Science.gov

Sample records for direct oxygen sensor

  1. Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardman, Alan James

    New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate

  2. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  3. Durability of oxygen sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snapp, L.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the results of dynamometer and vehicle durability testing from a variety of sources, as well as common causes of failure for oxygen sensors. The data indicates that oxygen sensors show low failure rates, even at mileages of 80,000 miles and beyond.

  4. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  5. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  6. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  7. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  8. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  9. Dos, a heme-binding PAS protein from Escherichia coli, is a direct oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Nixon, V M; Gonzalez, G; Gilles-Gonzalez, M A

    2000-03-14

    A direct sensor of O(2), the Dos protein, has been found in Escherichia coli. Previously, the only biological sensors known to respond to O(2) by direct and reversible binding were the FixL proteins of Rhizobia. A heme-binding region in Dos is 60% homologous to the O(2)-sensing PAS domain of the FixL protein, but the remainder of Dos does not resemble FixL. Specifically, the C-terminal domain of Dos, presumed to be a regulatory partner that couples to its heme-binding domain, is not a histidine kinase but more closely resembles a phosphodiesterase. The absorption spectra of Dos indicate that both axial positions of the heme iron are coordinated to side chains of the protein. Nevertheless, O(2) and CO bind to Dos with K(d) values of 13 and 10 microM, respectively, indicating a strong discrimination against CO binding. Association rate constants for binding of O(2) (3 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)), CO (1 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and even NO (2 mM(-)(1) s(-)(1)) are extraordinarily low and very similar. Displacement of an endogenous ligand, probably Met 95, from the heme iron in Dos triggers a conformational change that alters the activity of the enzymatic domain. This sensing mechanism differs from that of FixL but resembles that of the CO sensor CooA of Rhodospirillum rubrum. Overall the results provide evidence for a heme-binding subgroup of PAS-domain proteins whose working range, signaling mechanisms, and regulatory partners can vary considerably.

  10. Solid State oxygen Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Jeffery T.; Johnson, Scott R.

    1994-01-01

    To anticipate future long-duration mission needs for life support sensors, we explored the feasibility of using thin-film metal-oxide semiconductors. The objective of this task was to develop gas sensors for life support applications which would be suitable for long-duration missions. Metal oxides, such as ZnO, SnO2, and TiO2 have been shown to react with oxygen molecules. Oxygen lowers the metal oxide's electrical resistance. Critical to the performance is the application of the oxide in a thin film on an inert substrate: the thinner the film, the more readily the oxygen penetration and hence the more rapid and sensitive the sensor. Metal oxides are not limited to oxygen detection, rather, oxides offer detection and quantification applications to the complete range of gases of interest, not only for life support systems, but for propellants as well.

  11. Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nollet, Billy K.

    Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

  12. Directional Acoustic Density Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-13

    fluctuations of fluid density at a point . (2) DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART [0004] Conventional vector sensors measure particle velocity, v (vx,Vytvz...dipole-type or first order sensor that is realized by measuring particle velocity at a point , (which is the vector sensor sensing approach for...underwater sensors), or by measuring the gradient of the acoustic pressure at two closely spaced (less than the wavelength of an acoustic wave) points as it

  13. Surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collman, James P.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Zhang, Xumu; Herrmann, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device that responds to oxygen pressure was developed by coating a 158 MHz quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device with an oxygen binding agent. Two types of coatings were used. One type was prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer containing the axial ligand. A second type was prepared with an oxygen binding porphyrin solution containing excess axial ligand without a polymer matrix. In the polymer based coatings, the copolymer served to provide the axial ligand to the oxygen binding agent and as a coating matrix on the surface of the SAW device. The oxygen sensing SAW device has been shown to bind oxygen following a Langmuir isotherm and may be used to measure the equilibrium constant of the oxygen binding compound in the coating matrix.

  14. Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiß, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations. PMID:22163805

  15. Determining Performance Acceptability of Electrochemical Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed to screen commercial electrochemical oxygen sensors to reduce the failure rate. There are three aspects to the method: First, the sensitivity over time (several days) can be measured and the rate of change of the sensitivity can be used to predict sensor failure. Second, an improvement to this method would be to store the sensors in an oxygen-free (e.g., nitrogen) environment and intermittently measure the sensitivity over time (several days) to accomplish the same result while preserving the sensor lifetime by limiting consumption of the electrode. Third, the second time derivative of the sensor response over time can be used to determine the point in time at which the sensors are sufficiently stable for use.

  16. High Temperature Langasite SAW Oxygen Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peng; Chin, Tao-Lun; Greve, David; Oppenheim, Irving; Malone, Vanessa; Cao, Limin

    2011-08-01

    High-temperature langasite SAW oxygen sensors using sputtered ZnO as a resistive gas-sensing layer were fabricated and tested. Sensitivity to oxygen gas was observed between 500°C to 700°C, with a sensitivity peak at about 625°C, consistent with the theoretical predictions of the acoustoelectric effect.

  17. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  18. A simple, inexpensive, hyperthermal atomic oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. P.; Pettigrew, P. J.; Raikar, G. N.; Gregory, J. C.

    1997-09-01

    With the increasing duration of space flights, the development of a permanent facility in space, and the increasing use of ground-based hyperthermal atomic oxygen sources there is a need for a simple instrument to provide long-term monitoring of the beam flux. Such an instrument can also be used as a diagnostic tool to investigate the material degradation process. Reliance on models of the upper atmosphere to determine the fluence of atomic oxygen is not only necessarily complex but also imprecise due to the strong dependence of oxygen concentration on day/night, latitude, and solar activity. Mass spectroscopy, the traditional method for determining the gas phase species densities at low pressure, is not only expensive but is limited in the area that it can monitor as well as subject to effects of material degradation. Our group has developed a simple and inexpensive dosimeter to measure the atomic oxygen fluence via the change in resistance as the sensor element is gradually oxidized. The sensors consist of thin-film circuit elements of selected material deposited on a suitable substrate. Four-point resistance measurements are used to monitor the change in sensor resistance with respect to time. Results obtained from silver and carbon dosimeters flown on STS-46 (CONCAP-II-01) indicate that such sensors are sensitive enough to monitor the diurnal variations in atomic oxygen distribution and sufficiently durable to last the lifetime of a mission.

  19. Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiangcheng; Liu, Yixin; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian; Lei, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs) thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO NPs film was characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500, 600, and 800°C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF) output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors. PMID:25191652

  20. Hydrogen and oxygen sensor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farber, E. A.; Mahig, J.; Schaeper, H. R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A reliable and low cost gas sensor was investigated for instantaneously detecting H2 in N2, H2 in air, and O2 in N2. The major portion of the research was spent in developing a sensor which would instantaneously detect H2 to + or - 50 ppm even in the presence of trace amounts of other gases. The experimental procedures used to provide the performance characteristics for the various oscillators are discussed describing the equipment with help of schematics and photographs where applicable. The resulting performance is given in graphical form. In some cases both hydrogen and helium may be present and since both of them effect gas sensors similarly, a method was found to determine the concentration of each. The methods developed are grouped into the following four broad categories: pure metal response, variation in heat conductivity, reduction methods, and exotic processes. From the above it was decided for the present to use a copper oxide reduction process as this process was demonstrated to be capable of determining the concentrations of hydrogen and helium respectively in a gas mixture with air or nitrogen.

  1. Multi-Directional Environmental Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Del Castillo, Linda Y. (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement multi-directional environmental sensors. In one embodiment, a multi-directional environmental sensor includes: an inner conductive element that is substantially symmetrical about three orthogonal planes; an outer conductive element that is substantially symmetrical about three orthogonal planes; and a device that measures the electrical characteristics of the multi-directional environmental sensor, the device having a first terminal and a second terminal; where the inner conductive element is substantially enclosed within the outer conductive element; where the inner conductive element is electrically coupled to the first terminal of the device; and where the outer conductive element is electrically coupled to the second terminal of the device.

  2. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  3. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide as an Oxygen Sensor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance Although oxygen (O2)-sensing cells and tissues have been known for decades, the identity of the O2-sensing mechanism has remained elusive. Evidence is accumulating that O2-dependent metabolism of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is this enigmatic O2 sensor. Recent Advances The elucidation of biochemical pathways involved in H2S synthesis and metabolism have shown that reciprocal H2S/O2 interactions have been inexorably linked throughout eukaryotic evolution; there are multiple foci by which O2 controls H2S inactivation, and the effects of H2S on downstream signaling events are consistent with those activated by hypoxia. H2S-mediated O2 sensing has been demonstrated in a variety of O2-sensing tissues in vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, including smooth muscle in systemic and respiratory blood vessels and airways, carotid body, adrenal medulla, and other peripheral as well as central chemoreceptors. Critical Issues Information is now needed on the intracellular location and stoichometry of these signaling processes and how and which downstream effectors are activated by H2S and its metabolites. Future Directions Development of specific inhibitors of H2S metabolism and effector activation as well as cellular organelle-targeted compounds that release H2S in a time- or environmentally controlled way will not only enhance our understanding of this signaling process but also provide direction for future therapeutic applications. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 377–397. “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution” —Theodosius Dobzhansky (29) PMID:24801248

  5. Water-based oxygen-sensor films.

    PubMed

    Habibagahi, Arezoo; Mébarki, Youssef; Sultan, Yasir; Yap, Glenn P A; Crutchley, Robert J

    2009-08-01

    The luminescent cyclometalated iridium complex [Ir(fppy)(2)(t-Bu-iCN)(2)]CF(3)SO(3), 1 (fppy = 4-(2-pyridyl)benzaldehyde, and t-Bu-iCN = tert-butyl isocyanide), was synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography and (1)H NMR, absorption, and emission spectroscopies. Complex 1 was quantitatively bound to the water-soluble amine-functionalized polymer Silamine D208-EDA by reductive amination, to produce 2. The quantum yield of emission and excited state lifetime of 2 (varphi(em) = 0.23 and tau = 20.6 mus) are comparable to that of the model complex [Ir(tpy)(2)(t-Bu-iCN)(2)]CF(3)SO(3), 3 (tpy = 2-(p- tolyl) pyridine) with varphi(em) = 0.28 and tau = 35.6 mus. Aqueous blends of 2 with Silamine and colloidal microcrystalline cellulose (MC) were used to prepare oxygen-sensor films. Oxygen sensitivities of these films were determined as a function of Silamine:MC ratio and obeyed Stern-Volmer kinetics. The optimum oxygen-sensor film composition was 2 in 1:1 Silamine:MC, which had an oxygen sensitivity of 0.502 over an atmospheric pressure range of 0.007-45 psi. Temperature sensitivity (percentage loss of intensity per degrees C) of this film was determined to be -1.1 and -1.4% degrees C(-1) at vacuum and 1 bar atmospheric pressure, respectively. These results were compared to those of films incorporating dispersions of 1 and 3. Luminescence microscopy of 9:1, 1:1, and 1:5 Silamine:MC films of 2 show that the charged iridium complex in 2 associates with the surface of MC and lifetime measurements of these films show an increase in lifetime with increasing MC fraction. The optimum quenching sensitivity observed for the 1:1 Silamine:MC film suggests that the diffusion of oxygen must decrease with increasing fraction of MC and thereby decrease oxygen sensitivity. These novel materials offer an environmentally friendly alternative to the preparation of oxygen-sensor films.

  6. Nanomaterial-based robust oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Kisholoy; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Alam, Maksudul; Tseng, Derek; Majumdar, Arun K.; Kazemi, Alex A.

    2007-09-01

    Since the TWA flight 800 accident in July 1996, significant emphasis has been placed on fuel tank safety. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has focused research to support two primary methods of fuel tank protection - ground-based and on-board - both involving fuel tank inerting. Ground-based fuel tank inerting involves some combination of fuel scrubbing and ullage washing with Nitrogen Enriched Air (NEA) while the airplane is on the ground (applicable to all or most operating transport airplanes). On-board fuel tank inerting involves ullage washing with OBIGGS (on-board inert gas generating system), a system that generates NEA during aircraft operations. An OBIGGS generally encompasses an air separation module (ASM) to generate NEA, a compressor, storage tanks, and a distribution system. Essential to the utilization of OBIGGS is an oxygen sensor that can operate inside the aircraft's ullage and assess the effectiveness of the inerting systems. OBIGGS can function economically by precisely knowing when to start and when to stop. Toward achieving these goals, InnoSense LLC is developing an all-optical fuel tank ullage sensor (FTUS) prototype for detecting oxygen in the ullage of an aircraft fuel tank in flight conditions. Data would be presented to show response time and wide dynamic range of the sensor in simulated flight conditions and fuel tank environment.

  7. Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Compensation for Variations in Ambient Oxygen Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes, research toward painless glucose sensing continues. Oxygen sensitive phosphors with glucose oxidase (GOx) can be used to determine glucose levels indirectly by monitoring oxygen consumption. This is an attractive combination because of its speed and specificity. Packaging these molecules together in “smart materials” for implantation will enable non-invasive glucose monitoring. As glucose levels increase, oxygen levels decrease; consequently, the luminescence intensity and lifetime of the phosphor increase. Although the response of the sensor is dependent on glucose concentration, the ambient oxygen concentration also plays a key role. This could lead to inaccurate glucose readings and increase the risk of hyper- or hypoglycemia. To mitigate this risk, the dependence of hydrogel glucose sensor response on oxygen levels was investigated and compensation methods explored. Sensors were calibrated at different oxygen concentrations using a single generic logistic equation, such that trends in oxygen-dependence were determined as varying parameters in the equation. Each parameter was found to be a function of oxygen concentration, such that the correct glucose calibration equation can be calculated if the oxygen level is known. Accuracy of compensation will be determined by developing an overall calibration, using both glucose and oxygen sensors in parallel, correcting for oxygen fluctuations in real time by intentionally varying oxygen, and calculating the error in actual and predicted glucose levels. While this method was developed for compensation of enzymatic glucose sensors, in principle it can also be implemented with other kinds of sensors utilizing oxidases. PMID:26257458

  8. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array

    PubMed Central

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S.; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C.; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.; Bright, Frank V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O2) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O2-sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3]2+) encapsulated within sol–gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors. PMID:24493909

  9. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array.

    PubMed

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-10-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O2) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O2-sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)3](2+)) encapsulated within sol-gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors.

  10. A fibre optic oxygen sensor for monitoring of human breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Farmery, Andrew D.; Chen, Rui; Hahn, Clive E. W.

    2011-11-01

    A reliable and cost effective fibre optic oxygen sensor for monitoring of human breathing has been developed using a normal 200μm silica core/silica cladding optical fibre and a polymer sensing matrix. The fibre optic oxygen sensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of a fluorophore by oxygen. The sensing matrix, containing immobilized Pt(II) complexes, was coated at the end of the silica core/silica cladding optical fibre. The sensitivity and time response of the sensor were evaluated using the method of luminescence lifetime measurement. The polymer substrate influence on the time response of the sensor was improved by using a fibre taper design, and the response time of the optimized sensor was less than 200ms. This silica fibre based optic oxygen sensor is suitable for monitoring of patient breathing in intensive care unit in terms of safety and low cost.

  11. Oxygen Sensors Monitor Bioreactors and Ensure Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    In order to cultivate healthy bacteria in bioreactors, Kennedy Space Center awarded SBIR funding to Needham Heights, Massachusetts-based Polestar Technologies Inc. to develop sensors that could monitor oxygen levels. The result is a sensor now widely used by pharmaceutical companies and medical research universities. Other sensors have also been developed, and in 2013 alone the company increased its workforce by 50 percent.

  12. Evaluation of subsurface oxygen sensors for remediation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.X.; Lundegard, P.D.

    1996-05-01

    Continuous remediation monitoring using sensors is potentially a more effective and inexpensive alternative to current methods of sample collection and analysis. Gaseous components of a system are the most mobile and easiest to monitor. Continuous monitoring of soil gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and contaminant vapors can provide important quantitative information regarding the progress of bioremediation efforts and the area of influence of air sparging or soil venting. Laboratory and field tests of a commercially available oxygen sensor show that the subsurface oxygen sensor provides rapid and accurate data on vapor phase oxygen concentrations. The sensor is well suited for monitoring gas flow and oxygen consumption in the vadose zone during air sparging and bioventing. The sensor performs well in permeable, unsaturated soil environments and recovers completely after being submerged during temporary saturated conditions. Calibrations of the in situ oxygen sensors were found to be stable after one year of continuous subsurface operation. However, application of the sensor in saturated soil conditions is limited. The three major advantages of this sensor for in situ monitoring are as follows: (1) it allows data acquisition at any specified time interval; (2) it provides potentially more accurate data by minimizing disturbance of subsurface conditions; and (3) it minimizes the cost of field and laboratory procedures involved in sample retrieval and analysis.

  13. Fiber optic oxygen sensor leak detection system for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Goswami, Kish; Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Lothar U.

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the successful test of a multi-point fiber optic oxygen sensor system during the static firing of an Evolved Expandable Launch Vehicle (EELV)/Delta IV common booster core (CBC) rocket engine at NASA's Stennis Flight Center. The system consisted of microsensors (optrodes) using an oxygen gas sensitive indicator incorporated onto an optically transparent porous substrate. The modular optoelectronics and multiplexing network system was designed and assembled utilizing a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor readout unit that monitored the oxygen and temperature response of the individual optrodes in real-time and communicated this information via a serial communication port to a remote laptop computer. The sensor packaging for oxygen consisted of two optrodes - one doped with an indicator sensitive to oxygen, and the other doped with an indicator sensitive to temperature. The multichannel oxygen sensor system is fully reversible. It has demonstrated a dynamic response to oxygen gas in the range of 0% to 100% with 0.1% resolution and a response time of <=10 seconds. The sensor package was attached to a custom fiber optic ribbon cable, which was then connected to a fiber optic trunk communications cable (standard telecommunications-grade fiber) that connected to the optoelectronics module. Each board in the expandable module included light sources, photo-detectors, and associated electronics required for detecting oxygen and temperature. The paper illustrates the sensor design and performance data under field deployment conditions.

  14. Bio-Inspired Micromechanical Directional Acoustic Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, William; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    Conventional directional sound sensors employ an array of spatially separated microphones and the direction is determined using arrival times and amplitudes. In nature, insects such as the Ormia ochracea fly can determine the direction of sound using a hearing organ much smaller than the wavelength of sound it detects. The fly's eardrums are mechanically coupled, only separated by about 1 mm, and have remarkable directional sensitivity. A micromechanical sensor based on the fly's hearing system was designed and fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two 1 mm2 wings connected using a bridge and to the substrate using two torsional legs. The dimensions of the sensor and material stiffness determine the frequency response of the sensor. The vibration of the wings in response to incident sound at the bending resonance was measured using a laser vibrometer and found to be about 1 μm/Pa. The electronic response of the sensor to sound was measured using integrated comb finger capacitors and found to be about 25 V/Pa. The fabricated sensors showed good directional sensitivity. In this talk, the design, fabrication and characteristics of the directional sound sensor will be described. Supported by ONR and TDSI.

  15. Photocatalytic sensor for chemical oxygen demand determination based on oxygen electrode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y C; Lee, K H; Sasaki, S; Hashimoto, K; Ikebukuro, K; Karube, I

    2000-07-15

    The construction and performance evaluation of a novel Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) sensor is described. The sensor measures, using an oxygen electrode, a decrease of dissolved oxygen of a given sample resulting from photocatalytic oxidation of the organic compounds therein. As the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide (TiO2) fine particles adsorbed on a translucent poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane was used. The oxygen electrode with the membrane attached on its tip was used as the sensor probe. The operation characteristics of the sensor are demonstrated using an artificial wastewater and real water samples from lakes in Japan. This method is considered to be reliable, in that the observed parameter is close to the theoretical definition of chemical oxygen demand (COD), the amount of oxygen consumed for oxidation of organic compounds.

  16. Portable optical oxygen sensor based on time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chu, Cheng-Shane; Chu, Ssu-Wei

    2014-11-10

    A new, simple signal processing, low-cost technique for the fabrication of a portable oxygen sensor based on time-resolved fluorescence is described. The sensing film uses the oxygen sensing dye platinum meso-tetra (pentfluorophenyl) porphyrin (PtTFPP) embedded in a polymer matrix. The ratio τ0100 measures sensitivity of the sensing film, where τ0 and τ100 represent the detected fluorescence lifetimes from the sensing film exposed to 100% nitrogen and 100% oxygen, respectively. The experimental results reveal that the PtTFPP-doped oxygen sensor has a sensitivity of 2.2 in the 0%-100% range. A preparation procedure for coating the photodiodes with the oxygen sensor film that produces repetitive and reliable sensing devices is proposed. The developed time-resolved optical oxygen sensor is portable, low-cost, has simple signal processing, and lacks optical filter elements. It is a cost-effective alternative to traditional electrochemical-based oxygen sensors and provides a platform for other optical based sensors.

  17. A Pyrene@Micelle Sensor for Fluorescent Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yan-xia; Peng, Hong-shang; Ping, Jian-tao; Wang, Xiao-hui; You, Fang-tian

    2015-01-01

    For most fluorescent oxygen sensors developed today, their fabrication process is either time-consuming or needs specialized knowledge. In this work, a robust fluorescent oxygen sensor is facilely constructed by dissolving pyrene molecules into CTAB aqueous solution. The as-prepared pyrene@micelle sensors have submicron-sized diameter, and the concentration of utilized pyrene can be reduced as low as 0.8 mM but still can exhibit dominant excimer emission. The excimer fluorescence is sensitive to dissolved oxygen in both intensity and lifetime, and the respective Stern-Volmer plot follows a nonlinear behavior justified by a two-site model. Because of the merits of large Stokes shift (~140 nm), easy fabrication, and robustness, the pyrene@micelle sensors are very attractive for practical determination of oxygen. PMID:26539471

  18. Quantum dots as a possible oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółczyk, Paulina; Kur-Kowalska, Katarzyna; Przybyt, Małgorzata; Miller, Ewa

    Results of studies on optical properties of low toxicity quantum dots (QDs) obtained from copper doped zinc sulfate are discussed in the paper. The effect of copper admixture concentration and solution pH on the fluorescence emission intensity of QDs was investigated. Quenching of QDs fluorescence by oxygen was reported and removal of the oxygen from the environment by two methods was described. In the chemical method oxygen was eliminated by adding sodium sulfite, in the other method oxygen was removed from the solution using nitrogen gas. For elimination of oxygen by purging the solution with nitrogen the increase of fluorescence intensity with decreasing oxygen concentration obeyed Stern-Volmer equation indicating quenching. For the chemical method Stern-Volmer equation was not fulfilled. The fluorescence decays lifetimes were determined and the increase of mean lifetimes at the absence of oxygen support hypothesis that QDs fluorescence is quenched by oxygen.

  19. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Obeid, Andy; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D

    2013-09-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min(-1). A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min(-1), and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn.

  20. Development of oxygen sensors for use in liquid metal

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Ejenstam, Jesper; Szakalos, Peter

    2015-07-01

    For generation IV reactor concepts, based on liquid metal cooling, there is a need for robust oxygen sensors which can be used in the core of the reactor since corrosion can only be kept sufficiently low by controlling the dissolved oxygen content in the liquid metal. A robust, ceramic membrane type sensor has been developed at IFE/Halden (Norway) and tested in an autoclave system at KTH (Sweden). The sensor has been tested in lead-bismuth at 550 deg. C and performed well. (authors)

  1. Direction Finding Using Multiple MEMS Acoustic Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    research is that it is possible to operate this microelectromechanical direction-finding sensor assembly to find the bearing of a signal on...sensor assembly to find the bearing of a signal on resonance over an angular range of 120° with a maximum uncertainty of 3.4°. vi THIS PAGE...documentation boasts an accuracy of plus or minus 7.5 degrees bearing accuracy within < 1 second with detection ranges greater than 400 m. Output is provided

  2. Method of detecting oxygen partial pressure and oxygen partial pressure sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  3. Predicting Transitions in Oxygen Saturation Using Phone Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Juen, Joshua; Hsu-Lumetta, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Widespread availability of mobile devices is revolutionizing health monitoring. Smartphones are ubiquitous, but it is unknown what vital signs can be monitored with medical quality. Oxygen saturation is a standard measure of health status. We have shown phone sensors can accurately measure walking patterns. Subjects and Methods: Twenty cardiopulmonary patients performed 6-min walk tests in pulmonary rehabilitation at a regional hospital. They wore pulse oximeters and carried smartphones running our MoveSense software, which continuously recorded saturation and motion. Continuous saturation defined categories corresponding to status levels, including transitions. Continuous motion was used to compute spatiotemporal gait parameters from sensor data. Our existing gait model was then trained with these data and used to predict transitions in oxygen saturation. For walking variation, 10-s windows are units for classifying into status categories. Results: Oxygen saturation clustered into three categories, corresponding to pulmonary function Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 and GOLD 2, with a Transition category where saturation varied around the mean rather than remaining steady with low standard deviation. This category indicates patients who are not clinically stable. The gait model predicted status during each measured window of free walking, with 100% accuracy for the 20 subjects, based on majority voting. Conclusions: Continuous recording of oxygen saturation can predict cardiopulmonary status, including patients in transition between status levels. Gait models using phone sensors can accurately predict these saturation categories from walking motion. This suggests medical devices for predicting clinical stability from passive monitoring using carried smartphones.

  4. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  5. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  6. High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference

    DOEpatents

    Routbort, Jules L [Hinsdale, IL; Singh, Dileep [Naperville, IL; Dutta, Prabir K [Worthington, OH; Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy [North Royalton, OH; Spirig, John V [Columbus, OH; Akbar, Sheikh [Hilliard, OH

    2011-11-15

    A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

  7. Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anderson D.; Elgammal, Karim; Niklaus, Frank; Delin, Anna; Fischer, Andreas C.; Vaziri, Sam; Forsberg, Fredrik; Råsander, Mikael; Hugosson, Håkan; Bergqvist, Lars; Schröder, Stephan; Kataria, Satender; Östling, Mikael; Lemme, Max C.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further investigate the sensitivity of the graphene devices towards water vapor. The interaction between the electrostatic dipole moment of the water and the impurity bands in the SiO2 substrate leads to electrostatic doping of the graphene layer. The proposed graphene sensor provides rapid response direct electrical readout and is compatible with back end of the line (BEOL) integration on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits.We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further

  8. Characterisation of an oxygen sensor based on In/In 2O 3 reference electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colominas, S.; Abellà, J.; Victori, L.

    2004-11-01

    A potentiometric sensor for measuring oxygen activity in LBE has been developed since 2000 until today at 'Institut Quimic de Sarria' electrochemistry laboratories. This sensor is based on In/In 2O 3 reference electrode. The last experiments performed with this sensor have been directed to characterise the sensor. For this purpose, the following experiments in stagnant conditions have been performed: effect of the operating temperature from 300 to 500 °C, different covering gases (N 2 + 5% H 2, Ar 99.999%, and N 2 + 10 mg/L O 2) and comparison of different solid electrolytes (ZrO 2/Y 2O 3 and ZrO 2/MgO). Long-term experiments have also been performed to the see the stability of the signal with time.

