features of the myocardial functional state in the early period after coronary artery bypass grafting performed in 201 CHD patients. The analysis includes standard echocardiographic parameters and data obtained from tissue Doppler imaging. Tissue Doppler imaging has shown to be informative for diagnosing heart failure. Low left ventricular volumes and restrictive type myocardial diastolic dysfunction have proven to be early echocardiographic predictors of poor prognosis in CAD patients after myocardial revascularization.

  7. [Myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation in patients with multivessel coronary disease].

    PubMed

    Troise, Giovanni; Brunelli, Federico; Cirillo, Marco; Dalla Tomba, Margherita; Tasca, Giordano; Mhagna, Zen; Quaini, Eugenio

    2004-04-01

    Some criticisms have been addressed to off-pump coronary surgery technique concerning the possibility of its systematic use with the respect of the completeness of revascularization. We report our experience with off-pump revascularization in patients with multivessel coronary disease. Between September 1997 and April 2003, 868 patients with multivessel coronary disease were scheduled for off-pump surgical revascularization. From September 2000, the percentage of patients operated on without cardiopulmonary bypass has been stably > 90%. Fifteen patients (1.7%) had a conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass for anatomical reasons (n = 6) or clinical instability (n = 9). An average of 2.5 +/- 0.8 (range 1-5) anastomoses per patient were completed. Bilateral mammary artery was used in 573 patients (66%); totally arterial revascularization was accomplished in 479 patients (55.2%). In-hospital mortality rate was 0.6% (5 patients). Total incidence of non-fatal postoperative complications (bleeding requiring re-exploration, perioperative myocardial infarction, stroke, new onset of acute renal failure) was 3.5%. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.8 +/- 3.8 days. At a mean follow-up of 21.6 +/- 15.6 months (range 1-65 months), the postoperative actuarial survival rates were 97.3, 93.7 and 86.7% at 1, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Actuarial freedom rates from new revascularization were 98.7, 96.6 and 96.6% at 1, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Early- and intermediate-term results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of off-pump revascularization in all patients with multivessel coronary disease, respecting the criterion of complete myocardial revascularization.

  8. Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial revascularization: a randomized trial of prophylactic digitalization.

    PubMed

    Tyras, D H; Stothert, J C; Kaiser, G C; Barner, H B; Codd, J E; Willman, V L

    1979-02-01

    The success of prophylactic digitalization in reducing the incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVT) was studied in 140 randomly grouped, consecutive patients undergoing myocardial revascularization operations. The test group received either 1 or 1.5 mg. of digoxin the day before operation and were maintained postoperatively on 0.25 mg. of digoxin daily. There was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the incidence of SVT in the treated patients (17 of 61 or 27.8 percent) vs. the untreated patients (nine of 79 or 11.4 percent). There was no significant difference in SVT with the two digitalization dosage levels (31.6 percent with 1 mg. vs. 21.7 percent with 1.5 mg.). Prophylactic digitalization demonstrates no benefit in the prevention of SVT following myocardial revascularization and may, in fact, predispose the patient to these arrhythmias.

  9. Arterial Myocardial Revascularization Using Bilateral Radial Arte 17 Years after Right Pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Erdil, Nevzat; Nisanoglu, Vedat; Toprak, Huseyin Ilksen; Erdil, Feray Akgul; Kuzucu, Akin; Battaloglu, Bektas

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of a 51-year-old man who underwent arterial myocardial revascularization with the use of bilateral radial arteries, 17 years after undergoing a right pneumonectomy. We used a fast-track anesthesia protocol for the procedure. There was no perioperative complication, and postoperative recovery was uneventful. The patient was discharged from the hospital 5 days after the operation. PMID:15061636

  10. Myocardial revascularization by left ventricular assisted beating heart is associated with reduced systemic inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Stassano, Paolo; Di Tommaso, Luigi; Monaco, Mario; Iesu, Severino; Brando, Giancarlo; Buonpane, Salvatore; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Di Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pepino, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether use of left ventricular assisted technique (LVA) in beating-heart myocardial revascularization would exert less impact on patients' inflammatory response, as compared with minimal extracorporeal circulation (MECC). Seventy-three consecutive high-risk patients undergoing myocardial revascularization were randomly assigned either to LVA (group A) or to MECC (group B). Monocyte count and plasma concentration of C-reactive protein, inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and polymorphonuclear elastase were measured at baseline and at various time points postoperatively. Preoperative clinical and demographic data did not differ between the two groups. The two groups also were similar with respect to mortality, number of grafts performed, duration of extracorporeal circulation, and need for inotropes. However, LVA was associated with significantly less inflammatory response postoperatively compared with MECC, as indicated by a significant difference in interleukin-6 (p = 0.002), C-reactive protein (p = 0.002), monocyte percentage (p = 0.006), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (p = 0.002), and polymorphonuclear elastase (p = 0.001). High-risk patients undergoing beating-heart myocardial revascularization with LVA show reduced inflammatory response compared with patients treated with the MECC.

  11. Five-year outcomes of surgical or percutaneous myocardial revascularization in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Contini, Giovanni Andrea; Nicolini, Francesco; Fortuna, Daniela; Pacini, Davide; Gabbieri, Davide; Vignali, Luigi; Valgimigli, Marco; Manari, Antonio; Zussa, Claudio; Guastaroba, Paolo; De Palma, Rossana; Grilli, Roberto; Gherli, Tiziano

    2013-09-30

    The study compares five-year clinical outcomes of CABG vs PCI in a real world population of diabetic patients with multivessel coronary disease since it is not clear whether to prefer surgical or percutaneous revascularization. Between July 2002 and December 2008, 2885 multivessel coronary diabetic patients underwent revascularization (1466 CABG and 1419 PCI) at hospitals in Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy and were followed for 1827 ± 617 days by record linkage of two clinical registries with the regional administrative database of hospital admissions and the mortality registry. Five-year incidences of MACCE (mortality, acute myocardial infarction [AMI], stroke, and repeat revascularization [TVR]) were assessed with Kaplan-Meier estimates, Cox proportional hazards regression and cumulative incidence functions of death and TVR, to evaluate the competing risk of AMI on death and TVR. The same analyses were applied to the propensity score matched subgroup of patients undergoing CABG or PCI with DES and with complete revascularization. PCI had higher mortality for all causes (HR: 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.2 p<0.0001), AMI (HR: 3.3, 95% CI 2.4-4.6 p<0.0001) and TVR (HR: 4.5, 95% CI 3.4-6.1 p<0.0001). No significant differences emerged for stroke (HR: 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.2 p=0.26). The higher incidence of AMI caused higher mortality in PCI group. Results did not change comparing CABG with PCI patients receiving complete revascularization or DES only. Diabetics show a higher incidence of MACCE with PCI than with CABG: thus diabetes and its degree of control should be considered when choosing the type of revascularization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PERFUSION FOR MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION WITHOUT AN ARTIFICIAL OXYGENATOR (New Method to Reduce Surgical Morbidity)

    PubMed Central

    De Moraes, Domingos Junqueira; Abilio, Fued Michel; Cunha, Marcos; Feitosa, Lionicio A.; Aragão, Esmeraldino; Cysne, Eumenes; Vieira, Roberto; Glavam, Haroldo C. C.; Zaniolo, Waldomiro; Netto, Mario Salles; Villela, Ronaldo De A.; Labrunie, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    Thirteen patients were submitted to direct myocardial revascularization (saphenous vein graft) without the use of an artificial oxygenator. The perfusion was done by a left ventricle-to-aorta bypass and autogenous oxygenation. Most patients had three grafts implanted plus endarterectomy of the distal right coronary artery. There was one hospital death that was apparently not related to the method used. Perfusion time ranged from 45 minutes to 4 hours. Body temperature during perfusion was kept between 25 and 30° C. Perfusion flow was maintained between 25 to 50 ml per kg of body weight per minute. Ischemic, hypothermic cardiac arrest was employed. We demonstrated for the first time that perfusion for this kind of heart surgery could be done with no artificial oxygenators and, apparently, is safer for the patients. There were no bleeding problems even in perfusions as long as 4 hours. There was no respiratory dysfunction, and artificial respiration was used for only 6 to 12 hours. The patients awoke at the end of surgery with no signs or symptoms of central nervous system damage, and vasopressor drugs were rarely used after surgery. Although the experience is very small, it suggests that many postoperative problems, especially those related to bleeding and respiratory dysfunction may be reduced or eliminated by this new method. PMID:15216319

  13. Off-pump total myocardial revascularization in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Milani, Rodrigo; Paulo, Brofman; Moutinho, José Augusto; Laura, Barboza; Maximiliano, Guimarães; Alexandre, Barbosa; Lidia, Zitynski; Dalton, Précoma; Alexandre, Varela; Ravanelli, Marcel Rogers; Maia, Francisco

    2007-07-01

    To assess off-pump myocardial revascularization in patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction. Four hundred and five patients with an ejection fraction less than 35% underwent myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation. The procedure was performed with the aid of a suction stabilizer and the LIMA stitch. The distal anastomoses were performed first. A total of 405 patients were evaluated whose mean age was 63.4 +/- 9.78 years. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients were men (68.8%). With regard to risk factors, 347 patients were hypertensive, 194 were smokers, 202 were dyslipidemic, and 134 had diabetes. Two hundred and sixty patients were classified as NYHA functional class III and IV. Twenty patients suffered from chronic renal disease and were under dialysis. Fifty-one underwent emergency surgery, and 33 had been previously operated on. The mean ejection fraction was 27.2 +/- 3.54%. The mean EuroSCORE was 8.46 +/- 4.41. The mean number of anastomoses performed was 3.03 +/- 1.54 per patient. Forty-nine patients (12%) needed an intra-aortic balloon inserted after induction of anesthesia, whereas 73 (18%) needed inotropic support during the perioperative period. As to complications, 2 patients (0.49%) had renal failure, 2 had mediastinitis (0.49%), 7 (1.7%) needed to be reoperated because of bleeding, 5 patients (1.2%) suffered acute myocardial infarction, and 70 patients (17.3%) experienced atrial fibrillation. Eighteen (4.4%) patients died. Based on the data above, we concluded that myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation in patients with left ventricular dysfunction is a safe and effective technique, and an alternative for high-risk patients. Results obtained were better than those predicted by EuroSCORE.

  14. Benefits of Intraaortic Balloon Support for Myocardial Infarction Patients in Severe Cardiogenic Shock Undergoing Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Yi; Tsai, Ming-Lung; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung; Wen, Ming-Shien; Hsieh, I-Chang; Hung, Ming-Jui; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Tien-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have suggested intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) have a neutral effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). However, the effects of IABP on patients with severe CS remain unclear. We therefore investigated the benefits of IABP in AMI patients with severe CS undergoing coronary revascularization. Methods and Results This study identified 14,088 adult patients with AMI and severe CS undergoing coronary revascularization from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011, dividing them into the IABP group (n = 7044) and the Nonusers group (n = 7044) after propensity score matching to equalize confounding variables. The primary outcomes included myocardial infarction(MI), cerebrovascular accidents or cardiovascular death. In-hospital events including dialysis, stroke, pneumonia and sepsis were secondary outcomes. Primary outcomes were worse in the IABP group than in the Nonusers group in 1 month (Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.84–2.12). The MI rate was higher in the IABP group (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.16–1.79), and the cardiovascular death was much higher in the IABP group (HR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.92–2.23). The IABP users had lower incidence of dialysis (8.5% and 9.5%, P = 0.04), stroke (2.6% and 3.8%, P<0.001), pneumonia (13.9% and 16.5%, P<0.001) and sepsis (13.2% and 16%, P<0.001) during hospitalization than Nonusers. Conclusion The use of IABP in patients with myocardial infarction and severe cardiogenic shock undergoing coronary revascularization did not improve the outcomes of recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. However, it did reduce the incidence of dialysis, stroke, pneumonia and sepsis during hospitalization. PMID:27483439

  15. Impact of Multivessel Revascularization on Health Status Outcomes in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Coronary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae-Sik; Spertus, John A.; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Shafiq, Ali; Grodzinsky, Anna; Fendler, Timothy J.; Salisbury, Adam C.; Tang, Fengming; McNulty, Edward J.; Grantham, J. Aaron; Cohen, David J.; Amin, Amit P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Up to 65% of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have multivessel coronary disease (MVCAD). TLong-term health status of STEMI patients following multivessel revascularization is unknown. OBJECTIVE We investigated the relationship between multivessel revascularization and health status outcomes (symptoms and quality of life [QoL]) in STEMI patients with MVCAD. METHODS Using a U.S. myocardial infarction registry and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), we determined the health status of patients with STEMI and MVCAD at the time of STEMI and 1 year later. We assessed the association of multivessel revascularization during index hospitalization with 1-year health status using multivariable linear regression analysis, and also examined demographic, clinical, and angiographic factors associated with multivessel revascularization. RESULTS Among 664 STEMI patients with MVCAD, 251 (38%) underwent multivessel revascularization. Most revascularizations were staged during the index hospitalization (64.1%), and 8.0% were staged after discharge, with 27.9% performed during primary PCI. Multivessel revascularization was associated with age and more diseased vessels. At 1 year, multivessel revascularization was independently associated with improved symptoms (4.5 points higher SAQ angina frequency score; 95% CI: 1.0 to 7.9) and QoL (6.6 points higher SAQ QoL score; 95% CI: 2.7 to 10.6). One year mortality was not different between those who did and did not undergo multivessel revascularization (3.6% vs. 3.4%; log-rank test p = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS Multivessel revascularization improved angina and QoL in STEMI patients with MVCAD. Patient-centered outcomes should be considered in future trials of multivessel revascularization. PMID:26541921

  16. Optimal Timing of Surgical Revascularization for Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Cheng, Nan; Xiao, Cang-Song; Wu, Yang; Sai, Xiao-Yong; Gong, Zhi-Yun; Wang, Yao; Gao, Chang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Background: The optimal timing of surgical revascularization for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and impaired left ventricular function is not well established. This study aimed to examine the timing of surgical revascularization after STEMI in patients with ischemic heart disease and left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) by comparing early and late results. Methods: From January 2003 to December 2013, there were 2276 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in our institution. Two hundred and sixty-four (223 male, 41 females) patients with a history of STEMI and LVD were divided into early revascularization (ER, <3 weeks), mid-term revascularization (MR, 3 weeks to 3 months), and late revascularization (LR, >3 months) groups according to the time interval from STEMI to CABG. Mortality and complication rates were compared among the groups by Fisher's exact test. Cox regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of the time interval of surgery on long-term survival. Results: No significant differences in 30-day mortality, long-term survival, freedom from all-cause death, and rehospitalization for heart failure existed among the groups (P > 0.05). More patients in the ER group (12.90%) had low cardiac output syndrome than those in the MR (2.89%) and LR (3.05%) groups (P = 0.035). The mean follow-up times were 46.72 ± 30.65, 48.70 ± 32.74, and 43.75 ± 32.43 months, respectively (P = 0.716). Cox regression analyses showed a severe preoperative condition (odds ratio = 7.13, 95% confidence interval 2.05–24.74, P = 0.002) rather than the time interval of CABG (P > 0.05) after myocardial infarction was a risk factor of long-term survival. Conclusions: Surgical revascularization for patients with STEMI and LVD can be performed at different times after STEMI with comparable operative mortality and long-term survival. However, ER (<3 weeks) has a higher incidence of postoperative low cardiac

  17. [Is coronary artery bypass grafting under extracorporeal circulation the only technic that assures complete myocardial revascularization? Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Soltoski, P R; Panos, A L; Bergsland, J; Salerno, T A

    2000-03-01

    Like other technical advances in medicine, the initial phase of rejection of off-pump revascularization has given way to its acceptance with some limitations. Today's main concern is whether the technique can be safely applied to access all coronary arteries, specially the postero-lateral vessels of the heart. We believe that off-pump CABG has proven to be an excellent alternative to the standard revascularization techniques avoiding the risks and complications of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). It can be applied to any case with minimal incidence of conversions thus avoiding the complications of CPB. In this debate we describe our technique, discuss our experience with complete myocardial revascularization, and suggest that the CPB machine should be a readily available tool for more complex cases rather than the current concept that it is an indispensable element for myocardial revascularization.

  18. Off-Pump Myocardial Revascularization in a High-Risk Patient with Essential Thrombocythemia

    PubMed Central

    Darwazah, Ahmad K.; Madi, Hamad; Zagha, Rami; Hawash, Yahia

    2014-01-01

    Essential thrombocythemia is a rare type of myeloproliferative disorder. Cerebral, myocardial, and peripheral thrombosis are all frequent complications of the disease. A 71-year-old man presented with severe coronary artery disease, associated with cerebral vascular ischemic changes and erythromelalgia. His platelet count was 1,486 ×103/μL. The patient underwent successful myocardial revascularization by means of an off-pump technique after his platelet count had been reduced by hydroxycarbamide administration. We conclude that the use of off-pump cardiopulmonary bypass in high-risk patients with essential thrombocythemia is safe. Reducing platelet count via the administration of hydroxycarbamide and the careful balancing of antiplatelets and anticoagulants is crucial in determining the outcome of surgery. PMID:25425991

  19. Complete Revascularization of Simultaneous Multiple Culprit Lesions in a Septuagenarian with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ifedili, Ikechukwu A.; Bob-Manuel, Tamunoinemi; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi; Askari, Raza; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 74 Final Diagnosis: Multiple culprit lesions in ST-elevation myocardial infarction Symptoms: Chest pain • shortness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cardiac catheterization Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is usually caused by rupture of unstable plaque with thrombus formation and abrupt cessation of blood flow through a single coronary artery that is deemed the culprit. The simultaneous thrombotic occlusions of multiple coronary arteries in the setting of STEMI is a rare occurrence with implications for patient management and outcome not fully addressed in the current STEMI guidelines, although more recent studies suggest a benefit of complete revascularization compared to culprit vessel-only treatment in the setting of STEMI. Case Report: A 74-year-old female presented with STEMI. Coronary angiography revealed simultaneous multiple coronary thrombotic occlusions involving the right coronary, left circumflex, and ramus intermedius arteries successfully treated with primary percutaneous revascularization at the same setting with good outcome and short hospital length of stay. Conclusions: Although the most appropriate timing to treat simultaneous multiple culprit lesions has yet to be definitively defined, multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention in the setting of a STEMI with multiple culprit lesions is feasible with good outcome as shown by our index case. PMID:28035135

  20. Ablation velocity and thermal damage of myocardial tissue using a CO2 laser for transmyocardial laser revascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachinopoulou, Anna; Beek, Johan F.; van Leeuwen, Ton G. J. M.; Beek, W. J.

    1999-02-01

    Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization (TMLR) is a new experimental method for relief of angina pectoris in patients with severe coronary artery disease. TMLR aims at revascularizing chronic hibernating myocardium by creating transmural channels. One of the working mechanism hypotheses is that the endocardial side of the channels remains open, enabling perfusion of the hibernating myocardium directly from the left ventricle. Although the working mechanism of TMLR is still unknown (perfusion through patent channels, induction of angiogenesis, relief of angina through destruction of sympatic innervation, others?), first clinical studies are successful. Currently, the Heart LaserTM and other CO2 lasers, XeCl Excimer laser and Ho:YAG laser are under investigation for TMLR. The initial attempts of TMR with needles were soon replaced by laser induced channels. Efforts were focused on developing a CO2 laser that could penetrate a beating heart during its relaxation phase. Later, the position of the beam could be fixed in the myocardial wall using lasers with fiber delivery systems and perforation was achieved within multiple cycles. Various researchers reported on both patent and non-patent channels after TMLR. Our belief is that the extent of laser induced thermal damage is one of the factors that determine the clinical outcome and the extent of angiogenesis (and, possibly, the patency of the channel). The purpose of this study is to present a simple theoretical model to predict the extent of thermal damage around a transmyocardial channel. In vitro experiments were performed on myocardial bovine tissue and damage was assessed. The results were used to determine the final parameters of the approximating theoretical equation. To evaluate our results, we compared our results to in vitro data using the Heart LaserTM from the literature. Ablation velocities were also measured and the results were compared to ablation velocity calculations using a model described by Ostegar

  1. Risk assessment by myocardial perfusion imaging for coronary revascularization, medical therapy, and noncardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Georgios I; Heller, Gary V

    2003-01-01

    Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has become an important tool in risk stratification of patients with known coronary artery disease. A normal myocardial perfusion scan has a high negative predictive value and is associated with low annual mortality rate (< 1%). Patients with extensive ischemia (> 20% of the left ventricle), defects in more than 1 coronary vascular territory, transient or persistent left ventricular cavity dilation, and ejection fraction less than 45% have a high annual mortality rate (> 3%). Those patients should undergo coronary revascularization whenever feasible, as the cardiac event rate increases in proportion to the magnitude of the jeopardized myocardium. Stress MPI can be used to demonstrate ischemia in patients with symptoms early after coronary artery bypass surgery (< 5 years) or in those without symptoms late (>/= 5 years) after coronary artery bypass surgery. With respect to patients who underwent percutaneous interventions, stress MPI can help detect in-stent restenosis early after the intervention (3-6 months) or assess the progression of native coronary disease afterward. Since preliminary data suggest that a reduction in the perfusion defect size may translate to a reduction of coronary events, stress MPI can help assess the efficacy of medical management of coronary disease. Finally, stress MPI is indicated for perioperative cardiac risk stratification for noncardiac surgery in patients with intermediate risk predictors (mild angina, prior myocardial infarction or heart failure symptoms, diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency) and poor functional capacity or in those who undergo high-risk surgery with significant implications in further preoperative management.

  2. Feasibility of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Myocardial Revascularization Therapy for Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients and Refractory Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Myojo, Masahiro; Ando, Jiro; Uehara, Masae; Daimon, Masao; Watanabe, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-06

    Extracorporeal shockwave myocardial revascularization (ESMR) is one of the new treatment options for refractory angina pectoris (RAP), and some studies have indicated its effectiveness. A single-arm prospective trial to assess the feasibility of ESMR using Cardiospec for patients with post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and RAP was designed and performed. The patients were treated with 9 sessions of ESMR to the ischemic areas for 9 weeks. The feasibility measures included echocardiography; cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; troponin T, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and brain natriuretic peptide testing; and a Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) survey. Three post-AMI patients and 3 RAP patients were enrolled. The post-AMI patients had already undergone revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the acute phase. In two patients, adverse events requiring admission occurred: one a lumbar disc hernia in a post-AMI patient and the other congestive heart failure resulting in death in an RAP patient. No apparent elevations in CK-MB and troponin T levels during the trial were observed. Echocardiography revealed no remarkable changes of ejection fraction; however, septal E/E' tended to decrease after treatments (11.6 ± 4.8 versus 9.2 ± 2.8, P = 0.08). Concerning the available SAQ scores for two RAP patients, one patient reported improvements in angina frequency and treatment satisfaction and the other reported improvements in physical limitations and angina stability. In this feasibility study, ESMR seems to be a safe treatment for both post-AMI patients and RAP patients. The efficacy of ESMR for post-AMI patients remains to be evaluated with additional studies.

  3. Preoperative therapy restores ventilatory parameters and reduces length of stay in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira Sobrinho, Moises; Guirado, Gabriel Negretti; Silva, Marcos Augusto de Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The frequency of surgical procedures has increased steadily in recent decades, including the myocardial revascularization. Objectives To demonstrate the importance of physiotherapy in the preoperative period of cardiac surgery in relation to the reduction of hospital stay, changes in lung volumes and respiratory muscle strength. Methods We conducted a prospective study with patients undergoing myocardial revascularization, the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)/Botucatu - SP. We evaluated 70 patients of both genders, aged between 40 and 75 years, subdivided into two groups: group I - 35 patients of both genders, who received a written protocol guidance, breathing exercises and respiratory muscle training in the preoperative period and group II - 35 patients of both genders, who received only orientation of the ward on the day of surgery. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of UNESP / Botucatu - SP. Results Maximal inspiratory pressure in third postoperative day and fifth postoperative day and significant difference between groups, being better for the intervention group. Expiratory pressure was significant in fifth postoperative day in the intervention group compared to controls. The difference of length of hospital stay in the postoperative was found between the groups with shorter hospital stay in the group receiving preoperative therapy. Conclusion Physical therapy plays an important role in the preoperative period, so that individuals in the intervention group more readily restored the parameters evaluated before surgery, in addition, there was a decrease in the time of the postoperative hospital stay. Thus, it is thought the cost-effectiveness of a program of preoperative physiotherapy. PMID:25140472

  4. Improvement of myocardial contractility in a porcine model of chronic ischemia using a combined transmyocardial revascularization and gene therapy approach.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Keith A; Lu, Chia Yang J; Robert, Emmanuel; Pierce, Glenn F; Greene, Rodney; Sosnowski, Barbara A; Doukas, John

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a novel fibroblast growth factor-2 gene formulation, providing a localized and sustained availability of the adenoviral vector from a collagen-based matrix, in combination with CO 2 transmyocardial laser revascularization would lead to an enhanced angiogenic response and improved myocardial function. Fibroblast growth factor-2 gene was delivered by means of an adenoviral vector (adenoviral fibroblast growth factor-2) formulated in a collagen-based matrix. The ischemic areas of 33 animals were then treated. Group 1 was treated with CO 2 transmyocardial laser revascularization; group 2 was treated with intramyocardial injections of adenoviral fibroblast growth factor-2 in a collagen-based matrix; group 3 had a combination treatment of matrix adenoviral fibroblast growth factor-2 and CO 2 transmyocardial laser revascularization; and group 4 received injections with saline-formulated adenoviral fibroblast growth factor-2. Baseline left ventricular function was assessed by echocardiography and cine magnetic resonance imaging. Studies were repeated 6 weeks after treatment. Vascular development was assessed using anti-alpha-actin immunohistochemistry. Matrix adenoviral fibroblast growth factor-2 + transmyocardial laser revascularization-treated areas had a 105% increase in arteriolar development versus either treatment alone ( P < .05) and a 390% increase compared with saline-formulated adenoviral fibroblast growth factor-2 treatment alone ( P < .05). Contractility was significantly improved in matrix adenoviral fibroblast growth factor-2 + transmyocardial laser revascularization-treated areas as measured by myocardial wall thickening. This functional improvement was confirmed by cine magnetic resonance imaging, in which a 90% increase in the contractility of the treated segments was demonstrated after matrix adenoviral fibroblast growth factor-2 + transmyocardial laser revascularation. The other treatments provided

  5. [Percutaneous myocardial laser revascularization (PMR), a new therapeutic procedure for patients with refractory angina pectoris].

    PubMed

    Lauer, B; Stahl, F; Bratanow, S; Schuler, G

    2000-01-01

    In patients with severe angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease, who are not candidates for either percutaneous coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery, transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) often leads to improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity. One drawback of TMR is the need for surgical thoracotomy in order to gain access to the epicardial surface of the heart. Therefore, a catheter-based system has been developed, which allows creation of laser channels into the myocardium from the left ventricular cavity. Between January 1997 and November 1999, this "percutaneous myocardial laser-revascularization" (PMR) was performed in 85 patients at the Herzzentrum Leipzig. In 43 patients, only one region of the heart (anterior, lateral, inferior or septal) was treated with PMR; in 42 patients two or three regions were treated in one session. 12.3 +/- 4.3 (range 4-22) channels/region were created into the myocardium. Six months after PMR, the majority of patients reported significant improvement of clinical symptoms (CCS class at baseline: 3.3 +/- 0.4; after 6 months: 1.6 +/- 0.9) (p < 0.001) and an increased exercise capacity (baseline: 349 +/- 138 s; after 6 months: 470 +/- 193 s) (p < 0.05); however, thallium scintigraphy failed to show increased perfusion in the PMR treated regions. PMR seems to be a safe and feasible new therapeutic option for patients with refractory angina pectoris due to end-stage coronary artery disease. The first results indicate improvement of clinical symptoms and increased exercise capacity; evidence of increased perfusion in the laser-treated regions is still lacking.

  6. Disparities in revascularization rates after acute myocardial infarction between aboriginal and non-aboriginal people in Australia.

    PubMed

    Randall, Deborah A; Jorm, Louisa R; Lujic, Sanja; O'Loughlin, Aiden J; Eades, Sandra J; Leyland, Alastair H

    2013-02-19

    This study examined revascularization rates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients sequentially controlling for admitting hospital and risk factors. Hospital data from the state of New South Wales, Australia (July 2000 through December 2008) were linked to mortality data (July 2000 through December 2009). The study sample were all people aged 25 to 84 years admitted to public hospitals with a diagnosis of AMI (n=59 282). Single level and multilevel Cox regression was used to estimate rates of revascularization within 30 days of admission. A third (32.9%) of Aboriginal AMI patients had a revascularization within 30 days compared with 39.7% non-Aboriginal patients. Aboriginal patients had a revascularization rate 37% lower than non-Aboriginal patients of the same age, sex, year of admission, and AMI type (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.70). Within the same hospital, however, Aboriginal patients had a revascularization rate 18% lower (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.91). Accounting for comorbidities, substance use and private health insurance further explained the disparity (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.07). Hospitals varied markedly in procedure rates, and this variation was associated with hospital size, remoteness, and catheterization laboratory facilities. Aboriginal Australians were less likely to have revascularization procedures after AMI than non-Aboriginal Australians, and this was largely explained by lower revascularization rates at the hospital of first admission for all patients admitted to smaller regional and rural hospitals, a higher comorbidity burden for Aboriginal people, and to a lesser extent a lower rate of private health insurance among Aboriginal patients.

  7. Global myocardial revascularization without cardiopulmonary bypass using innovative techniques for myocardial stabilization and perfusion.

    PubMed

    Bedi, H S; Suri, A; Kalkat, M S; Sengar, B S; Mahajan, V; Chawla, R; Sharma, V P

    2000-01-01

    In off-pump coronary bypass grafting (CABG), invasiveness is reduced but technically perfect anastomosis is jeopardized by cardiac motion and the need to hurry to reduce the time of ischemia. Also, a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality is ungrafted circumflex coronary artery disease. We have devised a means of overcoming these shortcomings and performing multivessel CABG. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of our technique. One hundred patients with severe triple-vessel disease underwent multivessel off-pump CABG. For cardiac stabilization, a combination of local pericardial stabilization sutures and lifting and rotating the heart by means of posterior pericardial sutures were used. For myocardial perfusion, a technique of retrograde coronary sinus perfusion by arterial blood from the ascending aorta was used. Each patient received an average of 3.8 grafts (range 3 to 5). Complications included conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in 1 patient and a perioperative myocardial infarction in the same patient. In all other patients we were able to perform a satisfactory grafting in all territories with no operative mortality. Rapid recovery allowed 95% of our patients to resume normal activity within 1 month. A predischarge graft angiogram in 35 patients showed 97.8% patency. These results suggest that off-pump CABG with our techniques is effective and safe. Early clinical outcome and excellent patency rates suggest its more widespread use in selected cases.

  8. [Oxygen-transporting function of the blood circulation system in sevoflurane anesthesia during myocardial revascularization under extracorporeal circulation].

    PubMed

    Skopets, A A; Lomivorotov, V V; Karakhalis, N B; Makarov, A A; Duman'ian, E S; Lomivorotova, L V

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of oxygen-transporting function of the circulatory system under sevoflurane anesthesia during myocardial revascularization operations under extracorporeal circulation. Twenty-five patients with coronary heart disease were examined. Mean blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral vascular resistance index, pulmonary pressure, pulmonary wedge pressure, and central venous pressure were measured. Arterial and mixed venous blood oxygen levels, oxygen delivery and consumption index, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and glucose and lactate concentrations were calculated. The study has demonstrated that sevoflurane is an effective and safe anesthetic for myocardial revascularization operations in patients with coronary heart disease. The use of sevoflurane contributes to steady-state oxygen-transporting function of the circulatory system at all surgical stages.

  9. Myocardial revascularization: factors intervening in the reference and counter-reference in Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Kamylla Santos da; Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Kahl, Carolina; Koerich, Cintia; Meirelles, Betina Hörner Schlindwein

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that influence the reference and counter-reference process of people indicated/submitted to Myocardial Revascularization surgery in the Primary Health Care scenario. A qualitative research anchored in the Grounded Theory, totaling 41 participants subdivided into three groups (patients, health professionals and managers) in the Metropolitan and West Region of Santa Catarina. Two categories elucidate the intervening factors found, contrasting the potentialities and obstacles in (creating) the bond between people affected by cardiovascular diseases and primary health care for the reference process, highlighting weaknesses in the primary health care services provided, with failures in the counter-reference for people submitted to myocardial revascularization surgery. Strengthening the potentialities presented in this study is essential for the reference process of people affected by Cardiovascular Disease, as well as strategic actions focused on solving the evidenced obstacles which contribute to deficiencies in the referral and counter-referral process, thus impeding integral care in the health care network. Compreender os fatores que influenciam o processo de referência e contrarreferência da pessoa com indicação/submetida à Cirurgia de Revascularização Miocárdica no cenário da Atenção Primária à Saúde. Pesquisa qualitativa ancorada na Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados, totalizando 41 participantes subdivididos em três grupos (pacientes, profissionais de saúde e gestores) na Região Metropolitana e Região Oeste de Santa Catarina. Duas categorias elucidam os fatores interventores encontrados, Contrastando as potencialidades e entraves no vínculo da pessoa acometida por doenças cardiovasculares com a atenção primária à saúde para o processo de referência e Destacando fragilidades nos serviços disponibilizados na atenção primária à saúde, com insucessos da contrarreferência da pessoa submetida à cirurgia de

  10. [Current problems in coronary artery surgery: new methods of myocardial revascularization and vascular anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Masayoshi, O; Kazuta, S; Hiroyuki, H; Hiroshi, I; Kunio, O; Shozo, M; Kazuo, N

    1985-09-01

    Recently, aortocoronary bypass for the patients with ischemic heart disease has been widely performed and excellent operative results have been obtained in Japan. But, there are some problems in coronary artery surgery for the patients with small coronary artery or multiple stenoses of the coronary arteries. For the purpose to resolve of these problems, operative transluminal angioplasty and onlay patch grafting have been routinely done for severely ill cases, and good patency rate of bypass grafts has been confirmed by postoperative angiography in our clinic. Another problem is alternative surgical treatment for these patients whom A-C bypass could not be done, because of diffuse stenosis of the coronary arteries. As a new method of myocardial revascularization for such cases, arterialization of the coronary venous system (Ao-CS bypass, or Ao-LADV bypass) was experimentally performed. Subsequently, improvements of hemodynamics and blood gas analysis during the bypass were obviously recognized in the latter group. Besides, transmyocardial punctures were created by CO2 Laser (output: 60-90 W, irradiation time: 0.15-0.25 sec) in the ischemic myocardium. Newly created myocardial channels were microscopically studied from the stand points of tissue reaction and patency rate. Subsequently, tinned layers of carbonization and coagulation necrosis were observed in the channels and they disappeared gradually, and long-term patency of the channels could be apparently expected from these findings. On the other hand, vascular anastomosis (side-to-side, end-to-end, and end-to-side) by low energy CO2 Laser was experimentally done in which good healing at the site of anastomosis could be microscopically observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Disparities in Revascularization After ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Before and After the 2002 IOM Report.

    PubMed

    Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Kiladejo, Adekunle V; Animashaun, Islamiyat Babs; Akinboboye, Olakunle O

    2016-05-01

    To examine nationwide trends for racial disparities in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention after ST elevated Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report published in 2002 showed that African Americans were less likely to receive coronary revascularization such as CABG and stents even after controlling for socioeconomics. It recommended increased awareness of these disparities among health professionals to reduce this. We hypothesized that increased awareness of disparities since this report would have translated to reduction in racial disparities in percutaneous coronary intervention. A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 1998-2007. All patients with STEMI during this period were identified. The proportion that received Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) during the incident admission was compared by different ethnicities over the time period. Multivariable regression for each year was conducted using Poisson regression with robust variances. The analysis controlled for gender, insurance status, co-morbidities, hospital bed size, location and teaching status. Based on the database, about 2.04 million patients were managed for acute Myocardial Infarction from 1998 to 2007, of these 938,176 had STEMI. The primary PCI rate after STEMI among Caucasians was 29.1%, African Americans-23.3% and Hispanics-28.3% [P < 0.001] On multivariate regression, compared to Caucasians, African Americans and Hispanics respectively were 26% (IRR = 0.74) and 16% (IRR = 0.84) less likely to receive PCI (both with P < 0.001) during the entire study period. Ethnic disparities in primary PCI after STEMI persist despite the 2002 IOM report. Copyright © 2016 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety and efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave myocardial revascularization therapy for refractory angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Cassar, Andrew; Prasad, Megha; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin; Reeder, Guy S; Karia, Darshak; DeMaria, Anthony N; Lerman, Amir

    2014-03-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave myocardial revascularization (ESMR) therapy in treating patients with refractory angina pectoris. A single-arm multicenter prospective trial to assess safety and efficacy of the ESMR therapy in patients with refractory angina (class III/IV angina) was performed. Screening exercise treadmill tests and pharmacological single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed for all patients to assess exercise capacity and ischemic burden. Patients were treated with 9 sessions of ESMR to ischemic areas over 9 weeks. Efficacy end points were exercise capacity by using treadmill test as well as ischemic burden on pharmacological SPECT at 4 months after the last ESMR treatment. Safety measures included electrocardiography, echocardiography, troponin, creatine kinase, and brain natriuretic peptide testing, and pain questionnaires. Fifteen patients with medically refractory angina and no revascularization options were enrolled. There was a statistically significant mean increase of 122.3±156.9 seconds (38% increase compared with baseline; P=.01) in exercise treadmill time from baseline (319.8±157.2 seconds) to last follow-up after the ESMR treatment (422.1±183.3 seconds). There was no improvement in the summed stress perfusion scores after pharmacologically induced stress SPECT at 4 months after the last ESMR treatment in comparison to that at screening; however, SPECT summed stress score revealed that untreated areas had greater progression in ischemic burden vs treated areas (3.69±6.2 vs 0.31±4.5; P=.03). There was no significant change in the mean summed echo score from baseline to posttreatment (0.4±5.1; P=.70). The ESMR therapy was performed safely without any adverse events in electrocardiography, echocardiography, troponins, creatine kinase, or brain natriuretic peptide. Pain during the ESMR treatment was minimal (a score of 0.5±1.2 to 1.1±1.2 out of 10). In this multicenter feasibility

  13. New Treatment Applying Low Level Laser Therapy for Acute Dehiscence Saphenectomy in Post Myocardial Revascularization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Nathali Cordeiro; Shoji, Nara; Junior, Mauro Favoretto; Muramatso, Mikiya; Chavantes, Maria Cristina; Stolf, Noedir A. G.

    2008-04-01

    Introduction: In Brazil, the main cause of death is the coronary heart disease and the surgical treatment applied in such cases is the Myocardial Revascularization (MR). Patients undergoing to MR through saphenous vein bypass development dehiscence in 10% of the cases. Dehiscence of surgical incision through Biomodulation treatment with Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in patients who underwent to MR seems to be an unprecedented new therapy and a less invasive technique, which can benefit patients and Institutions, reducing costs. Methodology: It was analyzed 7 diabetic patients, mean age 51, 8 years old that post MR surgery presented dehiscence of the saphenectomy incision on lower limb with erithema, edema and pain. The wounds area varies from 2,2 until 34,8 cm and deep from 0,1 until 1,1 cm. It was used only Diode Laser C.W. (655 nm wavelength), Power = 25 mW, Time = 30 s, Fluence = 4 J/cm2 applied punctually around surgical wound's sore, by 2 cm distance. Results: It was observed granulated tissue all around the incision, as well as decreased inflammatory process, reduction fibrin and wound's size, besides analgesic effect since the first application. It was required in superficial wounds only 3 applications, while in the extensive wounds 8-10 applications were necessary. The LLLT has shown a remarkable role as a wound healing facilitated agent, reflecting the reduction of inflammatory process and improving analgesia. Conclusion: LLLT assisted dehiscence post saphenectomy showed a substantial improvement to the patient's quality of life, with a cost-effectiveness treatment that can benefit both patients and Institutions as an effective and less invasive therapy.

  14. High-Intensity Inspiratory Protocol Increases Heart Rate Variability in Myocardial Revascularization Patients

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Flavia Cristina Rossi; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Reis, Michel Silva; Guizilini, Solange; Alves, Vera Lucia dos Santos; Papa, Valeria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate heart rate variability during an inspiratory muscle endurance protocol at three different load levels [30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure], in patients who had previously undergone coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: Nineteen late postoperative myocardial revascularization patients participating in a cardiovascular rehabilitation program were studied. Maximal inspiratory pressure maneuvers were performed. An inspiratory muscle endurance protocol at 30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure was applied for four minutes each, in random order. Heart rate and RR intervals were recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed by time (RMSSD-the mean of the standard deviations for all R-R intervals, and RMSM-root-mean square differences of successive R-R intervals) and frequency domains indices (high and low frequency) in normalized units. ANOVA for repeated measurements was used to compare heart rate variability indices and Student t-test was used to compare the maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure values. Results: Heart rate increased during performance of maximal respiratory pressures maneuvers, and the maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure mean values were significantly lower than predicted values (P<0.05). RMSSD increased significantly at 80% in relation to rest and 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure and RMSM decreased at 30% and 60% of maximal inspiratory pressure in relation to rest (P<0.05). Additionally, there was significant and progressive decrease in low frequency and increase in high frequency at 30%, 60% and 80% of maximal inspiratory pressure in relation to the resting condition. Conclusion: These results suggest that respiratory muscle training at high intensities can promote greater parasympathetic activity and it may confer important benefits during a rehabilitation program in post-coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:27074273

  15. Opposite patterns of left ventricular remodeling after coronary revascularization in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: role of myocardial viability.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Vittoria; Poldermans, Don; Boersma, Eric; Biagini, Elena; Schinkel, Arend F L; Krenning, Boudewijn; Elhendy, Abdou; Vourvouri, Eleni C; Sozzi, Fabiola B; Maat, Alexander; Crea, Filippo; Roelandt, Jos R T C; Bax, Jeroen J

    2004-10-19

    In patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular (LV) remodeling is an important prognostic indicator. The precise relation between viable myocardium, revascularization, and ongoing or reversed remodeling is unknown and was evaluated in the present study. A total of 100 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography to assess myocardial viability and LV geometry (volumes and shape). At a mean of 10.2 months and 4.5 years after revascularization, resting echocardiography was repeated to evaluate LV remodeling. Long-term follow-up (mean 5+/-2 years) data were obtained. According to dobutamine stress echocardiography, 44 patients (44%) were defined as viable (> or =4 viable segments) and 56 as nonviable. After revascularization, 40 patients (43%) had ongoing LV remodeling and 53 (57%) did not (in 7 patients who died early after revascularization, postoperative echocardiographic evaluation was not available). On multivariable analysis, the number of viable segments was the only predictor of ongoing LV remodeling (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.75; P<0.0001). The likelihood of LV remodeling decreased as the number of viable segments increased. During the follow-up, reverse remodeling was present in viable patients, whereas in nonviable patients, LV volumes significantly increased, which indicates ongoing LV remodeling. At follow-up, viable patients also showed a persistent improvement of heart failure symptoms and fewer cardiac events than nonviable patients (P<0.05). In patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, a substantial amount of viable myocardium prevents ongoing LV remodeling after revascularization and is associated with persistent improvement of symptoms and better outcome.

  16. Relationship between myocardial perfusion-gated SPECT and the performance of coronary revascularization in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Romero-Farina, Guillermo; Candell-Riera, Jaume; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Igual, Albert; García-Dorado, David

    2012-10-01

    Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. There are several published studies on the evolution and prognosis of patients with ICM. However, reports on the therapeutic management in clinical practice are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze coronary revascularization (CR) performance in patients with ICM and suitable coronary anatomy according to myocardial perfusion stress-rest gated SPECT results. Eighty-seven consecutive patients (mean age, 62.4 y; 20 women), with ischemic heart disease, left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less, coronary anatomy suitable for CR, and without previous CR, were evaluated by means of stress-rest gated SPECT. Sixty-four percent of patients had scintigraphic criteria of viability and 62.1% showed scintigraphic ischemia in stress-rest gated SPECT. Forty-five percent of patients were revascularized, and the remainder received medical treatment only. Coronary revascularization was more frequent in patients with scintigraphic viability (P = 0.012), in those with scintigraphic ischemia (P = 0.007), and in those with low left ventricular end-systolic volume (P = 0.006). Cox regression analysis identified multivessel disease [hazard ratio (HR), 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4-7.8], summed difference score greater than 4 (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5-9.8), and left ventricular end-systolic volume less than 120 mL (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-8.2) as the best independent predictors of CR treatment. In patients with ICM and suitable coronary arteries who are able to perform a stress myocardial perfusion-gated SPECT, the presence of multivessel disease and myocardial ischemia and the absence of severely increased left ventricular volume were associated to a decision of CR.

  17. 17β-estradiol effects on human coronaries and grafts employed in myocardial revascularization: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Polvani, Gianluca; Barili, Fabio; Rossoni, Giuseppe; Dainese, Luca; Ossola, Manuela Wally; Topkara, Veli K; Grillo, Francesco; Penza, Eleonora; Tremoli, Elena; Biglioli, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to compare the in vitro effects of 17β-estradiol on human epicardial coronary arteries, resistance coronary arteries and on arterial vessels usually employed as grafts in surgical myocardial revascularization. Methods Coronary artery rings (descending coronary artery, right coronary artery, circumflex coronary artery, first septal branch) and arterial graft rings (internal thoracic artery, gastro-epiploic artery) obtained from human heart donors with heart not suitable to cardiac transplantation were connected to force transducer for isometric force recording. Precontracted specimens with and without endothelium were exposed to increasing concentration of 17β-estradiol (3–30–300–3000 nmol/l) and to vehicle (0.1% v/v ethanol). We also evaluated the effects of 17β-estradiol on vessels before and 20 minutes after exposure to L-monomethyl-arginine and indomethacin. Results 17β-estradiol induced a significant relaxation in all precontracted vessels (mean maximum effect: 78,6% ± 8,5). This effect was not different among the different rings and was not related to the presence of endothelium. N-monomethyl-L-arginine and indomethacin did not modify 17β-estradiol relaxant effect. Conclusion The vasodilator action of the 17β-estradiol is similar on coronary arteries, resistance coronary arteries and arterial vessels usually employed as grafts in myocardial revascularization. PMID:17181858

  18. Use of nefidipine and acute kidney injury incidence in postoperative of myocardial revascularization surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Passaroni, Andréia Cristina; Silva, Marcos Augusto de Moraes; Martins, Antônio Sérgio; Kochi, Ana Cláudia

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the use of nifedipine on the outcome of renal function in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization with extracorporeal circulation. The casuistics and variables related to extracorporeal circulation were studied. Serum creatinine levels were measured preoperatively, 24, 48 hours and on 7th day postoperatively. Renal failure was defined as an increase in 30% of serum creatinine levels at 24 or 48 hours postoperatively compared to those at baseline. Patients were assigned to four groups: G1 (patients who received nifedipine preoperatively); G2 (patients who received nifedipine postoperatively); G3 (patients who received nifedipine pre and postoperatively) and G4 (patients who did not receive nifedipine). The mean serum creatinine levels postoperatively presented greater rise in G4 (G4>G1=G2=G3), and G4 also presented a higher percentage of patients with acute renal failure (G4>G1 and G4>G3, P<0.05; G1=G3 and G2=G4, P>0.05). The evaluation of serum creatinine values and incidence of acute kidney injury postoperatively suggest a possible nefro-potective effect of nifedipine in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization with extracorporeal circulation.

  19. [The early angiographic follow-up of myocardial revascularization in a minithoracotomy: the results of the first 100 consecutive cases].

    PubMed

    Sganzerla, P; Passaretti, B; Child, M; Tavasci, M; Savasta, C; Baldrighi, G; Repossini, A; Moriggia, S; Gerometta, P; Arena, V

    1999-01-01

    The use of the left internal thoracic artery anastomized to the left anterior descending coronary artery via a small left thoracotomy to revascularize the anterior wall of the left ventricle has gained wide acceptance since its introduction into clinical practice a few years ago. A mandatory, postoperative angiographic control was suggested in order to check the surgical results of this new method of revascularization. We herein analyze the results of the in-hospital angiographic control of a series of 100 consecutive patients who underwent minimally invasive coronary artery bypass. In all 100 patients the thoracic graft, the anastomosis and the target vessel were patent, with no anomalies in 90 subjects. In 4 patients, a sharp angulation of the thoracic artery in the last third before the anastomosis to the native vessel was observed; in 3 subjects, the arterial graft had been anastomized to a diseased tract of the target vessel and in 3 cases a significant stenosis of the target vessel beyond the anastomosis was documented; in 2 cases the persistence of a thoracic artery branch was discovered. Since 1) neither in-hospital total occlusion of the thoracic graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery via a small thoracotomy was documented nor a significant incidence of major anomalies was observed; 2) the anomalies documented seem to be clinically negligible and may regress in the midterm postoperative period; 3) Doppler flow analysis is able to detect not only the patency but also the presence of significant stenosis in the arterial graft; the in-hospital angiographic control of this surgical technique should be limited to patients with abnormal ultrasonic data or with reappearance of myocardial ischemia in the anterior wall of the left ventricle, thus not reducing the advantages in terms of speed and cost-control of this type of myocardial revascularization.

  20. Impact of computed tomography myocardial perfusion following computed tomography coronary angiography on downstream referral for invasive coronary angiography, revascularization and, outcome at 12 months.

    PubMed

    van Rosendael, Alexander R; Dimitriu-Leen, Aukelien C; de Graaf, Michiel A; van Zwet, Erik W; Jukema, J Wouter; Bax, Jeroen J; Kroft, Lucia J; Scholte, Arthur J

    2017-05-29

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of adding stress computed tomography (CT) myocardial perfusion (CTP) to coronary CT angiography (CTA) on downstream referral for invasive coronary angiography (ICA), revascularization, and outcome in patients presenting with new-onset chest pain. Three hundred and eighty-four patients were referred for cardiac CT. Patients with lesions ≥50% stenosis underwent subsequently stress CTP. Perfusion scans were considered abnormal if a defect was observed in ≥ 1 segment. Downstream performance of ICA, revascularization, and the occurrence of major cardiovascular events (death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina requiring urgent revascularization) were assessed within 12 months. In total, 119 patients showed ≥50% stenosis on coronary CTA; stress CTP was normal in 61 patients, abnormal in 38 patients and was not performed in 20 patients. After normal stress CTP, 19 (31%) patients underwent ICA and 9 (15%) underwent revascularization. After abnormal stress CTP, 36 (95%) patients underwent ICA and 29 (76%) revascularizations were performed. Multivariable analyses showed a five-fold reduction in likelihood of proceeding to ICA when a normal stress CTP was added to a coronary CTA showing obstructive CAD. Major cardiovascular event rates at 12 months for patients with obstructive CAD and normal stress CTP (N = 61) were low: 1 myocardial infarction, 1 urgent revascularization, and 1 non-cardiac death. The performance of stress CTP in patients with obstructive CAD at coronary CTA in the same setting is feasible and reduces the referral rate for ICA and revascularization. Secondly, the occurrence of major cardiovascular events at 12 months follow-up in patients with normal stress CTP is low.

  1. [Radionuclide methods of diagnosis in assessment of interrelationship between the function of the cardiovascular system and kidneys in patients with previously endured myocardial revascularization].

    PubMed

    Vesnina, Zh V; Arsen'eva, Iu A; Lishmanov, Iu B

    2008-01-01

    A steady increase in the number of patients diagnosed with chronic cardiac insufficiency determines the importance of studying in such patients the renal function for comprehen sive analysis of the incidence rate and mechanisms of the cardiorenal continuum. Radionuclide methods of diagnosis make it possible to obtain versatile information about the functional state of both the cardiovascular and urinary systems of the body. Radionuclide methods of study were used to prospectively assess the state of the cardiopulmonary haemodynamics and renal functional activity in patients with CAD after previously endured myocardial revascularization. The authors examined a total of twenty-nine patients suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) (mean age 51.97 +/- 1.32 years) and having developed the NYHA functional class II-III circulatory insufficiency. All the patients were subjected to radiocardiopulmonography (RCPG) with 99mTc-pertechnetate and to dynamic radionuclide renoscintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA before and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Fourteen patients were examined 13.0 +/- 0.4 months after surgical management. Prior to CABG, the parameters of the cardiopulmonary haemodynamics in the examined patients had considerable deviations from the normal values, resulting from a decrease in the pumping function of the heart. Prior to surgical management, 83% of the patients were found to have a various-degree decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. Restoration of the coronary blood flow at early terms following CABG along with improved perfusion in the examined patients was accompanied and followed by a positive change in a series of parameters of the cardiopulmonary haemodynamics. One year after direct myocardial revascularization, the patients with circulatory insufficiency were found to have certain relationship between the impairments of the central haemodynamics parameters and the development of renal function impairment. Hence, radionuclide methods

  2. Multifractality in heartbeat dynamics in patients undergoing beating-heart myocardial revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ksela, Jus; Avbelj, Viktor; Kalisnik, Jurij Matija

    2015-05-01

    The multifractal approach of HRV analysis offers new insight into the mechanisms of autonomic modulation of the diseased hearts and has a potential to depict subtle changes in cardiac autonomic nervous control not revealed by conventional linear and non-linear analyses in various conditions like heart failure or stable angina pectoris. The aim of this study was to employ the multifractality approach in cardiac surgery patients and evaluate the multifractality before and after beating-heart myocardial revascularization (off-pump CABG). Twenty-four hour Holter recordings were performed pre- and postoperatively in 60 patients undergoing off-pump CABG. Selected conventional time- and frequency-domain linear HRV indices were calculated from the 24h and 5 min ECG segments, and preselected multifractal parameters τ(q=2), τ(q=3), h_top and Δh were determined for daytime (12:00-18:00) and nighttime (00:00-06:00) periods of the ECG recordings using Ivanov's method. Mean differences over time were tested using paired-samples t-test and exact Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. The results are reported as mean ± SD and median with interquartile range. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. All selected conventional linear HRV parameters decreased significantly after off pump CABG (p from <0.001-0.015). Preoperatively, multifractal parameter τ(q=2) was -0.60 ± 0.12 and -0.54 ± 0.12, τ(q=3) -0.52 ± 0.18 and -0.49 ± 0.17, h_top 0.20 ± 0.07 and 0.15 ± 0.07 and Δh 0.31 ± 0.14 and 0.17 ± 0.14 for daytime and nighttime periods, respectively. Postoperatively, τ(q=2) and τ(q=3) were significantly higher for daytime (-0.49 ± 0.15, p<0.001 and -0.43 ± 0.23, p=0.015), whereas h_top and Δh were significantly higher for both daytime and nighttime (0.25 ± 0.07, p<0.001 and 0.19 ± 0.06, p=0.002 for h_top and 0.41 ± 0.20, p=0.003 and 0.31 ± 0.19, p < 0.001 for Δh, respectively). All pre- and postoperative parameters, except τ(q=2) and τ(q=3

  3. Infarct related artery only versus complete revascularization in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multi vessel disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Devarapally, Santhosh R.; Arora, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    Background The 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) focused update on primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) only gives a class II b (weak) indication for non-infarct artery intervention at the time of primary PCI. Recent randomized controlled trials, however, suggest strong evidence supporting complete revascularization. Methods A systematic search was conducted in PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane central register for randomized controlled trials comparing complete versus infarct artery (IRA) only revascularization in patients with STEMI. A meta-analysis was performed using the data extracted from each study. Summary risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for five outcomes. Results Six trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria yielding 1,792 patients. Follow up ranged from 6 months to 2.5 years. The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was significantly lower in the complete revascularization group compared to the IRA only revascularization (13.8% vs. 25.1%, RR =0.51; 95% CI: 0.41–0.64, P<0.00001). It was attributed to significantly lower repeat revascularization rate in the complete revascularization group (8.2% vs. 18.9%, RR =0.41; 95% CI: 0.31–0.54, P<0.00001). This meta-analysis also showed a significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality (2.0% vs. 4.6%, RR =0.42; 95% CI: 0.24–0.74; P=0.003), non-fatal myocardial infarction (4.37% vs. 5.76%, RR =0.64; 95% CI: 0.34–1.20; P=0.16) and all-cause mortality rates [(4.6% vs. 6%), RR =0.75; 95% CI: 0.49–1.14, P=0.17] in the complete revascularization group, compared to the IRA revascularization group. Conclusions In patients who present with STEMI, complete revascularization is associated with lower rates of MACE and cardiovascular deaths as compared to revascularization of the IRA alone. Even though the outcomes of all-cause mortality and

  4. A randomized comparative study of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization with or without cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: The MASS III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hueb, Whady; Lopes, Neuza HM; Gersh, Bernard J; Castro, Cláudio C; Paulitsch, Felipe S; Oliveira, Sergio A; Dallan, Luis A; Hueb, Alexandre C; Stolf, Noedir A; Ramires, José AF

    2008-01-01

    The MASS III Trial is a large project from a single institution, The Heart Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil (InCor), enrolling patients with coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular function. The aim of the MASS III Trial is to compare medical effectiveness, cerebral injury, quality of life, and the cost-effectiveness of coronary surgery with and without of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with multivessel coronary disease referred for both strategies. The primary endpoint should be a composite of cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular accident, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and refractory angina requiring revascularization. The secondary end points in this trial include noncardiac mortality, presence and severity of angina, quality of life based on the SF-36 Questionnaire, and cost-effectiveness at discharge and at 5-year follow-up. In this scenario, we will analyze the cost of the initial procedure, hospital length of stay, resource utilization, repeat hospitalization, and repeat revascularization events during the follow-up. Exercise capacity will be assessed at 6-months, 12-months, and the end of follow-up. A neurocognitive evaluation will be assessed in a subset of subjects using the Brain Resource Center computerized neurocognitive battery. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging will be made to detect any cerebral injury before and after procedures in patients who undergo coronary artery surgery with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinical Trial registration information ISRCTN59539154 Off-pump vs. on-pump surgery in patients with Stable CAD MASS III PMID:18755039

  5. Prediction of Revascularization after Myocardial Perfusion SPECT by Machine Learning in a Large Population

    PubMed Central

    Arsanjani, Reza; Dey, Damini; Khachatryan, Tigran; Shalev, Aryeh; Hayes, Sean W.; Fish, Mathews; Nakanishi, Rine; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S.; Slomka, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate if early revascularization in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) can be effectively predicted by integrating clinical data and quantitative image features derived from perfusion SPECT (MPS) by machine learning (ML) approach. Methods 713 rest 201Thallium/stress 99mTechnetium MPS studies with correlating invasive angiography (372 revascularization events (275 PCI / 97 CABG) within 90 days after MPS (91% within 30 days) were considered. Transient ischemic dilation (TID), stress combined supine/prone total perfusion deficit (TPD), quantitative rest and stress TPD, exercise ejection fraction, and end-systolic volume along with clinical parameters including patient gender, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, ST-depression on baseline ECG, ECG and clinical response during stress, and post-ECG probability by boosted ensemble ML algorithm (LogitBoost) to predict revascularization events. These features were selected using an automated feature selection algorithm from all available clinical and quantitative data (33 parameters). 10-fold cross-validation was utilized to train and test the prediction model. The prediction of revascularization by ML algorithm was compared to standalone measures of perfusion and visual analysis by two experienced readers utilizing all imaging, quantitative, and clinical data. Results The sensitivity of machine learning (73.6±4.3%) for prediction of revascularization was similar to one reader (73.9±4.6%) and standalone measures of perfusion (75.5±4.5%). The specificity of machine learning (74.7±4.2%) was also better than both expert readers (67.2±4.9% and 66.0±5.0%, P < 0.05), but was similar to ischemic TPD (68.3±4.9%, P < 0.05). The Receiver-Operator-Characteristics areas-under-curve for machine learning (0.81±0.02) was similar to reader 1 (0.81±0.02) but superior to reader 2 (0.72±0.02, P < 0.01) and standalone measure of perfusion (0.77±0.02, P < 0.01). Conclusion ML

  6. Prediction of revascularization after myocardial perfusion SPECT by machine learning in a large population.

    PubMed

    Arsanjani, Reza; Dey, Damini; Khachatryan, Tigran; Shalev, Aryeh; Hayes, Sean W; Fish, Mathews; Nakanishi, Rine; Germano, Guido; Berman, Daniel S; Slomka, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to investigate if early revascularization in patients with suspected coronary artery disease can be effectively predicted by integrating clinical data and quantitative image features derived from perfusion SPECT (MPS) by machine learning (ML) approach. 713 rest (201)Thallium/stress (99m)Technetium MPS studies with correlating invasive angiography with 372 revascularization events (275 PCI/97 CABG) within 90 days after MPS (91% within 30 days) were considered. Transient ischemic dilation, stress combined supine/prone total perfusion deficit (TPD), supine rest and stress TPD, exercise ejection fraction, and end-systolic volume, along with clinical parameters including patient gender, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, ST-depression on baseline ECG, ECG and clinical response during stress, and post-ECG probability by boosted ensemble ML algorithm (LogitBoost) to predict revascularization events. These features were selected using an automated feature selection algorithm from all available clinical and quantitative data (33 parameters). Tenfold cross-validation was utilized to train and test the prediction model. The prediction of revascularization by ML algorithm was compared to standalone measures of perfusion and visual analysis by two experienced readers utilizing all imaging, quantitative, and clinical data. The sensitivity of machine learning (ML) (73.6% ± 4.3%) for prediction of revascularization was similar to one reader (73.9% ± 4.6%) and standalone measures of perfusion (75.5% ± 4.5%). The specificity of ML (74.7% ± 4.2%) was also better than both expert readers (67.2% ± 4.9% and 66.0% ± 5.0%, P < .05), but was similar to ischemic TPD (68.3% ± 4.9%, P < .05). The receiver operator characteristics areas under curve for ML (0.81 ± 0.02) was similar to reader 1 (0.81 ± 0.02) but superior to reader 2 (0.72 ± 0.02, P < .01) and standalone measure of perfusion (0.77 ± 0.02, P < .01). ML approach is comparable or better than

  7. Analysis of the Use of Extracorporeal Circulation on the In-Hospital Outcomes of Dialytic Patients Who Underwent Myocardial Revascularization Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Matheus; Branco, João Nelson Rodrigues; Vargas, Guilherme Flora; Hossne Jr, Nelson Americo; Yoshimoto, Michele Costa; da Fonseca, José Honorio de Almeida Palma; Pestana, José Osmar Medina de Abreu; Buffolo, Enio

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial revascularization surgery is the best treatment for dyalitic patients with multivessel coronary disease. However, the procedure still has high morbidity and mortality. The use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can have a negative impact on the in-hospital outcomes of these patients. Objectives To evaluate the differences between the techniques with ECC and without ECC during the in-hospital course of dialytic patients who underwent surgical myocardial revascularization. Methods Unicentric study on 102 consecutive, unselected dialytic patients, who underwent myocardial revascularization surgery in a tertiary university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Results Sixty-three patients underwent surgery with ECC and 39 without ECC. A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was found in both groups, without statistically significant difference between them. The group "without ECC" had greater number of revascularizations (2.4 vs. 1.7; p <0.0001) and increased need for blood components (77.7% vs. 25.6%; p <0.0001) and inotropic support (82.5% vs 35.8%; p <0.0001). In the postoperative course, the group "without ECC" required less vasoactive drugs, (61.5% vs. 82.5%; p = 0.0340) and shorter time of mechanical ventilation (13.0 hours vs. 36,3 hours, p = 0.0217), had higher extubation rates in the operating room (58.9% vs. 23.8%, p = 0.0006), lower infection rates (7.6% vs. 28.5%; p = 0.0120), and shorter ICU stay (5.2 days vs. 8.1 days; p = 0.0054) as compared with the group with ECC surgery. No difference in mortality was found between the groups. Conclusion Myocardial revascularization with ECC in patients on dialysis resulted in higher morbidity in the perioperative period in comparison with the procedure without ECC, with no difference in mortality though.

  8. Analysis of the Use of Extracorporeal Circulation on the In-Hospital Outcomes of Dialytic Patients Who Underwent Myocardial Revascularization Surgery.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Matheus; Branco, João Nelson Rodrigues; Vargas, Guilherme Flora; Hossne, Nelson Americo; Yoshimoto, Michele Costa; Fonseca, José Honorio de Almeida Palma da; Pestana, José Osmar Medina de Abreu; Buffolo, Enio

    2016-12-01

    Myocardial revascularization surgery is the best treatment for dyalitic patients with multivessel coronary disease. However, the procedure still has high morbidity and mortality. The use of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can have a negative impact on the in-hospital outcomes of these patients. To evaluate the differences between the techniques with ECC and without ECC during the in-hospital course of dialytic patients who underwent surgical myocardial revascularization. Unicentric study on 102 consecutive, unselected dialytic patients, who underwent myocardial revascularization surgery in a tertiary university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Sixty-three patients underwent surgery with ECC and 39 without ECC. A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was found in both groups, without statistically significant difference between them. The group "without ECC" had greater number of revascularizations (2.4 vs. 1.7; p <0.0001) and increased need for blood components (77.7% vs. 25.6%; p <0.0001) and inotropic support (82.5% vs 35.8%; p <0.0001). In the postoperative course, the group "without ECC" required less vasoactive drugs, (61.5% vs. 82.5%; p = 0.0340) and shorter time of mechanical ventilation (13.0 hours vs. 36,3 hours, p = 0.0217), had higher extubation rates in the operating room (58.9% vs. 23.8%, p = 0.0006), lower infection rates (7.6% vs. 28.5%; p = 0.0120), and shorter ICU stay (5.2 days vs. 8.1 days; p = 0.0054) as compared with the group with ECC surgery. No difference in mortality was found between the groups. Myocardial revascularization with ECC in patients on dialysis resulted in higher morbidity in the perioperative period in comparison with the procedure without ECC, with no difference in mortality though.

  9. Hemodynamic study with duplex ultrasonography on combined (direct/indirect) revascularization in adult moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Li; Wang, Yida; Pan, Huiwen; Wang, Yi; Xu, Bin; Liao, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the hemodynamic changes by duplex ultrasonography in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) patients who underwent combined direct and indirect revascularization surgery. Seventeen adult patients underwent direct and indirect revascularization surgery in our hospital. Hemodynamic parameters, peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index (RI), were determined by color Doppler at the baseline, 2 weeks, and 6 months after bypass. Both the PSV and EDV of direct bypass were lower at 6 months after surgery compared with those at 2 weeks postoperatively. The EDV of indirect revascularization surgery of the maxillary artery (MA) at 6 months after surgery was higher and the RI of the MA lower compared with the baseline levels. Decreased PSV and EDV in the bypass vessel did not significantly correlate with increased EDV or decreased RI of the MA. Duplex ultrasonography is a reliable, noninvasive tool to assess hemodynamic changes and evaluate the therapeutic performance of combined bypass surgery in adult MMD. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Myocardial revascularization with miniaturized extracorporeal circulation versus off pump: Evaluation of systemic and myocardial inflammatory response in a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Formica, Francesco; Broccolo, Francesco; Martino, Antonello; Sciucchetti, Jennifer; Giordano, Vincenzo; Avalli, Leonello; Radaelli, Gianluigi; Ferro, Orazio; Corti, Fabrizio; Cocuzza, Clementina; Paolini, Giovanni

    2009-05-01

    This prospective randomized study sought to verify the systemic inflammatory response, inflammatory myocardial damage, and early clinical outcome in coronary surgery with the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation system or on the beating heart. Sixty consecutive patients were randomized to miniaturized extracorporeal circulation (n = 30) or off-pump coronary revascularization (off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, n = 30). Intraoperative and postoperative data were recorded. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured from systemic blood intraoperatively, at the end of operation, and 24 and 48 hours thereafter. Levels of the same markers and blood lactate were measured from coronary sinus blood intraoperatively to evaluate myocardial inflammation. Markers of myocardial damage were also analyzed. One patient died in the off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group. There was no statistical difference in early clinical outcome in both groups. Release of interleukin-6 was higher in the off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group 24 hours after the operation (P = .03), whereas levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha were not different in both groups. Cardiac release of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and blood lactate were not different in both groups. Release of troponin T was not significantly different in both groups. Levels of creatine kinase mass were statistically higher in the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation group than in the off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group, but only at the end of the operation (P < .0001). Hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in the miniaturized extracorporeal circulation group than in the off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group after 24 hours (P = .01). Miniaturized extracorporeal circulation can be considered similar to off-pump surgery in terms of systemic inflammatory response, myocardial inflammation and damage, and early outcome.

  11. Infarct tissue characteristics of patients with versus without early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction: a contrast-enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Olimulder, M A G M; Kraaier, K; Galjee, M A; Scholten, M F; van Es, J; Wagenaar, L J; van der Palen, J; von Birgelen, C

    2012-05-01

    Histopathological studies have suggested that early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) limits the size, transmural extent, and homogeneity of myocardial necrosis. However, the long-term effect of early revascularization on infarct tissue characteristics is largely unknown. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with contrast enhancement (CE) allows non-invasive examination of infarct tissue characteristics and left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function in one examination. A total of 69 patients, referred for cardiac evaluation for various clinical reasons, were examined with CE-CMR >1 month (median 6, range 1-213) post-acute MI. We compared patients with (n = 33) versus without (n = 36) successful early revascularization for acute MI. Cine-CMR measurements included the LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (ESV), LV ejection fraction (LVEF, %), and wall motion score index (WMSI). CE images were analyzed for core, peri, and total infarct size (%), and for the number of transmural segments. In our population, patients with successful early revascularization had better LVEFs (46 ± 16 vs. 34 ± 14%; P < 0.01), superior WMSIs (0.53, range 0.00-2.29 vs. 1.42, range 0.00-2.59; P < 0.01), and smaller ESVs (121 ± 70 vs. 166 ± 82; P = 0.02). However, there was no difference in core (9 ± 6 vs. 11 ± 6%), peri (9 ± 4 vs. 10 ± 4%), and total infarct size (18 ± 9 vs. 21 ± 9%; P > 0.05 for all comparisons); only transmural extent (P = 0.07) and infarct age (P = 0.06) tended to be larger in patients without early revascularization. CMR wall motion abnormalities are significantly better after revascularization; these differences are particularly marked later after infarction. The difference in scar size is more subtle and does not reach significance in this study.

  12. Clinical outcomes in myocardial infarction and multivessel disease after a cardiac rehabilitation programme: Partial versus complete revascularization.

    PubMed

    Mori Junco, Ricardo; Dalmau Gonzalez-Gallarza, Regina; Castro Conde, Almudena; González Fernandez, Oscar; Álvarez Ortega, Carlos; Blázquez Bermejo, Zorba; Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Moreno Gomez, Raúl; López de Sa Arreses, Esteban

    2017-04-01

    Current guideline recommendations encourage culprit vessel only percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease. However, recent studies have shown a better clinical outcome in patients who receive multivessel PCI. To measure and compare clinical outcomes between partial revascularization (PR) versus complete revascularization (CR) in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease who underwent a cardiac rehabilitation programme. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 282 patients with STEMI and multivessel disease who received PR or CR and were subsequently enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation programme between July 2006 and November 2013 at La Paz University Hospital. The incidences of cardiovascular events, new PCI, hospital admissions for cardiovascular reasons and mortality were compared between the PR and CR groups. Overall, 143 patients received PR and 139 received CR. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups, except for mean age (59.3 vs. 56.7 years; P=0.02), diabetes mellitus prevalence (34.3% vs. 20.1%; P=0.01) and number of arteries with stenosis (2.6 vs. 2.3; P=0.001). During the mean follow-up of 48.0±25.9 months, a cardiovascular event occurred in 23 (16.1%) PR patients and 20 (14.4%) CR patients, with no statistically significant differences in the early (hazard ratio: 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-1.89) or late (hazard ratio: 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 0.62-3.14) follow-up periods. Cox regression, adjusted for age, sex, presence of diabetes mellitus and number of affected coronary vessels, showed no difference in new cardiovascular event risk. There were no statistical differences in clinical outcomes between PR and CR among patients who received cardiac rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of prehospital triage on revascularization times, left ventricular function, and survival in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sivagangabalan, Gopal; Ong, Andrew T L; Narayan, Arun; Sadick, Norman; Hansen, Peter S; Nelson, Greg C I; Flynn, Michael; Ross, David L; Boyages, Steven C; Kovoor, Pramesh

    2009-04-01

    Shorter reperfusion times lead to better outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We assessed the efficacy of prehospital triage with bypass of community hospitals and early activation of the cardiac catheterization team on revascularization times, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, and survival. Patients with STEMI (624) were divided into 3 groups determined by site of triage: ambulance field triage (163), interventional center emergency department (202), and 3 community hospital emergency departments (259). Compared with community hospital and interventional center triages, ambulance field triage resulted in a significant median decrease in door-to-balloon times of 68 and 27 minutes, respectively (p <0.001). LV ejection fraction was highest in the field triage group (52 +/- 13%) compared with the interventional center (49 +/- 12%) and community hospital (48 +/- 12%, p = 0.017) groups. Thirty-day mortality was lowest in the ambulance field group (3%) compared with the interventional facility (11%) and community hospital (4%, p = 0.007) groups. There was a significant difference in long-term survival with up to 30-month follow-up among the 3 triage groups (p = 0.041). With time-dependent Cox regression modeling the difference in survival was significant only during the first week after STEMI (p = 0.020). Every extra minute of symptom onset to reperfusion time was associated with a relative risk of long-term mortality of 1.003 (95% confidence interval 1.000 to 1.006, p = 0.027). In conclusion, field triage of patient with STEMI decreased revascularization times, which preserved LV function, and improved early survival.

  14. The Contemporary Use of Angiography and Revascularization Among Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the United States Compared With South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Jae; Simon, Dajuanicia; Wang, Tracy Y; Alexander, Karen P; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Bates, Eric R; Henry, Timothy D; Peterson, Eric D; Roe, Matthew T

    2015-12-01

    Practice guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy for high-risk non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients, but international differences in the use of invasive strategies are unknown. Profiling NSTEMI patient management in the United States (U.S.) and South Korea could provide insight into how patients are triaged for an early invasive strategy in different health care environments and geographical regions. We evaluated the use of angiography and revascularization for NSTEMI patients treated at revascularization-capable hospitals (2007-2010) in both the ACTION Registry-GWTG (U.S.: n = 133,835; 433 hospitals) and KAMIR/KorMI Registry (South Korea: n = 7,901; 72 hospitals). Compared with South Korean patients, U.S. NSTEMI patients more commonly had established cardiovascular risk factors, disease, and prior cardiovascular events and procedures. From 2007-2010, the use of angiography for NSTEMI patients rose steadily in both countries, but the use of revascularization only rose in South Korea. Patients from South Korea more commonly underwent angiography and revascularization. Percutaneous coronary intervention was the most common type of revascularization in both countries, but coronary artery bypass grafting was less common in South Korea. The use of both angiography and revascularization was incrementally lower with a higher predicted mortality risk for patients from both countries, but greater differences between low- and high-risk patients occurred in the U.S. The profile, characteristics, and use of angiography and revascularization for NSTEMI patients in the U.S. vs South Korea differed substantially from 2007-2010, underscoring the heterogeneity of NSTEMI patients and treatment selection among different countries. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Association of Previous Revascularization With In-Hospital Outcomes in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients: Results From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry.

    PubMed

    Gruberg, Luis; Hellkamp, Anne S; Thomas, Laine E; de Lemos, James A; Scirica, Benjamin M; Hilliard, Anthony; Enriquez, Jonathan R; Mohsen, Amr; Wang, Tracy Y

    2015-12-28

    The aim of this study was to compare outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with a history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), or no previous revascularization undergoing primary PCI. Limited data exist regarding door-to-balloon times and clinical outcomes of STEMI patients with a history of CABG or PCI undergoing primary PCI. We examined 15,628 STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI at 297 sites in the United States. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to compare door-to-balloon time delays >90 min and in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Patients with previous CABG were significantly older and more likely to have multiple comorbidities (p < 0.0001). Previous CABG was associated with a lower likelihood of a door-to-balloon time ≤90 min compared with patients with no previous revascularization. However, no significant differences in door-to-balloon times were noted between patients with previous PCI and those without previous revascularization. The unadjusted MACCE risk was significantly higher in patients with a history of CABG compared with patients without previous revascularization (odds ratio: 1.68, 95% confidence interval: 1.23 to 2.31). However, after multivariable risk adjustment, there were no significant differences in MACCE risk between the 2 groups. No significant differences in in-hospital outcomes were seen in patients with a previous PCI and those without previous revascularization. In a large cohort of STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, patients with previous CABG were more likely to have reperfusion delays, yet risk-adjusted, in-hospital outcomes were similar to those without previous revascularization. No significant differences in reperfusion timeliness and in-hospital outcomes were seen in patients with a history of PCI compared with patients without previous revascularization. Copyright

  16. Perioperative and clinical-angiographic late outcome of total arterial myocardial revascularization according to different composite original graft techniques.

    PubMed

    Bonacchi, Massimo; Prifti, Edvin; Maiani, Massimo; Frati, Giacomo; Giunti, Gabriele; Di Eusanio, Marco; Di Eusanio, Giuseppe; Leacche, Marzia

    2006-03-01

    Total arterial myocardial revascularization (TAMR) is advisable because of the excellent long-term patency of arterial conduits. We present early and midterm outcomes of five different surgical configurations for TAMR. Between January 1998 and May 2004, 112 patients (aged 56.5 +/- 4.5 years, 20% female) with three-vessel disease underwent TAMR. The internal mammary arteries (IMAs) were harvested in a sketelonized fashion. The surgical techniques for TAMR consisted in Y or T composite grafts (n = 88, 78%) constructed between the in situ right IMA (RIMA) and the free left IMA (LIMA) graft (n = 58) or the radial artery (n = 30) (RA) in three different configurations. The other techniques consisted in T- and inverted T-graft (n = 24, 22%) constructed between the RA conduit and the free LIMA graft in two different configurations. The mean follow-up time was 40 +/- 23 months. Postoperative angiographic control was performed in 76/111 (70%) patients. Overall, 472 arterial anastomoses (average 4.2 per patient) were performed. One (0.9%) patient, undergoing the inverted T-graft technique, died on postoperative day 2. Another patient (0.9%), undergoing the lambda-graft technique using both IMAs and RA, suffered a new myocardial infarction probably due to RA conduit vasospasm. One week after surgery, after the transthoracic echocardiographic Doppler with adenosine provocative test, the coronary flow reserve (CFR) at the LIMA and RIMA main stems were 2 +/- 0.4 and 2.4 +/- 0.3, respectively. At 12-month follow-up, after adenosine provocative test, the CFRs at the LIMA and RIMA stems were significantly higher than the values at 1 week after surgery within the same group; (LIMA)CFR (1 week) 2.4 +/- 0.3 (12 months) vs 2 +/- 04 (1 week), P = 0.002; (RIMA)CFR 2.58 +/- 0.4 vs 2.4 +/- 0.3, P = 0.001. The CFR at the RIMA main stem was higher in all measurements within the same group than in the LIMA main stem, but not significantly. In one patient undergoing the lambda-graft technique

  17. Mortality and Revascularization following Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Implication for Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Thad E.; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Annually, over 3,000 rural veterans are admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet no studies of AMI have utilized the VA rural definition. Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified 15,870 patients admitted for AMI to all VA hospitals. Rural residence was identified…

  18. Mortality and Revascularization following Admission for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Implication for Rural Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Thad E.; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Kaboli, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Annually, over 3,000 rural veterans are admitted to Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet no studies of AMI have utilized the VA rural definition. Methods: This retrospective cohort study identified 15,870 patients admitted for AMI to all VA hospitals. Rural residence was identified…

  19. [Concordance between central venous and arterial blood gases in post-surgical myocardial revascularization patients in stable condition].

    PubMed

    Santos-Martínez, Luis Efren; Guevara-Carrasco, Marlene; Naranjo-Ricoy, Guillermo; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martín; Moreno-Ruíz, Luis Antonio; Herrera-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Serrano, José Antonio; Valencia-Sánchez, Jesús Salvador; Calderón-Abbo, Moisés Cutiel

    2014-01-01

    The concordance between the parameters of arterial and central venous blood gases has not been defined yet. We studied the concordance between both parameters in post-surgical myocardial revascularization patients in stable condition. Consecutive subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. The position of the central venous catheter was performed and simultaneously we obtained arterial and central venous blood samples prior to discharge from the intensive care unit. Data are expressed according to Bland-Altman statistical method and the intraclass correlation coefficient. Statistical result was accepted at P<.05. Two hundred and six samples were studied of 103 post-surgical patients, pH and lactate had a mean difference (limits of agreement) 0.029±0.048 (-0018, 0.077) and -0.12±0.22 (-0.57, 0.33) respectively. The magnitude of the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.904 and 0.943 respectively. The values related to oxygen pressure were 27.86±6.08 (15.9, 39.8) and oxygen saturation 33.02±6.13 (21, 45), with magnitude of 0.258 and 0.418 respectively. The best matching parameters between arterial and central venous blood samples were pH and lactate. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Does heart rate variability correlate with long-term prognosis in myocardial infarction patients treated by early revascularization?

    PubMed Central

    Compostella, Leonida; Lakusic, Nenad; Compostella, Caterina; Truong, Li Van Stella; Iliceto, Sabino; Bellotto, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence of depressed heart rate variability (HRV) after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and to evaluate its prognostic significance in the present era of immediate reperfusion. METHODS Time-domain HRV (obtained from 24-h Holter recordings) was assessed in 326 patients (63.5 ± 12.1 years old; 80% males), two weeks after a complicated MI treated by early reperfusion: 208 ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (in which reperfusion was successfully obtained within 6 h of symptoms in 94% of cases) and 118 non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients (percutaneous coronary intervention was performed within 24 h and successful in 73% of cases). Follow-up of the patients was performed via telephone interviews a median of 25 mo after the index event (95%CI of the mean 23.3-28.0). Primary end-point was occurrence of all-cause or cardiac death; secondary end-point was occurrence of major clinical events (MCE, defined as mortality or readmission for new MI, new revascularization, episodes of heart failure or stroke). Possible correlations between HRV parameters (mainly the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals, SDNN), clinical features (age, sex, type of MI, history of diabetes, left ventricle ejection fraction), angiographic characteristics (number of coronary arteries with critical stenoses, success and completeness of revascularization) and long-term outcomes were analysed. RESULTS Markedly depressed HRV parameters were present in a relatively small percentage of patients: SDNN < 70 ms was found in 16% and SDNN < 50 ms in 4% of cases. No significant differences were present between STEMI and NSTEMI cases as regards to their distribution among quartiles of SDNN (χ2 =1.536, P = 0.674). Female sex and history of diabetes maintained a significant correlation with lower values of SDNN at multivariate Cox regression analysis (respectively: P = 0.008 and P = 0.008), while no correlation was found between depressed SDNN

  1. [Evaluation of anxiety and depression in the perioperative period in patients subjected to myocardial revascularization].

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Adam; Krejca, Michał; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Rajewska, Jolanta; Bochenek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to define a relationship between the anxiety level and depression intensification, as well as to define the impact of: age, sex, education level and family situation on the anxiety level and depression intensification in the pre- and postoperative period in patients subjected to myocardial revascularisation (CABG). Prospective studies were carried out in a group of 100 patients qualified for the surgical myocardial revascularisation in the planned course. The Polish version of the STAI questionnaire was applied to study anxiety as a state and as a trait. Depression intensification was evaluated with the Beck depression scale. 1. The intensity of depression significantly correlates with anxiety as a state and anxiety as a trait before and after CABG surgery. 2. When assessing anxiety as a state, its negative correlation with male patients and with age before CABG were found. A negative correlation of anxiety as a state with a patient's age was identified after CABG. 3. When assessing anxiety as a trait, its negative correlation with male patients before CABG was found. 4. The intensity of depression correlates significantly and negatively with the educational background of the patient before and after CABG surgery. 5. There is no statistically significant correlation between anxiety, depression and family situation in the perioperative period.

  2. Extent of Coronary and Myocardial Disease and Benefit from Surgical Revascularization in Patients with Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Panza, Julio A.; Velazquez, Eric J.; She, Lilin; Smith, Peter K.; Nicolau, José C.; Favaloro, Roberto R.; Gradinac, Sinisa; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Jasinski, Marek; Hill, James A.; Szwed, Hanna; Larbalestier, Robert; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Jones, Robert H.; Lee, Kerry L.; Rouleau, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction have higher operative risk with CABG. However, those whose early risk is surpassed by subsequent survival benefit have not been identified. Objective To examine the impact of anatomic variables associated with poor prognosis on the effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods All 1,212 patients in the STICH surgical revascularization trial were included. Patients had coronary artery disease (CAD), ejection fraction (EF) ≤35%, and were randomized to CABG plus medical therapy or optimal medical therapy alone (OMT). This study focused on 3 prognostic factors: presence of 3-vessel CAD; EF below the median (27%); and end-systolic volume index (ESVI) above the median (79 ml/m2). Patients were categorized as having 0–1 or 2–3 of these factors. Results Patients with 2–3 prognostic factors (n= 636) had reduced mortality with CABG, as compared to OMT (HR=0.71, 95% CI=0.56–0.89; p=0.004); CABG had no such effect in patients with 0–1 factors (HR=1.08, 95% CI=0.81–1.44; p=0.591). There was a significant interaction between the number of factors and the effect of CABG on mortality (p=0.022). Although 30-day risk with CABG was higher, a net beneficial effect of CABG over OMT was observed at >2years in patients with 2–3 factors (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.37–0.75; p#x0003C;0.001), but not in those with 0–1 factors (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.59–1.31; p=0.535). Conclusions Patients with more advanced ischemic cardiomyopathy receive greater benefit from CABG. This supports the indication for surgical revascularization in patients with more extensive CAD and worse myocardial dysfunction and remodeling. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595) PMID:25104523

  3. [Transmyocardial laser revascularization].

    PubMed

    Bahçivan, Muzaffer; Keçeligil, Hasan Tahsin; Kolbakir, Ferşat

    2008-02-01

    An increasing number of patients are found to be unsuitable for revascularization by conventional approaches to the epicardial vessels. Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) is a treatment choice for patients who have refractory angina pectoris when bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is not indicated. Transmyocardial laser revascularization leads to significant improvements in angina. It also improves quality of life, reduces hospital readmission rates and may improve exercise tolerance. However, the technique does not effect survival, ejection fraction, cardiac events and myocardial perfusion with nuclear studies. Further results from ongoing trials are awaited with interest.

  4. Beating heart myocardial revascularization on extracorporeal circulation in patients with end-stage coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Prifti, E; Bonacchi, M; Frati, G; Giunti, G; Proietti, P; Leacche, M; Massetti, M; Babatasi, G; Sani, G

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate in a cohort of ESCAD patients (pts) the effects of on-pump/beating-heart versus conventional CABG in terms of early and mid-term survival and morbidity and LV function improvement. Between January 1993 and December 2000, 78 (Group I) ESCAD pts underwent on-pump/beating-heart surgery. Mean age in Group I was 66.2+/-6 (58-79), NYHA and CCS class were 3.2+/-0.6 and 3.3+/-0.4 respectively, Myocardial viability index 0.69+/-0.1 (%), LVEF (%) 24.8+/-4, LVEDP (mmHg) 28.1+/-5.8 and LVEDD(mm) 69.5+/-6. Group II consisted in 78 ESCAD patients undergoing conventional CABG selected in a randomized fashion from an age, sex, and LVEF corrected group of patients. Mean age in Group II was 65.7+/-5 (57-78), NYHA 3.1+/-0.7, CCS 3.4+/-0.8, LVEF(%) 25+/-5, LVEDP(mmHg) 27.9+/-4.4 and LVEDD(mm) 69.2+/-7.2. Postoperatively, 5(7.7%) patients died in Group I versus 7(11.5%) patients in Group II (P>0.1). CPB time resulted to be in Group II patients (P=0.001) and the mean distal anastomoses per patient was similar between groups (P=Ns). Perioperative AMI (P=0.039), LCOS (P=0.002), necessity for ultrafiltration (P=0.018) and bleeding>1000 ml (P=0.029) were significantly higher in Group II. None of the Group I patients underwent surgical revision for bleeding versus 8(10.3%) patients in Group II (P=0.011). At 6 months after surgery, the LV function improved significantly in Group I patients, demonstrated by an increased LVEF=27.2+/-4(%)(P=0.001), lower LVEDP=26.4+/-3(mmHg)(P=0.029) and LVEDD=67+/-4(mm) (P=0.004) instead of a lower LVEDD=66.8+/-6(mm)(P=0.032) versus the preoperative data in Group II. The actuarial survival at 1, 3 and 5 yr were 90, 82 and 71% in Group I and 89, 83 and 74% in Group II (P=Ns). In ESCAD patients who may poorly tolerate cardioplegic arrest, on-pump/beating-heart CABG may be an acceptable alternative associated with lower postoperative mortality and morbidity. Such a technique offers a better myocardial and renal protection associated with lower

  5. A randomised controlled trial of mini incision or conventional incision for saphenous vein harvesting in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo de Deus, Kleber; Diogo Filho, Augusto; Cesar Santos, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Compare the evolution regarding the complications concerning two types of incision (conventional × mini-incision), for saphenectomy in patients that go under myocardial revascularization or otherwise known as coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods In January 2012 to August 2013, 66 patients were prospectively selected for coronary artery bypass with cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. These were divided into two groups: Conventional and Mini-Incision, with 33 patients in each group chosen in a random fashion and with knowledge of which technique to be used being presented only at the start of the surgery. In the conventional group, the patients received an incision to the lower member of 7–10 cm. The patients in the Mini-Incision group received an incision to the lower member of 3–4 cm, both performed without the use of any special material. Results The groups were similar in terms of clinical data and in the preoperative period. Males made up a greater part of the group with 63.7% and 81.9% in groups C and M, respectively. Among the complications analysed, edema (p = 0.011), hematoma (p = 0.020), dehiscence (p = 0.012) and infection (p = 0.012), were significantly greater in group C when compared to group M. When the matter comes to the variable in relation to the risk of Surgical Site Infections (SSI), no difference was found between the groups. Conclusion Coronary artery bypass surgery with mini-incision for saphenectomy, demonstrated a lower rate for preoperative complications when compared to saphenectomy under conventional incision procedures. PMID:27006766

  6. Sequential delivery of angiogenic growth factors improves revascularization and heart function after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Awada, Hassan K.; Johnson, Noah R.; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of ischemia through therapeutic angiogenesis faces significant challenges. Growth factor (GF)-based therapies can be more effective when concerns such as GF spatiotemporal presentation, bioactivity, bioavailability, and localization are addressed. During angiogenesis, vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) is required early to initiate neovessel formation while platelet-derived GF (PDGF-BB) is needed later to stabilize the neovessels. The spatiotemporal delivery of multiple bioactive GFs involved in angiogenesis, in a close mimic to physiological cues, holds great potential to treat ischemic diseases. To achieve sequential release of VEGF and PDGF, we embed VEGF in fibrin gel and PDGF in a heparin-based coacervate that is distributed in the same fibrin gel. In vitro, we show the benefits of this controlled delivery approach on cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and capillary formation. A rat myocardial infarction (MI) model demonstrated the effectiveness of this delivery system in improving cardiac function, ventricular wall thickness, angiogenesis, cardiac muscle survival, and reducing fibrosis and inflammation in the infarct zone compared to saline, empty vehicle, and free GFs. Collectively, our results show that this delivery approach mitigated the injury caused by MI and may serve as a new therapy to treat ischemic hearts pending further examination. PMID:25836592

  7. The Association of Transfer Rate From Hospitals Without Revascularization Capabilities and Mortality Risk for Older Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lan; Shah, Bimal R; Li, Shuang; Thomas, Laine; Wang, Tracy Y; Alexander, Karen P; Peterson, Eric D; He, Ben; Roe, Matthew T

    2015-12-01

    Interhospital transfer invasive management patterns and implications for older non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients initially presenting to non-revascularization-capable hospitals have not been explored. Patients admitted to hospitals with a higher transfer proportion have lower risk of long-term mortality. We linked CRUSADE Registry data on 5678 patients age ≥65 years from 65 United States non-revascularization-capable hospitals (2003-2006) with inpatient Medicare longitudinal claims. Hospitals were categorized according to hospital-level patient transfer-out rates, low (≤40%) vs high (>40%). The associations between transfer-out rates and 30-day, 6-month, and 3-year mortality risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models. Hospital-level transfer-out rates varied widely (median, 43%; interquartile range, 31%-54%). Compared with patients from low-transfer-out hospitals (n = 2715), patients from high-transfer-out hospitals (n = 2963) were more likely to be male, less likely to have renal insufficiency and prior heart failure, and had lower long-term CRUSADE mortality risk scores. These patients also more commonly received evidence-based acute medications before transfer and underwent subsequent revascularization after transfer. The adjusted risks of mortality at various time intervals were similar for those from high- vs low-transfer-out hospitals: 30 days (hazard ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.79-1.14), 6 months (0.97, 0.84-1.12), and 3 years (1.01, 0.91-1.11). Transfer rates for older NSTEMI patients vary widely among non-revascularization-capable hospitals. Despite lower predicted mortality risk and higher rates of post-transfer revascularization, patients from high-transfer-out hospitals had a similar risk for short- and long-term mortality compared with those from low-transfer-out hospitals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Revascularization and cardioprotective drug treatment in myocardial infarction patients: how do they impact on patients' survival when delivered as usual care

    PubMed Central

    Vanasse, Alain; Courteau, Josiane; Niyonsenga, Théophile

    2006-01-01

    Background Randomized clinical trials showed the benefit of pharmacological and revascularization treatments in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI), in selected population with highly controlled interventions. The objective of this study is to measure these treatments' impact on the cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate among patients receiving usual care in the province of Quebec. Methods The study population consisted of a "naturalistic" cohort of all patients ≥ 65 years old living in the Quebec province, who survived a MI (ICD-9: 410) in 1998. The studied dependant variable was time to death from a CV disease. Independent variables were revascularization procedure and cardioprotective drugs. Death from a non CV disease was also studied for comparison. Revascularization procedure was defined as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The exposure to cardioprotective drugs was defined as the number of cardioprotective drug classes (Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA), Beta-Blockers, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors, Statins) claimed within the index period (first 30 days after the index hospitalization). Age, gender and a comorbidity index were used as covariates. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, Cox proportional hazard models, logistic regressions and regression trees were used. Results The study population totaled 5596 patients (3206 men; 2390 women). We observed 1128 deaths (20%) within two years following index hospitalization, of them 603 from CV disease. The CV survival rate at two years is much greater for patients with revascularization, regardless of pharmacological treatments. For patients without revascularization, the CV survival rate increases with the number of cardioprotective drug classes claimed. Finally, Cox proportional hazard models, regression tree and logistic regression analyses all revealed that the absence of revascularization and, to a lower extent, absence of

  9. Effect of intraaortic balloon pumping on left ventricular function in patients with persistent ST segment elevation after revascularization for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Satoshi; Inoue, Ichiro; Kawagoe, Takuji; Ishihara, Masaharu; Shimatani, Yuji; Nishioka, Kenji; Umemura, Takashi; Nakamura, Suji; Yoshida, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) in patients with persistent ST elevation who underwent revascularization within 6 h of their first acute anterior myocardial infarction (AMI). Persistent ST elevation after revascularization was defined as being > or =50% of the initial value on return to the coronary care unit. Twenty-four patients were treated without IABP (control group) and 27 patients were treated with IABP (IABP group). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in pretreatment left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume index or end-systolic volume index. After 137+/-46 days, the change in the LVEF was significantly higher in the IABP group than in the control group (5+/-13% vs 13+/-15%, p=0.04). However, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index was similar between the 2 groups during follow-up (pretreatment: 77+/-19 ml/m(2) vs 74+/-13 ml/m(2), p=0.54; follow-up: 86+/-22 ml/m(2) vs 83+/-18 ml/m(2), p=0.60). These data suggest that IABP enhances the improvement in LVEF independent of remodeling in AMI patients with persistent ST elevation after revascularization.

  10. Total arterial myocardial revascularization using new composite graft techniques for internal mammary and/or radial arteries conduits.

    PubMed

    Bonacchi, M; Prifti, E; Frati, G; Leacche, M; Salica, A; Giunti, G; Proietti, P; Furci, B; Miraldi, F

    1999-01-01

    Total arterial myocardial revascularization (TAMR) is feasible because of the excellent long-term patency of the arterial conduits. We present five new surgical configurations for TAMR. Between December 1998 and July 1999, 34 patients with triple vessel disease underwent TAMR. All patients were in CCS III or IV. Sketelonized internal mammary arteries (IMAs) were used. The surgical techniques for TAMR consisted of Y or T composite grafts constructed between the in situ RIMA and free LIMA graft or radial artery (RA) conduit in three different configurations. Other techniques uses included a T graft constructed between the RA conduit and free LIMA graft in two configurations. Twenty-six (76%) patients underwent contrast-enhanced TTE color Doppler before and after adenosine provocative test, and seven (20%) patients had postoperative coronary angiography. Overall, 144 anastomoses (average number per patient, 4.2) were completed. One (2.9%) patient undergoing an inverted T graft technique died on postoperative day 2. Another patient (2.9%) undergoing the right Y graft technique using IMAs and RA suffered perioperative AMI due to RA conduit vasospasm. Contrast-enhanced TTE color Doppler before and after the adenosine provocative test and at 1 week postoperation revealed a coronary flow reserve (CFR) of 2.1 +/- 0.2 in the LIMA stem, and in the RIMA stem, a CFR of 2.3 +/- 0.3 (P < 0.007). In one patient undergoing the right Y graft technique using IMAs, we found only anomalous flow dynamic parameters of RIMA, suggesting a partial graft closure. The angiographic examination revealed a free LIMA graft closure. At 6 +/- 2.4 months after operation 33 patients were alive and free of angina. The IMAs stem evaluation by TTE color Doppler at follow-up revealed a 2.45 +/- 0.1 mm LIMA diameter and 2.6 +/- 0.2 mm RIMA diameter, which was more than early postoperative data of P < 0.001 and P < 0.007, respectively. These data indicate that TAMR in young patients perhaps offers a better

  11. Association of periprocedural myocardial infarction with long-term survival in patients treated with coronary revascularization therapy of chronic total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo Jin; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Kim, Wook Sung; Lee, Young Tak; Kim, Bum-Sung; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) on long-term survival after coronary revascularization in patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO). Little is known about the clinical impact of PMI on long-term cardiac mortality after CTO revascularization in patients with stable angina. We analyzed data from 927 patients with CTO and stable angina who were treated with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, n = 367) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, n = 560). PMI was defined as a peak CK-MB ≥ 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) after PCI or a CK-MB ≥ 5 times the ULN after CABG. The primary outcome was cardiac death in patients with PMI (PMI group, n = 118 [12.7%]) or without PMI (no-PMI group, n = 809 [87.3%]) after revascularization. During a median follow-up of 42 months, PMI occurred in 118 patients (12.7% of the overall study population). Fifty-nine patients treated with PCI (10.5% of PCI subgroup) and 59 patients treated with CABG (16.1% of CABG subgroup) suffered from PMI. In multivariate analysis, the PMI group and the no-PMI group had a similar incidence of cardiac death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20 to 1.62; P = 0.29). PMI may not be associated with increased cardiac mortality after coronary revascularization in patients with stable CTO. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cardiac tamponade and para-aortic hematoma post elective surgical myocardial revascularization on a beating heart - a possible complication of the Lima-stitch and sequential venous anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Anna; Jaszewski, Ryszard; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Zwoliński, Radosław

    2014-06-04

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery can be associated with some intrinsic, but relatively rare complications. A pericardial effusion is a common finding after cardiac surgeries, but the prevalence of a cardiac tamponade does not exceed 2% and is less frequent after myocardial revascularization.Authors believe that in our patient an injury of a nutritional pericardial or descending aorta vessel caused by the Lima stitch resulted in oozing bleeding, which gradually leaded to cardiac tamponade. The bleeding increased after introduction of double antiplatelet therapy and caused life-threatening hemodynamic destabilization. According to our knowledge it is the first report of such a complication after OPCAB. We present a case of a 61-year old man, who underwent elective surgical myocardial revascularization on a beating heart. On the 11th postoperative day the patient was readmitted emergently to the intensive care unit for severe chest pain, dyspnoea and hypotension. Coronary angiographic control showed a patency of the bypass grafts and significant narrowing of circumflex artery, treated with angioplasty and stenting. The symptoms and hemodynamic instability exacerbated. A suspicion of dissection of the ascending aorta and para-aortic hematoma was stated on 16-slice cardiac computed tomography. The patient was referred to the Cardiovascular Surgery Clinic. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed cardiac tamponade. On transesophageal echocardiography there were no signs of the ascending aorta dissection, but a possible lesion of the descending aorta with para-aortic hematoma was visualized. Emergent rethoracotomy and cardiac tamponade decompression were performed. 12 days after intervention the control 64-slice computed tomography showed no lesions of the ascending or descending aorta. On one-year follow-up patient is in a good condition, the left ventricular function is preserved and there is no pathology in thoracic aorta on echocardiography. Mechanical

  13. Revascularization Treatment of Emergency Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland: Results from a Nationwide, Cross-Sectional Study in Switzerland for 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Claudia; Jüni, Peter; Endrich, Olga; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and in Switzerland. When applied, treatment guidelines for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) improve the clinical outcome and should eliminate treatment differences by sex and age for patients whose clinical situations are identical. In Switzerland, the rate at which STEMI patients receive revascularization may vary by patient and hospital characteristics. Aims To examine all hospitalizations in Switzerland from 2010–2011 to determine if patient or hospital characteristics affected the rate of revascularization (receiving either a percutaneous coronary intervention or a coronary artery bypass grafting) in acute STEMI patients. Data and Methods We used national data sets on hospital stays, and on hospital infrastructure and operating characteristics, for the years 2010 and 2011, to identify all emergency patients admitted with the main diagnosis of acute STEMI. We then calculated the proportion of patients who were treated with revascularization. We used multivariable multilevel Poisson regression to determine if receipt of revascularization varied by patient and hospital characteristics. Results Of the 9,696 cases we identified, 71.6% received revascularization. Patients were less likely to receive revascularization if they were female, and 80 years or older. In the multivariable multilevel Poisson regression analysis, there was a trend for small-volume hospitals performing fewer revascularizations but this was not statistically significant while being female (Relative Proportion = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.97) and being older than 80 years was still associated with less frequent revascularization. Conclusion Female and older patients were less likely to receive revascularization. Further research needs to clarify whether this reflects differential application of treatment guidelines or limitations in this kind of routine data. PMID:27078262

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Concurrent Chronic Total Occlusion and Successful Staged Revascularization on Long-Term Mortality in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guoxiang; He, Pengcheng; Liu, Yuanhui; Lin, Yaowang; Yang, Xing; Chen, Jiyuan; Zhou, Yingling; Tan, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the impact of chronic total occlusion (CTO) in non-infarct-related artery (IRA) on the long-term prognosis and evaluate the clinical significance of staged revascularization in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods. 1266 STEMI patients with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were categorized as single-vessel disease (SVD), multivessel disease (MVD) without and with CTO. We study the clinical outcomes of patients after primary PCI in the following 3 years. Additionally, patients with CTO received staged revascularization, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during 3-year follow-up were recorded. Results. Presence of CTO was a predictor of both early mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4–4.5, P < 0.01] and late mortality (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–3.6, P < 0.01), whereas MVD without CTO was only a predictor of early mortality (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.3, P < 0.05). In CTO group, 100 patients had successful CTO recanalization, and 48 patients failed. During 3-year follow-up, patients with failed procedure had higher cardiac mortality (22.9% versus 9.0%, P = 0.020) and lower MACE-free survival (50.0% versus 72.0%, P = 0.009) compared to patients with successful procedure. Conclusion. The presence of CTO and not MVD alone is associated with long-term mortality. Successful revascularization of CTO in the non-IRA is associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. PMID:24790581

  15. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in the clinical outcomes utilizing revascularization and aggressive drug evaluation (COURAGE) trial, Veterans Administration Cooperative study no. 424.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Leslee J; Heller, Gary V; Casperson, Paul; Miranda-Peats, Romalisa; Slomka, Piotr; Friedman, John; Hayes, Sean W; Schwartz, Ronald; Weintraub, William S; Maron, David J; Dada, Marcin; King, Spencer; Teo, Koon; Hartigan, Pamela; Boden, William E; O'Rourke, Robert A; Berman, Daniel S

    2006-09-01

    Stress gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (gSPECT) is increasingly used before and after intercurrent therapeutic intervention and is the basis for ongoing evaluation in the Department of Veterans Affairs clinical outcomes utilizing revascularization and aggressive drug evaluation (COURAGE) trial. The COURAGE trial is a North American multicenter randomized clinical trial that enrolled 2287 patients to aggressive medical therapy vs percutaneous coronary intervention plus aggressive medical therapy. Three COURAGE nuclear substudies have been designed. The goals of substudy 0 are to examine the diagnostic accuracy of the extent and severity of inducible ischemia at baseline in COURAGE patients compared with patient symptoms and quantitative coronary angiography and to explore the relationship between inducible ischemia and the benefit from revascularization when added to medical therapy. Substudy 1 will correlate the extent and severity of provocative ischemia with the frequency, quality, and instability of recurrent symptoms in postcatheterization patients. Substudy 2 (n = 300) will examine the usefulness of sequential gSPECT monitoring 6 to 18 months after therapeutic intervention. Together, these nuclear substudies will evaluate the role of gSPECT to determine the effectiveness of aggressive risk-factor modifications, lifestyle interventions, and anti-ischemic medical therapies with or without revascularization in reducing patients' ischemic burdens. The unfolding of evidence on the application of gSPECT in trials such as COURAGE defines a new era for nuclear cardiology. We hope the evidence that emerges from the COURAGE trial will further establish the role of nuclear imaging in the evidence-based management of patients with stable coronary disease.

  16. Consideration of a new definition of clinically relevant myocardial infarction after coronary revascularization: an expert consensus document from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI).

    PubMed

    Moussa, Issam D; Klein, Lloyd W; Shah, Binita; Mehran, Roxana; Mack, Michael J; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Reilly, John P; Zoghbi, Gilbert; Holper, Elizabeth; Stone, Gregg W

    2014-01-01

    Numerous definitions have been proposed for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) after coronary revascularization. The universal definition for MI designates post procedural biomarker thresholds for defining percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related MI (type 4a) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related MI (type 5) which are of uncertain prognostic importance. In addition, for both MI types cTn is recommended as the biomarker of choice, the prognostic significance of which is less well validated than CK-MB. Widespread adoption of a MI definition not clearly linked to subsequent adverse events such as mortality or heart failure may have serious consequences for the appropriate assessment of devices and therapies, may affect clinical care pathways, and may result in misinterpretation of physician competence. Rather than employing an MI definition sensitive for small degrees of myonecrosis (the occurrence of which, based on contemporary large-scale studies, are unlikely to have important clinical consequences), it is instead recommended that a threshold level of biomarker elevation which has been strongly linked to subsequent adverse events in clinical studies be used to define a "clinically relevant MI." The present document introduces a new definition for "clinically relevant MI" after coronary revascularization (PCI or CABG) which is applicable for use in clinical trials, patient care, and quality outcomes assessment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Direct Evidence that Myocardial Insulin Resistance following Myocardial Ischemia Contributes to Post-Ischemic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Feng; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jia; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Chengfeng; Yang, Weidong; Gao, Chao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Yan; Cui, Qin; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling; Wang, Jing; Quon, Michael J; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A close link between heart failure (HF) and systemic insulin resistance has been well documented, whereas myocardial insulin resistance and its association with HF are inadequately investigated. This study aims to determine the role of myocardial insulin resistance in ischemic HF and its underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) developed progressive left ventricular dilation with dysfunction and HF at 4 wk post-MI. Of note, myocardial insulin sensitivity was decreased as early as 1 wk after MI, which was accompanied by increased production of myocardial TNF-α. Overexpression of TNF-α in heart mimicked impaired insulin signaling and cardiac dysfunction leading to HF observed after MI. Treatment of rats with a specific TNF-α inhibitor improved myocardial insulin signaling post-MI. Insulin treatment given immediately following MI suppressed myocardial TNF-α production and improved cardiac insulin sensitivity and opposed cardiac dysfunction/remodeling. Moreover, tamoxifen-induced cardiomyocyte-specific insulin receptor knockout mice exhibited aggravated post-ischemic ventricular remodeling and dysfunction compared with controls. In conclusion, MI induces myocardial insulin resistance (without systemic insulin resistance) mediated partly by ischemia-induced myocardial TNF-α overproduction and promotes the development of HF. Our findings underscore the direct and essential role of myocardial insulin signaling in protection against post-ischemic HF. PMID:26659007

  18. Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Multivessel Versus Culprit-Only Revascularization for Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Disease Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    El-Hayek, Georges E; Gershlick, Anthony H; Hong, Mun K; Casso Dominguez, Abel; Banning, Amerjeet; Afshar, Arash Ehteshami; Herzog, Eyal; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E

    2015-06-01

    Current guidelines recommend against revascularization of the noninfarct artery during the index percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in hemodynamically stable patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This was based largely on observational studies with few data coming from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Recently, several small-to-moderate sized RCTs have provided data, suggesting that a multivessel revascularization approach may be appropriate. We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs comparing multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV PCI) versus culprit vessel-only revascularization (COR) during primary PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary disease (MVCD). We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases for RCTs comparing MV PCI versus COR in patients with STEMI and MVCD. The incidence of all-cause death, cardiac death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and revascularization during follow-up were extracted. Four RCTs fit our primary selection criteria. Among these, 566 patients underwent MV PCI (either at the time of the primary PCI or as a staged procedure) and 478 patients underwent COR. During long-term follow-up (range 1 to 2.5 years), combined data indicated a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36 to 0.92, p = 0.02) and in cardiac death (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.73, p = 0.004) with MV PCI. In addition, there was a significantly lower risk of recurrent myocardial infarction (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.75; p = 0.004) and future revascularization (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.52; p <0.00001). In conclusion, from the RCT data, MV PCI appears to improve outcomes in patients with STEMI and MVCD.

  19. Direct cardiac injection of G-CSF mobilized bone-marrow stem-cells improves ventricular function in old myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Archundia, Abel; Aceves, José Luis; López-Hernández, Manuel; Alvarado, Martha; Rodriguez, Emma; Díaz Quiroz, Guillermo; Páez, Araceli; Rojas, Felipe Masso; Montaño, Luis Felipe

    2005-12-05

    Autologous transplant of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC), although extremely useful after acute myocardial events, has not been evaluated in patients with old (>one-year-old) myocardial infarction. Our aim was to determine if CD34(+)-enriched peripheral-blood cells, obtained by apheresis, injected directly into the severely damaged myocardium of five patients with old myocardial infarction could restore depressed myocardial function. We found that 28 weeks after revascularization and peri-infarction injection of the enriched CD34(+) peripheral mononuclear cells, ventricular hemodynamic parameters that included left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular diastolic volume, ventricular systolic volume and left ventricular diastolic diameter approximated normal values and there was no restenosis; two patients have been followed for >52 weeks and their parameters are within normal values. In conclusion, intramyocardial injection of easily obtained CD34(+) enriched peripheral blood cells represent an encouraging procedure for patients with severely scarred and dysfunctional myocardium.

  20. Revascularization and tissue regeneration of an empty root canal space is enhanced by a direct blood supply and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Srisuwan, Tanida; Tilkorn, Daniel J; Al-Benna, Sammy; Abberton, Keren; Messer, Harold H; Thompson, Erik W

    2013-04-01

    Regenerative endodontics is an innovative treatment concept aiming to regenerate pulp, dentin and root structures. In the diseased or necrotic tooth, the limitation in vascular supply renders successful tissue regeneration/generation in a whole tooth challenging. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of vascularized tissue to develop within a pulpless tooth using tissue engineering techniques. A pulpless tooth chamber, filled with collagen I gel containing isolated rat dental pulp cells (DPC) and angiogenic growth factors, was placed into a hole created in the femoral cortex or into its own tooth socket, respectively. The gross, histological and biochemical characteristics of the de novo tissue were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks post-transplantation. Tooth revascularization and tissue generation was observed only in the femur group, confirming the important role of vascular supply in tissue regeneration. The addition of cells and growth factors significantly promoted connective tissue production in the tooth chamber. Successful revascularization and tissue regeneration in this model demonstrate the importance of a direct vascular supply and the advantages of a stem cell approach. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. [Liver rupture of a subcapsular haematoma after pharmacologic revascularization (Streptokinase) for acute myocardial infarction--case report].

    PubMed

    Tomescu, Dana; Vişan, Anca; Popescu, I; Tulbure, D

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 56 years old male patient, smoker, obese, with untreated arterial hypertension, hospitalized on 16.02.07 with the diagnosis of inferior acute myocardial infarction, for which he received thrombolysis with streptokinase, followed by anticoagulation with non fractioned heparin. Two days later he started to complain of acute abdominal pain, and laboratory findings showed a low hemoglobin level. Imaging findings (ultrasonography and CT scan) showed evidence of subcapsular liver haematoma, caused by bleeding at hepatic and splenic level. He received red blood packed cells, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, activated factor VII and was transferred by helicopter to Fundeni Clinical Institute--Intensive care unit (ICU). On admission, the patient was conscious, anxious, dyspneic, with mild hypoxia, with no signs of low cardiac output and with a painful abdomen. ECG, echocardiography and elevated myocardial necrosis enzymes confirmed myocardial infarction. Shortly after admission there was a worsening of his clinical condition, with a decrease in hemoglobin level despite red blood packed cells administration (Hb=7.8 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (82000/mmc), with normal coagulation tests, thus suggesting active intraabdominal bleeding. Echography and CT scan confirmed bleeding. Emergency surgery was performed, showing massive haemoperitoneum (approx 4.5 L of blood), due to spontaneous rupture of a subcapsular hematoma in the liver. The surgical hemostasis was performed on the liver parenchyma laceration. Duration of surgery was 4 hours. There were no significant cardiac events during surgery (no signs of ischemia on ECG, no ST elevation), despite the need for inotropic agent. After surgery, the patient was referred to the ICU, intubated and ventilated, with inotropic support - dobutamine. Sequential ECG's, enzymatic trend and echocardiographies were performed to monitor myocardial ischemia. The outcome was favourable, no further bleeding and no

  2. Intraoperative blood flow analysis of direct revascularization procedures in patients with moyamoya disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Marco; Guzman, Raphael; Bell-Stephens, Teresa; Steinberg, Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is characterized by the progressive stenosis and often occlusion of the terminal internal carotid arteries, which leads to ischemic and hemorrhagic injuries. The etiology is unknown and surgical revascularization remains the mainstay treatment. We analyzed various hemodynamic factors in 292 patients with moyamoya disease, representing 496 revascularization procedures, including vessel dimension and intraoperative blood flow, using a perivascular ultrasonic flowprobe. Mean middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow rate was 4.4±0.26 mL/min. After superficial temporal artery (STA)–MCA bypass surgery, flows at the microanastomosis were increased fivefold to a mean of 22.2±0.8 mL/min. The MCA flows were significantly lower in the pediatric (16.2±1.3 mL/min) compared with the adult (23.9±1.0 mL/min; P<0.0001) population. Increased local flow rates were associated with clinical improvement. Permanent postoperative complications were low (<5%), but very high postanastomosis MCA flow was associated with postoperative stroke (31.2±6.8 mL/min; P=0.045), hemorrhage (32.1±10.2 mL/min; P=0.045), and transient neurologic deficits (28.6±5.6 mL/min; P=0.047) compared with controls. Other flow and vessel dimension data are presented to elucidate the hemodynamic changes related to the vasculopathy and subsequent to surgical intervention. PMID:20588321

  3. Three-directional acceleration phase mapping of myocardial function.

    PubMed

    Staehle, Felix; Jung, Bernd A; Bauer, Simon; Leupold, Jochen; Bock, Jelena; Lorenz, Ramona; Föll, Daniela; Markl, Michael

    2011-05-01

    An optimized acceleration encoded phase contrast method termed "acceleration phase mapping" for the assessment of regional myocardial function is presented. Based on an efficient gradient waveform design using two-sided encoding for in vivo three-directional acceleration mapping, echo and repetition times TE = 12-14 ms and TR = 15-17 ms for low accelerations sensitivity aenc = 5-8 m/s(2) were achieved. In addition to phantom validation, the technique was applied in a study with 10 healthy volunteers at 1.5T and 3T to evaluate its feasibility to assess regional myocardial acceleration at 1.5T and 3T. Results of the acceleration measurements were compared with the temporal derivative of myocardial velocities from three-directional velocity encoded standard phase contrast MRI in the same volunteers. The feasibility to assess myocardial acceleration along the radial, circumferential, and longitudinal direction of the left ventricle was demonstrated. Despite improved signal-to-noise-ratio at 3T (34% increase compared with 1.5T), image quality with respect to susceptibility artifacts was better 1.5T compared with 3T. Analysis of global and regional left ventricular acceleration showed characteristic patterns of systolic and diastolic acceleration and deceleration. Comparisons of directly measured and derived myocardial acceleration dynamics over the cardiac cycle revealed good correlation (r = 0.45-0.68, P < 0.01) between both methods. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Myocardial Revascularization in New York State: Variations in the PCI-to-CABG Ratio and Their Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Wilson; Tranbaugh, Robert; Marmur, Jonathan D.; Supino, Phyllis G.; Borer, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    -based revascularization strategy. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e001446 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.001446.) PMID:23130131

  5. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in the post-CORAL era part 2: new directions in Transcatheter Nephron Salvage following flawed revascularization trials.

    PubMed

    Sag, Alan Alper; Sos, Thomas A; Benli, Caghan; Sal, Oguzhan; Rossignol, Patrick; Ortiz, Alberto; Solak, Yalcin; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Unlike endovascular therapeutic studies for atherosclerosis in many other vascular beds, major trials regarding endovascular renovascular revascularization have resulted in a stagnating equipoise. However, every major trial completed for this topic thus far has suffered from major methodological flaws that limit the validity and external generalizability of their results. Furthermore, certain patient populations who are known to benefit from renovascular revascularization may never be studied because they cannot be ethically withheld from life-saving treatment. Forthcoming percutaneous techniques may one day complement angioplasty and stenting in a burgeoning era of cellular modulation and endovascular-directed renal regeneration. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction with versus without previous coronary artery bypass grafting (from the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction [HORIZONS-AMI] trial).

    PubMed

    Nikolsky, Eugenia; Mehran, Roxana; Yu, Jennifer; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Brodie, Bruce R; Kornowski, Ran; Brener, Sorin; Xu, Ke; Dangas, George D; Stone, Gregg W

    2013-05-15

    The present substudy from the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI) trial assessed the outcomes and their relation to different antithrombotic regimens in patients with previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Of 3,599 patients with information regarding a history of CABG, 105 (2.9%) had previously undergone CABG. Of these 105 patients, 46 were randomized to heparin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor and 59 to bivalirudin. The patients with versus without previous CABG were less frequently triaged to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (83.8% vs 93.2%, p = 0.0002) and had a longer door-to-balloon time (median 1.9 vs 1.6 hours, p = 0.047), lower rates of final Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 2 to 3 in the intervened vessel (92.6% vs 97.8%, p = 0.007), and less frequent rates of complete or partial ST-segment resolution (66.3% vs 77.6%, p = 0.019). At 3 years, previous CABG was associated with a significantly greater incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (36.4% vs 21.4%, p <0.001) owing to greater rates of mortality (11.2% vs 6.7%, p = 0.08), reinfarction (11.6% vs 7.1%, p = 0.09), stroke (5.1% vs 1.8%, p = 0.013), and ischemic target vessel revascularization (23.6% vs 12.9%, p = 0.005). The outcomes did not differ significantly as a function of the antithrombotic regimen. On multivariate analysis, previous CABG was an independent predictor of 3-year ischemic stroke (hazard ratio 3.57, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 11.66). Intervention on the saphenous vein graft versus the native vessel predicted 3-year major adverse cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 2.69, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 6.19). In the HORIZONS-AMI trial, previous CABG was associated with a delay to mechanical reperfusion and lower rates of percutaneous coronary intervention and patency of the infarct related vessel along

  7. Effect of coronary artery revascularization on in-hospital outcomes and long-term prognoses in acute myocardial infarction patients with prior ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhan-Yun; Li, Jing; Hua, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether coronary artery revascularization therapies (CART), including percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), can improve the in-hospital and long-term outcomes for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with prior ischemic stroke (IS). Methods A total of 387 AMI patients with prior IS were enrolled consecutively from January 15, 2005 to December 24, 2011 in this cohort study. All patients were categorized into the CART group (n = 204) or the conservative medications (CM) group (n = 183). In-hospital cardiocerebral events and long-term mortality of the two groups after an average follow-up of 36 months were recorded by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and compared by Logistic regression and the Cox regression model. Results The CART patients were younger (66.5 ± 9.7 years vs. 71.7 ± 9.7 years, P < 0.01), had less non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (11.8% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.016) and more multiple-vascular coronary lesions (50% vs. 69.4%, P = 0.031). The hospitalization incidence of cardiocerebral events in the CART group was 9.3% while 26.2% in the CM group (P < 0.01). CART significantly reduced the risk of in-hospital cardiocerebral events by 65% [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13–0.92]. By the end of follow-up, 57 cases (41.6%) died in CM group (n = 137) and 24 cases (12.2%) died in CART group (n = 197). Cox regression indicated that CART decreased the long-term mortality by 72% [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.06–0.46], while categorical analysis indicated no significant difference between PCI and CABG. Conclusions CART has a significant effect on improving the in-hospital and long-term prognoses for AMI patients with prior IS. PMID:27168740

  8. Economics of elective coronary revascularization. Comparison of costs and charges for conventional angioplasty, directional atherectomy, stenting and bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D J; Breall, J A; Ho, K K; Weintraub, R M; Kuntz, R E; Weinstein, M C; Baim, D S

    1993-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate more closely the true in-hospital costs of elective revascularization by directional coronary atherectomy and intracoronary stenting and to compare these costs with those of the traditional revascularization alternatives (i.e., conventional balloon angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery). Previous studies have suggested that total hospital charges for directional coronary atherectomy or intracoronary stenting are significantly higher than those for conventional angioplasty. However, hospital charges do not necessarily reflect true economic costs, and their use may provide misleading data with regard to cost-effectiveness. We analyzed in-hospital charges from the itemized hospital accounts of 300 patients undergoing elective angioplasty, directional atherectomy, Palmaz-Schatz coronary stenting or bypass surgery between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 1991. Costs were then derived by adjusting itemized patient accounts for department-specific cost/charge ratios. Catheterization laboratory costs were based on actual resource consumption, and daily room costs were adjusted for the intensity of nursing services provided. Length of hospital stay was similar for atherectomy (2.3 +/- 1.5 days) and conventional angioplasty (2.6 +/- 1.7 days) but significantly longer for stenting (5.5 +/- 2.6 days, p < 0.05). Total costs were also significantly higher for coronary stenting ($7,878 +/- $3,270, median $6,699, p < 0.05) than for angioplasty ($5,396 +/- $2,829, median $4,753) or atherectomy ($5,726 +/- $2,716, median $4,986). However, length of stay, resource consumption (laboratory and radiologic testing, drugs, blood products, for example) and total costs for bypass surgery were still greater than for any of the percutaneous interventional procedures. In contrast to previous studies utilizing only hospital charges, the in-hospital costs of angioplasty and directional coronary atherectomy were similar. Although the cost of coronary

  9. Hypotheses, rationale, design, and methods for prognostic evaluation of cardiac biomarker elevation after percutaneous and surgical revascularization in the absence of manifest myocardial infarction. A comparative analysis of biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance. The MASS-V Trial.

    PubMed

    Hueb, Whady; Gersh, Bernard J; Rezende, Paulo Cury; Garzillo, Cibele Larrosa; Lima, Eduardo Gomes; Vieira, Ricardo D'Oliveira; Garcia, Rosa Maria Rahmi; Favarato, Desiderio; Segre, Carlos Alexandre W; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Soares, Paulo Rogério; Ribeiro, Expedito; Lemos, Pedro; Perin, Marco A; Strunz, Célia Cassaro; Dallan, Luis A O; Jatene, Fabio B; Stolf, Noedir A G; Hueb, Alexandre Ciappina; Dias, Ricardo; Gaiotto, Fabio A; da Costa, Leandro Menezes Alves; Oikawa, Fernando Teiichi Costa; de Melo, Rodrigo Morel Vieira; Serrano, Carlos Vicente; de Ávila, Luiz Francisco Rodrigues; Villa, Alexandre Volney; Filho, José Rodrigues Parga; Nomura, César; Ramires, José A F; Kalil Filho, Roberto

    2012-08-16

    Although the release of cardiac biomarkers after percutaneous (PCI) or surgical revascularization (CABG) is common, its prognostic significance is not known. Questions remain about the mechanisms and degree of correlation between the release, the volume of myocardial tissue loss, and the long-term significance. Delayed-enhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) consistently quantifies areas of irreversible myocardial injury. To investigate the quantitative relationship between irreversible injury and cardiac biomarkers, we will evaluate the extent of irreversible injury in patients undergoing PCI and CABG and relate it to postprocedural modifications in cardiac biomarkers and long-term prognosis. The study will include 150 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) with left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and a formal indication for CABG; 50 patients will undergo CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); 50 patients with the same arterial and ventricular condition indicated for myocardial revascularization will undergo CABG without CPB; and another 50 patients with CAD and preserved ventricular function will undergo PCI using stents. All patients will undergo CMR before and after surgery or PCI. We will also evaluate the release of cardiac markers of necrosis immediately before and after each procedure. Primary outcome considered is overall death in a 5-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes are levels of CK-MB isoenzyme and I-Troponin in association with presence of myocardial fibrosis and systolic left ventricle dysfunction assessed by CMR. The MASS-V Trial aims to establish reliable values for parameters of enzyme markers of myocardial necrosis in the absence of manifest myocardial infarction after mechanical interventions. The establishments of these indices have diagnostic value and clinical prognosis and therefore require relevant and different therapeutic measures. In daily practice, the inappropriate use of these necrosis markers has led to

  10. Bare-metal stenting of large coronary arteries in ST-elevation myocardial infarction is associated with low rates of target vessel revascularization.

    PubMed

    Shugman, Ibrahim M; Hee, Leia; Mussap, Christian J; Diu, Patrick; Lo, Sidney; Hopkins, Andrew P; Nguyen, Phong; Taylor, David; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Leung, Dominic; Thomas, Liza; Juergens, Craig P; French, John K

    2013-04-01

    During percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in the emergent setting of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), uncertainty about patients' ability to comply with 12 months dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stenting is common, and thus, selective bare-metal stent (BMS) deployment could be an attractive strategy if this achieved low target vessel revascularization (TVR) rates in large infarct-related arteries (IRAs) (≥3.5 mm). To evaluate this hypothesis, among 1,282 patients with STEMI who underwent PCI during their initial hospitalization, we studied 1,059 patients (83%) who received BMS, of whom 512 (48%) had large IRAs ≥3.5 mm in diameter, 333 (31%) had IRAs 3 to 3.49 mm, and 214 (20%) had IRAs <3 mm. At 1 year, TVR rate in patients with BMS was 5.8% (2.2% with large BMS [≥3.5 mm], 9.2% with BMS 3-3.49 mm [intermediate], and 9.0% with BMS <3.0 mm [small], P < .001). The rates of death/reinfarction among patients with large BMS compared with intermediate BMS or small BMS were lower (6.6% vs 11.7% vs 9.0%, P = .042). Among patients who received BMS, the independent predictors of TVR at 1 year were the following: vessel diameter <3.5 mm (odds ratio [OR] 4.39 [95% CI 2.24-8.60], P < .001), proximal left anterior descending coronary artery lesions (OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.08-3.31], P = .027), hypertension (OR 2.01 [95% CI 1.17-3.438], P = .011), and prior PCI (OR 3.46 [95% CI 1.21-9.85], P = .02). The predictors of death/myocardial infarction at 1 year were pre-PCI cardiogenic shock (OR 8.16 [95% CI 4.16-16.01], P < .001), age ≥65 years (OR 2.63 [95% CI 1.58-4.39], P < .001), left anterior descending coronary artery culprit lesions (OR 1.95 [95% CI 1.19-3.21], P = .008), female gender (OR 1.93 [95% CI 1.12-3.32], P = .019), and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association lesion classes B2 and C (OR 2.17 [95% CI 1.10-4.27], P = .026). Bare-metal stent deployment in STEMI patients with IRAs ≥3.5 mm was associated

  11. Physiology of in-situ arterial revascularization in coronary artery bypass grafting: Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative factors and influences

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson Jr, T Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Surgical revascularization with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has become established as the most effective interventional therapy for patients with moderately severe and severe stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). This recommendation is based on traditional 5-year outcomes of mortality and avoidance of myocardial infarction leading to reintervention and/or cardiac death. However, these results are confounded in that they challenge the traditional CABG surgical tenets of completeness of anatomic revascularization, the impact of arterial revascularization on late survival, and the lesser impact of secondary prevention following CABG on late outcomes. Moreover, the emergence of physiologic-based revascularization with percutaneous cardiovascular intervention as an alternative strategy for revascularization in SIHD raises the question of whether there are similar physiologic effects in CABG. Finally, the ongoing ISCHEMIA trial is specifically addressing the importance of the physiology of moderate or severe ischemia in optimizing therapeutic interventions in SIHD. So it is time to address the role that physiology plays in surgical revascularization. The long-standing anatomic framework for surgical revascularization is no longer sufficient to explain the mechanisms for short-term and long-term outcomes in CABG. Novel intraoperative imaging technologies have generated important new data on the physiologic blood flow and myocardial perfusion responses to revascularization on an individual graft and global basis. Long-standing assumptions about technical issues such as competitive flow are brought into question by real-time visualization of the physiology of revascularization. Our underestimation of the impact of Guideline Directed Medical Therapy, or Optimal Medical Therapy, on the physiology of preoperative SIHD, and the full impact of secondary prevention on post-intervention SIHD, must be better understood. In this review, these issues are addressed through

  12. Coronary angiography and myocardial revascularization following the first acute myocardial infarction in Norway during 2001-2009: Analyzing time trends and educational inequalities using data from the CVDNOR project.

    PubMed

    Sulo, Enxhela; Nygård, Ottar; Vollset, Stein Emil; Igland, Jannicke; Sulo, Gerhard; Ebbing, Marta; Egeland, Grace M; Hawkins, Nathaniel M; Tell, Grethe S

    2016-06-01

    We analyzed trends in the utilization of coronary angiography and revascularization - including percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) - related to the first AMI and explored potential educational inequalities in such procedures. All first AMI patients aged 35-89, hospitalized during 2001-2009 were retrieved from 'The Cardiovascular Disease in Norway' project. Information on education was obtained from The Norwegian Education Database. Gender and age group-specific trends in coronary procedures were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. Educational inequalities were explored using multivariable Poisson regression and reported as incidence rate ratios (IRR). A total of 104 836 patients (37.3% women) were included. Revascularization rates increased on average 9.0% and 15.4% per year among younger (35-64years) and older (65-89years) men. Corresponding increases among women were 5.6% and 16.6%. Compared to patients with primary education only, those with secondary and tertiary education had 8% (IRR=1.08, 95% CI; 1.06-1.10) and 12% (IRR=1.12, 95% CI; 1.09-1.14) higher revascularization rates. Educational inequalities were entirely driven by educational differences in receiving coronary angiography (IRR=1.10, 95% CI; 1.08-1.11 for secondary versus primary and IRR=1.14, 95% CI; 1.12-1.16 for tertiary versus primary education level.) Among diagnosed patients, no educational differences were observed in coronary revascularization rates. Revascularization rates increased whereas educational differences in revascularization decreased among AMI patients in Norway during 2001-2009. Lower coronary revascularization rates among patients with low education were explained by educational differences in receiving coronary angiography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Care Transitions After Acute Myocardial Infarction for Transferred-In Versus Direct-Arrival Patients.

    PubMed

    Vora, Amit N; Peterson, Eric D; Hellkamp, Anne S; Sutton, Nadia R; Panacek, Edward; Thomas, Laine; de Lemos, James A; Wang, Tracy Y

    2016-03-01

    Many patients in the United States require transfer from one hospital to another for acute myocardial infarction (MI) care. How well these transferred-in patients are transitioned back to their local community is unknown. We used linked Medicare claims data to examine postdischarge outcomes of 39 136 patients with acute MI aged ≥65 years discharged alive from 451 US hospitals in Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry-Get With the Guidelines. Multivariable Cox modeling was used to compare the likelihood of outpatient clinic follow-up and risks of all-cause mortality and all-cause or cardiovascular readmission at 30 days post MI between transferred-in and direct-arrival patients. From 2007 to 2010, 14 060 of 39 136 patients (36%) required interhospital transfer for acute MI care, traveling a median of 43 miles (interquartile range, 27-68 miles; 77.6 km [interquartile range, 48.2-122.6 km]). Compared with those arriving directly, transferred-in patients with MI were slightly younger (median age, 73 versus 74; P<0.01) but less likely to have previous MI, heart failure, and previous revascularization than direct-arrival patients. Relative to direct-arrival patients, those transferred-in had a lower likelihood of outpatient follow-up within 30 days post discharge (risk-adjusted incidence, 69.9% versus 78.2%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.92) and higher adjusted 30-day all-cause and cardiovascular readmission risks (14.5% versus 14.0%; HRall-cause, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.15 and 9.5% versus 9.1%; HRcardiovascular, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.22). In contrast, risk-adjusted 30-day mortality was similar between transferred-in and direct arrivals (1.6% versus 1.6%; HR, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.27). Transferred-in patients with acute MI are less likely to have outpatient clinic follow-up within 30 days and more likely to be readmitted within the first 30 days post discharge compared

  14. The direct potential of the intestinal wall. Its change in ischemia and revascularization. An experimental study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Campos, S T; Timo-Iaria, C

    1975-01-01

    The DC otential between the jejunal mucosa and the skin of the tail's root was measured in 29 rats. In twenty animals the superior mesenteric artery was clamped during up to VBJ minutes and recording of the DC potential was performed before vascular obstruction, during the period of ischaemia, and after revascularization was resumed when the clamp was removed. Prolonged ischaemia of the jejunum led to increasing reduction of the DC potential but recovery occurred about 75% of the rats when revascularization was established. The remaining 25% did not recover from vascular occlusion due to thrombosis or mechanical damage to the arterial wall. After removal of the elctrodes from the former group functional recovery of the intestinal function occurred in all the animals in which the removal was successful and no perforation of the intestinal wall was produced. Measuring transmural potential may be a convenient method to assess the viability of an infarcted intestine, thus aiding in selecting the appropriate therapeutic measures and in prognostic evaluation.