  9. Development of metalloporphyrin-derived interference-free oxygen sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuanzheng

    The main aim of this thesis is to develop novel highly sensitive, membrane-free, inexpensive one-way oxygen sensors that work in neutral solutions at or near 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl to avoid interference from oxidizing or reducing agents in water or blood samples. The theoretical background is to use chemically-modified electrodes with metalloporphyrins as catalysts for dioxygen reduction at or near 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Three approaches are employed to prepare metalloporphyrin-derived electrodes. 1. The first approach is based on a traditional chemical modification technique and commercial voltammetric electrodes. Iron(III)-tetra(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl) porphyrin chloride (FeTMHPP) is dip-coated, dropwise-coated, and electrochemically-polymerized on four different bare electrodes: glassy carbon (GCE), graphite (GE), gold (AuE), and platinum electrodes (PtE), respectively. Their electrocatalytic properties for dioxygen reduction are characterized and compared. These chemically-modified electrodes demonstrate different electrocatalytic behavior for dioxygen reduction in PBS pH7.0. It is demonstrated for the first time that only eletrochemically polymerized poly-FeTMHPP film on bare PtE has a highly electrocatalytic property for dioxygen reduction in PBS pH7.0 with a cathode peak potential, Esb{pc}, ranging from 0 mV to +150 mV vs. Ag/AgCl which is controlled by the polymeric film thickness. The kinetic results show that this system has a four electron transfer mechanism for dioxygen reduction. The results are transferred to a thick film chip oxygen sensor. The poly-FeTMHPP/Pt chip oxygen sensor shows clearly that it has a potential to be a practical oxygen sensor. The dynamic range of the poly-FeTMHPP/Pt oxygen sensor between 50 and 350 muM covers the normal dissolved oxygen range of waste water and blood samples. The detection limit of 337 pM for dissolved oxygen in PBS pH7.0 allows a highly sensitive measurement. 2. In order to improve the stability of the sensor, we also

  10. An Optical Oxygen Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen in Perfused Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, F. G.; Jeevarajan, A. S.; Anderson, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    For long-term growth of man1ITlalian cells in perfused bioreactors, it is essential to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium to quantitate and control level of DO. Continuous measurement of the amount of DO in the cell culture medium in-line under sterile conditions in NASA's perfused bioreactor requires that the oxygen sensor provide increased sensitivity and be sterilizable and nontoxic. Additionally, long-term cell culture experiments require that the calibration be maintained several weeks or months. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An optical oxygen sensor (BOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. Tris( 4,7 -diphenyl-l, 1 O-phenanthroline )ruthenium(II) chloride is employed as the fluorescent dye indicator. The sensing element consists of a glass capillary (OD 4.0 mm; ID 2.0 mm) coated internally with a thin layer of the fluorescent dye in silicone matrix and overlayed with a black shielding layer. Irradiation of the sensing element with blue light (blue LED with emission maximum at 475 nm) generates a red fluorescence centered at 626 nm. The fluorescence intensity is correlated to the concentration of DO present in the culture medium, following the modified non-linear Stern-Volmer equation. By using a pulsed irradiating light source, the problem of dye-bleaching, which is often encountered in long-term continuous measurements of tIns type, 'is minimized. To date we achieved sensor resolution of 0.3 mmHg at 50 mmHg p02, and 0.6 mmHg at 100 mmHg p02, with a response time of about one minute. Calibration was accomplished in sterile phosphate-buffered saline with a blood-gas analyzer (BGA) measurement as reference. Stand-alone software was also developed to control the sensor and bioreactor as well as to

  11. Oxygen fugacities directly measured in magmatic gases.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Wright, T L

    1966-09-02

    An electrochemical device was used to measure the fugacity of oxygen (fo(o2)) in holes drilled through the crust of Makaopuhi lava lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Results obtained within 6 months of the lake formation show that log fo(o2) normally varies linearly with the reciprocal of the absolute temperature, and that chemical changes occurring in the cooling tholeiitic basalt are reflected in the fo(o2) values measured in the holes.

  12. Oxygen fugacities directly measured in magmatic gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, M.; Wright, T.L.

    1966-01-01

    An electrochemical device was used to measure the fugacity of oxygen (fO2) in holes drilled through the crust of Makaopuhi lava lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Results obtained within 6 months of the lake formation show that log fO2 normally varies linearly with the reciprocal of the absolute temperature, and that chemical changes occurring in the cooling tholeiitic basalt are reflected in the fO2 values measured in the holes.

  13. Intravascular oxygen sensors with novel applications for bedside respiratory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Formenti, F; Farmery, A D

    2017-01-01

    Measurement allows us to quantify various parameters and variables in natural systems. In addition, by measuring the effect by which a perturbation of one part of the system influences the system as a whole, insights into the functional mechanisms of the system can be inferred. Clinical monitoring has a different role to that of scientific measurement. Monitoring describes measurements whose prime purpose is not to give insights into underlying mechanisms, but to provide information to 'warn' of imminent events. What is often more important is the description of trends in measured variables. In this article, we give some examples - focussed around oxygen sensors - of how new sensors can make important measurements and might in the future contribute to improved clinical management.

  14. Oxygen saturation in free-diving whales: optical sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Herrera, Enoch; Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Anderson, Rox; Zapol, Warren; Franco, Walfre

    2013-02-01

    Mass stranding of live whales has been explained by proposing many natural or human-related causes. Recent necropsy reports suggest a link between the mass stranding of beaked whales and the use of naval mid-frequency sonar. Surprisingly, whales have experienced symptoms similar to those caused by inert gas bubbles in human divers. Our goal is to develop a compact optical sensor to monitor the consumption of the oxygen stores in the muscle of freely diving whales. To this end we have proposed the use of a near-infrared phase-modulated frequency-domain spectrophotometer, in reflectance mode, to probe tissue oxygenation. Our probe consists of three main components: radiofrequency (RF) modulated light sources, a high-bandwidth avalanche photodiode with transimpedance amplifier, and a RF gain and phase detector. In this work, we concentrate on the design and performance of the light sensor, and its corresponding amplifier unit. We compare three state-of-the-art avalanche photodiodes: one through-hole device and two surface-mount detectors. We demonstrate that the gain due to the avalanche effect differs between sensors. The avalanche gain near maximum bias of the through-hole device exceeds by a factor of 2.5 and 8.3 that of the surface-mount detectors. We present the behavior of our assembled through-hole detector plus high-bandwidth transimpedance amplifier, and compare its performance to that of a commercially available module. The assembled unit enables variable gain, its phase noise is qualitatively lower, and the form factor is significantly smaller. Having a detecting unit that is compact, flexible, and functional is a milestone in the development of our tissue oxygenation tag.

  15. Field comparison of optical and clark cell dissolved-oxygen sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.; Garcia, L.

    2005-01-01

    Three multi-parameter water-quality monitors equipped with either Clark cell type or optical type dissolved-oxygen sensors were deployed for 30 days in a brackish (salinity <10 parts per thousand) environment to determine the sensitivity of the sensors to biofouling. The dissolved-oxygen sensors compared periodically to a hand-held dissolved oxygen sensor, but were not serviced or cleaned during the deployment. One of the Clark cell sensors and the optical sensor performed similarly during the deployment. The remaining Clark cell sensor was not aged correctly prior to deployment and did not perform as well as the other sensors. All sensors experienced substantial biofouling that gradually degraded the accuracy of the dissolved-oxygen measurement during the last half of the deployment period. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  16. Directed network topologies of smart grain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David M.; Tordesillas, Antoinette; Nakamura, Tomomichi; Tanizawa, Toshihiro

    2013-03-01

    We employ a recent technique for building complex networks from time series data to construct a directed network embodying time structure to collate the predictive properties of individual granular sensors in a series of biaxial compression tests. For each grain, we reconstruct a static predictive model. This combines a subset selection algorithm and an information theory fitting criterion that selects which other grains in the assembly are best placed to predict a given grain's local stress throughout loading history. The local stress of a grain at each time step is summarized by the magnitude of its particle load vector. A directed network is constructed by representing each grain as a node, and assigning an in-link to a grain from another grain if the latter is selected within the best predictive model of the first grain. The grains with atypically large out-degree are thus the most responsible for predicting the stress history of the other grains: These turn out to be only a few grains which reside inside shear bands. Moreover, these “smart grains” prove to be strongly linked to the mechanism of force chain buckling and intermittent rattler events. That only a small number of grain sensors situated in the shear band are required to accurately capture the rheological response of all other grains in the assembly underlines the crucial importance of nonlocal interactions, espoused by extended continuum theories which posit nonlocal evolution laws. Findings here cast the spotlight on two specific mechanisms as being key to the formulation of robust evolution laws in deforming granular materials under compression and shear: the long held mechanism for energy dissipation of force chain buckling and the sudden switch in roles that a rattler plays as it enters in and out of force chains.

  17. Apparatus and method for a light direction sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides a light direction sensor for determining the direction of a light source. The system includes an image sensor; a spacer attached to the image sensor, and a pattern mask attached to said spacer. The pattern mask has a slit pattern that as light passes through the slit pattern it casts a diffraction pattern onto the image sensor. The method operates by receiving a beam of light onto a patterned mask, wherein the patterned mask as a plurality of a slit segments. Then, diffusing the beam of light onto an image sensor and determining the direction of the light source.

  18. Optimizing probe design for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Akl, Tony; Long, Ruiqi; McShane, Michael J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Wilson, Mark A.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to develop an implantable optical perfusion and oxygenation sensor, based on multiwavelength reflectance pulse oximetry, we investigate the effect of source detector separation and other source-detector characteristics to optimize the sensor s signal to background ratio using Monte Carlo (MC) based simulations and in vitro phantom studies. Separations in the range 0.45 to 1.25 mm were found to be optimal in the case of a point source. The numerical aperture (NA) of the source had no effect on the collected signal while the widening of the source spatial profile caused a shift in the optimal source-detector separation. Specifically, for a 4.5 mm flat beam and a 2.4 mm 2.5 mm photodetector, the optimal performance was found to be when the source and detector are adjacent to each other. These modeling results were confirmed by data collected from in vitro experiments on a liver phantom perfused with dye solutions mimicking the absorption properties of hemoglobin for different oxygenation states.

  19. Noise-cancelling quadrature magnetic position, speed and direction sensor

    DOEpatents

    Preston, Mark A.; King, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    An array of three magnetic sensors in a single package is employed with a single bias magnet for sensing shaft position, speed and direction of a motor in a high magnetic noise environment. Two of the three magnetic sensors are situated in an anti-phase relationship (i.e., 180.degree. out-of-phase) with respect to the relationship between the other of the two sensors and magnetically salient target, and the third magnetic sensor is situated between the anti-phase sensors. The result is quadrature sensing with noise immunity for accurate relative position, speed and direction measurements.

  20. Ultra-sensitive optical oxygen sensors for characterisation of nearly anoxic systems

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Philipp; Staudinger, Christoph; Borisov, Sergey M.; Klimant, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen quantification in trace amounts is essential in many fields of science and technology. Optical oxygen sensors proved invaluable tools for oxygen measurements in a broad concentration range but until now neither optical nor electrochemical oxygen sensors were able to quantify oxygen in the sub-nanomolar concentration range. Herein we present new optical oxygen sensing materials with unmatched sensitivity. They rely on the combination of ultra-long decaying (several hundred milliseconds lifetime) phosphorescent boron- and aluminium-chelates and highly oxygen-permeable and chemically stable perfluorinated polymers. The sensitivity of the new sensors is improved up to 20-fold compared to state-of-the-art analogues. The limits of detection are as low as 5 parts per billion, volume in gas phase under atmospheric pressure or 7 picomolar in solution. The sensors enable completely new applications for monitoring of oxygen in previously inaccessible concentration ranges. PMID:25042041

  1. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging for direct in vivo tissue oxygen monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2015-03-01

    Measuring the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in tissue may provide physicians with essential information about the physiological state of tissue. However, currently available methods for measuring or imaging tissue pO2 have significant limitations, preventing them from being widely used in clinics. Recently, we have reported a direct and noninvasive in vivo imaging modality based on the photoacoustic lifetime which overcomes certain drawbacks of the existing methods. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflecting the spatial and temporal distributions of tissue oxygen. Here, we present two studies which apply photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) to monitor changes of tissue oxygen induced by external modulations. The first study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen a normal mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change in oxygen level with respect to normal, oxygen-rich, and oxygen-poor breathing conditions. The second study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hindlimb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of tissue pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were tracked and observed by PALI.

  2. Quantifying oxygen in paper-based cell cultures with luminescent thin film sensors.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Matthew W; Kenney, Rachael M; Truong, Andrew S; Lockett, Matthew R

    2016-04-01

    Paper-based scaffolds are an attractive material for generating 3D tissue-like cultures because paper is readily available and does not require specialized equipment to pattern, cut, or use. By controlling the exchange of fresh culture medium with the paper-based scaffolds, we can engineer diffusion-dominated environments similar to those found in spheroids or solid tumors. Oxygen tension directly regulates cellular phenotype and invasiveness through hypoxia-inducible transcription factors and also has chemotactic properties. To date, gradients of oxygen generated in the paper-based cultures have relied on cellular response-based readouts. In this work, we prepared a luminescent thin film capable of quantifying oxygen tensions in apposed cell-containing paper-based scaffolds. The oxygen sensors, which are polystyrene films containing a Pd(II) tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin dye, are photostable, stable in culture conditions, and not cytotoxic. They have a linear response for oxygen tensions ranging from 0 to 160 mmHg O2, and a Stern-Volmer constant (K sv) of 0.239 ± 0.003 mmHg O2 (-1). We used these oxygen-sensing films to measure the spatial and temporal changes in oxygen tension for paper-based cultures containing a breast cancer line that was engineered to constitutively express a fluorescent protein. By acquiring images of the oxygen-sensing film and the fluorescently labeled cells, we were able to approximate the oxygen consumption rates of the cells in our cultures.

  3. Direct measurement of oxygen stoichiometry in perovskite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scola, J.; Benamar, A.; Berini, B.; Jomard, F.; Dumont, Y.

    2017-02-01

    We present a direct method to measure the oxygen stoichiometry in an oxide film with an accuracy of about 2%. It is based on a combination of 18O annealing and high mass resolution secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Calibration has been done on a LaNiO3 film whose electrical properties dependence on oxygen stoichiometry are well documented. The method is illustrated with a series of LaNiO3 films grown on SrTiO3 substrates prepared with different oxygen stoichiometries. The large influence of the surface state on oxygen exchange is evidenced in films grown on different substrate orientations or coated with a thin layer of LaAlO3. Oxygen surface exchange and bulk diffusion is then discussed for both LaNiO3 and SrVO3 films.

  4. Molecular oxygen observed by direct photoproduction from carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larimian, Seyedreza; Erattupuzha, Sonia; Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia; Baltuška, Andrius; Kitzler, Markus; Xie, Xinhua

    2017-01-01

    We report experiments on the direct observation of molecular oxygen formation from CO2 in strong laser fields with a reaction microscope. Our accompanying simulations and pump-probe measurements suggest that CO2 molecules undergo bending motion during strong-field ionization which supports the molecular oxygen formation process. The observation of molecular oxygen formation from CO2 may trigger further experimental and theoretical studies on such processes with laser pulses, and provides hints in studies of the O2 and O2+ abundance in CO2-dominated planetary atmospheres.

  5. Bio-Inspired Miniature Direction Finding Acoustic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wilmott, Daniel; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2016-01-01

    A narrowband MEMS direction finding sensor has been developed based on the mechanically coupled ears of the Ormia Ochracea fly. The sensor consists of two wings coupled at the middle and attached to a substrate using two legs. The sensor operates at its bending resonance frequency and has cosine directional characteristics similar to that of a pressure gradient microphone. Thus, the directional response of the sensor is symmetric about the normal axis making the determination of the direction ambiguous. To overcome this shortcoming two sensors were assembled with a canted angle similar to that employed in radar bearing locators. The outputs of two sensors were processed together allowing direction finding with no requirement of knowing the incident sound pressure level. At the bending resonant frequency of the sensors (1.69 kHz) an output voltage of about 25 V/Pa was measured. The angle uncertainty of the bearing of sound ranged from less than 0.3° close to the normal axis (0°) to 3.4° at the limits of coverage (±60°) based on the 30° canted angle used. These findings indicate the great potential to use dual MEMS direction finding sensor assemblies to locate sound sources with high accuracy. PMID:27440657

  6. Bio-Inspired Miniature Direction Finding Acoustic Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmott, Daniel; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2016-07-01

    A narrowband MEMS direction finding sensor has been developed based on the mechanically coupled ears of the Ormia Ochracea fly. The sensor consists of two wings coupled at the middle and attached to a substrate using two legs. The sensor operates at its bending resonance frequency and has cosine directional characteristics similar to that of a pressure gradient microphone. Thus, the directional response of the sensor is symmetric about the normal axis making the determination of the direction ambiguous. To overcome this shortcoming two sensors were assembled with a canted angle similar to that employed in radar bearing locators. The outputs of two sensors were processed together allowing direction finding with no requirement of knowing the incident sound pressure level. At the bending resonant frequency of the sensors (1.69 kHz) an output voltage of about 25 V/Pa was measured. The angle uncertainty of the bearing of sound ranged from less than 0.3° close to the normal axis (0°) to 3.4° at the limits of coverage (±60°) based on the 30° canted angle used. These findings indicate the great potential to use dual MEMS direction finding sensor assemblies to locate sound sources with high accuracy.

  7. Optical triple sensor for measuring pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Weigl, B H; Holobar, A; Trettnak, W; Klimant, I; Kraus, H; O'Leary, P; Wolfbeis, O S

    1994-02-14

    A triple sensor unit consisting of opto-chemical sensors for measurement of pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide in bioreactors is presented. The pH and the CO2 sensor are based on the color change of a pH-sensitive dye immobilized on a polymeric support. The resulting changes in absorption are monitored through optical fibers. The oxygen sensor is based on the quenching of the fluorescence of a metal-organic dye. All three sensors are fully LED compatible. The sensitive membranes consist of plastic films and can be stored and replaced conveniently. The sensors are sterilizable with hydrogen peroxide and ethanol. In addition, the pH sensor is steam sterilizable. Accuracy, resolution and reproducibility fulfill the requirements for use in biotechnological applications. Calibration procedures for each sensor are presented. The working principle and the performance of all three sensors are described, with particular emphasis given to their application in bioreactors.

  8. Probing oxygen consumption in epileptic brain slices with QDs-based FRET sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunfeng; Ingram, Justin; Schiff, Steven; Xu, Jian; Xiao, Min

    2011-02-01

    We developed ratiometric optical oxygen sensors to probe the oxygen consumption during epileptic events in rat brain slices. The oxygen sensors consist of the sensing part of phosphorescence dyes (Platinum (II) octaethylporphine ketone) and reference part of nanocystal quantum dots (NQDs) embedded in polymer blends, with pre-designed excitation through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from NQDs to the oxygen sensitive dyes (OSDs). The ratiometric FRET sensors with fast temporal response and excellent bio-compatibility are suitable for real time quantitative dissolved oxygen (D.O.) probes in biological microenvironment. Coating the sensors onto the micro-pipettes, we performed simultaneous oxygen probes at pyramidal and oriens layers in rat hippocampal CA1. Different spatiotemporal patterns with maximum D.O. decreases of 9.9+/-1.1 mg/L and 4.9+/-0.7 mg/L during seizure events were observed in pyramidal and oriens layers, respectively.

  9. Performance Evaluation of an Oxygen Sensor as a Function of the Samaria Doped Ceria Film Thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Sanghavi, Rahul P.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Jiang, Weilin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Kayani, Asghar N.; Prasad, Shalini

    2010-12-01

    The current demand in the automobile industry is in the control of air-fuel mixture in the combustion engine of automobiles. Oxygen partial pressure can be used as an input parameter for regulating or controlling systems in order to optimize the combustion process. Our goal is to identify and optimize the material system that would potentially function as the active sensing material for such a device that monitors oxygen partial pressure in these systems. We have used thin film samaria doped ceria (SDC) as the sensing material for the sensor operation, exploiting the fact that at high temperatures, oxygen vacancies generated due to samarium doping act as conducting medium for oxygen ions which hop through the vacancies from one side to the other contributing to an electrical signal. We have recently established that 6 atom % Sm doping in ceria films has optimum conductivity. Based on this observation, we have studied the variation in the overall conductivity of 6 atom % samaria doped ceria thin films as a function of thickness in the range of 50 nm to 300 nm at a fixed bias voltage of 2 volts. A direct proportionality in the increase in the overall conductivity is observed with the increase in sensing film thickness. For a range of oxygen pressure values from 1 mTorr to 100 Torr, a tolerable hysteresis error, good dynamic response and a response time of less than 10 seconds was observed

  10. Dual fluorescence sensor for trace oxygen and temperature with unmatched range and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Baleizão, Carlos; Nagl, Stefan; Schäferling, Michael; Berberan-Santos, Mário N; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2008-08-15

    An optical dual sensor for oxygen and temperature is presented that is highly oxygen sensitive and covers a broad temperature range. Dual sensing is based on luminescence lifetime measurements. The novel sensor contains two luminescent compounds incorporated into polymer films. The temperature-sensitive dye (ruthenium tris-1,10-phenanthroline) has a highly temperature-dependent luminescence and is incorporated in poly(acrylonitrile) to avoid cross-sensitivity to oxygen. Fullerene C70 was used as the oxygen-sensitive probe owing to its strong thermally activated delayed fluorescence at elevated temperatures that is extremely oxygen sensitive. The cross-sensitivity of C70 to temperature is accounted for by means of the temperature sensor. C70 is incorporated into a highly oxygen-permeable polymer, either ethyl cellulose or organosilica. The two luminescent probes have different emission spectra and decay times, and their emissions can be discriminated using both parameters. Spatially resolved sensing is achieved by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging. The response times of the sensor to oxygen are short. The dual sensor exhibits a temperature operation range between at least 0 and 120 degrees C, and detection limits for oxygen in the ppbv range, operating for oxygen concentrations up to at least 50 ppmv. These ranges outperform all dual oxygen and temperature sensors reported so far. The dual sensor presented in this study is especially appropriate for measurements under extreme conditions such as high temperatures and ultralow oxygen levels. This dual sensor is a key step forward in a number of scientifically or commercially important applications including food packaging, for monitoring of hyperthermophilic microorganisms, in space technology, and safety and security applications in terms of detection of oxygen leaks.

  11. Indoor Navigation using Direction Sensor and Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Joel; Jeganathan, Muthu

    2004-01-01

    A system for indoor navigation of a mobile robot includes (1) modulated infrared beacons at known positions on the walls and ceiling of a room and (2) a cameralike sensor, comprising a wide-angle lens with a position-sensitive photodetector at the focal plane, mounted in a known position and orientation on the robot. The system also includes a computer running special-purpose software that processes the sensor readings to obtain the position and orientation of the robot in all six degrees of freedom in a coordinate system embedded in the room.

  12. Goal-Directed Planning for Sensor Webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R.; Dungan, J. L.; Khatib, L.; Votava, P.

    2007-12-01

    An Earth-observing sensor web is an organization of space, airborne, or in situ sensing devices for collecting measurements of the Earth's processes. Sensor web coordination involves formulating Earth science goals and transforming them into sensor web workflows, i.e., sequences of data acquisition and processing tasks that satisfy the specified goals. Automating parts of this process using recent advances in intelligent control software technology will offer improved sensor web effectiveness. Our approach to the coordination problem applies architectural concepts of workflow management systems by identifying two phases in workflow generation. In the first phase, users formulate high-level campaign goals that are automatically transformed into abstract workflow plans. An abstract workflow plan represents the organization of data acquisition and processing actions that fulfills the goals specified by the user, but leaves out details such as how requests for access to a data resource are formatted. Abstracting away these details improves the usability of sensor web resources by scientists. To implement the first phase, we utilize the Labeled Transition System Analyzer (LTSA), a model-checking software tool. LTSA contains a concise process-based language, FSP (Finite State Processes) for designing and modeling software programs. We will use LTSA and FSP to automate the process of building executable plans for accessing resources on a sensor web. FSP has the constructs for representing conditional dependencies, iterations, and parallel actions, all of which are common features in Earth science campaigns. The second phase of the process consists of the automatic transformation of an abstract plan into a concrete plan, i.e., a sequence of actions that can be autonomously executed on a sensor web. The transformation in phase two might require further decomposition of actions in the abstract plan into a sequence of lower-level data acquisition requests. It may also involve

  13. MEMS directional acoustic sensor for locating sound sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunasiri, Gamani; Alves, Fabio; Swan, William

    2016-02-01

    The conventional directional sound sensing systems employ an array of spatially separated microphones to achieve directional sensing. However, there are insects such as Ormia ochracea fly that can determine the direction of sound using a miniature hearing organ much smaller than the wavelength of sound it detects. The MEMS based sensors mimicking the fly's hearing system was fabricated using SOI substrate with 25 micrometer device layer. The sensor was designed to operate around 1.7 kHz, consists of two 1.2 mm × 1.2 mm wings connected in the middle by a 3 mm × 30 micrometer bridge. The entire structure is connected to the substrate by two torsional legs at the center. The sensor operates at its bending resonance frequency and has cosine directional characteristics similar to that of a pressure gradient microphone. For unambiguously determining the direction of sound, two sensors were assembled with a canted angle and outputs of the two sensors were processed to uniquely locate the bearing. At the bending resonant frequency (1.7 kHz) an output voltage of about 25 V/Pa was measured. The uncertainty of the bearing of sound ranged from less than 0.3 degrees close to the normal axis (0 degree) to 3 degrees at the limits of coverage (+/- 60 degrees) based on the 30 degree canted angle used. These findings indicate the potential use of a dual MEMS direction finding sensor assembly to locate sound sources with high accuracy.

  14. Oxygen monitoring in supercritical carbon dioxide using a fibre optic sensor.

    PubMed

    Tservistas, M; Köneke, R; Comte, A; Scheper, T

    2001-05-07

    Investigations of enzymatic reactions in supercritical CO(2) are often hindered by the high pressure involved in these processes, making reaction monitoring extremely difficult. This paper describes the implementation of a fiber optic based oxygen sensor into a high pressure reactor for supercritical carbon dioxide. The sensor is pressure resistant, working in supercritical carbon dioxide and reusable after depressurisation. The sensor signal is found to be affected by pressure changes, but stable at constant pressure. Oxygen concentration in supercritical CO(2) is monitored using the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide as a simple oxygen producing reaction.

  15. Direct Mapping of Magnetic and Structural Profiles of Electric Field Moderated Oxygen Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Kirby, Brian J.; Borchers, Julie A.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Liu, Kai

    Recent studies on metal/oxide heterostructures have demonstrated control of interfacial magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetization in ultrathin (5 ML) Co films through electric-field controlled oxygen migration. This approach presents a promising route to realizing next-generation, ultralow power sensor and data-storage technologies. Here we demonstrate magnetoelectric coupling moderated by electrically-driven oxygen migration in much thicker AlOx(1 um)/GdOx(2 nm)/Co (15 nm) heterostructures. Using polarized neutron reflectometry, we present direct, quantitative depth profiling of the magnetization and oxygen concentration in these systems. Electro-thermal conditioning moves oxygen from AlOx and GdOx base-layers throughout the entire thickness of the 15 nm Co layer, resulting in a suppressed magnetization. Switching the electric field polarity semi-reversibly ejects oxygen preferentially from the GdOX/Co interface, partially recovering the magnetization and establishing a practical limit to this approach. First order reversal curve diagrams show that the conditioned samples exhibit two distinct magnetic phases, while the as-grown samples are single phase, suggesting that the treatments alters the Co film microstructure. X-ray spectroscopy confirms the oxidation states of the Co and Gd, and suggest that the GdOX acts to transmit oxygen but does not source or sink it.

  16. Ionization based multi-directional flow sensor

    DOEpatents

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Casleton, Kent H.

    2009-04-28

    A method, system, and apparatus for conducting real-time monitoring of flow (airflow for example) in a system (a hybrid power generation system for example) is disclosed. The method, system and apparatus measure at least flow direction and velocity with minimal pressure drop and fast response. The apparatus comprises an ion source and a multi-directional collection device proximate the ion source. The ion source is configured to generate charged species (electrons and ions for example). The multi-directional collection source is configured to determine the direction and velocity of the flow in real-time.

  17. Fluorescence-lifetime-based sensors: oxygen sensing and other biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randers-Eichhorn, Lisa; Bartlett, Roscoe A.; Sipior, Jeffrey; Frey, Douglas D.; Carter, Gary M.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Rao, Govind

    1996-05-01

    Murine hybridomas were cultivated in tissue culture flasks. Dissolved oxygen tensions in the gas and liquid phases during cell growth were measured non-invasively by an optical oxygen sensor. Readings were made with caps both cracked open and completely closed. During cell growth, gas phase oxygen concentrations remained near atmospheric levels, while the oxygen tension at the bottom of the flasks eventually reached zero. These results suggest that the widespread practice of cracking open tissue culture flask caps during cell growth with a view to supplying adequate oxygen to cells is ineffective and unnecessary. The mass transfer characteristics of the tissue culture flask indicate the dominant resistance to oxygen mass transfer to the cells was the liquid media. The mass transfer rates through the liquid layer under standard laboratory conditions were found to be greater than those predicted by diffusion alone, suggesting microscale mixing. Volumetric and specific oxygen consumption rates were calculated from the sensor data, and were comparable to published values. A recently developed single fiber optic oxygen sensor is described. This new sensor will provide oxygen concentrations at various levels in the tissue culture flasks, allowing more accurate modeling of oxygen diffusion.

  18. Three Magnetic Direct-Current Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Stagg, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Three direct-current-measuring circuits based on magnetic (transformer) coupling, with periodic reset of magnetic flux to reverse saturation. Unidirectional and bidirectional versions demonstrated. Offers greater realibility and lower power consumption.

  19. A luminescence lifetime-based capillary oxygen sensor utilizing monolithically integrated organic photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Bernhard; Tschepp, Andreas; Čajlaković, Merima; Sagmeister, Martin; Ribitsch, Volker; Köstler, Stefan

    2013-10-21

    A novel optical sensor device monolithically integrated on a glass capillary is presented. Therefore, we took advantage of the ability to fabricate organic optoelectronic devices on non-planar substrates. The functionality of the concept is demonstrated by realizing an integrated oxygen sensor based on luminescence decay time measurement.

  20. Continuous oxygen monitoring of mammalian cell growth on space shuttle mission STS-93 with a novel radioluminescent oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Reece, Julie S; Miller, Michael J; Arnold, Mark A; Waterhouse, Cris; Delaplaine, Ted; Cohn, Laura; Cannon, Tom

    2003-01-01

    A compact, flow-through oxygen sensor device based on luminescence quenching was used to monitor dissolved oxygen levels during mammalian cell growth on the STS-93 mission of the Columbia space shuttle. Excitation of an oxygen-sensitive ruthenium complex was provided by a radioluminescent light source (0.9 mm in diameter, 2.5 mm long), and the intensity of the resulting luminescence was measured by a simple photodiode detector. The use of radioluminescence for the excitation light source is a unique approach that provides many features important for long-term and remote monitoring applications. For the spaceflight experiment, human lung fibroblast cells (WI-38) were grown in hollow-fiber bioreactors. Oxygen concentration was measured in the flow path both before and after the bioreactor cartridge in order to gain information about the metabolism of the cells. The sensor was found to be nonperturbing to cell growth and withstood the challenging physical conditions of shuttle launch and landing while maintaining a stable calibration function. In addition, the sensor provided physically meaningful oxygen predictions.

  1. Atomic Oxygen (AO) and Nitrogen (AN) In-situ Flux Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-10

    Grant # FA9550-01-1-0433 M. R. Beasley, PI Stanford University Project Title: Atomic Oxygen (AO) and Nitrogen (AN) In-situ Flux Sensor ...intensity. The major technological challenge is the VUV nature of the relevant spectral lines in the case of oxygen and nitrogen. A LabVIEW™-based data

  2. Photochemistry. Evidence for direct molecular oxygen production in CO₂ photodissociation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhou; Chang, Yih Chung; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Ng, C Y; Jackson, William M

    2014-10-03

    Photodissociation of carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been assumed to proceed exclusively to carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen atom (O) primary products. However, recent theoretical calculations suggested that an exit channel to produce C + O2 should also be energetically accessible. Here we report the direct experimental evidence for the C + O2 channel in CO2 photodissociation near the energetic threshold of the C((3)P) + O2(X(3)Σ(g)(-)) channel with a yield of 5 ± 2% using vacuum ultraviolet laser pump-probe spectroscopy and velocity-map imaging detection of the C((3)PJ) product between 101.5 and 107.2 nanometers. Our results may have implications for nonbiological oxygen production in CO2-heavy atmospheres.

  3. An ultrasonic array sensor for spacecraft leak direction finding.

    PubMed

    Holland, Stephen D; Roberts, Ron; Chimenti, D E; Song, Jun Ho

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an ultrasonic array sensor useable for locating air leaks in manned spacecraft and have found that this sensor locates leaks in a 1-m(2) plate to within 2 cm. The sensor consists of a 63-element multiplexed array plus a reference element, all constructed from a single PZT disc and a printed circuit board. Cross-correlations of signals from the array elements with signals from the single reference element provide a measurement of the leak noise passing through the spacecraft skin under the array. A spatial Fourier transform reveals the dominant direction of propagation. Triangulation from multiple sensor locations can be used to find the source of the leak.

  4. Direct measurement of oxygen consumption rates from attached and unattached cells in a reversibly sealed, diffusionally isolated sample chamber

    PubMed Central

    Strovas, Timothy J.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Anderson, Judy B.; Nandakumar, Vivek; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Burgess, Lloyd W.; Holl, Mark R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen consumption is a fundamental component of metabolic networks, mitochondrial function, and global carbon cycling. To date there is no method available that allows for replicate measurements on attached and unattached biological samples without compensation for extraneous oxygen leaking into the system. Here we present the Respiratory Detection System, which is compatible with virtually any biological sample. The RDS can be used to measure oxygen uptake in microliter-scale volumes with a reversibly sealed sample chamber, which contains a porphyrin-based oxygen sensor. With the RDS, one can maintain a diffusional seal for up to three hours, allowing for the direct measurement of respiratory function of samples with fast or slow metabolic rates. The ability to easily measure oxygen uptake in small volumes with small populations or dilute samples has implications in cell biology, environmental biology, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:21546993

  5. Elimination of Flammable Gas Effects in Cerium Oxide Semiconductor-Type Resistive Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Low Oxygen Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Toshio; Izu, Noriya; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck; Miki, Yusuke; Hirose, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the catalytic layer in zirconium-doped cerium oxide, Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 (CeZr10) resistive oxygen sensors for reducing the effects of flammable gases, namely hydrogen and carbon monoxide. When the concentration of flammable gases is comparable to that of oxygen, the resistance of CeZr10 is affected by the presence of these gases. We have developed layered thick films, which consist of an oxygen sensor layer (CeZr10), an insulation layer (Al2O3), and a catalytic layer consisting of CeZr10 with 3 wt% added platinum, which was prepared via the screen printing method. The Pt-CeZr10 catalytic layer was found to prevent the detrimental effects of the flammable gases on the resistance of the sensor layer. This effect is due to the catalytic layer promoting the oxidation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide through the consumption of ambient O2 and/or the lattice oxygen atoms of the Pt-CeZr10 catalytic layer. PMID:25905705

  6. Fiber Optic Raman Sensor to Monitor Concentration Ratio of Nitrogen and Oxygen in a Cryogenic Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.; SaintCyr, William

    2007-01-01

    A spontaneous Raman scattering optical fiber sensor is developed for a specific need of NASA/SSC for long-term detection and monitoring of the quality of liquid oxygen (LOX) in the delivery line during ground testing of rocket engines. The sensor performance was tested in the laboratory and with different excitation light sources. To evaluate the sensor performance with different excitation light sources for the LOX quality application, we have used the various mixtures of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen as samples. The study of the sensor performance shows that this sensor offers a great deal of flexibility and provides a cost effective solution for the application. However, an improved system response time is needed for the real-time, quantitative monitoring of the quality of cryogenic fluids in harsh environment.

  7. Oxygen sensors for Heavy Liquid Metal coolants: Calibration and assessment of the minimum reading temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassini, S.; Antonelli, A.; Di Piazza, I.; Tarantino, M.

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen sensors for Heavy Liquid Metals (HLMs) such as lead and LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) will be essential devices in future Lead Fast Reactor (LFR) and Accelerator Driven System (ADS). Potentiometric sensors based on solid electrolytes were developed in recent years to this purpose. Internal reference electrodes such as Pt-air and Bi/Bi2O3 liquid metal/metal-oxide are among the most used but they both have a weak point: Pt-air sensor has a high minimum reading temperature around 400 °C whereas Bi/Bi2O3 suffers from internal stresses induced by Bi volume variations with temperature, which may lead to the sensor failure in the long-term. The present work describes the performance of standard Pt-air and Bi/Bi2O3 sensors and compares them with recent Cu/Cu2O sensor. Sensors with Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia (YPSZ) electrolyte were calibrated in oxygen-saturated HLM between 160 and 550 °C and the electric potential compared to the theoretical one to define the accuracy and the minimum reading temperature. Standard Pt-air sensor were also tested using Yttria Totally Stabilized Zirconia (YTSZ) to assess the effect of a different electrolyte on the minimum reading temperature. The performance of Pt-air and Cu/Cu2O sensors with YPSZ electrolyte were then tested together in low-oxygen HLM between 200 and 450 °C. The results showed that Pt-air, Bi/Bi2O3 and Cu/Cu2O sensors with YPSZ measured oxygen in HLMs down to 400 °C, 290 °C and 200 °C respectively. When the YTSZ electrolyte was used in place of the YPSZ, the Pt-air sensor measured correctly down to at least 350 °C thanks to the superior ionic conductivity of the YTSZ. When Cu/Cu2O and Pt-air sensors were tested together in the same low-oxygen HLM between 200 and 450 °C, Cu/Cu2O sensor worked predictably in the whole temperature range whereas Pt-air sensor exhibited a correct output only above 400 °C.

  8. Direct Oxygen Abundances for the Lowest Luminosity LVL Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Danielle; Skillman, E. D.; Marble, A. R.; van Zee, L.; Engelbracht, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    We present new MMT spectroscopic observations of HII regions in 42 of the lowest luminosity galaxies in the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey. For 31 of the galaxies in our sample we were able to measure the [OIII] ? auroral line at a strength of 4σ or greater, and thus determine oxygen abundances using the direct method. Direct oxygen abundances were compared to B-band luminosity, 4.5 μm luminosity, and stellar mass to characterize the luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) and mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationships at low-luminosity. We examined a "Combined Select” sample composed of 38 objects, from the present sample and the literature, with direct oxygen abundances and reliable distance determinations (based on the tip of the red giant branch or Cepheid variables). The B-band and 4.5 μm L-Z relationships were found to be 12+log(O/H) = (6.19±0.07) + (-0.12±0.01)MB and 12+log(O/H) = (5.93±0.11) + (-0.11±0.01)M[4.5] with dispersions of σ = 0.17 and σ = 0.14 respectively. Since the slope of the L-Z relationship doesn't seem to vary from the optical to the near-IR, as has been observed in studies of more luminous galaxies, we propose that less extinction due to dust is created in the lowest luminosity galaxies. We subsequently derived a M-Z relationship of 12+log(O/H) = (5.49±0.23) + (0.31±0.03)log M*, with a dispersion of σ = 0.16. None of the relationships seem to hold an advantage with respect to dispersion, supporting the idea of minimized dust. Additionally, the trend of N/O abundance with respect to B-V color and oxygen abundance was examined. Similar to the conclusions of van Zee & Haynes (2006), we find a positive correlation between N/O ratio and B-V color: log(N/O) = 0.92 (B-V) - 1.83. Furthermore, there are no objects with high N/O ratio below 12+log(O/H)=7.9.

  9. Development of sensors for monitoring oxygen and free radicals in plant physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Prachee

    Oxygen plays a critical role in the physiology of photosynthetic organisms, including bioenergetics, metabolism, development, and stress response. Oxygen levels affect photosynthesis, respiration, and alternative oxidase pathways. Likewise, the metabolic rate of spatially distinct plant cells (and therefore oxygen flux) is known to be affected by biotic stress (e.g., herbivory) and environmental stress (e.g., salt/nutrient stress). During aerobic metabolism, cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by product. Plants also produce ROS during adaptation to stress (e.g., abscisic acid (ABA) mediated stress responses). If stress conditions are prolonged, ROS levels surpass the capacity of detoxifying mechanisms within the cell, resulting in oxidative damage. While stress response pathways such as ABA-mediated mechanisms have been well characterized (e.g., water stress, inhibited shoot growth, synthesis of storage proteins in seeds), the connection between ROS production, oxygen metabolism and stress response remains unknown. In part, this is because details of oxygen transport at the interface of cell(s) and the surrounding microenvironment remains nebulous. The overall goal of this research was to develop oxygen and Free radical sensors for studying stress signaling in plants. Recent developments in nanomaterials and data acquisition systems were integrated to develop real-time, non-invasive oxygen and Free radical sensors. The availability of these sensors for plant physiologists is an exciting opportunity to probe the functional realm of cells and tissues in ways that were not previously possible.

  10. Development of a directional sensitive pressure and shear sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Dee, Jeffrey; Ledoux, William; Sangeorzan, Bruce; Reinhall, Per G.

    2002-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that impacts the lives of millions of people around the world. Lower limb complications associated with diabetes include the development of plantar ulcers that can lead to infection and subsequent amputation. Shear stress is thought to be a major contributing factor to ulcer development, but due in part to technical difficulties with transducing shear stress, there is no widely used shear measurement sensor. As such, we are currently developing a directionally sensitive pressure/shear sensor based on fiber optic technology. The pressure/shear sensor consists of an array of optical fibers lying in perpendicular rows and columns separated by elastomeric pads. A map of pressure and shear stress is constructed based on observed macro bending through the intensity attenuation from the physical deformation of two adjacent perpendicular fibers. The sensor has been shown to have low noise and responded linearly to applied loads. The smallest detectable force on each sensor element based on the current setup is ~0.1 lbs. (0.4N). The smallest area we have resolved in our mesh sensor is currently ~1 cm2.

  11. DIRECT OXYGEN ABUNDANCES FOR LOW-LUMINOSITY LVL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Marble, Andrew R.; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C.; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Calzetti, Daniela; Dale, Daniel A.; Johnson, Benjamin D. E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu E-mail: amarble@nso.edu E-mail: jlee@stsci.edu E-mail: ddale@uwyo.edu

    2012-08-01

    We present MMT spectroscopic observations of H II regions in 42 low luminosity galaxies in the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy survey. For 31 of the 42 galaxies in our sample, we were able to measure the temperature sensitive [O III] {lambda}4363 line at a strength of 4{sigma} or greater, and thus determine oxygen abundances using the 'direct' method. Our results provide the first 'direct' estimates of oxygen abundance for 19 of these galaxies. 'Direct' oxygen abundances were compared to B-band luminosities, 4.5 {mu}m luminosities, and stellar masses in order to characterize the luminosity-metallicity and mass-metallicity relationships at low luminosity. We present and analyze a 'Combined Select' sample composed of 38 objects (drawn from a sub-set of our parent sample and the literature) with 'direct' oxygen abundances and reliable distance determinations (based on the tip of the red giant branch or Cepheid variables). Consistent with previous studies, the B band and 4.5 {mu}m luminosity-metallicity relationships for the 38 objects were found to be 12 + log(O/H) = (6.27 {+-} 0.21) + (- 0.11 {+-} 0.01)M{sub B} and 12 + log(O/H) = (6.10 {+-} 0.21) + (- 0.10 {+-} 0.01)M{sub [4.5]} with dispersions of {sigma} = 0.15 and 0.14, respectively. The slopes of the optical and near-IR L-Z relationships have been reported to be different for galaxies with luminosities greater than that of the LMC. However, the similarity of the slopes of the optical and near-IR L-Z relationships for our sample probably reflects little influence by dust extinction in the low luminosity galaxies. For this sample, we derive a mass-metallicity relationship of 12 + log(O/H) = (5.61 {+-} 0.24) + (0.29 {+-} 0.03)log (M{sub *}), which agrees with previous studies; however, the dispersion ({sigma} = 0.15) is not significantly lower than that of the L-Z relationships. Because of the low dispersions in these relationships, if an accurate distance is available, the luminosity of a low luminosity galaxy is

  12. Direct Oxygen Abundances for Low-luminosity LVL Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Marble, Andrew R.; van Zee, Liese; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Lee, Janice C.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Calzetti, Daniela; Dale, Daniel A.; Johnson, Benjamin D.

    2012-08-01

    We present MMT spectroscopic observations of H II regions in 42 low luminosity galaxies in the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy survey. For 31 of the 42 galaxies in our sample, we were able to measure the temperature sensitive [O III] λ4363 line at a strength of 4σ or greater, and thus determine oxygen abundances using the "direct" method. Our results provide the first "direct" estimates of oxygen abundance for 19 of these galaxies. "Direct" oxygen abundances were compared to B-band luminosities, 4.5 μm luminosities, and stellar masses in order to characterize the luminosity-metallicity and mass-metallicity relationships at low luminosity. We present and analyze a "Combined Select" sample composed of 38 objects (drawn from a sub-set of our parent sample and the literature) with "direct" oxygen abundances and reliable distance determinations (based on the tip of the red giant branch or Cepheid variables). Consistent with previous studies, the B band and 4.5 μm luminosity-metallicity relationships for the 38 objects were found to be 12 + log(O/H) = (6.27 ± 0.21) + (- 0.11 ± 0.01)MB and 12 + log(O/H) = (6.10 ± 0.21) + (- 0.10 ± 0.01)M [4.5] with dispersions of σ = 0.15 and 0.14, respectively. The slopes of the optical and near-IR L-Z relationships have been reported to be different for galaxies with luminosities greater than that of the LMC. However, the similarity of the slopes of the optical and near-IR L-Z relationships for our sample probably reflects little influence by dust extinction in the low luminosity galaxies. For this sample, we derive a mass-metallicity relationship of 12 + log(O/H) = (5.61 ± 0.24) + (0.29 ± 0.03)log (M sstarf), which agrees with previous studies; however, the dispersion (σ = 0.15) is not significantly lower than that of the L-Z relationships. Because of the low dispersions in these relationships, if an accurate distance is available, the luminosity of a low luminosity galaxy is often a better indicator of metallicity than that

  13. In vitro performance of a perfusion and oxygenation optical sensor using a unique liver phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; King, Travis J.; Long, Ruiqi; Ericson, M. N.; Wilson, Mark A.; McShane, Michael J.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2012-03-01

    Between the years 1999 and 2008, on average 2,052 people died per year on the waiting list for liver transplants. Monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs in the 7 to 14 days period post-transplant can enhance graft and patient survival rates, and resultantly increase the availability of organs. In this work, we present in vitro results using a unique liver phantom that support the ability of our sensor to detect perfusion changes in the portal vein at low levels (50 mL/min . 4.5% of normal level). Our sensor measures diffuse reflection from three wavelengths (735, 805 and 940 nm) around the hemoglobin isobestic point (805 nm) to determine perfusion and oxygenation separately. To assess the sensitivity of our sensor to flow changes in the low range, we used two peristaltic pumps to pump a dye solution mimicking the optical properties of oxygenated blood, at various rates, through a PDMS based phantom mimicking the optical properties of liver tissue. The collected pulsatile signal increased by 120% (2.2X) for every 100 mL/min flow rise for all three wavelengths in the range 50 to 500 mL/min. In addition, we used different dye mixtures to mimic oxygenation changes at constant perfusion/flow levels. The optical properties of the dye mixtures mimic oxygen saturations ranging between 0 and 100%. The sensor was shown to be sensitive to changes in oxygen saturations above 50%.

  14. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H.; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O2 measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by the introduction of O2 in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O2 sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O2 versus CO2 (each 0–15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O2 measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO2. For the O2 in situ measurement in silage, all O2 sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O2 depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O2 penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O2 concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations. PMID:26784194

  15. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Lammers, Peter Schulze; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2016-01-14

    Oxygen (O₂) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O₂ measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO₂) generated by the introduction of O₂ in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O₂ sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O₂ versus CO₂ (each 0-15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O₂ measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO₂. For the O₂ in situ measurement in silage, all O₂ sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O₂ depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O₂ penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O₂ concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations.

  16. Polydimethylsiloxane Core-Polycaprolactone Shell Nanofibers as Biocompatible, Real-Time Oxygen Sensors.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruipeng; Behera, Prajna; Xu, Joshua; Viapiano, Mariano S; Lannutti, John J

    2014-03-01

    Real-time, continuous monitoring of local oxygen contents at the cellular level is desirable both for the study of cancer cell biology and in tissue engineering. In this paper, we report the successful fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanofibers containing oxygen-sensitive probes by electrospinning and the applications of these fibers as optical oxygen sensors for both gaseous and dissolved oxygen. A protective 'shell' layer of polycaprolactone (PCL) not only maintains the fiber morphology of PDMS during the slow curing process but also provides more biocompatible surfaces. Once this strategy was perfected, tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) (Ru(dpp)) and platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) were dissolved in the PDMS core and the resulting sensing performance established. These new core-shell sensors containing different sensitivity probes showed slight variations in oxygen response but all exhibited excellent Stern-Volmer linearity. Due in part to the porous nature of the fibers and the excellent oxygen permeability of PDMS, the new sensors show faster response (<0.5 s) -4-10 times faster than previous reports - than conventional 2D film-based oxygen sensors. Such core-shell fibers are readily integrated into standard cell culture plates or bioreactors. The photostability of these nanofiber-based sensors was also assessed. Culture of glioma cell lines (CNS1, U251) and glioma-derived primary cells (GBM34) revealed negligible differences in biological behavior suggesting that the presence of the porphyrin dyes within the core carries with it no strong cytotoxic effects. The unique combination of demonstrated biocompatibility due to the PCL 'shell' and the excellent oxygen transparency of the PDMS core makes this particular sensing platform promising for sensing in the context of biological environments.

  17. Endophytic Bacterium-Triggered Reactive Oxygen Species Directly Increase Oxygenous Sesquiterpenoid Content and Diversity in Atractylodes lancea

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Yuan, Jie; Li, Xia; Ning, Yi-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenous terpenoids are active components of many medicinal plants. However, current studies that have focused on enzymatic oxidation reactions cannot comprehensively clarify the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis and diversity. This study shows that an endophytic bacterium can trigger the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that directly increase oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in Atractylodes lancea. A. lancea is a famous but endangered Chinese medicinal plant that contains abundant oxygenous sesquiterpenoids. Geo-authentic A. lancea produces a wider range and a greater abundance of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids than the cultivated herb. Our previous studies have shown the mechanisms behind endophytic promotion of the production of sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbon scaffolds; however, how endophytes promote the formation of oxygenous sesquiterpenoids and their diversity is unclear. After colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens ALEB7B, oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in A. lancea occur synchronously. Treatment with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or singlet oxygen induces oxidative burst and promotes oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation in planta. Conversely, pretreatment of plantlets with the ROS scavenger ascorbic acid significantly inhibits the oxidative burst and oxygenous sesquiterpenoid accumulation induced by P. fluorescens ALEB7B. Further in vitro oxidation experiments show that several oxygenous sesquiterpenoids can be obtained from direct oxidation caused by H2O2 or singlet oxygen. In summary, this study demonstrates that endophytic bacterium-triggered ROS can directly oxidize oxygen-free sesquiterpenoids and increase the oxygenous sesquiterpenoid content and diversity in A. lancea, providing a novel explanation of the mechanisms of oxygenous terpenoid synthesis in planta and an essential complementarity to enzymatic oxidation reactions. PMID:26712554

  18. Moving Target Tracking through Distributed Clustering in Directional Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Enayet, Asma; Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Almogren, Ahmad; Alamri, Atif

    2014-01-01

    The problem of moving target tracking in directional sensor networks (DSNs) introduces new research challenges, including optimal selection of sensing and communication sectors of the directional sensor nodes, determination of the precise location of the target and an energy-efficient data collection mechanism. Existing solutions allow individual sensor nodes to detect the target's location through collaboration among neighboring nodes, where most of the sensors are activated and communicate with the sink. Therefore, they incur much overhead, loss of energy and reduced target tracking accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed a clustering algorithm, where distributed cluster heads coordinate their member nodes in optimizing the active sensing and communication directions of the nodes, precisely determining the target location by aggregating reported sensing data from multiple nodes and transferring the resultant location information to the sink. Thus, the proposed target tracking mechanism minimizes the sensing redundancy and maximizes the number of sleeping nodes in the network. We have also investigated the dynamic approach of activating sleeping nodes on-demand so that the moving target tracking accuracy can be enhanced while maximizing the network lifetime. We have carried out our extensive simulations in ns-3, and the results show that the proposed mechanism achieves higher performance compared to the state-of-the-art works. PMID:25529205

  19. A Fiber Optic Catalytic Sensor for Neutral Atom Measurements in Oxygen Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Zaplotnik, Rok; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetic, Miran

    2012-01-01

    The presented sensor for neutral oxygen atom measurement in oxygen plasma is a catalytic probe which uses fiber optics and infrared detection system to measure the gray body radiation of the catalyst. The density of neutral atoms can be determined from the temperature curve of the probe, because the catalyst is heated predominantly by the dissipation of energy caused by the heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral atoms. The advantages of this sensor are that it is simple, reliable, easy to use, noninvasive, quantitative and can be used in plasma discharge regions. By using different catalyst materials the sensor can also be applied for detection of neutral atoms in other plasmas. Sensor design, operation, example measurements and new measurement procedure for systematic characterization are presented. PMID:22666005

  20. Direct recoil oxygen ion fractions resulting from Ar + collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie-Nan; Rabalais, J. Wayne

    1986-03-01

    Direct recoil of oxygen from oxidized and hydroxylated magnesium surfaces as a result of 6 keV Ar + collisions produces O -, O +, and O species. The total ion fraction at a recoil angle of 22° is ~33.5%, of which O - is 23.7% and O + is 9.8% for the oxidized surface. The O -/O + intensity ratio is extremely sensitive to the amount of hydrogen present, with the O + yield dropping to ~1% on the hydroxylated surface. These results are considered within a model for electronic transitions in ion/surface collisions which considers Auger and resonant transitions along the ion trajectory and electron promotions in the quasi-diatomic molecule of the close encounter.

  1. Optical system designs based on bi-directional sensor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Constanze; Gawronski, Ute; Perske, Franziska; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Small and compact optical system designs are needed in nearly all application scenarios of optical projection and imaging systems, e.g. automotive, metrology, medical or multimedia. Most active optical systems are based on separated imaging (e.g. camera unit) and image generating units (e.g. projection unit). This fact limits the geometrical miniaturization of the system. We present compact optical system designs using the new technology of bi-directional sensor devices. These devices combine light emitting and light detecting elements on one single chip. The application of such innovative opto-electronic devices - so-called bi-directional OLED microdisplays (BiMiDs) - offer a huge potential for miniaturization with a simultaneous increase of performance due to a new integration step. For these new bi-directional sensor devices new optical design concepts for simultaneous and sequential emission and detection are necessary. Because the simultaneous emission and detection can disturb the functionality of the optical system. New concepts has to be applied. A first concept is an exemplary 3-D metrology system applying fringe projection. A second concept is a pico-projection system with an integrated camera function. For both concepts the system configurations and the optical design are discussed. Due to the application of the bi-directional sensor device ultra-compact systems are presented.