  15. Impact of multivessel coronary artery disease and noninfarct-related artery revascularization on outcome of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the EUROTRANSFER Registry).

    PubMed

    Dziewierz, Artur; Siudak, Zbigniew; Rakowski, Tomasz; Zasada, Wojciech; Dubiel, Jacek S; Dudek, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD) and noninfarct-related artery (non-IRA) revascularization during index percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Data on 1,598 of 1,650 patients with complete angiographic data, with >or=1 significantly stenosed epicardial coronary artery, and without previous coronary artery bypass grafting were retrieved from the EUROTRANSFER Registry database. Patients with 1-, 2-, and 3-vessel disease made up 48.5%, 32.0%, and 19.5% of the registry population, respectively. Patients with MVD were less likely to achieve final Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow (1- vs 2- vs 3-vessel disease, 93.6% vs 89.3% vs 87.9%, respectively, p = 0.003) and ST-segment resolution >50% within 60 minutes after PCI (1- vs 2- vs 3-vessel disease, 80.9% vs 77.5% vs 69.3%, respectively, p <0.001). They were also at higher risk of death during 1-year follow-up (1- vs 2- vs 3-vessel disease, 4.9% vs 7.4% vs 13.5%, respectively, p <0.001), and MVD was identified as an independent predictor of 1-year death. In 70 patients (9%) non-IRA PCI was performed during index PCI. These patients were at higher risk of 30-day and 1-year death compared to patients without non-IRA PCI, but this difference in mortality was no longer significant after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, patients with MVD have decreased epicardial and myocardial reperfusion success and had worse prognosis after primary PCI for STEMI compared to patients with 1-vessel disease. In this large multicenter registry, non-IRA PCI during the index procedure was performed in 9% of patients with MVD and it was associated with increased 1-year mortality.

  16. Impact of European Society of Cardiology and European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Guidelines on Myocardial Revascularization on the activity of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft surgery for stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Yates, Martin T; Soppa, Gopal K R; Valencia, Oswaldo; Jones, Sion; Firoozi, Sami; Jahangiri, Marjan

    2014-02-01

    Joint guidelines on myocardial revascularization were published by the European Society of Cardiology and European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery: Patients with left main stem, proximal left anterior descending, or 3-vessel disease should be discussed with a surgeon before revascularization, and ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention has no elective indication in these categories. We assess the impact of the guidelines on referral patterns to a cardiac surgery service at a large-volume cardiac center in the United Kingdom. Joint guidelines were published in August 2010. All patients with severe disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention at one institution were identified 6 months before (January to June 2010) and 6 months after (January to June 2011) their introduction. Decision-making and surgical referral were determined from minutes of multidisciplinary meeting. A total of 197 patients underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention pre-guidelines, of whom 62 had severe disease. Only 6 patients (9%) were discussed at a multidisciplinary meeting before intervention. After introduction of the guidelines, elective percutaneous coronary interventions were performed in 164 patients, of whom 42 had surgical disease. Only 8 patients (17%) were discussed at a multidisciplinary meeting before intervention (P = not significant). Follow-up was a median of 480 (380-514) days for the pre-guideline group and 104 (31-183) days for the post-guideline group. Ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention in surgical disease occurred in 8 patients (14%) pre-guidelines and was unchanged for 9 patients (26%) post-guidelines (P = not significant). Despite recommendation by both cardiology and cardiac surgical bodies and widespread publicity, a significant number of patients in this single-center study are not receiving optimal treatment recommended by these guidelines. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc

  17. [Scanning electron microscopy analysis of peroperative injury at the junctions of the vasa vasorum and the collateral veins of venous autografts prepared for myocardial revascularization].

    PubMed

    Jelić, I; Leskovar, T; Mijić, A; Bulajić, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors' objective was to determine the peroperative changes in affluences of collateral veins and vasa vasorum of venous autografts prepared for a coronary bypass by standard and proposed methods. The investigations were carried out on dogs. In control group, the veins were prepared by the standard method where the vein is presented by several minor incisions with "skin bridges" planted in between. In the second group, the veins were prepared by the method developed by the authors, where the vein is presented by a long incision, maintaining perfusion with its own blood throughout surgery. The scanning electron microscope analysis has shown that the standard method of vein preparation causes significant damage in collateral veins and vasa vasorum affluences which are actually part of an internal surface of future venous autograft prepared for myocardium revascularization. The proposed surgical method considerably reduces possible peroperative damage of the vasa vasorum and collateral vein affluence sites forming a portion of the internal surface of the venous autograft. Therefore, based on the obtained results, this method is recommended for clinical application.

  18. Myocardial viability.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Y; Kloner, R A

    1996-01-01

    Left ventricular function is a major predictor of outcome in patients with coronary artery disease. Acute ischemia, postischemic dysfunction (stunning), myocardial hibernation, or a combination of these 3 are among the reversible forms of myocardial dysfunction. In myocardial stunning, dysfunction occurs despite normal myocardial perfusion, and function recovers spontaneously over time. In acute ischemia and hibernation, there is regional hypoperfusion. Function improves only after revascularization. Evidence of myocardial viability usually relies on the demonstration of uptake of various metabolic tracers, such as thallium (thallous chloride TI 201) or fludeoxyglucose F 18, by dysfunctional myocardium or by the demonstration of contractile reserve in a dysfunctional region. This can be shown as an augmentation of function during the infusion of various sympathomimetic agents. The response of ventricular segments to increasing doses of dobutamine may indicate the underlying mechanism of dysfunction. Stunned segments that have normal perfusion show dose-dependent augmentation of function. If perfusion is reduced as in hibernating myocardium, however, a biphasic response usually occurs: function improves at low doses of dobutamine, whereas higher doses may induce ischemia and, hence, dysfunction. But in patients with severely impaired perfusion, even low doses may cause ischemia. Myocardial regions with subendocardial infarction or diffuse scarring may also have augmented contractility during catecholamine infusion due to stimulation of the subepicardial layers. In these cases, augmentation of function after revascularization is not expected. Because the underlying mechanism, prognosis, and therapy may differ among these conditions, it is crucial to differentiate among dysfunctional myocardial segments that are nonviable and have no potential to regain function, hibernating or ischemic segments in which recovery of function occurs only after revascularization, and

  19. Role of surgical revascularization in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Enrique; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2005-03-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease. Currently, diabetics represent approximately a quarter of patients requiring coronary revascularization in the USA. The purpose of this article is to review and analyze the available data in surgical revascularization of diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. The review will also examine new developments in myocardial revascularization and assess their probable impact on the long-term outcome of diabetic patients.

  20. Silent myocardial ischemia: Current perspectives and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Amany H; Shankar, KJ; Eftekhari, Hossein; Munir, MS; Robertson, Jillian; Brewer, Alan; Stupin, Igor V; Casscells, S Ward

    2007-01-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is increasingly being recognized as part of the spectrum of ischemic heart disease. The spectrum of SMI ranges from asymptomatic coronary artery disease to critical illness necessitating intensive care. Although many diagnostic tools have been used to identify low- and high-risk subgroups, their use is limited by modest sensitivities and specificities. The present review identifies current concepts in the management of SMI in various clinical settings, as well as emerging technologies that may simplify the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:18651003

  1. Effect of Late Revascularization of a Totally Occluded Coronary Artery After Myocardial Infarction on Mortality Rates in Patients with Renal Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Ramin; Hochman, Judith S.; Dzavik, Vladimir; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Forman, Sandra A.; Schiele, Francois; Michalis, Lampros K.; Nikas, Dimitris; Jaroch, Joanna; Reynolds, Harmony R.

    2012-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and a negative prognostic indicator after myocardial infarction (MI). Randomized data comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to medical therapy in MI patients with renal insufficiency are needed. The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) compared optimal medical therapy alone to PCI with optimal medical therapy in 2201 high risk patients with an occluded infarct artery >24 hours post-MI with serum creatinine ≤2.5 mg/dl. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, MI, and class IV heart failure (HF). Analyses were carried out utilizing estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) as a continuous variable and by eGFR categories. Long term follow up data (maximum 9 years) were used for this analysis. Lower eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) was associated with development of the primary outcome (6-year life-table rate 16.9% in eGFR>90; 19.2% in eGFR 60–89; 34.9% in eGFR<60; p-value <0.0001), death, and class IV HF, with no difference in rates of reinfarction. On multivariable analysis, eGFR was an independent predictor of death and HF. There was no effect of treatment assignment on the primary endpoint regardless of eGFR, and there was no significant interaction between eGFR and treatment assignment on any outcome. In conclusion, lower eGFR at enrollment was independently associated with death and HF in OAT participants. Despite this increased risk, the lack of benefit from PCI in the overall trial was also seen in patients with renal dysfunction and persistent occlusion of the infarct artery in the subacute phase post MI. PMID:22728005

  2. Pooled Analysis Comparing the Efficacy of Intracoronary Versus Intravenous Abciximab in Smokers Versus Nonsmokers Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization for Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Raffaele; Galasso, Gennaro; Eitel, Ingo; Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Iversen, Allan Zeeberg; Gu, Youlan L; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; de Smet, Bart J G L; Esposito, Giovanni; Windecker, Stephan; Thiele, Holger; Piscione, Federico

    2016-12-15

    Cigarette smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may present different response to potent antithrombotic therapy compared to nonsmokers. We assessed the impact of smoking status and intracoronary abciximab in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We pooled data from 5 randomized trials comparing intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab bolus in patients undergoing primary PCI. The primary end point was the composite of death or reinfarction at a mean follow-up of 292 ± 138 days. Of 3,158 participants, 1,369 (43.3%) were smokers, and they had a lower risk of the primary end point in crude, but not in adjusted analyses (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63 to 1.21, p = 0.405). Intracoronary versus intravenous abciximab was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of primary end point among smokers (3.6% vs 8.0%; HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.72, p = 0.001), but not in nonsmokers (10.2% vs 9.9%; HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.36, p = 0.96), with a significant interaction (p = 0.009). Furthermore, intracoronary abciximab decreased the risk of reinfarction in smokers (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.62, p = 0.001), with no difference in nonsmokers (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.01, p = 0.50). Stent thrombosis was lowered by intracoronary abciximab in smokers (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.66, p = 0.009), but was ineffective in nonsmokers (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.54 to 2.00, p = 0.903). Interaction testing showed heterogeneity in treatment effect for reinfarction (p = 0.002) and stent thrombosis (p = 0.018) according to smoking status. In conclusion, among patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, smoking status did not affect the adjusted risk of clinical events. Intracoronary abciximab bolus improved clinical outcomes by reducing the risk of death or reinfarction.

  3. Peripheral Revascularization in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease With Vorapaxar: Insights From the TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 Trial.

    PubMed

    Bonaca, Marc P; Creager, Mark A; Olin, Jeffrey; Scirica, Benjamin M; Gilchrist, Ian C; Murphy, Sabina A; Goodrich, Erica L; Braunwald, Eugene; Morrow, David A

    2016-10-24

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the reduction in peripheral revascularization with vorapaxar in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) is directionally consistent across indications, including acute limb ischemia, progressively disabling symptoms, or both. The protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist vorapaxar reduces peripheral revascularization in patients with PAD. The TRA 2°P-TIMI 50 (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist in Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Ischemic Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 50) trial randomized 26,449 patients with histories of myocardial infarction, stroke, or symptomatic PAD to vorapaxar or placebo on a background of standard therapy. A total of 5,845 patients had a known history of PAD at randomization. Peripheral revascularization procedures reported by the site were a pre-specified outcome. We explored whether the benefit of vorapaxar was consistent across indication and type of procedure. Of the 5,845 patients with known PAD, a total of 934 (16%) underwent at least 1 peripheral revascularization over 2.5 years (median). More than one-half (55%) were for worsening claudication, followed by critical limb ischemia (24%), acute limb ischemia (16%), and asymptomatic severe stenosis (4%). Vorapaxar significantly reduced peripheral revascularization (19.3% for placebo, 15.4% for vorapaxar; hazard ratio: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.72 to 0.93; p = 0.003), with a consistent pattern of efficacy across indication. Vorapaxar reduces peripheral revascularization in patients with PAD. This benefit of vorapaxar is directionally consistent across type of procedure and indication. (Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar [SCH 530348; MK-5348] in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Patients With Atherosclerosis [TRA 2°P - TIMI 50] [P04737]; NCT00526474). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct intramyocardial percutaneous delivery of autologous bone marrow in patients with refractory myocardial angina.

    PubMed

    Briguori, Carlo; Reimers, Bernhard; Sarais, Cristiano; Napodano, Massimo; Pascotto, Pietro; Azzarello, Giuseppe; Bregni, Marco; Porcellini, Adolfo; Vinante, Orazio; Zanco, Pierluigi; Peschle, Cesare; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Colombo, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Intramyocardial injection of autologous bone marrow (ABM) may induce angiogenesis. We tested the safety and feasibility of catheter-based direct percutaneous intramyocardial delivery of ABM in patients with refractory angina pectoris. Ten patients (9 men, 67 +/- 8 years) with refractory angina (Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III-IV) and documented myocardial ischemia were enrolled. After left ventricular electromechanical mapping, freshly aspirated and filtered ABM was percutaneously injected into target myocardial ischemic areas. Clinical symptoms (as assessed according to the Canadian Cardiovascular Society class), quality of life, and myocardial perfusion were evaluated before the procedure and through the follow-up. In all patients, ABM was successfully injected into the target regions. No periprocedural complications occurred. At 12 months, no major cardiac events (death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and malignant ventricular arrhythmias) occurred. Severity of angina improved of > or = 2 classes in 3 patients. Quality of life showed a significant improvement in all patients. Myocardial perfusion in the target regions improved in 4 of 8 patients. Direct percutaneous intramyocardial delivery of ABM appears feasible and safe. Further evaluation is warranted to test its clinical efficacy.

  5. Revascularization and pediatric aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalani, M Yashar S; Elhadi, Ali M; Ramey, Wyatt; Nakaji, Peter; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G; Zabramski, Joseph M; Spetzler, Robert F

    2014-06-01

    Aneurysms are relatively rare in the pediatric population and tend to include a greater proportion of large and giant lesions. A subset of these large and giant aneurysms are not amenable to direct surgical clipping and require complex treatment strategies and revascularization techniques. There are limited data available on the management of these lesions in the pediatric population. This study was undertaken to evaluate the outcome of treatment of large and giant aneurysms that required microsurgical revascularization and vessel sacrifice in this population. The authors retrospectively identified all cases in which pediatric patients (age < 18 years) with aneurysms were treated using cerebral revascularization in combination with other treatment modalities at their institution between 1989 and 2013. The authors identified 27 consecutive patients (19 male and 8 female) with 29 aneurysms. The mean age of the patients at the time of treatment was 11.5 years (median 13 years, range 1-17 years). Five patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 11 with symptoms related to mass effect, 2 with stroke, and 3 with seizures; in 6 cases, the aneurysms were incidental findings. Aneurysms were located along the internal carotid artery (n = 7), posterior cerebral artery (PCA) (n = 2), anterior cerebral artery (n = 2), middle cerebral artery (MCA) (n = 14), basilar artery (n = 2), vertebral artery (n = 1), and at the vertebrobasilar junction (n = 1). Thirteen were giant aneurysms (45%). The majority of the aneurysms were fusiform (n = 19, 66%), followed by saccular (n = 10, 34%). Three cases were previously treated using microsurgery (n = 2) or an endovascular procedure (n = 1). A total of 28 revascularization procedures were performed, including superficial temporal artery (STA) to MCA (n = 6), STA to PCA (n = 1), occipital artery to PCA (n = 1), extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass using radial artery graft (n = 3), EC-IC using a saphenous vein graft (n = 7), STA

  6. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction: direct transportation to catheterization laboratory by emergency teams reduces door-to-balloon time.

    PubMed

    van de Loo, Andreas; Saurbier, Bernward; Kalbhenn, Johannes; Koberne, Frank; Zehender, Manfred

    2006-03-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the recommended revascularization strategy for patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In most hospitals, transfer of patients with STEMI is organized from the emergency site via emergency room (medical and cardiologic evaluation) and then to the catheterization laboratory. In this prospective study, we sought to evaluate the effect of a logistic modification in this treatment process. Local emergency ambulance teams were instructed to identify and evaluate patients with STEMI eligible for direct PCI and to transport them directly to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for immediate percutaneous coronary intervention ("ER bypass"). This study prospectively included 74 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndromes (STEMI) and compared them with a matched historic control group ("ER evaluation"). Primary endpoint was the reduction in door-to-balloon time; secondary endpoint was quality of preclinical emergency diagnosis. Median door-to-balloon time was reduced by 27 min. Primary interventional success was achieved in 92% of patients. Preclinical emergency diagnoses were correct in 95% of patients. The preclinical emergency diagnosis of STEMI was reliable. Direct transport of patients with STEMI to the cardiac catheterization laboratory and early preclinical alert by the interventional PCI team significantly reduces door-to-balloon-times compared with established standard processes-of-care for patients considered for primary PCI.

  7. Acute Myocardial Infarction following a possible direct intravenous bite of Russell’s viper (Daboia russelli)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Russell’s viper (Daboia russelli) bites lead to high morbidity and mortality in South Asia. Although variety of clinical manifestations is reported in viper bite victims, myocardial ischemic events are rare. Case presentation We report a unique case of inferior wall ST elevation myocardial infarction due to a Russell’s viper bite over a vein with possible direct intravenous envenoming, in a young male with no past history or family history suggestive of ischemic cardiac disease, from Sri Lanka. In addition, the possible mechanisms of myocardial ischemia in snake bite victims are also briefly discussed. Conclusion Importance of the awareness of physicians on the rare, yet fatal manifestations of snake envenoming is highlighted. PMID:22971617

  8. Transmyocardial laser revascularization.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, M W

    2001-06-01

    In transmyocardial laser revascularization, a small left thoracotomy incision is made at the fifth rib. The surgeon dissects until adequate exposure of the heart is made, and the laser can be used. The areas to be lasered are identified, and treatment begins. As each laser beam penetrates the myocardium, a flash of bubbles can be seen on echocardiogram exiting the left ventricular outflow tract, which confirms adequate channeling. After revascularization, the mitral valve is inspected for any damage to papillary muscle or leaflets. This case report focuses on a new laser procedure that creates channels in the heart that promote angiogenesis and reestablish blood flow. A 47-year-old man presented for this surgery after having previous coronary artery bypass surgery. He had worsening angina and was not recommended for repeat bypass surgery because of his diffuse disease. Transmyocardial laser revascularization was offered as an alternative to medical therapy. Complications reported include dysrhythmia, bleeding, congestive heart failure, mitral valve damage, low cardiac output syndrome, and death. Many patients note substantial anginal relief after a few weeks. Transmyocardial laser revascularization gives an alternative to those with intractable angina and generally offers an improvement in quality of life.

  9. Direct care nurses' knowledge in acute myocardial infarction treatment.

    PubMed

    Eckman, Thea; Haley, Rebecca; Bradley, Elisabeth; Albert, Maria; Kolm, Paul; Jurkovitz, Claudine

    2012-01-01

    An acronym, a button, a script card, and a lot of fun are all an educator needs to turn dreaded education into a great learning experience for nurses as well as the patients. A multidisciplinary team pilot tested a new learning approach on a cardiac step-down unit. The goal was to educate both nurses and patients about the American Heart Association's Get-With-the-Guidelines Program for Coronary Artery Disease. The educational strategies were successful, and data revealed an increase in nursing knowledge of core measures. After a two-phase study, the program was eventually rolled out hospital-wide. The study results show that nurses' compliance with and knowledge of the AHA core measures increased as a direct result of the program.

  10. Direct imaging of myocardial ischemia: a potential new paradigm in nuclear cardiovascular imaging.

    PubMed

    Jain, Diwakar; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging has been in clinical use for over 30 years, serving as an effective, reliable, and relatively simple tool for diagnosis, risk stratification, and long-term follow-up of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. However, a unique strength of nuclear imaging is its ability to provide tools for imaging biochemical and metabolic processes and receptor and transporter functions at molecular and cellular levels in intact organisms under a wide variety of physiologic conditions. Despite their high resolution and technical sophistication, other imaging modalities currently do not have this capability. Metabolic imaging techniques using radiolabeled free fatty acid and glucose analogs provide a unique ability to image myocardial ischemia directly in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. These techniques can potentially overcome some of the limitations of currently used stress-rest perfusion imaging and also provide a unique opportunity to detect and image an episode of ischemia in the preceding hours even in the absence of other markers of ongoing myocardial ischemia. We describe recent studies using fluorine 18-labeled deoxyglucose and iodine 123 beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid for imaging myocardial ischemia.

  11. Transmyocardial laser revascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretz, H. Thomas

    1996-09-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) for the treatment of medically unresponsive angina pectoris has been shown to be clinically effective. The mechanism of its action, however, is not quite understood. Over the last five years my collaborators and I have conducted a variety of in vivo and in vitro studies using different animal models, lasers and experimental protocols. The results seem to indicate that the mechanism of action of TMR is related to neovascularization rather than chronically patent channels, as originally proposed.

  12. Direct regulation of myocardial triglyceride metabolism by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ju-Yun; Kienesberger, Petra C; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Sailors, Mary H; Durgan, David J; Villegas-Montoya, Carolina; Jahoor, Anil; Gonzalez, Raquel; Garvey, Merissa E; Boland, Brandon; Blasier, Zachary; McElfresh, Tracy A; Nannegari, Vijayalakshmi; Chow, Chi-Wing; Heird, William C; Chandler, Margaret P; Dyck, Jason R B; Bray, Molly S; Young, Martin E

    2010-01-29

    Maintenance of circadian alignment between an organism and its environment is essential to ensure metabolic homeostasis. Synchrony is achieved by cell autonomous circadian clocks. Despite a growing appreciation of the integral relation between clocks and metabolism, little is known regarding the direct influence of a peripheral clock on cellular responses to fatty acids. To address this important issue, we utilized a genetic model of disrupted clock function specifically in cardiomyocytes in vivo (termed cardiomyocyte clock mutant (CCM)). CCM mice exhibited altered myocardial response to chronic high fat feeding at the levels of the transcriptome and lipidome as well as metabolic fluxes, providing evidence that the cardiomyocyte clock regulates myocardial triglyceride metabolism. Time-of-day-dependent oscillations in myocardial triglyceride levels, net triglyceride synthesis, and lipolysis were markedly attenuated in CCM hearts. Analysis of key proteins influencing triglyceride turnover suggest that the cardiomyocyte clock inactivates hormone-sensitive lipase during the active/awake phase both at transcriptional and post-translational (via AMP-activated protein kinase) levels. Consistent with increased net triglyceride synthesis during the end of the active/awake phase, high fat feeding at this time resulted in marked cardiac steatosis. These data provide evidence for direct regulation of triglyceride turnover by a peripheral clock and reveal a potential mechanistic explanation for accelerated metabolic pathologies after prevalent circadian misalignment in Western society.

  13. Comparison of the usefulness of Doppler-derived deceleration time versus plasma brain natriuretic peptide to predict left ventricular remodeling after mechanical revascularization in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cerisano, Giampaolo; Pucci, Paolo Domenico; Valenti, Renato; Boddi, Vieri; Migliorini, Angela; Tommasi, Maria Silvia; Raspanti, Silvia; Parodi, Guido; Antoniucci, David

    2005-04-15

    The correlation between Doppler deceleration time (DT) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and their predictive value for detecting left ventricular (LV) remodeling in patients who are treated with primary percutaneous intervention for infarction and LV dysfunction are unknown. Fifty-six patients (64 +/- 12 years of age; 11 women) who had a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and systolic dysfunction that was successfully treated with direct primary coronary intervention underwent 2-dimensional Doppler echocardiographic and plasma BNP evaluation at days 1 and 3 and 1 and 6 months after the index infarction. Repeat coronary angiograms were obtained at 1 and 6 months. Because of previous consistent evidence, 3 days after the index infarction was the time point of comparison between BNP and DT values. Echocardiographic LV remodeling was defined as an increase in end-diastolic volume index above baseline values of 2 x SD. Ventricular remodeling occurred in 20 patients (36%). Multivariate analyses that included BNP level, Doppler DT, echocardiographic measurements of systolic function, peak creatine kinase, and anterior infarct location showed Doppler DT to be the only predictor of LV remodeling (odds ratio 0.963, 95% confidence interval 0.936 to 0.990, p = 0.008). The optimal cutoff for DT in the prediction of 6-month LV remodeling was <136 ms (sensitivity 75%, specificity 97%, accuracy 81%, area under receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.90). Thus, in patients who have a first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and LV systolic dysfunction that is successfully treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, Doppler-derived DT 3 days after index infarction is more effective than BNP level in detecting patients who are at higher risk for 6-month LV remodeling.

  14. Graft selection in cerebral revascularization.

    PubMed

    Baaj, Ali A; Agazzi, Siviero; van Loveren, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Cerebral revascularization constitutes an important treatment modality in the management of complex aneurysms, carotid occlusion, tumor, and moyamoya disease. Graft selection is a critical step in the planning of revascularization surgery, and depends on an understanding of graft and regional hemodynamics, accessibility, and patency rates. The goal of this review is to highlight some of these properties.

  15. Surgical Revascularization in North American Adults with Moyamoya Phenomenon: Long Term Angiographic Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Eric J.; Dunn, Gavin P.; Washington, Chad W.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Chicoine, Michael R.; Grubb, Robert L.; Moran, Christopher J.; Cross, DeWitte T.; Dacey, Ralph G.; Zipfel, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Background North American and Asian forms of moyamoya have distinct clinical characteristics. Asian adults with moyamoya are known to respond better to direct vs. indirect revascularization. It is unclear whether North American adults with moyamoya have a similar long-term angiographic response to direct vs. indirect bypass. Methods A retrospective review of surgical revascularization for adult moyamoya phenomenon was performed. Pre-operative and post-operative cerebral angiograms underwent consensus review, with degree of revascularization quantified as extent of new middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory filling. Results Late angiographic follow up was available in 15 symptomatic patients who underwent 20 surgical revascularization procedures. In 10 hemispheres treated solely with indirect arterial bypass, 3 had 2/3 revascularization, 4 had 1/3 revascularization, and 3 had no revascularization of the MCA territory. In the 10 hemispheres treated with direct arterial bypass (8 as a stand alone procedure; 2 in combination with an indirect procedure), 2 had complete revascularization, 7 had 2/3 revascularization, and 1 had 1/3 revascularization. Direct bypass provided a higher rate of “good” angiographic outcome (complete or 2/3 revascularization) when compared to indirect techniques (p = 0.0198). Conclusions Direct bypass provides a statistically significant, more consistent and complete cerebral revascularization than indirect techniques in this patient population. This is similar to that reported in the Asian literature, which suggests that the manner of presentation (ischemia in North American adults vs. hemorrhage in Asian adults) is likely not a contributor to the extent of revascularization achieved following surgical intervention. PMID:25972283

  16. Power Doppler evaluation of revascularization in childhood moyamoya.

    PubMed

    Perren, F; Meairs, S; Schmiedek, P; Hennerici, M; Horn, P

    2005-02-08

    Moyamoya disease is generally recognized in young children. One potential treatment is direct extra-intracranial bypass combined with indirect revascularization using encephalo-myo-synangiosis. Standard follow-up to assess neoangiogenesis includes repeat cerebral angiography, which is invasive. The authors studied whether noninvasive power Doppler imaging could evaluate the patency of the bypass and the degree of indirect revascularization. They found that transcranial power Doppler imaging is a valid noninvasive alternative to cerebral angiography.

  17. Direct parametric reconstruction in dynamic PET myocardial perfusion imaging: in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, Yoann; Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) used in conjunction with tracer kinetic modeling enables the quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF). However, MBF maps computed using the traditional indirect method (i.e. post-reconstruction voxel-wise fitting of kinetic model to PET time-activity-curves-TACs) suffer from poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Direct reconstruction of kinetic parameters from raw PET projection data has been shown to offer parametric images with higher SNR compared to the indirect method. The aim of this study was to extend and evaluate the performance of a direct parametric reconstruction method using in vivo dynamic PET MPI data for the purpose of quantifying MBF. Dynamic PET MPI studies were performed on two healthy pigs using a Siemens Biograph mMR scanner. List-mode PET data for each animal were acquired following a bolus injection of ~7-8 mCi of 18F-flurpiridaz, a myocardial perfusion agent. Fully-3D dynamic PET sinograms were obtained by sorting the coincidence events into 16 temporal frames covering ~5 min after radiotracer administration. Additionally, eight independent noise realizations of both scans—each containing 1/8th of the total number of events—were generated from the original list-mode data. Dynamic sinograms were then used to compute parametric maps using the conventional indirect method and the proposed direct method. For both methods, a one-tissue compartment model accounting for spillover from the left and right ventricle blood-pools was used to describe the kinetics of 18F-flurpiridaz. An image-derived arterial input function obtained from a TAC taken in the left ventricle cavity was used for tracer kinetic analysis. For the indirect method, frame-by-frame images were estimated using two fully-3D reconstruction techniques: the standard ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm on one side, and the one-step late maximum a posteriori (OSL-MAP) algorithm on the other

  18. A novel approach for direct reconstruction of parametric images for myocardial blood flow from PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuan-Hao; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Fang, Yu-Hua Dean

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a novel direct reconstruction method to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of parametric images in dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET), especially for applications in myocardial perfusion studies. Simulation studies were used to test the performance in SNR and computational efficiency for different methods. The NCAT phantom was used to generate simulated dynamic data. Noise realization was performed in the sinogram domain and repeated for 30 times with four different noise levels by varying the injection dose (ID) from standard ID to 1/8 of it. The parametric images were calculated by (1) three direct methods that compute the kinetic parameters from the sinogram and (2) an indirect method, which computes the kinetic parameter with pixel-by-pixel curve fitting in image space using weighted least-squares. The first direct reconstruction maximizes the likelihood function using trust-region-reflective (TRR) algorithm. The second approach uses tabulated parameter sets to generate precomputed time-activity curves for maximizing the likelihood functions. The third approach, as a newly proposed method, assumes separable complete data to derive the M-step for maximizing the likelihood. The proposed method with the separable complete data performs similarly to the other two direct reconstruction methods in terms of the SNR, providing a 5%-10% improvement as compared to the indirect parametric reconstruction under the standard ID. The improvement of SNR becomes more obvious as the noise level increases, reaching more than 30% improvement under 1/8 ID. Advantage of the proposed method lies in the computation efficiency by shortening the time requirement to 25% of the indirect approach and 3%-6% of other direct reconstruction methods. With results provided from this simulation study, direct reconstruction of myocardial blood flow shows a high potential for improving the parametric image quality for clinical use.

  19. Troponin elevation after percutaneous coronary intervention directly represents the extent of irreversible myocardial injury: insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Selvanayagam, Joseph B; Porto, Italo; Channon, Keith; Petersen, Steffen E; Francis, Jane M; Neubauer, Stefan; Banning, Adrian P

    2005-03-01

    Although troponin elevation after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is common, uncertainties remain about the mechanisms of its release and its relationship to the volume of myocardial tissue loss. Delayed-enhancement MRI of the heart has been shown to reliably quantify areas of irreversible myocardial injury. To investigate the quantitative relationship between irreversible injury and cardiac troponin release, we studied the incidence and extent of new irreversible injury in patients undergoing PCI and correlated it to postprocedural changes in cardiac troponin I. Fifty patients undergoing PCI were studied with preprocedural and postprocedural (24 hours) delayed-enhancement MRI for assessment of new irreversible myocardial injury. Cardiac troponin I measurements were obtained before PCI and 24 hours after PCI. Of these 50 patients, 24 underwent a further third MRI scan at a median of 8 months after the procedure. Mean patient age was 64+/-12 years. After the procedure, 14 patients (28%) had evidence of new myocardial hyperenhancement, with a mean mass of 6.0+/-5.8 g, or 5.0+/-4.8% of total left ventricular mass. All of these patients had raised troponin I levels (range 1.0 to 9.4 mug/L). Thirty-four patients (68%) had no elevated troponin I and no evidence of new myocardial necrosis on MRI. There was a strong correlation between the rise in troponin I measurements at 24 hours and mean mass of new myocardial hyperenhancement, both early (r=0.84; P<0.001) and late (r=0.71; P<0.001) after PCI, although there was a trend for a reduction in the size of PCI-induced myocardial injury in the late follow-up scan (P=0.07). In the setting of PCI, patients demonstrating postprocedural elevation in troponin I have evidence of new irreversible myocardial injury on delayed-enhancement MRI. The magnitude of this injury correlates directly with the extent of troponin elevation.

  20. Triggering of Myocardial Infarction by Increased Ambient Fine Particle Concentration: Effect Modification by Source Direction

    PubMed Central

    Hopke, Philip K.; Kane, Cathleen; Utell, Mark J.; Chalupa, David C.; Kumar, Pramod; Ling, Frederick; Gardner, Blake; Rich, David Q.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previously, we reported a 18% increased odds of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) associated with each 7.1 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration in the hour prior to MI onset. We found no association with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). We examined if this association was modified by PM2.5 source direction. Methods We used the NOAA HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to calculate each hourly air mass location for the 24 hours before each case or control time period in our previous PM2.5/STEMI case-crossover analysis. Using these data on patients with STEMI (n=338), hourly PM2.5 concentrations, and case-crossover methods, we evaluated whether our PM2.5/STEMI association was modified by whether the air mass passed through each of the 8 cardinal wind direction sectors in the previous 24 hours. Results When the air mass passed through the West-Southwest direction (WSW) any time in the past 24 hours, the odds of STEMI associated with each 7.1 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration in the previous hour (OR=1.27; 95% CI=1.08, 1.22) was statistically significantly (p=0.01) greater than the relative odds of STEMI associated with increased PM2.5 concentration when the wind arrived from any other direction (OR=0.99; 95% CI=0.80, 1.22). We found no other effect modification by any other source direction. Further, relative odds estimates were largest when the time spent in the WSW was 8-16 hours, compared to ≤7 hours or 17-24 hours, suggesting that particles arising from sources in this direction were more potent in triggering STEMIs. Conclusions Since relative odds estimates were higher when the air mass passed through the WSW octant in the past 24 hours, there may be specific components of the ambient aerosol that are more potent in triggering STEMIs. This direction is associated with substantial emissions from coal-fired power plants and other industrial sources of the Ohio River Valley, many of which are

  1. On-pump beating heart coronary revascularization: Is it valid for emergency revascularization?

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ahmet; Erkut, Bilgehan

    2015-01-01

    On-pump beating heart coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may be considered as an alternative to the conventional on-pump surgery in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome requiring emergency revascularization. This study reports our clinical experience and early outcomes with the on-pump beating heart coronary surgery on patients with acute coronary syndrome. A retrospective study conducted from August 2009 to October 2015, in a regional training and research hospital in Turkey. A total of 1432 patients underwent isolated CABG at our institution. A total of 316 of these patients underwent the on-pump beating heart procedure without cardioplegic arrest by the same surgeon. The time interval from the onset of acute myocardial infarction to CABG was 10 (2.2) hours. The mean number of grafts was 3.0 (0.6). Hospital mortality was 2.9% (9 patients). Twelve patients had low cardiac output syndromes after surgery. Eight of them had renal dysfunction but none of them needed hemodialysis. The mean intensive care unit stay was 3 (2) days and the mean hospital length of stay was 7 (4) days. We think that the on-pump beating heart revascularization technique can be a good choice for emergency CABG of high-risk patients with a multivessel coronary artery disease.

  2. Pharmacological Agents Targeting Myocardial Metabolism for the Management of Chronic Stable Angina : an Update.

    PubMed

    Guarini, Giacinta; Huqi, Alda; Morrone, Doralisa; Marzilli, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Despite continuous advances in myocardial revascularization procedures and intracoronary devices, patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) still experience worse prognosis and poor quality of life (QoL). Indeed, chronic stable angina (CSA) is a common disease with a large burden on healthcare costs. Traditionally, CSA is interpreted as episodes of reversible myocardial ischemia related to the presence of stable coronary artery plaque causing myocardial demand/supply mismatch when myocardial oxygen consumption increases. Accordingly, revascularization procedures are performed with the aim to remove the flow limiting stenosis, whereas traditional medical therapy (hemodynamic agents) aims at reducing myocardial oxygen demands. However, although effective, none of these treatment strategies or their combination is either able to confer symptomatic relief in all patients, nor to reduce mortality. Failure to significantly improve QoL and prognosis may be attributed at least in part to this "restrictive" understanding of IHD. Despite for many years myocardial metabolic derangement has been overlooked, recently it has gained increased attention with the development of new pharmacological agents (metabolic modulators) able to influence myocardial substrate selection and utilization thus improving cardiac efficiency. Shifting cardiac metabolism from free fatty acids (FA) towards glucose is a promising approach for the treatment of patients with stable angina, independently of the underling disease (macrovascular and/or microvascular disease). In this sense cardiac metabolic modulators open the way to a "revolutionary" understanding of ischemic heart disease and its common clinical manifestations, where myocardial ischemia is no longer considered as the mere oxygen and metabolites demand/supply unbalance, but as an energetic disorder. Keeping in mind such an alternative approach to the disease, development of new pharmacological agents directed toward multiple metabolic

  3. Timing of angiography with a routine invasive strategy and long-term outcomes in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: a collaborative analysis of individual patient data from the FRISC II (Fragmin and Fast Revascularization During Instability in Coronary Artery Disease), ICTUS (Invasive Versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable Coronary Syndromes), and RITA-3 (Intervention Versus Conservative Treatment Strategy in Patients With Unstable Angina or Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction) Trials.

    PubMed

    Damman, Peter; van Geloven, Nan; Wallentin, Lars; Lagerqvist, Bo; Fox, Keith A A; Clayton, Tim; Pocock, Stuart J; Hirsch, Alexander; Windhausen, Fons; Tijssen, Jan G P; de Winter, Robbert J

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to investigate long-term outcomes after early or delayed angiography in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (nSTE-ACS) undergoing a routine invasive management. The optimal timing of angiography in patients with nSTE-ACS is currently a topic for debate. Long-term follow-up after early (within 2 days) angiography versus delayed (within 3 to 5 days) angiography was investigated in the FRISC-II (Fragmin and Fast Revascularization During Instability in Coronary Artery Disease), ICTUS (Invasive Versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable Coronary Syndromes), and RITA-3 (Intervention Versus Conservative Treatment Strategy in Patients With Unstable Angina or Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction) (FIR) nSTE-ACS patient-pooled database. The main outcome was cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction up to 5-year follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated with Cox regression models. Adjustments were made for the FIR risk score, study, and the propensity of receiving early angiography using inverse probability weighting. Of 2,721 patients originally randomized to the routine invasive arm, consisting of routine angiography and subsequent revascularization if suitable, 975 underwent early angiography and 1,141 delayed angiography. No difference was observed in 5-year cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction in unadjusted (HR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79 to 1.42, p=0.61) and adjusted (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.75 to 1.16, p=0.54) Cox regression models. In the FIR database of patients presenting with nSTE-ACS, the timing of angiography was not related to long-term cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction. (Invasive Versus Conservative Treatment in Unstable Coronary Syndromes [ICTUS]; ISRCTN82153174. Intervention Versus Conservative Treatment Strategy in Patients With Unstable Angina or Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction [the Third Randomised Intervention Treatment of Angina Trials (RITA-3)]; ISRCTN

  4. Histopathological examination of specimens removed during directional coronary atherectomy in patients presenting with crescendo angina show mural thrombus.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, C M; Grech, E D; Ashworth, M T; Ramsdale, D R

    1993-02-01

    Thrombus formation over a fissured coronary atheromatous plaque has been shown by post mortem histological examination to be the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for myocardial ischaemia in those patients who died following a crescendo pattern of angina. Histological examination of plaques responsible for a crescendo pattern of angina in patients who do not die has not been available until recently. We describe two patients who presented with a crescendo pattern of angina. A new technique of coronary revascularization, directional coronary atherectomy, produced symptomatic relief and resolution of myocardial ischaemia. Histological examination of material from the stenosis responsible for their myocardial ischaemia, obtained using this technique, confirmed thrombus formation overlying a fissured atheromatous plaque.

  5. The Effect of Direct Current Transthoracic Countershock on Human Myocardial Cells Evidenced by Creatine Kinase and Lactic Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    taking a more active part in the delivery of DC-countershock for the correc- tion of atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias. Does DC- countershock injure...determine if a relationship existed between the delivery of direct current transthoracic countershock and myocardial injury as evidenced by the...jmyocardial cells and that elevated plasma levels of intramyocardial enzymes (CK, LDH) could indicate whether such electrically promoted damage had

  6. Interhospital transfers among Medicare beneficiaries admitted for acute myocardial infarction at nonrevascularization hospitals.

    PubMed

    Iwashyna, Theodore J; Kahn, Jeremy M; Hayward, Rodney A; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K

    2010-09-01

    Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who are admitted to hospitals without coronary revascularization are frequently transferred to hospitals with this capability, yet we know little about the basis for how such revascularization hospitals are selected. We examined interhospital transfer patterns in 71 336 AMI patients admitted to hospitals without revascularization capabilities in the 2006 Medicare claims using network analysis and regression models. A total of 31 607 (44.3%) AMI patients were transferred from 1684 nonrevascularization hospitals to 1104 revascularization hospitals. Median time to transfer was 2 days. Median transfer distance was 26.7 miles, with 96.1% within 100 miles. In 45.8% of cases, patients bypassed a closer hospital to go to a farther hospital that had a better 30-day risk standardized mortality rates. However, in 36.8% of cases, another revascularization hospital with lower 30-day risk-standardized mortality was actually closer to the original admitting nonrevascularization hospital than the observed transfer destination. Adjusted regression models demonstrated that shorter transfer distances were more common than transfers to the hospitals with lowest 30-day mortality rates. Simulations suggest that an optimized system that prioritized the transfer of AMI patients to a nearby hospital with the lowest 30-day mortality rate might produce clinically meaningful reductions in mortality. More than 40% of AMI patients admitted to nonrevascularization hospitals are transferred to revascularization hospitals. Many patients are not directed to nearby hospitals with the lowest 30-day risk-standardized mortality, and this may represent an opportunity for improvement.

  7. Combined endovascular and open revascularization.

    PubMed

    Slovut, David Paul; Sullivan, Timothy M

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has borne witness to a transformation in the care of patients with vascular disease. There has been a rapid transition towards minimally invasive techniques as interventionalists obtain increasingly advanced catheter-based skills and access to newer and more sophisticated devices. Patients who are not candidates for completely percutaneous revascularization, or those felt to be at prohibitive risk for traditional surgical reconstruction, may benefit from hybrid therapy, a combination of open surgery and endovascular repair that offers patients the opportunity for complete revascularization with decreased morbidity and mortality. This review examines applications of hybrid procedures for treating patients with disabling claudication and limb-threatening ischemia, aortic arch disease, thoracoabdominal aneurysms, extra-cranial carotid disease, and coronary artery disease.

  8. Pulp Revascularization: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Pollyana Rodrigues de Souza; Silva, Luciano Barreto; Neto, Alexandrino Pereira Dos Santos; Almeida de Arruda, José Alcides; Álvares, Pâmella Recco; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras; Júnior, Severino Alves; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Braz da Silva, Rodivan; Sampaio, Gerhilde Callou

    2017-01-01

    Reestablishing blood flow and allowing the continuation of root development are some of the objectives of pulp revascularization. This procedure is currently indicated for teeth with incomplete root formation as an alternative to the traditional treatment of apecification, which consists of inserting calcium hydroxide paste into the root canal for a determined time period in order to induce the formation of a calcified barrier. Although it is considered as the most classically employed therapy, the permanence of the paste for long time periods may lead to the weakening of the root due to hygroscopic properties, as well as proteolytic activities of calcium hydroxide. Therefore, there has been a permanent search for alternatives which allow the full development of immature teeth. Revascularization has emerged as such an alternative, and a range of treatment protocols can be found in the scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to accomplish a literature review concerning this issue.

  9. Saturated palmitic acid induces myocardial inflammatory injuries through direct binding to TLR4 accessory protein MD2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Qian, Yuanyuan; Fang, Qilu; Zhong, Peng; Li, Weixin; Wang, Lintao; Fu, Weitao; Zhang, Yali; Xu, Zheng; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for a number of diseases including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Excess saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in obesity play a significant role in cardiovascular diseases by activating innate immunity responses. However, the mechanisms by which SFAs activate the innate immune system are not fully known. Here we report that palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant circulating SFA, induces myocardial inflammatory injury through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) accessory protein MD2 in mouse and cell culture experimental models. Md2 knockout mice are protected against PA- and high-fat diet-induced myocardial injury. Studies of cell surface binding, cell-free protein–protein interactions and molecular docking simulations indicate that PA directly binds to MD2, supporting a mechanism by which PA activates TLR4 and downstream inflammatory responses. We conclude that PA is a crucial contributor to obesity-associated myocardial injury, which is likely regulated via its direct binding to MD2. PMID:28045026

  10. Uneven cerebral hemodynamic change as a cause of neurological deterioration in the acute stage after direct revascularization for moyamoya disease: cerebral hyperperfusion and remote ischemia caused by the 'watershed shift'.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xian-Kun; Fujimura, Miki; Rashad, Sherif; Mugikura, Shunji; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-07-01

    Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis is the standard surgical treatment for moyamoya disease (MMD). The main potential complications of this treatment are cerebral hyperperfusion (CHP) syndrome and ischemia, and their managements are contradictory to each other. We retrospectively investigated the incidence of the simultaneous manifestation of CHP and infarction after surgery for MMD. Of the 162 consecutive direct revascularization surgeries performed for MMD, we encountered two adult cases (1.2%) manifesting the simultaneous occurrence of symptomatic CHP and remote infarction in the acute stage. A 47-year-old man initially presenting with infarction developed CHP syndrome (aphasia) 2 days after left STA-MCA anastomosis, as assessed by quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Although lowering blood pressure ameliorated his symptoms, he developed cerebral infarction at a remote area in the acute stage. Another 63-year-old man, who initially had progressing stroke, presented with aphasia due to focal CHP in the left temporal lobe associated with acute infarction at the tip of the left frontal lobe 1 day after left STA-MCA anastomosis, when SPECT showed a paradoxical decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the left frontal lobe despite a marked increase in CBF at the site of anastomosis. Symptoms were ameliorated in both patients with the normalization of CBF, and there were no further cerebrovascular events during the follow-up period. CHP and cerebral infarction may occur simultaneously not only due to blood pressure lowering against CHP, but also to the 'watershed shift' phenomenon, which needs to be elucidated in future studies.

  11. Direct paramedic transport of acute myocardial infarction patients to percutaneous coronary intervention centers: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Henry E; Marroquin, Oscar C; Smith, Kenneth J

    2009-02-01

    One potential strategy in the emergency medical services (EMS) care of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is to bypass the nearest community hospital in favor of a more distant specialty center able to perform primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We seek to determine whether EMS transport of out-of-hospital STEMI patients directly to more distant specialty percutaneous coronary intervention centers will alter 30-day survival compared with transport to the nearest community hospital fibrinolytic therapy. This decision analysis used parameter values and ranges from meta-analyses and North American clinical studies of STEMI and chest pain care published after 2001. The primary hypothetical interventions were primary percutaneous coronary intervention versus community hospital-delivered fibrinolytic therapy. We defined total STEMI treatment time as the sum of symptom duration, EMS response time, EMS scene time, EMS transport time to the nearest community hospital, additional EMS transport time to a more distant percutaneous coronary intervention center, and door-to-drug or door-to-balloon time. We related total STEMI treatment time to the primary outcome 30-day post-STEMI survival. We assumed that the closest specialty percutaneous coronary intervention centers were located farther than the nearest community hospital and that patients would receive primary percutaneous coronary intervention at specialty centers and fibrinolytic therapy at community hospitals. We assumed the use of ground transportation only and excluded situations with fibrinolytic therapy contraindications. We examined standard risk and best-case scenarios for each intervention, as well as changes in predicted risk with parameter value variations. Baseline total treatment times (chest pain onset to intervention) were percutaneous coronary intervention 188 minutes (range 41 to 447 minutes) and community hospital fibrinolytic therapy 118 minutes (range 51 to 267 minutes

  12. Transmyocardial laser revascularization with a high-power (800 W) CO2 laser: clinical report with 50 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhaoguang; Ye, Jianguang; Yu, Jianbo

    1999-09-01

    This paper reports the clinical experience in transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) with high power CO2 laser and evaluates the preliminary results of TMLR. TMLR may improve angina pectoris and myocardial perfusion significantly. To switch on the laser in proper order may be helpful to shorten duration of surgery. A gentle removal of fat on the apex may increase the successful transmyocardial penetration.

  13. Strategies for multivessel revascularization in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Farkouh, Michael E; Domanski, Michael; Sleeper, Lynn A; Siami, Flora S; Dangas, George; Mack, Michael; Yang, May; Cohen, David J; Rosenberg, Yves; Solomon, Scott D; Desai, Akshay S; Gersh, Bernard J; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Lansky, Alexandra; Boineau, Robin; Weinberger, Jesse; Ramanathan, Krishnan; Sousa, J Eduardo; Rankin, Jamie; Bhargava, Balram; Buse, John; Hueb, Whady; Smith, Craig R; Muratov, Victoria; Bansilal, Sameer; King, Spencer; Bertrand, Michel; Fuster, Valentin

    2012-12-20

    In some randomized trials comparing revascularization strategies for patients with diabetes, coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) has had a better outcome than percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to discover whether aggressive medical therapy and the use of drug-eluting stents could alter the revascularization approach for patients with diabetes and multivessel coronary artery disease. In this randomized trial, we assigned patients with diabetes and multivessel coronary artery disease to undergo either PCI with drug-eluting stents or CABG. The patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (median among survivors, 3.8 years). All patients were prescribed currently recommended medical therapies for the control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and glycated hemoglobin. The primary outcome measure was a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. From 2005 through 2010, we enrolled 1900 patients at 140 international centers. The patients' mean age was 63.1±9.1 years, 29% were women, and 83% had three-vessel disease. The primary outcome occurred more frequently in the PCI group (P=0.005), with 5-year rates of 26.6% in the PCI group and 18.7% in the CABG group. The benefit of CABG was driven by differences in rates of both myocardial infarction (P<0.001) and death from any cause (P=0.049). Stroke was more frequent in the CABG group, with 5-year rates of 2.4% in the PCI group and 5.2% in the CABG group (P=0.03). For patients with diabetes and advanced coronary artery disease, CABG was superior to PCI in that it significantly reduced rates of death and myocardial infarction, with a higher rate of stroke. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; FREEDOM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00086450.).

  14. Has multivessel angioplasty displaced surgical revascularization?

    PubMed

    King, S B; Ivanhoe, R J

    1990-01-01

    Over the years, PTCA has been proved a safe and effective therapy for single-vessel CAD. Given the record of favorable results for single-vessel angioplasty, the extension of angioplasty to multivessel CAD soon followed. The successful application of PTCA to multivessel disease has been facilitated by developments in balloon, guidewire, and guide catheter technology. Success rates have been satisfactory, and complications have remained acceptable. Furthermore, as an outgrowth of an understanding of the mechanism and effect of PTCA, guidelines have been developed to aid case selection. As emphasized earlier, these guidelines should weigh heavily in deciding whether to select PTCA as a treatment modality. Presently, in our opinion, PTCA has not yet completely displaced surgery for multivessel CAD. Surgical standby is required for safe PTCA, because emergency surgery can be lifesaving and limit myocardial infarction after failed angioplasty. It is doubtful that surgery will ever relinquish its position as the treatment of choice for left main coronary artery disease. Nor will elective surgery find wide application in single-vessel disease. Whether one mode of revascularization will emerge as the most efficacious for multivessel disease related to long-term survival, limitation of cardiac events, and cost will be addressed in the analysis of the ongoing randomized trials of surgery versus angioplasty. Andreas Gruentzig established that it was possible to work within the coronary artery in an alert and comfortable patient. Interventional cardiology has experienced rapid technologic growth. Many patients formerly treated with bypass surgery can be managed effectively with angioplasty. If effective bail-out methods for acute closure are proven effective and restenosis is limited to a small percentage of patients, angioplasty in some form will further displace CABG. Until those ultimate goals are achieved, the value of angioplasty compared with bypass surgery must rest

  15. Thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: need for a change in strategy and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pitt, B

    1990-01-01

    The results of several major trials of i.v. thrombolysis in patients with acute myocardial infarction have demonstrated the efficacy of the treatment in reducing mortality. Streptokinase and rt-PA have been shown to be effective (APSAC = anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex; GISSI = Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Streptochinasi nell' Infarto miocardico, ASSET = Anglo Scandinavian study of early thrombolysis, rt-PA). This treatment is associated with the potential for cerebral and major bleeding, especially in elderly patients. The benefit of this treatment in patients with cardiogenic shock or hypotension (ISIS-2) is discussed. There is no convincing evidence that patients with ST-segment depression or those with an equivocal electrocardiogram had been benefited from i.v. thrombolysis. Further studies with i.v. thrombolysis and/or other strategies need to be explored. Overall the use of i.v. thrombolytic agents in combination with PTCA in patients with acute myocardial infarction have resulted in improvement in ventricular function and survival in patients eligible for this therapy. However, new techniques and therapeutic approaches to prevent reocclusion, to prevent reperfusion injury, to prevent restenosis after PTCA, to prevent atherosclerosis in the infarct and non-infarct related arteries, and to reduce the potential for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death as well as the potential for mural thrombi and embolization after infarction are needed. The 1990's will see attempts to determine the optimum adjunctive therapy or "cocktail" of agents to be used with i.v. thrombolysis.

  16. Five-year outcomes of percutaneous versus surgical coronary revascularization in patients with diabetes mellitus (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2015-04-15

    We investigated the impact of diabetes mellitus on long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stent era versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a real-world population with advanced coronary disease. We identified 3,982 patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease of 15,939 patients with first coronary revascularization enrolled in the Coronary Revascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2 (patients without diabetes: n = 1,984 [PCI: n = 1,123 and CABG: n = 861], and patients with diabetes: n = 1,998 [PCI: n = 1,065 and CABG: n = 933]). Cumulative 5-year incidence of all-cause death after PCI was significantly higher than after CABG both in patients without and with diabetes (19.8% vs 16.2%, p = 0.01, and 22.9% vs 19.0%, p = 0.046, respectively). After adjusting confounders, the excess mortality risk of PCI relative to CABG was no longer significant (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88 to 1.54; p = 0.29) in patients without diabetes, whereas it remained significant (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.70; p = 0.04) in patients with diabetes. The excess adjusted risks of PCI relative to CABG for cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and any coronary revascularization were significant in both patients without (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.51, p = 0.047; HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.87, p = 0.01; and HR 3.30, 95% CI 2.55 to 4.25, p <0.001, respectively) and with diabetes (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.51, p = 0.047; HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.08, p = 0.004; and HR 3.70, 95% CI 2.91 to 4.69, p <0.001, respectively). There was no interaction between diabetic status and the effect of PCI relative to CABG for all-cause death, cardiac death, MI, and any revascularization. In conclusion, in both patients without and with diabetes with 3-vessel and/or left main disease, CABG compared with PCI was associated with better 5-year outcomes in terms of cardiac death, MI, and any coronary

  17. Revascularization therapy for coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Ferguson, J J

    1995-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery relieves the symptoms of myocardial ischemia and prolongs survival of patients with more severe coronary artery disease. Randomized trials of surgical therapy have consistently shown that the benefits of surgical revascularization are proportional to the amount of myocardium affected by, or at risk for, ischemic injury. This risk is inferred from angiographically delineated coronary anatomy, estimates of left ventricular function, and physiologic testing. The population that may see a survival benefit from surgical revascularization has probably been expanded beyond that reported in the VA, CASS, and ECSS trials, due to improved perioperative care, longer graft survival, and the use of internal mammary artery grafts. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty revascularizes myocardium by dilating a stenotic segment of coronary artery. While successful in relieving the symptoms of myocardial ischemia, PTCA is hindered by the occurrence of abrupt vessel closure and the frequent development of restenosis. Furthermore, firm proof of a survival benefit, outside of emergency therapy for acute myocardial infarction, is not yet available. However, because the risk of procedure-related death or serious complication is lower than that seen with bypass surgery, PTCA provides a useful alternative revascularization method for patients with less extensive disease, in whom the risk of surgery may equal or exceed any beneficial effect. New technology and growing experience are widening the scope of percutaneous revascularization by extending the hope of symptomatic relief and survival benefit even to patients with extensive, severe coronary artery disease. Comparisons between surgical therapy and PTCA in select populations with single- and multivessel coronary artery disease have shown that PTCA is not as effective as surgery for long-term symptomatic control, and that it often requires repeat PTCA or cross-over to bypass surgery; however, long

  18. Cognitive outcomes after carotid revascularization: the role of cerebral emboli and hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Ghogawala, Zoher; Westerveld, Michael; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh

    2008-02-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) are currently being compared in ongoing randomized, controlled trials using postprocedural 30-day stroke rate, myocardial infarction, and mortality as primary endpoints. Recent data suggest that cognitive function may decline after CEA. Understanding the mechanisms that affect cognitive outcomes after carotid revascularization will be important in the design of future comparative studies of CAS and CEA incorporating cognitive outcome as an endpoint. The effects of carotid revascularization procedures on cognitive outcome are unclear. Several factors contribute to the difficulty in interpreting cognitive data, including patient heterogeneity, variability of surgical techniques, and the differences in neuropsychological testing methodology. Mechanisms underlying cognitive effects during CEA have emerged, including the potential detrimental effect of procedural emboli and the beneficial effect of improved cerebral hemodynamics. The emergence of CAS as an alternative to CEA for treating carotid stenosis again raises questions about cognitive outcomes. Despite the use of distal protection devices, CAS is associated with a higher burden of microemboli. CAS does not, however, require the extent of temporary vessel occlusion associated with CEA. Quantifying microemboli and changes in cerebral hemodynamics along with standardization of neuropsychological testing may lead to meaningful comparisons of cognitive data for patients undergoing carotid revascularization procedures. As use of CAS increases, it is important for randomized, controlled trials comparing CAS with CEA to include cognitive outcomes assessments. Furthermore, understanding the key mechanisms resulting in cognitive impairment during carotid revascularization procedures might limit injury.

  19. Diagnostic Performance of Dual-Energy CT Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Direct Comparison With Cardiovascular MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sung Min; Song, Meong Gun; Chee, Hyun Kun; Hwang, Hweung Kon; Feuchtner, Gudrun Maria; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of stress perfusion dual-energy CT (DECT) and its incremental value when used with coronary CT angiography (CTA) for identifying hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS One hundred patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease without chronic myocardial infarction detected with coronary CTA underwent stress perfusion DECT, stress cardiovascular perfusion MRI, and invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Stress perfusion DECT and cardiovascular stress perfusion MR images were used for detecting perfusion defects. Coronary CTA and ICA were evaluated in the detection of ≥ 50% coronary stenosis. The diagnostic performance of coronary CTA for detecting hemodynamically significant stenosis was assessed before and after stress perfusion DECT on a pervessel basis with ICA and cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI as the reference standard. RESULTS The performance of stress perfusion DECT compared with cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI on a per-vessel basis in the detection of perfusion defects was sensitivity, 89%; specificity, 74%; positive predictive value, 73%; negative predictive value, 90%. Per segment, these values were sensitivity, 76%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 63%; and negative predictive value, 88%. Compared with ICA and cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI per vessel territory the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of coronary CTA were 95%, 61%, 61%, and 95%. The values for stress perfusion DECT were 92%, 72%, 68%, and 94%. The values for coronary CTA and stress perfusion DECT were 88%, 79%, 73%, and 91%. The ROC AUC increased from 0.78 to 0.84 (p = 0.02) with the use of coronary CTA and stress perfusion DECT compared with coronary CTA alone. CONCLUSION Stress perfusion DECT plays a complementary role in enhancing the accuracy of coronary CTA for identifying hemodynamically

  20. Effect of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren on left ventricular remodelling following myocardial infarction with systolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Scott D; Shin, Sung Hee; Shah, Amil; Skali, Hicham; Desai, Akshay; Kober, Lars; Maggioni, Aldo P; Rouleau, Jean L; Kelly, Roxzana Y; Hester, Allen; McMurray, John J V; Pfeffer, Marc A

    2011-05-01

    Direct renin inhibitors provide an alternative approach to inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) at the most proximal, specific, and rate-limiting step. We tested the hypothesis that direct renin inhibition would attenuate left ventricular remodelling in patients following acute myocardial infarction receiving stable, individually optimized therapy, including another inhibitor of the RAAS. We randomly assigned 820 patients between ∼2 and 8 weeks following acute myocardial infarction, with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45%, and regional wall motion abnormalities (≥20% akinetic area), to receive aliskiren (n = 423), titrated to 300 mg, or matched placebo (n = 397), added to the standard therapy. All patients were required to be on a stable dose of an ACE-inhibitor or ARB, and beta-blocker unless contraindicated or not tolerated. Echocardiograms were obtained at baseline, and following 26-36 weeks of treatment. The primary endpoint was change in left ventricular end-systolic volume from baseline to 36 weeks, and was evaluable in 329 patients in the placebo group and 343 patients in the aliskiren group. We observed no difference in the primary endpoint of end-systolic volume change between patients randomized to aliskiren (-4.4 ± 16.8 mL) or placebo (-3.5 ± 16.3 mL), or in secondary measures of end-diastolic volume, or LVEF. We also observed no differences in a composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure, or reduction in LVEF >6 points. There were more investigator reported adverse events in the aliskiren group, including hypotension, increases in creatinine and hyperkalaemia. Adding the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren to the standard therapy, including an inhibitor of the RAAS, in high-risk post-MI patients did not result in further attenuation of left ventricular remodelling, and was associated with more adverse effects. These findings do not suggest that dual RAAS blockade with

  1. Modified mRNA directs the fate of heart progenitor cells and induces vascular regeneration after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zangi, Lior; Lui, Kathy O.; von Gise, Alexander; Ma, Qing; Ebina, Wataru; Ptaszek, Leon M.; Später, Daniela; Xu, Huansheng; Tabebordbar, Mohammadsharif; Gorbatov, Rostic; Sena, Brena; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Briscoe, David M.; Li, Ronald A.; Wagers, Amy J.; Rossi, Derrick J.; Pu, William T.; Chien, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    In a cell-free approach to regenerative therapeutics, transient application of paracrine factors in vivo could be used to alter the behavior and fate of progenitor cells to achieve sustained clinical benefits. Here we show that intramyocardial injection of synthetic modified RNA (modRNA) encoding human vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) resulted in the expansion and directed differentiation of endogenous heart progenitors in a murine myocardial infarction model. VEGF-A modRNA markedly improved heart function and enhanced long-term survival of recipients. This improvement was in part due to mobilization of epicardial progenitor cells and redirection of their differentiation toward cardiovascular cell types. Direct in vivo comparison with DNA vectors, and temporal control with VEGF inhibitors, documented the markedly increased efficacy of pulse-like delivery of VEGF-A. Our results suggest that modRNA is a versatile approach for expressing paracrine factors as cell fate switches to control progenitor cell fate and thereby enhance long term organ repair. PMID:24013197

  2. The importance of encephalo-myo-synangiosis in surgical revascularization strategies for moyamoya disease in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hideaki; Miyawaki, Satoru; Ono, Hideaki; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-05-01

    The optimal surgical procedure (direct, indirect, or combined anastomosis) for management of moyamoya disease is still debated. We evaluated the outcome of our broad area revascularization protocol, the Tokyo Daigaku (The University of Tokyo) (TODAI) protocol, analyzing the relative importance of direct, indirect, and combination revascularization strategies to identify the optimal surgical protocol. The TODAI protocol was used to treat 65 patients with moyamoya disease (91 hemispheres, including 48 in 29 childhood cases collected during 1996-2012). The TODAI protocol combined direct superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis with indirect revascularization using encephalo-myo-synangiosis (EMS) for patients ≥10 years old or indirect revascularization using encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS) with EMS for patients ≤9 years old. Clinical outcome was evaluated retrospectively. Digital subtraction angiography was performed for postoperative evaluation of revascularization in 47 patients (62 hemispheres; 27 adults and 35 children). Based on the relative contribution of additional flow from each revascularization path, 4 revascularization patterns were established. The mean follow-up period was 90 months in children and 72 months in adults. Perioperative complications were seen in 4 of 48 operations in children and 1 of 43 operations in adults. Except for 1 child with recurrent transient ischemic attacks and 1 adult with intracerebral hemorrhage, the patients showed excellent clinical outcomes. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography evaluation showed that in STA-MCA anastomosis + EMS cases (34 hemispheres; 25 adults and 9 children), STA-MCA anastomosis provided greater revascularization than EMS (STA-MCA anastomosis > EMS) in 7 hemispheres, the opposite was true (STA-MCA anastomosis < EMS) in 14 hemispheres, an equivalent contribution to revascularization (STA-MCA anastomosis ≈ EMS) was present in 12 hemispheres, and

  3. Clinical, Anatomic and Functional Descriptors Influencing Morbidity, Survival and Adequacy of Revascularization Following Coronary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ellis L.; Craver, Joe M.; King, Spencer B.; Douglas, John S.; Bradford, James M.; Brown, Marlin; Bone, David K.; Hatcher, Charles R.

    1980-01-01

    Clinical data on 3,479 consecutive patients having coronary bypass surgery were retrospectively analyzed. Perioperative complications, incomplete revascularization, and reduced long-term survival could frequently be correlated with manifestations of myocardial damage. Patients with triple vessel and left main coronary disease had a greater frequency of inotropic requirements than did patients with single or double vessel disease (7.9% and 8.6% vs. 3.8% and 4.2%). Inotropic requirements in the perioperative period were significantly increased for patients with preoperative left ventricular dysfunction; a history of heart failure or multiple infarctions did not significantly increase the incidence of inotropic requirements. Presence of previous myocardial infarction, heart failure, or left ventricular contraction abnormalities significantly decreased the ability to achieve complete revascularization with bypass grafting. Hospital mortality since 1976 has been 0.8% (25/3,040). Hospital mortality was significantly increased by history of myocardial infarction, hypertension, heart failure, extent of anatomic disease, presence of preoperative ST-T wave changes, and severe abnormalities of left ventricular function. Hospital mortality in patients with ejection fraction ≤0.35 was 3.4% vs. 1.3% for those >0.35. Anginal pattern, history of hypertension, previous myocardial infarction, preoperative heart failure all significantly affected long-term survival. Occurrence of perioperative myocardial infarction did not adversely influence long-term survival. Patients with normal left ventricular function had excellent 42 month survival regardless of vessel disease (95%, 96%, and 94% for single, double, and triple vessel disease, respectively). Survival was significantly less for such patients with abnormal left ventricular function. Inability to achieve complete revascularization did not adversely affect hospital mortality, but did significantly reduce late survival. The

  4. How revascularization on the beating heart with cardiopulmonary bypass compares to off-pump? A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Sepehripour, Amir H; Chaudhry, Umar A; Suliman, Amna; Kidher, Emaddin; Sayani, Nusrat; Ashrafian, Hutan; Harling, Leanne; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2016-01-01

    Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery has been a controversial area of debate and the outcome profile of the technique has been thoroughly investigated. Scepticism regarding the reported outcomes and the conduct of the randomized trials comparing this technique with conventional on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery has been widely voiced, and the technique of off-pump surgery remains as an infrequently adopted approach to myocardial revascularization worldwide. Criticisms of the technique are related to lower rates of complete revascularization and its unknown long-term consequences, the significant detrimental effects on mortality and major adverse events when emergency conversion is required, and the significant lack of long-term survival and morbidity data. The hybrid technique of myocardial revascularization on the beating heart with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass may theoretically provide the beneficial effects of off-pump surgery in terms of myocardial protection and organ protection, while providing the safety and stability of on-pump surgery to allow complete revascularization. Large randomized comparison to support evidence-based choices is currently lacking. In this article, we have meta-analysed the outcomes of on-pump beating heart surgery in comparison with off-pump surgery focusing on major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adverse events (MACCE) including mortality, stroke and myocardial infarction and the degree of revascularization and number of bypass grafts performed. It was demonstrated that the beating heart on-pump technique allows a significantly higher number of bypass grafts to be performed, resulting in significantly higher degree of revascularization. We have also demonstrated a slightly higher rate of 30-day mortality and MACCE with the technique although not at a statistically significant level. These results should be considered alongside the population risk profile, where a significantly higher risk cohort had

  5. Coronary revascularization in diabetic patients: a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tu, Benny; Rich, Ben; Labos, Christopher; Brophy, James M

    2014-11-18

    The optimal revascularization technique in diabetic patients is an important unresolved question. To compare long-term outcomes between the revascularization techniques of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). English-language publications in PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid, and EMBASE between 1 January 1990 and 1 June 2014. Two investigators independently reviewed randomized, controlled trials comparing PCI (with drug-eluting or bare-metal stents) with CABG in adults with diabetes with multivessel or left main coronary artery disease. Study design, quality, patient characteristics, length of follow-up, and outcomes were extracted. For duplicate publications, outcomes were obtained from the publication with the longest follow-up. 40 studies were combined using a Bayesian network meta-analysis that accounted for the variation in stent choice. The primary outcome, a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke, increased with PCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.33 [95% credible interval {CrI}, 1.01 to 1.65]). Percutaneous coronary intervention resulted in increased mortality (OR, 1.44 [CrI, 1.05 to 1.91]), no change in the number of myocardial infarctions (OR, 1.33 [CrI, 0.86 to 1.95]), and fewer strokes (OR, 0.56 [CrI, 0.36 to 0.88]). Study design and length of follow-up were heterogeneous, and results were driven primarily by a single study. Costs and nonvascular complications of the interventions were not examined. Coronary artery bypass grafting seems to be the preferred revascularization technique in diabetics, especially if long-term survival is anticipated. However, because of residual uncertainties and increased risk for stroke with CABG, clinical judgment is required when choosing a revascularization technique in patients with diabetes. Fonds de recherche du Québec-Santé.

  6. Pediatric coronary artery revascularization: a European multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Torregrossa, Gianluca; De Franceschi, Marco; Padalino, Massimo A; Belli, Emre; Berggren, Hakan; Çiçek, Sertaç; Ebels, Tjark; Fragata, José; Hoel, Tom N; Horer, Jurgen; Hraska, Viktor; Kostolny, Martin; Lindberg, Harald; Mueller, Christoph; Pretre, Rene; Rosser, Barbara; Rubay, Jean; Schreiber, Christian; Speggiorin, Simone; Tlaskal, Tomas; Stellin, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    We sought to evaluate the hospital and midterm results of different surgical revascularization techniques in pediatric patients within the European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association. From 1973 to 2011, 80 patients from 13 European Congenital Heart Surgeons Association centers underwent 65 pediatric coronary artery bypass grafting (PCABG) and 27 other coronary artery procedures (OCAP; 12 patients had combined PCABG and other coronary artery procedures). Excluded were patients with Kawasaki disease. Median age at the time of coronary procedure was 2.3 years (range, 2 days to 16.9 years); 33 patients (41.2%) were younger then 12 months. An emergency procedure was necessary in 34 patients (42.5%). Twelve patients (15%) died in the hospital; age at surgery (p=0.02) and the need for an emergent procedure (p=0.0004) were related to hospital mortality. Median follow-up time was 7.6 years (range, 0.9 to 23 years). There were 3 late cardiac deaths, all after a median time of 4 years (range, 9 months to 8.8 years) after PCABG. Fourteen patients (20.5%) presented with symptoms, including congestive heart failure (n=10) and angina (n=4), that were significantly associated with a low ejection fraction (p<0.001) and the presence of moderate or severe mitral valve regurgitation (p=0.0003). Six patients underwent a reintervention for impaired myocardial perfusion; all of them had a stenotic or atretic PCABG (p=0.001), and the majority were symptomatic (5 of 6 patients; 83.3%; p=0.001). Both PCABG and other coronary artery procedures are suitable surgical options in pediatric patients with impaired myocardial perfusion, which increases operative and midterm survival. Such population of patients needs to be followed for life to prevent and treat any possible cause of further myocardial ischemia. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prasugrel versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes without revascularization.

    PubMed

    Roe, Matthew T; Armstrong, Paul W; Fox, Keith A A; White, Harvey D; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Goodman, Shaun G; Cornel, Jan H; Bhatt, Deepak L; Clemmensen, Peter; Martinez, Felipe; Ardissino, Diego; Nicolau, Jose C; Boden, William E; Gurbel, Paul A; Ruzyllo, Witold; Dalby, Anthony J; McGuire, Darren K; Leiva-Pons, Jose L; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Gottlieb, Shmuel; Topacio, Gracita O; Hamm, Christian; Pavlides, Gregory; Goudev, Assen R; Oto, Ali; Tseng, Chuen-Den; Merkely, Bela; Gasparovic, Vladimir; Corbalan, Ramon; Cinteză, Mircea; McLendon, R Craig; Winters, Kenneth J; Brown, Eileen B; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Aylward, Philip E; Huber, Kurt; Hochman, Judith S; Ohman, E Magnus

    2012-10-04

    The effect of intensified platelet inhibition for patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation who do not undergo revascularization has not been delineated. In this double-blind, randomized trial, in a primary analysis involving 7243 patients under the age of 75 years receiving aspirin, we evaluated up to 30 months of treatment with prasugrel (10 mg daily) versus clopidogrel (75 mg daily). In a secondary analysis involving 2083 patients 75 years of age or older, we evaluated 5 mg of prasugrel versus 75 mg of clopidogrel. At a median follow-up of 17 months, the primary end point of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke among patients under the age of 75 years occurred in 13.9% of the prasugrel group and 16.0% of the clopidogrel group (hazard ratio in the prasugrel group, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.05; P=0.21). Similar results were observed in the overall population. The prespecified analysis of multiple recurrent ischemic events (all components of the primary end point) suggested a lower risk for prasugrel among patients under the age of 75 years (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.00; P=0.04). Rates of severe and intracranial bleeding were similar in the two groups in all age groups. There was no significant between-group difference in the frequency of nonhemorrhagic serious adverse events, except for a higher frequency of heart failure in the clopidogrel group. Among patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation, prasugrel did not significantly reduce the frequency of the primary end point, as compared with clopidogrel, and similar risks of bleeding were observed. (Funded by Eli Lilly and Daiichi Sankyo; TRILOGY ACS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00699998.).

  8. Tissue engineering in endodontics: root canal revascularization.

    PubMed

    Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan

    2014-01-01

    Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization.

  9. Prevention of distal embolization and no-reflow in patients with acute myocardial infarction and total occlusion in the infarct-related vessel: a subgroup analysis of the cohort of acute revascularization in myocardial infarction with excimer laser-CARMEL multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Johannes B; Ebersole, Douglas; Das, Tony; Madyhoon, Hooman; Vora, Kishor; Baker, John; Hilton, David; Topaz, On

    2005-01-01

    To overcome the adverse complications of percutaneous coronary interventions in thrombus laden lesions (i.e., distal embolization, platelet activation, no-reflow phenomenon), mechanical removal of the thrombus or distal embolization protection devices are frequently required. Pulsed-wave ultraviolet excimer laser light at 308 nm can vaporize thrombus, suppress platelet aggregation, and, unlike other thrombectomy devices, ablate the underlying plaque. The following multicenter registry was instituted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of laser ablation in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by persistent thrombotic occlusions. Patients with AMI and complete thrombotic occlusion of the infarct-related vessel were included in eight participating centers. Patients with further compromising conditions (i.e., cardiogenic shock, thrombolysis failures) were also included. Primary endpoint was procedural respective laser success; secondary combined endpoints were TIMI flow and % stenosis by quantitative coronary analysis and visual assessment at 1-month follow-up. Eighty-four percent of all patients enrolled (n = 56) had a very large thrombus burden (TIMI thrombus scale > or = 3), and 49% were compromised by complex clinical presentation, i.e., cardiogenic shock (21%), degenerated saphenous vein grafts (26%), or thrombolysis failures (5%). Laser success was achieved in 89%, angiographic success in 93%, and the overall procedural success rate was 86%. The angiographic prelaser total occlusion was reduced angiographically to 58% +/- 25% after laser treatment and to 4% +/- 13% final residual stenosis after adjunctive balloon angioplasty and/or stent placement. TIMI flow increased significantly from grade 0 to 2.7 +/- 0.5 following laser ablation (P < 0.001) and 3.0 +/- 0.2 upon completion of the angioplasty procedure (P > 0.001 vs. baseline). Distal embolizations occurred in 4%, no-reflow was observed in 2%, and perforations in 0.6% of cases

  10. [Revascularization: a new treatment method in endodontics].

    PubMed

    Wigler, R; Kaufman, A Y; Steinbock, N; Lin, S

    2012-07-01

    Recently a number of published articles concerning a new treatment method in traumatized young permanent teeth with a wide open apex that have lost vitality, with or without periapical lesions have shown success. This new treatment is entitled "Revascularization" and its aim is to promote root maturation in infected immature teeth with open apices. This procedure stimulates the formation of hard tissue as well as elongation and thickening of the dentinal walls and closure of the root apex. Sometimes the vitality of the teeth is regained. The aim of the present publication is to describe the revascularization technique and to clarify the indications of its use.

  11. Coronary revascularization after arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Prifti, Edvin; Bonacchi, Massimo; Luisi, Stefano Vincenzo; Vanini, Vittorio

    2002-01-01

    We report two cases presenting bilateral coronary artery obstruction after arterial switch operation. The first patient underwent bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting to the left and right coronary arteries. The other patient, presenting a single coronary ostium, underwent surgical coronary ostial angioplasty in concomitance to proximal arterioplasty of both coronary arteries employing a single "pantaloon" shape autologous pericardial patch. Both patients survived and, at 1 year and 9 months after the coronary revascularization procedures, the coronary angiography demonstrated a good patency of the internal thoracic grafts and excellent ostial plasty results, respectively. A complete literature review of patients undergoing different coronary revascularization procedures after arterial switch operation is reported.

  12. Transmyocardial laser revascularization: surgical experience overview.

    PubMed

    Allen, K B; Shaar, C J

    2000-06-01

    Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR) using holmium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) and carbon dioxide lasers has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of medically refractory angina in patients without conventional options. In prospective, randomized trials, patients who received TMR experienced improved angina, better-event free survival, and reduction in cardiac-related rehospitalizations when compared to patients remaining on medical therapy alone. In addition, TMR as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has resulted in improved clinical status for patients who would not be completely revascularized by CABG alone.

  13. Randomized trial of complete versus lesion-only revascularization in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI and multivessel disease: the CvLPRIT trial.

    PubMed

    Gershlick, Anthony H; Khan, Jamal Nasir; Kelly, Damian J; Greenwood, John P; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Curzen, Nick; Blackman, Daniel J; Dalby, Miles; Fairbrother, Kathryn L; Banya, Winston; Wang, Duolao; Flather, Marcus; Hetherington, Simon L; Kelion, Andrew D; Talwar, Suneel; Gunning, Mark; Hall, Roger; Swanton, Howard; McCann, Gerry P

    2015-03-17

    The optimal management of patients found to have multivessel disease while undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is uncertain. CvLPRIT (Complete versus Lesion-only Primary PCI trial) is a U.K. open-label randomized study comparing complete revascularization at index admission with treatment of the infarct-related artery (IRA) only. After they provided verbal assent and underwent coronary angiography, 296 patients in 7 U.K. centers were randomized through an interactive voice-response program to either in-hospital complete revascularization (n = 150) or IRA-only revascularization (n = 146). Complete revascularization was performed either at the time of P-PCI or before hospital discharge. Randomization was stratified by infarct location (anterior/nonanterior) and symptom onset (≤ 3 h or >3 h). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, and ischemia-driven revascularization within 12 months. Patient groups were well matched for baseline clinical characteristics. The primary endpoint occurred in 10.0% of the complete revascularization group versus 21.2% in the IRA-only revascularization group (hazard ratio: 0.45; 95% confidence interval: 0.24 to 0.84; p = 0.009). A trend toward benefit was seen early after complete revascularization (p = 0.055 at 30 days). Although there was no significant reduction in death or MI, a nonsignificant reduction in all primary endpoint components was seen. There was no reduction in ischemic burden on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or in the safety endpoints of major bleeding, contrast-induced nephropathy, or stroke between the groups. In patients presenting for P-PCI with multivessel disease, index admission complete revascularization significantly lowered the rate of the composite primary endpoint at 12 months compared with treating only the IRA. In such patients, inpatient total revascularization

  14. Randomized Trial of Complete Versus Lesion-Only Revascularization in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for STEMI and Multivessel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gershlick, Anthony H.; Khan, Jamal Nasir; Kelly, Damian J.; Greenwood, John P.; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Curzen, Nick; Blackman, Daniel J.; Dalby, Miles; Fairbrother, Kathryn L.; Banya, Winston; Wang, Duolao; Flather, Marcus; Hetherington, Simon L.; Kelion, Andrew D.; Talwar, Suneel; Gunning, Mark; Hall, Roger; Swanton, Howard; McCann, Gerry P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal management of patients found to have multivessel disease while undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is uncertain. Objectives CvLPRIT (Complete versus Lesion-only Primary PCI trial) is a U.K. open-label randomized study comparing complete revascularization at index admission with treatment of the infarct-related artery (IRA) only. Methods After they provided verbal assent and underwent coronary angiography, 296 patients in 7 U.K. centers were randomized through an interactive voice-response program to either in-hospital complete revascularization (n = 150) or IRA-only revascularization (n = 146). Complete revascularization was performed either at the time of P-PCI or before hospital discharge. Randomization was stratified by infarct location (anterior/nonanterior) and symptom onset (≤3 h or >3 h). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, and ischemia-driven revascularization within 12 months. Results Patient groups were well matched for baseline clinical characteristics. The primary endpoint occurred in 10.0% of the complete revascularization group versus 21.2% in the IRA-only revascularization group (hazard ratio: 0.45; 95% confidence interval: 0.24 to 0.84; p = 0.009). A trend toward benefit was seen early after complete revascularization (p = 0.055 at 30 days). Although there was no significant reduction in death or MI, a nonsignificant reduction in all primary endpoint components was seen. There was no reduction in ischemic burden on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy or in the safety endpoints of major bleeding, contrast-induced nephropathy, or stroke between the groups. Conclusions In patients presenting for P-PCI with multivessel disease, index admission complete revascularization significantly lowered the rate of the composite primary endpoint at 12 months compared with treating only the

  15. Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Carro, Amelia; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Advances in pharmacological treatment and effective early myocardial revascularization have –in recent years- led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it has been suggested that compared to younger subjects, elderly AMI patients are less likely to receive evidence-based treatment, including myocardial revascularization therapy. Several reasons have been postulated to explain this trend, including uncertainty regarding the true benefits of the interventions commonly used in this setting as well as increased risk mainly associated with comorbidities. The diagnosis, management, and post-hospitalization care of elderly patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome pose many difficulties at present. A complex interplay of variables such as comorbidities, functional and socioeconomic status, side effects associated with multiple drug administration, and individual biologic variability, all contribute to creating a complex clinical scenario. In this complex setting, clinicians are often required to extrapolate evidence-based results obtained in cardiovascular trials from which older patients are often, implicitly or explicitly, excluded. This article reviews current recommendations regarding management of AMI in the elderly. PMID:22396870

  16. Transmural differences in myocardial function and metabolism during direct left ventricular to coronary artery sourcing.

    PubMed

    de Zeeuw, Sandra; Borst, Cornelius; Verlaan, Cees W J; Gründeman, Paul F

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that in the absence of collateral circulation, a left ventricle-coronary artery (LV-CA) bypass will maintain normal LV wall function and metabolism transmurally, both at rest and during stress, when the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) is acutely occluded proximally. In 18 anesthetized pigs (74 +/- 7 kg, mean +/- standard deviation), a covered stent was placed transmurally in the lateral wall of the beating LV and connected to the proximal LAD via an arterial graft. Subepicardial and subendocardial segmental shortening as well as interstitial lactate and glucose concentrations were measured regionally by sonomicrometry and microdialysis, respectively. When the LAD was occluded proximally, direct left ventricular sourcing decreased the net LAD flow to 64 +/- 25% of the native flow (n = 18, all animals). In the subepicardium, systolic shortening (SS) decreased to 87 +/- 18% of baseline (p = 0.124), with the appearance of minor postsystolic shortening (PSS), and minor changes in interstitial lactate and glucose levels. In the subendocardium, in contrast, SS decreased to 54 +/- 20% (p = 0.001). Marked PSS concurred with a sixfold increase in lactate (p = 0.008), and a 65 +/- 31% decrease in glucose (p = 0.003), indicating subendocardial anaerobic metabolism. Stress induced by infusion of dobutamine increased lactate and decreased glucose concentration in the subepicardium to subendocardial levels, indicating transmural anaerobic metabolism. In the anesthetized pig, direct sourcing by a LV-CA bypass distal to an acute coronary occlusion resulted in a 36% decrease in net forward coronary flow, subendocardial anaerobic metabolism, and loss of subendocardial contractile function at rest. These adverse effects extended into the subepicardium when the heart was stressed.

  17. Direct measurement of myocardial oxygen tension and high energy phosphate content under varying ventilatory conditions in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sebastian; Troitzsch, Dirk; Spath, Silvia; Portig, Irene; Moosdorf, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    Effective myocardial oxygen supply should not be compromised during cardiac surgery as it is essential to avoid circulatory and cardiac dysfunction. Local measurement of myocardial oxygen partial pressure (pO2) was therefore introduced into the operative monitoring of myocardial ischemia. The aim of the present study was to assess whether myocardial oxygen partial pressure correlates with the content of high energy phosphates (HEPs). Seven male rabbits were examined in parallel with measurement of myocardial pO2 by an implanted Clark electrode and 31phosphorus-NMR spectroscopy. The ventilatory management established hyperoxygenation followed by systemic hypoxia with hypercapnia for 20 min. Additionally, analysis of end-expiratory gas composition in combination with blood gas analysis was performed simultaneously, and hemodynamic parameter was recorded. Under hypoxic conditions the cardiovascular system was severely compromised, whereas the myocardial pO2 was only moderately impaired (pO2M 45.0+/-16.0 mm Hg). Immediately before cardiac arrest, low values of arterial and venous pO2 were found (17.6+/-6.0 and 12.9+/-6.1 mm Hg). In contrast to near normal myocardial pO2, HEP content in the myocardium was considerably reduced and inorganic phosphorus was increased. Artificial ventilation leading to systemic hypoxia and eventually circulatory arrest resulted in almost normal myocardial pO2 but severely compromised HEP content. This somewhat unexpected finding requires further clarification, but is in accordance with findings reported previously where regulatory mechanisms have been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of severe hypoxic conditions such as those for cellular oxygen delivery and demand, P/O coupling and finally control of HEP production facilitating the interaction between respiratory chain and myoglobin oxygen transport.

  18. Concomitant cerebral, brachiocephalic trunk, and cardiac revascularization. An unusual case.

    PubMed Central

    Jebara, V A; Tabet, G; Nasnas, R; Rassi, I; Karam, B; Asmar, B; Ashoush, R; el Adem, N

    1995-01-01

    Extensive transthoracic brachiocephalic revascularization is rarely performed. Instances of this operation performed concomitantly with cardiac revascularization and carotid endarterectomy have been reported in fewer than 10 cases in the literature. We report the case of a patient requiring complex brachiocephalic revascularization associated with coronary bypass grafting and a left carotid endarterectomy. Images PMID:7787477

  19. [CARDIOREABILITATION PECULIARITIES AND CORRECTION OF VIOLATIONS OF SISTOLIC, DIASOLIC FUNCTION AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME AND CORONARY ARTERY REVASCULARIZATION].

    PubMed

    Shved, M; Tsuglevych, L; Kyrychok, I; Levytska, L; Boiko, T; Kitsak, Ya

    2017-04-01

    In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent coronary arteries revascularization, violations of hemodynamics, metabolism and heart rate variability often develop in the postoperative period, therefore, the goal of the study was to establish the features of disturbances and the effectiveness of correction of left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction and heart rate variability in stages of cardiorehabilitation in patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent coronary arteries revascularization. The experimental group included 40 patients with ACS in the postoperative period who underwent balloon angioplasty and stenting of the coronary arteries (25 patients with ST-segment elevation ACS and 15 patients without ST-segment elevation ACS). The age of examined patients was 37 to 74 years, an average of 52.6±6.7 years. The control group consisted of 20 patients, comparable in age and clinico-laboratory manifestations of ACS, who underwent drug treatment with direct anticoagulants, double antiplatelet therapy, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors and statins. Clinical efficacy of cardiorespiratory process in patients of both groups was assessed by the dynamics of general clinical symptoms and parameters of natriuretic propeptide, systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle and heart rate variability. In the initial state, clinical and laboratory-instrumental signs of myocardial ischemia disappear in patients with ACS undergoing surgical revascularization of the coronary arteries, but clinical and subclinical manifestations of heart failure were diagnosed. The use of the accelerated program of cardiac rehabilitation already during the first month of studies leads to a decreasement of the signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction, the level of NT-proBNP and improve in the variability of the heart rhythm wich significantly improves the life quality of patients with ACS. To monitor the effectiveness and safety of cardiac rehabilitation in

  20. Revascularization for acute regional infarct: superior protection with warm blood cardioplegia.

    PubMed

    Horsley, W S; Whitlark, J D; Hall, J D; Gott, J P; Pan-Chih; Huang, A H; Park, Y; Jones, D P; Guyton, R A

    1993-12-01

    Continuous retrograde warm blood cardioplegia was compared with two widely used hypothermic myocardial protection techniques in a canine model of acute regional myocardial ischemia with subsequent revascularization. Animals (n = 30) underwent 45 minutes of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion then cardioplegic arrest (60 minutes), followed by separation from cardiopulmonary bypass and data collection. The cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia group (CC; n = 8) and the cold blood cardioplegia group (CC; n = 10) had cardiopulmonary bypass at 28 degrees C, antegrade arrest, and intermittent retrograde delivery. The warm blood cardioplegia group (WB; n = 12) had normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, antegrade arrest, and continuous retrograde delivery. Overall ventricular function (preload recruitable stroke work relationship; ergs x 10(3)/mL) was significantly (p < 0.001) better for WB (WB, 80 +/- 11; CB, 67 +/- 13; CC, 57 +/- 12). Systolic function (maximum elastance relationship; mm Hg/mL) was also significantly (p < 0.001) better for WB (WB, 11.6 +/- 3.6; CB, 8.6 +/- 2.7; CC, 6.2 +/- 1.3). Diastolic function (stress-strain relationship; dynes x 10(3)/cm2) revealed significantly (p < 0.001) decreased compliance for CC (WB, 20 +/- 6; CB, 19 +/- 7; CC, 27 +/- 11). Left anterior descending coronary artery regional adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate ratios were significantly (p = 0.02) worse for CC (WB, 10.2 +/- 2.3; CB, 9.4 +/- 2.6; CC, 5.6 +/- 1.5). Myocardial edema significantly (p = 0.03) increased over time only in the CC animals (WB, 0.4% +/- 2.3%; CB, -0.3% +/- 3.6%; CC, 5.5% +/- 2.3%). In this model of acute regional myocardial ischemia and revascularization, continuous retrograde warm aerobic blood cardioplegia provided superior myocardial protection compared with cold oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegia with intermediate results for cold blood cardioplegia.

  1. [Revascularization or conservative strategy in patients with stable coronary heart disease: a contemporary view].

    PubMed

    Bershteĭn, L L; Katamadze, N O; Andreeva, A E; Novikov, V I; Grishkin, Iu N

    2014-01-01

    Choice between revascularization and conservative strategy in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important clinical problem, especially when the need for revascularization is not urged by severe ischemic symptoms. Revascularization aimed to improve prognosis is most justified in patients having high risk, based both on results of coronary angiography and functional tests. In the opinion of many experts, the high-risk features at stress-test is a key to identify patients in whom revascularization is most required among persons with high-risk coronary anatomy, as well as to select candidates for invasive treatment among patients with more favorable variants of coronary lesions. The advantage of revascularization over conservative treatment was demonstrated primarily in relation to coronary bypass surgery; however, the prospect of replacing surgery by an interventional treatment for prognostic reasons is extremely attractive. Although comparison of prognostic efficiency of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary bypass surgery (CABG) for some categories of patients with stable ischemic heart disease has yielded encouraging results, improved survival when using the PCI in direct comparison with optimal medical therapy was not convincingly confirmed to date. Implementation of PCI to improve prognosis in stable ischemic heart disease is still limited by a rather narrow range of indications and the relief of symptoms of ischemia remains its main purpose.

  2. Direct visualization of neo-vessel formation following peripheral injection of bone marrow derived CD34+ cells in experimental myocardial damage.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, M M; Ferrero, S; Gianelli, U; Paliotti, R; Magrini, F; Braidotti, P

    2007-01-01

    The definitive fate of peripherally injected PKH26 labelled bone marrow mononuclear cells expressing the CD34+ antigen following experimental myocardial cryodamage in rats (n=10) has been examined by direct visualization on photoconverted light and electron microscopy images. One week after the injection in each rat of about 150,000 CD34+ cells early stage PKH26+ vascular structures were localized in the infarcted areas, suggesting that a potential benefit of this therapeutic approach consists in the regeneration of the vasculature.

  3. Ticagrelor Compared With Clopidogrel in Patients With Prior Lower Extremity Revascularization for Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, W Schuyler; Baumgartner, Iris; Hiatt, William R; Heizer, Gretchen; Conte, Michael S; White, Christopher J; Berger, Jeffrey S; Held, Peter; Katona, Brian G; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Norgren, Lars; Blomster, Juuso; Millegård, Marcus; Reist, Craig; Patel, Manesh R; Fowkes, F Gerry R

    2017-01-17

    In patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease with a history of limb revascularization, the optimal antithrombotic regimen for long-term management is unknown. The EUCLID trial (Examining Use of Ticagrelor In PAD) randomized 13 885 patients with peripheral artery disease to treatment with ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 75 mg daily. Patients were enrolled based on an abnormal ankle-brachial index ≤0.80 or a previous lower extremity revascularization. This analysis focuses on the 7875 (57%) patients enrolled based on the previous lower extremity revascularization criterion. Patients could not be enrolled within 30 days of most recent revascularization, and patients with an indication for dual antiplatelet therapy were excluded. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. The primary safety end point was major bleeding. Patients with a previous revascularization had a mean age of 66 years, 73% were male, and the median baseline ankle-brachial index was 0.78. After adjustment for baseline characteristics, patients enrolled based on previous revascularization had similar rates of the primary composite end point (hazard ratio [HR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-1.23, P=0.12) and statistically significantly higher rates of myocardial infarction (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.08-1.55, P=0.005) and acute limb ischemia (HR 4.23, 95% CI 2.86-6.25, P<0.001) when compared with patients enrolled based on ankle-brachial index criteria. No differences in ticagrelor- versus clopidogrel-treated patients were found for the primary efficacy end point (11.4% vs 11.3%; HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.88-1.15; P=0.90), all-cause mortality (9.2% vs 9.2%; HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86-1.15; P=0.93), acute limb ischemia (2.5% vs 2.5%; HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78-1.36; P=0.84), or major bleeding (1.9% vs 1.8%; HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.83-1.59; P=0.41). The median duration of follow-up was ≈30 months. After adjustment for baseline

  4. Micropatterned matrix directs differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells towards myocardial lineage.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chor Yong; Yu, Haiyang; Pal, Mintu; Leong, Wen Shing; Tan, Nguan Soon; Ng, Kee Woei; Leong, David Tai; Tan, Lay Poh

    2010-04-15

    Stem cell response can be influenced by a multitude of chemical, topological and mechanical physiochemical cues. While extensive studies have been focused on the use of soluble factors to direct stem cell differentiation, there are growing evidences illustrating the potential to modulate stem cell differentiation via precise engineering of cell shape. Fibronectin were printed on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) thin film forming spatially defined geometries as a means to control the morphology of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs that were cultured on unpatterned substrata adhered and flattened extensively (approximately 10,000 microm(2)) while cells grown on 20 microm micropatterend wide adhesive strips were highly elongated with much smaller area coverage of approximately 2000 microm(2). Gene expression analysis revealed up-regulation of several hallmark markers associated to neurogenesis and myogenesis for cells that were highly elongated while osteogenic markers were specifically down-regulated or remained at its nominal level. Even though there is clearly upregulated levels of both neuronal and myogenic lineages but at the functionally relevant level of protein expression, the myogenic lineage is dominant within the time scale studied as determined by the exclusive expression of cardiac myosin heavy chain for the micropatterned cells. Enforced cell shape distortion resulting in large scale rearrangement of cytoskeletal network and altered nucleus shape has been proposed as a physical impetus by which mechanical deformation is translated into biochemical response. These results demonstrated for the first time that cellular shape modulation in the absence of any induction factors may be a viable strategy to coax lineage-specific differentiation of stem cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, William S.; Grau-Sepulveda, Maria V.; Weiss, Jocelyn M.; O’Brien, Sean M.; Peterson, Eric D.; Kolm, Paul; Zhang, Zugui; Klein, Lloyd W.; Shaw, Richard E.; McKay, Charles; Ritzenthaler, Laura L.; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Messenger, John C.; Shahian, David M.; Grover, Frederick L.; Mayer, John E.; Shewan, Cynthia M.; Garratt, Kirk N.; Moussa, Issam D.; Dangas, George D.; Edwards, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Questions persist concerning the comparative effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) collaborated to compare the rates of long-term survival after PCI and CABG. METHODS We linked the ACCF National Cardiovascular Data Registry and the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database to claims data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for the years 2004 through 2008. Outcomes were compared with the use of propensity scores and inverse-probability-weighting adjustment to reduce treatment-selection bias. RESULTS Among patients 65 years of age or older who had two-vessel or three-vessel coronary artery disease without acute myocardial infarction, 86,244 underwent CABG and 103,549 underwent PCI. The median follow-up period was 2.67 years. At 1 year, there was no significant difference in adjusted mortality between the groups (6.24% in the CABG group as compared with 6.55% in the PCI group; risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.00). At 4 years, there was lower mortality with CABG than with PCI (16.4% vs. 20.8%; risk ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.82). Similar results were noted in multiple subgroups and with the use of several different analytic methods. Residual confounding was assessed by means of a sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS In this observational study, we found that, among older patients with multivessel coronary disease that did not require emergency treatment, there was a long-term survival advantage among patients who underwent CABG as compared with patients who underwent PCI. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.) PMID:22452338

  6. Intramyocardial delivery of FGF2 in combination with radio frequency transmyocardial revascularization.

    PubMed

    Bao, J; Naimark, W; Palasis, M; Laham, R; Simons, M; Post, M J

    2001-07-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis and percutaneous transmyocardial revascularization (PMR) are potentially synergistic modalities to improve myocardial perfusion. To evaluate the efficiency of FGF2 delivery into an area that has been radio frequency (RF) ablated, we studied two catheter-based delivery methods, a direct injection system (Stiletto) and a combined RF ablation-delivery system (RF-PMR). Four groups (n = 3/group) of pigs received six transendocardial injections of (125)I-FGF2/fluorescent microspheres with either the Stiletto or the RF-PMR catheter. RF-PMR injections were preceded by a 0.6 sec RF ablation step. After either 1 or 24 hr, hearts and other tissues were harvested. Intramyocardial deposition sites were located with UV light and isolated. Specific activity per site was expressed as a percentage of total activity injected per site corrected for quenching. Injection site recovery was high for both catheter systems (average = 88%) and systemic uptake was low (< 6% in the liver). FGF2 retention was significantly higher with the Stiletto than the RF-PMR catheter (Stiletto 1 hr 41% +/- 17%, 24 hr 26% +/- 10%, RF-PMR 1 hr 21% +/- 14%, 24 hr 13% +/- 8%; P < 0.001), principally explained by the differences in catheter design. The Stiletto has a retractable needle and is optimized for intramyocardial delivery, whereas infusion from the RF-PMR device occurs at the endocardial surface and relies on channels created during RF ablation. Overall, FGF2 retention after transendocardial intramyocardial delivery by the Stiletto or the RF-PMR system is significantly higher than previously observed for intracoronary, intravenous and intrapericardial delivery. In conclusion, the combination of RF ablation and growth factor delivery using the RF-PMR system is feasible and efficient. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 2001;53:429-434. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. What is the optimal channel density for transmyocardial laser revascularization?

    PubMed

    Mouli, Samdeep K; Fronza, Jeffrey; Greene, Rodney; Robert, Emmanuel S; Horvath, Keith A

    2004-10-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) has demonstrated reproducible relief of angina in patients with end-stage coronary disease. However, the optimum dose or channel density has not been elucidated. Using a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia, 14 animals were treated with CO2 TMR and randomized as follows: group 1 was 1 channel per 2 cm2; group 2 was 1 channel per 1 cm2; and group 3 was 2 channels per 1 cm2. Left ventricular myocardial viability and function were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography pretreatment, and repeated 6 weeks later. The MRI assessment of group 1 (1 channel/2 cm2) and group 2 (1 channel/cm2) demonstrated similar improvement in segmental contractility posttreatment of 12.11% +/- 5.15% and 12.47% +/- 9.51%, respectively. In contrast, group 3 (2 channels/cm2) showed significantly worse segmental contractility posttreatment: -18.52% +/- 7.16% (p = 0.01). Echocardiographic imaging revealed significant improvements in wall thickening in the ischemic zone for group 1 at 0.91 +/- 0.07 cm pretreatment versus 1.30 +/- 0.09 cm posttreatment, (p = 0.01); and for group 2 at 0.93 +/- 0.11 cm versus 1.42 +/- 0.18 cm, (p = 0.01). No significant improvement in wall thickening was seen in group 3 (0.84 +/- 0.06 cm versus 0.88 +/- 0.09 cm, p = n.s.). These data corroborate the empiric finding of an effective therapeutic dose range for TMR, 1 channel per 1 to 2 cm2. These results also demonstrate a detrimental effect when channel density is increased above the clinical standard of 1 channel per cm2 to a density of 2 channels per 1 cm2.

  8. Fatal derecruitment of occluded left anterior descending collaterals after left circumflex revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Marouane; Tomasello, Salvatore D.; Galassi, Alfredo R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary arteries are not definitely functionally terminal arteries, as previously thought; indeed, they are linked and interconnected by a rich network of collaterals. Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent a subset of frequent lesions encountered in everyday catheterization laboratory practice, generally associated with a developed system of collateral connections. These latter have the capacity to prevent myocardial necrosis and may even uphold metabolic supply to the ischemic territory to maintain its contractile capacity. Authors have reported a rapid and progressive reduction of collateral function and their decline after antegrade flow restoration, resulting in higher myocardial susceptibility to ischemia in the CTO territory. Here, we report the case of a fatal derecruitment of collaterals for a left anterior descending CTO not reopened, after left circumflex subocclusion revascularization. PMID:26778906

  9. Design of the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs. Stenting Trial (CREST)

    PubMed Central

    Sheffet, Alice J.; Roubin, Gary; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia; Moore, Wesley; Meschia, James F.; Hobson, Robert W.; Brott, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and medical therapy were shown superior to medical therapy alone for symptomatic (≥50%) and asymptomatic (≥60%) stenosis. Carotid angioplasty stenting (CAS) offers a less invasive alternative. Establishing safety, efficacy, and durability of CAS requires rigorous comparison with CEA in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Aims The objective is to compare the efficacy of CAS versus CEA in patients with symptomatic (≥50%) or asymptomatic (≥60%) extracranial carotid stenosis. Design The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs. Stenting Trial (CREST) is a prospective, randomized, parallel, two-arm, multi-center trial with blinded endpoint adjudication. Primary endpoints are analyzed using standard time-to-event statistical modeling with adjustment for major baseline covariates. Primary analysis is on an intent-to-treat basis. Study Outcomes The primary outcome is the occurrence of any stroke, myocardial infarction, or death during a 30-day peri-procedural period, and ipsilateral stroke during follow-up of up to four years. Secondary outcomes include restenosis and health-related quality of life. PMID:20088993

  10. Off-pump revascularization for significant left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Grand, Todd J; Liao, George P; Panlilio, Corinna M

    2006-08-01

    Left ventricular dysfunction is a predictor of perioperative morbidity and mortality in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Obligatory global myocardial ischemia and injury induced during crossclamping as well as adverse systemic effects of cardiopulmonary bypass may induce a disproportionately greater overall physiologic insult in patients with poor ventricular function. All patients undergoing nonemergency off-pump coronary artery bypass by a single surgeon during an 18-month period were retrospectively analyzed. Two groups with preoperative ejection fraction classified as poor (10%-35%; n = 31) or normal (55%-80%; n = 60) were compared. The mean ejection fractions were 26% +/- 1% and 63% +/- 1% respectively, p < 0.000001. In those with significant left ventricular dysfunction, there were 2.8 +/- 0.1 grafts per patient, time to extubation was 8.4 +/- 1.2 hours, and discharge was after 4.9 +/- 0.6 days. These results were statistically equivalent to those in the group with normal left ventricular function. There was no intraaortic balloon pump insertion or mortality in either group. This technique provides an effective means of safely revascularizing patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction, and it may provide a valuable alternative approach in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  11. Fractional Flow Reserve-Guided Deferred Versus Complete Revascularization in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mark W; Hermanides, Rik S; Kaplan, Emel; Hemradj, Veemal; Fabris, Enrico; Koopmans, Petra C; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Gosselink, A T Marcel; Van't Hof, Arnoud W J; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Roolvink, Vincent; Remkes, Wouter S; van der Sluis, Aize; Suryapranata, Harry; Kedhi, Elvin

    2016-11-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of deferred versus complete revascularization using a fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided strategy in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), we analyzed all DM patients who underwent FFR-guided revascularization from January 1, 2010, to December 12, 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with ≥1 remaining FFR-negative (>0.80) medically treated lesions [FFR(-)MT] and those with only FFR-positive lesions (≤0.80) who underwent complete revascularization [FFR(+)CR] and were followed until July 1, 2015. The primary end point was the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion (FFR assessed) revascularization, and rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome. A total of 294 patients, 205 (69.7%) versus 89 (30.3%) in FFR(-)MT and FFR(+)CR, respectively, were analyzed. At a mean follow-up of 32.6 ± 18.1 months, FFR(-)MT was associated with higher MACE rate 44.0% versus 26.6% (log-rank p = 0.02, Cox regression-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 3.33, p <0.01), and driven by both safety and efficacy end points: death/MI (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.86, p = 0.03), rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.10, p = 0.04), and target lesion revascularization (HR 3.38, 95% CI 1.19 to 9.64, p = 0.02). Previous MI was a strong effect modifier within the FFR(-)MT group (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.13, p <0.01), whereas this was not the case in the FFR(+)CR group (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.62, p = 0.37). Significant interaction for MACE was present between FFR groups and previous MI (p = 0.03). In conclusion, in patients with DM, particularly those with previous MI, deferred revascularization is associated with poor medium-term outcomes. Combining FFR with imaging techniques may be required to guide our treatment strategy in these patients with high-risk, fast-progressing atherosclerosis.

  12. Fracking the Code to Complete Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Hira, Ravi S; Dean, Larry S

    2016-10-01

    Provisional use of rotational atherectomy (RA) is indicated for procedural success in heavily calcified lesions. In the current study, RA use at three high volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers between 2005 and 2013 was 1.4%. MACE rate was 17.8% at median follow-up of 22 months. Peripheral vascular disease (PVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and SYNTAX > 23 were found to be independently associated with MACE. With increasing complexity of disease and SYNTAX score, there is usually an increase in severity of calcification and need for atherectomy. Complete revascularization with residual SYNTAX reduced to < 8 is associated with improved outcomes. Incompleteness of revascularization in patients with SYNTAX > 33 rather than procedural success of the target vessel with atherectomy may have contributed to the adverse outcomes.

  13. Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization as an Adjunct to Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, O. H.; Tuzun, Egemen; Eichstadt, Harald; Boyce, Steven W.; Lansing, Allan M.; March, Robet J.; Satori, Michele; Kadipasaoglu, Kamuran A.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) versus CABG alone for severe coronary artery disease involving ≥1 myocardial region unsuited for CABG. At 4 centers, 44 consecutive patients were randomized for CABG+TMLR (n = 23) or CABG alone (n = 21). Operative and in-hospital mortality and morbidity rates were monitored. Clinical status was evaluated at hospital discharge, 1 year, and 4 years. Success was characterized by relief of angina and freedom from repeat revascularization and death. Preoperatively, 20 patients (47%) were at high risk. The CABG technique, number of grafts, and target vessels were similar in both groups. Patients undergoing CABG+ TMLR received 25 ± 11 laser channels. Their ≤30-day mortality was 13% (3/23) compared with 28% (6/21) after CABG alone (P = 0.21). There were no significant intergroup differences in the number of intraoperative or in-hospital adverse events. The follow-up period was 50.3 ± 17.8 months for CABG alone and 48.1 ± 16.8 months for CABG+TMLR. Both groups had substantially improved angina and functional status at 1 and 4 years, with no significant differences in cumulative 4-year mortality. The incidence of repeat revascularization was 24% after CABG alone versus none after CABG+ TMLR (P < 0.05). The 4-year event-free survival rate was 14% versus 39%, respectively (P < 0.064). In conclusion, CABG+TMLR appears safe and poses no additional threat for high-risk patients. Improved overall success and repeat revascularization rates may be due to better perfusion of ischemic areas not amenable to bypass. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these trends are indeed significant. PMID:15562842

  14. [Off-pump coronary revascularization. Late survival].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Juan; Camporrontondo, Mariano; Vrancic, Mariano; Piccinini, Fernando; Camou, Juan; Navia, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Although randomized clinical trials have compared the short-term results of coronary revascularization with on-pump vs. off-pump, the long-term survival effect of off-pump coronary surgery has not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term survival of patients with coronary surgery with off-pump technique. All patients that underwent coronary revascularization from November 1996 to March 2015 were included (n = 4687). We analyzed the long-term survival and the incidence of cardiac events between patients who received off-pump coronary revascularization (n = 3402) against those revascularized with on-pump technique (n = 1285). The primary endpoint was defined as death from any cause. To reduce potential biases, risk-adjusted analysis was performed (propensity score). In-hospital mortality and during follow-up (10 years) for both groups were analyzed. The overall hospital mortality was 3.1%. A statistically significant difference between groups in favor of off-pump surgery was observed (2.3% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.0001). In the survival analysis, off-pump surgery proved to have similar long-term survival as on-pump surgery (off-pump vs. on-pump: 77.9% ± 1.2% vs. 80.2% ± 1.3%, p log rank = 0.361); even in the adjusted survival analysis (84.2% ± 2.9% vs. 80.3% ± 2.4%, p = 0.169). In conclusion, off-pump coronary surgery was associated with lower in-hospital mortality; and it was not associated with increased long-term survival compared with on-pump surgery.

  15. Determinants of variations in coronary revascularization practices.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jack V; Ko, Dennis T; Guo, Helen; Richards, Janice A; Walton, Nancy; Natarajan, Madhu K; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; So, Derek; Latter, David A; Feindel, Christopher M; Kingsbury, Kori; Cohen, Eric A

    2012-02-07

    The ratio of percutaneous coronary interventions to coronary artery bypass graft surgeries (PCI:CABG ratio) varies considerably across hospitals. We conducted a comprehensive study to identify clinical and nonclinical factors associated with variations in the ratio across 17 cardiac centres in the province of Ontario. In this retrospective cohort study, we selected a population-based sample of 8972 patients who underwent an index cardiac catheterization between April 2006 and March 2007 at any of 17 hospitals that perform invasive cardiac procedures in the province. We classified the hospitals into four groups by PCI:CABG ratio (low [< 2.0], low-medium [2.0-2.7], medium-high [2.8-3.2] and high [> 3.2]). We explored the relative contribution of patient, physician and hospital factors to variations in the likelihood of patients receiving PCI or CABG surgery within 90 days after the index catheterization. The mean PCI:CABG ratio was 2.7 overall. We observed a threefold variation in the ratios across the four hospital ratio groups, from a mean of 1.6 in the lowest ratio group to a mean of 4.6 in the highest ratio group. Patients with single-vessel disease usually received PCI (88.4%-99.0%) and those with left main artery disease usually underwent CABG (80.8%-94.2%), regardless of the hospital's procedure ratio. Variation in the management of patients with non-emergent multivessel disease accounted for most of the variation in the ratios across hospitals. The mode of revascularization largely reflected the recommendation of the physician performing the diagnostic catheterization and was also influenced by the revascularization "culture" at the treating hospital. The physician performing the diagnostic catheterization and the treating hospital were strong independent predictors of the mode of revascularization. Opportunities exist to improve transparency and consistency around the decision-making process for coronary revascularization, most notably among patients with

  16. Gait kinematic analysis evaluates hindlimb revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Amelia; Delgado, Alexandra; Escalante, Bruno; Santana, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is described as vascular disorders associated with ischemia and may be the result of an obstructive vascular process or a lost revascularization response. We have shown that gait locomotion analysis by video filming represents an integrative model for the evaluation of mechanisms involved in the process of ischemia-induced revascularization. However, analysis by this method can be subjective and perception errors may be occurring. We present the optimization of a quantifiable, noninvasive, reproducible method that analyzes ankle kinematics in rats using a two-dimensional digital video system. Gait dynamics were filmed in hindlimb ischemic rats with a high speed digital video camera. Images were collected and analyzed at 125 frames per second. An algorithm using interactive data language (IDL) was devised to assess different parameters. In ischemic rats, stride time and knee joint angle remained altered 10 days post-surgery compared with sham animals. Gait kinematics were outlined in a highly reliable way by this computational analysis and corroborated the notion of hindlimb movement recovery associated with the revascularization process.

  17. Comparison of conduits for leg revascularization.

    PubMed

    Weisel, R D; Johnston, K W; Baird, R J; Drezner, A D; Oates, T K; Lipton, I H

    1981-01-01

    The saphenous vein (SV) remains the conduit of choice for lower limb revascularization. When SV is unavailable, or unsuitable, two alternative conduits have been employed: gluteraldehydestablized human umbilical vein (HUV) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In this study of the 218 patients who underwent lower limb revascularization, 3-year patency of 85 SV graft was 75% compared to 34% for the 66 HUV grafts and 33% for the 67 PFTE grafts. Three factors were found to independently influence patency: the indication for surgery, the site of the distal anastomosis, and the angiographic runoff. The SV group had significantly better patency than either HUV or PFTE in each of these subgroups. No consistent difference between HUV and PTFE was found. A risk score was obtained by assigning a value of 1 to 3 for each of the factors influencing patency--indication: 1 = claudication, 2 = rest pain, 3 = ischemic lesions; site: 1 = above knee (AK), 2 = below knee (BK), 3 = tibial; runoff 1 = good (two or three vessels), 2 = fair (one vessel), 3 = poor (no vessel). Patients with the lowest risk scores (3 to 4) had the best 3-year patency: SV, 78%; HUV, 44%; and PTFE, 48%. Patients with the highest risk scores (7 to 9) had the worst 3-year patency: SV, 68%; HUV, 32%; and PTFE, 28%. SVs had better patency under high- and low-risk conditions and remain the conduit of choice for lower limb revascularization. Both HUV and PTFE have equivalent and acceptable patency when SV is unavailable or unstable.

  18. Reversibility of High-Grade Atrioventricular Block with Revascularization in Coronary Artery Disease without Infarction: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Rhanderson; Alfonso, Carlos E.; Coffey, James O.

    2016-01-01

    Complete atrioventricular (AV) block is known to be reversible in some cases of acute inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI). The reversibility of high-grade AV block in non-MI coronary artery disease (CAD), however, is rarely described in the literature. Herein we perform a literature review to assess what is known about the reversibility of high-grade AV block after right coronary artery revascularization in CAD patients who present without an acute MI. To illustrate this phenomenon we describe a case of 2 : 1 AV block associated with unstable angina, in which revascularization resulted in immediate and durable restoration of 1 : 1 AV conduction, thereby obviating the need for permanent pacemaker implantation. The literature review suggests two possible explanations: a vagally mediated response or a mechanism dependent on conduction system ischemia. Due to the limited understanding of AV block reversibility following revascularization in non-acute MI presentations, it remains difficult to reliably predict which patients presenting with high-grade AV block in the absence of MI may have the potential to avoid permanent pacemaker implantation via coronary revascularization. We thus offer this review as a potential starting point for the approach to such patients. PMID:26925272

  19. Effect of Revascularization on Headache Associated with Moyamoya Disease in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Bohara, Manoj; Sugata, Sei; Nishimuta, Yosuke; Karki, Prasanna; Nagayama, Tetsuya; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Arita, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Episodic headache is common in childhood moyamoya disease (MMD). The onset, mechanism, cause of headache and the effect of revascularization surgery on headache are not yet clear. We studied 10 cases of children (7 boys and 3 girls) younger than 18 years who underwent revascularization for MMD between 2009 and 2013. We evaluated frequency of headache and cerebral blood flow changes by single photon emission computed tomography brain imaging with [I123]-labeled iofetamine (IMP-SPECT) before and after surgery. Patients' ages ranged from 0 to 15 years at onset and 2 to 17 years at the time of surgery, mean age being 6.7 and 8.0 years respectively. 9 of 10 patients presented with ischemic symptoms and 8 had headache. 5 patients underwent indirect bypass and 5 underwent combined direct and indirect bypass. Cerebral blood flow improvement was obtained in 14 of the 15 cerebral hemispheres revascularized. The mean follow-up duration was 32.9 months. All the patients had good outcomes with improvement of ischemic neurological deficits. Headache improved in 7 (87.5%) of 8 patients. Headache in pediatric moyamoya disease is associated with change in cerebral hemodynamics. Revascularization including combined direct bypass and indirect techniques may be required to reduce headache in patients with MMD.

  20. Cardioprotective efficacy of sevoflurane vs. propofol during induction and/or maintenance in patients undergoing coronary artery revascularization surgery without pump: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Guerrero Orriach, J L; Galán Ortega, M; Ramirez Fernandez, A; Ramirez Aliaga, M; Moreno Cortes, M I; Ariza Villanueva, D; Florez Vela, A; Alcaide Torres, J; Santiago Fernandez, C; Matute Gonzalez, E; Alsina Marcos, E; Escalona Belmonte, J J; Rubio Navarro, M; Garrido Sanchez, L; Cruz Mañas, J

    2017-09-15

    Pre and post-operative administration of sevoflurane in myocardial revascularization surgery provides enhanced cardioprotective effects exerted by pharmacologic pre- and post-conditioning, as compared to propofol. The identification of the enzymes involved in conditioning mechanisms is crucial to the understanding of the effects of sevoflurane in cardiac surgery patients. The impact of sevoflurane on another crucial target organ-the kidney-was also assessed. Ninety patients undergoing off-pump myocardial revascularization surgery were allocated to receive either intra- and postoperative sevoflurane (SS), intraoperative sevoflurane and postoperative propofol (SP), or intra- and postoperative propofol (PP)). Troponin I and hemodynamic parameters were monitored during the first 48 postoperative hours; blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and at 24h to determine Akt, ERK1/2, PKG, iNO, bradykinin receptor, caspase 3, NT proBNP and urinary NGAL. The enzymes were overexpressed in the SS group, remained unchanged in the SP group, and decreased in the PP group. Renal function was best preserved in the SS group. The overexpression of enzymes induced by intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative sedation with sevoflurane reduces myocardial damage and improves renal function in patients undergoing off-pump myocardial revascularization surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Myocardial Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... pectoris: Chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015. Deedwania PC. Silent myocardial ischemia: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015. Mann DL, ...

  2. Adverse Remodeling and Reverse Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Ankeet S; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Velazquez, Eric J

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this review it to summarize the current literature on remodeling after myocardial infarction, inclusive of pathophysiological considerations, imaging modalities, treatment strategies, and future directions. As patients continue to live longer after myocardial infarction (MI), the prevalence of post-MI heart failure continues to rise. Changes in the left ventricle (LV) after MI involve complex interactions between cellular and extracellular components, under neurohormonal regulation. Treatments to prevent adverse LV remodeling and promote reverse remodeling in the post-MI setting include early revascularization, pharmacotherapy aimed at neurohormonal blockade, and device-based therapies that address ventricular dyssynchrony. Despite varying definitions of adverse LV remodeling examined across multiple imaging modalities, the presence of an enlarged LV cavity and/or reduced ejection fraction is consistently associated with poor clinical outcomes. Advances in our knowledge of the neurohormonal regulation of adverse cardiac remodeling have been instrumental in generating therapies aimed at arresting adverse remodeling and promoting reserve remodeling. Further investigation into other specific mechanisms of adverse LV remodeling and pathways to disrupt these mechanisms is ongoing and may provide incremental benefit to current evidence-based therapies.

  3. Histopathological examination of specimens removed during directional coronary atherectomy in patients presenting with crescendo angina show mural thrombus.

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, C. M.; Grech, E. D.; Ashworth, M. T.; Ramsdale, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Thrombus formation over a fissured coronary atheromatous plaque has been shown by post mortem histological examination to be the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for myocardial ischaemia in those patients who died following a crescendo pattern of angina. Histological examination of plaques responsible for a crescendo pattern of angina in patients who do not die has not been available until recently. We describe two patients who presented with a crescendo pattern of angina. A new technique of coronary revascularization, directional coronary atherectomy, produced symptomatic relief and resolution of myocardial ischaemia. Histological examination of material from the stenosis responsible for their myocardial ischaemia, obtained using this technique, confirmed thrombus formation overlying a fissured atheromatous plaque. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8506189

  4. The organization, function, and outcomes of ST-elevation myocardial infarction networks worldwide: current state, unmet needs and future directions.

    PubMed

    Huber, Kurt; Gersh, Bernard J; Goldstein, Patrick; Granger, Christopher B; Armstrong, Paul W

    2014-06-14

    The organization of networks in order to better coordinate and to faster offer reperfusion strategies for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is an important recommendation of recent versions of international guidelines. This article focusses on similarities and dissimilarities of world-wide networks, highlights essential network components, offers insights into still unmet needs and discusses potential measures to further improve quality of STEMI treatment.

  5. Prediabetes and coronary artery disease: Outcome after revascularization procedures.

    PubMed

    Cueva-Recalde, Juan Francisco; Ruiz-Arroyo, José Ramón; Roncalés García-Blanco, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    To assess the long-term association between prediabetes and an increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A retrospective cohort study. We searched our database to identify all PCI procedures performed in 2010. Patients with no diabetes and HbA1c measurement in the index hospitalization were enrolled and divided into two groups based on HbA1c value: 5.7-6.5% for prediabetes and <5.7% for controls. Demographic, clinical, and procedure-related variables were recorded. Study endpoints were mortality, hospital admissions, myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization procedures. The study population consisted of 132 subjects (82.6% males, age: 65.26 ± 12.46 years). No difference was found as regards distribution of demographic, clinical, and procedure-related variables. A majority (64.1%) of PCI procedures were performed for ST-segment elevation MI. Prevalence of prediabetes was 40.2%. After a mean follow-up period of 42.3 ± 3.6 months, no differences were found in outcomes between the prediabetes and control groups in total mortality (5.4% vs 1.9%; relative risk [RR] 2.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.27-30.44; P=.56), non-cardiovascular mortality (2.7% vs 1.9%; RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.93-22.18; P=.79), hospital admissions (19% vs 25%; RR 1.13, 95%CI 0.73-1.73; P=.57), MI (3% vs 1%; RR 4.28, 95%CI .46-39.52; P=.30), or target lesion revascularization (3% vs 6%); RR .70, 95%CI .18-2.61; P=.72). Prediabetes, as determined by HbA1c (5.7%-6.5%), is not associated with long-term adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CAD and PCI. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaz, On; Luxenberg, Michael; Schumacher, Audrey

    1994-07-01

    Patients who sustain complicated acute myocardial infarction in whom thrombolytic agents either fail or are contraindicated often need mechanical revascularization other than PTCA. In 24 patients with acute infarction complicated by continuous chest pain and ischemia who either received lytics or with contraindication to lytics, a holmium:YAG laser (Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) was utilized for thrombolysis and plaque ablation. Clinical success was achieved in 23/24 patients, with 23 patients (94%) surviving the acute infarction. Holmium:YAG laser is very effective and safe in thrombolysis and revascularization in this complicated clinical setting.

  7. Acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock: pharmacologic and mechanical hemodynamic support pathways.

    PubMed

    Graf, Tobias; Desch, Steffen; Eitel, Ingo; Thiele, Holger

    2015-09-01

    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is still the predominant cause of in-hospital death in patients with acute myocardial infarction, although mortality has been reduced in recent years. Early percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting are causal therapies implemented in CS, supported by catecholamines, fluids, intra-aortic balloon pumping, and also active percutaneous assist devices. There is only limited evidence from randomized studies of any of these treatments in CS, except for early revascularization and the relative ineffectiveness of intra-aortic balloon pumping. This review will present treatment pathways of CS complicating acute myocardial infarction, with a major focus on revascularization, intensive care unit treatment, and mechanical support devices.

  8. Patterns of cardiac stress testing after revascularization in community practice.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bimal R; Cowper, Patricia A; O'Brien, Sean M; Jensen, Neil; Drawz, Matthew; Patel, Manesh R; Douglas, Pamela S; Peterson, Eric D

    2010-10-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of cardiac stress testing after coronary revascularization in community practice. The American College of Cardiology Foundation appropriate use criteria provide guidance for the use of cardiac stress imaging after coronary revascularization. However, little is known regarding the use of routine cardiac stress testing in coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention patients as well as their downstream use of invasive procedures after noninvasive testing in community practice. Use and timing of stress testing more than 90 days after revascularization in patients 18 to 64 years of age were determined from a national health insurance claims database from July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2007. Subsequent rates of angiography and repeat revascularization after stress testing also were examined. Of 28,177 patients undergoing revascularization (21,046 percutaneous coronary intervention procedures and 7,131 coronary artery bypass grafting procedures), 59% had at least 1 cardiac stress test within 24 months. Sixty-one percent of patients with percutaneous coronary intervention and 51% of patients with coronary artery bypass grafting had undergone testing by 24 months. Nuclear imaging was the predominant testing method. The incidence of testing was found to increase at both 6 months and 12 months after revascularization, suggesting an association with elective follow-up office visits. Furthermore, testing varied according to geographic location. Of those tested, only 11% underwent subsequent cardiac catheterization and only 5% underwent repeat revascularization. Although there is limited consensus as to the appropriate role of elective stress testing after coronary revascularization, more than one half of all patients in community practice had at least 1 stress test within 24 months of revascularization. Yield on such testing was low: only 5% of patients tested ultimately required repeat

  9. Determinants of variations in coronary revascularization practices

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jack V.; Ko, Dennis T.; Guo, Helen; Richards, Janice A.; Walton, Nancy; Natarajan, Madhu K.; Wijeysundera, Harindra C.; So, Derek; Latter, David A.; Feindel, Christopher M.; Kingsbury, Kori; Cohen, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ratio of percutaneous coronary interventions to coronary artery bypass graft surgeries (PCI:CABG ratio) varies considerably across hospitals. We conducted a comprehensive study to identify clinical and nonclinical factors associated with variations in the ratio across 17 cardiac centres in the province of Ontario. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we selected a population-based sample of 8972 patients who underwent an index cardiac catheterization between April 2006 and March 2007 at any of 17 hospitals that perform invasive cardiac procedures in the province. We classified the hospitals into four groups by PCI:CABG ratio (low [< 2.0], low–medium [2.0–2.7], medium–high [2.8–3.2] and high [> 3.2]). We explored the relative contribution of patient, physician and hospital factors to variations in the likelihood of patients receiving PCI or CABG surgery within 90 days after the index catheterization. Results: The mean PCI:CABG ratio was 2.7 overall. We observed a threefold variation in the ratios across the four hospital ratio groups, from a mean of 1.6 in the lowest ratio group to a mean of 4.6 in the highest ratio group. Patients with single-vessel disease usually received PCI (88.4%–99.0%) and those with left main artery disease usually underwent CABG (80.8%–94.2%), regardless of the hospital’s procedure ratio. Variation in the management of patients with non-emergent multivessel disease accounted for most of the variation in the ratios across hospitals. The mode of revascularization largely reflected the recommendation of the physician performing the diagnostic catheterization and was also influenced by the revascularization “culture” at the treating hospital. Interpretation: The physician performing the diagnostic catheterization and the treating hospital were strong independent predictors of the mode of revascularization. Opportunities exist to improve transparency and consistency around the decision-making process for

  10. Periodontitis and myocardial hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-01

    There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.

  11. Myocardial Viability on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Souto, Ana Luiza Mansur; Souto, Rafael Mansur; Teixeira, Isabella Cristina Resende; Nacif, Marcelo Souto

    2017-01-01

    The study of myocardial viability is of great importance in the orientation and management of patients requiring myocardial revascularization or angioplasty. The technique of delayed enhancement (DE) is accurate and has transformed the study of viability into an easy test, not only for the detection of fibrosis but also as a binary test detecting what is viable or not. On DE, fibrosis equal to or greater than 50% of the segmental area is considered as non-viable, whereas that below 50% is considered viable. During the same evaluation, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may also use other techniques for functional and perfusion studies to obtain a global evaluation of ischemic heart disease. This study aims to highlight the current concepts and broadly emphasize the use of CMR as a method that over the last 20 years has become a reference in the detection of infarction and assessment of myocardial viability. PMID:28591322

  12. [Early physical rehabilitation after elective percutaneous coronary interventions during incomplete revascularization: exercise regimen calculation by ergospirometry].

    PubMed

    Martynova, V V; Andreev, D A; Doletskiĭ, A A; Abugov, S A; Saakyan, Yu M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency and safety of outpatient physical exercises (PE), calculated using ergospirometry (ESM) in patients in the early periods after elective percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) during incomplete coronary bed revascularization. Three hundred and eighty-three patients were screened. The trial enrolled the patients after elective PCI in its early periods (3 to 14 days) who had signed an informed consent document to participate in the investigation and who could perform themselves PE at home or visit the medical center. Patients with angioplasty complications (myocardial infarction, severe hematomas, major bleeding, etc.) who had standard contraindications to exercise testing and PE were excluded. The patients included in the trial (n = 50) were divided into 2 groups: (1) 21 patients who had undergone incomplete revascularization; (2) 29 patients who had complete revascularization. The authors estimated exercise endurance by ergospirometry before the investigation, 8 weeks after a course of exercises, and following 6 months and assessed quality of life (QL) using the SF-36 questionnaire. A physical rehabilitation program was elaborated for all the patients according to exercise test results. During the trial, all the patients were allocated to groups of home and clinic exercises using exercise bikes. Medical control of the patients who were exercising at home was made by their telephone conversation, control visits to the medical center at least once monthly, and their concurrently keeping an exercise diary in which each training (duration, intensity), health status, and blood pressure were recorded. The patients could consult their physician at any time if required. In the incomplete and complete revascularization groups, VO2 max increased by 6 and 15%, respectively. Following 6 months, no additional increment in VO2 max was seen in the study groups. According to SF-36 data, QL improved in patients in both groups after 8 weeks and remained

  13. Beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation in patients with incomplete revascularization after primary coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Rechciński, T; Kałowski, M; Kasprzak, J D; Trzos, E; Kurpesa, M

    2013-12-01

    There are no reliable data concerning the safety and benefits of physical rehabilitation in patients with a two-vessel disease before the second stage of angioplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of early cardiac rehabilitation in patients with acute coronary syndromes and with angiographically significant residual coronary artery stenosis after a successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) into the culprit lesion. Retrospective analysis of the results of coronary angiograms and exercise tests of patients who underwent stationary rehabilitation after their first ACS and first PCI. Cardiac Rehabilitation Department. One hundred ninety patients divided into 2 groups according to the completeness of myocardial revascularization; 49 with significant (≥70%) coronary artery stenosis in a non-culprit vessel, the mean diameter reduction 80±9%; and 141 without any residual stenosis. The prevalence of classical risk factors was comparable in both groups. Rehabilitation was conducted as a stationary 3-week program. Comparison of the initial and final exercise test workload in both groups, as well as the frequency of adverse effects during the program. Physical training in patients with incomplete revascularization (IR) was safe and well tolerated. Significant increase of workload capacity after the rehabilitation program was observed in both groups: in the IR group from 7.3±3.0 to 8.8±2.9 MET (P<0.0001) and in the complete revascularization (CR) group - from 7.6±2.8 to 9.2±2.9 MET (P<0.0001). No significant difference was observed in initial workload capacities (P=0.9813) nor in final workload capacities (P=0.8571) between the two groups. Two patients in the group with residual lesion (4%) and one in the group without residual lesion (0.7%) required urgent PCI during the rehabilitation program, P=0.1637. Early postinfarction physical training is safe and efficient for patients after complete revascularization and for those with untreated

  14. High-risk clinical presentations in atherosclerotic renovascular disease: prognosis and response to renal artery revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, James; Green, Darren; Chrysochou, Constantina; Chalmers, Nicholas; Foley, Robert N; Kalra, Philip A

    2014-02-01

    Current trial data may not be directly applicable to patients with the highest risk presentations of atherosclerotic renovascular disease, including flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining kidney function, and refractory hypertension. We consider the prognostic implications of these presentations and response to percutaneous revascularization. Single-center prospective cohort study; retrospectively analyzed. 467 patients with renal artery stenosis ≥50%, managed according to clinical presentation and physician/patient preference. Presentation with flash pulmonary edema (n = 37 [7.8%]), refractory hypertension (n = 116 [24.3%]), or rapidly declining kidney function (n = 46 [9.7%]) compared to low-risk presentation with none of these phenotypes (n = 230 [49%]). Percutaneous revascularization (performed in 32% of flash pulmonary edema, 28% of rapidly declining kidney function, and 28% of refractory hypertension patients) compared to medical management. Death, cardiovascular (CV) event, end-stage kidney disease. During a median follow-up of 3.8 (IQR, 1.8-5.8) years, 55% died, 33% had a CV event, and 18% reached end-stage kidney disease. In medically treated patients, flash pulmonary edema was associated with increased risk of death (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.5; P < 0.001) and CV event (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7-5.5; P < 0.001), but not end-stage kidney disease, compared to the low-risk phenotype. No increased risk for any end point was observed in patients presenting with rapidly declining kidney function or refractory hypertension. Compared to medical treatment, revascularization was associated with reduced risk for death (HR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9; P = 0.01), but not CV event or end-stage kidney disease, in patients presenting with flash pulmonary edema. Revascularization was not associated significantly with reduced risk for any end point in rapidly declining kidney function or refractory hypertension. When these presentations were present in

  15. [Assessment of myocardial vitality with dobutamine echocardiography: current review].