  2. Evaluation of the Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) Oxygen Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.; Corpening, Griffin P.; Jarvis, Michele; Chiles, Harry R.

    1999-01-01

    The Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) was a propulsion flight experiment for advanced space vehicles such as the X-33 and reusable launch vehicle. A linear aerospike rocket engine was integrated into a semi-span of an X-33-like lifting body shape (model), and carried on top of an SR-71 aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Because no flight data existed for aerospike nozzles, the primary objective of the LASRE flight experiment was to evaluate flight effects on the engine performance over a range of altitudes and Mach numbers. Because it contained a large quantity of energy in the form of fuel, oxidizer, hypergolics, and gases at very high pressures, the LASRE propulsion system posed a major hazard for fire or explosion. Therefore, a propulsion-hazard mitigation system was created for LASRE that included a nitrogen purge system. Oxygen sensors were a critical part of the nitrogen purge system because they measured purge operation and effectiveness. Because the available oxygen sensors were not designed for flight testing, a laboratory study investigated oxygen-sensor characteristics and accuracy over a range of altitudes and oxygen concentrations. Laboratory test data made it possible to properly calibrate the sensors for flight. Such data also provided a more accurate error prediction than the manufacturer's specification. This predictive accuracy increased confidence in the sensor output during critical phases of the flight. This paper presents the findings of this laboratory test.

  3. Smart Capture Modules for Direct Sensor-to-FPGA Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Sánchez-Durán, José A; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Hidalgo-López, José A

    2015-12-16

    Direct sensor-digital device interfaces measure time dependent variables of simple circuits to implement analog-to-digital conversion. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are devices whose hardware can be reconfigured to work in parallel. They usually do not have analog-to-digital converters, but have many general purpose I/O pins. Therefore, direct sensor-FPGA connection is a good choice in complex systems with many sensors because several capture modules can be implemented to perform parallel analog data acquisition. The possibility to work in parallel and with high frequency clock signals improves the bandwidth compared to sequential devices such as conventional microcontrollers. The price to pay is usually the resolution of measurements. This paper proposes capture modules implemented in an FPGA which are able to perform smart acquisition that filter noise and achieve high precision. A calibration technique is also proposed to improve accuracy. Resolutions of 12 effective number of bits are obtained for the reading of resistors in the range of an example piezoresistive tactile sensor.

  4. Flight Hydrogen Sensor for use in the ISS Oxygen Generation Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MSadoques, George, Jr.; Makel, Darby B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the hydrogen sensor Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) used on the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), to be operated on the International Space Station (ISS). The hydrogen sensor ORU is being provided by Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) to monitor the oxygen outlet for the presence of hydrogen. The hydrogen sensor ORU is a triple redundant design where each sensor converts raw measurements to actual hydrogen partial pressure that is reported to the OGA system controller. The signal outputs are utilized for system shutdown in the event that the hydrogen concentration in the oxygen outlet line exceeds the specified shutdown limit. Improvements have been made to the Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensing element, screening, and calibration process to meet OGA operating requirements. Two flight hydrogen sensor ORUs have successfully completed the acceptance test phase. This paper also describes the sensor s performance during acceptance testing, additional tests planned to extend the operational performance calibration cycle, and integration with the OGA system.

  5. Enzyme-based online monitoring and measurement of antioxidant activity using an optical oxygen sensor coupled to an HPLC system.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Michela; Nugroho Prasetyo, Endry; Koren, Klaus; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Murkovic, Michael; Klimant, Ingo; Guebitz, Georg M

    2013-03-01

    It is estimated that up to 50% of the adult population take antioxidant products on a daily basis to promote their health status. Strangely, despite the well-recognized importance of antioxidants, currently there is no international standard index for labeling owing to the lack of standardized methods for antioxidant measurement in complex products. Here, an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based method to detect and measure the total antioxidant capacity of antioxidant samples is presented. In this approach, complex samples containing antioxidants are separated by the HPLC system, which is further coupled to an antioxidant measuring system consisting of an optical oxygen sensor, laccase, and tetramethoxy azobismethylene quinone (TMAMQ). The antioxidants, separated via HPLC, reduce TMAMQ to syringaldazine, which is then reoxidized by laccase while simultaneously consuming O(2). The amount of consumed oxygen is directly proportional to the concentration of antioxidants and is measured by the optical oxygen sensor. The sensor is fabricated by coating a glass capillary with an oxygen-sensitive thin layer made of platinum(II) meso-tetra(4-fluorophenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin and polystyrene, which makes real-time analysis possible (t(90) = 1.1 s in solution). Four selected antioxidants (3 mM), namely, catechin, ferulic acid, naringenin (used as a control), and Trolox, representing flavonol, hydrocinnamic acid, flavanone, and vitamin E, respectively, were injected into the online antioxidant monitoring system, separated, and then mixed with the TMAMQ/laccase solution, which resulted in oxygen consumption. This study shows that, with the use of such a system, the antioxidant activity of individual antioxidant molecules in a sample and their contribution to the total antioxidant activity of the sample can be correctly assigned.

  6. Distribution theory approach to implementing directional acoustic sensors.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Dean J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of directional acoustic sensors is to provide high directivity while occupying a small amount of space. An idealized point sensor achieves this objective from a knowledge of the spatial partial derivatives of acoustic pressure at a point in space. Direct measurement of these derivatives is difficult in practice. Consequently, it is expedient to come up with indirect methods. The use of pressure sensors to construct finite-difference approximations is an example of such a method. This paper utilizes the theory of distributions to derive another indirect method for estimating the various spatial partial derivatives of the pressure. This alternate method is then used to construct a multichannel filter which processes the acoustic pressure by mean of three-dimensional integral transforms throughout a 6epsilon-length cube centered at the origin. The output of the multichannel filter is a spatially and temporally filtered version of the pressure at the origin. The temporal filter is a lowpass Gaussian filter whose bandwidth is inversely proportional to epsilon. Finally, the lattice method for numerical multiple integration is utilized to develop a discrete-spatial version of the multichannel filter.

  7. Advances in OLED-based oxygen sensors with structurally integrated OLED, sensor film, and thin-film Si photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Debju; Shinar, Ruth; Cai, Yuankun; Zhou, Zhaoqun; Dalal, Vikram L.; Shinar, Joseph

    2007-09-01

    Steps towards the improvement of a compact photoluminescence (PL)-based sensor array that is fully structurally integrated are described. The approach is demonstrated for oxygen sensing, which can be monitored via its effect on the PL intensity I or decay time τ of oxygen-sensitive dyes such as Pt octaethylporphryn (PtOEP) and its Pd analog (PdOEP). The integrated components include (1) an organic light emitting device (OLED) excitation source, which is an array of coumarin-doped tris(quinolinolate) Al (Alq 3) pixels, (2) the sensor film, i.e., PdOEP embedded in polystyrene, and (3) the photodetector (PD), which is a plasma-enhanced CVD-grown p-i-n or n-i-p structure, based on amorphous or nanocrystalline (Si,Ge):H. These components are fabricated on common or separate substrates that are attached back-to-back, resulting in sensors with a thickness largely determined by that of the substrates. The fully integrated oxygen sensor is demonstrated first by fabricating each of the three components on a separate substrate. The PD was placed in front of a flow cell containing the sensor film, while the OLED array was "behind" the sensor film. This design showed the expected trend in monitoring different concentration of O II via their effect on I, with improved detection sensitivity achieved by shielding the electromagnetic noise synchronous with the pulsed OLED. The detection sensitivity using the I monitoring mode is expected to further increase by reducing the OLED tail emission. The issue of the OLED background can be eliminated by monitoring the oxygen concentration via its effect on τ, where the OLED is pulsed and τ is measured while the OLED is off. Steps therefore focused also on shortening the response time of the PDs, and understanding the factors affecting their speed. Development of a sensor array, where the PD pixels are fabricated between the OLED pixels on the same side of a common substrate, is also discussed.

  8. Evaluation of the electro-optic direction sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. R.; Salomon, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of a no-moving-parts single-axis star tracker called an electro-optic direction sensor (EODS) concept is described and the results are given in detail. The work involved experimental evaluation of a breadboard sensor yielding results which would permit design of a prototype sensor for a specific application. The laboratory work included evaluation of the noise equivalent input angle of the sensor, demonstration of a technique for producing an acquisition signal, constraints on the useful field-of-view, and a qualitative evaluation of the effects of stray light. In addition, the potential of the silicon avalanche-type photodiode for this application was investigated. No benefit in noise figure was found, but the easily adjustable gain of the avalanche device was useful. The use of mechanical tuning of the modulating element to reduce voltage requirements was also explored. The predicted performance of EODS in both photomultiplier and solid state detector configurations was compared to an existing state-of-the-art star tracker.

  9. On Connectivity of Wireless Sensor Networks with Directional Antennas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu; Dai, Hong-Ning; Zheng, Zibin; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-01-12

    In this paper, we investigate the network connectivity of wireless sensor networks with directional antennas. In particular, we establish a general framework to analyze the network connectivity while considering various antenna models and the channel randomness. Since existing directional antenna models have their pros and cons in the accuracy of reflecting realistic antennas and the computational complexity, we propose a new analytical directional antenna model called the iris model to balance the accuracy against the complexity. We conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the analytical framework. Our results show that our proposed analytical model on the network connectivity is accurate, and our iris antenna model can provide a better approximation to realistic directional antennas than other existing antenna models.

  10. On Connectivity of Wireless Sensor Networks with Directional Antennas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiu; Dai, Hong-Ning; Zheng, Zibin; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the network connectivity of wireless sensor networks with directional antennas. In particular, we establish a general framework to analyze the network connectivity while considering various antenna models and the channel randomness. Since existing directional antenna models have their pros and cons in the accuracy of reflecting realistic antennas and the computational complexity, we propose a new analytical directional antenna model called the iris model to balance the accuracy against the complexity. We conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the analytical framework. Our results show that our proposed analytical model on the network connectivity is accurate, and our iris antenna model can provide a better approximation to realistic directional antennas than other existing antenna models. PMID:28085081

  11. Methane-oxygen electrochemical coupling in an ionic liquid: a robust sensor for simultaneous quantification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Guo, Min; Baker, Gary A; Stetter, Joseph R; Lin, Lu; Mason, Andrew J; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2014-10-21

    Current sensor devices for the detection of methane or natural gas emission are either expensive and have high power requirements or fail to provide a rapid response. This report describes an electrochemical methane sensor utilizing a non-volatile and conductive pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte and an innovative internal standard method for methane and oxygen dual-gas detection with high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability. At a platinum electrode in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2)-based ILs, methane is electro-oxidized to produce CO2 and water when an oxygen reduction process is included. The in situ generated CO2 arising from methane oxidation was shown to provide an excellent internal standard for quantification of the electrochemical oxygen sensor signal. The simultaneous quantification of both methane and oxygen in real time strengthens the reliability of the measurements by cross-validation of two ambient gases occurring within a single sample matrix and allows for the elimination of several types of random and systematic errors in the detection. We have also validated this IL-based methane sensor employing both conventional solid macroelectrodes and flexible microfabricated electrodes using single- and double-potential step chronoamperometry.

  12. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon; Sabat, Grzegorz; Sussman, Michael R.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-11-15

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye that is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.

  13. Smart Capture Modules for Direct Sensor-to-FPGA Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Sánchez-Durán, José A.; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Hidalgo-López, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct sensor–digital device interfaces measure time dependent variables of simple circuits to implement analog-to-digital conversion. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are devices whose hardware can be reconfigured to work in parallel. They usually do not have analog-to-digital converters, but have many general purpose I/O pins. Therefore, direct sensor-FPGA connection is a good choice in complex systems with many sensors because several capture modules can be implemented to perform parallel analog data acquisition. The possibility to work in parallel and with high frequency clock signals improves the bandwidth compared to sequential devices such as conventional microcontrollers. The price to pay is usually the resolution of measurements. This paper proposes capture modules implemented in an FPGA which are able to perform smart acquisition that filter noise and achieve high precision. A calibration technique is also proposed to improve accuracy. Resolutions of 12 effective number of bits are obtained for the reading of resistors in the range of an example piezoresistive tactile sensor. PMID:26694403

  14. Probing oxidative stress: Small molecule fluorescent sensors of metal ions, reactive oxygen species, and thiols

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Lynne M.; Franz, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common feature shared by many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Factors that contribute to cellular oxidative stress include elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, diminished availability of detoxifying thiols, and the misregulation of metal ions (both redox-active iron and copper as well as non-redox active calcium and zinc). Deciphering how each of these components interacts to contribute to oxidative stress presents an interesting challenge. Fluorescent sensors can be powerful tools for detecting specific analytes within a complicated cellular environment. Reviewed here are several classes of small molecule fluorescent sensors designed to detect several molecular participants of oxidative stress. We focus our review on describing the design, function and application of probes to detect metal cations, reactive oxygen species, and intracellular thiol-containing compounds. In addition, we highlight the intricacies and complications that are often faced in sensor design and implementation. PMID:23440254

  15. An irradiation system for photodynamic therapy with a fiber-optic sensor for measuring tissue oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanar, L.; Fabila, D.; Stolik, S.; de la Rosa, J. M.

    2013-11-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a well known treatment based on the interaction of light of specific wavelength with a photosensitizing drug. In the presence of oxygen molecules, the illumination of the photosensitizer can activate the production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the death of target cells within the treated tissue. In order to obtain the best therapy response, the tissue oxygen concentration should be measured to adjust the therapy parameters before and during the treatment. In this work, an irradiation system for 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy is presented. It allows the application of visible light radiation of 630 nm using as a light source a high-brightness light emitting diode with an optical-power automatic control considering a light depth-distribution model. A module to measure the tissue oxygen saturation has been implemented into the system. It is based on two light emitting diodes of 660 nm and 940 nm as light sources, a photodiode as a detector and a new handheld fiber optic reflectance pulse oximetry sensor for estimating the blood oxygen saturation within the tissue. The pulse oximetry sensor was modeled through multilayered Monte Carlo simulations to study the behavior of the sensor with changes in skin thickness and melanin content.

  16. A Two-Axis Direct Fluid Shear Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, Edward E.; Scott, Michael A.; Bajikar, Sateesh S.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is a miniature or micro sized semiconductor sensor design that provides two axis direct non-intrusive measurement of skin friction or wall shear stress in fluid flow. The sensor is fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology, enabling small size and low cost reproductions. The sensors have been fabricated by utilizing MEMS fabrication processes to bond a sensing element wafer to a fluid coupling wafer. This layering technique provides for an out of plane dimension that is on the same order of length as the inplane dimensions. The sensor design has the following characteristics: a shear force collecting plate with dimensions that can be tailored to various application specific requirements such as spatial resolution, temporal resolution and shear force range and resolution. This plate is located coplanar to both the sensor body and flow boundary, and is connected to a dual axis gimbal structure by a connecting column or lever arm. The dual axis gimbal structure has torsional hinges with embedded piezoresistive torsional strain gauges which provide a voltage output that is correlated to the applied shear stress (and excitation current) on force collection plate that is located on the flow boundary surface (hence the transduction method). This combination of design elements create a force concentration and resolution structure that enables the generation of a large stress on the strain gauge from the small shear stress on the flow boundary wall. This design as well as the use of back side electrical contacts establishes a non-intrusive method to quantitatively measure the shear force vector on aerodynamic bodies.

  17. Magnetically remote-controlled optical sensor spheres for monitoring oxygen or pH.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, Günter; Koren, Klaus; Borisov, Sergey M; Klimant, Ingo

    2010-03-01

    Magnetic sensor macrospheres (MagSeMacs), i.e., stainless steel spheres coated with optical chemical sensors, are presented as an alternative to existing optical sensor patches and fiber-optical dip-probes. Such spheres can either be reversibly attached to the tip of an optical fiber (dip-probe) or trapped inside a vessel for read-out through the side wall. Moving the magnetic separator at the exterior enables measurements at varying positions with a single sensor. Moreover, the sensor's replacement is rapid and contactless. We measured dissolved oxygen or pH in stirred liquids, rotating flasks, and 24-well plates with a SensorDish-reader device for parallel cell culture monitoring. In these applications, MagSeMacs proved to be advantageous over conventional sensor patches and magnetic optical sensor particles because of their magnetism, spherical shape, reflectance, and size. These properties resulted in strong but reversible fixation, magnetic remote-controllability, short response times, high signal intensities, and simplified handling.

  18. Fiber optic oxygen sensor using fluorescence quenching for aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, Allen

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we explore Fluorescence Technology as applied to the design and development of O2 sensors that can be used for aerospace application and discuss the various test and measurement techniques used to estimate the O2 gas concentration. Jet fuel comprised of heavier hydrocarbon components is much less volatile, than jet fuel having a flash point of approximately 37° C and JP-4 having a flash point of approximately -17° C. In contrast, straight-run gasoline has a flash point of approximately -40°C. The flash point is the minimum temperature where a liquid fuel can generate enough vapor to form a flammable mixture with air. If the temperature is below the flash point there isn't enough fuel evaporating to form a flammable fuel-air mixture. Since jet fuel and gasoline have similar flammable concentration limits, gasoline must produce much more vapor at a given temperature to have such a low flash point; hence gasoline is much more volatile than jet fuel. We compare the various intensity based approaches and contrast them with the frequency domain techniques that measure phase to extract fluorescent lifetimes. An innovate compact measurement system using the frequency heterodyning cross correlation technique that can be used for various applications is described in detail while the benefits are explored together with some test data collected. The various inerting fuel tank requirements are explained.

  19. Maximum Constrained Directivity of Oversteered End-Fire Sensor Arrays.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Andrea; Traverso, Federico; Crocco, Marco

    2015-06-09

    For linear arrays with fixed steering and an inter-element spacing smaller than one half of the wavelength, end-fire steering of a data-independent beamformer offers better directivity than broadside steering. The introduction of a lower bound on the white noise gain ensures the necessary robustness against random array errors and sensor mismatches. However, the optimum broadside performance can be obtained using a simple processing architecture, whereas the optimum end-fire performance requires a more complicated system (because complex weight coefficients are needed). In this paper, we reconsider the oversteering technique as a possible way to simplify the processing architecture of equally spaced end-fire arrays. We propose a method for computing the amount of oversteering and the related real-valued weight vector that allows the constrained directivity to be maximized for a given inter-element spacing. Moreover, we verify that the maximized oversteering performance is very close to the optimum end-fire performance. We conclude that optimized oversteering is a viable method for designing end-fire arrays that have better constrained directivity than broadside arrays but with a similar implementation complexity. A numerical simulation is used to perform a statistical analysis, which confirms that the maximized oversteering performance is robust against sensor mismatches.

  20. A New Optical Oxygen Sensor Reveals Spatial and Temporal Variations of Dissolved Oxygen at Ecohydrological Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, T.; Schmidt, C.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Vieweg, M.; Harjung, A.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO) at highly reactive aquatic interfaces, e.g. in the hyporheic zone (HZ), is a primary indicator of redox and interlinked biogeochemical zonations. However, continuous measuring of DO over time and depths is challenging due to the dynamic and potentially heterogenic nature of the HZ. We further developed a novel technology for spatially continuous in situ vertical oxygen profiling based on optical sensing (Vieweg et al, 2013). Continuous vertical measurements to a depth of 50 cm are obtained by the motor-controlled insertion of a side-firing Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) into tubular DO probes. Our technology allows minimally invasive DO measurements without DO consumption at high spatial resolution in the mm range. The reduced size of the tubular probe (diameter 5 mm) substantially minimizes disturbance of flow conditions. We tested our technology in situ in the HZ of an intermittent stream during the drying period. Repeated DO measurements were taken over a total duration of six weeks at two locations up- and downstream of a pool-cascade sequence. We were able to precisely map the spatial DO distribution which exhibited sharp gradients and rapid temporal changes as a function of changing hydrologic conditions. Our new vertical oxygen sensing technology will help to provide new insights to the coupling of transport of DO and biogeochemical reactions at aquatic interfaces. Vieweg, M., Trauth, N., Fleckenstein, J. H., Schmidt, C. (2013): Robust Optode-Based Method for Measuring in Situ Oxygen Profiles in Gravelly Streambeds. Environmental Science & Technology. doi:10.1021/es401040w

  1. Response of electrochemical oxygen sensors to inert gas-air and carbon dioxide-air mixtures: measurements and mathematical modelling.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P T; Gant, S E; Dowker, K P; Batt, R

    2011-02-15

    Electrochemical oxygen gas sensors are widely used for monitoring the state of inertisation of flammable atmospheres and to warn of asphyxiation risks. It is well established but not widely known by users of such oxygen sensors that the response of the sensor is affected by the nature of the diluent gas responsible for the decrease in ambient oxygen concentration. The present work investigates the response of electrochemical sensors, with either acid or alkaline electrolytes, to gas mixtures comprising air with enhanced levels of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon or helium. The measurements indicate that both types of sensors over-read the oxygen concentrations when atmospheres contain high levels of helium. Sensors with alkaline electrolytes are also shown to underestimate the severity of the hazard in atmospheres containing high levels of carbon dioxide. This deviation is greater for alkaline electrolyte sensors compared to acid electrolyte sensors. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict the response of an alkaline electrolyte, electrochemical gas sensor. Differences between predicted and measured sensor responses are less than 10% in relative terms for nearly all of the gas mixtures tested, and in many cases less than 5%. Extending the model to simulate responses of sensors with acid electrolytes would be straightforward.

  2. Investigation of the electrode kinetics in a solid oxide fuel cell and an oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Rajesh

    This dissertation investigates the electrode kinetics in a solid oxide fuel cell and an oxygen sensor. The first chapter describes the basics of fuel cell and motivation behind the studies. The second chapter investigates the dependence of cathodic charge transfer reaction resistance (Rct), on three-phase boundary length (lTPB) at various temperatures and oxygen partial pressures ( pO2 ). Impedance spectra were obtained using three-electrode configuration on discs having cathodes with definite lTPB to investigate the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSM)-Y 0.16Zr0.84O2 (YSZ), platinum (Pt)-YSZ and La 0.8Sr0.2CoO3 (LSC)-Ce0.8Sm0.2 O2 (SDC) half cell reactions at temperatures between 650--800°C and pO2 between 10-3 to 1 atm. For LSM-YSZ and Pt-YSZ, 1/Rct varies linearly with lTPB. LSC-SDC system did not show any specific dependence between R ct and lTPB. The third chapter examines the use of an electrolyte supported cell with externally applied voltage to determine the single electrode overpotential and extending the parameters derived to that of an anode supported fuel cell having thin film electrolyte operating under a chemical potential gradient. Spatial distributions of the electrochemical potential of electrons (ϕ) and oxygen ions ( m˜O-2 ), and chemical potential of oxygen ( mO2 ) for these two cases were obtained. Under fuel cell operating conditions, ϕ, m˜O-2 and mO2 , decreases monotonically from higher value to lower value. For electrolyte supported cell under externally applied voltage mO2 does not vary monotonically; it reaches values above or below that of the boundary values, leading to development of internal electromotive forces (EMFs), which can in turn affect the activity of the interface. The fourth chapter describes design microfabrication and characterization of a series connected potentiometric oxygen sensor. A drawback of potentiometric sensors in general is that the output signal is low when the ratio of the partial pressures at the two electrodes is low

  3. A direction detective asymmetrical twin-core fiber curving sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Maowei; Geng, Tao; Yang, Wenlei; Zeng, Hongyi; Li, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPFGs), which can couple the core mode to the forward propagating cladding modes of a fiber and have the advantage of small additional loss, no backward reflection, small size, which is widely used in optical fiber sensors and optical communication systems. LPFG has different fabricating methods, in order to write gratings on the twin-core at the same time effectively, we specially choose electric heating fused taper system to fabricate asymmetric dual-core long period fiber grating, because this kind of method can guarantee the similarity of gratings on the twin cores and obtain good geometric parameters of LPFG, such as cycle, cone waist. Then we use bending test platform to conduct bending test for each of the core of twin-core asymmetric long period fiber grating. Experiments show that: the sensitivity of asymmetrical twin-core long period fiber grating's central core under bending is -5.47nm·m, while the sensitivity of asymmetric twin-core long period fiber grating partial core changed with the relative position of screw micrometer. The sensitivity at 0°, 30°, 90° direction is -4.22nm·m, -9.84nm·m, -11.44nm·m respectively. The experiment results strongly demonstrate the properties of rim sensing of asymmetrical twin-core fiber gratings which provides the possibility of simultaneously measuring the bending magnitude and direction and solving the problem of cross sensing when multi-parameter measuring. In other words, we can detect temperature and bend at the same time by this sensor. As our knowledge, it is the first time simultaneously measuring bend and temperature using this structure of fiber sensors.

  4. Development and Performance of the Oxygen Sensor in the CSA-CP Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    A combustion products analyzer (CPA) was built for use on Shuttle in response to several thermodegradation incidents that had occurred during early flights. The CPA contained sensors that measured carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, and hydrogen fluoride. These marker compounds, monitored by the CPA, were selected based upon the likely products to be released in a spacecraft fire. When the Toxicology Laboratory group at Johnson Space Center (JSC) began to assess the air quality monitoring needs for the International Space Station (ISS), the CPA was the starting point for design of an instrument to monitor the atmosphere following a thermodegradation event. The final product was significantly different from the CPA and was named the compound specific analyzer-combustion products (CSA-CP). The major change from the CPA that will be the focus of this paper was the replacement of an unreliable hydrogen fluoride (HF) sensor with an oxygen sensor. A reliable HF sensor was not commercially available, but as the toxicology group reviewed the overall monitoring strategy for ISS, it appeared that a portable oxygen sensor to backup the major constituent analyzer was needed. Therefore, an oxygen sensor replaced the HF sensor in the new instrument. This paper will describe the development, deployment, and performance of the CSA-CP oxygen sensor on both Shuttle and ISS. Also, data for CSA-CP oxygen sensor accuracy at nominal and reduced pressures will be presented.

  5. Ratiometric Dissolved Oxygen Sensors Based on Ruthenium Complex Doped with Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zike; Yu, Xinsheng; Zhai, Shikui; Hao, Yingyan

    2017-01-01

    A ratiometric optical sensor has been developed with electrospinning processing method for dissolved oxygen measurement. The sensing film is fabricated by using silver nano-particles (Ag NPs) doped with tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride complex (Ru(DPP)3Cl2) encapsulated in plasticized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). An insensitive 3-(2-benzothiazolyl)-7-(diethy lamino)-(6CI,7CI) (Coumarin6) is adopted as reference. The ratio of oxygenation is calculated at each image pixel of a 3CCD camera to quantify the oxygen concentration in aqueous environment. Compared to Ag-free film, the response time of Ag-containing films were improved from 1.5 s to 1.0 s upon switching from deoxygenated to air saturation and from 65 s to 45 s from air saturation to fully deoxygenated. The response times of the Ag-free film obtained by knifing was 2.0 s upon switching from deoxygenated to air saturation and 104 s from air saturation to fully deoxygenated. Results of the evaluation of accuracy, limit of detection, stability, and photostability are presented. An experiment measuring the spatiotemporal variation of oxygen distribution within the photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella vulgaris is demonstrated. It is shown that the nanofiber-based optical sensor film could serve as a promising method for rapid oxygen monitoring in aqueous applications. PMID:28282946

  6. Ratiometric Dissolved Oxygen Sensors Based on Ruthenium Complex Doped with Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zike; Yu, Xinsheng; Zhai, Shikui; Hao, Yingyan

    2017-03-09

    A ratiometric optical sensor has been developed with electrospinning processing method for dissolved oxygen measurement. The sensing film is fabricated by using silver nano-particles (Ag NPs) doped with tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride complex (Ru(DPP)₃Cl₂) encapsulated in plasticized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). An insensitive 3-(2-benzothiazolyl)-7-(diethy lamino)-(6CI,7CI) (Coumarin6) is adopted as reference. The ratio of oxygenation is calculated at each image pixel of a 3CCD camera to quantify the oxygen concentration in aqueous environment. Compared to Ag-free film, the response time of Ag-containing films were improved from 1.5 s to 1.0 s upon switching from deoxygenated to air saturation and from 65 s to 45 s from air saturation to fully deoxygenated. The response times of the Ag-free film obtained by knifing was 2.0 s upon switching from deoxygenated to air saturation and 104 s from air saturation to fully deoxygenated. Results of the evaluation of accuracy, limit of detection, stability, and photostability are presented. An experiment measuring the spatiotemporal variation of oxygen distribution within the photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella vulgaris is demonstrated. It is shown that the nanofiber-based optical sensor film could serve as a promising method for rapid oxygen monitoring in aqueous applications.

  7. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-05-17

    Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs' broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ~20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ0/τ100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O2/τ at 100% O2) that is often used to express S increases ×1.9 to 20.7 relative to the lower molecular weight PS, where this ratio is 11.0. This increase reduces to ×1.7 when the PEG is added (τ0/τ100=18.2), but the latter results in an increase ×2.7 in the PL intensity. The sensor's response time is <10s in all cases. The microporous structure of these blended films, with PEG decorating PS pores, serves a dual purpose. It results in light scattering that reduces the EL that is waveguided in the substrate of the OLEDs and

  8. Influence of colloidal silver nanoparticles on the novel flower-like titanium dioxide oxygen sensor performances.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, L; López-Suárez, A; Tiburcio-Silver, A

    2010-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2-anatase phase) thin films, consisting of agglomerated flower-like nanoparticles, have been synthesized using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method in combination with titanium (IV) oxide acetylacetonate [TiO(acac)2], and methanol at 550 degrees C. These thin films were subsequently thermally treated in air, at 950 degrees C for six hours, and the flower-like particles were transformed into smooth surfaces mainly formed by the TiO2-rutile phase. In order to prepare oxygen sensors of good performance, TiO2 thin films were deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes with contacted alumina substrates. The silver colloidal solution was impregnated on the TiO2 thin film. Since the solvent in which the silver nanoparticles are suspended evaporates at 200 degrees C, the thin films were then annealed at this temperature in air for one hour. The effect of colloidal silver nanoparticles on the response of the thin films TiO2 oxygen sensors has been studied, in a mixture with zero-grade air. The gas-sensing properties of TiO2 sensors in an atmosphere of 10(4) ppm of oxygen were measured between 25 and 500 degrees C. The experimental results obtained with colloidal silver nanoparticles as surface additive show that the sensitivity to an O2 concentration of 100 ppm in zero grade air at 300 degrees C reaches a stationary value of 0.40, and 0.03, for TiO2-anatase and -rutile phase films, respectively. This values are as high as those reported for oxygen sensors prepared by more expensive techniques.

  9. Oxygen in GaAs - Direct and indirect effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Skowronski, M.; Pawlowicz, L.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen has profound effects on the key electronic properties and point defects of GaAs crystals. Thus, when added in the growth system, it decreases the free electron concentration and enhances the concentration of deep donors in the resulting crystals. Both of these effects are highly beneficial for achieving semi-insulating material and have been utilized for that purpose. They have been attributed to the tendency of oxygen to getter silicon impurities during crystal growth. Only recently, it has been found that oxygen in GaAs introduces also a midgap level, ELO, with essentially the same activation energy as EL2 but with four times greater electron capture cross section. The present report reassesses the electrical and optical properties of the midgap levels in GaAs crystals grown by the horizontal Bridgman (HB) and the Czochralski-LEC techniques. Emphasis is placed on the identification of the specific effects of ELO.

  10. A flexoelectricity effect-based sensor for direct torque measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuwen; Xu, Minglong; Liu, Kaiyuan; Shen, Shengping

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a direct torque sensor based on the flexoelectricity generated by un-polarized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) via electromechanical coupling is developed as a novel torque measurement mechanism that does not require external electric power excitation. The sensing method is developed based on the shear strain gradient and the shear flexoelectric response of PVDF. A theoretical analysis is primarily presented for the design of the sensing structure. Then the structure of the PVDF sensing module is discussed and designed. The radius ratio of the sensing module is defined and then discussed according to the load, the strain gradient, the electrode area and the general electric charge output. The finite element method is used to analyze the mechanical properties of the designed PVDF sensing module. Then the theoretical sensitivity of the sensor is predicated as 0.9441 pC Nm-1. The experiment system setup is developed, and the sensing properties of the measurement mechanism are tested at frequencies of 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 1.5 Hz and 2 Hz using identical modules. The measurement range of the designed sensor is 0-1.68 Nm and the average sensitivity is measured as 0.8950 pC Nm-1. The experimental results agree well with the theoretically predicted results. These results prove that the torque sensing method based on un-polarized PVDF is suitable for measurement of dynamic torque loads with a flexoelectricity-based mechanism. When using this method, external electric power excitation of the sensing module is no longer required.

  11. An optical sensor for monitoring of dissolved oxygen based on phase detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhou, Na; Chen, Lingxin; Li, Bowei

    2013-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) monitoring is of vital importance to water treatment, sewage treatment, aquaculture and biological research. The traditional method for DO detection is an electrochemical method called the Clark electrode. This electrochemical method has been widely used as it is simple and inexpensive; however, the critical drawback for this kind of sensor is that it is easily affected by pH variations, and by the concentration of H2S and SO2. Optical sensing for DO detection is a newly developed technology, which can avoid most of the drawbacks of the electrochemical sensors. A DO sensor using fluorescence detection is described in this paper. The oxygen concentration measurement principle is based on optical phase detection, which is more precise than the traditional intensity detection method. Emission is carried out by a low-cost, specially designed light emitting diode (LED) source. To avoid an unwanted phase shift, a reference LED is used to improve the degree of accuracy. The sensing material for fluorescence is a ruthenium complex. A discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm was used for the phase calculation. The system was designed into a stainless steel probe, and dissolved oxygen concentration measurement results for various applications are presented in this paper.

  12. A Novel Thermal Sensor for the Sensitive Measurement of Chemical Oxygen Demand.

    PubMed

    Yao, Na; Liu, Zhuan; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Yikai; Xie, Bin

    2015-08-19

    A novel rapid methodology for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD) based on a thermal sensor with a flow injection analysis system was proposed and experimentally validated. The ability of this sensor to detect and monitor COD was based on the degree of enthalpy increase when sodium hypochlorite reacted with the organic content in water samples. The measurement results were correlated with COD and were compared against the conventional method using potassium dichromate. The assay required only 5-7 min rather than the 2 h required for evaluation by potassium dichromate. The linear range was 5-1000 mg/L COD, and the limit of detection was very low, 0.74 mg/L COD. Moreover, this method exhibited high tolerance to chloride ions; 0.015 mol/L chloride ions had no influence on the response. Finally, the sensor was used to detect the COD of different water samples; the results were verified by the standard dichromate method.

  13. Real time sensor for monitoring oxygen in radio-frequency plasma applications.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Vladimir; Faulkner, R; Hopkins, M B

    2007-10-17

    Real time closed loop control of plasma assisted semiconductor manufacturing processes has received significant attention in recent years. Therefore we have developed and tested a customized optical sensor based on buffer gas (argon) actinometry which has been used to determine relative densities of atomic and molecular oxygen in an Ar/O(2) radio-frequency ICP chamber. The operation and accuracy of our optical sensor compared favorably with a high resolution commercial spectrometer but at lower cost and exhibited improved actinometric performance over a low resolution commercial spectrometer. Furthermore, threshold tests have been performed on the validity of buffer gas based actinometry in Ar/O(2) ICP plasmas where Ar is no longer a trace gas through Xe actinometry. The plasma conditions for which this customized optical sensor can be used for closed loop control have been established.

  14. Net Community Production in the Southern Ocean Monitored with Nitrate and Oxygen Sensors on Profiling Floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Riser, S.; Swift, D.; Coletti, L.; Jannasch, H. W.; Plant, J.; Sakamoto, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Southern Ocean is the least observed ocean due to its remote location and severe weather. There are few areas visited regularly by ships and surface moorings are difficult to maintain. Profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors provide one mechanism to sustain long term observations in this region. Here we present results obtained from two Apex profiling floats equipped with In Situ Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ISUS) nitrate sensors and Aanderaa Optode oxygen sensors. Float 5146 operated for over three years near 55° South in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean. It made 230 vertical profiles at 5 day intervals from 1000 m to the surface with 60 nitrate and oxygen measurements on each profile before its batteries were exhausted near the Kerguelen Plateau. Nitrate reported by Float 5146 is shown in the figure. Float 5426 has operated over 2.5 years and made 190 vertical profiles to date. It was initially launched in the near 55° South, 80° West in the Pacific sector and then passed through the Drake Passage and is now near 45° South in the Atlantic sector. Each of these floats provides a unique perspective on changes in net community production along their trajectory. Data quality over the multi-year operating life of each float will first be assessed. Rates of biogeochemical processes that are diagnosed by combining sensor data with a 1-D mixed layer model will then be discussed.

  15. Calibrated BOLD using direct measurement of changes in venous oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Driver, Ian D; Hall, Emma L; Wharton, Samuel J; Pritchard, Susan E; Francis, Susan T; Gowland, Penny A

    2012-11-15

    Calibration of the BOLD signal is potentially of great value in providing a closer measure of the underlying changes in brain function related to neuronal activity than the BOLD signal alone, but current approaches rely on an assumed relationship between cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). This is poorly characterised in humans and does not reflect the predominantly venous nature of BOLD contrast, whilst this relationship may vary across brain regions and depend on the structure of the local vascular bed. This work demonstrates a new approach to BOLD calibration which does not require an assumption about the relationship between cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow. This method involves repeating the same stimulus both at normoxia and hyperoxia, using hyperoxic BOLD contrast to estimate the relative changes in venous blood oxygenation and venous CBV. To do this the effect of hyperoxia on venous blood oxygenation has to be calculated, which requires an estimate of basal oxygen extraction fraction, and this can be estimated from the phase as an alternative to using a literature estimate. Additional measurement of the relative change in CBF, combined with the blood oxygenation change can be used to calculate the relative change in CMRO(2) due to the stimulus. CMRO(2) changes of 18 ± 8% in response to a motor task were measured without requiring the assumption of a CBV/CBF coupling relationship, and are in agreement with previous approaches.

  16. Novel Wireless Sensor System for Monitoring Oxygen, Temperature and Respiration Rate of Horticultural Crops Post Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Edwards, Gareth; Green, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In order to design optimal packages, it is of pivotal importance to determine the rate at which harvested fresh fruits and vegetables consume oxygen. The respiration rate of oxygen (RRO2) is determined by measuring the consumed oxygen per hour per kg plant material, and the rate is highly influenced by temperature and gas composition. Traditionally, RRO2 has been determined at discrete time intervals. In this study, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) were used to determine RRO2 continuously in plant material (fresh cut broccoli florets) at 5 °C, 10 °C and 20 °C and at modified gas compositions (decreasing oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide levels). Furthermore, the WSN enabled concomitant determination of oxygen and temperature in the very close vicinity of the plant material. This information proved a very close relationship between changes in temperature and respiration rate. The applied WSNs were unable to determine oxygen levels lower than 5% and carbon dioxide was not determined. Despite these drawbacks in relation to respiration analysis, the WSNs offer a new possibility to do continuous measurement of RRO2 in post harvest research, thereby investigating the close relation between temperature and RRO2. The conclusions are that WSNs have the potential to be used as a monitor of RRO2 of plant material after harvest, during storage and packaging, thereby leading to optimized consumer products. PMID:22164085

  17. Real-time frequency-domain fiber optic sensor for intra-arterial blood oxygen measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcala, J. R.; Scott, Ian L.; Parker, Jennifer W.; Atwater, Beauford W.; Yu, Clement; Fischer, Russell; Bellingrath, K.

    1993-05-01

    A real time frequency domain phosphorimeter capable of measuring precise and accurate excited state lifetimes for determining oxygen is described. This frequency domain instrument does not make use of cross correlation techniques traditionally used in frequency domain fluorometers. Instead, the electrical signal from the detector is filtered to contain only the first several harmonics. This filtered signal is then sampled and averaged over a few thousand cycles. The absolute phase and absolute modulation of each sampled harmonic of the excitation and of the luminescence is computed by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio is then calculated at each harmonic frequency. A least squares fit is performed in the frequency domain to obtain the lifetimes of discrete exponentials. Oxygen concentrations are computed from these lifetimes. Prototypes based on these techniques were built employing commercially available components. Results from measurements in saline solution and in the arterial blood of dogs show that oxygen concentrations can be determined reproducibly. The system drift is less than 1% in over 100 hours of continuous operation. The performance of fiber optic sensors was evaluated in dogs over a period of 10 hours. The sensors tracked changes in arterial oxygen tension over the course of the experiment without instabilities. The overall response of the system was about 90 seconds. The update time was 3 seconds.

  18. Dynamic monitoring of blood oxygen saturation in vivo using double-ring photoacoustic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Guangzhi; Xing, Da; Yang, Sihua

    2009-07-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) can distinguish oxygenated main chromophores which are hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) in blood by the optical absorption at multiple optical wavelengths. In this study, a noninvasive PA system with a double-ring sensor was used for fixed-point measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) continually. The double-ring sensor is an ultrasonic Fresnel zone plate ultrasonic transducer. It has two-zone negative zone plate piezoelectric material pattern with good focusing effect for fixed-point detection of SO2. Three specific optical absorbed wavelengths (760, 805, and 850 nm) of HbO2 and Hb were employed sequentially to obtain PA signals and calculate the SO2 at each blood oxygen level. The capability and accuracy of the system were tested by phantom samples and in vitro blood samples, and the results of the PA detection were in excellent agreement with the data of the control group by the blood-gas analyzer. In in vivo studies, the SO2 of the artery and the vein in a rabbit ear were noninvasively detected. Furthermore, changes in the SO2 from normal to hypoxia and to hyperoxia due to the changed inhale gas were dynamically recorded by the PA system. The experimental results demonstrate that this PA SO2 measurement system has the potential for fixed-point detection and dynamic monitoring of blood oxygen saturation.

  19. A novel Multi-Fiber Optode sensor system (MuFO) for monitoring oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, K.; Fischer, J.; Wenzhöfer, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the marine environment, dissolved oxygen concentrations often vary significantly spatially as well as temporally. Monitoring these variations is essential for our understanding of the biological and chemical processes controlling the oxygen dynamics in water columns and sediments. Such investigations require a high number of measuring points and a high temporal resolution. A Multi-Fiber Optode sensor system (MuFO) was designed to assess these requirements. The MuFO system simultaneously controls 100 fiber optodes enabling continuous monitoring of oxygen in 100 positions within a 5-10m radius. The measurements are based on quenching of an oxygen sensitive luminophore, which is immobilised at the end of each fiber optode. The optical oxygen measurements are based on lifetime-imaging, which are converted into oxygen concentrations using a multipoint calibration. At a constant temperature of 21C, the system overall had a mean accuracy of 1.3%, a precision of 0.2% air saturation, the average 90% response time was 16 seconds and the detection limit was 0.1% air saturation. The MuFO set-up was build into a waterproof titanium casing for marine field applications. The system is battery-powered and has a maximum operational capacity of 15 hours for continuous measurements. The MuFO system was recently used for various research tasks in the marine environment: Mounted on a lander, the in situ MuFO system was used for investigations of oxygen dynamics in marine water columns placing the fiber optodes in a vertical line on a 7m high pole. For studies of oxygen dynamics in marine wetland rhizospheres, the sensing ends of the fiber optodes were covered with a 50cm protective sleeve made from stainless steel tubing, and the sensors were manually pushed into the rhizosphere. For laboratory measurements of sediment oxygen demand, the MuFO system was used to simultaneously monitor the oxygen consumption in multiple sediment slurry incubations. The MuFO system proved to be a

  20. Pyrene-Capped CdSe@ZnS Nanoparticles as Sensitive Flexible Oxygen Sensors in Non-Aqueous Media**

    PubMed Central

    González-Carrero, Soranyel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Galian, Raquel E; Pérez-Prieto, Julia

    2014-01-01

    A flexible, highly sensitive sensor of oxygen in non-aqueous solvents is described. It consists of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles decorated with a considerable number of pyrene units, thus making the formation of the pyrene excimer possible. The emission of the pyrene excimer and that of the nanoparticle are suitably separated from each other and also from the excitation wavelength. This sensor can be applied as a ratiometric oxygen sensor by using the linear response of the pyrene excimer lifetime combined with the linear response of the nanoparticle excited state lifetime. This nanohybrid has been assayed in seven media with different dielectric constants and viscosities over the whole oxygen concentration range. In addition, the sensor versatility provides an easy way for monitoring oxygen diffusion through systems. PMID:25478315

  1. A Scheduling Algorithm for Connected Target Coverage in Rotatable Directional Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Youn-Hee; Kim, Chan-Myung; Gil, Joon-Min

    A key challenge in developing energy-efficient sensor networks is to extend network lifetime in resource-limited environments. As sensors are often densely distributed, they can be scheduled on alternative duty cycles to conserve energy while satisfying the system requirements. Directional sensor networks composed of a large number of directional sensors equipped with a limited battery and with a limited angle of sensing have recently attracted attention. Many types of directional sensors can rotate to face a given direction. Maximizing network lifetime while covering all of the targets in a given area and forwarding sensor data to the sink is a challenge in developing such rotatable directional sensor networks. In this paper, we address the maximum directional cover tree (MDCT) problem of organizing directional sensors into a group of non-disjoint subsets to extend network lifetime. One subset, in which the directional sensors cover all of the targets and forward the data to the sink, is activated at a time, while the others sleep to conserve energy. For the MDCT problem, we first present an energy-consumption model that mainly takes into account the energy expenditure for sensor rotation as well as for the sensing and relaying of data. We also develop a heuristic scheduling algorithm called directional coverage and connectivity (DCC)-greedy to solve the MDCT problem. To verify and evaluate the algorithm, we conduct extensive simulations and show that it extends network lifetime to a reasonable degree.

  2. Electrochemical nanocomposite-derived sensor for the analysis of chemical oxygen demand in urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Baldi, Antoni; Gómez, Raquel; García, Virginia; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Fernández-Sánchez, César

    2015-02-17

    This work reports on the fabrication and comparative analytical assessment of electrochemical sensors applied to the rapid analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in urban waste waters. These devices incorporate a carbon nanotube-polystyrene composite, containing different inorganic electrocatalysts, namely, Ni, NiCu alloy, CoO, and CuO/AgO nanoparticles. The sensor responses were initially evaluated using glucose as standard analyte and then by analyzing a set of real samples from urban wastewater treatment plants. The estimated COD values in the samples were compared with those provided by an accredited laboratory using the standard dichromate method. The sensor prepared with the CuO/AgO-based nanocomposite showed the best analytical performance. The recorded COD values of both the sensor and the standard method were overlapped, considering the 95% confidence intervals. In order to show the feasible application of this approach for the detection of COD online and in continuous mode, the CuO/AgO-based nanocomposite sensor was integrated in a compact flow system and applied to the detection of wastewater samples, showing again a good agreement with the values provided by the dichromate method.

  3. A micro-thermoelectric gas sensor for detection of hydrogen and atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Chul; Yoon, Seung-Il; Lee, Chung-il; Kim, Yong-Jun; Song, Soonho

    2009-02-01

    This paper demonstrates the fabrication and performance of a micro-thermoelectric gas sensor for an effective and inexpensive gas analysis system. The proposed micro-thermoelectric gas sensor was fabricated by using a surface micromachining technique. The sensing mechanism, consisting of thermoelectric material and a novel metal catalyst, was fabricated on the highly thermally resistive layer for reduced heat transfer to the substrate allowing for a simple fabrication process. The micro-thermoelectric gas sensor detects target gas species by measuring the reaction heat of the catalytic reaction between the target gas and a novel metal catalyst using Cu-Bi thermopiles. The catalytic reaction occurs only on the hot junction of the sensing thermopile where the metal catalyst is deposited. In order to reduce the external thermal noise, a difference between the output voltage of the sensing and the reference thermopiles was measured by using a differential amplifier. The response of the fabricated sensor was linear to temperature difference. The fabricated sensor can be used to detect various concentrations of hydrogen and atomic oxygen, where the output voltage linearly increased with the gas concentration.

  4. Impact of lunar oxygen production on direct manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Roy M., Jr.; Tucker, William B.

    1992-01-01

    A manned Mars program made up of six missions is evaluated to determine the impact of using lunar liquid oxygen (LOX) as a propellant. Two departure and return nodes, low Earth orbit and low lunar orbit, are considered, as well as two return vehicle configurations, a full 70,000-kg vehicle and a 6800-kg capsule. The cost of lunar LOX delivered to orbit is expressed as a ratio of Earth launch cost.

  5. Fiber-optic dissolved oxygen and dissolved carbon dioxide sensors using fluorophores encapsulated in sol gel matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeog-Chan

    Fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for oxygen, dissolved oxygen (DO), and dissolved CO2 sensing using thin films of fluorophores encapsulated in sol-gel matrices were made and tested. The DO/O2 sensor used ruthenium(II) tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) perchlorate (Ru(Ph 2Phen)Cl2) as the oxygen sensitive fluorophore and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) sol-gel as the encapsulating matrix material. For the DCO2 sensor, 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS) co-doped with sodium bicarbonate was used as the DCO2 sensitive fluorophore-chemical system and diisobutoxy-alumino triethoxysilane (ASE) sol-gel was used as the encapsulating matrix material. It was found that oxygen quenches the excited state Ru(Ph2Phen)Cl 2 by diffusing through the MTMS matrix. Continuous excitation of Ru(Ph 2Phen)Cl2 during MTMS drying resulted in long, single exponential lifetimes of the metal complex and increased sensor sensitivity. When the sensor was field tested, it was found to have an excellent match compared to conventional titration method for determining dissolved oxygen concentrations and had fast response times. It was determined that this sensor measured the vapor pressure of oxygen rather than the absolute concentration of dissolved oxygen. For DCO2 sensing, it was found that the dynamic response of the senor could be tuned by varying the HPTS to NaHCO3 ratios. The sensor had fast response times compared to other fiber optic DCO 2 sensors reported which typically have response times of minutes.

  6. Methods and Best Practice to Intercompare Dissolved Oxygen Sensors and Fluorometers/Turbidimeters for Oceanographic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Schiano, M. Elisabetta; Ntoumas, Manolis; Potiris, Emmanouil; Frangoulis, Constantin; Podaras, Dimitrios; Petihakis, George

    2016-01-01

    In European seas, ocean monitoring strategies in terms of key parameters, space and time scale vary widely for a range of technical and economic reasons. Nonetheless, the growing interest in the ocean interior promotes the investigation of processes such as oxygen consumption, primary productivity and ocean acidity requiring that close attention is paid to the instruments in terms of measurement setup, configuration, calibration, maintenance procedures and quality assessment. To this aim, two separate hardware and software tools were developed in order to test and simultaneously intercompare several oxygen probes and fluorometers/turbidimeters, respectively in the same environmental conditions, with a configuration as close as possible to real in-situ deployment. The chamber designed to perform chlorophyll-a and turbidity tests allowed for the simultaneous acquisition of analogue and digital signals of several sensors at the same time, so it was sufficiently compact to be used in both laboratory and onboard vessels. Methodologies and best practice committed to the intercomparison of dissolved oxygen sensors and fluorometers/turbidimeters have been used, which aid in the promotion of interoperability to access key infrastructures, such as ocean observatories and calibration facilities. Results from laboratory tests as well as field tests in the Mediterranean Sea are presented. PMID:27196908

  7. Net community production at Ocean Station Papa observed with nitrate and oxygen sensors on profiling floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, Joshua N.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Jannasch, Hans W.; Coletti, Luke J.; Riser, Stephen C.; Swift, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    Six profiling floats equipped with nitrate and oxygen sensors were deployed at Ocean Station P in the Gulf of Alaska. The resulting six calendar years and 10 float years of nitrate and oxygen data were used to determine an average annual cycle for net community production (NCP) in the top 35 m of the water column. NCP became positive in February as soon as the mixing activity in the surface layer began to weaken, but nearly 3 months before the traditionally defined mixed layer began to shoal from its winter time maximum. NCP displayed two maxima, one toward the end of May and another in August with a summertime minimum in June corresponding to the historical peak in mesozooplankton biomass. The average annual NCP was determined to be 1.5 ± 0.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 using nitrate and 1.5 ± 0.7 mol C m-2 yr-1 using oxygen. The results from oxygen data proved to be quite sensitive to the gas exchange model used as well as the accuracy of the oxygen measurement. Gas exchange models optimized for carbon dioxide flux generally ignore transport due to gas exchange through the injection of bubbles, and these models yield NCP values that are two to three time higher than the nitrate-based estimates. If nitrate and oxygen NCP rates are assumed to be related by the Redfield model, we show that the oxygen gas exchange model can be optimized by tuning the exchange terms to reproduce the nitrate NCP annual cycle.

  8. Microfabricated Collector-Generator Electrode Sensor for Measuring Absolute pH and Oxygen Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Adam K; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S

    2015-10-20

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has attracted attention for studying in vivo neurotransmission due to its subsecond temporal resolution, selectivity, and sensitivity. Traditional FSCV measurements use background subtraction to isolate changes in the local electrochemical environment, providing detailed information on fluctuations in the concentration of electroactive species. This background subtraction removes information about constant or slowly changing concentrations. However, determination of background concentrations is still important for understanding functioning brain tissue. For example, neural activity is known to consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide which affects local levels of oxygen and pH. Here, we present a microfabricated microelectrode array which uses FSCV to detect the absolute levels of oxygen and pH in vitro. The sensor is a collector-generator electrode array with carbon microelectrodes spaced 5 μm apart. In this work, a periodic potential step is applied at the generator producing transient local changes in the electrochemical environment. The collector electrode continuously performs FSCV enabling these induced changes in concentration to be recorded with the sensitivity and selectivity of FSCV. A negative potential step applied at the generator produces a transient local pH shift at the collector. The generator-induced pH signal is detected using FSCV at the collector and correlated to absolute solution pH by postcalibration of the anodic peak position. In addition, in oxygenated solutions a negative potential step at the generator produces hydrogen peroxide by reducing oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is detected with FSCV at the collector electrode, and the magnitude of the oxidative peak is proportional to absolute oxygen concentrations. Oxygen interference on the pH signal is minimal and can be accounted for with a postcalibration.