    PubMed

    Völler, H; Nixdorff, U; Flachskampf, F A

    2000-10-01

    Myocardial stunning (contractile dysfunction in the presence of normalized perfusion) and myocardial hibernation (contractile dysfunction matching reduced perfusion) have represented separate concepts of viable, but dyssynergic myocardium in the past. However, in vivo experimental and clinical work suggests that repetitive ischemia due to coronary artery disease may induce a gradual transition between stunned and hibernating myocardium. Myocardial hibernation itself can result from a spectrum of ischemic conditions ranging from impaired myocardial blood flow reserve to frank hypoperfusion. With increasing severity and duration of ischemia, degeneration of cardiac myocytes, accumulation of glycogen and cell death ensue. Additionally, there is an increase of extracellular matrix protein content leading to reparative fibrosis, which in turn limits functional recovery. In the light of these structural features, the available methods for detection of viable myocardium, in particular dobutamine echocardiography and nuclear imaging techniques, offer complementary rather than contradictory information. Dobutamine echo has satisfactory sensitivity, excellent specificity, and high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of viable dyssynergic myocardium. While in the past only its predictive accuracy for segmental recovery has been validated, newer data show an improved survival after revascularization if at least four viable dyssynergic left ventricular segments in a 16 segment model can be identified by dobutamine echocardiography. The complete (low and high dose) dobutamine protocol can elicit several types of contractile responses (sustained improvement in contraction or monophasic response, biphasic response, new wall motion abnormality) which should be interpreted in view of other clinical data including a previous infarction. The test protocol can be used safely at the end of the first week after myocardial infarction. If ischemia or viability is documented

  16. Neurobehavioral and Life-Quality Changes after Cerebral Revascularization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Anne Dull; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied neuropsychological and life-quality changes six months after carotid endarterectomy, superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass, multiple revascularization, and vertebrobasilar revascularization procedures. Compared changes with those in patients with recent severe spinal complaints and in patients for whom…

  17. Neurobehavioral and Life-Quality Changes after Cerebral Revascularization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Anne Dull; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied neuropsychological and life-quality changes six months after carotid endarterectomy, superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass, multiple revascularization, and vertebrobasilar revascularization procedures. Compared changes with those in patients with recent severe spinal complaints and in patients for whom…

  18. Myocardial ischemia is a key factor in the management of stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Kohichiro

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that coronary revascularization, especially percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), does not significantly decrease the incidence of cardiac death or myocardial infarction in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Many studies using myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) showed that, for patients with moderate to severe ischemia, revascularization is the preferred therapy for survival benefit, whereas for patients with no to mild ischemia, medical therapy is the main choice, and revascularization is associated with increased mortality. There is some evidence that revascularization in patients with no or mild ischemia is likely to result in worsened ischemia, which is associated with increased mortality. Studies using fractional flow reserve (FFR) demonstrate that ischemia-guided PCI is superior to angiography-guided PCI, and the presence of ischemia is the key to decision-making for PCI. Complementary use of noninvasive MPI and invasive FFR would be important to compensate for each method’s limitations. Recent studies of appropriateness criteria showed that, although PCI in the acute setting and coronary bypass surgery are properly performed in most patients, PCI in the non-acute setting is often inappropriate, and stress testing to identify myocardial ischemia is performed in less than half of patients. Also, some studies suggested that revascularization in an inappropriate setting is not associated with improved prognosis. Taken together, the presence and the extent of myocardial ischemia is a key factor in the management of patients with stable coronary artery disease, and coronary revascularization in the absence of myocardial ischemia is associated with worsened prognosis. PMID:24772253

  19. Surgical revascularization techniques for diabetic foot

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Siva Krishna; Kota, Sunil Kumar; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Sahoo, Satyajit; Mohapatra, Sudeep; Modi, Kirtikumar Dharmsibhai

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. The diabetic foot is characterized by the presence of arteriopathy and neuropathy. The vascular damage includes non-occlusive microangiopathy and macroangiopathy. Diabetic foot wounds are responsible for 5–10% of the cases of major or minor amputations. In fact, the risk of amputation of the lower limbs is 15–20% higher in diabetic populations than in the general population. The University of Texas classification is the reference classification for diabetic wounds. It distinguishes non-ischemic wounds from ischemic wounds which are associated with a higher rate of amputation. The first principles of treatment are the control of pain of an eventual infection. When ischemia is diagnosed, restoration of pulsatile blood flow by revascularization may be considered for salvaging the limb. The treatment options are angioplasty with or without stenting and surgical bypass or hybrid procedures combining the two. Distal reconstructions with anastomosis to the leg or pedal arteries have satisfactory limb-salvage rates. Subintimal angioplasty is a more recent endovascular technique. It could be suggested for elderly patients who are believed to be unsuitable candidates for a conventional bypass or angioplasty. The current article would focus on the various revascularization procedures. PMID:24027360

  20. Contemporary techniques for coronary CTO revascularization.

    PubMed

    Dedovic, Vladimir; Stankovic, Goran

    2017-03-01

    Despite permanent improvement in success rate and technical developments, chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains undertreated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Dedicated CTO operators from Japan, Europe and USA perform these procedures with success rate beyond 90%, but there is still huge gap between this group of specialists and broader population of PCI operators. Recently proposed CTO scores can be used for patients' selection according to the CTO operators' experience. Patients with low CTO Score values may be suitable for less experienced operators at the beginning of the CTO PCI learning curve, while more complex CTOs (higher CTO Score values) should be differed to CTO experts. As most of CTO scores better predict antegrade procedural success, at the hands of expert CTO operators, lower or intermediate CTO Score values suggest cases which could be started by anterograde techniques. In this paper we review: 1) an impact of CTO on completeness of revascularization; 2) appropriate CTO equipment setting; 3) procedure planning aspects, including the use of computed tomography angiography and CTO scores; 4) current CTO techniques classifying them into A) antegrade, B) retrograde and C) hybrid approach. Further advancements in CTO PCI should not only provide higher rate of complete revascularization, with improved clinical outcome, but also simplify procedure and make it suitable for broader spectrum of interventionalists.

  1. Perioperative Assessment of Myocardial Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Andra E.; Alfirevic, Andrej; Sessler, Daniel I.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Thomas, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of left ventricular performance improves risk assessment and guides anesthetic decisions. However, the most common echocardiographic measure of myocardial function, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), has important limitations. LVEF is limited by subjective interpretation which reduces accuracy and reproducibility, and LVEF assesses global function without characterizing regional myocardial abnormalities. An alternative objective echocardiographic measure of myocardial function is thus needed. Myocardial deformation analysis, which performs quantitative assessment of global and regional myocardial function, may be useful for perioperative care of surgical patients. Myocardial deformation analysis evaluates left ventricular mechanics by quantifying strain and strain rate. Strain describes percent change in myocardial length in the longitudinal (from base to apex) and circumferential (encircling the short-axis of the ventricle) direction and change in thickness in the radial direction. Segmental strain describes regional myocardial function. Strain is a negative number when the ventricle shortens longitudinally or circumferentially and is positive with radial thickening. Reference values for normal longitudinal strain from a recent meta-analysis using transthoracic echocardiography are (mean ± SD) −19.7 ± 0.4%, while radial and circumferential strain are 47.3 ± 1.9 and −23.3 ± 0.7%, respectively. The speed of myocardial deformation is also important and is characterized by strain rate. Longitudinal systolic strain rate in healthy subjects averages −1.10 ± 0.16 sec−1. Assessment of myocardial deformation requires consideration of both strain (change in deformation), which correlates with LVEF, and strain rate (speed of deformation), which correlates with rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt). Myocardial deformation analysis also evaluates ventricular relaxation, twist, and untwist, providing new and noninvasive methods to

  2. Clinical Significance of A Single Multi-Slice CT Assessment in Patients with Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion Lesions Prior to Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xinkai; Fang, Weiyi; Gong, Kaizheng; Ye, Jianding; Guan, Shaofeng; Li, Ruogu; Xu, Yingjia; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Min; Liu, Hua; Xie, Wenhui

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesion is essential to design an appropriate procedural strategy before revascularization. The present study aims to evaluate the significance of a single multislice computed tomography (MSCT) examination in patients with CTO lesion. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 23 CTO lesions in twenty patients underwent computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and SPECT. The CTCA was more powerful and sensitive to determine the CTO lesion length (100% v.s 47.8%) and to identify the length and location of calcification in occluded vessels compared with the coronary angiography (CAG). The LVEF measured by MSCT was comparable to that from the gated SPECT. Myocardial perfusion imaging showed that the location of the early defect region identified by MSCT was corresponded to the nuclide filling defect on the stressed 201thallium-SPECT imaging. The late hyperenhancement on MSCT was presented as incomplete nuclide filling on the 99mTc-MIBI imaging. The results suggested that a single MSCT examination in previous myocardial infarction without revascularization facilitates to provide some valuable information on the nature of the occluded lesion, myocardial perfusion and globe cardiac function, which would be helpful to design appropriate revascularization strategy in these subjects. PMID:24905494

  3. Creating accountable care for carotid angioplasty and stenting: A multidisciplinary carotid revascularization board

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Maximilian K.; Khan, Muhib; Marin, Horia; Sanders, William; Shepard, Alexander; Katramados, Angelos M.; Russman, Andrew N.; Gellman, Steven; Nypaver, Timothy; Malik, Ghaus; Mitsias, Panayiotis D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We tested the feasibility of a mandated multidisciplinary carotid revascularization board (MDCB) to review, approve and monitor all carotid artery and stenting (CAS) procedures and outcomes at our institution. Methods: The board was composed of vascular surgeons, cardiologists, interventional neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, and neurologists, who met weekly to facilitate an evidence-based, consensus recommendation to ensure appropriate CAS referral. Results: The board successfully reviewed and continues to review and approve all CAS procedures at our center. Of the 69 patients considered high risk for standard surgical treatment, 42 patients were symptomatic and 27 patients were asymptomatic. Their mean age was 70.5-year-old and the median degree of stenosis was 79%. In the 74 procedures, periprocedural complications occurred at the following rates: 2.7% death, 2.7% major stroke, 2.7% minor stroke, and 2.7% myocardial infarction (MI) within 30 days of the procedure. At 1 year the primary endpoints of ipsilateral stroke and neurovascular-related death were observed in 8.1% and 2.7% of the patients, respectively. At mean follow-up of 21 months, 18.8% of the patients (13/69) had died (including all causes), and 14.5% (10/69) experienced stroke (including nontarget strokes). Target vessel revascularization was needed in 2.9% patients. Conclusions: A mandated multidisciplinary carotid revascularization board MDCB is feasible and potentially advantageous in real clinical practice. It establishes a model for accountable care by providing a mechanism for institutional oversight, credentialing operators, quality review, standardizing care, cost containment and eliminating the “subspecialty silo mentality.” PMID:23459852

  4. Myocardial protection in heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Mentzer, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    One of the unmet clinical needs in heart surgery is the prevention of myocardial stunning and necrosis that occurs as a result of ischemia-reperfusion. Myocardial stunning, a frequent consequence after heart surgery, is characterized by a requirement for postoperative inotropic support despite a technically satisfactory heart operation. In high-risk patients with marginal cardiac reserve, stunning is a major cause of prolonged critical care and may be associated with as much as a 5-fold increase in mortality. In contrast, the frequency of myocardial necrosis (myocardial infarction [MI]) after cardiac surgery is less appreciated and its consequences are much more subtle. The consequences may not be apparent for months to years. While we now have a much better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying myocardial stunning and MI, we still have no effective way to prevent these complications, nor a consistently effective means to engage the well-studied endogenous mechanisms of cardioprotection. The failure to develop clinically effective interventions is multifactorial and can be attributed to reliance on findings obtained from subcellular and cellular studies, to drawing conclusions from preclinical large animal studies that have been conducted in a disease-free state, and to accepting less than robust surrogate markers of injury in phase II clinical trials. These factors also explain the disappointing failure to identify effective adjuvant therapy in the setting of percutaneous coronary revascularization for acute MI (AMI) and reperfusion injury. These issues have contributed to the disappointing outcomes of large and costly phase III trials, resulting in a lack of enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry to engage in further drug development for this indication. The purpose of this review is to (1) define the scope of the clinical problem; (2) summarize the outcomes of selected phases II and III clinical trials; and (3) identify the gap that

  5. Myocardial perfusion defect in patients with coronary artery disease demonstrated by 64-multidetector computed tomography at rest.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Matsumoto, Takeshi

    2011-07-01

    The first-pass imaging of 64-multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) using pharmacological stress has been used to assess myocardial perfusion. However, detection of myocardial ischemia at rest using MDCT has yet to be elucidated. We studied the incidence of myocardial perfusion defect (MPD) by 64-MDCT at rest and the effect of coronary revascularization therapy on MPD in patients with coronary artery disease. MPD by 64-MDCT at rest indicates myocardial ischemia. We studied 76 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent 64-MDCT before and after revascularization therapy and 55 patients who did not undergo revascularization therapy. According to percent diameter stenosis, we defined group A, B, C, and D to have stenosis between 70% and 90%, 50% and 69%, 30% and 49%, and 10% and 29%, respectively. We evaluated regional myocardial contrast enhancement by long and short axis planes. MPD was defined as hypoenhancement area of some extent with CT value <50 HU during diastole. MPD was found in 60.0% and 32.4% of group A and B patients, respectively (P = 0.0176). The incidence was 4.8% and 0% in group C and D patients, respectively (P<0.0001 compared with group A and B). All patients in group A and B and 2 patients with MPD in group C underwent coronary revascularization therapy. MPD disappeared after revascularization therapy in all but 3 group A patients. No patients showed new MPD after revascularization therapy. Our results demonstrate that a significant percentage of patients with significant coronary artery stenosis show MPD by 64-MDCT at rest, and these MPDs may represent myocardial ischemia. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Coronary stenting: A matter of revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Aldo; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Liberale, Luca

    2017-01-01

    In the last few decades, the recommended treatment for coronary artery disease has been dramatically improved by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the use of balloon catheters, bare metal stents (BMSs), and drug-eluting stents (DESs). Catheter balloons were burdened by acute vessel occlusion or target-lesion re-stenosis. BMSs greatly reduced those problems holding up the vessel structure, but showed high rates of in-stent re-stenosis, which is characterized by neo-intimal hyperplasia and vessel remodeling leading to a re-narrowing of the vessel diameter. This challenge was overtaken by first-generation DESs, which reduced re-stenosis rates to nearly 5%, but demonstrated delayed arterial healing and risk for late in-stent thrombosis, with inflammatory cells playing a pivotal role. Finally, new-generation DESs, characterized by innovations in design, metal composition, surface polymers, and anti-proliferative drugs, finally reduced the risk for stent thrombosis and greatly improved revascularization outcomes. New advances include bioresorbable stents potentially changing the future of revascularization techniques as the concept bases upon the degradation of the stent scaffold to inert particles after its function expired, thus theoretically eliminating risks linked with both stent thrombosis and re-stenosis. Talking about DESs also dictates to consider dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), which is a fundamental moment in view of the good outcome duration, but also deals with bleeding complications. The better management of patients undergoing PCI should include the use of DESs and a DAPT finely tailored in consideration of the potentially developing bleeding risk in accordance with the indications from last updated guidelines. PMID:28400917

  7. Transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized bFGF-incorporating stent activates resident cardiac stem cells via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Wei; Wen, Ti; Gu, Tian-Xiang; Li-Ling, Jesse; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Ye; Liu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tian-Jun; Lü, Feng

    2012-02-15

    To investigate whether transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-incorporating degradable stent implantation (TMDRSI) can promote myocardial regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A model of AMI was generated by ligating the mid-third of left anterior descending artery (LAD) of miniswine. After 6 h, the animals were divided into none-treatment (control) group (n=6) and TMDRSI group (n=6). For TMDRSI group, two channels with 3.5 mm in diameter were established by a self-made drill in the AMI region, into which a stent was implanted. Expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1(α) (SDF-1(α)) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), cardiac stem cell (CSC)-mediated myocardial regeneration, myocardial apoptosis, myocardial viability, and cardiac function were assessed at various time-points. Six weeks after the operation, CSCs were found to have differentiated into cardiomyocytes to repair the infarcted myocardium, and all above indices showed much improvement in the TMDRSI group compared with the control group (P<0.001). The new method has shown to be capable of promoting CSCs proliferation and differentiation into cardiomyocytes through activating the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, while inhibiting myocardial apoptosis, thereby enhancing myocardial regeneration following AMI and improving cardiac function. This may provide a new strategy for myocardial regeneration following AMI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Impact of comorbidities on in-hospital mortality from acute myocardial infarction, 2003-2009].

    PubMed

    Gili, Miguel; Sala, José; López, Julio; Carrión, Ana; Béjar, Luís; Moreno, Julio; Rosales, Angela; Sánchez, Gabriel

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of acute myocardial infarction has changed notably in recent years. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in in-hospital mortality during the period 2003-2009 and to examine how changes in comorbidity indices affected mortality prediction models for acute myocardial infarction using the minimum basic data set. During the study period, 5275 cases of acute myocardial infarction were admitted. Mortality rates were calculated by age and sex and Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity index scores were obtained on admission for every patient. Trends were analyzed and their validity studied. Multivariate models predictive of mortality were derived and compared. Mean age and comorbidities increased in all patients over the period 2003-2009. In spite of these trends, acute myocardial infarction mortality decreased. Comorbidity indices remained valid when the criterion "present on admission" was applied. Multivariate predictive models included age, sex, medical treatment, coronary revascularization and a comorbidity index or specific comorbidities. The model with specific comorbidities showed the best predictive ability. All models found that age and comorbidities increased the risk of death, and that coronary revascularization and treatment with anticoagulants, fibrinolytics, and platelet antiaggregants were protective factors. Despite the fact that the mean age and number of comorbidities in acute myocardial infarction patients has increased year over year, acute myocardial infarction mortality has decreased, probably because of more frequent reperfusion and revascularization therapy and better medical treatment. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. MMI-0100 inhibits cardiac fibrosis in myocardial infarction by direct actions on cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts via MK2 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Yates, Cecelia C.; Lockyer, Pamela; Xie, Liang; Bevilacqua, Ariana; He, Jun; Lander, Cynthia; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte

    2014-01-01

    The cell-permeant peptide inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2), MMI-0100, inhibits MK2 and downstream fibrosis and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that MMI-0100 reduces intimal hyperplasia in a mouse vein graft model, pulmonary fibrosis in a murine bleomycin-induced model and development of adhesions in conjunction with abdominal surgery. MK2 is critical to the pathogenesis of ischemic heart injury as MK2 −/− mice are resistant to ischemic remodeling. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting MK2 with MMI-0100 would protect the heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in vivo. AMI was induced by placing a permanent LAD coronary ligation. When MMI-0100 peptide was given 30 minutes after permanent LAD coronary artery ligation, the resulting fibrosis was reduced/prevented ~50% at a 2 week time point, with a corresponding improvement in cardiac function and decrease in left ventricular dilation. In cultured cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts, MMI-0100 inhibited MK2 to reduce cardiomyocyte caspase 3/7 activity, while enhancing primary cardiac fibroblast caspase 3/7 activity, which may explain MMI-0100’s salvage of cardiac function and anti-fibrotic effects in vivo. These findings suggest that therapeutic inhibition of MK2 after acute MI, using rationally-designed cell-permeant peptides, inhibits cardiac fibrosis and maintains cardiac function by mechanisms that involve inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, while enhancing primary cardiac fibroblast cell death. PMID:25257914

  10. Hybrid aortoiliac revascularization to avoid nonautogenous groin reconstruction in an intravenous drug abuser.

    PubMed

    Kanka, Kristin C; Pak, Jimmy J; Hadley, Douglas; Alexander, Jason Q

    2011-04-01

    Traditional methods for revascularization of an occluded aortoiliac system have necessitated either in-line aortic reconstruction through an aortobifemoral bypass or extra-anatomic bypass. However, both these approaches require artificial material to be placed in the groin. The consequence of groin infection can be devastating leading to high rates of both limb loss and mortality. One of the most feared patient populations presenting with groin complications is that of the intravenous drug abuser. We present the case of a patient with a long history of intravenous drug abuse with severe aortoiliac disease. Instead of resorting to a more traditional open surgical approach necessitating artificial reconstruction in the groin, we chose to proceed with a hybrid open and endovascular procedure through a direct open surgical access to the aortic bifurcation. This allowed for revascularization without the placement of artificial material in the groin.

  11. The effect of percutaneous transmyocardial laser revascularization on left ventricular function in a porcine model of hibernating myocardium: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Francis Q; Glock, Dana; Sandelski, Joanne; Ibrahim, Osama; Macioch, James E; Allen, Trisha; Dainauskas, John R; Parrillo, Joseph E; Snell, R Jeffrey; Schaer, Gary L

    2004-01-01

    Hibernating myocardium is defined as a state of persistently impaired myocardial function at rest due to reduced coronary blood flow that can partially or completely be restored to normal if the myocardial oxygen supply/demand relationship is favorably altered. Percutaneous laser revascularization (PMR) is an emerging catheter-based technique that involves creating channels in the myocardium, directly through a percutaneous approach with a laser delivery system, and has been shown to reduce symptoms in patients with severe refractory angina; however, its effect on improving regional wall motion abnormalities in hibernating myocardium has not been clearly established. We sought to determine the effect of PMR using the Eclipse System (Cardiogenesis) on left ventricular function in a porcine model of hibernating myocardium. A model of hibernating myocardium was created by placement of an ameroid constrictor in the proximal left anterior descending artery of a 35 kg male Yorkshire pig. The presence of hibernating myocardium was confirmed with dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and defined as severe hypocontractility at rest, with an improvement in systolic wall thickening with low-dose dobutamine in myocardial regions with a subsequent deterioration in function at peak stress (biphasic response). After the demonstration of hibernating myocardium, PMR was performed in the area of hypocontractile function, and the serial echocardiography was performed. The echocardiograms were reviewed by an experienced echocardiologist blinded to the results, and regional wall motion was assessed using the American Society of Echocardiography Wall Motion Score. Six weeks after PMR, the animal was sacrificed and the heart sent for histopathologic studies. A comparison of the regional wall motion function of the area distal to the ameroid constrictor and in the contralateral wall at baseline, post-ameroid placement, and post-PMR was performed. Hibernating myocardium was demonstrated

  12. Urban and rural implementation of pre-hospital diagnosis and direct referral for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Trautner, Sven; Hansen, Troels Martin; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Andersen, Henning Rud

    2011-02-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred treatment for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The distance to primary PCI centres and the inherent time delay in delivering primary PCI, however, limit widespread use of this treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pre-hospital diagnosis on time from emergency medical services contact to balloon inflation (system delay) in an unselected cohort of patients with STEMI recruited from a large geographical area comprising both urban and rural districts. From February 2004 until January 2007, data on pre-hospital timing and transport distance were prospectively recorded. Patients were divided into groups depending on achievement of pre-hospital diagnosis and/or direct referral to a primary PCI centre. Seven hundred and fifty-nine consecutive STEMI patients were included. In patients with a pre-hospital diagnosis and direct referral, the system delay was 92 vs. 153 min in patients without pre-hospital diagnosis (P < 0.001). Patients from rural areas were transported a median of 30 km longer than patients from urban areas; however, this prolonged the system delay by only 9 min. Pre-hospital electrocardiographic (ECG) diagnosis and direct referral for primary PCI enables STEMI patients living far from a PCI centre to achieve a system delay comparable with patients living in close vicinity of a PCI centre.

  13. Hybrid Coronary Revascularization for the Treatment of Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Puskas, John D.; Halkos, Michael E.; DeRose, Joseph J.; Bagiella, Emilia; Miller, Marissa A.; Overbey, Jessica; Bonatti, Johannes; Srinivas, V.S.; Vesely, Mark; Sutter, Francis; Lynch, Janine; Kirkwood, Katherine; Shapiro, Timothy A.; Boudoulas, Konstantinos D.; Crestanello, Juan; Gehrig, Thomas; Smith, Peter; Ragosta, Michael; Hoff, Steven J.; Zhao, David; Gelijns, Annetine C.; Szeto, Wilson Y.; Weisz, Giora; Argenziano, Michael; Vassiliades, Thomas; Liberman, Henry; Matthai, William; Ascheim, Deborah D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) combines minimally invasive surgical coronary artery bypass grafting of the left anterior descending artery with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of non–left anterior descending vessels. HCR is increasingly used to treat multivessel coronary artery disease that includes stenoses in the proximal left anterior descending artery and at least 1 other vessel, but its effectiveness has not been rigorously evaluated. OBJECTIVES This National Institutes of Health–funded, multicenter, observational study was conducted to explore the characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing clinically indicated HCR and multivessel PCI for hybrid-eligible coronary artery disease, to inform the design of a confirmatory comparative effectiveness trial. METHODS Over 18 months, 200 HCR and 98 multivessel PCI patients were enrolled at 11 sites. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) (i.e., death, stroke, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization) within 12 months post-intervention. Cox proportional hazards models were used to model time to first MACCE event. Propensity scores were used to balance the groups. RESULTS Mean age was 64.2 ± 11.5 years, 25.5% of patients were female, 38.6% were diabetic, and 4.7% had previous stroke. Thirty-eight percent had 3-vessel coronary artery disease, and the mean SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score was 19.7 ± 9.6. Adjusted for baseline risk, MACCE rates were similar between groups within 12 months post-intervention (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.063; p = 0.80) and during a median 17.6 months of follow-up (HR: 0.868; p = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS These observational data from this first multicenter study of HCR suggest that there is no significant difference in MACCE rates over 12 months between patients treated with multivessel PCI or HCR, an emerging modality. A randomized trial with long-term outcomes is needed to

  14. Developing practice recommendations for endovascular revascularization for acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Marc A.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Darkhabani, Ziad; Edgell, Randall C.; English, Joey; Frei, Donald; Jamieson, Dara G.; Janardhan, Vallabh; Janjua, Nazli; Janjua, Rashid M.; Katzan, Irene; Khatri, Pooja; Kirmani, Jawad F.; Liebeskind, David S.; Linfante, Italo; Nguyen, Thanh N.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Shutter, Lori; Xavier, Andrew; Yavagal, Dileep; Zaidat, Osama O.

    2012-01-01

    Guidelines have been established for the management of acute ischemic stroke; however, specific recommendations for endovascular revascularization therapy are lacking. Burgeoning investigation of endovascular revascularization therapies for acute ischemic stroke, rapid device development, and a diverse training background of the providers performing the procedures underscore the need for practice recommendations. This review provides a concise summary of the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology endovascular acute ischemic stroke roundtable meeting. This document was developed to review current clinical efficacy of pharmacologic and mechanical revascularization therapy, selection criteria, periprocedure management, and endovascular time metrics and to highlight current practice patterns. It therefore provides an outline for the future development of multisociety guidelines and recommendations to improve patient selection, procedural management, and organizational strategies for revascularization therapies in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:23008406

  15. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population.

  16. Outcome of revascularization in moyamoya disease: Evaluation of a new angiographic scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Siddhartha Shankar; Suri, Ashish; Bansal, Sumit; Devarajan, S. Leve Joseph; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular occlusive disease affecting commonly the anterior circle of Willis. Matushima grade inadequately reflects the angiographic changes postrevascularization procedure. Aims: To analyze the clinical and angiographic outcome of revascularization procedures (direct [ST-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis] and indirect [encephalo-duro-arterio-myo-synangiosis (EDAMS)]) in MMD and validate a new angiographic scoring system. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study included symptomatic patients of MMD who underwent revascularization; both indirect and combined methods between January 2002 and April 2012. Follow-up angiography was done after at least 3 months. We devised a novel scoring system the “angiographic outcome score” (AOS) including reformation of distal MCA and anterior cerebral artery, regression of basal moyamoya vessels, leptomeningeal collaterals and overall perfusion. AOS was applied to the angiograms independently by a neuroradiologist and a neurosurgeon that were blinded toward its preoperative or postoperative status. Results: Totally 33 patients underwent 36 EDAMS and 4 combined procedures (EDAMS + ST-MCA bypass). The mean follow-up was 20 months. None had recurrent transient ischemic attack or fresh infarct. Postoperative AOS was significantly higher than preoperative AOS. The Spearman rho showed positive correlation between Matushima grade and postoperative AOS. Significant regression of basal moyamoya vessels and increase in number of loci of transdural collaterals was seen. Conclusions: EDAMS is a simple yet effective method of revascularization in both pediatric as well as adult age groups. AOS is a simple, precise and easily reproducible scoring system, which reflects the favorable angiographic changes after revascularization. PMID:26425151

  17. Carotid revascularization and medical management for asymptomatic carotid stenosis: Protocol of the CREST-2 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Howard, Virginia J; Meschia, James F; Lal, Brajesh K; Turan, Tanya N; Roubin, Gary S; Brown, Robert D; Voeks, Jenifer H; Barrett, Kevin M; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Huston, John; Lazar, Ronald M; Moore, Wesley S; Wadley, Virginia G; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Moy, Claudia S; Chimowitz, Marc; Howard, George; Brott, Thomas G

    2017-10-01

    Rationale Trials conducted decades ago demonstrated that carotid endarterectomy by skilled surgeons reduced stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. Developments in carotid stenting and improvements in medical prevention of stroke caused by atherothrombotic disease challenge understanding of the benefits of revascularization. Aim Carotid Revascularization and Medical Management for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Trial (CREST-2) will test whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting plus contemporary intensive medical therapy is superior to intensive medical therapy alone in the primary prevention of stroke in patients with high-grade asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Methods and design CREST-2 is two multicenter randomized trials of revascularization plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone. One trial randomizes patients to carotid endarterectomy plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone; the other, to carotid stenting plus intensive medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy alone. The risk factor targets of centrally directed intensive medical therapy are LDL cholesterol <70 mg/dl and systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg. Study outcomes The primary outcome is the composite of stroke and death within 44 days following randomization and stroke ipsilateral to the target vessel thereafter, up to four years. Change in cognition and differences in major and minor stroke are secondary outcomes. Sample size Enrollment of 1240 patients in each trial provides 85% power to detect a treatment difference if the event rate in the intensive medical therapy alone arm is 4.8% higher or 2.8% lower than an anticipated 3.6% rate in the revascularization arm. Discussion Management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis requires contemporary randomized trials to address whether carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting plus intensive medical therapy is superior in preventing stroke beyond intensive medical therapy alone

  18. Quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    PubMed

    Tsui, B M; Frey, E C; LaCroix, K J; Lalush, D S; McCartney, W H; King, M A; Gullberg, G T

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the clinical application of attenuation compensation to myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the promise that accurate quantitative images can be obtained to improve clinical diagnoses. The different attenuation compensation methods that are available create confusion and some misconceptions. Also, attenuation-compensated images reveal other image-degrading effects including collimator-detector blurring and scatter that are not apparent in uncompensated images. This article presents basic concepts of the major factors that degrade the quality and quantitative accuracy of myocardial perfusion SPECT images, and includes a discussion of the various image reconstruction and compensation methods and misconceptions and pitfalls in implementation. The differences between the various compensation methods and their performance are demonstrated. Particular emphasis is directed to an approach that promises to provide quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT images by accurately compensating for the 3-dimensional (3-D) attenuation, collimator-detector response, and scatter effects. With advances in the computer hardware and optimized implementation techniques, quantitatively accurate and high-quality myocardial perfusion SPECT images can be obtained in clinically acceptable processing time. Examples from simulation, phantom, and patient studies are used to demonstrate the various aspects of the investigation. We conclude that quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT, which holds great promise to improve clinical diagnosis, is an achievable goal in the near future.

  19. [Revascularization? Only as the last resort!].

    PubMed

    Slutzky-Goldberg, I; Heling, I

    2013-07-01

    Revascularization has been suggested for treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth. The desirable outcome of the treatment is continuous growth of the root, maturation of the dentin walls underneath the cervical seal and apical closure. Despite of increasing numbers of case reports, a uniform treatment protocol has not been set. This procedure has many shortcomings of which tooth discoloration is the most prevalent and easy to observe. The severe discoloration is attributed to the use of Mincocycline in the antibiotic dressing, or to the use of MTA for the seal. The maturation of the root is not predictable and does not always occur. The outcome should be evaluated radiographically and clinically. Sensibility testing may not be possible due to the large MTA plug in the root canal. It is recommended only when alternative procedures such as apexificaiton, pulpotomy or pulp capping are impossible. The patient and his parents should be aware of the potential discoloration and must be committed to routine follow ups. Currently, this procedure should be limited to incisor or premolar teeth in which the crown is longer than the root, or the canal's width is larger than that of the dentinal wall.

  20. Survival of resuscitated cardiac arrest patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) conveyed directly to a Heart Attack Centre by ambulance clinicians.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Rachael T; Watson, Lynne R; Virdi, Gurkamal K; Moore, Fionna P; Whitbread, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study reports survival outcomes for patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) subsequent to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and who were conveyed directly by ambulance clinicians to a specialist Heart Attack Centre for expert cardiology assessment, angiography and possible percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This is a retrospective descriptive review of data sourced from the London Ambulance Service's OHCA registry over a one-year period. We observed excellent survival rates for our cohort of patients with 66% of patients surviving to be discharged from hospital, the majority of whom were still alive after one year. Those who survived tended to be younger, to have had a witnessed arrest in a public place with an initial cardiac rhythm of VF/VT, and to have been transported to the specialist centre more quickly than those who did not. A system allowing ambulance clinicians to autonomously convey OHCA STEMI patients who achieve a return of spontaneous circulation directly to a Heart Attack Centre is highly effective and yields excellent survival outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Myocardial Edema Imaging in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Michael C.; Verhaert, David; Raman, Subha V.

    2011-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) continue to be the most common morbid condition of industrialized nations. The advent of and technical improvements in revascularization and medical therapy have led to a steady decline in mortality rates. However, many patients who suffer unstable angina or myocardial infarction require further testing and risk stratification to guide therapeutic selection and prognosis assignment. Myocardial edema imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) affords the ability to define the amount of myocardium at risk, refine estimates of prognosis and provide guidance for therapies with excellent sensitivity compared to standard clinical markers. This review will discuss the rationale for edema imaging, how it is performed using CMR and its potential clinical applications. PMID:22102557

  2. [Acute traumatic myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in severe polytrauma--a case report].

    PubMed

    Rohe, G; Feyerherd, F; Möx, B; Hachenberg, T

    2000-04-01

    A 41-year-old man suffered severe polytrauma and developed a traumatic myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. Thrombolysis as well as coronary bypass grafting was contraindicated due to accompanying injuries. An attempted early coronary revascularization by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) failed due to dissection of the left interventricular coronary artery. Treatment of cardiac insufficiency was complicated by intraabdominal haemorrhage enforcing emergency laparotomy. Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation proved to be efficient in supporting circulation in these circumstances. The case report documents the practicability and importance of treating both myocardial ischaemia and attending injuries in an equivalent and coordinated manner in traumatic myocardial infarction.

  3. Transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized bFGF-incorporating stent activates resident cardiac stem cells via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guang-Wei; Wen, Ti; Gu, Tian-Xiang; Li-Ling, Jesse; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Ye; Liu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tian-Jun; Lue, Feng

    2012-02-15

    Objective: To investigate whether transmyocardial drilling revascularization combined with heparinized basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-incorporating degradable stent implantation (TMDRSI) can promote myocardial regeneration after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: A model of AMI was generated by ligating the mid-third of left anterior descending artery (LAD) of miniswine. After 6 h, the animals were divided into none-treatment (control) group (n = 6) and TMDRSI group (n = 6). For TMDRSI group, two channels with 3.5 mm in diameter were established by a self-made drill in the AMI region, into which a stent was implanted. Expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1{sub {alpha}} (SDF-1{sub {alpha}}) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), cardiac stem cell (CSC)-mediated myocardial regeneration, myocardial apoptosis, myocardial viability, and cardiac function were assessed at various time-points. Results: Six weeks after the operation, CSCs were found to have differentiated into cardiomyocytes to repair the infarcted myocardium, and all above indices showed much improvement in the TMDRSI group compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The new method has shown to be capable of promoting CSCs proliferation and differentiation into cardiomyocytes through activating the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, while inhibiting myocardial apoptosis, thereby enhancing myocardial regeneration following AMI and improving cardiac function. This may provide a new strategy for myocardial regeneration following AMI. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of TMDR and bFGF-stent on myocardial regeneration were studied in a pig model of AMI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TMDR and bFGF-stent implantation activated CSCs via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CSC-mediated myocardial regeneration improved cardiac function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It may be a new therapeutic strategy for AMI.

  4. Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds for Coronary Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Kereiakes, Dean J; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W; Stone, Gregg W

    2016-07-12

    Contemporary metallic drug-eluting stents are associated with very good 1-year outcomes but an ongoing risk of stent-related adverse events (thrombosis, myocardial infarction, restenosis) after 1 year. The pathogenesis of these very late events is likely related to the permanent presence of the metal stent frame or polymer. Bioresorbable scaffolds have been developed to provide drug delivery and mechanical support functions similar to metallic drug-eluting stents, followed by complete resorption with recovery of more normal vascular structure and function, potentially improving very late clinical outcomes. A first-generation bioresorbable scaffold has been demonstrated to be noninferior to a contemporary metallic drug-eluting stents for overall 1-year patient-oriented and device-oriented outcomes. Increased rates of scaffold thrombosis and target vessel-related myocardial infarction were noted that may be mitigated by improved patient and lesion selection, procedural technique, and device iteration. Large-scale, randomized, clinical trials are ongoing to determine the long-term relative efficacy and safety of bioresorbable scaffolds compared with current metallic drug-eluting stents.

  5. Revascularization versus medical therapy for renal-artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Keith; Ives, Natalie; Gray, Richard; Kalra, Philip A; Moss, Jonathan G; Baigent, Colin; Carr, Susan; Chalmers, Nicholas; Eadington, David; Hamilton, George; Lipkin, Graham; Nicholson, Anthony; Scoble, John

    2009-11-12

    Percutaneous revascularization of the renal arteries improves patency in atherosclerotic renovascular disease, yet evidence of a clinical benefit is limited. In a randomized, unblinded trial, we assigned 806 patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease either to undergo revascularization in addition to receiving medical therapy or to receive medical therapy alone. The primary outcome was renal function, as measured by the reciprocal of the serum creatinine level (a measure that has a linear relationship with creatinine clearance). Secondary outcomes were blood pressure, the time to renal and major cardiovascular events, and mortality. The median follow-up was 34 months. During a 5-year period, the rate of progression of renal impairment (as shown by the slope of the reciprocal of the serum creatinine level) was -0.07x10(-3) liters per micromole per year in the revascularization group, as compared with -0.13x10(-3) liters per micromole per year in the medical-therapy group, a difference favoring revascularization of 0.06x10(-3) liters per micromole per year (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.002 to 0.13; P=0.06). Over the same time, the mean serum creatinine level was 1.6 micromol per liter (95% CI, -8.4 to 5.2 [0.02 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.06]) lower in the revascularization group than in the medical-therapy group. There was no significant between-group difference in systolic blood pressure; the decrease in diastolic blood pressure was smaller in the revascularization group than in the medical-therapy group. The two study groups had similar rates of renal events (hazard ratio in the revascularization group, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.40; P=0.88), major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.19; P=0.61), and death (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.18; P=0.46). Serious complications associated with revascularization occurred in 23 patients, including 2 deaths and 3 amputations of toes or limbs. We found substantial risks but

  6. Experimental osteonecrosis of the lunate. Revascularization may cause collapse.

    PubMed

    Aspenberg, P; Wang, J S; Jonsson, K; Hagert, C G

    1994-10-01

    Is lunate collapse in Kienböck's disease a consequence of spontaneous revascularization, leading to focal osteolysis? A literature review of osteonecrosis in other locations such as the femoral head and bone allografts showed clearly that the loss of mechanical integrity is due to cellular processes which follow the spontaneous restoration of blood supply. We found no evidence in the literature that the lunate has been shown to be avascular at the time of collapse. On the contrary, increased osteoclastic activity has been reported. We excised and reimplanted the lunate in two monkeys, and found spontaneous revascularization, leading to increased osteoblastic activity. Other parts of the bone were destroyed by osteoclasts, leading to collapse. This histological example suggests that it may be possible to make an analogy with osteonecrosis in other locations. Thus, changes on plain radiography may indicate that the bone is revascularized spontaneously. Before performing operative revascularization of the lunate, one should consider that revascularization is a probable cause for collapse.

  7. Lower Extremity Revascularization in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Douglas W; Dansey, Kirsten; Hamdan, Allen D

    2016-11-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who present with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have become an increasingly common and complex treatment problem for vascular surgeons. Dialysis patients have high short-term mortality rates regardless of whether revascularization is pursued. ESRD patients with CLI can be managed with: local wound care, endovascular or surgical revascularization, or amputation. Some patients may heal small foot wounds with local wound care alone, even if distal perfusion is marginal, as long as any infectious process has been controlled. Surgical revascularization has a mortality rate of 5-10% but has a high chance of limb salvage. However, overall 5-year survival may be as low as 28%. Endovascular therapy also carries a high perioperative mortality risk in this population with similar limb salvage rates. Amputation is indicated in patients with advanced stage CLI, as described by the Society for Vascular Surgery's Wound, Ischemia and foot Infection (WIfI) system. Statistical models predict that endovascular or surgical revascularization strategies are less costly and more functionally beneficial to patients than primary amputation alone. Decisions on how to manage ESRD patients with CLI are complex but revascularization can often result in limb salvage, despite limited overall survival. Dialysis patients with good life expectancy and good quality conduit may benefit most from surgical bypass.

  8. Implications of ventricular arrhythmia "bursts" with normal epicardial flow, myocardial blush, and ST-segment recovery in anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction reperfusion: a biosignature of direct myocellular injury "downstream of downstream".

    PubMed

    Majidi, Mohamed; Kosinski, Andrzej S; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Smolders, Lilian; Cristea, Ecaterina; Lansky, Alexandra J; Stone, Gregg W; Mehran, Roxana; Gibbons, Raymond J; Crijns, Harry J; Wellens, Hein J; Gorgels, Anton P; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2015-02-01

    Establishing epicardial flow with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is necessary but not sufficient to ensure nutritive myocardial reperfusion. We evaluated whether adding myocardial blush grade (MBG) and quantitative reperfusion ventricular arrhythmia "bursts" (VABs) surrogates provide a more informative biosignature of optimal reperfusion in patients with Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 3 flow and ST-segment recovery (STR). Anterior STEMI patients with final TIMI 3 flow had protocol-blinded analyses of simultaneous MBG, continuous 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) STR, Holter VABs, and day 5-14 SPECT imaging infarct size (IS) assessments. Over 20 million cardiac cycles from >4500 h of continuous ECG monitoring in subjects with STR were obtained. IS and clinical outcomes were examined in patients stratified by MBG and VABs. VABs occurred in 51% (79/154) of subjects. Microcirculation (MBG 2/3) was restored in 75% (115/154) of subjects, of whom 53% (61/115) had VABs. No VABs were observed in subjects without microvascular flow (MBG of 0). Of 115 patients with TIMI 3 flow, STR, and MBG 2/3, those with VABs had significantly larger IS (median: 23.0% vs 6.0%, p=0.001). Multivariable analysis identified reperfusion VABs as a factor significantly associated with larger IS (p=0.015). Despite restoration of normal epicardial flow, open microcirculation, and STR, concomitant VABs are associated with larger myocardial IS, possibly reflecting myocellular injury in reperfusion settings. Combining angiographic and ECG parameters of epicardial, microvascular, and cellular response to STEMI intervention provides a more predictive "biosignature" of optimal reperfusion than do single surrogate markers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  9. Fractional Flow Reserve-Guided Multivessel Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Smits, Pieter C; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Boxma-de Klerk, Bianca M; Lunde, Ketil; Schotborgh, Carl E; Piroth, Zsolt; Horak, David; Wlodarczak, Adrian; Ong, Paul J; Hambrecht, Rainer; Angerås, Oskar; Richardt, Gert; Omerovic, Elmir

    2017-03-30

    In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to restore blood flow in an infarct-related coronary artery improves outcomes. The use of PCI in non-infarct-related coronary arteries remains controversial. We randomly assigned 885 patients with STEMI and multivessel disease who had undergone primary PCI of an infarct-related coronary artery in a 1:2 ratio to undergo complete revascularization of non-infarct-related coronary arteries guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR) (295 patients) or to undergo no revascularization of non-infarct-related coronary arteries (590 patients). The FFR procedure was performed in both groups, but in the latter group, both the patients and their cardiologist were unaware of the findings on FFR. The primary end point was a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, revascularization, and cerebrovascular events at 12 months. Clinically indicated elective revascularizations performed within 45 days after primary PCI were not counted as events in the group receiving PCI for an infarct-related coronary artery only. The primary outcome occurred in 23 patients in the complete-revascularization group and in 121 patients in the infarct-artery-only group that did not receive complete revascularization, a finding that translates to 8 and 21 events per 100 patients, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 0.55; P<0.001). Death occurred in 4 patients in the complete-revascularization group and in 10 patients in the infarct-artery-only group (1.4% vs. 1.7%) (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.25 to 2.56), myocardial infarction in 7 and 28 patients, respectively (2.4% vs. 4.7%) (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.22 to 1.13), revascularization in 18 and 103 patients (6.1% vs. 17.5%) (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.54), and cerebrovascular events in 0 and 4 patients (0 vs. 0.7%). An FFR-related serious adverse event occurred

  10. The History of Primary Angioplasty and Stenting for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Feit, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the management of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has been one of the crowning achievements of modern medicine. At the turn of the twentieth century, MI was an often-fatal condition. Prolonged bed rest served as the principal treatment modality. Over the past century, insights into the pathophysiology of MI revolutionized approaches to management, with the sequential use of surgical coronary artery revascularization, thrombolytic therapy, and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with primary coronary angioplasty, and placement of intracoronary stents. The benefits of prompt revascularization inspired systems of care to provide rapid access to PCI. This review provides a historical context for our current approach to primary PCI for acute MI.

  11. [Interest in myocardial scintigraphy following the arterial switch procedure for transposition of the great vessels].

    PubMed

    Acar, P; Maunoury, C; Bonnet, D; Sébahoun, S; Bonhoeffer, P; Hallaj, I; Aggoun, Y; Iserin, F; Sidi, D; Kachaner, J

    2001-05-01

    Coronary artery obstruction is the main late complication of the so-called arterial switch operation designed to repair transpositions of the great arteries in newborn infants by switching the great vessels and transferring the coronary ostia onto the posterior vessel. Our aim was to study the links between myocardial perfusion and coronary artery anatomy after the arterial switch operation. Forty-five patients (5.863 years) underwent a 201Tl myocardial SPECT and a selective coronary artery angiography. The latter was normal in 20 children: 13 had also a normal myocardial scan but 7 had myocardial perfusion defects including 2 with angina who had a very low coronary reserve at positron emission tomography. Twenty-five patients had severe coronary artery lesions: 5 with a normal myocardial scan and 20 with perfusion defects. Twelve out of these 20 underwent surgical revascularization and the SPECT images went back to normal in all within 6 months after surgery. Specificity and sensitivity of myocardial SPECT in detecting coronary artery lesions were 78% and 69% whereas positive and negative predictive values were 74 and 73%. We conclude that myocardial SPECT imaging is not the right way to detect late post arterial switch coronary artery lesions. It is helpful in decision making as to submit these children to surgical revascularization and in assessing its postoperative effectiveness.

  12. Impact of an Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist and Erythropoietin on Experimental Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Grothusen, Christina; Hagemann, Angelika; Attmann, Tim; Braesen, Jan; Broch, Ole; Cremer, Jochen; Schoettler, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Revascularization of infarcted myocardium results in release of inflammatory cytokines mediating myocardial reperfusion injury and heart failure. Blockage of inflammatory pathways dampens myocardial injury and reduces infarct size. We compared the impact of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra and erythropoietin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In contrast to others, we hypothesized that drug administration prior to reperfusion reduces myocardial damage. Methods and Results. 12–15 week-old Lewis rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia by a 1 hr occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. After 15 min of ischemia, a single shot of Anakinra (2 mg/kg body weight (bw)) or erythropoietin (5000 IE/kg bw) was administered intravenously. In contrast to erythropoietin, Anakinra decreased infarct size (P < 0.05, N = 4/group) and troponin T levels (P < 0.05, N = 4/group). Conclusion. One-time intravenous administration of Anakinra prior to myocardial reperfusion reduces infarct size in experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thus, Anakinra may represent a treatment option in myocardial infarction prior to revascularization. PMID:22649318

  13. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction in a pediatric patient with coronary aneurysm and stenosis due to Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Drossner, David M; Chappell, Clay; Rab, Tanveer; Kim, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    We report the case of an acutely ill 3-year-old female, with a previous medical history of Kawasaki disease, who presented to care with an acute myocardial infarction. We describe the coordinated therapies employed by pediatric and adult cardiologists aimed to establish coronary revascularization.

  14. Preliminary Report on the Safety and Efficacy of Staged versus Complete Revascularization in Patients with Multivessel Disease at the Time of Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Saad, Marwan; Rashed, Ahmed; El-Kilany, Wael; El-Haddad, Mohamed; Elgendy, Islam Y

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine the safety and efficacy of complete versus staged-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of nonculprit lesions at the time of primary PCI in patients with multivessel disease. Recent trials had suggested that revascularization of nonculprit lesions at the time of primary PCI is associated with better outcomes, however; the optimum timing and overall safety of this approach is not well known. An observational prospective study was conducted, including 50 patients who presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and found to have at least an additional nonculprit significant (> 70%) type A or B lesion. According to the operator's discretion, patients either underwent complete revascularization of nonculprit significant lesions during primary PCI procedure or within 60 days of primary PCI (staged-PCI). Safety outcomes evaluated were contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), the amount of contrast used, and fluoroscopy time. Efficacy outcome assessed was major adverse events (MACE) at 1 year. The fluoroscopy time and amount of contrast used were increased in complete revascularization group (35.3 ± 9.6 vs. 26.3 ± 6.7 minutes, p  < 0.001, and 219.5 ± 35.1 vs. 187.5 ± 45.5 mL, p  = 0.01, respectively); while incidence of CIN remained similar ( p  = 0.73). The incidence of MACE at 1 year was similar in both groups (23% in the complete revascularization group vs. 25% in the staged-PCI group, p  = 0.43). Complete revascularization and staged-PCI of nonculprit type A or B lesions at the time of primary PCI were associated with similar long-term outcomes and safety profile. Larger studies are needed to further validate these results.

  15. Association of Lower Fractional Flow Reserve Values With Higher Risk of Adverse Cardiac Events for Lesions Deferred Revascularization Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Masrani Mehta, Shriti; Depta, Jeremiah P; Novak, Eric; Patel, Jayendrakumar S; Patel, Yogesh; Raymer, David; Facey, Gabrielle; Zajarias, Alan; Lasala, John M; Singh, Jasvindar; Bach, Richard G; Kurz, Howard I

    2015-01-01

    Background The safety of deferring revascularization based on fractional flow reserve (FFR) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is unclear. We evaluated the association of FFR and adverse cardiac events among patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR in the setting of ACS versus non-ACS. Methods and Results The study population (674 patients; 816 lesions) was divided into ACS (n=334) and non-ACS (n=340) groups based on the diagnosis when revascularization was deferred based on FFR values >0.80 between October 2002 and July 2010. The association and interaction between FFR and clinical outcomes was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models within each group (mean follow-up of 4.5±2.1 years). Subsequent revascularization of a deferred lesion was classified as a deferred lesion intervention (DLI), whereas the composite of DLI or myocardial infarction (MI) attributed to a deferred lesion was designated as deferred lesion failure (DLF). In the non-ACS group, lower FFR values were not associated with any increase in adverse cardiac events. In the ACS group, every 0.01 decrease in FFR was associated with a significantly higher rate of cardiovascular death, MI, or DLI (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.12), MI or DLI (HR, 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.14), DLF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18), MI (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.14), and DLI (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.18). Conclusion Lower FFR values among ACS patients with coronary lesions deferred revascularization based on FFR are associated with a significantly higher rate of adverse cardiac events. This association was not observed in non-ACS patients. PMID:26289346

  16. Management of a Nonvital Young Permanent Tooth by Pulp Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vidya; Sivadas, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% This report presents the case of a 10-year-old patient with a nonvital young permanent tooth which was managed by pulp revascularization. Following disinfection of the canal by irrigation with NaOCl and use of a triantibiotic paste, a scaffold was created by inducing the formation of a blood clot within the canal. At the subsequent follow-up visits, the patient was asymptomatic, with normal response to percussion, normal periodontal probing depths, and no abnormal mobility. The radiographs showed evidence of continued apical root development with increase in root length, signs of apical closure and increase in thickness of dentinal walls. Thus, this case adds to the growing evidence supporting the revascularization approach as an option for management of nonvital young permanent teeth. How to cite this article: Chandran V, Chacko V, Sivadas G. Management of a Nonvital Young Permanent Tooth by Pulp Revascularization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):213-216. PMID:25709305

  17. Pulp revascularization in an immature necrotic tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Richard; Park, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Immature permanent teeth damaged by caries or trauma can present a challenge to dentistry. Currently, triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline is used to attempt revascularization in necrotic immature teeth. Therefore, the purpose of this report was to present a case of pulp revascularization in an immature necrotic tooth. An 8-year-old male presented with trauma to the permanent maxillary left and right central incisors. Upon clinical and radiographic examination, the left central incisor was deemed necrotic. Revascularization therapy was performed over multiple visits. At 11 months follow-up, healing of the periapical area and apexogenesis were found to be complete. With an increasing breadth of clinical evidence and practitioner acceptance, regenerative techniques may become a standard technique in treating immature necrotic permanent teeth.

  18. Clinical complications in the revascularization of immature necrotic permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Basma; Alvaro, Emanuel; Vu, Duy-Dat; Rizkallah, Jean; Schwartz, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report on the use of a technique of revascularization for necrotic immature permanent teeth, several problems encountered, and solutions to those problems. Eighteen pulp revascularizations were performed in 2009 using the original protocol of revascularization (adapted from the AAE/AAPD joint meeting in 2007 in Chicago). The protocol consisted of opening the canal and disinfecting it with sodium hypochlorite, sealing in a triple antibiotic paste for 2-6 weeks, re-opening, re-irrigating, creating a blood clot in the canal, and sealing with an MTA barrier over the clot. Three problems were encountered during the treatment: (1) bluish discoloration of the crown; (2) failure to produce bleeding; and (3) collapse of the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) material into the canal. Modifications to solve these problems included: changing one of the antibiotics, using a local anesthesia without epinephrine, and adding collagen matrix to the blood clot.

  19. [Hyperkalemia after arterial revascularization in a patient undergoing arm replantation].

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Norie; Nakasuji, Masato; Nomura, Masataka; Yoshioka, Miwako; Miyata, Taeko; Tanaka, Masuji

    2014-12-01

    A 25-year-old man was admitted for arm replantation. His left upper arm was completely amputated by conveyer belt Anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg), rocuronium (50 mg), remifentanil (0.15 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and maintained with sevoflurane (1-2%) and remifentanil (0.1-0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The plastic surgeons revascularized subclavian artery quickly but blood pressure decreased to 40-50 mmHg because of massive bleeding and plasma potassium concentration reached 5.8 mEq x l(-1). Noradrenaline (0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and massive albumin on behalf of red blood cells were administered. After we treated hyperkalemia and hypotension, the subclavian vein was successfully revascularized. We should maintain low potassium concentration before revascularization in patients undergoing arm replantation.

  20. The STRATEGY Study (Stress Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Versus Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography for the Management of Symptomatic Revascularized Patients): Resources and Outcomes Impact.

    PubMed

    Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Guaricci, Andrea I; Rota, Cristina; Guglielmo, Marco; Mushtaq, Saima; Baggiano, Andrea; Beltrama, Virginia; Fusini, Laura; Solbiati, Anna; Segurini, Chiara; Conte, Edoardo; Gripari, Paola; Annoni, Andrea; Formenti, Alberto; Petulla', Maria; Lombardi, Federico; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Pepi, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    Computed tomography coronary angiography (cTCA) and stress cardiac magnetic resonance (stress-CMR) are suitable tools for diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients with previous history of revascularization. However, performance appraisal of noninvasive tests must take in account the consequent diagnostic testing, invasive procedures, clinical outcomes, radiation exposure, and cumulative costs rather than their diagnostic accuracy only. We aimed to compare an anatomic (cTCA) versus a functional (stress-CMR) strategy in symptomatic patients with previous myocardial revascularization procedures. Six hundred patients with chest pain and previous revascularization included in a prospective observational registry and evaluated by clinically indicated cTCA (n=300, mean age 68.2±9.7 years, male 255) or stress-CMR (n=300, mean age 67.6±9.7 years, male 263) were enrolled and followed-up in terms of subsequent noninvasive tests, invasive coronary angiography, revascularization procedures, cumulative effective radiation dose, major adverse cardiac events, defined as a composite end point of nonfatal myocardial infarction and cardiac death, and medical costs. The mean follow-up for cTCA and stress-CMR groups was similar (773.6±345 versus 752.8±291 days; P=0.21). Compared with stress-CMR, cTCA was associated with a higher rate of subsequent noninvasive tests (28% versus 17%; P=0.0009), invasive coronary angiography (31% versus 20%; P=0.0009), and revascularization procedures (24% versus 16%; P=0.007). Stress-CMR strategy was associated with a significant reduction of radiation exposure and cumulative costs (59% and 24%, respectively; P<0.001). Finally, patients undergoing stress-CMR showed a lower rate of major adverse cardiac events (5% versus 10%; P<0.010) and cost-effectiveness ratio (119.98±250.92 versus 218.12±298.45 Euro/y; P<0.001). Compared with cTCA, stress-CMR is more cost-effective in symptomatic revascularized patients. © 2016

  1. Evolution in practice patterns and long-term outcomes of coronary revascularization from bare-metal stent era to drug-eluting stent era in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Hiroki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Makiyama, Takeru; Ono, Koh; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Kadota, Kazushige; Onodera, Tomoya; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Kita, Toru; Sakata, Ryuzo; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanyu, Michiya; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Yamazaki, Fumio; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2014-05-15

    Treatment of coronary artery disease has significantly changed over the past decade including an introduction of drug-eluting stents and a more stringent adherence to evidence-based medications. However, the impact of these advanced treatment methods on the practice patterns and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing coronary revascularization in the real world has not been yet fully evaluated. The present study population consisted of the 2 groups of patients who underwent their first coronary revascularization in the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto Registry Cohort-1 (bare-metal stent era: January 2000 to December 2002, n = 8,986) and Cohort-2 (drug-eluting stent era: January 2005 to December 2007, n = 10,339). Compared with Cohort-1, the proportion of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention significantly increased in Cohort-2 (73% vs 81%, p <0.001), particularly for 3-vessel disease (50% vs 61%, p <0.001) and left main disease (18% vs 36%, p <0.001). Evidence-based medications were more frequently used in Cohort-2. The cumulative 2-year incidence of and the adjusted risk for all-cause death were not significantly different between Cohort-1 and Cohort-2 (6.2% vs 6.4%, p = 0.69, and hazard ratio [HR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81 to 1.03, p = 0.15). Adjusted risks for both myocardial infarction and repeated coronary revascularization were significantly reduced in Cohort-2 compared with Cohort-1 (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96, p = 0.02, and HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.77, p <0.001, respectively). In conclusion, despite changes in treatment methods over time, the long-term mortality of patients undergoing coronary revascularization in the real-world clinical practice has not been changed, although there was a significant reduction of myocardial infarction and repeated coronary revascularization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Left subclavian artery revascularization as part of thoracic stent grafting.

    PubMed

    Saouti, Nabil; Hindori, Vikash; Morshuis, William J; Heijmen, Robin H

    2015-01-01

    Intentional covering of the left subclavian artery (LSA) as part of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) can cause (posterior) strokes or left arm malperfusion. LSA revascularization can be done as prophylaxis against, or as treatment of, these complications. We report our experience with the surgical technique, indications and the results of LSA revascularization. Between 2000 and 2013, 51 patients of 444 patients who were treated by TEVAR, had LSA revascularization. All elective patients had a preoperative work-up with magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the circle of Willis. In all, surgical access was through a left supraclavicular incision only. The majority (90%) had prophylactic LSA revascularization because of incomplete circle of Willis and or dominant left vertebral artery (LVA) (n=29), patent left internal mammary artery (n=1), prevention spinal cord ischaemia (SCI) (n=2), prevention left arm ischaemia due to small LVA (n=2) and LVA origin in arch (n=1). Fourteen percent had secondary revascularization, either immediate because of malperfusion of the left arm (n=2) or late after TEVAR because of persisting left arm claudication (n=5). In 12 patients, the following early complications were observed: re-exploration for bleeding, n=1; left recurrent nerve paralysis, n=2; left phrenic nerve paralysis, n=1; left sympathetic chain neuropraxia, resulting in Horner's syndrome, n=3; Chyle duct lesions, resulting in persistent Chyle leakage, n=3. Neither strokes nor SCI was observed. One patient experienced occlusion of the bypass at 6 months. The present study shows that the procedure of LSA revascularization as part of TEVAR is safe with low morbidity consisting of mainly (transient) nerve palsy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants and prognostic significance of collaterals in patients undergoing coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Nathoe, Hendrik M; Koerselman, Jeroen; Buskens, Erik; van Dijk, Diederik; Stella, Pieter R; Plokker, Thijs H W; Doevendans, Pieter A F M; Grobbee, Diederick E; de Jaegere, Peter P T

    2006-07-01

    There is evidence that coronary collaterals improve the prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, there is limited clinical information on the protective role of collaterals in patients with stable coronary artery disease. This information may help risk stratification and the development of novel therapies, such as arteriogenesis and angiogenesis. The relation between collaterals and cardiac death or MI at 1 year after coronary revascularization was studied in 561 patients who were enrolled in a randomized study that compared stent implantation with bypass grafting. Collaterals were assessed on an angiogram using Rentrop's classification and considered present with a Rentrop grade >1. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for cardiac death or MI at 1 year were calculated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. In addition, determinants of collaterals were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Collaterals were present in 176 patients (31%). The adjusted odds ratio of cardiac death or infarction was 0.18 (95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.78) in the presence of collaterals. Independent determinants of collaterals were age (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.99), multivessel disease (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 2.51), impaired ventricular function (odds ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 3.29), type C lesion (odds ratio 3.72, 95% confidence interval 2.33 to 5.95), and stenosis severity >90% (odds ratio 9.08, 95% confidence interval 4.65 to 17.73). In conclusion, in patients with a low risk profile, the presence of collaterals protects against cardiac death and MI at 1 year after coronary revascularization. Variables that reflect the duration and severity of the atherosclerotic and ischemic burden determine their presence.

  4. The use of reperfusion and revascularization procedures in acute coronary syndrome in Portugal: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Conceição, Luísa; Pereira, Marta; Araújo, Carla; Laszczýnska, Olga; Lunet, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana

    2014-11-01

    Reperfusion and revascularization therapies play an important role in the management of coronary heart disease and have contributed to decreases in case fatality rates. We aimed to describe the use of these therapies for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients over time in Portugal. PubMed was searched in July 2012. The proportion of patients treated with fibrinolysis, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), any PCI and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was described according to type of ACS: STEMI (≥90% patients with ST-segment elevation or Q-wave myocardial infarction), NSTE-ACS (≥90% patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS) and mixed ACS (all others). We identified 41 eligible studies, published between 1989 and 2011. Twenty-eight reported on samples considered representative of ACS patients treated in Portugal. The small number of estimates of the use of each treatment in STEMI and NSTE-ACS patients precluded identification of any time trend. In the last 20 years, the proportion of mixed ACS patients treated with fibrinolysis decreased and the use of PCI increased, while the use of CABG did not change. The general pattern of the use of reperfusion and revascularization is in accordance with that reported in other developed countries, reflecting a favorable trend in the quality of care of ACS patients. The relatively small number of estimates on the same procedure in comparable patients limits the generalizability of the conclusions, and highlights the need for systematic approaches to monitor the use of treatments over time. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Directional Influences of Ventricular Activation on Myocardial Scar Characterization: Voltage Mapping With Multiple Wavefronts During Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation.

    PubMed

    Tung, Roderick; Josephson, Mark E; Bradfield, Jason S; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2016-08-01

    The effects of varying the wavefront of activation on ventricular scar characterization has not been systematically assessed. Patients referred for ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia underwent voltage maps during a minimum of 2 wavefronts of activation. The bipolar and unipolar low-voltage areas were compared, and direct electrogram analysis was performed in regions where discrepancies were seen. Concordance between wavefronts was measured by calculating percentage of overlap between maps. Sixty endocardial voltage maps (360±147 points) were performed in 29 patients during 2 distinct wavefronts, with 3 wavefronts in 7 patients. With median bipolar and unipolar low-voltage areas of 37 and 116 cm(2), respectively, 22% and 14% variability in median scar area was observed with a different activation wavefront. Concordance between wavefronts was lower in patients with mixed scar compared to those with dense scar (52% [interquartile range, 29%-70%] versus 84% [interquartile range, 71%-87%]), with septal scars exhibiting the lowest concordance [(27% (interquartile range, 21%-56%)]. Among 16 critical sites for ventricular tachycardia, 3 (18%) were in a discordant region of scar, with one of the wavefronts showing voltage >1.5 mV. Significant differences in bipolar and unipolar low-voltage characterization of scar were observed with different ventricular activation wavefronts, particularly in septal locations and in patients without dense scar. In patients with a paucity of dense, low-voltage regions identified during substrate mapping, an alternate activation wavefront may increase the sensitivity to detect arrhythmogenic substrate and critical sites for ventricular tachycardia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Revascularization/Regeneration performed in immature molars: case reports.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, I S; Akbay Oba, A; Erkmen Almaz, M

    2013-01-01

    These 3 case reports the outcome of revascularization treatment in necrotic immature molars. During treatment, a tri antibiotic mix was used to disinfect the pulp for 2 weeks. Then a blood clot was created in the canal, over which mineral trioxide aggregate was placed. After 24 months, the immature molars showed continuation of root development. The patients were asymptomatic, no sinus tracts were evident and apical periodontitis was resolved Results from these cases show that revascularization/regeneration using 3Mix-MP method could be effective for managing immature permanent molar teeth with pulpal necrosis.