  9. Intrinsic and metal-doped gallium oxide based high-temperature oxygen sensors for combustion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Ernesto Javier

    Currently, there is enormous interest in research, development and optimization of the combustion processes for energy harvesting. Recent statistical and economic analyses estimated that by improving the coal-based firing/combustion processes in the power plants, savings up to $450-500 million yearly can be achieved. Advanced sensors and controls capable of withstanding extreme environments such as high temperatures, highly corrosive atmospheres, and high pressures are critical to such efficiency enhancement and cost savings. For instance, optimization of the combustion processes in power generation systems can be achieved by sensing, monitoring and control of oxygen, which is a measure of the completeness of the process and can lead to enhanced efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. However, despite the fact that there exists a very high demand for advanced sensors, the existing technologies suffer from poor 'response and recovery times' and 'long-term stability.' Motivated by the aforementioned technological challenges, the present work was focused on high-temperature (≥700 °C) oxygen sensors for application in power generation systems. The objective of the present work is to investigate nanostructured gallium oxide (2O3) based sensors for oxygen sensing, where we propose to conduct in-depth exploration of the role of refractory metal (tungsten, W, in this case) doping into 2O 3 to enhance the sensitivity, selectivity, stability ("3S" criteria) and reliability of such sensors while keeping cost economical. Tungsten (W) doped gallium oxide (2O3) thin films were deposited via rf-magnetron co-sputtering of W-metal and Ga2O3-ceramic targets. Films were produced by varying the sputtering power applied to the W-target in order to achieve variable W content into 2O3 films while substrate temperature was kept constant at 500 °C. Chemical composition, chemical valence states, microstructure and crystal structure of as-grown and post-annealed W-doped 2O3

  10. WO₃/W nanopores sensor for chemical oxygen demand (COD) determination under visible light.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejin; Bai, Jing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Jianyong; Zhou, Baoxue

    2014-06-17

    A sensor of a WO3 nanopores electrode combined with a thin layer reactor was proposed to develop a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) determination method and solve the problem that the COD values are inaccurately determined by the standard method. The visible spectrum, e.g., 420 nm, could be used as light source in the sensor we developed, which represents a breakthrough by limiting of UV light source in the photoelectrocatalysis process. The operation conditions were optimized in this work, and the results showed that taking NaNO3 solution at the concentration of 2.5 mol·L(-1) as electrolyte under the light intensity of 214 μW·cm(-2) and applied bias of 2.5 V, the proposed method is accurate and well reproducible, even in a wide range of pH values. Furthermore, the COD values obtained by the WO3 sensor were fitted well with the theoretical COD value in the range of 3-60 mg·L(-1) with a limit value of 1 mg·L(-1), which reveals that the proposed sensor may be a practical device for monitoring and controlling surface water quality as well as slightly polluted water.

  11. WO3/W Nanopores Sensor for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Determination under Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuejin; Bai, Jing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Jianyong; Zhou, Baoxue

    2014-01-01

    A sensor of a WO3 nanopores electrode combined with a thin layer reactor was proposed to develop a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) determination method and solve the problem that the COD values are inaccurately determined by the standard method. The visible spectrum, e.g., 420 nm, could be used as light source in the sensor we developed, which represents a breakthrough by limiting of UV light source in the photoelectrocatalysis process. The operation conditions were optimized in this work, and the results showed that taking NaNO3 solution at the concentration of 2.5 mol·L−1 as electrolyte under the light intensity of 214 μW·cm−2 and applied bias of 2.5 V, the proposed method is accurate and well reproducible, even in a wide range of pH values. Furthermore, the COD values obtained by the WO3 sensor were fitted well with the theoretical COD value in the range of 3–60 mg·L−1 with a limit value of 1 mg·L−1, which reveals that the proposed sensor may be a practical device for monitoring and controlling surface water quality as well as slightly polluted water. PMID:24940868

  12. Feature Identification and Filtering for Engine Misfire Detection (EMD) Using Zirconia Oxygen Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, Muhammad Zaim Mohamed; Abu Bakar, Elmi; Fauzi Ismail, Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Vehicles as transportation are popular and mainly use among peoples around the world for various kind of purpose either personal or not. Over hundreds of year internal combustion engines widely used because of high efficiency and low maintenance compare to new technology which are using cells of battery. Nevertheless, emission cause of incomplete combustion such engine misfire normally occurs as well. For instances, some mechanical, sensors or actuators failure and environmental condition contribute to the engine misfire. The importance of engine misfire detection (EMD) is to ensure engine emissions not harmful to the environments and avoid damage of catalytic converter. By using low cost narrowband oxygen sensor to acquire air to fuel ratio (AFR) signal behavior under misfire condition and analyst by digital signal processing method using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) algorithm for Digital Butterworth Filter designation is discussed in this paper.

  13. Fast, Ultrasensitive Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species Using a Carbon Nanotube Based-Electrocatalytic Intracellular Sensor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a highly sensitive electrocatalytic sensor-cell construct that can electrochemically communicate with the internal environment of immune cells (e.g., macrophages) via the selective monitoring of a particular reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide. The sensor, which is based on vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with an osmium electrocatalyst, enabled the unprecedented detection of a local intracellular “pulse” of ROS on a short second time scale in response to bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide-LPS) stimulation. Our studies have shown that this initial pulse of ROS is dependent on NADPH oxidase (NOX) and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The results suggest that bacteria can induce a rapid intracellular pulse of ROS in macrophages that initiates the classical innate immune response of these cells to infection. PMID:26438964

  14. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    PubMed Central

    O’ Callaghan, Karen A.M.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  15. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    PubMed

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-06-20

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  16. Direct tissue oxygen monitoring by in vivo photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi; Morgounova, Ekaterina; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2014-03-01

    Tissue oxygen plays a critical role in maintaining tissue viability and in various diseases, including response to therapy. Images of oxygen distribution provide the history of tissue hypoxia and evidence of oxygen availability in the circulatory system. Currently available methods of direct measuring or imaging tissue oxygen all have significant limitations. Previously, we have reported a non-invasive in vivo imaging modality based on photoacoustic lifetime. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflects the spatial and temporal distribution of tissue oxygen. We have applied PALI on tumor hypoxia in small animals, and the hypoxic region imaged by PALI is consistent with the site of the tumor imaged by ultrasound. Here, we present two studies of applying PALI to monitor changes of tissue oxygen by modulations. The first study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hind limb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of muscle pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were observed by PALI tracking the same region. The second study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen the mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change of oxygen level with respect to both hyperbaric and hypobaric conditions. We expect this technique to be very attractive for a range of clinical applications in which tissue oxygen mapping would improve therapy decision making and treatment planning.

  17. Nanostructured Oxygen Sensor - Using Micelles to Incorporate a Hydrophobic Platinum Porphyrin

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fengyu; Alam, Ruhaniyah; Mei, Qian; Tian, Yanqing; Youngbull, Cody; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic platinum(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin (PtTFPP) was physically incorporated into micelles formed from poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) to enable the application of PtTFPP in aqueous solution. Micelles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show an average diameter of about 140 nm. PtTFPP showed higher quantum efficiency in micellar solution than in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dichloromethane (CH2Cl2). PtTFPP in micelles also exhibited higher photostability than that of PtTFPP suspended in water. PtTFPP in micelles exhibited good oxygen sensitivity and response time. This study provided an efficient approach to enable the application of hydrophobic oxygen sensors in a biological environment. PMID:22457758

  18. Microbial nar-GFP cell sensors reveal oxygen limitations in highly agitated and aerated laboratory-scale fermentors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jose R; Cha, Hyung J; Rao, Govind; Marten, Mark R; Bentley, William E

    2009-01-01

    Background Small-scale microbial fermentations are often assumed to be homogeneous, and oxygen limitation due to inadequate micromixing is often overlooked as a potential problem. To assess the relative degree of micromixing, and hence propensity for oxygen limitation, a new cellular oxygen sensor has been developed. The oxygen responsive E. coli nitrate reductase (nar) promoter was used to construct an oxygen reporter plasmid (pNar-GFPuv) which allows cell-based reporting of oxygen limitation. Because there are greater than 109 cells in a fermentor, one can outfit a vessel with more than 109 sensors. Our concept was tested in high density, lab-scale (5 L), fed-batch, E. coli fermentations operated with varied mixing efficiency – one verses four impellers. Results In both cases, bioreactors were maintained identically at greater than 80% dissolved oxygen (DO) during batch phase and at approximately 20% DO during fed-batch phase. Trends for glucose consumption, biomass and DO showed nearly identical behavior. However, fermentations with only one impeller showed significantly higher GFPuv expression than those with four, indicating a higher degree of fluid segregation sufficient for cellular oxygen deprivation. As the characteristic time for GFPuv expression (approx 90 min.) is much larger than that for mixing (approx 10 s), increased specific fluorescence represents an averaged effect of oxygen limitation over time and by natural extension, over space. Conclusion Thus, the pNar-GFPuv plasmid enabled bioreactor-wide oxygen sensing in that bacterial cells served as individual recirculating sensors integrating their responses over space and time. We envision cell-based oxygen sensors may find utility in a wide variety of bioprocessing applications. PMID:19146688

  19. Laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors of oxygen dissolved in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, V. L.; Konovalov, B. V.; Mosharov, V. E.; Radchenko, V. N.; Khanaev, S. A.; Khlebnikov, D. V.

    2010-02-01

    The laboratory and marine study of photoluminescent sensors developed at the TsAGI has been conducted to create a highly sensitivity gauge of the oxygen dissolved in seawater. The advantages of the photoluminescent gauge over the electrochemical ones are the following: zero sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, the pH of the water, and the hydrogen sulphide and ions of heavy metals in the water; zero oxygen consumption; and no need for the water to be pumped through the device. A breadboard model of the photoluminescent gauge with LED excitation of the luminescence has been built. The laboratory tests of the model demonstrated the accuracy of the gauge to be as high as 0.05 ml/1 in air at a response time of 0.3 s for 63% relaxation. Comparative field tests of the breadboard model and the SBE 43 electrochemical oxygen gauge (Sea-Bird Electronics Corp.) have shown good agreement of the estimates of the oxygen content in the water and clarified the prospects of model’s performance improvement.

  20. Improving Blood Compatibility of Intravascular Oxygen Sensors Via Catalytic Decomposition of S-Nitrosothiols to Generate Nitric Oxide In Situ.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiduo; Rojas, Alvaro P; Griffith, Grant W; Skrzypchak, Amy M; Lafayette, Nathan; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2007-01-30

    Reliable, real-time, in vivo sensing (intravascular) of blood gases and electrolytes remains a difficult challenge owing to biocompatibility issues that occur when chemical sensors are implanted into the blood stream. Recently, local release of nitric oxide (NO) at the sensor/blood interface has been suggested as a potential solution to this problem. However, the lifetime of NO release from thin polymer films coated on implanted sensors is limited by the reservoir of NO donor loaded within the polymeric coating. To continuously produce NO at the sensor/blood interface, a novel approach to catalytically decompose endogenous S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) in blood to generate NO in situ is reported herein. Metallic copper particles of two different sizes (3 μm and 80 nm) are embedded as catalysts in thin polymer coatings on the surface intravascular electrochemical oxygen sensing catheters. Oxygen levels (partial pressure of oxygen; PO(2)) provided by the copper particle/polymer coated sensors are, on average, more accurate than values obtained from non-NO generating control sensors when both types of sensors are implanted in porcine arteries for 19-20 h. Upon termination of each in vivo study, catheters were explanted and examined for surface thrombosis via both visual image and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The results indicate that the Cu(0)-catalyst coatings significantly reduce the occurrence of surface thrombosis, likely from the ability to generate NO from endogenous RSNO species at the sensor/blood interface.

  1. Resistive oxygen sensor using ceria-zirconia sensor material and ceria-yttria temperature compensating material for lean-burn engine.

    PubMed

    Izu, Noriya; Nishizaki, Sayaka; Shin, Woosuck; Itoh, Toshio; Nishibori, Maiko; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Temperature compensating materials were investigated for a resistive oxygen sensor using Ce(0.9)Zr(0.1)O(2) as a sensor material for lean-burn engines. The temperature dependence of a temperature compensating material should be the same as the sensor material; therefore, the Y concentration in CeO(2)-Y(2)O(3) was optimized. The resistance of Ce(0.5)Y(0.5)O(2-δ) was independent of the air-to-fuel ratio (oxygen partial pressure), so that it was confirmed to function as a temperature compensating material. Sensor elements comprised of Ce(0.9)Zr(0.1)O(2) and Ce(0.5)Y(0.5)O(2-δ) were fabricated and the output was determined to be approximately independent of the temperature in the wide range from 773 to 1,073 K.

  2. Performance of an electrochemical COD (chemical oxygen demand) sensor with an electrode-surface grinding unit.

    PubMed

    Geun Jeong, Bong; Min Yoon, Seok; Ho Choi, Chang; Koang Kwon, Kil; Sik Hyun, Moon; Heui Yi, Dong; Soo Park, Hyung; Kim, Mia; Joo Kim, Hyung

    2007-12-01

    An electrochemical COD (chemical oxygen demand) sensor using an electrode-surface grinding unit was investigated. The electrolyzing (oxidizing) action of copper on an organic species was used as the basis of the COD measuring sensor. Using a simple three-electrode cell and a surface grinding unit, the organic species is activated by the catalytic action of copper and oxidized at a working electrode, poised at a positive potential. When synthetic wastewater was fed into the system, the measured Coulombic yields were found to be dependent on the COD of the synthetic wastewater. A linear correlation between the Coulombic yields and the COD of the synthetic wastewater was established (10-1000 mg L(-1)) when the electrode-surface grinding procedure was activated briefly at 8 h intervals. When various kinds of wastewater samples obtained from various sewage treatment plants were measured, linear correlations (r(2)> or = 0.92) between the measured EOD (electrochemical oxygen demand) value and COD of the samples were observed. At a practical wastewater treatment plant, the measurement system was successfully operated with high accuracy and good stability over 3 months. These experimental results show that the application of the measurement system would be a rapid and practical method for the determination of COD in water industries.

  3. Hypoxia. 1. Intracellular sensors for oxygen and oxidative stress: novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Toshio; Takizawa, Shunya; van Ypersele de Strihou, Charles

    2011-02-01

    A variety of human disorders, e.g., ischemic heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, eventually share the deleterious consequences of a common, hypoxic and oxidative stress pathway. In this review, we utilize recent information on the cellular defense mechanisms against hypoxia and oxidative stress with the hope to propose new therapeutic tools. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a key player as it activates a broad range of genes protecting cells against hypoxia. Its level is determined by its degradation rate by intracellular oxygen sensors prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). There are three different PHD isoforms (PHD1-3). Small molecule PHD inhibitors improve hypoxic injury in experimental animals but, unfortunately, may induce adverse effects associated with PHD2 inhibition, e.g., angiogenesis. As yet, no inhibitor specific for a distinct PHD isoform is currently available. Still, the specific disruption of the PHD1 gene is known to induce hypoxic tolerance, without angiogenesis and erythrocytosis, by reprogramming basal oxygen metabolism with an attendant decreased oxidative stress in hypoxic mitochondria. A specific PHD1 inhibitor might therefore offer a novel therapy against hypoxia. The nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the basal and inducible expression of numerous antioxidant stress genes. Disruption of its gene exacerbates oxidative tissue injury. Nrf2 activity is modulated by Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an intracellular sensor for oxidative stress. Inhibitors of Keap 1 may prove therapeutic against oxidative tissue injury.

  4. Optimizing source detector separation for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, T. J.; King, T. J.; Long, R.; Baba, J. S.; McShane, M. J.; Ericson, M. N.; Wilson, M. A.; Coté, G. L.

    2011-03-01

    Each year thousands of patients are added to the waiting list for liver transplants. The first 7-10 days after transplant have proven to be the most critical in patient recovery and it is hypothesized that monitoring organ vital signals in this period can increase patient and graft survival rates. An implantable sensor to monitor the organ perfusion and oxygenation signals following surgery is being developed by our group. The sensor operates based on measuring diffuse reflection from three light emitting diodes (735, 805 and 940 nm). In this work the optimal source detector spacing to maximize oxygenation signal level is investigated for a portal vein model. Monte Carlo simulations provided signal levels and corresponding penetration depths as a function of separation between a point optical source and detector. The modeling results indicated a rapid decay in the optical signal with increasing distance. Through further analysis, it was found that there exists an optimal range of point source to detector spacing, between roughly 1 and 2 mm, in which the blood signal from the simulated portal vein was maximized. Overall, these results are being used to guide the placement and configuration of our probe for in vivo animal studies.

  5. Using soil oxygen sensors to inform understanding of soil greenhouse gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarecke, K. M.; Loecke, T.; Burgin, A. J.; Franz, T. E.; Rubol, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hot spots and hot moments of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes can contribute significantly to overall GHG budgets. Hot spots and hot moments occur when dynamic soil hydrology triggers important shifts in soil biogeochemical and physical processes that control GHG emissions. Soil oxygen (O2), a direct control on biogenic GHG production (i.e., nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO2 and methane-CH4), may serve as both an important proxy for determining sudden shifts in subsurface biogenic GHG production, as well as the physical transport of soil GHG to the atmosphere. Recent technological advancements offer opportunities to link in-situ, near-continuous measurements of soil O2 concentration to soil biogeochemical processes and soil gas transport. Using high frequency data, this study asked: Do soil O2 dynamics correspond to changes in soil GHG concentrations and GHG surface fluxes? We addressed this question using precipitation event-based and weekly sampling (19 months in duration) data sets from a restored riparian wetland in Ohio, USA. During and after precipitation events, changes in subsurface (10 and 20 cm) CO2 and N2O concentrations were inversely related to short-term (< 48 h) changes in soil O2 concentrations. Subsurface CH4 concentrations changes during precipitation events, however, did not change in response to soil O2 dynamics. Changing subsurface GHG concentrations did not necessarily translate into altered surface (soil to atmosphere) GHG fluxes; soil O2 dynamics at 10 cm did not correspond with changes in surface N2O and CH4 fluxes. However, changes in soil O2 concentration at 10 cm had a significant positive linear relationship with change in surface CO2­ flux. We used a random forest approach to identify the soil sensor data (O2, temperature, moisture) which contribute the most to predicting weekly GHG fluxes. Our study suggests that monitoring near-continuous soil O2 concentration under dynamic soil hydrology may lead to greater understanding of GHG

  6. Optical PEBBLE nanosensors and fiber optic sensors for real-time intracellular imaging and analysis of magnesium and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Edwin J.

    A highly selective magnesium fluorescent optical nanosensor, made possible by PEBBLE (Probe Encapsulated By Biologically Localized Embedding) technology is presented. Ratiometric sensors were prepared, via a microemulsion polymerization process, by co-immobilizing a highly selective magnesium dye with a reference dye inside a polymer matrix. The resultant spherical sensors are ˜40 nm in diameter. Several dyes were investigated with coumarin 343 (C343) providing the best selectivity towards Mg2+ vs. ions such as Ca 2+, Na+, and K+. The dynamic range of the sensors was 1 to 30 mM (linear from 1 to 10 mM) with a response time of less than 4 s. The fully reversible sensors exhibit minimal leaching and photobleaching. In vitro intracellular changes in Mg2+ concentration were monitored in C6 Glioma cells. Preliminary experiments demonstrated the capability of these sensors thus they were used to investigate the PhoP/Q transmembrane protein system on the internal membrane of salmonella . The sensors were used to monitor the magnesium levels inside salmonella containing vacuoles. Previously believed hypotheses on changes in magnesium concentration are challenged with the newly obtained results. The selectivity for Mg2+ along with the biocompatibility of the matrix of these sensors provides a new and reliable tool for intracellular magnesium measurements. A second sensor platform was developed for the detection of intracellular dissolved oxygen, using a fiber optic probe. The design and fabrication of an oxygen fiber optic sensor based on the fluorescence quenching properties of the oxygen sensitive platinum (II) octaethylporphine ketone (PtOEPK) is presented. Octaethyl porphyrin (OEP) or bodipy maleimide 577/618, was also entrapped, as a reference dye, in a polyvinyl chloride matrix including the plasticizing agent bis 2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS). The multi mode fibers were pulled down to submicron dimensions and a dip coating procedure was used to apply the sensing

  7. Tuning the dynamic range and sensitivity of optical oxygen-sensors by employing differently substituted polystyrene-derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Klaus; Hutter, Lukas; Enko, Barbara; Pein, Andreas; Borisov, Sergey M.; Klimant, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Ten different polystyrene-derivatives were tested with respect to their potential use as matrix materials for optical oxygen sensors in combination with the platinum(II) meso-tetra(4-fluorophenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin as indicator dye. Either halogen atoms or bulky residues were introduced as substituents on the phenyl ring. A fine-tuning of the sensor sensitivity was achieved, without compromising solubility of the indicator in the matrix by providing a chemical environment very similar to polystyrene (PS), a standard matrix in optical oxygen sensors. To put the results into perspective, the studied materials were compared to PS regarding sensitivity of the sensor, molecular weight and glass-transition temperature. The materials promise to be viable alternatives to PS with respect to the requirements posed in various sensor application fields. Some of the polymers (e.g. poly(2,6-dichlorostyrene)) promise to be of use in applications requiring measurements from 0 to 100% oxygen due to linearity across this range. Poly(4-tert-butylstyrene) and poly(2,6-fluorostyrene), on the other hand, yield sensors with increased sensitivity. Sensor stability was evaluated as a function of the matrix, a topic which has not received a lot of interest so far. PMID:23576846

  8. Prediction of oxygen uptake dynamics by machine learning analysis of wearable sensors during activities of daily living

    PubMed Central

    Beltrame, T.; Amelard, R.; Wong, A.; Hughson, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, oxygen uptake () is the most precise means of investigating aerobic fitness and level of physical activity; however, can only be directly measured in supervised conditions. With the advancement of new wearable sensor technologies and data processing approaches, it is possible to accurately infer work rate and predict during activities of daily living (ADL). The main objective of this study was to develop and verify the methods required to predict and investigate the dynamics during ADL. The variables derived from the wearable sensors were used to create a predictor based on a random forest method. The temporal dynamics were assessed by the mean normalized gain amplitude (MNG) obtained from frequency domain analysis. The MNG provides a means to assess aerobic fitness. The predicted during ADL was strongly correlated (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) with the measured and the prediction bias was 0.2 ml·min−1·kg−1. The MNG calculated based on predicted was strongly correlated (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) with MNG calculated based on measured data. This new technology provides an important advance in ambulatory and continuous assessment of aerobic fitness with potential for future applications such as the early detection of deterioration of physical health. PMID:28378815

  9. Prediction of oxygen uptake dynamics by machine learning analysis of wearable sensors during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, T; Amelard, R; Wong, A; Hughson, R L

    2017-04-05

    Currently, oxygen uptake () is the most precise means of investigating aerobic fitness and level of physical activity; however, can only be directly measured in supervised conditions. With the advancement of new wearable sensor technologies and data processing approaches, it is possible to accurately infer work rate and predict during activities of daily living (ADL). The main objective of this study was to develop and verify the methods required to predict and investigate the dynamics during ADL. The variables derived from the wearable sensors were used to create a predictor based on a random forest method. The temporal dynamics were assessed by the mean normalized gain amplitude (MNG) obtained from frequency domain analysis. The MNG provides a means to assess aerobic fitness. The predicted during ADL was strongly correlated (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) with the measured and the prediction bias was 0.2 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1). The MNG calculated based on predicted was strongly correlated (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) with MNG calculated based on measured data. This new technology provides an important advance in ambulatory and continuous assessment of aerobic fitness with potential for future applications such as the early detection of deterioration of physical health.

  10. Broadband Field Directionally Mapping using Maneuverable Acoustic Sensor Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Maneuverable Acoustic Sensor Arrays David Smith Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Duke University, Box 90291 Durham, NC 27708 phone: (919) 660... acoustic arrays to resolve targets from interferers, and 2) improve the target detection, localization, and tracking performance of long arrays during tow...splines) EM algorithm. Both algorithms were run using a simulated 30 element acoustic vector sensor array with 900 snapshots. Attention has also

  11. Microplates with integrated oxygen sensors for kinetic cell respiration measurement and cytotoxicity testing in primary and secondary cell lines.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Rahul Ravi; Koch-Kirsch, Yvonne; Maas, Ruth; John, Gernot T; Krause, Christian; Heinzle, Elmar

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a cytotoxicity and cell respiration assay that is nondestructive and kinetic. It makes use of 96-well microplates integrated with oxygen sensors. The oxygen signal monitored on-line gives an indication of the cell viability. We show its application for suspension cell lines (Chinese hamster ovary and HL60 cells) as well as adherent (Caco2 cells) and primary (rat hepatocytes) cells using well-known cytotoxic compounds (sodium azide, diclofenac, clozapine, sodium dodecyl sulfate, 2-thiouracil, tamoxifen, and tranylcypromine). The 50% lethality concentration (LC50) obtained from the assay is compared with the standard 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide end-point assay. The cells can be grown directly in the plates, and the assay requires no further reagents or processing. The cells can be harvested for further analysis, if required. The on-line dynamic measurement allows the calculation of LC50 as a function of exposure time. LC50 was shown to decrease with time in HL60 cells. The dynamics of this process was considerably different for the three compounds sodium dodecyl sulfate, tamoxifen, and diclofenac, indicating a large potential of application of this method for cell death studies. The assay system can be applied to almost any cell-based systems with little adaptation. The assay is robust, flexible, and applicable for medium- to high-throughput systems requiring only minimal handling and no additional agent.

  12. SnO2-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors based oxygen sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, S.T.; Chung, Chi-Jung; Chen, Chin Ching; Lo, C. F.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermally grown SnO2 was integrated with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) sensor as the gate electrode for oxygen detection. The crystalline of the SnO2 was improved after annealing at 400 C. The grain growth kinetics of the SnO2 nanomaterials, together with the O2 gas sensing properties and sensing mechanism of the SnO2 gated HEMT sensors were investigated. Detection of 1% oxygen in nitrogen at 100 C was possible. A low operation temperature and low power consumption oxygen sensor can be achieved by combining the SnO2 films with the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure

  13. Distributed Sensor Nodes Charged by Mobile Charger with Directional Antenna and by Energy Trading for Balancing

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Celso; Myung, Sunghee; Lee, Sangkeum; Har, Dongsoo

    2017-01-01

    Provision of energy to wireless sensor networks is crucial for their sustainable operation. Sensor nodes are typically equipped with batteries as their operating energy sources. However, when the sensor nodes are sited in almost inaccessible locations, replacing their batteries incurs high maintenance cost. Under such conditions, wireless charging of sensor nodes by a mobile charger with an antenna can be an efficient solution. When charging distributed sensor nodes, a directional antenna, rather than an omnidirectional antenna, is more energy-efficient because of smaller proportion of off-target radiation. In addition, for densely distributed sensor nodes, it can be more effective for some undercharged sensor nodes to harvest energy from neighboring overcharged sensor nodes than from the remote mobile charger, because this reduces the pathloss of charging signal due to smaller distances. In this paper, we propose a hybrid charging scheme that combines charging by a mobile charger with a directional antenna, and energy trading, e.g., transferring and harvesting, between neighboring sensor nodes. The proposed scheme is compared with other charging scheme. Simulations demonstrate that the hybrid charging scheme with a directional antenna achieves a significant reduction in the total charging time required for all sensor nodes to reach a target energy level. PMID:28075372

  14. Distributed Sensor Nodes Charged by Mobile Charger with Directional Antenna and by Energy Trading for Balancing.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Celso; Myung, Sunghee; Lee, Sangkeum; Har, Dongsoo

    2017-01-10

    Provision of energy to wireless sensor networks is crucial for their sustainable operation. Sensor nodes are typically equipped with batteries as their operating energy sources. However, when the sensor nodes are sited in almost inaccessible locations, replacing their batteries incurs high maintenance cost. Under such conditions, wireless charging of sensor nodes by a mobile charger with an antenna can be an efficient solution. When charging distributed sensor nodes, a directional antenna, rather than an omnidirectional antenna, is more energy-efficient because of smaller proportion of off-target radiation. In addition, for densely distributed sensor nodes, it can be more effective for some undercharged sensor nodes to harvest energy from neighboring overcharged sensor nodes than from the remote mobile charger, because this reduces the pathloss of charging signal due to smaller distances. In this paper, we propose a hybrid charging scheme that combines charging by a mobile charger with a directional antenna, and energy trading, e.g., transferring and harvesting, between neighboring sensor nodes. The proposed scheme is compared with other charging scheme. Simulations demonstrate that the hybrid charging scheme with a directional antenna achieves a significant reduction in the total charging time required for all sensor nodes to reach a target energy level.

  15. Subpicosecond oxygen trapping in the heme pocket of the oxygen sensor FixL observed by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kruglik, Sergei G; Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Yamashita, Taku; Liebl, Ursula; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H

    2007-05-01

    Dissociation of oxygen from the heme domain of the bacterial oxygen sensor protein FixL constitutes the first step in hypoxia-induced signaling. In the present study, the photodissociation of the heme-O2 bond was used to synchronize this event, and time-resolved resonance Raman (TR(3)) spectroscopy with subpicosecond time resolution was implemented to characterize the heme configuration of the primary photoproduct. TR(3) measurements on heme-oxycomplexes are highly challenging and have not yet been reported. Whereas in all other known six-coordinated heme protein complexes with diatomic ligands, including the oxymyoglobin reported here, heme iron out-of-plane motion (doming) occurs faster than 1 ps after iron-ligand bond breaking; surprisingly, no sizeable doming is observed in the oxycomplex of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum FixL sensor domain (FixLH). This assessment is deduced from the absence of the iron-histidine band around 217 cm(-1) as early as 0.5 ps. We suggest that efficient ultrafast oxygen rebinding to the heme occurs on the femtosecond time scale, thus hindering heme doming. Comparing WT oxy-FixLH, mutant proteins FixLH-R220H and FixLH-R220Q, the respective carbonmonoxy-complexes, and oxymyoglobin, we show that a hydrogen bond of the terminal oxygen atom with the residue in position 220 is responsible for the observed behavior; in WT FixL this residue is arginine, crucially implicated in signal transmission. We propose that the rigid O2 configuration imposed by this residue, in combination with the hydrophobic and constrained properties of the distal cavity, keep dissociated oxygen in place. These results uncover the origin of the "oxygen cage" properties of this oxygen sensor protein.

  16. Proceedings of the Workshop on Directional Acoustic Sensors Held in Newport, Rhode Island on 17-18 April 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-18

    Corporation EDO Directional Acoustic Sensor Technology Dr. Bruce Abraham, Anteon Corporation Directional Hydrophones in Towed System 01... EDO Directional Acoustic Sensor Technology P. David Baird Systems Engineering Department EDO Electro-Ceramics Products...Salt Lake City, Utah 84115 1 EDO Directional Acoustic Sensor Technology P. David Baird Systems Engineering Department EDO Electro

  17. Studies of Hematopoietic Cell Differentiation with a Ratiometric and Reversible Sensor of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amandeep; Jankowska, Karolina; Pilgrim, Chelsea; Fraser, Stuart T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Chronic elevations in cellular redox state are known to result in the onset of various pathological conditions, but transient increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are necessary for signal transduction and various physiological functions. There is a distinct lack of reversible fluorescent tools that can aid in studying and unraveling the roles of ROS/RNS in physiology and pathology by monitoring the variations in cellular ROS levels over time. In this work, we report the development of ratiometric fluorescent sensors that reversibly respond to changes in mitochondrial redox state. Results: Photophysical studies of the developed flavin–rhodamine redox sensors, flavin–rhodamine redox sensor 1 (FRR1) and flavin–rhodamine redox sensor 2 (FRR2), confirmed the reversible response of the probes upon reduction and re-oxidation over more than five cycles. The ratiometric output of FRR1 and FRR2 remained unaltered in the presence of other possible cellular interferants (metals and pH). Microscopy studies indicated clear mitochondrial localization of both probes, and FRR2 was shown to report the time-dependent increase of mitochondrial ROS levels after lipopolysaccharide stimulation in macrophages. Moreover, it was used to study the variations in mitochondrial redox state in mouse hematopoietic cells at different stages of embryonic development and maturation. Innovation: This study provides the first ratiometric and reversible probes for ROS, targeted to the mitochondria, which reveal variations in mitochondrial ROS levels at different stages of embryonic and adult blood cell production. Conclusions: Our results suggest that with their ratiometric and reversible outputs, FRR1 and FRR2 are valuable tools for the future study of oxidative stress and its implications in physiology and pathology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 667–679. PMID:26865422

  18. Direct measurements of in-stream nitrate uptake with automated high frequency sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Julia Vanessa; Hensley, Robert; Brase, Lisa; Borchardt, Dietrich; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Decades of nutrient studies have unveiled the importance of river networks in nutrient cycling. Still, direct methods to quantify instream removal in defined reaches have so far been limited to small streams. In rivers, where isotope tracer additions have been impracticable, uptake rates could only very rarely be measured and therefore have been mostly modelled by upscaling. Recently, the expanding availability of high resolution stream solute signals from automated sensors offers new possibilities for uptake kinetic studies. Cohen et al (2012) assessed assimilation and denitrification rates based on daily nitrate amplitudes and longitudinal concentration gradients in spring- fed chemostatic rivers. In higher order streams, overlapping of network, onsite and upstream signals require additional conceptual and methodological adaptation. Here we present a new combined longitudinal lagrangian and mass balance approach with continuous measurements of nitrate uptake rates in the German lowland river Weiße Elster, to our knowledge the first direct measurement of nitrate kinetics with continues high frequency sensors. We used 10 minutes time step NO3-N, pH, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and chlorophyl-a measurements and supplementing low frequency 15N isotope manual sampling. Longitudinal lagrangian measurements were conducted during day and night. Our data from two morphologically highly contrasting reaches indicate that local, seasonal or even day to day changes in uptake kinetics can be of several orders of magnitude and that the disregard of intermediate storage and dispersion can lead to high errors. The natural river reach revealed considerably higher N uptake than the channelized river reach. Furthermore, river bottom related N-uptake rates were in the same order than those found in agricultural head water streams. Besides depicting prospects and limits, we also provide important considerations for the set-up of measurement stations and for

  19. Pinhole cameras as sensors for atomic oxygen in orbit: Application to attitude determination of the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Images produced by pinhole cameras using film sensitive to atomic oxygen provide information on the ratio of spacecraft orbital velocity to the most probable thermal speed of oxygen atoms, provided the spacecraft orientation is maintained stable relative to the orbital direction. Alternatively, information on the spacecraft attitude relative to the orbital velocity can be obtained, provided that corrections are properly made for thermal spreading and a corotating atmosphere. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) orientation, uncorrected for a corotating atmosphere, was determined to be yawed 8.0 +/- 0.4 degrees from its nominal attitude, with an estimated +/- 0.35 degree oscillation in yaw. The integrated effect of inclined orbit and corotating atmosphere produces an apparent oscillation in the observed yaw direction, suggesting that the LDEF attitude measurement will indicate even better stability when corrected for a corotating atmosphere. The measured thermal spreading is consistent with major exposure occurring during high solar activity, which occurred late during the LDEF mission.

  20. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Current Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Almalkawi, Islam T.; Zapata, Manel Guerrero; Al-Karaki, Jamal N.; Morillo-Pozo, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) have emerged and shifted the focus from the typical scalar wireless sensor networks to networks with multimedia devices that are capable to retrieve video, audio, images, as well as scalar sensor data. WMSNs are able to deliver multimedia content due to the availability of inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones coupled with the significant progress in distributed signal processing and multimedia source coding techniques. In this paper, we outline the design challenges of WMSNs, give a comprehensive discussion of the proposed architectures, algorithms and protocols for the different layers of the communication protocol stack for WMSNs, and evaluate the existing WMSN hardware and testbeds. The paper will give the reader a clear view of the state of the art at all aspects of this research area, and shed the light on its main current challenges and future trends. We also hope it will foster discussions and new research ideas among its researchers. PMID:22163571

  1. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood.

  2. Spectral dependence of the efficiency of direct optical excitation of molecular oxygen in tetrachloromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. M.; Kislyakov, I. M.; Bagrov, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    The spectral dependence of the efficiency of direct optical excitation of an oxygen molecule in tetrachloromethane using cw LED sources with different wavelengths and an optical parametric oscillator with single-shot output radiation (tuning range of 415-670 nm) has been studied by recording the phosphorescence of singlet oxygen at the O2(1Δg)-O2(3Σg) transition (λ = 1270 nm). The results show that single-shot irradiation of tetrachloromethane in the short-wavelength spectral range leads to efficient quenching of singlet- oxygen phosphorescence by the products of photolytic decomposition of solvent.

  3. Two-Axis Direct Fluid Shear Stress Sensor for Aerodynamic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajikar, Sateesh S.; Scott, Michael A.; Adcock, Edward E.

    2011-01-01

    This miniature or micro-sized semiconductor sensor design provides direct, nonintrusive measurement of skin friction or wall shear stress in fluid flow situations in a two-axis configuration. The sensor is fabricated by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology, enabling small size and multiple, low-cost reproductions. The sensors may be fabricated by bonding a sensing element wafer to a fluid-coupling element wafer. Using this layered machine structure provides a truly three-dimensional device.

  4. Characterization of a dissolved oxygen sensor made of plastic optical fiber coated with ruthenium-incorporated solgel

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Fenghong; Yang Junjie; Cai Haiwen; Qu Ronghui; Fang Zujie

    2009-01-10

    A dissolved oxygen sensor made of plastic optical fiber as the substrate and dichlorotris (1, 10-phenanthroline) ruthenium as a fluorescence indicator is studied. Oxygen quenching characteristics of both intensity and phase were measured; the obtained characteristics showed deviation from the linear relation described by the Stern-Volmer equation. A two-layer model is proposed to explain the deviation, and main parameters can be deduced with the model.

  5. Direct measurement of local dissolved oxygen concentration spatial profiles in a cell culture environment.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Yuki; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Controlling local dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in media is critical for cell or tissue cultures. Various biomaterials and culture methods have been developed to modulate DO. Direct measurement of local DO in cultures has not been validated as a method to test DO modulation. In the present study we developed a DO measurement system equipped with a Clark-type oxygen microelectrode manipulated with 1 μm precision in three-dimensional space to explore potential applications for tissue engineering. By determining the microelectrode tip position precisely against the bottom plane of culture dishes with rat or human cardiac cells in static monolayer culture, we successfully obtained spatial distributions of DO in the medium. Theoretical quantitative predictions fit the obtained data well. Based on analyses of the variance between samples, we found the data reflected "local" oxygen consumption in the vicinity of the microelectrode and the detection of temporal changes in oxygen consumption rates of cultured cells was limited by the diffusion rate of oxygen in the medium. This oxygen measuring system monitors local oxygen consumption and production with high spatial resolution, and can potentially be used with recently developed oxygen modulating biomaterials to design microenvironments and non-invasively monitor local DO dynamics during culture.

  6. Light-addressable amperometric electrodes for enzyme sensors based on direct quantum dot-electrode contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, M.; Göbel, G.; Parak, W. J.; Lisdat, F.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dots allow the generation of charge carriers upon illumination. When these particles are attached to an electrode a photocurrent can be generated. This allows their use as a light-switchable layer on the surface. The QDs can not only exchange electronics with the electrode, but can also interact with donor or acceptor compounds in solution providing access to the construction of signal chains starting from an analytic molecule. The magnitude and the direction of the photocurrent depend on several factors such as electrode polarization, solution pH and composition. These defined dependencies have been evaluated with respect to the combination of QD-electrodes with enzyme reactions for sensorial purpose. CdSe/ZnS-QD-modified electrodes can be used to follow enzymatic reactions in solution based on the oxygen sensitivity. In order to develop a photoelectrochemical biosensor, e.g. glucose oxidase is immobilized on the CdSe/ZnS-electrode. One immobilization strategy applies the layer-by-layer-technique of GOD and a polyelectrolyte. Photocurrent measurements of such a sensor show a clear concentration dependent behavior. The principle of combing QD oxidase. The sensitivity of quantum dot electrodes can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be demonstrated that direct electron transfer from excited quantum dots can be achieved with the redox protein cytochrome c. This allows the detection of the protein, but also interaction partners such as a enzymes or superoxide.

  7. An intracellular redox sensor for reactive oxygen species at the M3-M4 linker of GABAAρ1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán González, Andrea N; Gasulla, Javier; Calvo, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normally involved in cell oxidative stress but also play a role as cellular messengers in redox signalling; for example, modulating the activity of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. However, the direct actions of ROS on GABAA receptors were not previously demonstrated. In the present work, we studied the effects of ROS on GABAAρ1 receptor function. Experimental Approach GABAAρ1 receptors were expressed in oocytes and GABA-evoked responses electrophysiologically recorded in the presence or absence of ROS. Chemical protection of cysteines by selective sulfhydryl reagents and site-directed mutagenesis studies were used to identify protein residues involved in ROS actions. Key Results GABAAρ1 receptor-mediated responses were significantly enhanced in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner by H2O2. Potentiating effects were attenuated by a free radical scavenger, lipoic acid or an inhibitor of the Fenton reaction, deferoxamine. Each ρ1 subunit contains only three cysteine residues, two extracellular at the Cys-loop (C177 and C191) and one intracellular (C364) at the M3-M4 linker. Mutant GABAAρ1 receptors in which C364 was exchanged by alanine were completely insensitive to modulation, implying that this site, rather than a cysteine in the Cys-loop, is essential for ROS modulation. Conclusion and Implications Our results show that the function of GABAAρ1 receptors is enhanced by ROS and that the intracellular C364 is the sensor for ROS actions. PMID:24428763

  8. Two-axis direct fluid shear stress sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajikar, Sateesh (Inventor); Scott, Michael A. (Inventor); Adcock, Edward E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A micro sized multi-axis semiconductor skin friction/wall shear stress induced by fluid flow. The sensor design includes a shear/strain transduction gimble connected to a force collecting plate located at the flow boundary surface. The shear force collecting plate is interconnected by an arm to offset the tortional hinges from the fluid flow. The arm is connected to the shear force collecting plate through dual axis torsional hinges with piezoresistive torsional strain gauges. These gauges are disposed on the tortional hinges and provide a voltage output indicative of applied shear stress acting on the force collection plate proximate the flow boundary surface. Offsetting the torsional hinges creates a force concentration and resolution structure that enables the generation of a large stress on the strain gauge from small shear stress, or small displacement of the collecting plate. The design also isolates the torsional sensors from exposure to the fluid flow.

  9. Direct-write of sensor devices by a laser forward transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pique, Alberto; Weir, David W.; Wu, Peter K.; Pratap, Bhanu; Arnold, Craig B.; Ringeisen, Bradley R.; McGill, Robert A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Kant, Richard A.; Chrisey, Douglas B.

    2002-06-01

    The use of direct-write techniques in the design and manufacture of sensor devices provides a flexible approach for next generation commercial and defense sensor applications. Using a laser forward transfer technique, we have demonstrated the ability to rapidly prototype temperature, biological and chemical sensor devices. This process, known as matrix assissted pulsed laser evaporation direct-write or MAPLE-DW is compatible with a broad class of materials ranging form metals and electronic ceramics to chemoselective polymers and biomaterials. Various types of miniature sensor designs have been fabricated incorporating different materials such as metals, polymers, biomaterials or composites as multilayers or discrete structures on a single substrate. The MAPLE-DW process is computer controlled which allows the sensor design to be easily modified and adapted to any specific application. To illustrate the potential of this technique, a functional chemical sensor system is demonstrated by fabricating all the passive and sensor components by MAPLE-DW on a polyimide substrate. Additional devices fabricated by MAPLE DW including biosensors and temperature sensors and their performance are shown to illustrate the breadth of MAPLE DW and how this technique may influence current and future sensor applications.

  10. Nanosized TiO[subscript 2] for Photocatalytic Water Splitting Studied by Oxygen Sensor and Data Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ruinan; Liu, Song; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting by semiconductor photocatalysts has attracted considerable attention in the past few decades. In this experiment, nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO[subscript 2]) particles are used to photocatalytically split water, which is then monitored by an oxygen sensor. Sacrificial reagents such as organics (EDTA) and metal…

  11. Interferometric Attitude and Direction Sensor using GPS Carrier Phase Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dalla Torre, A.; Caporali, A.; Praticelli, N.; Facchinetti, C.

    We present a prototype attitude sensor based on Real Time GPS interferometry, suitable for navigation on the Earth surface or for platforms in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The sensor is designed to measure both the attitude angles and the change in length of the baselines between the antennas. Our breadboard consists of three NovAtel/CMC single frequency SmartAntennas with 5Hz sampling rate. The antennas form a baseline of 1m length with an intermediate antenna 0.2m far from one of the baseline end-sides. We have developed a real time software to log data from the receivers and to compute and interpret the phase differences between pairs of receivers. We demonstrated that the data processing from this antenna set, at each epoch, leads to the baseline orientation angles with r.m.s. (root mean square) repeatability of 0.3° for horizontal angles and of 0.5° for vertical angles. The precision of this result is limited mainly by multipath. The effect of multipath can be mitigated using a calibration signal optimised for the structures surrounding the GPS interferometric attitude sensor, if they maintain a fixed geometry with time.

  12. The effect of oxygenate molecular structure on soot production in direct-injection diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.; Pitz, William J.; Mueller, Charles J.; Martin, Glen M.; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2003-06-01

    A combined experimental and kinetic modeling study of soot formation in diesel engine combustion has been used to study the addition of oxygenated species to diesel fuel to reduce soot emissions. This work indicates that the primary role of oxygen atoms in the fuel mixture is to reduce the levels of carbon atoms available for soot formation by fixing them in the form of CO or COz. When the structure of the oxygenate leads to prompt and direct formation of CO2, the oxygenate is less effective in reducing soot production than in cases when all fuel-bound 0 atoms produce only CO. The kinetic and molecular structure principles leading to this conclusion are described.

  13. Laser-induced forward transfer direct-write of miniature sensor and microbattery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pique, Alberto; Arnold, Craig B.; Wartena, Ryan C.; Weir, David W.; Pratap, Bhanu; Swider-Lyons, Karen E.; Kant, Richard A.; Chrisey, Douglas B.

    2003-02-01

    Direct-Write techniques have the potential to revolutionize the way miniature sensor devices and microbattery systems are designed and fabricated. The Naval Research Laboratory has developed an advanced laser-based forward transfer process for direct writing novel structures and devices comprising of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites under ambient conditions on both ceramic and plastic substrates. Using this forward transfer technique, we have demonstrated the ability to rapidly prototype various types of physical and chemical sensor devices, and microbatteries. The laser forward transfer process is computer controlled which allows the design of the devices to be easily modified and adapted to any specific application. Furthermore, the same process enables the fabrication of complete sensor or power-source systems by incorporating the passive electronic components required for sensor readout or power management. Examples are provided of various types of miniature sensors, and prototype alkaline and Li-ion microbatteries fabricated using this technique.

  14. Modeling of a three-source perfusion and blood oxygenation sensor for transplant monitoring using multilayer Monte Carlo code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibey, Bennett L.; Lee, Seungjoon; Ericson, M. Nance; Wilson, Mark A.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2004-06-01

    A Multi-Layer Monte Carlo (MLMC) model was developed to predict the results of in vivo blood perfusion and oxygenation measurement of transplanted organs as measured by an indwelling optical sensor. A sensor has been developed which uses three-source excitation in the red and infrared ranges (660, 810, 940 nm). In vitro data was taken using this sensor by changing the oxygenation state of whole blood and passing it through a single-tube pump system wrapped in bovine liver tissue. The collected data showed that the red signal increased as blood oxygenation increased and infrared signal decreased. The center wavelength of 810 nanometers was shown to be quite indifferent to blood oxygenation change. A model was developed using MLMC code that sampled the wavelength range from 600-1000 nanometers every 6 nanometers. Using scattering and absorption data for blood and liver tissue within this wavelength range, a five-layer model was developed (tissue, clear tubing, blood, clear tubing, tissue). The theoretical data generated from this model was compared to the in vitro data and showed good correlation with changing blood oxygenation.

  15. Note: Direct sensor resistance-to-frequency conversion with generalized impedance converter.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Muñoz, D; Sánchez Moreno, J; Casans Berga, S; Navarro Antón, A E

    2010-12-01

    In this note a squared output signal is generated from an astable circuit. Its frequency has a linear dependence on the resistance value of a resistive temperature sensor. The main circuit to obtain this direct relationship is the generalized impedance converter configured as a capacitor controlled by a sensor resistance. The proposed measurement method allows a direct analog-to-digital interface of information involved in resistive sensors. The converter finds applications in portable low voltage and low power design of instrumentation electronic systems.

  16. A self-decoupling piezoresistive sensor for measuring microforce in horizontal and vertical directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Rong, Weibin; Wang, Lefeng; Gao, Peng; Sun, Lining

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and calibration of a novel two-dimension microforce sensor with nano-Newton resolution. The sensor, mainly composed of a clamped-clamped beam (horizontal detecting beam), an overhanging beam (vertical detecting beam) and a half-folded beam, is highly sensitive to microforces in the horizontal (parallel to the probe of the designed sensor) and vertical (perpendicular to the wafer surface) directions. The four vertical sidewall surface piezoresistors (horizontal piezoresistors) and two surface piezoresistors (vertical piezoresistors) were fabricated to achieve the requirements of two-dimension microforce measurements. Combining the sensor structure with Wheatstone bridge configurations, the microforce decoupling among the x, y, and z direction can be realized. Accordingly, the sensor is capable of detecting microforces in the horizontal and vertical directions independently. The calibration results verified that the sensor sensitivities at room temperature are 210.58 V N-1and 159.2 V N-1 in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Additionally, the sensor’s corresponding force resolutions are estimated at 2 nN and 3 nN in theory, respectively. The sensor can be used to measure the contact force between manipulating tools and micro-objects, in fields such as microassembly and biological assays.

  17. C. elegans Body Cavity Neurons Are Homeostatic Sensors that Integrate Fluctuations in Oxygen Availability and Internal Nutrient Reserves.

    PubMed

    Witham, Emily; Comunian, Claudio; Ratanpal, Harkaranveer; Skora, Susanne; Zimmer, Manuel; Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-02-23

    It is known that internal physiological state, or interoception, influences CNS function and behavior. However, the neurons and mechanisms that integrate sensory information with internal physiological state remain largely unknown. Here, we identify C. elegans body cavity neurons called URX(L/R) as central homeostatic sensors that integrate fluctuations in oxygen availability with internal metabolic state. We show that depletion of internal body fat reserves increases the tonic activity of URX neurons, which influences the magnitude of the evoked sensory response to oxygen. These responses are integrated via intracellular cGMP and Ca(2+). The extent of neuronal activity thus reflects the balance between the perception of oxygen and available fat reserves. The URX homeostatic sensor ensures that neural signals that stimulate fat loss are only deployed when there are sufficient fat reserves to do so. Our results uncover an interoceptive neuroendocrine axis that relays internal state information to the nervous system.

  18. Direction-sensitive smart monitoring of structures using heterogeneous smartphone sensor data and coordinate system transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Ekin; Feng, Maria Q.

    2017-04-01

    Mobile, heterogeneous, and smart sensor networks produce pervasive structural health monitoring (SHM) information. With various embedded sensors, smartphones have emerged to innovate SHM by empowering citizens to serve as sensors. By default, smartphones meet the fundamental smart sensor criteria, thanks to the built-in processor, memory, wireless communication units and mobile operating system. SHM using smartphones, however, faces technical challenges due to citizen-induced uncertainties, undesired sensor-structure integration, and lack of control over the sensing platform. Previously, the authors presented successful applications of smartphone accelerometers for structural vibration measurement and proposed a monitoring framework under citizen-induced spatiotemporal uncertainties. This study aims at extending the capabilities of smartphone-based SHM with a special focus on the lack of control over the sensor (i.e., the phone) positioning by citizens resulting in unknown sensor orientations. Using smartphone gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer; instantaneous sensor orientation can be obtained with respect to gravitational and magnetic north directions. Using these sensor data, mobile operating system frameworks return processed features such as attitude and heading that can be used to correct misaligned sensor signals. For this purpose, a coordinate transformation procedure is proposed and illustrated on a two-story laboratory structural model and real-scale bridges with various sensor positioning examples. The proposed method corrects the sensor signals by tracking their orientations and improves measurement accuracy. Moreover, knowing structure’s coordinate system a priori, even the data from arbitrarily positioned sensors can automatically be transformed to the structural coordinates. In addition, this paper also touches some secondary mobile and heterogeneous data issues including imperfect sampling and geolocation services. The coordinate system

  19. Direct Image-To Registration Using Mobile Sensor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehl, C.; Buckley, S. J.; Gawthorpe, R. L.; Viola, I.; Howell, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Adding supplementary texture and 2D image-based annotations to 3D surface models is a useful next step for domain specialists to make use of photorealistic products of laser scanning and photogrammetry. This requires a registration between the new camera imagery and the model geometry to be solved, which can be a time-consuming task without appropriate automation. The increasing availability of photorealistic models, coupled with the proliferation of mobile devices, gives users the possibility to complement their models in real time. Modern mobile devices deliver digital photographs of increasing quality, as well as on-board sensor data, which can be used as input for practical and automatic camera registration procedures. Their familiar user interface also improves manual registration procedures. This paper introduces a fully automatic pose estimation method using the on-board sensor data for initial exterior orientation, and feature matching between an acquired photograph and a synthesised rendering of the orientated 3D scene as input for fine alignment. The paper also introduces a user-friendly manual camera registration- and pose estimation interface for mobile devices, based on existing surface geometry and numerical optimisation methods. The article further assesses the automatic algorithm's accuracy compared to traditional methods, and the impact of computational- and environmental parameters. Experiments using urban and geological case studies show a significant sensitivity of the automatic procedure to the quality of the initial mobile sensor values. Changing natural lighting conditions remain a challenge for automatic pose estimation techniques, although progress is presented here. Finally, the automatically-registered mobile images are used as the basis for adding user annotations to the input textured model.

  20. Experimental investigation of the effect of polymer matrices on polymer fibre optic oxygen sensors and their time response characteristics using a vacuum testing chamber and a liquid flow apparatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; McPeak, Hanne; Obeid, Andrew N; Hahn, Clive; Farmery, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Very fast sensors that are able to track rapid changes in oxygen partial pressure (PO2) in the gas and liquid phases are increasingly required in scientific research - particularly in the life sciences. Recent interest in monitoring very fast changes in the PO2 of arterial blood in some respiratory failure conditions is one such example. Previous attempts to design fast intravascular electrochemical oxygen sensors for use in physiology and medicine have failed to meet the criteria that are now required in modern investigations. However, miniature photonic devices are capable of meeting this need. In this article, we present an inexpensive polymer type fibre-optic, oxygen sensor that is two orders of magnitude faster than conventional electrochemical oxygen sensors. It is constructed with biologically inert polymer materials and is both sufficiently small and robust for direct insertion in to a human artery. The sensors were tested and evaluated in both a gas testing chamber and in a flowing liquid test system. The results showed a very fast T90 response time, typically circa 20 ms when tested in the gas phase, and circa 100 ms in flowing liquid.