  7. Results of infrapopliteal endovascular procedures performed in diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia and tissue loss from the perspective of an angiosome-oriented revascularization strategy.

    PubMed

    Acín, Francisco; Varela, César; López de Maturana, Ignacio; de Haro, Joaquín; Bleda, Silvia; Rodriguez-Padilla, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to describe our experience with infrapopliteal endovascular procedures performed in diabetic patients with ischemic ulcers and critical ischemia (CLI). A retrospective study of 101 procedures was performed. Our cohort was divided into groups according to the number of tibial vessels attempted and the number of patent tibial vessels achieved to the foot. An angiosome anatomical classification of ulcers were used to describe the local perfusion obtained after revascularization. Ischemic ulcer healing and limb salvage rates were measured. Ischemic ulcer healing at 12 months and limb salvage at 24 months was similar between a single revascularization and multiple revascularization attempts. The group in whom none patent tibial vessel to the foot was obtained presented lower healing and limb salvage rates. No differences were observed between obtaining a single patent tibial vessel versus more than one tibial vessel. Indirect revascularization of the ulcer through arterial-arterial connections provided similar results than those obtained after direct revascularization via its specific angiosome tibial artery. Our results suggest that, in CLI diabetic patients with ischemic ulcers that undergo infrapopliteal endovascular procedures, better results are expected if at least one patent vessel is obtained and flow is restored to the local ischemic area of the foot.

  8. Pulp revascularization for immature replanted teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagata, J Y; Rocha-Lima, T F; Gomes, B P; Ferraz, C C; Zaia, A A; Souza-Filho, F J; De Jesus-Soares, A

    2015-09-01

    Immature avulsed teeth are not usually treated with pulp revascularization because of the possibility of complications. However, this therapy has shown success in the treatment of immature teeth with periapical lesions. This report describes the case of an immature replanted tooth that was successfully treated by pulp revascularization. An 8-year-old boy suffered avulsion on his maxillary left lateral incisor. The tooth showed incomplete root development and was replanted after 30 minutes. After diagnosis, revascularization therapy was performed by irrigating the root canal and applying a calcium hydroxide paste and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, the intracanal dressing was removed and a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed as a cervical barrier at the entrance of the root canal and the crown was restored. During the follow-up period, periapical repair, apical closure and calcification in the apical 4 mm of the root canal was observed. An avulsed immature tooth replanted after a brief extra-alveolar period and maintained in a viable storage medium may be treated with revascularization. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  9. [Operations of revascularization in surgery of cerebrovascular aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Lemenev, V L; Dashyan, V G; Lukyanchikov, V A; Tokarev, A S; Nakhabin, O Yu; Polunina, N A; Senko, I V; Dalibaldyan, V A; Grigorieva, E V; Klimov, A B; Ryabukhin, V E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical revascularization of the brain is one of the most important trends in the development of neurosurgery. Restoration of adequate blood flow through pre- and intracerebral arteries promotes prevention and treatment of ischaemic lesions of the brain in various pathology. The present work was aimed at analysing the experience gained in performing revascularizing operations in patients with cerebral aneurysms at the department of neurosurgery. The authors analysed therapeutic outcomes in a total of 45 patients presenting with giant and complex aneurysms of cerebral arteries and treated from 2009 to 2014. Of the 45 patients with giant and complex aneurysms of cerebral arteries, 31 (68.8%) patients underwent open microsurgical interventions (including 10 patients with the use of different variants of revascularizing operation) and 14 (31.2%) patients were subjected to endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm from the blood flow. It was shown that performing revascularizing operations in patients with complex and giant aneurysms of cerebral arteries makes it possible to compensate circulation in the interested arterial basin and to obtain good functional results.

  10. Experimental comparison of bone revascularization by musculocutaneous and cutaneous flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.; Wood, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    Revascularization, one of the major components of bone healing, was examined in an experimental model. The radioactive microsphere technique demonstrated that after 4 weeks beneath a musculocutaneous flap, isolated bone segments had significant blood flow, whereas bone beneath a cutaneous flap did not. The muscle flap bone had a blood flow approximately half that of normal control bone. The muscle of the musculocutaneous flap had a blood flow three times that of the skin of the cutaneous flap. The bipedicle cutaneous flap used was designed to have a healthy blood supply, and at 4 weeks it had a blood flow twice that of control skin. Despite this, there was essentially no demonstrable blood flow in the cutaneous flap bone segments at 4 weeks. Only 3 of 17 bone segments underneath cutaneous flaps showed medullary vascularization, whereas 10 of 11 muscle flap bones did. All bone segments underneath muscle flaps showed osteoblasts and osteoclasts at 4 weeks; neither were seen in the cutaneous bone segments. The process of revascularization occurred through an intact cortex and penetrated into the cancellous bone. Because the bone segments were surrounded by an impervious barrier except for one cortical surface, the cellular activity seen is attributed to revascularization by the overlying flap. In this model, a muscle flap was superior to a cutaneous flap in revascularizing isolated bone segments at 4 weeks. This was documented by blood flow measured by the radioactive microsphere technique and by bone histology.

  11. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.

  12. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Julia L.; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A.

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described. PMID:24975870

  13. Remote revascularization of abdominal wall transplants using the forearm.

    PubMed

    Giele, H; Bendon, C; Reddy, S; Ramcharan, R; Sinha, S; Friend, P; Vaidya, A

    2014-06-01

    Primary abdominal wall closure following small bowel transplantation is frequently impossible due to contraction of the abdominal domain. Although abdominal wall transplantation was reported 10 years ago this, technique has not been widely adopted, partly due to its complexity, but largely because of concerns that storing the abdominal allograft until the end of a prolonged intestinal transplant procedure would cause severe ischemia-reperfusion injury. We report six cases of combined small bowel and abdominal wall transplantation where the ischemic time was minimized by remotely revascularizing the abdominal wall on the forearm vessels, synchronous to the intestinal procedure. When the visceral transplant was complete, the abdominal wall was removed from the forearm and revascularized on the abdomen (n = 4), or used to close the abdomen while still vascularized on the forearm (n = 2). Primary abdominal wall closure was achieved in all. Mean cold ischemia was 305 min (300-330 min), and revascularization on the arm was 50 min (30-60 min). Three patients had proven abdominal wall rejection, all treated successfully. Immediate revascularization of the abdominal wall allograft substantially reduces cold ischemia without imposing constraints on the intestinal transplant. Reducing storage time may also have benefits with respect to ischemia-reperfusion-related graft immunogenicity.

  14. Achieving timely percutaneous reperfusion for rural ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients by direct transport to an urban PCI-hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bennin, Charles-Lwanga K; Ibrahim, Saif; Al-Saffar, Farah; Box, Lyndon C; Strom, Joel A

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) guidelines recommend reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ≤ 90 min from time of first medical contact (FMC). This strategy is challenging in rural areas lacking a nearby PCI-capable hospital. Recommended reperfusion times can be achieved for STEMI patients presenting in rural areas without a nearby PCI-capable hospital by ground transportation to a central PCI-capable hospital by use of protocol-driven emergency medical service (EMS) STEMI field triage protocol. Methods Sixty STEMI patients directly transported by EMS from three rural counties (Nassau, Camden and Charlton Counties) within a 50-mile radius of University of Florida Health-Jacksonville (UFHJ) from 01/01/2009 to 12/31/2013 were identified from its PCI registry. The STEMI field triage protocol incorporated three elements: (1) a cooperative agreement between each of the rural emergency medical service (EMS) agency and UFHJ; (2) performance of a pre-hospital ECG to facilitate STEMI identification and laboratory activation; and (3) direct transfer by ground transportation to the UFHJ cardiac catheterization laboratory. FMC-to-device (FMC2D), door-to-device (D2D), and transit times, the day of week, time of day, and EMS shift times were recorded, and odds ratio (OR) of achieving FMC2D times was calculated. Results FMC2D times were shorter for in-state STEMIs (81 ± 17 vs. 87 ± 19 min), but D2D times were similar (37 ± 18 vs. 39 ± 21 min). FMC2D ≤ 90 min were achieved in 82.7% in-state STEMIs compared to 52.2% for out-of-state STEMIs (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.24–15.57; P = 0.018). FMC2D times were homogenous after adjusting for weekday vs. weekend, EMS shift times. Nine patients did not meet FMC2D ≤ 90 min. Six were within 10 min of target; all patient achieved FMC2D ≤ 120 min. Conclusions Guideline-compliant FMC2D ≤ 90 min is achievable for rural STEMI patients within a 50 mile radius of a PCI-capable hospital by use

  15. Achieving timely percutaneous reperfusion for rural ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients by direct transport to an urban PCI-hospital.

    PubMed

    Bennin, Charles-Lwanga K; Ibrahim, Saif; Al-Saffar, Farah; Box, Lyndon C; Strom, Joel A

    2016-10-01

    ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) guidelines recommend reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ≤ 90 min from time of first medical contact (FMC). This strategy is challenging in rural areas lacking a nearby PCI-capable hospital. Recommended reperfusion times can be achieved for STEMI patients presenting in rural areas without a nearby PCI-capable hospital by ground transportation to a central PCI-capable hospital by use of protocol-driven emergency medical service (EMS) STEMI field triage protocol. Sixty STEMI patients directly transported by EMS from three rural counties (Nassau, Camden and Charlton Counties) within a 50-mile radius of University of Florida Health-Jacksonville (UFHJ) from 01/01/2009 to 12/31/2013 were identified from its PCI registry. The STEMI field triage protocol incorporated three elements: (1) a cooperative agreement between each of the rural emergency medical service (EMS) agency and UFHJ; (2) performance of a pre-hospital ECG to facilitate STEMI identification and laboratory activation; and (3) direct transfer by ground transportation to the UFHJ cardiac catheterization laboratory. FMC-to-device (FMC2D), door-to-device (D2D), and transit times, the day of week, time of day, and EMS shift times were recorded, and odds ratio (OR) of achieving FMC2D times was calculated. FMC2D times were shorter for in-state STEMIs (81 ± 17 vs. 87 ± 19 min), but D2D times were similar (37 ± 18 vs. 39 ± 21 min). FMC2D ≤ 90 min were achieved in 82.7% in-state STEMIs compared to 52.2% for out-of-state STEMIs (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.24-15.57; P = 0.018). FMC2D times were homogenous after adjusting for weekday vs. weekend, EMS shift times. Nine patients did not meet FMC2D ≤ 90 min. Six were within 10 min of target; all patient achieved FMC2D ≤ 120 min. Guideline-compliant FMC2D ≤ 90 min is achievable for rural STEMI patients within a 50 mile radius of a PCI-capable hospital by use of protocol-driven EMS ground

  16. Impact of myocardial bridge on clinical outcome after coronary stent placement.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Kenichi; Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubo, Takashi; Castellanos, Celia; Liu, Jian; Yang, Junqing; Oviedo, Carlos; Franklin-Bond, Theresa; Sugirtharaj, Dorcas Deborah; Dangas, George D; Lansky, Alexandra J; Stone, Gregg W; Moses, Jeffrey W; Leon, Martin B; Mehran, Roxana

    2009-05-15

    Most intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-identifiable myocardial bridges (MBs) were not appreciated angiographically, especially when they occurred adjacent to fixed proximal obstructive disease. The impact of MB stent placement on clinical outcome was determined in 317 consecutive patients with obstructive left anterior descending coronary artery lesions undergoing coronary stent placement. In these patients, IVUS identified 70 MBs, defined as a segment of coronary artery with both systolic compression and perivascular echolucent muscle. IVUS showed that the stent extended into the MB segment beyond the obstructive lesion in 24 patients (34%; MB stent group), although significant plaque was not observed within any MB segment. In the remaining 46 patients, the left anterior descending artery stent was implanted in only the obstructive lesion, avoiding the distal MB segment (non-MB stent group). Minimum stent area was significantly smaller in the MB stent group than non-MB stent group (4.8 +/- 1.1 vs 5.8 +/- 1.8 mm(2); p = 0.02). Rates of target-lesion revascularization, target-vessel revascularization, and composite end point (death/myocardial infarction/target-lesion revascularization/target-vessel revascularization, evaluated at a mean follow-up of 358 +/- 252 days) were more common in patients with versus without MB stent placement. Specifically, target-lesion revascularization rates were 24% versus 3%, respectively (log-rank p = 0.003). In-stent restenosis occurred within the stented MB segment in 3 of 5 MB stent group patients who required target-lesion revascularization (60%). In conclusion, inadvertent MB stent placement in left anterior descending artery lesions occurred commonly and may have been associated with an increased incidence of late events.

  17. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    effectiveness and safety of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the assessment of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effectiveness of FDG PET viability imaging, the following outcomes are examined: the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET for predicting functional recovery; the impact of PET viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other patient outcomes); and the contribution of PET viability imaging to treatment decision making and subsequent patient outcomes. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by the heart’s inability to maintain adequate blood circulation through the body leading to multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. Patients with heart failure experience poor functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, more than 71,000 Canadians died from cardiovascular disease, of which, 54% were due to ischemic heart disease. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease (CAD)1 is the primary cause of heart failure accounting for more than 70% of cases. The prevalence of heart failure was estimated at one percent of the Canadian population in 1989. Since then, the increase in the older population has undoubtedly resulted in a substantial increase in cases. Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis: one-year mortality rates were 32.9% and 31.1% for men and women, respectively in Ontario between 1996 and 1997. Treatment Options In general, there are three options for the treatment of heart failure: medical treatment, heart transplantation, and revascularization for those with CAD as the underlying cause. Concerning medical treatment, despite recent advances, mortality remains high among treated patients, while, heart transplantation is affected by the limited availability of donor hearts and consequently has long

  18. Myocardial contusion in patients with blunt chest trauma as evaluated by thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, L.; Rouby, J.J.; Viars, P.

    1988-07-01

    Fifty five patients suffering from blunt chest trauma were studied to assess the diagnosis of myocardial contusion using thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy. Thirty-eight patients had consistent scintigraphic defects and were considered to have a myocardial contusion. All patients with scintigraphic defects had paroxysmal arrhythmias and/or ECG abnormalities. Of 38 patients, 32 had localized ST-T segment abnormalities; 29, ST-T segment abnormalities suggesting involvement of the same cardiac area as scintigraphic defects; 21, echocardiographic abnormalities. Sixteen patients had segmental hypokinesia involving the same cardiac area as the scintigraphic defects. Fifteen patients had clinical signs suggestive of myocardial contusion and scintigraphic defects. Almost 70 percent of patients with blunt chest trauma had scintigraphic defects related to areas of myocardial contusion. When thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy directly showed myocardial lesion, two-dimensional echocardiography and standard ECG detected related functional consequences of cardiac trauma.

  19. Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Imaging in Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Valotassiou, Varvara; Tsougos, Ioannis; Demakopoulos, Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease affecting about 13 million Americans, while more than one million percutaneous transluminal intervention (PCI) procedures are performed annually in the USA. The relative high occurrence of restenosis, despite stent implementation, seems to be the primary limitation of PCI. Over the last decades, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), has proven an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of CAD and patients' risk stratification, providing useful information regarding the decision about revascularization and is well suited to assess patients after intervention. Information gained from post-intervention MPI is crucial to differentiate patients with angina from those with exo-cardiac chest pain syndromes, to assess peri-intervention myocardial damage, to predict-detect restenosis after PCI, to detect CAD progression in non-revascularized vessels, to evaluate the effects of intervention if required for occupational reasons and to evaluate patients' long-term prognosis. On the other hand, chest pain and exercise electrocardiography are largely unhelpful in identifying patients at risk after PCI.Although there are enough published data demonstrating the value of myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients after PCI, there is still debate on whether or not these tests should be performed routinely.

  20. Myocardial protection of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gang-jie; Sun, Li-na; Li, Xing-hai; Wang, Ning-fu; Wu, Hong-hai; Yuan, Chen-xing; Li, Qiao-qiao; Xu, Peng; Ren, Ya-qi; Mao, Bao-gen

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore myocardial protection of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in pigs. 24 male pigs (34.6 ± 1.3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups-control group, drug therapy group, and ECMO group. Myocardial infarction model was created in drug therapy group and ECMO group by ligating coronary artery. When cardiogenic shock occurred, drugs were given in drug therapy group and ECMO began to work in ECMO group. The pigs were killed 24 h after cardiogenic shock. Compared with in drug therapy group, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in ECMO group decreased significantly 6 h after ligation (P < 0.05). At the end of the experiments, LV - dp/dt among three groups was significantly different, drug therapy group < ECMO group < control group. There was no difference in LV + dp/dt between drug therapy group and ECMO group. Compared with drug group, myocardial infarct size of ECMO group did not reduce significantly, but myocardial enzyme and troponin-I decreased significantly. Compared with drug therapy, ECMO improves left ventricular diastolic function, and may improve systolic function. ECMO cannot reduce myocardial infarct size without revascularization, but may have positive effects on ischemic areas by avoiding further injuring.

  1. Off-pump or on-pump beating heart: which technique offers better outcomes following coronary revascularization?

    PubMed

    Sepehripour, Amir H; Chaudhry, Umar A R; Harling, Leanne; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2015-04-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether on-pump beating heart coronary artery bypass (BH-ONCAB) surgery has a different outcome profile in comparison to off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB). A total of 205 papers were found by systematic search of which 7 provided the largest and most recent outcome analysis comparing BH-ONCAB with OPCAB, and represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results were tabulated. Reported outcome measures included mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, myocardial damage, change in ejection fraction, number of bypass grafts and completeness of revascularization. With the exception of one study that favoured the off-pump technique, our review did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in terms of mortality between the groups. We did not identify a statistically significant difference in any reported morbidity outcomes. However, there was a trend towards better outcomes for the on-pump beating heart technique, despite a higher risk profile in terms of age, ejection fraction and burden of coronary disease in this group. Consistent statistically significant differences between the groups were the mean number of grafts performed and the completeness of revascularization, both of which were higher with the on-pump beating heart technique. Limitations to the current evidence include the finding that most of the current data arise from specialist off-pump surgeons or centres that would usually only carry out BH-ONCAB in the higher risk patients where the added safety of cardiopulmonary bypass is desired.

  2. Direct Comparison of Four Very Early Rule-Out Strategies for Acute Myocardial Infarction Using High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I.

    PubMed

    Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Nestelberger, Thomas; Twerenbold, Raphael; Wildi, Karin; Badertscher, Patrick; Cupa, Janosch; Bürge, Tobias; Mächler, Patrick; Corbière, Sydney; Grimm, Karin; Rubini Giménez, Maria; Puelacher, Christian; Shrestha, Samyut; Flores Widmer, Dayana; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Hillinger, Petra; Sabti, Zaid; Honegger, Ursina; Schaerli, Nicolas; Kozhuharov, Nikola; Rentsch, Katharina; Miró, Òscar; López Barbeito, Beatriz; Martin-Sanchez, F Javier; Rodriguez-Adrada, Esther; Morawiec, Beata; Kawecki, Damian; Ganovská, Eva; Parenica, Jiri; Lohrmann, Jens; Kloos, Wanda; Buser, Andreas; Geigy, Nicolas; Keller, Dagmar I; Osswald, Stefan; Reichlin, Tobias; Müller, Christian

    2017-03-10

    Background -Four strategies for very early rule-out of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) have been identified. It remains unclear which strategy is most attractive for clinical application. Methods -We prospectively enrolled unselected patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms suggestive of AMI. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists. Hs-cTnI levels were measured at presentation and after 1h in a blinded fashion. We directly compared all four hs-cTnI-based rule-out strategies: limit of detection (LOD, hs-cTnI<2ng/L), single cut-off (hs-cTnI<5ng/L), 1h-algorithm (hs-cTnI<5ng/L and 1h-change<2ng/L), and the 0/1h algorithm recommended in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guideline combining LOD and 1h-algorithm. Results -Among 2828 enrolled patients, AMI was the final diagnosis in 451 (16%) patients. The LOD approach ruled-out 453 patients (16%) with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 99.2-100%), the single cut-off 1516 patients (54%) with a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% CI, 95.1-98.3%), the 1h-algorithm 1459 patients (52%) with a sensitivity of 98.4% (95% CI, 96.8-99.2%), and the 0/1h algorithm 1463 patients (52%) with a sensitivity of 98.4% (95% CI, 96.8-99.2%). Predefined subgroup analysis in early presenters (≤2h) revealed significantly lower sensitivity (94.2%, interaction p=0.03) of the single cut-off, but not the other strategies. Two-year survival was 100% with LOD and 98.1% with the other strategies (p<0.01 for LOD vs. each of the other strategies). Conclusions -All four rule-out strategies balance effectiveness and safety equally well. The single cut-off should not be applied in early presenters, while the three other strategies seem to perform well also in this challenging subgroup. Clinical Trial Registration -https://clinicaltrials.gov/ Identifier: NCT00470587.

  3. Mechanisms of cell survival in myocardial hibernation.

    PubMed

    Depre, Christophe; Vatner, Stephen F

    2005-04-01

    Myocardial hibernation represents a condition of regional ventricular dysfunction in patients with chronic coronary artery disease, which reverses gradually after revascularization. The precise mechanism mediating the regional dysfunction is still debated. One hypothesis suggests that chronic hypoperfusion results in a self-protecting downregulation in myocardial function and metabolism to match the decreased oxygen supply. An alternative hypothesis suggests that the myocardium is subject to repetitive episodes of ischemic dysfunction resulting from an imbalance between myocardial metabolic demand and supply that eventually creates a sustained depression of contractility. It is generally agreed that hibernating myocardium is submitted repeatedly to ischemic stress, and therefore one question persists: how do myocytes survive in the setting of chronic ischemia? The hallmark of hibernating myocardium is a maintained viability of the dysfunctional myocardium which relies on an increased uptake of glucose. We propose that, in addition to this metabolic adjustment, there must be molecular switches that confer resistance to ischemia in hibernating myocardium. Such mechanisms include the activation of a genomic program of cell survival as well as autophagy. These protective mechanisms are induced by ischemia and remain activated chronically as long as either sustained or intermittent ischemia persists.

  4. Completeness of revascularization and its impact on the outcomes of a staged approach of percutaneous coronary intervention followed by minimally invasive valve surgery for patients with concomitant coronary artery and valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Andrés M; Chandra, Ramesh; Gowani, Saqib A; Santana, Orlando; Mihos, Christos G; Kirtane, Ajay J; Stone, Gregg W; Kurlansky, Paul; Smith, Craig R; Beohar, Nirat

    2016-09-01

    A staged approach of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) followed by minimally invasive valve surgery (MIVS) is an alternative to the conventional combined coronary artery bypass and valve surgery for patients with concomitant coronary artery and valve disease. Limited data exist on degree of the completeness of revascularization achieved with this approach and its impact on outcomes. A total of 138 patients, who underwent a staged approach between January 2009 and June 2013, were retrospectively evaluated. Coronary angiograms were reviewed by two cardiologists blinded to outcomes and were then categorized into two groups: complete or incomplete revascularization, which was defined as ≥1 major epicardial coronary arteries of at least 2.0 mm diameter with ≥70% untreated obstruction after the index PCI and before MIVS. Complete and incomplete revascularization was achieved in 105 (76%) and 33 (24%) patients, respectively. The patients with incomplete revascularization had a lower ejection fraction, a higher STS score, and more prior myocardial infarctions and multi-vessel coronary artery disease. There were no differences in the post-operative complications, 30-day mortality, or 3-year survival (84 vs. 83%, P = 0.68). After a median follow-up of 29 months, incompletely revascularized patients had a higher incidence of acute coronary syndrome (2.9 vs. 12.9%, P = 0.05). In patients undergoing a staged approach of PCI followed by MIVS, incomplete revascularization did not significantly impact the short or mid-term survival, but was associated with an increased incidence of acute coronary syndrome at follow-up. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Effect of cardiac rehabilitation in ischemic patients not undergoing coronary revascularization].

    PubMed

    Leyva Gómez, M A; Ramírez Reyes Orduña, H A

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation program was implemented on 65 patients rejected for bypass surgery and/or coronary angioplasty. The group was formed by 63 males (96.9%), 2 females (3.0). Their ages ranged from 54.5 +/- 8.7 year (mean +/- SD). Their risk's factors, were (RF): cigarette smoking, 25 patients (38.6%), hypercholesterolemia 47 (72.3%), hypertriglyceridemia 48 (73.8%), hypertension 33 (50.7%), diabetes mellitus 33 (46.1%), myocardial infarction 56 (86.1%). Coronary arteriography showed one vessel disease (25.5%), two vessels (38.3%) and three (36.1%). Ejection fraction (EF) > 50% in 39 (60%). The features evaluated were: number of obstructed vessels, (EF) and age. One patient died, fifty two (80%) were asymptomatic ten showed stable angina (15.3%) and three (4.6%) unstable angina. Tobacco addiction decreased by 92%. Hypertension was controlled in 42.2%. Hypercholesterolemia was normalized in 82.9%. Hypertriglyceridemia improved in 53%. Oxygen uptake VO2 and Oxygen pulse PO2 improved in 42 patients (64.6%). Cardiac rehabilitation is a good alternative to improve quality of life in patients in whom a coronary revascularization is not feasible.

  6. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. [Female sex is not an independent risk factor in mortality during myocardial revascularization].

    PubMed

    Bergerone, S; Brscic, E; Comoglio, C; Aidala, E; Lascala, E; Pansini, S; Di Summa, M; Brusca, A

    1997-12-01

    To assess if female sex is an independent risk factor for perioperatory mortality and morbidity, we have evaluated 971 consecutive patients (16% women) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery at the Cardiovascular Disease Institution of the University of Turin from 1988 to 1990. In this study at baseline women were older and more likely to have diabetes, lower ventricular score and body surface area than men. As compared to men, women underwent surgery with delay: the surgical mortality rate and prevalence of arrhythmias were higher, and the size of the left anterior descending was smaller. At univariate analysis perioperative risk factors were as follows: age, diabetes, clinical instability, low body surface area, perioperatory infarction, postoperative infections, extracorporeal circulation time and left coronary size. At multivariate analysis only diabetes, left ventricular score, left anterior descending coronary size and emergency surgery were independent risk factors while sex, age and body surface area were not predictors of perioperatory mortality and morbidity. It is concluded that gender is not the cause of worse outcome in women.

  8. [Anesthetic maintenance during myocardial revascularization in patients over 70 years of age].

    PubMed

    Trekova, N A; Aksel'rod, B A; Shmyrin, M M; Zaĭtseva, S V; Aleksandrova, E N

    2010-01-01

    The authors performed a comparative retrospective analysis of preoperative and intraoperative periods in 50 patients aged 70-83 years with coronary heart disease (CHD). A control group comprised the similar patients aged 40-59 years. The geriatric patients showed a higher incidence of arterial hypertension, respiratory and central nervous system diseases, cardiac arrhythmias, and anemia as an outcome. In CHD patients aged 70-80 years, balanced general anesthesia based on lower-dose midazolam and fentanyl, on subnarcotic-dose ketamine during the metered use of isoflurane and adequate infusion therapy provided reasonable hemodynamic stability during the induction of anesthesia and the preperfiusion period without administering cardiotonic agents. Intraoperatively, there was a more pronounced reduction in pulmonary oxygenizing function, body temperature and more needs for cardiotonic and diuretic therapy and erythrocyte mass after the basic stage of surgery.

  9. Lung exposure during simultaneous myocardial revascularization and lung surgery through median sternotomy

    PubMed Central

    Jagielak, Dariusz; Pawlaczyk, Rafal; Siondalski, Piotr; Rzyman, Witold; Rogowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is a frequent comorbidity in patients undergoing major thoracic surgery. Simultaneous operations eliminate the necessity of a second operation and, more importantly, minimize the delay in compulsory postoperative oncological therapy. We describe a relaxing incision in the contralateral pericardium, which allows for simple displacement of the heart. This maneuver improves exposure of the pulmonary hilum and middle mediastinum on the side of resection. PMID:28096827

  10. An Integrated Approach to von Willebrand Disease and Surgical Myocardial Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Jiritano, Federica; Cristodoro, Lucia; Bevacqua, Egidio; Malta, Emanuele; Mastroroberto, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac surgery in patients with preexisting bleeding disorders can be a challenge. Cardiopulmonary bypass can lead to bleeding disorders, above all in patients with coagulopathy. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman, with type I von Willebrand disease, who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Beating heart surgery associated with an adequate replacement of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII levels were chosen to prevent bleeding disorders. Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged home after 5 postoperative days. PMID:26693126

  11. Clopidogrel use After Myocardial Revascularization: Prevalence, Predictors, and One-Year Survival Rate

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Paulo Roberto L.; Williams, Judson B.; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Thomas, Laine; Smith, Peter K.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Alexander, John H.; Lopes, Renato D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) has been used. Little is known about the predictors and efficacy of clopidogrel in this scenario. Objective Identify predictors of clopidogrel following CABG. Methods We evaluated 5404 patients who underwent CABG between 2000 and 2009 at Duke University Medical Center. We excluded patients undergoing concomitant valve surgery, those who had postoperative bleeding or death before discharge. Postoperative clopidogrel was left to the discretion of the attending physician. Adjusted risk for 1-year mortality was compared between patients receiving and not receiving clopidogrel during hospitalization after undergoing CABG. Results At hospital discharge, 931 (17.2%) patients were receiving clopidogrel. Comparing patients not receiving clopidogrel at discharge, users had more comorbidities, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and cerebrovascular disease. Patients who received aspirin during hospitalization were less likely to receive clopidogrel at discharge (P≤0.0001). Clopidogrel was associated with similar 1-year mortality compared with those who did not use clopidogrel (4.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.72). There was, however, an interaction between the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and clopidogrel, with lower 1-year mortality in patients undergoing off-pump CABG who received clopidogrel, but not those undergoing conventional CABG (2.6% vs 5.6%, P Interaction = 0.032). Conclusion Clopidogrel was used in nearly one-fifth of patients after CABG. Its use was not associated with lower mortality after 1 year in general, but lower mortality rate in those undergoing off-pump CABG. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the benefit of routine use of clopidogrel in CABG. PMID:27556308

  12. [Increased vascular density with indirect myocardial revascularization in normal rat hearts].

    PubMed

    Riera-Kinkel, Carlos; Argüero-Sánchez, Rubén; Foyo-Niembro, Enrique; Castellanos, Emilio; Bravo-Ontiveros, Patricia; García-Hernández, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar si la interacción de los métodos de revascularización miocárdica incrementa el área vascular funcional. Métodos: se realizó un estudio con un diseño factorial de 4x3 en 11 grupos, de cinco ratas por grupo, diez muestras por rata, evaluado a 45 días del posoperatorio, con las diferentes combinaciones quirúrgicas. La magnitud de la interacción fue evaluada tanto por inmunoexpresión del factor vascular de crecimiento derivado del endotelio, factor de crecimiento de fibroblastos y receptor de tirosina, para permitir la actividad del factor vascular de crecimiento derivado del endotelio, factor de crecimiento de fibroblastos y trombina (Flk-1), así como de la medición del área vascular; ambas medidas fueron realizadas por morfometría computarizada. Resultados: se identificó un incremento de la expresión inmunohistoquímica y del área vascular en proporción directa con la interacción; se puede afirmar (ANOVA p < 0.0001), que con la interacción de todas las maniobras se logra el efecto máximo. Conclusiones: se demuestra que la revascularización miocárdica indirecta tiene un peso especifico dentro de la revascularización miocárdica integral con un impacto real en el costo-beneficio y el costo-efectividad.

  13. Open perilunate injury with lunate revascularization after complete ligamentous avulsion

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Dillon; Tiedeken, Nathan C.; Ayzenberg, Mark; Raphael, James

    2014-01-01

    Perilunate dislocations are a devastating injury to the carpus that carry a guarded long-term prognosis. Mayfield type 4 perilunate dislocations are rare, high-energy injuries that carry a risk for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the lunate. When AVN ensues and the carpus collapses, primary treatment with a proximal row carpectomy or arthrodesis has been advocated. This case reports a successful clinical result and revascularization of an extruded lunate with open reduction and internal fixation. This type 4, Gustilo grade 1 open perilunate dislocation exhibited complete avulsion of all lunate ligamentous attachments. Management included open reduction and internal fixation as well as carpal tunnel release through a combined dorsal and volar approach. Despite concerns for lunate AVN due to complete disruption of lunate vascularity, a 10-month postoperative clinical and radiographic examination demonstrated no pain with activities of daily living as well as a revascularized lunate. PMID:24876511

  14. Revascularization in severe left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Eric J; Bonow, Robert O

    2015-02-17

    The highest-risk patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are those with ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction≤35%). The cornerstone of treatment is guideline-driven medical therapy for all patients and implantable device therapy for appropriately selected patients. Surgical revascularization offers the potential for improved survival and quality of life, particularly in patients with more extensive multivessel disease and the greatest degree of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and remodeling. These are also the patients at greatest short-term risk of mortality with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The short-term risks of surgery need to be balanced against the potential for long-term benefit. This review discusses the evolving data on the role of surgical revascularization, surgical ventricular reconstruction, and mitral valve surgery in this high-risk patient population.

  15. Development of a high-volume, multiple-operator program for percutaneous chronic total coronary occlusion revascularization: procedural, clinical, and cost-utilization outcomes.

    PubMed

    Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Lembo, Nicholas; Kalynych, Anna; Carlson, Harold; Lombardi, William L; Anderson, Chad N; Rinehart, Sarah; Kirkland, Ben; Shemwell, Kathie C; Kandzari, David E

    2013-07-01

    Development of a specialized chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) revascularization program attentive to procedural guidelines, quality oversight, and cost/resource utilization has not been described. A single-center CTO interventional program was initiated with requirements including: extensive didactic training, on-site proctorship, routine determination of case appropriateness, adherence to procedural safety guidelines, and a 2-operator/case approach. Clinical and angiographic characteristics, procedural outcomes, in-hospital clinical events, and cost/resource utilization were examined. Among 145 patients, 160 consecutive CTO revascularization procedures were attempted between October 2009 and December 2010. Selected procedural and technical characteristics included: bilateral femoral access, 90.0%; planned retrograde guidewire placement, 37.5%; re-entry catheter, 10.0%; reattempt, 10.6%; fluoroscopic time, 67.4 ± 45.5 min; contrast volume, 403 ± 215 mL. Average stent number and total stent length per CTO vessel were 2.6 ± 1.1 and 64.7 ± 30.7 mm, respectively. Overall CTO success rate was 85.6% (137/160). In-hospital adverse outcomes included: death 0.6%; emergency bypass surgery, 0.6%; tamponade, 0.6%; myocardial infarction, 1.9%; transient nephropathy, 1.2%. Compared with patients undergoing non-CTO PCI, procedural and total cost per patient were significantly higher among the CTO cohort despite overall similar contribution margins ($5,173 ± 12,052 versus $5,730 ± 8,958, P = 0.58). Following initiation of a dedicated program with implementation of quality and performance guidelines, complex CTO revascularization may be safely performed with outcomes comparable with reports from established centers. Despite higher resource utilization, CTO revascularization is associated with a positive contribution margin. Requirement of educational and performance standards, mentorship from experts, consensus review for appropriateness and provision of catheterization

  16. Trends in Outcomes of Revascularization for Left Main Coronary Disease or Three-Vessel Disease With the Routine Incorporation of Fractional Flow Reserve in Real Practice.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jung-Min; Yoon, Sung-Han; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Pil Hyung; Chang, Mineok; Park, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jong-Young; Kang, Soo-Jin; Park, Duk-Woo; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Han, Seungbong; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2015-10-15

    Impact of fractional flow reserve guidance on revascularization strategies and outcomes for severe coronary artery disease was unclear. We evaluate changes in treatment strategy and clinical outcomes and to compare the effectiveness between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with second-generation drug-eluting stents and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in severe coronary artery disease patients before and after routine use of FFR. From January 2008 to December 2011, we enrolled 2,612 patients with significant left main coronary artery disease or 3-vessel disease. We obtained data of patients before (from January 2008 to December 2009) and after (January 2010 to December 2011) the routine use of FFR. We used propensity score matching to compare the rate of primary outcomes (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat revascularization [Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral event; MACCE]) at 1 year. Introduction of routine FFR use reduced the proportion of patients receiving CABG from 54% to 43% (p <0.001). The risk of MACCE before routine FFR use was significantly higher in the PCI group than the CABG group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 3.03, p = 0.021), whereas that after routine FFR use was not significantly different between the groups (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.59 to 2.52, p = 0.59). The risk of MACCE in patients receiving revascularization lowered after routine FFR use compared with that before (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.85, p = 0.005). In conclusion, routine incorporation of FFR resulted in improved PCI outcomes, comparable with concurrent CABG in patients with severe coronary artery disease who received revascularization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ten year experience with infrainguinal revascularization for limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Klamer, T W; George, S M; Lambert, G E

    1996-07-01

    Revascularization is the only alternative to amputation for patients with severe, symptomatic infrainguinal ischemia. It is the purpose of this study to determine the success of revascularization as defined by limb salvage in a personal 10-year operative experience. Primary infrainguinal bypass procedures were performed on 312 threatened limbs of 271 consecutive patients in the period between January 1, 1983, and December 31, 1992. Repeat revascularization was performed for failing/failed grafts as long as the extremity was viable and an outflow vessel could be found by either preoperative or intraoperative angiography. Ten patients died within 30 days of the primary procedure (4%) and the 5-year patient survival was 57%. Major amputations (AK or BK) were performed on 50 extremities over the 10-year period; cumulative 72-month limb salvage was 72%. Fifty-eight of the 312 extremities (19%) required 81 reoperations for failing/failed grafts, including a second procedure in 58, a third procedure in 14, and a fourth procedure in 9. Graft occlusions in which revision was either not attempted or was ultimately unsuccessful occurred in 72 extremities and led to 44 amputations. Cumulative primary and secondary graft patency for autologous conduit was clearly superior to nonautologous conduit (57% and 67% vs 20% and 21% respectively at 60 months). We believe that this approach to infrainguinal revascularization is warranted as the mortality is low and the likelihood of success is high. A long term commitment to careful postoperative surveillance is mandatory as reintervention is frequently required to maintain graft patency and limb salvage.

  18. Successful treatment of a young woman with acute complicated myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Serpytis, Pranas; Kibarskis, Aleksandras; Katkus, Rimgaudas; Samalavicius, Robertas; Glaveskaite, Sigita; Rackauskas, Gediminas

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is method used to improve the neurological status of patients who are at risk of ischaemia after myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 28-year-old woman who suffered acute myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular fibrillation. The patient was successfully resuscitated. Invasive and non-invasive medical treatment was applied including therapeutic hypothermia. Success was achieved due to adequate public reaction, fast transportation, blood vessel revascularization and application of therapeutic hypothermia. The patient was successfully discharged after one week of treatment, and just minor changes in heart function were present. PMID:24570755

  19. T-cadherin Is Essential for Adiponectin-mediated Revascularization*

    PubMed Central

    Parker-Duffen, Jennifer L.; Nakamura, Kazuto; Silver, Marcy; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Tigges, Ulrich; Yoshida, Sumiko; Denzel, Martin S.; Ranscht, Barbara; Walsh, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue secretes protein factors that have systemic actions on cardiovascular tissues. Previous studies have shown that ablation of the adipocyte-secreted protein adiponectin leads to endothelial dysfunction, whereas its overexpression promotes wound healing. However, the receptor(s) mediating the protective effects of adiponectin on the vasculature is not known. Here we examined the role of membrane protein T-cadherin, which localizes adiponectin to the vascular endothelium, in the revascularization response to chronic ischemia. T-cadherin-deficient mice were analyzed in a model of hind limb ischemia where blood flow is surgically disrupted in one limb and recovery is monitored over 28 days by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. In this model, T-cadherin-deficient mice phenocopy adiponectin-deficient mice such that both strains display an impaired blood flow recovery compared with wild-type controls. Delivery of exogenous adiponectin rescued the impaired revascularization phenotype in adiponectin-deficient mice but not in T-cadherin-deficient mice. In cultured endothelial cells, T-cadherin deficiency by siRNA knockdown prevented the ability of adiponectin to promote cellular migration and proliferation. These data highlight a previously unrecognized role for T-cadherin in limb revascularization and show that it is essential for mediating the vascular actions of adiponectin. PMID:23824191

  20. Endovascular revascularization and free tissue transfer for lower limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chieh-Chi; Chang, Chien-Hwa; Hsu, Honda; Mark Chiu, Chih-Hung; Lin, Chih-Ming; Lee, Jiunn-Tat; Chien, Sou-Hsin

    2014-10-01

    Combined bypass surgery with free flap reconstruction is an established method for lower limb salvage. But the success of the combination of endovascular revascularization together with free tissue transfer has so far not been well established. A retrospective review of all patients who had undergone endovascular revascularization and reconstructed with free tissue transfer for lower limb salvage at Tzu Chi Dalin General Hospital between 2008 and 2012 was performed. A total of 26 legs underwent limb salvage in 24 patients. There were 10 male and 14 female patients. Their average age was 71.4 years. The average time interval between endovascular intervention and free tissue transfer was 8 days. There was 100% flap survival but partial flap necrosis was seen in three patients. A high rate of wound infection was seen in eight patients, all requiring further debridement. The total limb salvage rate at 1-year follow-up was 96% and 92% at the 2-year follow-up. In conclusion, the success rate of lower limb salvage using a combination of endovascular revascularization and free tissue reconstruction is comparable to using a combination of bypass surgery and free tissue transfer. It is associated with a high flap success rate and a high limb salvage rate. It provides physicians with a further treatment option in the management of ischemic lower limbs with extended tissue loss.

  1. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves revascularization in chronic ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Luedike, Peter; Totzeck, Matthias; Kropp, Martina; Schicho, Andreas; Stock, Pia; Rammos, Christos; Niessen, Michael; Heiss, Christian; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2012-10-16

    Revascularization is an adaptive repair mechanism that restores blood flow to undersupplied ischemic tissue. Nitric oxide plays an important role in this process. Whether dietary nitrate, serially reduced to nitrite by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity and subsequently to nitric oxide and other nitrogen oxides, enhances ischemia-induced remodeling of the vascular network is not known. Mice were treated with either nitrate (1 g/L sodium nitrate in drinking water) or sodium chloride (control) for 14 days. At day 7, unilateral hind-limb surgery with excision of the left femoral artery was conducted. Blood flow was determined by laser Doppler. Capillary density, myoblast apoptosis, mobilization of CD34(+)/Flk-1(+), migration of bone marrow-derived CD31(+)/CD45(-), plasma S-nitrosothiols, nitrite, and skeletal tissue cGMP levels were assessed. Enhanced green fluorescence protein transgenic mice were used for bone marrow transplantation. Dietary nitrate increased plasma S-nitrosothiols and nitrite, enhanced revascularization, increased mobilization of CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) and migration of bone marrow-derived CD31(+)/CD45(-) cells to the site of ischemia, and attenuated apoptosis of potentially regenerative myoblasts in chronically ischemic tissue. The regenerative effects of nitrate treatment were abolished by eradication of the nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity through the use of an antiseptic mouthwash. Long-term dietary nitrate supplementation may represent a novel nutrition-based strategy to enhance ischemia-induced revascularization.

  2. Coronary revascularization in the elderly with stable angina

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Kirill Lenarovich; Bogachev, Aleksandr Andreevich

    2015-01-01

    A proportion of elderly with coronary artery disease is rapidly growing. They have more severe coronary artery disease, therefore, derive more benefit from revascularization and have a greater need for it. The elderly is a heterogeneous group, but compared to the younger cohort, the choice of the optimal revascularization method is much more complicated among them. In recent decades, results has improved dramatically both in surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), even in very old persons. Despite the lack of evidence in elderly, it is obvious, that coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has a more pronounced effect on long-term survival in price of more strokes, while PCI is certainly less invasive. Age itself is not a criterion for the selection of treatment strategy, but the elderly are often more interested in quality of life and personal independence instead of longevity. This article discusses the factors that influence the choice of the revascularization method in the elderly with stable angina and presents a complex algorithm for making an individual risk-benefit profile. As a consequence the features of CABG and PCI in elderly patients are exposed. Emphasis is centered on the frailty and non-medical factors, including psychosocial, as essential components in making the decision of what strategy to choose. Good communication with the patients and giving them unbiased information is encouraged. PMID:26512248

  3. The role of endoglin in post-ischemic revascularization.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Gómez, Elena; Pericacho, Miguel; Ollauri-Ibáñez, Claudia; Bernabéu, Carmelo; López-Novoa, José M

    2017-02-01

    Following arterial occlusion, blood vessels respond by forming a new network of functional capillaries (angiogenesis), by reorganizing preexisting capillaries through the recruitment of smooth muscle cells to generate new arteries (arteriogenesis) and by growing and remodeling preexisting collateral arterioles into physiologically relevant arteries (collateral development). All these processes result in the recovery of organ perfusion. The importance of endoglin in post-occlusion reperfusion is sustained by several observations: (1) endoglin expression is increased in vessels showing active angiogenesis/remodeling; (2) genetic endoglin haploinsufficiency in humans causes deficient angiogenesis; and (3) the reduction of endoglin expression by gene disruption or the administration of endoglin-neutralizing antibodies reduces angiogenesis and revascularization. However, the precise role of endoglin in the several processes associated with revascularization has not been completely elucidated and, in some cases, the function ascribed to endoglin by different authors is controversial. The purpose of this review is to organize in a critical way the information available for the role of endoglin in several phenomena (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and collateral development) associated with post-ischemic revascularization.

  4. Evaluation, severity and prognostic significance of silent myocardial ischaemia in vascular patients.

    PubMed

    Sprynger, M

    2003-06-01

    This paper intends to make an update of recent publications and guidelines for evaluation in coronary symptom-free patients undergoing vascular surgery. It emphasizes the role of preoperative clinical evaluation that should identify the most appropriate testing, and treatment strategies to optimize care of the patient and avoid unnecessary testing in this era of cost containment. Selective preoperative coronary artery disease screening and revascularization achieve excellent perioperative and late results after high-risk vascular surgery. Supplemental preoperative evaluation is discussed (exercise ECG, stress echocardiography and stress tomoscintigraphy). Asymptomatic patients with good functional capacity can undergo intermediate-risk surgery without further non-invasive testing. Conversely, further noninvasive testing is often considered for patients with poor functional capacity or moderate functional capacity but higher-risk surgery especially for patients with 2 or more intermediate risk predictors. Additional testing may be considered on an individual basis for patients without clinical markers but with poor functional capacity prior to vascular surgery, particularly those with several minor clinical risk predictors. Because of a higher prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia in diabetes mellitus, these patients require specific care. Until further data are available, indications for myocardial revascularization in the perioperative setting are similar to those in the ACC/AHA guidelines for use of myocardial revascularization in general. General practitioners, cardiologists, angiologists, vascular surgeons and anaesthesiologists should collaborate and aim to slow down the progression of atherosclerosis by giving their patients an optimum secondary cardiovascular prevention.

  5. Niacin promotes revascularization and recovery of limb function in diet-induced obese mice with peripheral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Pang, Dominic K T; Nong, Zengxuan; Sutherland, Brian G; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Robson, Debra L; Toma, Jelena; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Borradaile, Nica M

    2016-06-01

    Niacin can reduce vascular disease risk in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but in light of recent large randomized controlled trials outcomes, its biological actions and clinical utility remain controversial. Niacin can improve endothelial function, vascular inflammation, and vascular regeneration, independent of correcting dyslipidemia, in various lean rodent models of vascular injury. Here, we tested whether niacin could directly improve endothelial cell angiogenic function during combined exposure to excess fatty acids and hypoxia, and whether intervention with niacin during continued feeding of western diet could improve revascularization and functional recovery in obese, hyperlipidemic mice with peripheral ischemia. Treatment with niacin (10 μmol/L) increased human microvascular endothelial cell angiogenic function during exposure to high fatty acids and hypoxia (2% oxygen), as determined by tube formation on Matrigel. To assess revascularization in vivo, we used western diet-induced obese mice with unilateral hind limb femoral artery ligation and excision. Treatment for 14 days postinjury with once daily i.p. injections of a low dose of niacin (50 mg/kg) improved recovery of hind limb use, in association with enhanced revascularization and decreased inflammation of the tibialis anterior muscle. These effects were concomitant with decreased plasma triglycerides, but not increased plasma apoAI. Thus, niacin improves endothelial tube formation under lipotoxic and hypoxic conditions, and moreover, promotes revascularization and functional hind limb recovery following ischemic injury in diet-induced obese mice with hyperlipidemia. These data may have implications for niacin therapy in the treatment of peripheral ischemic vascular disease associated with metabolic syndrome.

  6. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2016 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manesh R; Calhoon, John H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Grantham, James Aaron; Maddox, Thomas M; Maron, David J; Smith, Peter K

    2017-03-06

    ) indicate that coronary revascularization may be appropriate for the clinical scenario. Seventeen clinical scenarios were developed by a writing committee and scored by the rating panel: 10 were identified as appropriate, 6 as may be appropriate, and 1 as rarely appropriate. As seen with the prior coronary revascularization AUC, revascularization in clinical scenarios with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were considered appropriate. Likewise, clinical scenarios with unstable angina and intermediate- or high-risk features were deemed appropriate. Additionally, the management of nonculprit artery disease and the timing of revascularization are now also rated. The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of practice patterns that will hopefully improve physician decision making.

  7. Human Umbilical Cord Blood for Transplantation Therapy in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Sandra A; Franzese, Nick; Staples, Meaghan; Weinbren, Nathan L.; Babilonia, Monica; Patel, Jason; Merchant, Neil; Simancas, Alejandra Jacotte; Slakter, Adam; Caputo, Mathew; Patel, Milan; Franyuti, Giorgio; Franzblau, Max H.; Suarez, Lyanne; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Diamandis, Theo; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Tajiri, Naoki; Sanberg, Paul R.; Kaneko, Yuji; Miller, Leslie W.; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising therapy for myocardial infarction. Endogenous repair of the heart muscle after myocardial infarction is a challenge because adult cardiomyocytes have a limited capacity to proliferate and replace damaged cells. Pre-clinical and clinical evidence has shown that cell based therapy may promote revascularization and replacement of damaged myocytes after myocardial infarction. Adult stem cells can be harvested from different sources including bone marrow, skeletal myoblast, and human umbilical cord blood cells. The use of these cells for the repair of myocardial infarction presents various advantages over other sources of stem cells. Among these are easy harvesting, unlimited differentiation capability, and robust angiogenic potential. In this review, we discuss the milestone findings and the most recent evidence demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with gene therapy, highlighting the importance of optimizing the timing, dose and delivery methods, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of action that will guide the clinical entry of this innovative treatment for ischemic disorders, specifically myocardial infarction. PMID:24307973

  8. Human Umbilical Cord Blood for Transplantation Therapy in Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Sandra A; Franzese, Nick; Staples, Meaghan; Weinbren, Nathan L; Babilonia, Monica; Patel, Jason; Merchant, Neil; Simancas, Alejandra Jacotte; Slakter, Adam; Caputo, Mathew; Patel, Milan; Franyuti, Giorgio; Franzblau, Max H; Suarez, Lyanne; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Diamandis, Theo; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Tajiri, Naoki; Sanberg, Paul R; Kaneko, Yuji; Miller, Leslie W; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2013-07-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising therapy for myocardial infarction. Endogenous repair of the heart muscle after myocardial infarction is a challenge because adult cardiomyocytes have a limited capacity to proliferate and replace damaged cells. Pre-clinical and clinical evidence has shown that cell based therapy may promote revascularization and replacement of damaged myocytes after myocardial infarction. Adult stem cells can be harvested from different sources including bone marrow, skeletal myoblast, and human umbilical cord blood cells. The use of these cells for the repair of myocardial infarction presents various advantages over other sources of stem cells. Among these are easy harvesting, unlimited differentiation capability, and robust angiogenic potential. In this review, we discuss the milestone findings and the most recent evidence demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with gene therapy, highlighting the importance of optimizing the timing, dose and delivery methods, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of action that will guide the clinical entry of this innovative treatment for ischemic disorders, specifically myocardial infarction.

  9. Mechanics of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium: effects of acute and chronic myocardial edema.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ketaki V; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H; Cox, Charles S; Quick, Christopher M; Allen, Steven J; Fischer, Uwe M

    2008-06-01

    Myocardial interstitial edema forms as a result of several disease states and clinical interventions. Acute myocardial interstitial edema is associated with compromised systolic and diastolic cardiac function and increased stiffness of the left ventricular chamber. Formation of chronic myocardial interstitial edema results in deposition of interstitial collagen, which causes interstitial fibrosis. To assess the effect of myocardial interstitial edema on the mechanical properties of the left ventricle and the myocardial interstitium, we induced acute and chronic interstitial edema in dogs. Acute myocardial edema was generated by coronary sinus pressure elevation, while chronic myocardial edema was generated by chronic pulmonary artery banding. The pressure-volume relationships of the left ventricular myocardial interstitium and left ventricular chamber for control animals were compared with acutely and chronically edematous animals. Collagen content of nonedematous and chronically edematous animals was also compared. Generating acute myocardial interstitial edema resulted in decreased left ventricular chamber compliance compared with nonedematous animals. With chronic edema, the primary form of collagen changed from type I to III. Left ventricular chamber compliance in animals made chronically edematous was significantly higher than nonedematous animals. The change in primary collagen type secondary to chronic left ventricular myocardial interstitial edema provides direct evidence for structural remodeling. The resulting functional adaptation allows the chronically edematous heart to maintain left ventricular chamber compliance when challenged with acute edema, thus preserving cardiac function over a wide range of interstitial fluid pressures.

  10. Revascularization heart team recommendations as an adjunct to appropriate use criteria for coronary revascularization in patients with complex coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Carlos E; Dota, Anthony; Badhwar, Vinay; Kliner, Dustin; Smith, A J Conrad; Chu, Danny; Toma, Catalin; Wei, Lawrence; Marroquin, Oscar C; Schindler, John; Lee, Joon S; Mulukutla, Suresh R

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate how a comprehensive evidence-based clinical review by a multidisciplinary revascularization heart team on treatment decisions for revascularization in patients with complex coronary artery disease using SYNTAX scores combined with Society of Thoracic Surgeons-derived clinical variables can be additive to the utilization of Appropriate Use Criteria for coronary revascularization. Decision-making regarding the use of revascularization for coronary artery disease has come under major scrutiny due to inappropriate overuse of revascularization. There is little data in routine clinical practice evaluating how a structured, multidisciplinary heart team approach may be used in combination with the Appropriate Use Criteria for revascularization. From May 1, 2012 to January 1, 2015, multidisciplinary revascularization heart team meetings were convened to discuss evidence-based management of 301 patients with complex coronary artery disease. Heart team recommendations were adjudicated with the Appropriate Use Criteria for coronary revascularization for each clinical scenario using the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions' Quality Improvement Toolkit (SCAI-QIT) Appropriate Use Criteria App. Concordance of the Heart Team to Appropriate Use Criteria had a 99.3% appropriate primary indication for coronary revascularization. Among patients who underwent percutaneous revascularization, 34.9% had an inappropriate or uncertain indication as recommended by the Heart Team. Patients with uncertain or inappropriate percutaneous coronary interventions had significantly higher SYNTAX score (27.3 ± 6.6; 28.5 ± 5.5; 19.2 ± 6; P < 0.0001) and Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Predicted Risk of Mortality (6.1% ± 4.7%; 8.1% ± 6.3%; 3.7% ± 4.1%; P < 0.0081) compared to appropriate indications, frequently had concomitant forms of advanced comorbidities and frailty in the setting of symptomatic coronary artery disease. A formal

  11. Infarct evolution in man studied in patients with first-time coronary occlusion in comparison to different species - implications for assessment of myocardial salvage

    PubMed Central

    Hedström, Erik; Engblom, Henrik; Frogner, Fredrik; Åström-Olsson, Karin; Öhlin, Hans; Jovinge, Stefan; Arheden, Håkan

    2009-01-01

    Background The time course of infarct evolution, i.e. how fast myocardial infarction (MI) develops during coronary artery occlusion, is well known for several species, whereas no direct evidence exists on the evolution of MI size normalized to myocardium at risk (MaR) in man. Despite the lack of direct evidence, current literature often refers to the "golden hour" as the time during which myocardial salvage can be accomplished by reperfusion therapy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how duration of myocardial ischemia affects infarct evolution in man in relation to previous animal data. Consecutive patients with clinical signs of acute myocardial ischemia were screened and considered for enrollment. Particular care was taken to assure uniformity of the patients enrolled with regard to old MI, success of revascularization, collateral flow, release of biochemical markers prior to intervention etc. Sixteen patients were ultimately included in the study. Myocardium at risk was assessed acutely by acute Myocardial Perfusion Single photon emission computed tomography (MPS) and by T2 imaging (T2-STIR) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) after one week in 10 of the 16 patients. Infarct size was measured by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) at one week. Results The time to reach 50% MI of the MaR (T50) was significantly shorter in pigs (37 min), rats (41 min) and dogs (181 min) compared to humans (288 min). There was no significant difference in T50 when using MPS compared to T2-STIR (p = 0.53) for assessment of MaR (288 ± 23 min vs 310 ± 22 min, T50 ± standard error). The transmural extent of MI increased progressively as the duration of ischemia increased (R2 = 0.56, p < 0.001). Conclusion This is the first study to provide direct evidence of the time course of acute myocardial infarct evolution in relation to MaR in man with first-time MI. Infarct evolution in man is significantly slower than in pigs, rats and dogs. Furthermore, infarct

  12. Predictors of cardiac death in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion not revascularized by PCI.

    PubMed

    Godino, Cosmo; Bassanelli, Giorgio; Economou, Fotios I; Takagi, Kensuke; Ancona, Marco; Galaverna, Stefano; Mangieri, Antonio; Magni, Valeria; Latib, Azeem; Chieffo, Alaide; Carlino, Mauro; Montorfano, Matteo; Cappelletti, Alberto; Margonato, Alberto; Colombo, Antonio

    2013-09-30

    Limited data are available on clinical outcome of patients with previously failed or not attempted chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of the study is to determine prevalence and predictors of cardiac death in patients with CTO not revascularized by PCI. Double-center study analyzing data of 1.345 consecutive patients with at least one CTO between 1998 and 2008. Of these, 847 patients were successfully revascularized (Revascularized group) and 498 patients were not revascularized (Not revascularized group) either due to failure of CTO-PCI (n=337) or because no attempt was made (n=161). At 4-year clinical follow-up, Not revascularized patients had a significantly higher rate of cardiac mortality (8.5% vs. 2.5%, p<0.0001) and sudden cardiac death (2.7% vs. 0.5%, p=0.001) compared to those Revascularized. The separate adjusted Cox-model analysis made for Not revascularized patients showed the most significant independent predictors of cardiac death were: chronic renal failure [HR (CI), 6.0 (2.66-13.80)], low-LVEF [5.7 (2.84-11.58)], insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) 4.6 [(1.96-10.97)]. In the Revascularized group, the presence of 3-vessel disease was the only significant independent predictor of cardiac death [4.4 (1.40-13.70)]. CTO patients Not revascularized had a significant higher rate of cardiac mortality and sudden cardiac death compared to those Revascularized. Within Not revascularized patients, the presence of low-LVEF, or CRF or IDDM was associated with an incidence of cardiac death at least 4 times higher than those without the same risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Myocardial ischemia and ventricular arrhythmia].

    PubMed

    Vester, E G

    1998-01-01

    A relation between myocardial ischemia and induction of ventricular arrhythmias can be demonstrated in patients with coronary heart disease--in contrast to patients with primary non ischemic cardiac diseases--using a combined metabolic-electrophysiological investigation protocol consisting of programmed atrial and ventricular stimulation with simultaneous measurement of the arterio/coronary venous difference for lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids and amino acids. There are significant metabolic distinctions between both ischemic and non ischemic heart disease under pacing stress conditions as well as at rest. Areas of "hibernating myocardium" resp. "mismatch" zones in the myocardium showing reduced or abolished perfusion and preserved metabolism during scintographic SPECT/PET studies, may be found more often in patients with ventricular tachycardias (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the chronic post myocardial infarction state than in patients without VT/VF. The proof of such zones may be considered a possible risk factor for arrhythmic events and sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction. Hereby the concept of an interaction between acute and chronic ischemia triggering the onset of polymorphic VT or VF gaines increasing acceptance. In contrast, monomorphic reentrant VT are usually generated in the border zone of scarred areas where islands of vital fibers are surrounded by fibrotic tissue. These arrhythmogenic origin regions are characterized by a "match" pattern presenting a comparably severe reduction of perfusion and metabolism. Under those circumstances a control resp. suppression of the VT focus can only be provided by interventional techniques like catheter ablation, antitachycardiac surgery or implantation of a cardioverter/defibrillator beyond antiarrhythmic drug therapy. An antiischemic causal treatment (bypass surgery or angioplasty) represents for maximal 40% of patients with ischemically induced ventricular arrhythmias an adequate and

  14. Are there differences in late outcome after PTCA for angina pectoris after non-Q wave vs Q wave myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Brueren, B R; Rosseel, M P; Bal, E T; Mast, E G; Ernst, J M; Suttorp, M J; Kelder, J C; Plokker, H W

    1997-12-01

    Revascularization is thought to improve prognosis better if ischaemia persists after so-called non-Q wave myocardial infarction, than after Q-wave myocardial infarction, because it is assumed that prognosis is better where there is less left ventricular function loss. This study evaluates the differences in clinical outcome between patients with Q wave and those with non-Q wave myocardial infarction who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty because of recurrent ischaemia. We retrospectively analysed two consecutive groups of patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for ischaemia after either a non-Q wave (n = 175) or a Q wave (n = 175) myocardial infarction, and who were followed for 4 years. Initial angioplasty success rates were similar in both groups. At follow-up there were no significant differences between the two patient groups in rates of death (9% vs 11%, P = ns), myocardial infarction (3% vs 7%, P = ns) and target vessel revascularization by repeat percutaneous angioplasty (11% vs 15%, P = ns) or coronary bypass surgery (both 7%). We conclude that elective coronary angioplasty in patients with angina pectoris after non-Q wave myocardial infarction does not lead to a better prognosis than after Q wave myocardial infarction. Thus, management strategies after myocardial infarction should not be based on the absence or presence of Q waves on the electrocardiogram.

  15. Diurnal variations in myocardial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bray, Molly S; Young, Martin E

    2008-07-15

    The heart is challenged by a plethora of extracellular stimuli over the course of a normal day, each of which distinctly influences myocardial contractile function. It is therefore not surprising that myocardial metabolism also oscillates in a time-of-day dependent manner. What is becoming increasingly apparent is that the heart exhibits diurnal variations in its intrinsic properties, including responsiveness to extracellular stimuli. This article summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanism(s) mediating diurnal variations in myocardial metabolism. Particular attention is focused towards the intramyocardial circadian clock, a cell autonomous molecular mechanism that appears to regulate myocardial metabolism both directly (e.g. triglyceride and glycogen metabolism) and indirectly (through modulation of the responsiveness of the myocardium to workload, insulin, and fatty acids). In doing so, the circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte allows the heart to anticipate environmental stimuli (such as changes in workload, feeding status) prior to their onset. This synchronization between the myocardium and its environment is enhanced by regular feeding schedules. Conversely, loss of synchronization may occur through disruption of the circadian clock and/or diurnal variations in neurohumoral factors (as observed during diabetes mellitus). Here, we discuss the possibility that loss of synchronization between the heart and its environment predisposes the heart to metabolic maladaptation and subsequent myocardial contractile dysfunction.

  16. miR-34a Modulates Angiotensin II-Induced Myocardial Hypertrophy by Direct Inhibition of ATG9A Expression and Autophagic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Ye, Jing; Pan, Wei; Zhong, Yun; Cheng, Chuanfang; You, Xiangyu; Liu, Benrong; Xiong, Longgen; Liu, Shiming

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by thickening myocardium and decreasing in heart chamber volume in response to mechanical or pathological stress, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. This study investigated altered miRNA expression and autophagic activity in pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. A rat model of myocardial hypertrophy was used and confirmed by heart morphology, induction of cardiomyocyte autophagy, altered expression of autophagy-related ATG9A, LC3 II/I and p62 proteins, and decrease in miR-34a expression. The in vitro data showed that in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by Ang II, miR-34a expression was downregulated, whereas ATG9A expression was up-regulated. Moreover, miR-34a was able to bind to ATG9A 3′-UTR, but not to the mutated 3′-UTR and inhibited ATG9A protein expression and autophagic activity. The latter was evaluated by autophagy-related LC3 II/I and p62 levels, TEM, and flow cytometry in rat cardiomyocytes. In addition, ATG9A expression induced either by treatment of rat cardiomyocytes with Ang II or ATG9A cDNA transfection upregulated autophagic activity and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in both morphology and expression of hypertrophy-related genes (i.e., ANP and β-MHC), whereas knockdown of ATG9A expression downregulated autophagic activity and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. However, miR-34a antagonized Ang II-stimulated myocardial hypertrophy, whereas inhibition of miR-34a expression aggravated Ang II-stimulated myocardial hypertrophy (such as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy-related ANP and β-MHC expression and cardiomyocyte morphology). This study indicates that miR-34a plays a role in regulation of Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by inhibition of ATG9A expression and autophagic activity. PMID:24728149

  17. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Myocardial Infarction, Viability, and Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    West, Amy M.; Kramer, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance provides the opportunity for a truly comprehensive evaluation of patients with a history of MI, with regards to characterizing the extent of disease, impact on LV function and degree of viable myocardium. The use of contrast-enhanced CMR for first-pass perfusion and late gadolinium enhancement is a powerful technique for delineating areas of myocardial ischemia and infarction. Using a combination of T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced CMR images, information about the acuity of an infarct can be obtained. There is an extensive amount of literature using contrast-enhanced CMR to predict myocardial functional recovery with revascularization in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathies. In addition, CMR imaging in patients with cardiomyopathies can distinguish between ischemic and non-ischemic etiologies, with the ability to further characterize the underlying pathology for non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. PMID:20197150

  18. Prediction of Left Ventricular Remodeling after a Myocardial Infarction: Role of Myocardial Deformation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huttin, Olivier; Coiro, Stefano; Selton-Suty, Christine; Juillière, Yves; Donal, Erwan; Magne, Julien; Sadoul, Nicolas; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick; Girerd, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Aims Left ventricular (LV) adverse or reverse remodeling after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is the best outcome to assess the benefit of revascularization. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) may accurately identify early deformation impairment, while also being predictive of LV remodeling during follow-up. This systematic analysis aimed to provide a comprehensive review of current findings on STE as a predictor of LV remodeling after MI. Methods PubMed databases were searched through December 2014 to identify studies in adults targeting the association between LV remodeling and STE. Meta-regression was performed for longitudinal analysis. Results A total of 23 prospective studies (3066 patients) were found eligible. Eleven studies reported an association between STE and adverse remodeling and twelve studies with reverse remodeling. Using peak systolic longitudinal strain, the most accurate cut-off to predict adverse remodeling and reverse remodeling ranged from -12.8% to -10.2% and from -13.7% to -9.5%, respectively. In smaller studies, assessment of circumferential strain and torsion showed additive value in predicting remodeling. Meta-regression analysis revealed that longitudinal STE was associated with adverse remodeling (pooled univariable OR = 1.27, 1.17–1.38, p<0.001; pooled multivariable OR = 1.38, 1.13–1.70, p = 0.002) while pooled ORs of longitudinal STE only tended to predict reverse remodeling (pooled OR = 0.75, 0.54–1.06, p = 0.09). Conclusions This systematic review suggests that STE is associated with changes in LV volume or function regardless of underlying mechanisms and deformation direction. Meta-regression demonstrates a strong association between peak longitudinal systolic strain and adverse remodeling. Added STE predictive value over other clinical, biological and imaging variables remains to be proven. PMID:28036335

  19. Functional Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the Assessment of Myocardial Viability and Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness safety and cost-effectiveness of using functional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. Results Functional MRI has become increasingly investigated as a noninvasive method for assessing myocardial viability and perfusion. Most patients in the published literature have mild to moderate impaired LV function. It is possible that the severity of LV dysfunction may be an important factor that can alter the diagnostic accuracy of imaging techniques. There is some evidence of comparable or better performance of functional cardiac MRI for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion compared with other imaging techniques. However limitations to most of the studies included: Functional cardiac MRI studies that assess myocardial viability and perfusion have had small sample sizes. Some studies assessed myocardial viability/perfusion in patients who had already undergone revascularization, or excluded patients with a prior MI (Schwitter et al., 2001). Lack of explicit detail of patient recruitment. Patients with LVEF >35%. Interstudy variability in post MI imaging time(including acute or chronic MI), when patients with a prior MI were included. Poor interobserver agreement (kappa statistic) in the interpretation of the results. Traditionally, 0.80 is considered “good”. Cardiac MRI measurement of myocardial perfusion to as an adjunct tool to help diagnose CAD (prior to a definitive coronary angiography) has also been examined in some studies, with methodological limitations, yielding comparable results. Many studies examining myocardial viability and perfusion report on the accuracy of imaging methods with limited data on long-term patient outcome and management. Kim et al. (2000) revealed that the transmural

  20. Myocutaneous revascularization following graded ischemia in lean and obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ross M; Coffman, Brittany; McGuire, Paul G; Howdieshell, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Background Murine models of diabetes and obesity have provided insight into the pathogenesis of impaired epithelialization of excisional skin wounds. However, knowledge of postischemic myocutaneous revascularization in these models is limited. Materials and methods A myocutaneous flap was created on the dorsum of wild type (C57BL/6), genetically obese and diabetic (ob/ob, db/db), complementary heterozygous (ob+/ob−, db+/db−), and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice (n=48 total; five operative mice per strain and three unoperated mice per strain as controls). Flap perfusion was documented by laser speckle contrast imaging. Local gene expression in control and postoperative flap tissue specimens was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Image analysis of immunochemically stained histologic sections confirmed microvascular density and macrophage presence. Results Day 10 planimetric analysis revealed mean flap surface area necrosis values of 10.8%, 12.9%, 9.9%, 0.4%, 1.4%, and 23.0% for wild type, db+/db−, ob+/ob−, db/db, ob/ob, and DIO flaps, respectively. Over 10 days, laser speckle imaging documented increased perfusion at all time points with revascularization to supranormal perfusion in db/db and ob/ob flaps. In contrast, wild type, heterozygous, and DIO flaps displayed expected graded ischemia with failure of perfusion to return to baseline values. RT-PCR demonstrated statistically significant differences in angiogenic gene expression between lean and obese mice at baseline (unoperated) and at day 10. Conclusion Unexpected increased baseline skin perfusion and augmented myocutaneous revascularization accompanied by a control proangiogenic transcriptional signature in genetically obese mice compared to DIO and lean mice are reported. In future research, laser speckle imaging has been planned to be utilized in order to correlate spatiotemporal wound reperfusion with changes in cell recruitment and gene expression to

  1. Concordance of Physician Ratings with the AUC for Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul S.; Brindis, Ralph G.; Cohen, David J.; Jones, Philip G.; Gialde, Elizabeth; Bach, Richard G.; Curtis, Jeptha; Bethea, Charles F.; Shelton, Marc E.; Spertus, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization have been developed by selected experts. Objective To compare the consistency in AUC ratings among a broader range of practicing cardiologists and the AUC Technical Panel. Methods Prior to AUC publication, 85 cardiologists from 10 U.S. institutions assessed the appropriateness of coronary revascularization for 68 indications that had been evaluated by the Technical Panel. Each indication was classified as appropriate, uncertain, or inappropriate, based on the physician group’s median rating. Rates of concordance between the physician group and the AUC Technical Panel (i.e., same appropriateness category assignment) and rates of non-agreement within the physician group (≥25% of panelists’ ratings outside the group’s appropriateness category assessment) were determined. Results Overall concordance between the 2 groups was 84%. Among indications classified as appropriate by the Technical Panel, concordance between the 2 groups was excellent (94% [34/36]); however, non-agreement within the physician group was 44% (16/36). Among indications classified as uncertain, there was 73% (16/22) concordance between the 2 groups. Among inappropriate indications, concordance was moderate (70% [7/10]), but non-agreement occurred frequently (70% [7/10]). Moreover, there was substantial variation in appropriateness ratings between individual physicians and the Technical Panel (weighted kappa range: 0.05–0.76). Conclusions While there was good concordance in assessments of appropriateness for coronary revascularization between physicians and the AUC Technical Panel, non-agreement within the physician group was common and there was marked variation in ratings between individual physicians and the Technical Panel. PMID:21453833

  2. Towards myocardial contraction force image reconstruction for heart disease assessment and intervention planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Seyyed M. H.; Drangova, Maria; White, James A.; Samani, Abbas

    2015-03-01

    It is clinically vital to devise a technique to evaluate regional functionality of the myocardium in order to determine the extent and intensity of local damage to the cardiac tissue caused by ischemic injuries. Such a technique can potentially enable cardiologists to discriminate between reversible and irreversible ischemic injuries and to devise appropriate revascularization therapy in case of reversible lesions. The technique is founded on the premise that sufficient contraction force generated by the cardiac tissue can be regarded as a direct and reliable criterion for regional analysis of tissue healthy functionality. To this end, a number of imaging techniques have been developed and, to our knowledge, none of them assess regional cardiac functionality based on a straightforward mechanical measure such as local cardiac contraction forces. . As such, a novel imaging technique is being developed on the basis of quantification and visualisation of local myocardial contraction forces. In this technique, cardiac contraction force distribution is attained through solving an inverse problem within an optimization framework which uses iterative forward mechanical modelling of the myocardium. Hence, a forward mechanical model of the myocardium which is computationally efficient, robust, and adaptable to diverse pathophysiological conditions is necessary for this development. As such, this paper is geared towards developing a novel mechanical model of the healthy and pathological myocardium which considers all aspects of the myocardial mechanics including hyperelasticity, anisotropy, and active contraction force. In this investigation, two major parts, including background tissue and reinforcement bars (fibers) have been considered for modelling the myocardium. The model was implemented using finite element (FE) approach and demonstrated very good performance in simulating normal and infarcted left ventricle (LV) contractile function.

  3. Management of Traumatized Permanent Incisors. Revascularization and Delayed Replantation.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Maryam; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a clinical case of a 9-year-old boy with a traumatic injury to the maxillary central incisors 24 hours after a fall in his schoolyard. The upper left central incisor was avulsed and was kept in saliva for four hours from the moment of trauma until its replantation. The right one was necrotized after one month. We describe successful revascularization treatment of right necrotic immature upper incisor and delayed replantation of left one. After 18 months, radiolucent lesions in the periapical areas of both maxillary central incisors had healed, and root apex development was noted with thickening of the walls in tooth #8.

  4. Predictors of surgical site infection after open lower extremity revascularization.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, David Yu; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Mell, Matthew W

    2011-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) after open surgery for lower extremity revascularization is a serious complication that may lead to graft infection, prolonged hospitalization, and increased cost. Rates of SSI after revascularization vary widely, with most studies reported from single institutions. The objective of this study was to describe the rate and predictors of SSI after surgery for arterial occlusive disease using national data, and to identify any association between SSI and length of hospital stay, reoperation, graft loss, and mortality. Patients who underwent lower extremity arterial bypass or thromboendarterectomy from 2005-2008 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) participant use files. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of SSI. Odds ratios were adjusted for patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and operative factors. The association between SSI and other 30-day outcomes such as mortality and graft failure was determined. Of 12,330 patients who underwent revascularization, 1367 (11.1%) were diagnosed with an SSI within 30 days. Multivariate predictors of SSI included female gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.6), obesity (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.4), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5), dialysis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), preoperative hyponatremia (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4), and length of operation >4 hours (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6). SSI was associated with prolonged (>10 days) hospital stay (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1) and higher rates of 30-day graft loss (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1) and reoperation (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 3.1-4.6). SSI was not associated with increased 30-day mortality. SSI is a common complication after open revascularization and is associated with a more than twofold increased risk of early graft loss and reoperation. Several patient and operation-related risk

  5. The role of monocyte subsets in myocutaneous revascularization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Bilal; Rangasamy, Sampathkumar; McGuire, Paul G; Howdieshell, Thomas R

    2013-08-01

    The controlled recruitment of monocytes from the circulation to the site of injury and their differentiation into tissue macrophages are critical events in the reconstitution of tissue integrity. Subsets of monocytes/macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and tumor vascularity; however, the significance of monocyte heterogeneity in physiologic neovascularization is just emerging. A cranial-based, peninsular-shaped myocutaneous flap was surgically created on the dorsum of wild-type mice (C57BL6) and populations of mice with genetic deletion of subset-specific chemokine ligand-receptor axes important in monocyte trafficking and function (CCL2(-/-) and CX3CR1(-/-)) (n=36 total; 12 mice per group, nine with flap and three unoperated controls). Planimetric analysis of digital photographic images was utilized to determine flap surface viability in wild-type and knockout mice. Real-time myocutaneous flap perfusion and functional revascularization was determined by laser speckle contrast imaging. Image analysis of CD-31 immunostained sections confirmed flap microvascular density and anatomy. Macrophage quantification and localization in flap tissues was determined by F4/80 gene and protein expression. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on nonoperative back skin and postoperative flap tissue specimens to determine local gene expression. Myocutaneous flaps created on wild type and CX3CR1(-/-) mice were engrafted to the recipient site, resulting in viability. In contrast, distal full thickness cutaneous necrosis and resultant flap dehiscence was evident by d 10 in CCL2(-/-) mice. Over 10 d, laser speckle contrast imaging documented immediate graded flap ischemia in all three groups of mice, functional flap revascularization in wild type and CX3CR1(-/-) mice, and lack of distal flap reperfusion in CCL2(-/-) mice. Immunostaining of serial histologic specimens confirmed marked increases in microvascular

  6. Risky Cerebrovascular Anatomic Orientation: Implications for Brain Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Yanagawa, Takao; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-12-01

    This study documents a risky vascular anatomic orientation that might play an important role in the postoperative hemodynamics following anterior cerebral artery (ACA) revascularization. A 71-year-old woman presented with uncontrollable frequent right lower limb transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) attributed to a left cerebral ischemic lesion due to severe left ACA stenosis. She underwent successful left-sided superficial temporal artery-ACA bypass using interposed vascular graft. The patient awoke satisfactory from anesthesia; however, on postoperative day 1, she developed right-sided hemiparesis. Extensive postoperative investigations disclosed that watershed shift infarction was considered the etiology for this neurologic deterioration.

  7. Reoperative lower extremity revascularization with cadaver vein for limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Bannazadeh, Mohsen; Sarac, Timur P; Bena, James; Srivastava, Sunita; Ouriel, Kenneth; Clair, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated our experience using cryopreserved cadaver vein allografts (CVGs) for infrageniculate revascularization in patients with a history of failed bypass or no suitable autogenous vein. Records of all patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization with CVG for critical limb ischemia were reviewed. Patient demographics, vessel treated, and postoperative course were analyzed. Patients who had a redo cadaver vein bypass were compared to those with a first-time cadaver vein bypass. Cumulative patency rates, limb salvage, mortality, and factors associated with outcomes were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method with Cox proportional hazards. Between January 2000 and December 2006, 66 CVGs were done in 56 patients out of 1,726 total bypasses. There were 36 men and 20 women, and the mean age was 71.67 +/- 10.50 years. Mean follow-up was 12.12 +/- 14.16 months. Seventy-eight percent of patients had previous bypasses, and 50% of all failed bypasses were failed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypasses. Operative indications were tissue loss (73%) and ischemic rest pain (27%). The mean preoperative ankle-brachial index was 0.43 +/- 0.16, and this increased to 0.89 +/- 0.18 at 30 days (p = 0.001). Procedure-related complications included graft infection (3, 4%), graft thrombosis (3, 4%), pseudoaneurysm (3, 4%), and bleeding (2, 3%). Cumulative 1-year primary, primary assisted, secondary patencies, limb salvage, and survival rates with confidence intervals were 0.19 (0.10-0.36), 0.29 (0.18-0.47), 0.42 (0.29-0.60), 0.73 (0.62-0.86), and 0.77 (0.65-0.90). Reoperative procedures fared the same as primary procedures. Multivariable analysis showed that predictors for increased risk of secondary patency loss were age >70 (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.13, p = 0.009) and patients with secondary revascularization (HR = 3.36, p = 0.015). Older patients (HR = 2.92, p = 0.042) and those with renal insufficiency (HR = 2.92, p = 0.019) were at increased risk of mortality. CVG

  8. Chronic mesenteric ischemia: Time to remember open revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Keese, Michael; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Schmandra, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia is caused by stenosis or occlusion of one or more visceral arteries. It represents a therapeutic challenge and diagnosis and treatment require close interdisciplinary cooperation between gastroenterologist, vascular surgeon and radiologist. Although endovascular treatment modalities have been developed, the number of restenoses ultimately resulting in treatment failure is high. In patients fit for open surgery, the visceral arteries should be revascularized conventionally. These patients will then experience long term relief from the symptoms, a better quality of life and a better overall survival. PMID:23539677

  9. Different contribution of extent of myocardial injury to left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in early reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to investigate the influence of the extent of myocardial injury on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in patients after reperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Thirty-eight reperfused AMI patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging after percutaneous coronary revascularization. The extent of myocardial edema and scarring were assessed by T2 weighted imaging and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging, respectively. Within a day of CMR, echocardiography was done. Using 2D speckle tracking analysis, LV longitudinal, circumferential strain, and twist were measured. Results Extent of LGE were significantly correlated with LV systolic functional indices such as ejection fraction (r = -0.57, p < 0.001), regional wall motion score index (r = 0.52, p = 0.001), and global longitudinal strain (r = 0.56, p < 0.001). The diastolic functional indices significantly correlated with age (r = -0.64, p < 0.001), LV twist (r = -0.39, p = 0.02), average non-infarcted myocardial circumferential strain (r = -0.52, p = 0.001), and LV end-diastolic wall stress index (r = -0.47, p = 0.003 with e’) but not or weakly with extent of LGE. In multivariate analysis, age and non-infarcted myocardial circumferential strain independently correlated with diastolic functional indices rather than extent of injury. Conclusions In patients with timely reperfused AMI, not only extent of myocardial injury but also age and non-infarcted myocardial function were more significantly related to LV chamber diastolic function. PMID:24512272

  10. Management and decision-making process leading to coronary angiography and revascularization in octogenarians with coronary artery disease: Insights from a large single-center registry.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anne-Céline; Dumas, Florence; Spaulding, Christian; Manzo-Silberman, Stéphane

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the most common cause of death in older adults. Guidelines state that advanced age alone should not limit the use of invasive therapy. However, coronary angiograms and subsequent revascularization are often not carried out in octogenarians. The benefit/risk balance of an invasive strategy and the decision-making process are not clearly defined. The aim of the present study was to assess the decision-making process, and the in-hospital and long-term mortality based on the clinical presentation, the diagnostic approach (coronary angiogram or conservative) and the therapeutic management (revascularization or not). The present study was a single-center retrospective analysis. A total of 522 patients aged ≥80 years, with a diagnosis of coronary disease were included from 2003 to 2009. The mean age was 82 ± 2.6 years. A total of 195 of 522 (37%) presented with a ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A coronary angiogram was carried out in 316 patients (60.5%) and 71% were treated by percutaneous coronary revascularization. A total of 39.5% were considered ineligible for a coronary angiogram due to cardiological reasons or comorbidities. Excluding cardiogenic shock, overall in-hospital mortality was 4.9%. Clinical presentation strongly influenced both in-hospital and 6-month mortality rates (cardiogenic shock 20% and 28.7%, stable angina 1% and 4.1%, respectively, P < 0.001). Long-term mortality was reduced in the coronary angiography arm compared with the conservative group (14.3% vs 20.9%, P = 0.04) whether or not revascularization was carried out. In the present study, in octogenarians, long-term mortality was lower in the group of patients who underwent a coronary angiogram, regardless of revascularization. The selection process for coronary angiography and angioplasty was mostly influenced by the existence of age-associated comorbidities. Risk prediction models are required to reduce age-dependent biases.

  11. Morphological aspects of myocardial bridges.

    PubMed

    Lujinović, Almira; Kulenović, Amela; Kapur, Eldan; Gojak, Refet

    2013-11-01

    Although some myocardial bridges can be asymptomatic, their presence often causes coronary disease either through direct compression of the "tunnel" segment or through stimulation and accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the segment proximally to the myocardial bridge. The studied material contained 30 human hearts received from the Department of Anatomy. The hearts were preserved 3 to 5 days in 10% formalin solution. Thereafter, the fatty tissue was removed and arterial blood vessels prepared by careful dissection with special reference to the presence of the myocardial bridges. Length and thickness of the bridges were measured by the precise electronic caliper. The angle between the myocardial bridge fibre axis and other axis of the crossed blood vessel was measured by a goniometer. The presence of the bridges was confirmed in 53.33% of the researched material, most frequently (43.33%) above the anterior interventricular branch. The mean length of the bridges was 14.64 ± 9.03 mm and the mean thickness was 1.23 ± 1.32 mm. Myocardial bridge fibres pass over the descending blood vessel at the angle of 10-90 degrees. The results obtained on a limited sample suggest that the muscular index of myocardial bridge is the highest for bridges located on RIA, but that the difference is not significant in relation to bridges located on other branches. The results obtained suggest that bridges located on other branches, not only those on RIA, could have a great contractive power and, consequently, a great compressive force, which would be exerted on the wall of a crossed blood vessel.

  12. Morphological aspects of myocardial bridges

    PubMed Central

    Lujinović, Almira; Kulenović, Amela; Kapur, Eldan; Gojak, Refet

    2013-01-01

    Although some myocardial bridges can be asymptomatic, their presence often causes coronary disease either through direct compression of the “tunnel” segment or through stimulation and accelerated development of atherosclerosis in the segment proximally to the myocardial bridge. The studied material contained 30 human hearts received from the Department of Anatomy. The hearts were preserved 3 to 5 days in 10% formalin solution. Thereafter, the fatty tissue was removed and arterial blood vessels prepared by careful dissection with special reference to the presence of the myocardial bridges. Length and thickness of the bridges were measured by the precise electronic caliper. The angle between the myocardial bridge fibre axis and other axis of the crossed blood vessel was measured by a goniometer. The presence of the bridges was confirmed in 53.33% of the researched material, most frequently (43.33%) above the anterior interventricular branch. The mean length of the bridges was 14.64±9.03 mm and the mean thickness was 1.23±1.32 mm. Myocardial bridge fibres pass over the descending blood vessel at the angle of 10-90 degrees. The results obtained on a limited sample suggest that the muscular index of myocardial bridge is the highest for bridges located on RIA, but that the difference is not significant in relation to bridges located on other branches. The results obtained suggest that bridges located on other branches, not only those on RIA, could have a great contractive power and, consequently, a great compressive force, which would be exerted on the wall of a crossed blood vessel. PMID:24289755

  13. Total Arterial Off-pump Coronary Revascularization with a Bilateral Internal Mammary Artery Y Graft (208 cases)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Chao; Gu, Cheng-Xiong; Wei, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the early outcome of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) with a bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) Y configuration graft to achieve total arterial myocardial revascularization. Materials and Methods: From October 2002 to December 2008, 208 patients (196 male and 12 female patients) underwent OPCABG by only using a BIMA Y configuration graft. The average age of the patients was 56.5±11.3 years, with the age range being 33–78 years. A total of 167 (80.2%) cases had triple-vessel disease. Left main stem disease was found in 33 (15.9%) cases, and double-vessel disease was found in 8 (3.9%) cases. The semiskeletonization skill was used to harvest the two IMAs, and then the free right internal mammary artery was anastomosed end-to-side to the in situ left internal mammary artery to composite a Y configuration graft. Off-pump and sequential anastomosis methods were used to perform coronary artery bypass surgery for the patients. Graft patency was assessed by using the HT311 transit time flowmeter (USA Transonic Systems Inc.), intraoperatively. Results: We performed distal anastomoses of the grafts in 728 patients, the average being 3.5±1.3 per person. No one died and got recurrent angina within 30 days after operation. Conclusion: OPCABG by using the BIMA Y graft was safe and effective to achieve total arterial revascularization, and avoid surgical operation on the ascending aorta, and other incisions. PMID:23066455

  14. The effect of temperature management during cardiopulmonary bypass on neurologic and neuropsychologic outcomes in patients undergoing coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Mora, C T; Henson, M B; Weintraub, W S; Murkin, J M; Martin, T D; Craver, J M; Gott, J P; Guyton, R A

    1996-08-01

    Several studies suggest that normothermic ("warm") bypass techniques may improve myocardial outcomes for patients undergoing cardiac operations. Normothermic temperatures during cardiopulmonary bypass may, however, decrease the brain's tolerance to the ischemic insults that accompany all cardiac procedures. To assess the effect of bypass temperature management strategy on central nervous system outcomes in patients undergoing coronary revascularization, 138 patients were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: (1) hypothermia (n = 70), patients cooled to a temperature less than 28 degrees C during cardiopulmonary bypass, or (2) normothermia (n = 68), patients actively warmed to a temperature of at least 35 degrees C. Patients underwent detailed neurologic examination before the operation, on postoperative days 1 to 3 and 7 to 10, and at approximately 1 month after operation. In addition, a battery of five neuropsychologic tests was administered before operation, on postoperative days 7 to 10, and at the 4- to 6-week follow-up visit. Patients in the normothermic treatment group were older (65 +/- 10 vs 61 +/- 11 years in the hypothermic group), had statistically less likelihood of preexisting cerebrovascular disease, and had higher bypass blood glucose values (276 +/- 100 mg/% vs. 152 +/- 66 mg/% in the hypothermic group). All other patient characteristics and intraoperative variables were similar in the two treatment groups. Seven of 68 patients in the normothermic group were found to have a central neurologic deficit, compared with none of the patients cooled to 28 degrees C (p = 0.006). Performance on at least one neuropsychologic test deteriorated in the immediate postoperative period in more than one half of all patients in both treatment groups but returned to preoperative levels approximately 1 month after the operation in most (85%). This pattern was not related to bypass temperature management strategy. We conclude that active warming during

  15. Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Shang, Yu; Zhao, Youquan; Cheng, Ran; Dong, Lixin; Saha, Sibu P.

    2011-02-01

    Arterial revascularization in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) reestablishes large arterial blood supply to the ischemic muscles in lower extremities via bypass grafts or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Currently no gold standard is available for assessment of revascularization effects in lower extremity muscles. This study tests a novel near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter for monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation changes in medial gastrocnemius (calf) muscles during arterial revascularization. Twelve limbs with PAD undergoing revascularization were measured using a sterilized fiber-optic probe taped on top of the calf muscle. The optical measurement demonstrated sensitivity to dynamic physiological events, such as arterial clamping/releasing during bypass graft and balloon inflation/deflation during PTA. Significant elevations in calf muscle blood flow were observed after revascularization in patients with bypass graft (+48.1 +/- 17.5%) and patients with PTA (+43.2 +/- 11.0%), whereas acute post-revascularization effects in muscle oxygenation were not evident. The decoupling of flow and oxygenation after revascularization emphasizes the need for simultaneous measurement of both parameters. The acute elevations/improvements in calf muscle blood flow were associated with significant improvements in symptoms and functions. In total, the investigation corroborates potential of the optical methods for objectively assessing the success of arterial revascularization.

  16. Critical appraisal of surgical revascularization for critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Conte, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Peripheral artery disease is growing in global prevalence and is estimated to afflict between 8 and 12 million Americans. Its most severe form, critical limb ischemia (CLI), is associated with high rates of limb loss, morbidity, and mortality. Revascularization is the cornerstone of limb preservation in CLI, and has traditionally been accomplished with open surgical bypass. Advances in catheter-based technologies, coupled with their broad dissemination among specialists, have led to major shifts in practice patterns in CLI. There is scant high-quality evidence to guide surgical decision making in this arena, and market forces have exerted profound influences. Despite this, available data suggest that the expected outcomes for both endovascular and open surgery in CLI are strongly dependent on definable patient factors such as anatomic distribution of disease, vein quality, and comorbidities. Optimal patient selection is paramount for maximizing benefit with each technique. This review summarizes some of the existing data and suggests a selective approach to revascularization in CLI, which continues to rely on vein bypass surgery as a primary option in appropriately selected patients.

  17. Revascularization of immature permanent incisors after severe extrusive luxation injury.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Zafer C; Sara, Sezgi; Aksoy, Burak

    2012-07-01

    Pulp necrosis is an uncommon sequel to extrusive luxation in immature teeth with incomplete apical closure. In this report, we describe the management of severely extruded immature maxillary incisors and the outcome of revascularization to treat subsequent pulp necrosis. An 8.5-year-old boy with severe dentoalveolar trauma to the anterior maxillary region as a result of a fall was provided emergency treatment consisting of reduction of the dislodged labial cortical bone and repositioning of the central incisors, which had suffered extrusive luxation. When he presented with spontaneous pain involving the traumatized incisors a week later, the teeth were treated via a revascularization protocol using sodium hypochlorite irrigation followed by 3 weeks of intracanal calcium hydroxide, then a coronal seal of mineral trioxide aggregate and resin composite. Complete periradicular healing was observed after 3 months, followed by progressive thickening of the root walls and apical closure. Follow-up observations confirmed the efficacy of the regenerative treatment as a viable alternative to conventional apexification in endodontically involved, traumatized immature teeth.

  18. Pulp revascularization of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Blayne; Teixeira, Fabricio; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Caplan, Daniel J; Trope, Martin

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the ability of a collagen solution to aid revascularization of necrotic-infected root canals in immature dog teeth. Sixty immature teeth from 6 dogs were infected, disinfected, and randomized into experimental groups: 1: no further treatment; 2: blood in canal; 3: collagen solution in canal, 4: collagen solution + blood, and 5: negative controls (left for natural development). Uncorrected chi-square analysis of radiographic results showed no statistical differences (p >or= 0.05) between experimental groups regarding healing of radiolucencies but a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.058) for group 1 versus group 4 for radicular thickening. Group 2 showed significantly more apical closure than group 1 (p = 0.03) and a borderline statistical difference (p = 0.051) for group 3 versus group 1. Uncorrected chi-square analysis revealed that there were no statistical differences between experimental groups for histological results. However, some roots in each of groups 1 to 4 (previously infected) showed positive histologic outcomes (thickened walls in 43.9%, apical closure in 54.9%, and new luminal tissue in 29.3%). Revascularization of disinfected immature dog root canal systems is possible.

  19. Revascularization of immature permanent incisors after severe extrusive luxation injury.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Zafer C; Sara, Sezgi; Aksoy, Burak

    2012-01-01

    Pulp necrosis is an uncommon sequel to extrusive luxation in immature teeth with incomplete apical closure. In this report, we describe the management of severely extruded immature maxillary incisors and the outcome of revascularization to treat subsequent pulp necrosis. An 8.5-Year-old boy with severe dentoalveolar trauma to the anterior maxillary region as a result of a fall was provided emergency treatment consisting of reduction of the dislodged labial cortical bone and repositioning of the central incisors, which had suffered extrusive luxation. When he presented with spontaneous pain involving the traumatized incisors a week later, the teeth were treated via a revascularization protocol using sodium hypochlorite irrigation followed by 3 weeks of intracanal calcium hydroxide, then a coronal seal of mineral trioxide aggregate and resin composite. Complete periradicular healing was observed after 3 Months, followed by progressive thickening of the root walls and apical closure. Follow-up observations confirmed the efficacy of the regenerative treatment as a viable alternative to conventional apexification in endodontically involved, traumatized immature teeth.

  20. Evaluation of Revascularization Subtypes in Octogenarians Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Abdulhameed; Lee, Anson M.; Pasque, Michael K.; Lawton, Jennifer S.; Moazami, Nader; Damiano, Ralph J.; Moon, Marc R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent data suggest that octogenarians’ long-term survival after complete CABG revascularization is superior to incomplete revascularization. Discriminating between variable definitions of “complete” complicates interpretation of survival data. We aimed to clarify octogenarian long-term survival rates by stratifying revascularization subtypes. Methods and Results From 1986 to 2007, 580 patients 80 to 94 years of age underwent CABG. Functional complete revascularization was defined as at least one graft to all diseased coronary vessels with greater than 50% stenosis. Traditional complete revascularization was defined as one graft to each major arterial system with at least 50% stenosis. Incomplete revascularization was defined as leaving diseased, ungrafted regions. Revascularization was functional in 279 (48%), traditional in 181 (31%), and incomplete in 120 (21%). Long-term survival was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Of 537 operative survivors, there were 402 late deaths. Cumulative long-term survival totaled 2,890 patient-years. Late survival (Kaplan-Meier) was similar between functional (6.8 years, mean) and traditional (6.7 years) groups (p=0.51), but diminished with incomplete (4.2 years) revascularization (p=0.007). Survival by group at 5 years was: 59±3% functional, 57±4% traditional, and 45±5% incomplete. Survival at 8 years was: 40±3% functional, 37±4% traditional, and 26±5% incomplete. To minimize selection bias in patients with limited life expectancy, Kaplan-Meier analysis was repeated including only patients with survival greater than 12 months. Survival was again impaired with incomplete revascularization (p=0.04), and there was no difference between functional and traditional complete revascularization (p=0.73). Conclusions Bypassing all diseased arterial vessels after revascularization does not afford significant long-term survival advantage compared to a traditional approach. Incomplete revascularization, related to more

  1. Temporal Changes in Periprocedural Events in the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST)

    PubMed Central

    Howard, George; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Moore, Wesley S.; Katzen, Barry T.; Chakhtoura, Elie; Morrish, William F.; Ferguson, Robert D.; Hye, Robert J.; Shawl, Fayaz A.; Harrigan, Mark R.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Howard, Virginia J.; Lal, Brajesh K.; Meschia, James F.; Brott, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Post-hoc, we hypothesized that over the recruitment period of the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy Versus Stenting Trial (CREST), increasing experience and improved patient selection with carotid stenting (CAS), and to a lesser extent, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) would contribute to lower periprocedural event rates. Methods Three study periods with approximately the same number of patients were defined to span recruitment. Composite and individual rates of periprocedural stroke, myocardial infarction and death rate were calculated separately by treatment assignment (CAS/CEA). Temporal changes in unadjusted event rates, and rates after adjustment for temporal changes in patient characteristics, were assessed. Results For patients randomized to CAS, there was no significant temporal change in the unadjusted composite rates, that declined from 6.2% in the first period, to 4.9% in the second, and 4.6% in the third (p = 0.28). Adjustment for patient characteristics attenuated the rates to 6.0%, 5.9%, and 5.6% (p = 0.85). For CEA-randomized patients, both the composite and the combined stroke and death outcome decreased between period 1 and 2, and then increased in period 3. Conclusion The hypothesized temporal reduction of stroke + death events for CAS-treated patients was not observed. Further adjustment for changes in patient characteristics between periods, including the addition of asymptomatic patients and a > 50% decrease in proportion of octogenarians enrolled, resulted in practically identical rates. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier:NCT00004732. PMID:26173731

  2. A multicenter 12-month experience with a new iliac side-branched device for revascularization of hypogastric arteries.

    PubMed

    Mylonas, Spyridon N; Rümenapf, Gerhard; Schelzig, Hubert; Heckenkamp, Jörg; Youssef, Marwan; Schäfer, Jost Philipp; Ahmad, Wael; Brunkwall, Jan Sigge

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the 1-year safety and efficacy of a new iliac side-branched device (IBD) for revascularization of the hypogastric arteries. Patients receiving the E-liac (Jotec GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) side-branched device at six German vascular centers either as a stand-alone procedure or in combination with abdominal aortic aneurysm exclusion were included in a prospectively created data bank. Collected data were analyzed for baseline characteristics, procedural events, and clinical follow-up; variables included endoleaks, reinterventions, and internal iliac artery (IIA) patency. Between January 2012 and January 2015, a total of 70 patients (69 men [98.6%]) with a median age of 74 years (range, 51-87 years) were consecutively treated; 66 patients had aneurysmatic disease of the iliac arteries, 2 patients had a para-anastomotic aneurysm after aortobi-iliac reconstruction, and another 2 patients had a type Ib endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair. A total of 82 IIAs were revascularized, 12 bilaterally. Technical success was achieved in 100% (82/82) of the revascularized IIAs. All IBDs were patent at the end of the procedure. No instances of myocardial infarction, stroke, conversion to open repair, mesenteric or spinal cord infarction, or buttock necrosis were observed. There was one perioperative death (1.4%) in a 70-year-old patient with intraoperative gastrointestinal bleeding leading to multiple organ failure, which resulted in the patient's death on the fifth postoperative day. Within 30 days, one symptomatic occlusion of a treated common iliac artery (CIA) was observed. In two other patients, an asymptomatic kinking of the CIA segment of the IBD was revealed in the predischarge follow-up duplex ultrasound examination and corrected with relining. Median follow-up was 12 months (range, 6-16 months). One patient was lost during the follow-up period. Survival at 1 year was 98.5% with all IIAs remaining patent, whereas two CIA

  3. Invited Review: “Percutaneous revascularization for ischemic nephropathy: Past, Present and Future”

    PubMed Central

    Textor, Stephen C.; Misra, Sanjay; Oderich, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Occlusion of the renal arteries can threaten the viability of the kidney when severe, in addition to accelerating hypertension and circulatory congestion. Renal artery stenting procedures have evolved from a treatment mainly for renovascular hypertension to a maneuver capable of recovering threatened renal function in patients with “ischemic nephropathy” and improving management of congestive heart failure. Improved catheter design and techniques have reduced, but not eliminated hazards associated with renovascular stenting. Expanded use of endovascular stent grafts to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms has introduced a new indication for renal artery stenting to protect the renal circulation when grafts cross the origins of the renal arteries. Although controversial, prospective randomized trials to evaluate the added benefit of revascularization to current medical therapy for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis until now have failed to identify major benefits regarding either renal function or blood pressure control. These studies have been limited by selection bias and have been harshly criticized. While studies of tissue oxygenation using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MR establish that kidneys can adapt to reduced blood flow to some degree, more severe occlusive disease leads to cortical hypoxia associated with microvascular rarefication, inflammatory injury and fibrosis. Current research is directed toward identifying pathways of irreversible kidney injury due to vascular occlusion and to increase the potential for renal repair after restoring renal artery patency. The role of nephrologists likely will focus upon recognizing the limits of renal adaptation to vascular disease and identifying kidneys truly at risk for ischemic injury at a time point when renal revascularization can still be of benefit to recovering kidney function. PMID:23151953

  4. Myocardial imaging. Coxsackie myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.G.; Ruskin, J.A.; Sty, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    A 3-week-old male neonate with heart failure associated with Coxsackie virus infection was imaged with Tc-99m PYP and TI-201. The abnormal imaging pattern suggested myocardial infarction. Autopsy findings indicated that the cause was myocardial necrosis secondary to an acute inflammatory process. Causes of abnormal myocardial uptake of Tc-99m PYP in pediatrics include infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, and trauma. Myocardial imaging cannot provide a specific cause diagnosis. Causes of myocardial infarction in pediatrics are listed in Table 1.

  5. [The influence of halogenated anesthetic agents on the hemodynamics and myocardial metabolism in ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A V; Nesterova, Iu V; Brand, Ia B

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of anesthesia with equipotential concentrations of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane plus 33% O2 on central hemodynamics, coronary flow, and myocardial metabolism in 60 patients undergoing myocardial revascularization surgery. The study found that halothane and isoflurane with 33% O2 caused dose-dependent and well-controlled arterial hypotension and decreased left ventricular (LV) stroke work index, myocardial consumption of O2 MCO2), total peripheral vascular resistance, and coronary vascular resistance (CVR), which increased coronary volume flow. Monoanesthesia with enflurane lowered myocardial contractility and did not change LV work; MCO2 decreased, while coronary sinus flow increased due to a decrease in CVR. Thus, the comparison of hemodynamic and myocardial effects of the three potent inhaled anesthetics--halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane - demonstrated their positive effects on myocardial oxygen balance in a form of dosed and controlled decrease in its work in cardiological patients with preserved LV contractility. The imported anesthetics enflurane and isoflurane do not have any significant advantage over the Russian-made halothane in this category of patients. At the same time, halothane vs. enflurane has a more noticeable "unloading" effect on afterload and does not cause convulsive episodes and periods of cerebral activity depression; in contrast to isoflurane, halothane dose not cause metabolic disturbances in a compromised myocardium; halothane is used in lower inhaled concentrations to achieve the same degree of myocardial work decrease without a substantial decrease in cardiac efficiency. These facts suggest that halothane has a practical advantage over the other anesthetics.

  6. Superior therapeutic potential of young bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by direct intramyocardial delivery in aged recipients with acute myocardial infarction: in vitro and in vivo investigation.

    PubMed

    Nayan, Madhur; Paul, Arghya; Chen, Guangyong; Chiu, Ray C J; Prakash, Satya; Shum-Tim, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied for treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). Since MSCs from older donors show quantitative and qualitative senescent changes, we hypothesized that a better outcome may be achieved if aged recipients are given MSCs obtained from young donors, rather than using their own autologous MSCs. Methods. In vitro studies compared properties of young and old MSCs. Aged rats randomized into 3 groups underwent coronary artery ligations and were then injected with either old (O) or young (Y) MSCs, or ligation alone. Echocardiography evaluated ejection fractions (EF). At 16 weeks, scar deposition was analyzed. Results. Old MSCs exhibited decreased cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation potentials. EF significantly improved early in both cell therapy groups (P < .05). However, at later stages of the study, group Y showed significantly better function which correlated with decreased scar deposition. Conclusions. The significant difference between young and old cells indicates the possible advantage for allotransplanting MSCs from young donors to elderly patients with MI.

  7. Combretastatin A4 disodium phosphate-induced myocardial injury

    PubMed Central

    Tochinai, Ryota; Nagata, Yuriko; Ando, Minoru; Hata, Chie; Suzuki, Tomo; Asakawa, Naoyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiko; Uchida, Kazumi; Kado, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Kuwahara, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Histopathological and electrocardiographic features of myocardial lesions induced by combretastatin A4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP) were evaluated, and the relation between myocardial lesions and vascular changes and the direct toxic effect of CA4DP on cardiomyocytes were discussed. We induced myocardial lesions by administration of CA4DP to rats and evaluated myocardial damage by histopathologic examination and electrocardiography. We evaluated blood pressure (BP) of CA4DP-treated rats and effects of CA4DP on cellular impedance-based contractility of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs). The results revealed multifocal myocardial necrosis with a predilection for the interventricular septum and subendocardial regions of the apex of the left ventricular wall, injury of capillaries, morphological change of the ST junction, and QT interval prolongation. The histopathological profile of myocardial lesions suggested that CA4DP induced a lack of myocardial blood flow. CA4DP increased the diastolic BP and showed direct effects on hiPS-CMs. These results suggest that CA4DP induces dysfunction of small arteries and capillaries and has direct toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, it is thought that CA4DP induced capillary and myocardial injury due to collapse of the microcirculation in the myocardium. Moreover, the direct toxic effect of CA4DP on cardiomyocytes induced myocardial lesions in a coordinated manner. PMID:27559241

  8. Acute myocardial infarction associated with intravenous dipyridamole for rubidium-82 PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marwick, T.H.; Hollman, J. )

    1990-03-01

    This report describes the occurrence of chest pain and electrocardiographic features of acute myocardial infarction following intravenous dipyridamole-handgrip stress. Myocardial perfusion imaging (Rb-82 PET) demonstrated a stress-induced perfusion defect. Following failure to respond to medical therapy, urgent cardiac catheterization demonstrated total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The vessel was revascularized, with limitation of myocardial damage evidenced by failure to develop anterior Q waves and only modest elevation of cardiac enzyme levels. Complications of intravenous dipyridamole stress are rare, this case constituting the first major problem in over 500 such procedures at this institution. However, this experience demonstrates the importance of vigilant observation during the performance of this technique.

  9. Multimodality imaging for assessment of myocardial viability: nuclear, echocardiography, MR, and CT.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, James A; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of myocardial viability may be an important component of the evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. The primary goal of viability assessment in such patients is to guide therapeutic decisions by determining which patients would most likely benefit from revascularization. In patients with chronic coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction may be a consequence of prior myocardium infarction, which is an irreversible condition, or reversible ischemic states such as stunning and hibernation. Imaging techniques utilize several methods to assess myocardial viability: left ventricular function, morphology, perfusion, and metabolism. Each technique (echocardiography, nuclear imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and x-ray computed tomography) has the ability to assess one or more of these parameters. This article describes how each of these imaging modalities can be used to assess myocardial viability, and reviews the relative strengths and limitations of each technique.

  10. Difference in clinical target lesion revascularization between a silicon carbide-coated and an uncoated thin strut bare-metal stent: the PRO-Vision study.

    PubMed

    Haine, Steven E; Cornez, Barbara M; Jacobs, Jimmy M; Miljoen, Hielko P; Vandendriessche, Tom R; Claeys, Marc J; Bosmans, Johan M; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2013-09-01

    Bare-metal stents trigger a foreign body reaction, resulting in neointima formation and restenosis. Silicon carbide (SiC) coating shields the metal from circulating blood and vessel wall, both potential sources of neointima smooth muscle cells. We investigated whether SiC-coated stents (PRO-Kinetic) have lower clinical target lesion revascularization (TLR) rates than do uncoated bare-metal stents (Vision). Stents were implanted in 2731 patients during 2 consecutive 18-month periods. Clinical TLR was evaluated at 1 year. In the PRO-Kinetic group, TLR was significantly higher (9.0% vs 5.6%; unadjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.08; P < 0.001) compared with the Vision group. After adjustment for postintervention minimal luminal diameter (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.56; 95% CI, 0.42-0.73), total implanted stent length (AOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction or unstable angina at initial presentation (AOR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.41-2.54), and triple vessel stenting (AOR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.02-7.05), the use of PRO-Kinetic stents remained an independent predictor for revascularization (AOR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.18-2.10; P = 0.002). Because strut thickness is lower in 2.0- to 3.0-mm PRO-Kinetic stents, a subgroup analysis (n = 2382 lesions) was performed. Even in this subgroup, PRO-Kinetic implantation proved an independent predictor of TLR (AOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17-2.23; P = 0.003). In contrast to theoretical expectations, the SiC-coated PRO-Kinetic stent was associated with greater target lesion revascularization rates at 1 year compared with the uncoated Vision stent. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade by a chimeric monoclonal antibody (abciximab) on acute and six-month outcomes after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. EPIC investigators.

    PubMed

    Lefkovits, J; Ivanhoe, R J; Califf, R M; Bergelson, B A; Anderson, K M; Stoner, G L; Weisman, H F; Topol, E J

    1996-05-15

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for acute myocardial infarction is an attractive alternative to thrombolysis, but is still limited by recurrent ischemia and restenosis. We determined whether adjunctive platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade improved outcomes in patients undergoing direct and rescue PTCA in the Evaluation of c7E3 for Prevention of Ischemic Complications (EPIC) trial. Of the 2,099 patients undergoing percutaneous intervention who randomly received chimeric 7E3 Fab (c7E3) as a bolus, a bolus and 12-hour infusion, or placebo, 42 underwent direct PTCA for acute myocardial infarction and 22 patients had rescue PTCA after failed thrombolysis. The primary composite end point comprised death, reinfarction, repeat intervention, or bypass surgery. Outcomes were assessed at 30 days and 6 months. Baseline characteristics were similar in direct and rescue PTCA patients. Pooling the 2 groups, c7E3 bolus and infusion reduced the primary composite end point by 83% (26.1% placebo vs 4.5% c7E3 bolus and infusion, p = 0.06). No reinfarctions or repeat urgent interventions occurred in c7E3 bolus and infusion patients at 30 days, although there was a trend toward more deaths in c7E3-treated patients. Major bleeding was increased with c7E3 (24% vs 13%, p = 0.28). At 6 months, ischemic events were reduced from 47.8% with placebo to 4.5% with c7E3 bolus and infusion (p = 0.002), particularly reinfarction (p = 0.05) and repeat revascularization (p = 0.002). We conclude that adjunctive c7E3 therapy during direct and rescue PTCA decreased acute ischemic events and clinical restenosis in the EPIC trial. These data provide initial evidence of benefit for glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade during PTCA for acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Recanalization of failed autogenous conduit utilizing laser revascularization.

    PubMed

    Chander, Rajiv K; Oza, Parind; Patel, Mayank; Balar, Nilesh

    2011-10-01

    The traditional approach for the treatment of restenosis of autogenous vein bypass has been revision of bypass with vein patch angioplasty, interposition jump graft, or thrombectomy procedures for those patients with extensive occlusive disease and limb-threatening ischemia. Endovascular intervention traditionally involves angioplasty of the graft; however, vessels with diffuse disease or extensive longitudinal lesions are generally difficult to revascularize utilizing this technique. Surgical revision of a threatened autogenous vein graft may carry a morbidity rate as high as 13.6%. We present a series of cases in which excimer laser atherectomy (LA) was used to recanalize an occluded autogenous saphenous vein bypass. Of the occluded vein bypasses failed angioplasty and were successfully atherectomized with LA measuring lengths of 35 and 30 cm, respectively. The infrainguinal has a 6-month follow-up, while the infragencular has a follow-up of 1 year, with resolution of presenting symptoms.

  13. Ulcer healing after peripheral intervention-can we predict it before revascularization?

    PubMed

    Azuma, Nobuyoshi; Koya, Atsuhiro; Uchida, Daiki; Saito, Yukihiro; Uchida, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Complete ulcer healing is one of the most important goals of treatment for critical limb ischemia; however, it is still difficult to inform patients of the time to ulcer healing before performing revascularization. The time to ulcer healing has a great impact on the cost of treatment and patient's quality of life. To predict it, the factors that influence delayed ulcer healing should be explored. According to a review of the literature investigating ulcer healing after revascularization, the influential factors can be classified into 5 categories: (1) systemic factors; (2) clinical state of tissue defect; (3) infection; (4) wound management strategy; and (5) revascularization strategy (endovascular or open repair, the angiosome concept). It is also important to ensure sufficient blood supply to predict ulcer healing probability in the individual patient. Several new methodologies, such as measuring tissue circulation around the tissue defect and intraoperative imaging techniques, have been reported. Because the status of ischemic tissue loss and wound healing ability can affect the decision-making process in selecting the revascularization strategy, understanding the many factors that influence ulcer healing after revascularization is indispensable for physicians performing revascularization. Accumulating ulcer healing data via well-designed clinical research can help to establish a new paradigm for the revascularization strategy from the viewpoint of ulcer healing.

  14. Cardiac Events After Kidney Transplantation According to Pretransplantation Coronary Artery Disease and Coronary Revascularization Status.

    PubMed

    Felix, R; Saparia, T; Hirose, R; Almers, L; Chau, Q; Jonelis, T; Zheng, S; Zaroff, J

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the rates of cardiovascular events among renal transplant recipients according to pre-transplantation coronary artery disease (CAD) and revascularization status and to describe the coronary angiographic findings in patients with post-transplantation events. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who had coronary angiography within 2 years before kidney transplantation. The predictor variables were pre-transplantation CAD and coronary revascularization. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary syndrome, and post-transplantation revascularization. The study included 403 patients. Pre-transplantation CAD was present in 73%, and 22% were revascularized. During a follow-up period of 5.6 years, the primary outcome occurred in 5% of the subjects without CAD, in 23% of those with CAD and no revascularization, and in 26% of those with CAD and revascularization (CAD hazard ratio [HR], 4.39 [P = .002]; revascularization HR, 1.27 [P = .36]). Thirty-five patients had a primary outcome and repeated coronary angiography, which demonstrated progression of previously nonsevere disease in the majority of cases. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes are common after renal transplantation and are associated with pre-transplantation CAD of any severity. Secondary prevention of CAD events should be a high priority in the management of this high-risk population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prognosis of normal stress-only gated-SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging: a single center study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria João Vidigal; Cunha, Maria João; Albuquerque, Anabela; Moreira, Ana Paula; Ramos, Domingos; Costa, Gracinda; Lima, João; Pego, Mariano

    2013-10-01

    It has been advocated that using the stress followed by rest protocol, if the stress images were normal there is no need of rest images, reducing radiation exposure and costs. Our purpose was to assess the prognosis of a group of patients with normal stress-only gated-SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging. This was retrospective study that includes 790 patients with normal myocardial stress only perfusion gated SPECT images. Images were considered as normal if a homogeneous myocardial distribution of the tracer was associated with a normal ejection fraction. The mean follow-up was of 42.8 ± 13.3 months. The considered events were death of all causes, myocardial infarction and myocardial revascularization. During this period there were 85 events (10.8 %), including 57 deaths of all causes (67.1 %), 9 myocardial infarctions (10.6 %), 19 revascularizations (2.4 %). In the first year of follow-up there were 32 events (4.0 %) and excluding non cardiac deaths there were 8 events (1.0 %). Using Cox survival analysis, diabetes (HR = 2.2; CI = 1.4-3.4; p ≤ 0.0005), the history of coronary artery disease (CAD) (HR = 2.1; CI = 1.3-3.2; p ≤ 0.001), age (HR = 1.0; CI = 1.0-1.0; p ≤ 0.05) and type of stress protocol were related with events (exercise test vs. adenosine) (Exercise test: HR = 0.5; CI = 0.3-0.8; p ≤ 0.01). In a multivariate analysis the independent predictors were diabetes, CAD and the type of stress protocol. Based on these results, normal stress-only images are associated with an excellent prognosis even in patients at higher risk, diabetics and patients with known CAD.

  16. Effects of transmyocardial laser revascularization using a prototype pulsed CO2 laser on contractility and perfusion of chronically ischemic myocardium in a porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadia, Yasmin; Khaki, Ali; Kajitani, Michio; Mori, Yoshiki; Irvine, Timothy; Sahn, David; Yessik, Michael J.; Bahlman, Deborah T.; Furnary, Anthony; Gregory, Kenton W.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a new prototype pulsed CO2 laser to be used for transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR). We want to determine whether it can reduce thermal damage and mitigate induced ischemia with improvement in contractile reserve of the heart as evidenced by contrast echocardiography at rest and under dobutamine stress. TMR is an emerging surgical strategy for treatment of myocardial ischemia not amenable to conventional percutaneous or surgical revascularization. Eleven pigs underwent amaroid occulder placement on the origin of the circumflex coronary artery. Six weeks laser occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery was documented. TMR was then done on ten pigs using a prototype pulsed CO2 laser that delivered 8-12 joules energy in 1.5ms with a spot sizes of 1mm. Six weeks after TMR the pigs were restudied and sacrificed. The animals developed significant ischemia after six weeks of ameroid occlusion, at rest (p=0.01) and at peak stress (p=0.004). Wall motion for the ischemic segments improved significantly six weeks after TMR at peak stress (p=0.02). TMR results in an improvement in wall motion in our model of chromic ischemia and improves WMSI significantly during induced stress than at rest.

  17. Outcomes with various drug-eluting or bare metal stents in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: a mixed treatment comparison analysis of trial level data from 34 068 patient-years of follow-up from randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Bangalore, Sripal; Amoroso, Nicholas; Fusaro, Mario; Kumar, Sunil; Feit, Frederick

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is controversial. Consequently, DES implantation has a class IIa indication in the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology STEMI guidelines. PUBMED, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched for randomized clinical trials, until March 2013, comparing any of the 5 Food and Drug Administration-approved durable stent and polymer DES (sirolimus eluting stent, paclitaxel eluting stent, everolimus-eluting stent [EES], zotarolimus-eluting stent, and zotarolimus-eluting stent resolute), against each other or bare metal stents (BMS), and enrolling ≥ 50 patients with STEMI. Efficacy (target vessel revascularization) and safety (death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis) outcomes at the longest reported follow-up times were evaluated. Twenty-eight randomized clinical trials with 34 068 patient-years of follow-up on subjects with STEMI fulfilled the inclusion criteria. When compared with BMS (reference rate ratio [RR] of 1), sirolimus eluting stent (RR, 0.46; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 0.36-0.56), paclitaxel eluting stent (RR, 0.69; 95% CrI, 0.53-0.87), and EES (RR, 0.42; 95% CrI, 0.26-0.62) were associated with a statistically significant reduction in rate of target vessel revascularization, with the point estimate for zotarolimus-eluting stent resolute trending in a similar direction. There was no increase in the risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis with any DES compared with BMS. Moreover, EES was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the rate of stent thrombosis when compared with sirolimus eluting stent (RR, 0.38; 95% CrI, 0.21-0.74), paclitaxel eluting stent (RR, 0.39; 95% CrI, 0.21-0.73), and even BMS (RR, 0.42; 95% CrI, 0.23-0.76). There was a 74% probability that EES had the lowest rate of any stent thrombosis when compared with all other stent

  18. Impact of contralateral carotid occlusion on in-hospital outcomes of carotid artery stenting: Results from the Carotid Artery Revascularization and Endarterectomy (CARE) Registry

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Nestor; Cohen, David J.; Spertus, John A.; Chan, Paul S.; House, John; Kennedy, Kevin; Brindis, Ralph G.; White, Christopher J.; Rosenfield, Kenneth A.; Marso, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Contralateral carotid artery occlusions (CCO) are associated with adverse neurologic events following carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The characteristics and outcomes of patients with CCO undergoing elective carotid artery stenting (CAS) have not been completely studied. Methods: In-hospital outcomes were examined in patients with and without CCO undergoing elective CAS in the Carotid Artery Revascularization and Endarterectomy (CARE Registry®). A CCO was defined as a 100% occlusion of the contralateral internal carotid artery. The primary endpoint was a composite of in-hospital death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Results: Between 2005 and 2010, 8,416 patients underwent elective CAS, of whom 900 (12%) had CCO. Patients with CCO were younger (69 vs. 71 years, p<0.001), more often male (68% vs. 61%, p<0.001), more frequently had symptoms due to the target lesion (46% vs. 39%, p<0.001), had a prior neurologic event (56% vs. 45%, p<0.001), and more frequently had restenosis in a target lesion after previous CAS (5% vs. 3%, p<0.001). The primary composite endpoint occurred in 14 (1.6%) and 211 (2.8%) patients with and without CCO, respectively (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.33-1.00, p=0.052). Conclusion: In the CARE registry, there was no evidence that the presence of a CCO was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke in patients undergoing elective carotid artery stenting. These findings may have implications on the selection of carotid revascularization procedures for such patients. PMID:23347862

  19. Off-pump versus on-pump revascularization in females: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Attaran, S; Harling, L; Ashrafian, H; Moscarelli, M; Casula, R; Anderson, J; Punjabi, P; Athanasiou, T

    2014-09-01

    Coronary revascularization in female patients presents several challenges, including smaller target vessels and smaller conduits. Furthermore, late presentation and more co-morbidities than males may increase complication rates. The aim of this study was to assess whether off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) improves outcomes when compared to on-pump coronary artery bypass (ONCAB) in the female population. A systematic literature review identified six observational studies, incorporating 23313 patients (n=9596 OPCAB, 13717 ONCAB). These were meta-analyzed using random effects modeling. Heterogeneity, subgroup analysis, quality scoring and publication bias were assessed. The primary endpoints were 30-day mortality and major cardiac, respiratory and renal complications. Secondary endpoints were the number of grafts per patient. No statistically significant difference was observed in 30-day mortality between the OPCAB and ONCAB groups (4.8% vs. 0.7%; OR 0.96; 95% CI [0.41, 2.24], p=0.92). Significant inter-study heterogeneity was also present (I2=94%) and was not explained by study size or quality. Peri-operative myocardial infarction (OR 0.65; 95% CI [0.51, 0.84], p=0.0009) was significantly lower with OPCAB without significant heterogeneity; however, OPCAB did not significantly alter other morbidity outcomes. OPCAB was associated with a trend towards fewer grafts per patient than ONCAB. OPCAB is a safe alternative to ONCAB in the surgical revascularisation of female patients and may reduce post-operative myocardial infarction (MI). However, this does not translate into a reduction in 30-day mortality and OPCAB does not significantly improve other cardiovascular, renal or neurological outcomes. Late outcome data remains lacking and a well-structured, randomized trial is required to answer vital questions regarding the effect of OPCAB on women in the long-term. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Quantitative pixelwise myocardial perfusion maps from first-pass perfusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Weng, A M; Ritter, C O; Beer, M; Hahn, D; Köstler, H

    2014-07-01

    To calculate and evaluate absolute quantitative myocardial perfusion maps from rest first-pass perfusion MRI. 10 patients after revascularization of myocardial infarction underwent cardiac rest first-pass perfusion MRI. Additionally, perfusion examinations were performed in 12 healthy volunteers. Quantitative myocardial perfusion maps were calculated by using a deconvolution technique, and results were compared were the findings of a sector-based quantification. Maps were typically calculated within 3 min per slice. For the volunteers, myocardial blood flow values of the maps were 0.51 ± 0.16 ml g(-1) per minute, whereas sector-based evaluation delivered 0.52 ± 0.15 ml g(-1) per minute. A t-test revealed no statistical difference between the two sets of values. For the patients, all perfusion defects visually detected in the dynamic perfusion series could be correctly reproduced in the maps. Calculation of quantitative perfusion maps from myocardial perfusion MRI examinations is feasible. The absolute quantitative maps provide additional information on the transmurality of perfusion defects compared with the visual evaluation of the perfusion series and offer a convenient way to present perfusion MRI findings. Voxelwise analysis of myocardial perfusion helps clinicians to assess the degree of tissue damage, and the resulting maps are a good tool to present findings to patients.

  1. Root canal revascularization. The beginning of a new era in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Alrahabi, Mothanna K; Ali, Mahmoud M

    2014-05-01

    Endodontic management of immature anterior teeth with necrotic pulps is a great challenge. Although there are different treatment procedures to deal with this problem such as apexification by using calcium hydroxide dressings or applying a barrier of mineral trioxide aggregate and gutta-percha obturation, the outcomes are still unsatisfactory and the root might still be weak. Recently, a new treatment protocol by revascularization of immature non-vital, infected teeth was introduced to regenerate dental structure and complete the root maturation. However, larger case series with longer follow-up periods are required to accept revascularization as the standard protocol for management of immature non-vital, infected teeth. In this review, we discuss the concept of root canal revascularization, revascularization mechanisms, and the structure of the regenerated tissues.

  2. Impact of an absorbent silver-eluting dressing system on lower extremity revascularization wound complications.

    PubMed

    Childress, Beverly B; Berceli, Scott A; Nelson, Peter R; Lee, W Anthony; Ozaki, C Keith

    2007-09-01

    Surgical wounds for lower extremity revascularization are prone to infection and dehiscence. Acticoat Absorbent, an antimicrobial dressing, offers sustained release of ionic silver. We hypothesized that immediate application of Acticoat as a postoperative dressing would reduce wound complications in patients undergoing leg revascularization. All infrainguinal revascularization cases involving leg incisions at a single Veterans Administration Medical Center were identified from July 1, 2002, to September 30, 2005. The control group received conventional dressings, while the treatment group received an Acticoat dressing. Wound complication rates were captured via National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. Patient characteristics and procedure distributions were similar between groups. The wound complication rate fell 64% with utilization of the Acticoat-based dressing (control 14% [17/118], treatment 5% [7/130]; P = 0.016). An Acticoat-based dressing system offers a potentially useful, cost-effective adjunct to reduce open surgical leg revascularization wound complications.

  3. Predictors of functional dependence despite successful revascularization in large-vessel occlusion strokes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhong-Song; Liebeskind, David S; Xiang, Bin; Ge, Sijian Grace; Feng, Lei; Albers, Gregory W; Budzik, Ronald; Devlin, Thomas; Gupta, Rishi; Jansen, Olav; Jovin, Tudor G; Killer-Oberpfalzer, Monika; Lutsep, Helmi L; Macho, Juan; Nogueira, Raul G; Rymer, Marilyn; Smith, Wade S; Wahlgren, Nils; Duckwiler, Gary R

    2014-07-01

    High revascularization rates in large-vessel occlusion strokes treated by mechanical thrombectomy are not always associated with good clinical outcomes. We evaluated predictors of functional dependence despite successful revascularization among patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with thrombectomy. We analyzed the pooled data from the Multi Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia (MERCI), Thrombectomy Revascularization of Large Vessel Occlusions in Acute Ischemic Stroke (TREVO), and TREVO 2 trials. Successful revascularization was defined as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b or 3. Functional dependence was defined as a score of 3 to 6 on the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. We assessed relationship of demographic, clinical, angiographic characteristics, and hemorrhage with functional dependence despite successful revascularization. Two hundred and twenty-eight patients with successful revascularization had clinical outcome follow-up. The rates of functional dependence with endovascular success were 48.6% for Trevo thrombectomy and 58.0% for Merci thrombectomy. Age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.06 per 1-year increase), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.15 per 1-point increase), and symptom onset to endovascular treatment time (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.22 per 30-minute delay) were predictors of functional dependence despite successful revascularization. Symptom onset to reperfusion time beyond 5 hours was associated with functional dependence. All subjects with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage had functional dependence. One half of patients with successful mechanical thrombectomy do not have good outcomes. Age, severe neurological deficits, and delayed endovascular treatment were associated with functional dependence despite successful revascularization. Our data support efforts to minimize delays to endovascular therapy in

  4. Histological observations of pulpal replacement tissue in immature dog teeth after revascularization of infected pulps.

    PubMed

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A; Zaazou, Ashraf; Nabil, Ahmed; Moussa, Sybel; Aly, Hanaa Mohamed; Okazaki, Katsushi; Rosenberg, Paul A; Lin, Louis M

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have examined the nature of tissue formed in the canals of immature necrotic teeth, following revascularization in animals and humans. While speculations have been made that regeneration of the pulp tissue might take place in the canal, the tissue has been found to be cementum-like, bone-like, and periodontal ligament-like. The purpose of this study was to histologically examine the tissue in the root canals in immature dog teeth that had been artificially infected and then revascularized. Two 4- to 5-month-old mongrel dogs with immature teeth were used in the study. In one dog, four maxillary and four mandibular anterior teeth, and in another dog, four maxillary and five mandibular anterior teeth were used in the experiment. Pulp infection was artificially induced in the immature teeth. Revascularization was performed on all teeth by disinfecting the root canals with sodium hypochlorite irrigation and triple antibiotic intracanal dressing, completed with induction of intracanal bleeding, and sealed with an MTA plug. The access cavity was restored with silver amalgam. The animals were sacrificed 3 months after revascularization procedures. The revascularized teeth and surrounding periodontal tissues were removed and prepared for histological examination. Besides cementum-like, bone-like, and periodontal ligament-like tissues formed in the canals, residual remaining pulp tissue was observed in two revascularized teeth. In four teeth, ingrowth of alveolar bone into the canals was seen; presence of bone in the root canals has the potential for ankylosis. Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that residual pulp tissue can remain in the canals after revascularization procedures of immature teeth with artificially induced pulp infection. This can lead to the misinterpretation that true pulpal regeneration has occurred. Ingrowth of apical bone into the root canals undergoing revascularization can interfere with normal tooth eruption if

  5. Predictors of Functional Dependence Despite Successful Revascularization in Large-Vessel Occlusion Strokes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhong-Song; Liebeskind, David S.; Xiang, Bin; Ge, Sijian Grace; Feng, Lei; Albers, Gregory W.; Budzik, Ronald; Devlin, Thomas; Gupta, Rishi; Jansen, Olav; Jovin, Tudor G.; Killer-Oberpfalzer, Monika; Lutsep, Helmi L.; Macho, Juan; Nogueira, Raul G.; Rymer, Marilyn; Smith, Wade S.; Wahlgren, Nils; Duckwiler, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose High revascularization rates in large-vessel occlusion strokes treated by mechanical thrombectomy are not always associated with good clinical outcomes. We evaluated predictors of functional dependence despite successful revascularization among patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with thrombectomy. Methods We analyzed the pooled data from the Multi Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia (MERCI), Thrombectomy Revascularization of Large Vessel Occlusions in Acute Ischemic Stroke (TREVO), and TREVO 2 trials. Successful revascularization was defined as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score 2b or 3. Functional dependence was defined as a score of 3 to 6 on the modified Rankin Scale at 3 months. We assessed relationship of demographic, clinical, angiographic characteristics, and hemorrhage with functional dependence despite successful revascularization. Results Two hundred and twenty-eight patients with successful revascularization had clinical outcome follow-up. The rates of functional dependence with endovascular success were 48.6% for Trevo thrombectomy and 58.0% for Merci thrombectomy. Age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.06 per 1-year increase), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.15 per 1-point increase), and symptom onset to endovascular treatment time (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.22 per 30-minute delay) were predictors of functional dependence despite successful revascularization. Symptom onset to reperfusion time beyond 5 hours was associated with functional dependence. All subjects with symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage had functional dependence. Conclusions One half of patients with successful mechanical thrombectomy do not have good outcomes. Age, severe neurological deficits, and delayed endovascular treatment were associated with functional dependence despite successful revascularization. Our data

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of revascularization in Kienbock's disease. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Viegas, S F; Amparo, E

    1989-12-01

    A 25-year-old man with stage II Kienbock's disease of his left lunate underwent an initial period of immobilization. He was subsequently treated by ulnar lengthening, with a good outcome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized to demonstrate the lack of improvement with cast immobilization and the revascularization that followed surgical treatment. This new application of MRI in cases of avascular necrosis of the lunate may be helpful in the early identification of revascularization.

  7. Global Positioning System Use in the Community to Evaluate Improvements in Walking After Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gernigon, Marie; Le Faucheur, Alexis; Fradin, Dominique; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Landron, Cédric; Mahe, Guillaume; Abraham, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Revascularization aims at improving walking ability in patients with arterial claudication. The highest measured distance between 2 stops (highest-MDCW), the average walking speed (average-WSCW), and the average stop duration (average-DSCW) can be measured by global positioning system, but their evolution after revascularization is unknown. We included 251 peripheral artery diseased patients with self-reported limiting claudication. The patients performed a 1-hour stroll, recorded by a global positioning system receiver. Patients (n = 172) with confirmed limitation (highest-MDCW <2000m) at inclusion were reevaluated after 6 months. Patients revascularized during the follow-up period were compared with reference patients (ie, with unchanged lifestyle medical or surgical status). Other patients (lost to follow-up or treatment change) were excluded (n = 89). We studied 44 revascularized and 39 reference patients. Changes in highest-MDCW (+442 vs. +13 m) and average-WSCW (+0.3 vs. −0.2 km h−1) were greater in revascularized than in reference patients (both P < 0.01). In contrast, no significant difference in average-DSCW changes was found between the groups. Among the revascularized patients, 13 (29.5%) had a change in average-WSCW, but not in highest-MDCW, greater than the mean + 1 standard deviation of the change observed for reference patients. Revascularization may improve highest-MDCW and/or average-WSCW. This first report of changes in community walking ability in revascularized patients suggests that, beyond measuring walking distances, average-WSCW measurement is essential to monitor these changes. Applicability to other surgical populations remains to be evaluated. Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01141361 PMID:25950694

  8. The ubiquitin proteasome system and myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Calise, Justine

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) has been the subject of intensive research over the past 20 years to define its role in normal physiology and in pathophysiology. Many of these studies have focused in on the cardiovascular system and have determined that the UPS becomes dysfunctional in several pathologies such as familial and idiopathic cardiomyopathies, atherosclerosis, and myocardial ischemia. This review presents a synopsis of the literature as it relates to the role of the UPS in myocardial ischemia. Studies have shown that the UPS is dysfunctional during myocardial ischemia, and recent studies have shed some light on possible mechanisms. Other studies have defined a role for the UPS in ischemic preconditioning which is best associated with myocardial ischemia and is thus presented here. Very recent studies have started to define roles for specific proteasome subunits and components of the ubiquitination machinery in various aspects of myocardial ischemia. Lastly, despite the evidence linking myocardial ischemia and proteasome dysfunction, there are continuing suggestions that proteasome inhibitors may be useful to mitigate ischemic injury. This review presents the rationale behind this and discusses both supportive and nonsupportive studies and presents possible future directions that may help in clarifying this controversy. PMID:23220331

  9. Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective was to update the 2001 systematic review conducted by the Institute For Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) on the use of positron emission tomography (PET) in assessing myocardial viability. The update consisted of a review and analysis of the research evidence published since the 2001 ICES review to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PET in detecting left ventricular (LV) viability and predicting patient outcomes after revascularization in comparison with other noninvasive techniques. Background Left Ventricular Viability Heart failure is a complex syndrome that impairs the contractile ability of the heart to maintain adequate blood circulation, resulting in poor functional capacity and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in elderly Canadians. In more than two-thirds of cases, heart failure is secondary to coronary heart disease. It has been shown that dysfunctional myocardium resulting from coronary heart disease (CAD) may recover contractile function (i.e. considered viable). Dysfunctional but viable myocardium may have been stunned by a brief episode of ischemia, followed by restoration of perfusion, and may regain function spontaneously. It is believed that repetitive stunning results in hibernating myocardium that will only regain contractile function upon revascularization. For people with CAD and severe LV dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) refractory to medical therapy, coronary artery bypass and heart transplantation are the only treatment options. The opportunity for a heart transplant is limited by scarcityof donor hearts. Coronary artery bypass in these patients is associated with high perioperative complications; however, there is evidence that revascularization in the presence of dysfunctional but viable myocardium is associated with survival benefits and lower rates of cardiac events. The assessment of left

  10. Fractional flow reserve as a surrogate for inducible myocardial ischaemia.

    PubMed

    van de Hoef, Tim P; Meuwissen, Martijn; Escaned, Javier; Davies, Justin E; Siebes, Maria; Spaan, Jos A E; Piek, Jan J

    2013-08-01

    Documentation of inducible myocardial ischaemia, related to the coronary stenosis of interest, is of increasing importance in lesion selection for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an easily understood, routine diagnostic modality that has become part of daily clinical practice, and is used as a surrogate technique for noninvasive assessment of myocardial ischaemia. However, the application of a single, discrete, cut-off value for FFR-guided lesion selection for PCI, and its adoption in contemporary revascularization guidelines, has limited the requirement for a thorough understanding of the physiological basis of FFR. This limitation constitutes an obstacle for the adequate use and interpretation of this technique, and also for the understanding of new and future modalities of physiological functional intracoronary testing. In this Review, we revisit the fundamental elements of coronary physiology in the absence or presence of coronary artery disease. We provide insight into three essential characteristics of FFR as a diagnostic tool in contemporary clinical practice--the theoretical framework of FFR and its associated limitations; the characteristics and role of FFR as a surrogate for noninvasively assessed myocardial ischaemia; and the requirement and associated caveats of potent vasodilatory drugs to induce maximal vasodilatation of the coronary vascular bed.

  11. Stable angina pectoris: the medical management of symptomatic myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Parker, John D; Parker, John O

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality and is a serious public health problem. Over the last 4 decades there have been dramatic advances in the both the prevention and treatment of CAD. The management of CAD was revolutionized by the development of effective surgical and percutaneous revascularization techniques. In this review we discuss the importance of the medical management of symptomatic, stable angina. Medical management approaches to both the treatment and prevention of symptomatic myocardial ischemia are summarized. In Canada, organic nitrates, β-adrenergic blocking agents, and calcium channel antagonists have been available for the therapy of angina for more than 25 years. All 3 classes are of proven benefit in the improvement of symptoms and exercise capacity in patients with stable angina. Although there is no clear first choice within these classes of anti-anginal agents, the presence of prior or concurrent conditions (for example, prior myocardial infarction and/or hypertension) plays an important role in the choice of anti-anginal class in individual patients. For some patients, combinations of different anti-anginal agents can be effective; however it is recommended that this approach be individualized. Although not currently available in Canada, other classes of anti-anginal agents have been developed; their mechanism of action and clinical efficacy is discussed. Patients with stable angina have an excellent prognosis. Patients in this category who obtain relief from symptomatic myocardial ischemia may do well without invasive intervention.

  12. The Effects of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumps on Mortality in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Coronary Revascularization: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Stenting Era

    PubMed Central

    Wan, You-Dong; Sun, Tong-Wen; Kan, Quan-Cheng; Guan, Fang-Xia; Liu, Zi-Qi; Zhang, Shu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) have generally been used for patients undergoing high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization. However, there is still insufficient evidence to determine whether they can improve outcomes in reperfusion therapy patients, mainly by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This study was designed to determine the difference between high-risk mechanical coronary revascularization with and without IABPs on mortality, by performing a meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials of the current era. Methods Pubmed and Embase databases were searched from inception to May 2015. Unpublished data were obtained from the investigators. Randomized clinical trials of IABP and non-IABP in high-risk coronary revascularization procedures (PCI or CABG) were included. In the case of PCI procedures, stents should be used in more than 80% of patients. Numbers of events at the short-term and long-term follow-up were extracted. Results A total of 12 randomized trials enrolling 2155 patients were included. IABPs did not significantly decrease short-term mortality (relative risk (RR) 0.66; 95% CI, 0.42–1.01), or long-term mortality (RR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.47–1.35), with low heterogeneity across the studies. The findings remained stable in patients with acute myocardial infarction with or without cardiogenic shock. But in high-risk CABG patients, IABP was associated with reduced mortality (71 events in 846 patients; RR 0.40; 95%CI 0.25–0.67). Conclusion In patients undergoing high-risk coronary revascularization, IABP did not significantly decrease mortality. But high-risk CABG patients may be benefit from IABP. Rigorous criteria should be applied to the use of IABPs. PMID:26784578

  13. Is revascularization of immature permanent teeth an effective and reproducible technique?

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Po; Jovani-Sancho, Maria del Mar; Sheth, Chirag C

    2015-12-01

    Revascularization has been proposed as an improved alternative treatment for irreversibly damaged pulp of immature teeth as it has been shown to preserve the potential for continued root growth in treated teeth. To review clinical cases of revascularization in humans to evaluate their utility and reproducibility. A structured electronic search of scientific articles published between 2001 and 2014 was carried out using the following keywords: 'pulp revascularization', 'pulp revitalization' and/or 'immature tooth'. Clinical revascularization cases conducted on human subjects were selected, reviewed and organized into two charts including patient information, diagnostic information, treatment and results in follow-up visits. Ninety-seven of 101 teeth (96.0%) were successfully treated with the revascularization technique. The range of technique variations available for irrigation, disinfection and blood clot induction have a negligible impact on the clinical outcome variables tested in our analysis. During the follow-up visits, apical closure was detected in fewer cases (55.4%) as compared to the other apexogenesis phenomena (increased root length, 76.2%; increased root width, 79.2%). The review shows that the revascularization technique showed marked increase in the root length, width and apical closure in the cases that were reported independently of clinical variables such as operator and material selection and individual differences in protocols. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography (CT) Angiography and Coronary Artery Calcium Score Performed Before Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac events after revascularization are equally attributable to recurrence at site of culprit lesions and development of nonculprit lesions. We evaluated the hypothesis that coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) performed before revascularization predicts cardiac events after treatment. Methods and Results Among 2238 consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease who underwent coronary CT angiography and CACS, 359 patients underwent revascularization within 30 days after CT; in 337 of 359 (93.9%) follow-up clinical information was available. In addition to known cardiac risk factors, CT findings were evaluated as predictors of cardiac events after revascularization: CACS and the presence of CT-verified high-risk plaque (CT-HRP). Improvement of predictive accuracy by including CT findings was evaluated from a discrimination (Harrell’s C-statistics) standpoint. During the follow-up period (median: 673, interquartile range: 47 to 1529 days), a total of 98 cardiac events occurred. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that age, diabetes, triglyceride, CACS, and nonculprit CT-HRP were significant predictors of overall cardiac events. Although not statistically significant, discriminatory power was greater for the model with CACS (C-stat: 63.2%) and the model with both CACS and CT-HRP (65.8%) compared to the model including neither CACS nor CT-HRP (60.7%). Conclusions High CACS and the presence of nonculprit CT-HRP performed before revascularization are significant predictors of cardiac events after revascularization. PMID:26296858

  15. Adipose stromal vascular fraction improves cardiac function in chronic myocardial infarction through differentiation and paracrine activity.

    PubMed

    Mazo, Manuel; Cemborain, Arantxa; Gavira, Juan José; Abizanda, Gloria; Araña, Miriam; Casado, Mayte; Soriano, Mario; Hernández, Salomón; Moreno, Cristina; Ecay, Margarita; Albiasu, Edurne; Belzunce, Miriam; Orbe, Josune; Páramo, José Antonio; Merino, Juana; Peñuelas, Iván; Verdugo, José Manuel García; Pelacho, Beatriz; Prosper, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Fresh adipose-derived cells have been shown to be effective in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI), but their role in the chronic setting is unknown. We sought to determine the long-term effect of the adipose derived-stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell transplantation in a rat model of chronic MI. MI was induced in 82 rats by permanent coronary artery ligation and 5 weeks later rats were allocated to receive an intramyocardial injection of 10(7) GFP-expressing fresh SVF cells or culture media as control. Heart function and tissue metabolism were determined by echocardiography and (18)F-FDG-microPET, respectively, and histological studies were performed for up to 3 months after transplantation. SVF induced a statistically significant long-lasting (3 months) improvement in cardiac function and tissue metabolism that was associated with increased revascularization and positive heart remodeling, with a significantly smaller infarct size, thicker infarct wall, lower scar fibrosis, and lower cardiac hypertrophy. Importantly, injected cells engrafted and were detected in the treated hearts for at least 3 months, directly contributing to the vasculature and myofibroblasts and at negligible levels to cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, SVF release of angiogenic (VEGF and HGF) and proinflammatory (MCP-1) cytokines, as well as TIMP1 and TIMP4, was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, strongly suggesting that they have a trophic effect. These results show the potential of SVF to contribute to the regeneration of ischemic tissue and to provide a long-term functional benefit in a rat model of chronic MI, by both direct and indirect mechanisms.

  16. Strategies for successful percutaneous revascularization of chronic total occlusion of the femoropopliteal arteries when the antegrade passage of a guide wire fails.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Jin; Park, Sang Woo; Chang, Il Soo; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Park, Jeong Hee

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of various strategies for revascularization of chronic total occlusion of femoropopliteal arteries when the guide wire does not pass in an anterograde direction. Twenty-four patients with totally occluded femoropopliteal arteries (mean occlusion length 13.75 cm; range, 6-22 cm) were treated by using a retrograde approach and two novel catheters. After successful recanalization or reentry, balloon angioplasty followed by stent placement was performed to complete the revascularization. In 16 cases in which to cross the occlusion via intraluminal or subintimal route was failed, we used Frontrunner catheters in five cases and Outback catheters in 11 cases. In eight cases in which to reenter after subintimal passage of the guide wire was failed, we used Outback catheters. Successful recanalization was achieved intraluminally or subintimally in all cases. One perforation occurred during subintimal passage of the guide wire that was controlled by recanalization of another subintimal tract. There were no cases of distal thromboembolism or other complications. A retrograde approach and using the Frontrunner and Outback catheters are safe and effective for successful revascularization of chronic total occlusion of femoropopliteal arteries. In particular, they are useful when the initial antegrade attempts at recanalization have failed.

  17. Added prognostic value of myocardial blood flow quantitation in rubidium-82 positron emission tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Farhad, Hoshang; Dunet, Vincent; Bachelard, Kim; Allenbach, Gilles; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Prior, John O

    2013-12-01

    We studied the respective added value of the quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) and the myocardial flow reserve (MFR) as assessed with (82)Rb positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with suspected myocardial ischaemia. Myocardial perfusion images were analysed semi-quantitatively (SDS, summed difference score) and quantitatively (MBF, MFR) in 351 patients. Follow-up was completed in 335 patients and annualized MACE (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, or hospitalization for congestive heart failure or de novo stable angor) rates were analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method in 318 patients after excluding 17 patients with early revascularizations (<60 days). Independent predictors of MACEs were identified by multivariate analysis. During a median follow-up of 624 days (inter-quartile range 540-697), 35 MACEs occurred. An annualized MACE rate was higher in patients with ischaemia (SDS >2) (n = 105) than those without [14% (95% CI = 9.1-22%) vs. 4.5% (2.7-7.4%), P < 0.0001]. The lowest MFR tertile group (MFR <1.8) had the highest MACE rate [16% (11-25%) vs. 2.9% (1.2-7.0%) and 4.3% (2.1-9.0%), P < 0.0001]. Similarly, the lowest stress MBF tertile group (MBF <1.8 mL/min/g) had the highest MACE rate [14% (9.2-22%) vs. 7.3% (4.2-13%) and 1.8% (0.6-5.5%), P = 0.0005]. Quantitation with stress MBF or MFR had a significant independent prognostic power in addition to semi-quantitative findings. The largest added value was conferred by combining stress MBF to SDS. This holds true even for patients without ischaemia. Perfusion findings in (82)Rb PET/CT are strong MACE outcome predictors. MBF quantification has an added value allowing further risk stratification in patients with normal and abnormal perfusion images.

  18. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11) had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. PMID:27882250

  19. Abciximab and heparin versus bivalirudin for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kastrati, Adnan; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Schulz, Stefanie; Massberg, Steffen; Byrne, Robert A; Ferenc, Miroslaw; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Pache, Jürgen; Ott, Ilka; Hausleiter, Jörg; Seyfarth, Melchior; Gick, Michael; Antoniucci, David; Schömig, Albert; Berger, Peter B; Mehilli, Julinda

    2011-11-24

    The combination of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and heparin has not been compared with bivalirudin in studies specifically involving patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared the two treatments in this patient population. Immediately before PCI, we randomly assigned, in a double-blind manner, 1721 patients with acute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction to receive abciximab plus unfractionated heparin (861 patients) or bivalirudin (860 patients). The study tested the hypothesis that abciximab and heparin would be superior to bivalirudin with respect to the primary composite end point of death, large recurrent myocardial infarction, urgent target-vessel revascularization, or major bleeding within 30 days. Secondary end points included the composite of death, any recurrent myocardial infarction, or urgent target-vessel revascularization (efficacy end point) and major bleeding (safety end point) within 30 days. The primary end point occurred in 10.9% of the patients in the abciximab group (94 patients) and in 11.0% in the bivalirudin group (95 patients) (relative risk with abciximab, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.32; P=0.94). Death, any recurrent myocardial infarction, or urgent target-vessel revascularization occurred in 12.8% of the patients in the abciximab group (110 patients) and in 13.4% in the bivalirudin group (115 patients) (relative risk, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.25; P=0.76). Major bleeding occurred in 4.6% of the patients in the abciximab group (40 patients) as compared with 2.6% in the bivalirudin group (22 patients) (relative risk, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.07; P=0.02). Abciximab and unfractionated heparin, as compared with bivalirudin, failed to reduce the rate of the primary end point and increased the risk of bleeding among patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who were undergoing PCI. (Funded by Nycomed Pharma and

  20. Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Fact or Fiction in Lower Limb Revascularization?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rico, Carlos; Martí-Mestre, Xavier; Romera-Villegas, Antonio; Espinar-Garcia, Emma; Iborra-Ortega, Elena; Vila-Coll, Ramón

    2017-10-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as an increase >25% of serum creatinine from baseline, occurring in 24-48 hours after exposure to contrast, while alternative explanations for renal impairment have been excluded. The volume administered directly relates to risk, increasing by 12% per 100 mL of contrast. According to the series, its incidence varies between 3.3% and 8% in patients without renal damage and 12-50% in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM). The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of CIN in endovascular revascularization of lower limbs in our center, where we apply the ALARA concept (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) to the use of contrast. 163 patients who underwent endovascular revascularization procedures in lower limbs were included in this prospective observational study between February 2013 and April 2015. They were classified according to clinical stage and presence of DM and/or CKD. Data included serum creatinine values preoperative and postoperative, type and volume of contrast used. Patients on hemodialysis and those without sufficient analytical data were excluded. Chi-squared test and Student t-test were used for data analysis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. 109 patients were enrolled, with 67% of DM and 31.5% of CKD. CIN incidence was 3.7% in patients without DM neither CKD, in DM was 6.8% and 12.5% in CKD. Mean creatinine presurgery was 97.96 and postsurgery 97.07, finding no significant differences between them (P = 0.753). Medium-contrast volume was 37.43 mL ± 22.3. The worsening variable (creatinine postsurgery minus creatinine presurgery) was evaluated according to clinical stage, DM, or CKD, being not significant in either group. In our experience, the dose administered of contrast was not related to the existence of postprocedure CIN, due to the policy of optimizing the use of contrast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Drug-eluting stents and acute myocardial infarction: A lethal combination or friends?

    PubMed Central

    Otsuki, Shuji; Sabaté, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred reperfusion strategy for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). First generation drug-eluting stents (DES), (sirolimus drug-eluting stents and paclitaxel drug-eluting stents), reduce the risk of restenosis and target vessel revascularization compared to bare metal stents. However, stent thrombosis emerged as a major safety concern with first generation DES. In response to these safety issues, second generation DES were developed with different drugs, improved stent platforms and more biocompatible durable or bioabsorbable polymeric coating. This article presents an overview of safety and efficacy of the first and second generation DES in STEMI. PMID:25276295

  2. Myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201 to evaluate patients before and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    DePuey, E.G. )

    1991-09-01

    Thallium-201 imaging may be used to help determine the distribution and amount of myocardium in jeopardy and the success of revascularization after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Single photon emission computed tomography is particularly advantageous because of its ability to differentiate vascular territories and thus evaluate patients with multivessel disease. Myocardial infarction resulting from complications such as distal embolization and side-branch occlusion can be detected. Thallium-201 imaging early after angioplasty may show abnormal results caused by transiently insufficient coronary flow reserve. However, studies performed 6 weeks or more after angioplasty accurately detect early restenosis and may identify those individuals likely to become symptomatic and eventually develop restenosis in the future.

  3. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: The Past, Present, and Future of Myocardial Revascularisation

    PubMed Central

    Chedrawy, Edgar G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the heart-lung machine ushered in the era of modern cardiac surgery. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains the most common operation performed by cardiac surgeons today. From its infancy in the 1950s till today, CABG has undergone many developments both technically and clinically. Improvements in intraoperative technique and perioperative care have led to CABG being offered to a more broad patient profile with less complications and adverse events. Our review outlines the rich history and promising future of myocardial revascularization. PMID:25374960

  4. Acute myocardial infarction and thyrotoxic storm--a difficult and dangerous combination.

    PubMed

    Opdahl, H; Eritsland, J; Søvik, E

    2005-05-01

    We describe an unusual case of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiogenic shock in a 25-year-old woman. After coronary revascularization, a thyrotoxic storm developed and the patient's cardiac failure changed into a hyperdynamic circulation without obvious changes in the patient's vital signs. This report will focus on three issues: (1) the benefit of advanced hemodynamic monitoring in circulatory unstable patients, (2) the confounding effects of untreated hyperthyroidism on the circulation, and (3) previous cancer treatment as a cause of AMI in young persons.

  5. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction with mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yan; Zeng, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ying; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current evidences suggest that revascularization of the culprit vessels with percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting can be beneficial for relieving IMR. A 2.5-year follow-up data of a 61-year-old male patient with ST-segment elevation AMI complicated with IMR showed that mitral regurgitation area increased five days after PCI, and decreased to lower steady level three months after PCI. This finding suggest that three months after PCI might be a suitable time point for evaluating the possibility of IMR recovery and the necessity of surgical intervention of the mitral valve for AMI patient. PMID:27582769

  6. Delayed redistribution in thallium 201 SPECT myocardial perfusion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ziessman, H.A.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.; Fox, L.M.; Green, C.E.; Fox, S.M. )

    1989-11-01

    Stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial perfusion studies are useful in differentiating viable, reversibly ischemic from infarcted myocardium. A perfusion defect that shows redistribution 2 to 4 h after {sup 201}Tl injection is diagnostic of ischemia, while a fixed defect suggests infarction. However, occasional patients with a fixed defect at 4 h have redistribution at 24 h. This study evaluates the frequency and significance of this delayed redistribution with SPECT {sup 201}Tl. Patients with either no or incomplete redistribution at 4 h had repeat imaging 18 to 48 h later. Delayed redistribution was seen in 8/26 (31 percent). Four had incomplete and four had no redistribution at 4 h. Delayed redistribution with SPECT {sup 201}Tl is more common than generally appreciated, and we recommend delayed images in patients with fixed perfusion defects or incomplete redistribution at 4-h imaging, particularly in patients with previous infarctions for whom a revascularization procedure is being considered.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    ASSESSMENT OF MYOCARDIAL VIABILITY: An Evidence-Based Analysis The objective of this analysis is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effectiveness of cardiac MRI viability imaging, the following outcomes were examined: the diagnostic accuracy in predicting functional recovery and the impact of cardiac MRI viability imaging on prognosis (mortality and other patient outcomes). CONDITION AND TARGET POPULATION LEFT VENTRICULAR SYSTOLIC DYSFUNCTION AND HEART FAILURE: Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by the heart's inability to maintain adequate blood circulation through the body leading to multiorgan abnormalities and, eventually, death. Patients with heart failure experience poor functional capacity, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In 2005, more than 71,000 Canadians died from cardiovascular disease, of which, 54% were due to ischemic heart disease. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction due to coronary artery disease (CAD) () is the primary cause of heart failure accounting for more than 70% of cases. The prevalence of heart failure was estimated at one percent of the Canadian population in 1989. Since then, the increase in the older population has undoubtedly resulted in a substantial increase in cases. Heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis: one-year mortality rates were 32.9% and 31.1% for men and women, respectively in Ontario between 1996 and 1997. IN GENERAL, THERE ARE THREE OPTIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEART FAILURE: medical treatment, heart transplantation, and revascularization for those with CAD as the underlying cause. Concerning medical treatment, despite recent advances, mortality remains high among treated patients, while, heart transplantation is affected by the limited availability of donor hearts and consequently has long waiting lists. The third option

  8. Completeness of coronary revascularization and survival: Impact of age and off-pump surgery.

    PubMed

    Omer, Shuab; Cornwell, Lorraine D; Rosengart, Todd K; Kelly, Rosemary F; Ward, Herbert B; Holman, William L; Bakaeen, Faisal G

    2014-10-01

    We conducted a multicenter observational cohort study of the effect of completeness of revascularization on long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. We also investigated the impact of age and off-pump surgery. The Veterans Affairs Continuous Improvement in Cardiac Surgery Program was used to identify all patients (N=41,139) with left main and 3-vessel coronary artery disease who underwent nonemergency coronary artery bypass grafting from October 1997 to April 2011. The primary outcome measure, all-cause mortality, was compared between patients with complete revascularization and patients with incomplete revascularization. Survival functions were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by using the log-rank test. Propensity scores calculated for each patient were used to match 5509 patients undergoing complete revascularization to 5509 patients undergoing incomplete revascularization. A subgroup analysis was performed in patients aged at least 70 years and patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. In the unmatched groups, several risk factors were more common in the incomplete revascularization group, as was off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. In the matched groups, risk-adjusted mortality was higher in the incomplete revascularization group than in the complete revascularization group at 1 year (6.96% vs 5.97%; risk ratio [RR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.34), 5 years (18.50% vs 15.96%; RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.26), and 10 years (32.12% vs 27.40%; RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.24), with an overall hazard ratio of 1.18 (95% CI, 1.09-1.28; P<.0001). The hazard ratio for patients aged 70 years or more was 1.125 (95% CI, 1.001-1.263; P=.048). The hazard ratio was 1.47 (95% CI, 1.303-1.655) for the unmatched off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group and 1.156 (95% CI, 1.000-1.335) for the matched off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group. Incomplete revascularization is associated with

  9. Iloprost reduces myocardial edema in a rat model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, A; Yavuz, C; Karahan, O; Yazici, S; Guclu, O; Demirtas, S; Mavitas, B

    2014-05-01

    Myocardial ischemia severely reduces myocyte longevity and function. Extensive interstitial edema and cell damage occur as a result of myocardial reperfusion injury. Current therapies are directed at prevention of ischemia-induced damage to cardiac tissue. Iloprost is a novel pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of ischemia. Twenty rats were segregated into four experimental groups. The procedure control group consisted of four rats undergoing a sham operation. The remaining 16 rats were divided into two equal groups. The first group (control group) received a continuous intravenous infusion of physiological serum immediately prior to the procedure. Iloprost was administered by a continuous intravenous infusion into the right jugular vein at an infusion rate of 100 ng/kg/min for 30 minutes prior to reperfusion in the experimental group (study group). Following the infusion treatments, ligation of the left coronary artery was conducted for 30 minutes to induce myocardial ischemia. The rats were euthanized 24 hours after reperfusion and cardiac tissue was harvested from all specimens for analysis. Histological examination revealed three myocardial tissue specimens with grade II damage and five myocardial tissue specimens with grade III reperfusion injury in the control group. However, the study group consisted of two grade III myocardial tissue specimens, five grade II myocardial tissue specimens and one grade I myocardial tissue specimen. Moreover, a statistically significant reduction in myocardial edema was observed in the study group (p=0.022). Our results support the hypothesis that iloprost enhances protection against cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury. This protective effect may be associated with vasodilation, antioxidant or anti-edema mechanisms.

  10. T2* magnetic resonance and myocardial iron in thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Dudley J

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance T2* values of the myocardium are directly related to tissue iron levels. Minor effects from myocardial oxygenation and fibrosis are overwhelmed by the highly dominant iron effect in clinically relevant levels of myocardial iron overload. Myocardial T2* values less than 20 ms indicate iron overload, and this is considered severe when T2* is less than 10 ms. Decreasing myocardial T2* levels are associated with systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction. Most recorded cases of heart failure in thalassemia to date have occurred in patients with very low T2* values (in the severe range). Exceptions to this have occurred in patients with other causes of heart failure such as concomitant congenital heart disease. In patients presenting with heart failure who undergo aggressive chelation with continuous intravenous deferoxamine, longitudinal studies show that myocardial T2* increases, and this is accompanied by increases in ejection fraction and relief of heart failure. In cross-sectional studies, the myocardial T2* and ejection fraction of patients on deferiprone was superior to that of patients on deferoxamine. Randomized controlled prospective trials comparing these two drugs for their action in clearing myocardial iron, as measured by myocardial T2*, are under way and should report in 2005/2006. These trials will clarify the role of different chelators in the management of myocardial iron overload and may be valuable in reducing the toll of death in thalassemia from heart failure.

  11. [Complete revascularization for multi-vessel coronary diseases through lower ministernotomy on beating heart off-pump surgery].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z B; Zhang, Y; Guo, J Z; Li, Y Y; Zhang, Y P

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To discuss a novel method of complete revascularization for multi-vessel coronary diseases on beating heart off-pump surgery through lower ministernotomy. Methods: Clinical data of 79 patients underwent ministernotomy off-pump coronary artery bypass from January 2015 to May 2016 at Department of Cardiac Surgery, Heart Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University were analyzed retrospectively. There were 62 male and 17 female patients, with an average age of (65±9) years. All the patients were multi-vessel coronary diseases and planned to receive coronary artery bypass grafting. Left internal mammary artery, radial artery and great saphenous veins were harvested and prepared, respectively. The perioperative clinical data was observed and collected. Postoperative ventilator-assisted time, intensive care time, and 24-hour thoracic mediastinal drainage volume were recorded. Postoperative cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. The data were compared between pre- and post-operative using paired t test. Results: Cardiopulmonary bypass was used in 2 patients during operation because of unstable hemodynamic status, but the incision was not needed to extend for those 2 patients. The lower ministernotomy was converted to traditional full sternotomy in 2 patients due to limited space for proximal anastomosis. In total, 79 patients had an average of (2.8±0.6) grafts. One proximal anastomosis was performed in 75 patients and 2 anastomoses in 4 patients. Distal target vessels consisted of left descending arteries for 79 patients, posterior descending artery for 60 patients, obtuse marginal branch and intermediate branch for 56 patients and diagonal branches for 25 patients, respectively. Average postoperative ventilation time was (19.0±2.2) hours and ICU stay was (60±20) hours. One patient developed postoperative myocardial infarction and needed temporary intra-aortic balloon pump support. One patient was subjected to incision

  12. Evaluation of antiplatelet effects of a modified protocol by platelet aggregation in patients undergoing "one-stop" hybrid coronary revascularization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peixian; Xiong, Hui; Zheng, Zhe; Li, Lihuan; Gao, Runlin; Hu, Sheng-Shou

    2010-01-01

    "One-stop" hybrid coronary revascularization has emerged to be a reliable and attractive alternative for selected patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. However, the optimal antiplatelet regimen of the one-stop hybrid procedure still remains controversial. We modified the antiplatelet protocol in order to reduce the risk of perioperative bleeding and maximally inhibit platelet activity. This study sought to investigate whether the inhibition of platelet activity by this modified antiplatelet protocol is comparable with the conventional protocol widely used and recommended in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Twenty three patients undergoing one-stop hybrid procedure and 20 patients undergoing conventional PCI were enrolled in this prospective study. The modified antiplatelet protocol included perioperative use of aspirin; clopidogrel was administered immediately before PCI with a 300 mg loading dose, followed by a maintenance dose of 75 mg/day for 12 months. Blood samples were obtained before the operation and 2 hours, day 1 and day 3 after operation. Platelet aggregation was induced with: 1) arachidonic acid (AA) (final concentration 0.5 mmol/L) to assess the efficacy of aspirin; 2) adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (final concentration 10 micromol/L) to assess the specific efficacy of clopidogrel. Platelet counts were statistically lower in the hybrid group than in the PCI control group (p = 0.0018) on day 1 after operation. AA-induced platelet aggregation increased significantly in comparison with the preoperative baseline values (p = 0.0079) and the PCI control group (p = 0.0023) on day 1 after operation. ADP-induced platelet aggregation gradually decreased in the hybrid group, and achieved similar platelet inhibition with the PCI group on 2 hours and day 1 after operation. No major adverse clinical events such as death, perioperative myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis or reoperation for bleeding occurred in both groups within 30 days after

  13. [Impact of mitral annuloplasty combined with surgical revascularization in ischemic mitral regurgitation].

    PubMed

    Tribak, M; Konaté, M; Ould Hbib, B; Konan, P; Mahfoudi, L; Hassani, A El; Daouda, A; Lachhab, F; Bendagha, N; Soufiani, A; Fila, J; Maghraoui, S; Bensouda, A; Marmade, L; Moughil, S

    2017-08-08

    Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation (IMR) is a serious complication of coronary artery disease and is associated with a poor prognosis. The optimal surgical treatment of IMR involves controversies in its indications and modalities. To determine whether mitral annuloplasty associated with surgical revascularization improved short and mid terms outcomes compared with revascularization alone in patients with IMR. Between January 2007 and January 2011, 81 patients operated on Department of Cardiovascular Surgery "B" were included in this study divided into 3 groups. Group 1: 28 patients with IMR had mitral valve surgery associated with surgical revascularization. Group 2: 26 patients with IMR had surgical revascularization without mitral valve surgery. Group 3: 27 patients without IMR had isolated revascularization. Clinical end-points were operative mortality, late mortality, postoperative functional status (NYHA), and the Effective Regurgitant Orifice (ERO) at last follow-up. The mean follow-up was 5 years for groups 1 and 2 and 4 years for group 3. There was no difference between the 3 groups regarding age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and extension of coronary artery disease. The Left Ventricle End Diastolic Diameter (LVEDD) and the Left Ventricle Ejection Fraction (LVEF) were slightly different. Late and operative mortality were higher in group 2 compared to groups 1 and 3. Postoperative functional status (NYHA) improved both in groups 1 and 2. In group 1, there was a decrease in ERO. Mitral annuloplasty combined to revascularization improves symptoms, postoperative ERO and short- and mid-term survival compared with revascularization alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Reproducibility of area at risk assessment in acute myocardial infarction by T1- and T2-mapping sequences in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in comparison to Tc99m-sestamibi SPECT.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Birgit; Nadjiri, Jonathan; Jähnichen, Christin; Kastrati, Adnan; Martinoff, Stefan; Hadamitzky, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Area at risk (AAR) is an important parameter for the assessment of the salvage area after revascularization in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). By combining AAR assessment by T2-weighted imaging and scar quantification by late gadolinium enhancement imaging cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers a promising alternative to the "classical" modality of Tc99m-sestamibi single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Current T2 weighted sequences for edema imaging in CMR are limited by low contrast to noise ratios and motion artifacts. During the last years novel CMR imaging techniques for quantification of acute myocardial injury, particularly the T1-mapping and T2-mapping, have attracted rising attention. But no direct comparison between the different sequences in the setting of AMI or a validation against SPECT has been reported so far. We analyzed 14 patients undergoing primary coronary revascularization in AMI in whom both a pre-intervention Tc99m-sestamibi-SPECT and CMR imaging at a median of 3.4 (interquartile range 3.3-3.6) days after the acute event were performed. Size of AAR was measured by three different non-contrast CMR techniques on corresponding short axis slices: T2-weighted, fat-suppressed turbospin echo sequence (TSE), T2-mapping from T2-prepared balanced steady state free precession sequences (T2-MAP) and T1-mapping from modified look locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequences. For each CMR sequence, the AAR was quantified by appropriate methods (absolute values for mapping sequences, comparison with remote myocardium for other sequences) and correlated with Tc99m-sestamibi-SPECT. All measurements were performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. The size of the AAR assessed by CMR was 28.7 ± 20.9 % of left ventricular myocardial volume (%LV) for TSE, 45.8 ± 16.6 %LV for T2-MAP, and 40.1 ± 14.4 %LV for MOLLI. AAR assessed by SPECT measured 41.6 ± 20.7 %LV. Correlation analysis revealed best correlation with SPECT for T2-MAP at a T2-threshold of 60 ms

  15. Improved regional ventricular function after successful surgical revascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Brundage, B.H.; Massie, B.M.; Botvinick, E.H.

    1984-04-01

    Left ventricular segments with reversible asynergy at rest demonstrate reversible myocardial perfusion defects on exercise thallium-201 scintigrams. To determine if improved perfusion eliminates asynergy at rest, 23 patients with angina (stable in 21, unstable in 2) were studied before and after coronary artery bypass surgery. All patients underwent exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography and coronary arteriography before and after surgery. Selective graft angiography was performed during the postoperative catheterization to determine graft patency. Segmental ventricular function was quantitated by a regional fraction method. The scintigrams were divided into five regions and compared with the corresponding regions of the ventriculogram. Seventy-one of a possible 142 ventricular segments exhibited exercise-induced perfusion deficits. Preoperative regional ejection fraction was normal in 42 of these segments and abnormal in 29. Postoperatively, in 19 of the abnormal segments, function improved or normalized. All these segments had improved perfusion during exercise after surgery and were supplied by a patent bypass graft. Nine of the 10 segments in which abnormal wall motion persisted postoperatively continued to have exercise-induced perfusion deficits, and 9 of the 10 segments were supplied by an occluded or stenotic graft or one with poor run off. Of the 42 segments with normal wall motion preoperatively, 30 had improved perfusion after surgery and 35 maintained normal function. This study indicates that asynergy at rest is permanently reversed after coronary bypass surgery if improved myocardial perfusion can be documented. These findings are consistent with but do not prove the concept that reversible rest asynergy may reflect chronic ischemia or a prolonged effect from previous ischemic episodes.

  16. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun; Spertus, John

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in quality of life (QoL) is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) and ankle-brachial index (ABI), and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001). PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p’s < 0.001). As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001). ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15). Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization. PMID:25993299

  17. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun; Spertus, John

    2015-05-18

    Improvement in quality of life (QoL) is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) and ankle-brachial index (ABI), and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001). PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p's < 0.001). As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001). ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15). Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization.

  18. Combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow by myocardial contrast echocardiography after acute reperfused myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, F; Messner-Pellenc, P; Descours, Q; Daures, J; Pasquie, J; Hager, F; Davy, J; Grolleau-Raoux, R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow by myocardial contrast echocardiography after myocardial infarction.
DESIGN—Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed in patients with acute myocardial infarction shortly after successful coronary reperfusion (TIMI 3 patency) by direct angioplasty. Collateral flow was assessed before coronary angioplasty, and contrast reflow was evaluated 15 minutes after reperfusion. The presence of contractile reserve was assessed by low dose dobutamine echocardiography (5 to 15 µg/kg/min) at (mean (SD)) 3 (2) days after myocardial infarction. Recovery of segmental function (myocardial viability) was evaluated by resting echocardiography at a two month follow up. The study was prospective.
PATIENTS—35 consecutive patients referred for acute transmural myocardial infarction.
RESULTS—Contrast reflow was observed in 20 patients (57%) and collateral flow in 14 (40%). Contrast reflow and collateral contrast flow were both correlated with reversible dysfunction on initial dobutamine echocardiography and at follow up (p < 0.05). The presence of reflow or collateral flow on myocardial contrast echocardiography was a highly sensitive (100%) but weakly specific (60%) indicator of segmental dysfunction recovery. Simultaneous presence of contrast reflow and collateral flow was more specific of reversible dysfunction than reflow alone (90% v 60%).
CONCLUSIONS—Combined assessment of reflow and collateral blood flow enhanced the sensitivity of myocardial contrast echocardiography in predicting myocardial viability after acute, reperfused myocardial infarction. The simultaneous presence of reflow and collateral blood flow was highly specific of recovery of segmental dysfunction.


Keywords: contrast echocardiography; coronary reflow; collateral blood flow; dobutamine echocardiography; myocardial dysfunction PMID:10377311

  19. Optimization of myocardial function.

    PubMed

    Alpert, N R; Mulieri, L A; Hasenfuss, G; Holubarsch, C

    1993-01-01

    Under normal conditions the cardiac output is designed to meet the metabolic needs of the organism. Thus, the demands imposed on the heart muscle can range from low values at rest to an order of magnitude greater values during exercise. The heart uses a number of strategies to meet the short- and long-term changes in demand. These strategies are of general biological interest and employ similar mechanisms to those responsible for the differences in muscle performance seen between muscle from various species and diverse muscle types within a given animal. This review deals with the heart's utilization of these strategies to meet a broad range of requirements. Tortoise (TM) and rat soleus (RS) muscles are slow, have high economy and develop low power. In contrast (FM) and rat extensor digitorum longus (REDL) are fast, have low economy and have a high power output. These differences are explainable in terms of the characteristics of the myosin head cross-bridge cycle (Cross-bridge tension-time integral: FM/FT = 0.024; REDL/RS = 0.16. Myosin ATPase activity: FM/TM = 15; RDEL/RS = 2.3) and excitation contraction coupling system (time to peak tension: FM/TM = 0.2; REDL/RS = 0.4). Heart muscle employs similar strategies (cross-bridge cycle; excitation contraction coupling) to meet short (catecholamine) and long (hypertrophy secondary to pressure overload or thyrotoxicosis) term changes in demand. In the presence of catecholamine power is increased while economy is decreased. This difference between control (C) and isoproterenol treated hearts (I) is explainable in terms of the contractile and excitation contraction coupling systems (Cross-bridge tension-time integral: I/C = 0.4. Tension independent heat: I/C = 2.0. Tension independent heat rate: I/C = 2.5). A persistent increase in the demand on the heart results in myocardial hypertrophy that is associated with intracellular reorganization. Hyperthyroidism (T) and pressure overload (PO) were used to produce myocardial

  20. Ultrathin Strut Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable-Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization: 2-Year Results of the BIOSCIENCE Trial.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Rainer; Piccolo, Raffaele; Heg, Dik; Roffi, Marco; Kurz, David J; Muller, Olivier; Vuilliomenet, André; Cook, Stéphane; Weilenmann, Daniel; Kaiser, Christoph; Jamshidi, Peiman; Franzone, Anna; Eberli, Franz; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Pilgrim, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    No data are available on the long-term performance of ultrathin strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (BP-SES). We reported 2-year clinical outcomes of the BIOSCIENCE (Ultrathin Strut Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Revascularisation) trial, which compared BP-SES with durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 2119 patients with minimal exclusion criteria were assigned to treatment with BP-SES (n=1063) or DP-EES (n=1056). Follow-up at 2 years was available for 2048 patients (97%). The primary end point was target-lesion failure, a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically indicated target-lesion revascularization. At 2 years, target-lesion failure occurred in 107 patients (10.5%) in the BP-SES arm and 107 patients (10.4%) in the DP-EES arm (risk ratio [RR] 1.00, 95% CI 0.77-1.31, P=0.979). There were no significant differences between BP-SES and DP-EES with respect to cardiac death (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.62-1.63, P=0.984), target-vessel myocardial infarction (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.60-1.39, P=0.669), target-lesion revascularization (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.81-1.71, P=0.403), and definite stent thrombosis (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.56-3.44, P=0.485). There were 2 cases (0.2%) of definite very late stent thrombosis in the BP-SES arm and 4 cases (0.4%) in the DP-EES arm (P=0.423). In the prespecified subgroup of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, BP-SES was associated with a lower risk of target-lesion failure compared with DP-EES (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.23-0.99, P=0.043, Pinteraction=0.026). Comparable safety and efficacy profiles of BP-SES and DP-EES were maintained throughout 2 years of follow-up. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01443104. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by

  1. Cost-effectiveness of revascularization strategies: the ASCERT study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zugui; Kolm, Paul; Grau-Sepulveda, Maria V; Ponirakis, Angelo; O'Brien, Sean M; Klein, Lloyd W; Shaw, Richard E; McKay, Charles; Shahian, David M; Grover, Frederick L; Mayer, John E; Garratt, Kirk N; Hlatky, Mark; Edwards, Fred H; Weintraub, William S

    2015-01-06

    ASCERT (American College of Cardiology Foundation and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Collaboration on the Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategies) was a large observational study designed to compare the long-term effectiveness of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) over 4 to 5 years. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of CABG versus PCI for stable ischemic heart disease. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and American College of Cardiology Foundation databases were linked to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services claims data. Costs for the index and observation period (2004 to 2008) hospitalizations were assessed by diagnosis-related group Medicare reimbursement rates; costs beyond the observation period were estimated from average Medicare participant per capita expenditure. Effectiveness was measured via mortality and life-expectancy data. Cost and effectiveness comparisons were adjusted using propensity score matching with the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained. CABG patients (n = 86,244) and PCI patients (n = 103,549) were at least 65 years old with 2- or 3-vessel coronary artery disease. Adjusted costs were higher for CABG for the index hospitalization, study period, and lifetime by $10,670, $8,145, and $11,575, respectively. Patients undergoing CABG gained an adjusted average of 0.2525 and 0.3801 life-years relative to PCI over the observation period and lifetime, respectively. The life-time incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CABG compared to PCI was $30,454/QALY gained. Over a period of 4 years or longer, patients undergoing CABG had better outcomes but at higher costs than those undergoing PCI. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography-Determined Hyperemic Flow, Myocardial Flow Reserve, and Flow Gradient—Quo Vadis?

    PubMed Central

    Leucker, Thorsten M.; Valenta, Ines; Schindler, Thomas Hellmut

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) applied with positron-emitting flow tracers such as 13N-ammonia and 82Rubidium enables the quantification of both myocardial perfusion and myocardial blood flow (MBF) in milliliters per gram per minute for coronary artery disease (CAD) detection and characterization. The detection of a regional myocardial perfusion defect during vasomotor stress commonly identifies the culprit lesion or most severe epicardial narrowing, whereas adding regional hyperemic MBFs, myocardial flow reserve (MFR), and/or longitudinal flow decrease may also signify less severe but flow-limiting stenosis in multivessel CAD. The addition of regional hyperemic flow parameters, therefore, may afford a comprehensive identification and characterization of flow-limiting effects of multivessel CAD. The non-specific origin of decreases in hyperemic MBFs and MFR, however, prompts an evaluation and interpretation of regional flow in the appropriate context with the presence of obstructive CAD. Conversely, initial results of the assessment of a longitudinal hyperemic flow gradient suggest this novel flow parameter to be specifically related to increases in CAD caused epicardial resistance. The concurrent assessment of myocardial perfusion and several hyperemic flow parameters with PET/CT may indeed open novel avenues of precision medicine to guide coronary revascularization procedures that may potentially lead to a further improvement in cardiovascular outcomes in CAD patients. PMID:28770213

  3. Impaired Coronary Flow Reserve Is the Most Important Marker of Viable Myocardium in the Myocardial Segment-Based Analysis of Dual-Isotope Gated Myocardial Perfusion Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Woo; So, Young; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the most robust predictor of myocardial viability among stress/rest reversibility (coronary flow reserve [CFR] impairment), 201Tl perfusion status at rest, 201Tl 24 hours redistribution and systolic wall thickening of 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile using a dual isotope gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who were re-vascularized with a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Materials and Methods A total of 39 patients with CAD was enrolled (34 men and 5 women), aged between 36 and 72 years (mean 58 ± 8 standard in years) who underwent both pre- and 3 months post-CABG myocardial SPECT. We analyzed 17 myocardial segments per patient. Perfusion status and wall motion were semi-quantitatively evaluated using a 4-point grading system. Viable myocardium was defined as dysfunctional myocardium which showed wall motion improvement after CABG. Results The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) significantly increased from 37.8 ± 9.0% to 45.5 ± 12.3% (p < 0.001) in 22 patients who had a pre-CABG LVEF lower than 50%. Among 590 myocardial segments in the re-vascularized area, 115 showed abnormal wall motion before CABG and 73.9% (85 of 115) had wall motion improvement after CABG. In the univariate analysis (n = 115 segments), stress/rest reversibility (p < 0.001) and 201Tl rest perfusion status (p = 0.024) were significant predictors of wall motion improvement. However, in multiple logistic regression analysis, stress/rest reversibility alone was a significant predictor for post-CABG wall motion improvement (p < 0.001). Conclusion Stress/rest reversibility (impaired CFR) during dual-isotope gated myocardial perfusion SPECT was the single most important predictor of wall motion improvement after CABG. PMID:24642696

  4. Intra-procedural determination of viability by myocardial deformation imaging: a randomized prospective study in the cardiac catheter laboratory.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Alexander; Karayusuf, Vadim; Altiok, Ertunc; Hamada, Sandra; Schröder, Jörg; Keszei, Andras; Kelm, Malte; de la Fuente, Matias; Frick, Michael; Radermacher, Klaus; Marx, Nikolaus; Becker, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The benefit of revascularization for functional recovery depends on the presence of viable myocardial tissue. Myocardial deformation imaging allows determination of myocardial viability. In a first approach, we assessed the optimal cutoff value to determine preserved viability by layer-specific echocardiographic myocardial deformation imaging at rest and low-dose dobutamine (DSE) echocardiography: regional endocardial circumferential strain (eCS) <-19% at rest was as accurate as eCS at DSE. In a main study, 123 patients (66% men, age 59 ± 6 years) with relevant coronary stenoses and corresponding severe regional myocardial dysfunction were included and randomized in 2 groups after coronary angiography: group A: intra-procedural myocardial deformation imaging in the cardiac catheter laboratory (CLab), determination of myocardial viability by regional eCS <-19%, in case of positive viability immediate coronary intervention in the same session. Group B: two-step determination of myocardial viability by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), in case of positive viability coronary intervention. After 18 months follow-up an analysis of the endpoints regarding cardiovascular events, left ventricular (LV) function, and comparison of cost was performed. Group A (N = 61) and group B (N = 62) showed no differences concerning localization of the coronary stenosis, comorbidities, or medical therapy. Cardiovascular events at 18-month follow-up were as follows: group A 13% (N = 10) vs. group B 14% (N = 9, p = 0.288); improvement of LV function: group A: +7 ± 2% vs. group B: +7 ± 3%, p = 0.963; costs: group A: 3096 Dollar vs. group B: 6043 Dollar, p < 0.001. Intra-procedural determination of myocardial viability by myocardial deformation imaging in the CLab is feasible, safe, and cost effective and may become an emerging alternative to the current practice of two-stage viability diagnostics.

  5. [Depression and myocardial infaction].

    PubMed

    Testuz, A

    2009-03-04

    Several works show an association between depression and the occurence of a first myocardial infarction. Depression after myocardial infarction seems to be a marker of poorer outcome, regardless of other risk factors or severity of the myocardial infarction. Dysautonomia and alteration of platelet activation are a few physiopathological changes shared by both affections, through which they might be related. Treatment of depression is not associated with better cardiovascular outcome, but selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown safe and efficient among patients with coronary heart disease. Cognitivo-comportemental approach and cardiovascular rehabilitation program after myocardial infarction also play a role in improving quality of life of the depressed patient with coronary heart disease.

  6. [Strategy for revascularization of chronic carotid occlusion with contralateral carotid stenosis].

    PubMed

    Fukumitsu, Ryu; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Sadamasa, Nobutake; Narumi, Osamu; Chin, Masaki; Yamagata, Sen

    2010-02-01

    The optimal therapeutic approach for chronic carotid occlusion with contralateral carotid stenosis (ICO-ICS) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the safety and efficacy of initial vascular reconstruction for ICS in patients with ICO-ICS. Eleven patients with ICO-ICS who demonstrated severe cerebral hypoperfusion in the hemisphere ipsilateral to ICO were treated in our institution between February 2003 and November 2007. Revascularization for ICS after measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed either by carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting. External carotid artery-internal carotid artery (EC-IC) bypass for ICO was also performed when SPECT after revascularization for ICS still demonstrated marked hypoperfusion. In 6 patients with collateral flow via the anterior communicating artery and/or who had high-grade ICS (>70%), sufficient improvement of CBF solely by revascularization for ICS was confirmed. With regard to perioperative complications, 2 patients suffered bradycardia and hypotension and another 2 showed asymptomatic cerebral infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Overall results for revascularization of ICS prior to that for ICO in patients with ICO-ICS were acceptable. CBF of bilateral hemispheres was sufficiently improved in more than half of the patients solely by revascularization for ICS. This strategy might be both efficient and effective for ICO-ICS.

  7. Revascularization of cranial versus iliac crest bone grafts in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, W G; Szwajkun, P R

    1991-06-01

    Full-thickness cranial (membranous) and split-thickness iliac crest (endochondral) onlay bone grafts were placed subperiosteally without fixation onto the snout (membranous) and tibia (endochondral) in 30 rats. The animals had been divided into three equal groups in which the bone grafts had been demineralized, autoclaved, or used fresh. Recipient sites were harvested at 7 and 14 days at the snout and 14 days at the tibia, and revascularization was studied utilizing silicone rubber injection and a gridcounting technique. Endochondral grafts were found to have quantitatively greater revascularization than membranous grafts in all three groups at both sites (p less than 0.005). There was generally no statistically significant difference in revascularization between fresh and demineralized grafts, but vessel ingrowth was significantly decreased in autoclaved implants as compared with fresh grafts. Differences in graft architecture are theorized to account for the disparity in revascularization in endochondral and membranous grafts. Angiogenic and chemotactic factors are thought to play a role in the similarities and differences in revascularization among fresh, demineralized, and autoclaved bone.

  8. Regeneration of the dentine-pulp complex with revitalization/revascularization therapy: challenges and hopes.

    PubMed

    Lin, L M; Ricucci, D; Huang, G T-J

    2014-08-01

    The concept of regenerative endodontics has gained much attention in clinical endodontics in the past decade. One aspect of this discipline is the application of revitalization/revascularization therapies for infected and/or necrotic immature pulps in permanent teeth. Following the publication of a case report (Iwaya et al. ), investigators have been rigorously examining the types of tissues formed in the canals as well as exploring strategies to regenerate the pulp-dentine complex in revitalized teeth. This review will provide an update on the types of tissues generated in the canals after revitalization/revascularization therapy in both animal and human studies. The understanding of the role of stem cells and microenvironment in the process of wound healing resulting in either regeneration or repair will be thoroughly discussed. Stem cells and microenvironmental cues introduced into the canal during revitalization/revascularization procedures will be examined. In addition, requirement of a sterile microenvironment in the canal and vital tissue generation in revitalization/revascularization therapy will be emphasized. The challenges that we face and the hopes that we have in revitalization/revascularization therapy for regenerative endodontics will be presented. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Myocardial Viability on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Souto, Ana Luiza Mansur; Souto, Rafael Mansur; Teixeira, Isabella Cristina Resende; Nacif, Marcelo Souto

    2017-05-01

    The study of myocardial viability is of great importance in the orientation and management of patients requiring myocardial revascularization or angioplasty. The technique of delayed enhancement (DE) is accurate and has transformed the study of viability into an easy test, not only for the detection of fibrosis but also as a binary test detecting what is viable or not. On DE, fibrosis equal to or greater than 50% of the segmental area is considered as non-viable, whereas that below 50% is considered viable. During the same evaluation, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) may also use other techniques for functional and perfusion studies to obtain a global evaluation of ischemic heart disease. This study aims to highlight the current concepts and broadly emphasize the use of CMR as a method that over the last 20 years has become a reference in the detection of infarction and assessment of myocardial viability. Resumo O estudo de viabilidade miocárdica é de grande importância para a orientação e manejo de pacientes que necessitam de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica ou angioplastia. A técnica de realce tardio (RT) é precisa e transformou o estudo de viabilidade em um teste fácil, não só para a detecção de fibrose, mas também como um modelo binário para a detecção do que é ou não é viável. Uma fibrose identificada pelo RT é considerada como não viável quando igual ou maior do que 50% da área segmentar e como viável quando menor que 50%. A ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) também pode lançar mão de outras técnicas para estudo funcional e de perfusão para uma avaliação global da doença isquêmica do coração no mesmo exame. Este estudo tem como objetivo destacar os conceitos atuais e enfatizar amplamente o uso da RMC como um método que nos últimos 20 anos se tornou referência na detecção de infarto e avaliação de viabilidade miocárdica.

  10. Fractional flow reserve-guided management in stable coronary disease and acute myocardial infarction: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Colin; Corcoran, David; Hennigan, Barry; Watkins, Stuart; Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, and improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of CAD can reduce the health and economic burden of this condition. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an evidence-based diagnostic test of the physiological significance of a coronary artery stenosis. Fractional flow reserve is a pressure-derived index of the maximal achievable myocardial blood flow in the presence of an epicardial coronary stenosis as a ratio to maximum achievable flow if that artery were normal. When compared with standard angiography-guided management, FFR disclosure is impactful on the decision for revascularization and clinical outcomes. In this article, we review recent developments with FFR in patients with stable CAD and recent myocardial infarction. Specifically, we review novel developments in our understanding of CAD pathophysiology, diagnostic applications, prognostic studies, clinical trials, and clinical guidelines. PMID:26038588

  11. Fractional flow reserve-guided management in stable coronary disease and acute myocardial infarction: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Berry, Colin; Corcoran, David; Hennigan, Barry; Watkins, Stuart; Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, and improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of CAD can reduce the health and economic burden of this condition. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an evidence-based diagnostic test of the physiological significance of a coronary artery stenosis. Fractional flow reserve is a pressure-derived index of the maximal achievable myocardial blood flow in the presence of an epicardial coronary stenosis as a ratio to maximum achievable flow if that artery were normal. When compared with standard angiography-guided management, FFR disclosure is impactful on the decision for revascularization and clinical outcomes. In this article, we review recent developments with FFR in patients with stable CAD and recent myocardial infarction. Specifically, we review novel developments in our understanding of CAD pathophysiology, diagnostic applications, prognostic studies, clinical trials, and clinical guidelines.

  12. Persistent T-wave inversion predicts myocardial damage after ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Martin; Reinstadler, Sebastian Johannes; Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Niess, Lea; Koch, Constantin; Mayr, Agnes; Klug, Gert; Metzler, Bernhard

    2017-08-15

    Persistent T-wave inversion (PTI) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with worse clinical outcome; however, the underlying mechanism between PTI and poor prognosis is incompletely understood. We sought to investigate the relationship between PTI and myocardial damage assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) following STEMI. In this prospective observational study, we included 142 consecutive revascularized STEMI patients. Electrocardiography to determine the presence and amplitude of PTI and pathological Q-waves was conducted 4months after infarction. CMR was performed within 1week after infarction and at 4months follow-up to evaluate infarct characteristics and myocardial function. Patients with PTI (n=103, 73%) showed a larger acute (21[11-29] vs. 6[1-13]%; p<0.001) and chronic infarct size (IS) (14[8-19] vs. 3[1-8]%; p<0.001) and more frequently microvascular obstruction (59 vs. 33%; p=0.02). The association between PTI and chronic IS remained significant (odds ratio: 9.02, 95%CI 3.49-23.35; p<0.001) after adjustment for pathological Q-wave and other IS estimators (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and C-reactive protein, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, culprit vessel, pre-interventional TIMI flow). The value of PTI amplitude for the prediction of large chronic IS>11% (AUC: 0.84, 95%CI 0.77-0.90) was significantly higher compared to Q-wave amplitude (AUC: 0.72, 95%CI 0.63-0.80; p=0.009); the combination of PTI with pathological Q-wave (Q-wave/T-wave score) led to a net reclassification improvement of 0.43 (95% CI 0.29-0.57; p<0.001) as compared to PTI alone. PTI following STEMI is independently and incrementally associated with more extensive myocardial damage as visualized by CMR. An electrocardiographic score combining PTI with pathological Q-wave allows for a highly accurate IS estimation post-STEMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Myocardial Noncompaction Presenting With Myocardial Bridge

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuechun; Li, Xinchun; Lu, Dongfeng; Xiao, Aiyi; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Myocardial noncompaction, namly isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium (NVM), is a rare congenital disease. It can be either seen in the absence of other cardiac anomalies, or associated with other congenital cardiac defects, mostly stenotic lesions of the left ventricular outflow tract. A myocardial bridge (MB) is thought being associated with coronary heart disease, such as coronary spasm, arrhythmia, and so on. The significance of MB in association with other congenital cardiac conditions is unknown. We report a novel case who was presented NVM and MB. A 34-year-old man complained of chest prickling-like pain and dizzy for 1 year. His blood pressure was 110/70 mm Hg. Echocardiograph revealed increased trabeculations below the level of papillary muscle of left ventricle (LV); deep intertrabecular recesses in the endocardial wall of LV particularly in apex free wall; and LV ejection fraction of 57%. A coronary computerized tomography scan showed that part, 38.9 cm, of left descending artery tunnel was surrounding by cardiac muscles rather than resting on top of the myocardium. The therapeutics interventions included lifestyle cares, agents of anti-ischemia and improvement myocardial cell metabolism. The patient was followed up for 2.6 years, and his general condition was stable. This case indicates that NVM can be developed with MB, and the complete diagnosis of NVM and MB should be made by different image studies. PMID:26356695

  14. Percutaneous coronary intervention outcomes in patients with stable obstructive coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia: a collaborative meta-analysis of contemporary randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Stergiopoulos, Kathleen; Boden, William E; Hartigan, Pamela; Möbius-Winkler, Sven; Hambrecht, Rainer; Hueb, Whady; Hardison, Regina M; Abbott, J Dawn; Brown, David L

    2014-02-01

    Myocardial ischemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) has been repeatedly associated with impaired survival. However, it is unclear if revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to relieve ischemia improves outcomes compared with medical therapy (MT). The objective of this study was to compare the effect of PCI and MT with MT alone exclusively in patients with stable CAD and objectively documented myocardial ischemia on clinical outcomes. MEDLINE, Cochrane, and PubMed databases from 1970 to November 2012. Unpublished data were obtained from investigators. Randomized clinical trials of PCI and MT vs MT alone for stable coronary artery disease in which stents and statins were used in more than 50% of patients. For studies in which myocardial ischemia diagnosed by stress testing or fractional flow reserve was required for enrollment, descriptive and quantitative data were extracted from the published report. For studies in which myocardial ischemia was not a requirement for enrollment, authors provided data for only those patients with ischemia determined by stress testing prior to randomization. The outcomes analyzed included death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), unplanned revascularization, and angina. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were obtained using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q statistic and I2. In 5 trials enrolling 5286 patients, myocardial ischemia was diagnosed in 4064 patients by exercise stress testing, nuclear or echocardiographic stress imaging, or fractional flow reserve. Follow-up ranged from 231 days to 5 years (median, 5 years). The respective event rates for PCI with MT vs MT alone for death were 6.5% and 7.3% (OR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.71-1.16); for nonfatal MI, 9.2% and 7.6% (OR, 1.24 [95% CI, 0.99-1.56]); for unplanned revascularization, 18.3% and 28.4% (OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.35-1.17); and for angina, 20.3% and 23.3% (OR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.57-1.44]). In patients with

  15. Long-Term Follow-Up of a Revascularized Immature Necrotic Tooth Evaluated by CBCT

    PubMed Central

    She, C. M. L.; Cheung, G. S. P.; Zhang, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    This case study reports the successful treatment of an immature upper premolar with periapical pathosis and sinus tract using revascularization technique. Clinical and radiographic examination demonstrated the recovery of vitality, continued root development, and periapical healing at the 7-month follow-up. In addition, severe calcification of the canal was noted at the 36-month follow-up. At the 66-month follow-up, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) revealed complete periapical healing, apical closure, increase in root length and thickness of dentin, and severe calcification of the root canal. Even though the nature of tissue within the root canal is unknown, revascularization appears to give good clinical and radiographic success. This case report highlights that severe calcification of the canal is one of the long-term outcomes of revascularized root canals. PMID:26949550

  16. The role of endothelial cells on islet function and revascularization after islet transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Del Toro-Arreola, Alicia; Robles-Murillo, Ana Karina; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Rivas-Carrillo, Jorge David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Islet transplantation has become a widely accepted therapeutic option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, in order to achieve insulin independence a great number of islets are often pooled from 2 to 4 pancreata donors. Mostly, it is due to the massive loss of islets immediately after transplant. The endothelium plays a key role in the function of native islets and during the revascularization process after islet transplantation. However, if a delayed revascularization occurs, even the remaining islets will also undergo to cell death and late graft dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the signals are released from endothelial cells, which might regulate both differentiation of pancreatic progenitors and thereby maintenance of the graft function. New strategies to facilitate islet engraftment and a prompt revascularization could be designed to intervene and might lead to improve future results of islet transplantation. PMID:27002241

  17. Endovascular revascularization of symptomatic chronic middle cerebral artery occlusions: Two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yue; Lo, Wai-Ting; Liu, Yang-Xia

    2016-01-01

    For patients with chronic middle cerebral artery occlusions who have recurrent ischemic symptoms despite antiplatelet therapy and vascular risk factor control, treatment options are limited. Because of concerns about the safety of endovascular revascularization of these occlusions and the technical skills required, these procedures have not been widely performed. We report on two patients with successful endovascular revascularization of the chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion with impaired cerebral hemodynamics, with vessel patency maintained on follow-up imaging and no recurrence of stroke. A literature review of treatment options for such patients was performed. Revascularization is technically feasible and can be considered an option for carefully selected chronic middle cerebral artery occlusion patients with recurrent ischemic symptoms despite medical therapy. PMID:26647227

  18. Revascularization of Transplanted Pancreatic Islets and Role of the Transplantation Site

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Andrew R.; Ziff, Oliver; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2013-01-01

    Since the initial reporting of the successful reversal of hyperglycemia through the transplantation of pancreatic islets, significant research efforts have been conducted in elucidating the process of revascularization and the influence of engraftment site on graft function and survival. During the isolation process the intrinsic islet vascular networks are destroyed, leading to impaired revascularization after transplant. As a result, in some cases a significant quantity of the beta cell mass transplanted dies acutely following the infusion into the portal vein, the most clinically used site of engraftment. Subsequently, despite the majority of patients achieving insulin independence after transplant, a proportion of them recommence small, supplemental exogenous insulin over time. Herein, this review considers the process of islet revascularization after transplant, its limiting factors, and potential strategies to improve this critical step. Furthermore, we provide a characterization of alternative transplant sites, analyzing the historical evolution and their role towards advancing transplant outcomes in both the experimental and clinical settings. PMID:24106517

  19. Revascularization of Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis for Chronic Heart Failure Versus Acute Pulmonary Oedema.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren; Ritchie, James P; Chrysochou, Constantina; Kalra, Philip A

    2017-02-27

    To determine whether the apparent benefit of revascularization of renal artery stenosis for "flash" pulmonary oedema extends to heart failure patients without a history of prior acute pulmonary oedema. A prospective study of patients with renal artery stenosis and heart failure at a single centre between 1(st) January 1995 and 31(st) December 2010. Patients were divided into those with and without previous acute pulmonary oedema / decompensation. Survival analysis compared revascularization versus medical therapy in each group using Cox regression adjusted for age, eGFR, blood pressure, and co-morbidities. There wer