  1. Experimental investigation of the effect of polymer matrices on polymer fibre optic oxygen sensors and their time response characteristics using a vacuum testing chamber and a liquid flow apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; McPeak, Hanne; Obeid, Andrew N.; Hahn, Clive; Farmery, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Very fast sensors that are able to track rapid changes in oxygen partial pressure (PO2) in the gas and liquid phases are increasingly required in scientific research – particularly in the life sciences. Recent interest in monitoring very fast changes in the PO2 of arterial blood in some respiratory failure conditions is one such example. Previous attempts to design fast intravascular electrochemical oxygen sensors for use in physiology and medicine have failed to meet the criteria that are now required in modern investigations. However, miniature photonic devices are capable of meeting this need. In this article, we present an inexpensive polymer type fibre-optic, oxygen sensor that is two orders of magnitude faster than conventional electrochemical oxygen sensors. It is constructed with biologically inert polymer materials and is both sufficiently small and robust for direct insertion in to a human artery. The sensors were tested and evaluated in both a gas testing chamber and in a flowing liquid test system. The results showed a very fast T90 response time, typically circa 20 ms when tested in the gas phase, and circa 100 ms in flowing liquid. PMID:26726286

  2. High-content analysis of single cells directly assembled on CMOS sensor based on color imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Saeki, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-12-15

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor was applied to high-content analysis of single cells which were assembled closely or directly onto the CMOS sensor surface. The direct assembling of cell groups on CMOS sensor surface allows large-field (6.66 mm×5.32 mm in entire active area of CMOS sensor) imaging within a second. Trypan blue-stained and non-stained cells in the same field area on the CMOS sensor were successfully distinguished as white- and blue-colored images under white LED light irradiation. Furthermore, the chemiluminescent signals of each cell were successfully visualized as blue-colored images on CMOS sensor only when HeLa cells were placed directly on the micro-lens array of the CMOS sensor. Our proposed approach will be a promising technique for real-time and high-content analysis of single cells in a large-field area based on color imaging.

  3. Factors affecting the performance of a single-chamber microbial fuel cell-type biological oxygen demand sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gai-Xiu; Sun, Yong-Ming; Kong, Xiao-Ying; Zhen, Feng; Li, Ying; Li, Lian-Hua; Lei, Ting-Zhou; Yuan, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Guan-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to degrade organic matter or sludge present in wastewater (WW), and thereby generate electricity. We developed a simple, low-cost single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC)-type biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor using carbon felt (anode) and activated sludge, and demonstrated its feasibility in the construction of a real-time BOD measurement system. Further, the effects of anodic pH and organic concentration on SCMFC performance were examined, and the correlation between BOD concentration and its response time was analyzed. Our results demonstrated that the SCMFC exhibited a stable voltage after 132 min following the addition of synthetic WW (BOD concentration: 200 mg/L). Notably, the response signal increased with an increase in BOD concentration (range: 5-200 mg/L) and was found to be directly proportional to the substrate concentration. However, at higher BOD concentrations (>120 mg/L) the response signal remained unaltered. Furthermore, we optimized the SCMFC using synthetic WW, and tested it with real WW. Upon feeding real WW, the BOD values exhibited a standard deviation from 2.08 to 8.3% when compared to the standard BOD5 method, thus demonstrating the practical applicability of the developed system to real treatment effluents.

  4. Model based, sensor-directed remediation of underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.; Thunborg, S. )

    1990-06-01

    Sensor-rich, intelligent robots that function with respect to models of their environment have significant potential to reduce the time and cost for the cleanup of hazardous waste while increasing operator safety. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is performing technology development and experimental investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of cleaning up waste stored in underground tanks. The tasks addressed in the SNL experiments are in situ physical characterizations of underground storage tanks (USTs) as well as the contained waste and the removal of the waste from the tank both for laboratory analysis and as part of the tank cleanup process. Both fully automatic and manual robot control technologies are being developed and demonstrated. The SNL-developed concept of human-assisted computer control will be employed whenever manual control of the robot is required. The UST Robot Technology Development Laboratory (URTDL) consists of a commercial gantry robot modified to allow hybrid force/position control.

  5. Fast pesticide detection inside microfluidic device with integrated optical pH, oxygen sensors and algal fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Tahirbegi, Islam Bogachan; Ehgartner, Josef; Sulzer, Philipp; Zieger, Silvia; Kasjanow, Alice; Paradiso, Mirco; Strobl, Martin; Bouwes, Dominique; Mayr, Torsten

    2017-02-15

    The necessities of developing fast, portable, cheap and easy to handle pesticide detection platforms are getting attention of scientific and industrial communities. Although there are some approaches to develop microchip based pesticide detection platforms, there is no compact microfluidic device for the complementary, fast, cheap, reusable and reliable analysis of different pesticides. In this work, a microfluidic device is developed for in-situ analysis of pesticide concentration detected via metabolism/photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algal cells (algae) in tap water. Algae are grown in glass based microfluidic chip, which contains integrated optical pH and oxygen sensors in a portable system for on-site detection. In addition, intrinsic algal fluorescence is detected to analyze the pesticide concentration in parallel to pH and oxygen sensors with integrated fluorescence detectors. The response of the algae under the effect of different concentrations of pesticides is evaluated and complementary inhibition effects depending on the pesticide concentration are demonstrated. The three different sensors allow the determination of various pesticide concentrations in the nanomolar concentration range. The miniaturized system provides the fast quantification of pesticides in less than 10min and enables the study of toxic effects of different pesticides on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii green algae. Consequently, the microfluidic device described here provides fast and complementary detection of different pesticides with algae in a novel glass based microfluidic device with integrated optical pH, oxygen sensors and algal fluorescence.

  6. Advances in reflective oxygen saturation monitoring with a novel in-ear sensor system: results of a human hypoxia study.

    PubMed

    Venema, Boudewijn; Blanik, Nikolai; Blazek, Vladimir; Gehring, Hartmut; Opp, Alexander; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-07-01

    Pulse oximetry is a well-established, noninvasive photoplethysmographic method to monitor vital signs. It allows us to measure cardiovascular parameters, such as heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation, and is considered an essential monitoring tool in clinical routine. However, since many of the conventional systems work in transmission mode, they can only be applied to the thinner or peripheral parts of the body, such as a finger tip. This has the major disadvantage that, in case of shock-induced centralization and a resulting drop in perfusion, such systems cannot ensure valid measurements. Therefore, we developed a reflective in-ear sensor system that can be worn in the ear channel like a headphone. Because the sensor is integrated in an ear mold and positioned very close to the trunk, reliable measurement is expected even in case of centralization. An additional advantage is that the sensor is comfortable to wear and has considerable resistance to motion artifacts. In this paper, we report on hypoxia studies with ten healthy participants which were performed to analyze the system with regard to the detection of heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation. It was shown earlier that, due to the high signal quality, heart rate can easily be detected. Using the conventional calculation principle, based on Beer-Lambert's law combined with a single-point calibration method, we now demonstrate that the detection of arterial oxygen saturation in the human ear canal is possible using reflective saturation sensors.

  7. Flight calibration tests of a nose-boom-mounted fixed hemispherical flow-direction sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armistead, K. H.; Webb, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    Flight calibrations of a fixed hemispherical flow angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip sensor were made from Mach numbers of 0.5 to 1.8. Maneuvers were performed by an F-104 airplane at selected altitudes to compare the measurement of flow angle of attack from the fixed hemispherical sensor with that from a standard angle-of-attack vane. The hemispherical flow-direction sensor measured differential pressure at two angle-of-attack ports and two angle-of-sideslip ports in diametrically opposed positions. Stagnation pressure was measured at a center port. The results of these tests showed that the calibration curves for the hemispherical flow-direction sensor were linear for angles of attack up to 13 deg. The overall uncertainty in determining angle of attack from these curves was plus or minus 0.35 deg or less. A Mach number position error calibration curve was also obtained for the hemispherical flow-direction sensor. The hemispherical flow-direction sensor exhibited a much larger position error than a standard uncompensated pitot-static probe.

  8. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-04-07

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.

  9. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues. PMID:27070601

  10. Toward a Micro-Scale Acoustic Direction-Finding Sensor with Integrated Electronic Readout

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    1998. [4] A. C. Mason , M. L. Oshinsky, and R. R. Hoy, “Hyperacute directional hearing in a mi- croscale auditory system,” Nature, vol. 410, pp. 686...mechanical (MEMS) sound sensor,” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2012. [35] J. D. Roth , “Integration of a high sensitivity MEMS directional

  11. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirk, Aislinn H. C.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Sibille, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    When considering the construction of a lunar base, the high cost ($ 100,000 a kilogram) of transporting materials to the surface of the moon is a significant barrier. Therefore in-situ resource utilization will be a key component of any lunar mission. Oxygen gas is a key resource, abundant on earth and absent on the moon. If oxygen could be produced on the moon, this provides a dual benefit. Not only does it no longer need to be transported to the surface for breathing purposes; it can also be used as a fuel oxidizer to support transportation of crew and other materials more cheaply between the surface of the moon, and lower earth orbit (approximately $20,000/kg). To this end a stable, robust (lightly manned) system is required to produce oxygen from lunar resources. Herein, we investigate the feasibility of producing oxygen, which makes up almost half of the weight of the moon by direct electrolysis of the molten lunar regolith thus achieving the generation of usable oxygen gas while producing primarily iron and silicon at the cathode from the tightly bound oxides. The silicate mixture (with compositions and mechanical properties corresponding to that of lunar regolith) is melted at temperatures near 1600 C. With an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. The effect of anode material, sweep rate, and electrolyte composition on the electrochemical behavior was investigated and implications for scale-up are considered. The activity and stability of the candidate anode materials as well as the effect of the electrolyte composition were determined. Additionally, ex-situ capture and analysis of the anode gas to calculate the current efficiency under different voltages, currents and melt chemistries was carried out.

  12. Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS).

    PubMed

    Du, Yongming; Liu, Gefei; Yan, Yinxia; Huang, Dongyang; Luo, Wenhong; Martinkova, Marketa; Man, Petr; Shimizu, Toru

    2013-10-01

    The heme-based oxygen-sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS), is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound oxygen sensing domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Oxygen (O2) binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in Ec DOS substantially enhances catalysis. Addition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to the heme Fe(III) complex in Ec DOS also remarkably stimulates catalysis in part due to the heme Fe(III)-SH and heme Fe(II)-O2 complexes formed by H2S. In this study, we examined the roles of the heme distal amino acids, M95 (the axial ligand of the heme Fe(II) complex) and R97 (the O2 binding site in the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex) of the isolated heme-binding domain of Ec DOS (Ec DOS-PAS) in the binding of H2S under aerobic conditions. Interestingly, R97A and R97I mutant proteins formed an oxygen-incorporated modified heme, verdoheme, following addition of H2S combined with H2O2 generated by the reactions. Time-dependent mass spectroscopic data corroborated the findings. In contrast, H2S did not interact with the heme Fe(III) complex of M95H and R97E mutants. Thus, M95 and/or R97 on the heme distal side in Ec DOS-PAS significantly contribute to the interaction of H2S with the Fe(III) heme complex and also to the modification of the heme Fe(III) complex with reactive oxygen species. Importantly, mutations of the O2 binding site of the heme protein converted its function from oxygen sensor to that of a heme oxygenase. This study establishes the novel role of H2S in modifying the heme iron complex to form verdoheme with the aid of reactive oxygen species.

  13. DIRECT: Dynamic Key Renewal Using Secure Cluster Head Election in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gicheol; Song, Kang-Suk; Cho, Gihwan

    In modern sensor networks, key management is essential to transmit data from sensors to the sink securely. That is, sensors are likely to be compromised by attackers, and a key management scheme should renew the keys for communication as frequently as possible. In clustered sensor networks, CHs (Cluster Heads) tend to become targets of compromise attack because they collect data from sensors and deliver the aggregated data to the sink. However, existing key renewal schemes do not change the CH role nodes, and thus they are vulnerable to the compromise of CHs. Our scheme is called DIRECT (DynamIc key REnewal using Cluster head elecTion) because it materializes the dynamic key renewals through secure CH elections. In the scheme, the network is divided into sectors to separate CH elections in each sector from other sectors. Then, sensors establish pairwise keys with other sensors in their sector for intra-sector communication. Every CH election round, all sensors securely elect a CH in their sector by defeating the malicious actions of attackers. Therefore, the probability that a compromised node is elected as a CH decreases significantly. The simulation results show that our approach significantly improves the integrity of data, energy efficiency, and network longevity.

  14. Synthesis gas production through biomass direct chemical looping conversion with natural hematite as an oxygen carrier.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; He, Fang; Feng, Yipeng; Zhao, Kun; Zheng, Anqing; Chang, Sheng; Li, Haibin

    2013-07-01

    Biomass direct chemical looping (BDCL) conversion with natural hematite as an oxygen carrier was conducted in a fluidized bed reactor under argon atmosphere focusing on investigation the cyclic performance of oxygen carrier. The presence of oxygen carrier can evidently promote the biomass conversion. The gas yield and carbon conversion increased from 0.75 Nm(3)/kg and 62.23% of biomass pyrolysis to 1.06 Nm(3)/kg and 87.63% of BDCL, respectively. The components of the gas product in BDCL were close to those in biomass pyrolysis as the cyclic number increased. The gas yield and carbon conversion decreased from 1.06 Nm(3)/kg and 87.63% at 1st cycle to 0.93 Nm(3)/kg and 77.18% at 20th cycle, respectively, due to the attrition and structural changes of oxygen carrier. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the reduction extent of oxygen carrier increased with the cycles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and pore structural analysis displayed that agglomeration was observed with the cycles.

  15. Validation of Sensor-Directed Spatial Simulated Annealing Soil Sampling Strategy.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Elia; Lesch, Scott M; Corwin, Dennis L

    2016-07-01

    Soil spatial variability has a profound influence on most agronomic and environmental processes at field and landscape scales, including site-specific management, vadose zone hydrology and transport, and soil quality. Mobile sensors are a practical means of mapping spatial variability because their measurements serve as a proxy for many soil properties, provided a sensor-soil calibration is conducted. A viable means of calibrating sensor measurements over soil properties is through linear regression modeling of sensor and target property data. In the present study, two sensor-directed, model-based, sampling scheme delineation methods were compared to validate recent applications of soil apparent electrical conductivity (EC)-directed spatial simulated annealing against the more established EC-directed response surface sampling design (RSSD) approach. A 6.8-ha study area near San Jacinto, CA, was surveyed for EC, and 30 soil sampling locations per sampling strategy were selected. Spatial simulated annealing and RSSD were compared for sensor calibration to a target soil property (i.e., salinity) and for evenness of spatial coverage of the study area, which is beneficial for mapping nontarget soil properties (i.e., those not correlated with EC). The results indicate that the linear modeling EC-salinity calibrations obtained from the two sampling schemes provided salinity maps characterized by similar errors. The maps of nontarget soil properties show similar errors across sampling strategies. The Spatial Simulated Annealing methodology is, therefore, validated, and its use in agronomic and environmental soil science applications is justified.

  16. Direct Method Gas-phase Oxygen Abundances of Four Lyman Break Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2014-09-01

    We measure the gas-phase oxygen abundances in four Lyman break analogs using auroral emission lines to derive direct abundances. The direct method oxygen abundances of these objects are generally consistent with the empirically derived strong-line method values, confirming that these objects are low oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation defined by star forming Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We find slightly anomalous excitation conditions (Wolf-Rayet features) that could potentially bias the empirical estimates toward high values if caution is not exercised in the selection of the strong-line calibration. The high rate of star formation and low oxygen abundance of these objects is consistent with the predictions of the fundamental metallicity relation, in which the infall of relatively unenriched gas simultaneously triggers an episode of star formation and dilutes the interstellar medium of the host galaxy. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  17. CAN IBEX DETECT INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HELIUM OR OXYGEN FROM ANTI-RAM DIRECTIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Park, J.; Kucharek, H.; Möbius, E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Sokół, J. M.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Swaczyna, P.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2015-10-15

    To better constrain the parameters of the interstellar neutral flow, we searched the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX)-Lo database for helium and oxygen from the interstellar medium in the anti-ram direction in the three years (2009–2011) with the lowest background rates. We found that IBEX-Lo cannot observe interstellar helium from the anti-ram direction because the helium energy is too low for indirect detection by sputtering off the IBEX-Lo conversion surface. Our results show that this sputtering process has a low energy threshold between 25 and 30 eV, whereas the energy of the incident helium is only 10 eV for these observations. Interstellar oxygen, on the other hand, could in principle be detected in the anti-ram hemisphere, but the expected magnitude of the signal is close to the detection limit imposed by counting statistics and by the magnetospheric foreground.

  18. A target coverage scheduling scheme based on genetic algorithms in directional sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Gil, Joon-Min; Han, Youn-Hee

    2011-01-01

    As a promising tool for monitoring the physical world, directional sensor networks (DSNs) consisting of a large number of directional sensors are attracting increasing attention. As directional sensors in DSNs have limited battery power and restricted angles of sensing range, maximizing the network lifetime while monitoring all the targets in a given area remains a challenge. A major technique to conserve the energy of directional sensors is to use a node wake-up scheduling protocol by which some sensors remain active to provide sensing services, while the others are inactive to conserve their energy. In this paper, we first address a Maximum Set Covers for DSNs (MSCD) problem, which is known to be NP-complete, and present a greedy algorithm-based target coverage scheduling scheme that can solve this problem by heuristics. This scheme is used as a baseline for comparison. We then propose a target coverage scheduling scheme based on a genetic algorithm that can find the optimal cover sets to extend the network lifetime while monitoring all targets by the evolutionary global search technique. To verify and evaluate these schemes, we conducted simulations and showed that the schemes can contribute to extending the network lifetime. Simulation results indicated that the genetic algorithm-based scheduling scheme had better performance than the greedy algorithm-based scheme in terms of maximizing network lifetime.

  19. A new highly sensitive method to assess respiration rates and kinetics of natural planktonic communities by use of the switchable trace oxygen sensor and reduced oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tiano, Laura; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen respiration rates in pelagic environments are often difficult to quantify as the resolutions of our methods for O2 concentration determination are marginal for observing significant decreases during bottle incubations of less than 24 hours. Here we present the assessment of a new highly sensitive method, that combine Switchable Trace Oxygen (STOX) sensors and all-glass bottle incubations, where the O2 concentration was artificially lowered. The detection limit of respiration rate by this method is inversely proportional to the O2 concentration, down to <2 nmol L(-1) h(-1) for water with an initial O2 concentration of 500 nmol L(-1). The method was tested in Danish coastal waters and in oceanic hypoxic waters. It proved to give precise measurements also with low oxygen consumption rates (∼7 nmol L(-1) h(-1)), and to significantly decrease the time required for incubations (≤14 hours) compared to traditional methods. This method provides continuous real time measurements, allowing for a number of diverse possibilities, such as modeling the rate of oxygen decrease to obtain kinetic parameters. Our data revealed apparent half-saturation concentrations (Km values) one order of magnitude lower than previously reported for marine bacteria, varying between 66 and 234 nmol L(-1) O2. Km values vary between different microbial planktonic communities, but our data show that it is possible to measure reliable respiration rates at concentrations ∼0.5-1 µmol L(-1) O2 that are comparable to the ones measured at full air saturation.

  20. Fiber optic Raman sensor to monitor the concentration ratio of nitrogen and oxygen in a cryogenic mixture.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vidhu S; Kalluru, Rajamohan R; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P; Cyr, William St; Khijwania, Sunil K

    2007-06-01

    A spontaneous Raman scattering optical fiber sensor was developed for a specific need of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for long-term detection and monitoring of the purity of liquid oxygen (LO(2)) in the oxidizer feed line during ground testing of rocket engines. The Raman peak intensity ratios for liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) and LO(2) with varied weight ratios (LN(2)/LO(2)) were analyzed for their applicability to impurity sensing. The study of the sensor performance with different excitation light sources has helped to design a miniaturized, cost-effective system for this application. The optimal system response time of this miniaturized sensor for LN(2)/LO(2) measurement was found to be in the range of a few seconds. It will need to be further reduced to the millisecond range for real-time, quantitative monitoring of the quality of cryogenic fluids in a harsh environment.

  1. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Weenqing

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  2. Systematic description of direct push sensor systems: A conceptual framework for system decomposition as a basis for the optimal sensor system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumberger, Jan; Paasche, Hendrik; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Systematic decomposition and evaluation of existing sensor systems as well as the optimal design of future generations of direct push probes are of high importance for optimized geophysical experiments since the employed equipment is a constrain on the data space. Direct push technologies became established methods in the field of geophysical, geotechnical, hydrogeological, and environmental sciences for the investigation of the near subsurface. By using direct push sensor systems it is possible to measure in-situ parameters with high vertical resolution. Such information is frequently used for quantitative geophysical model calibration of interpretation of geotechnical and hydrological subsurface conditions. Most of the available direct push sensor systems are largely based on empirical testing and consecutively evaluated under field conditions. Approaches suitable to identify specific characteristics and problems of direct push sensor systems have not been established, yet. We develop a general systematic approach for the classification, analysis, and optimization of direct push sensor systems. First, a classification is presented for different existing sensor systems. The following systematic description, which is based on the conceptual decomposition of an existing sensor system into subsystems, is a suitable way to analyze and explore the transfer behavior of the system components and therefore of the complete system. Also, this approach may serve as guideline for the synthesis and the design of new and optimized direct push sensor systems.

  3. An evaluation of direct pressure sensors for monitoring the aluminum die casting process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.

    1997-12-31

    This study was conducted as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project Die Cavity Instrumentation. One objective of that project was to evaluate thermal, pressure, and gas flow process monitoring sensors in or near the die cavity as a means of securing improved process monitoring and control and better resultant part quality. The objectives of this thesis are to (1) evaluate a direct cavity pressure sensor in a controlled production campaign at the GM Casting Advanced Development Center (CADC) at Bedford, Indiana; and (2) develop correlations between sensor responses and product quality in terms of the casting weight, volume, and density. A direct quartz-based pressure sensor developed and marked by Kistler Instrument Corp. was acquired for evaluating as an in-cavity liquid metal pressure sensor. This pressure sensor is designed for use up to 700 C and 2,000 bars (29,000 psi). It has a pressure overload capacity up to 2,500 bars (36,250 psi).

  4. Omni-Directional Scanning Localization Method of a Mobile Robot Based on Ultrasonic Sensors.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wei-Yi; Zhang, Guang-Peng; Huang, Yu-Mei; Yang, Xin-Gang; Liu, Hong-Yan; Yan, Wen

    2016-12-20

    Improved ranging accuracy is obtained by the development of a novel ultrasonic sensor ranging algorithm, unlike the conventional ranging algorithm, which considers the divergence angle and the incidence angle of the ultrasonic sensor synchronously. An ultrasonic sensor scanning method is developed based on this algorithm for the recognition of an inclined plate and to obtain the localization of the ultrasonic sensor relative to the inclined plate reference frame. The ultrasonic sensor scanning method is then leveraged for the omni-directional localization of a mobile robot, where the ultrasonic sensors are installed on a mobile robot and follow the spin of the robot, the inclined plate is recognized and the position and posture of the robot are acquired with respect to the coordinate system of the inclined plate, realizing the localization of the robot. Finally, the localization method is implemented into an omni-directional scanning localization experiment with the independently researched and developed mobile robot. Localization accuracies of up to ±3.33 mm for the front, up to ±6.21 for the lateral and up to ±0.20° for the posture are obtained, verifying the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed localization method.

  5. Omni-Directional Scanning Localization Method of a Mobile Robot Based on Ultrasonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Wei-Yi; Zhang, Guang-Peng; Huang, Yu-Mei; Yang, Xin-Gang; Liu, Hong-Yan; Yan, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Improved ranging accuracy is obtained by the development of a novel ultrasonic sensor ranging algorithm, unlike the conventional ranging algorithm, which considers the divergence angle and the incidence angle of the ultrasonic sensor synchronously. An ultrasonic sensor scanning method is developed based on this algorithm for the recognition of an inclined plate and to obtain the localization of the ultrasonic sensor relative to the inclined plate reference frame. The ultrasonic sensor scanning method is then leveraged for the omni-directional localization of a mobile robot, where the ultrasonic sensors are installed on a mobile robot and follow the spin of the robot, the inclined plate is recognized and the position and posture of the robot are acquired with respect to the coordinate system of the inclined plate, realizing the localization of the robot. Finally, the localization method is implemented into an omni-directional scanning localization experiment with the independently researched and developed mobile robot. Localization accuracies of up to ±3.33 mm for the front, up to ±6.21 for the lateral and up to ±0.20° for the posture are obtained, verifying the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed localization method. PMID:27999396

  6. Patterned electrode-based amperometric gas sensor for direct nitric oxide detection within microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Cha, Wansik; Tung, Yi-Chung; Meyerhoff, Mark E; Takayama, Shuichi

    2010-04-15

    This article describes a thin amperometric nitric oxide (NO) sensor that can be microchannel embedded to enable direct real-time detection of NO produced by cells cultured within the microdevice. A key for achieving the thin ( approximately 1 mm) planar sensor configuration required for sensor-channel integration is the use of gold/indium-tin oxide patterned electrode directly on a porous polymer membrane (pAu/ITO) as the base working electrode. The electrochemically deposited Au-hexacyanoferrate layer on pAu/ITO is used to catalyze NO oxidation to nitrite at lower applied potentials (0.65-0.75 V vs Ag/AgCl) and stabilize current output. Furthermore, use of a gas-permeable membrane to separate internal sensor compartments from the sample phase imparts excellent NO selectivity over common interfering agents (e.g., nitrite, ascorbate, ammonia, etc.) present in culture media and biological fluids. The optimized sensor design reversibly detects NO down to the approximately 1 nM level in stirred buffer and <10 nM in flowing buffer when integrated within a polymeric microfluidic device. We demonstrate utility of the channel-embedded sensor by monitoring NO generation from macrophages cultured within non-gas-permeable microchannels, as they are stimulated with endotoxin.

  7. Directional eye fixation sensor using birefringence-based foveal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramatikov, Boris I.; Zalloum, Othman H. Y.; Wu, Yi Kai; Hunter, David G.; Guyton, David L.

    2007-04-01

    We recently developed and reported an eye fixation monitor that detects the fovea by its radial orientation of birefringent nerve fibers. The instrument used a four-quadrant photodetector and a normalized difference function to check for a best match between the detector quadrants and the arms of the bow-tie pattern of polarization states surrounding the fovea. This function had a maximum during central fixation but could not tell where the subject was looking relative to the center. We propose a linear transformation to obtain horizontal and vertical eye position coordinates from the four photodetector signals, followed by correction based on a priori calibration information. The method was verified on both a computer model and on human eyes. The major advantage of this new eye-tracking method is that it uses true information coming from the fovea, rather than reflections from other structures, to identify the direction of foveal gaze.

  8. The histidine kinase CusS senses silver ions through direct binding by its sensor domain

    PubMed Central

    Gudipaty, Swapna A.; McEvoy, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Cus system of Escherichia coli aids in protection of cells from high concentrations of Ag(I) and Cu(I). The histidine kinase CusS of the CusRS two-component system functions as a Ag(I)/Cu(I)-responsive sensor kinase and is essential for induction of the genes encoding the CusCFBA efflux pump. In this study, we have examined the molecular features of the sensor domain of CusS in order to understand how a metal-responsive histidine kinase senses specific metal ions. We find that the predicted periplasmic sensor domain of CusS directly interacts with Ag(I) ions and undergoes a conformational change upon metal binding. Metal binding also enhances the tendency of the domain to dimerize. These findings suggest a model for activation of the histidine kinase through metal binding events in the periplasmic sensor domain. PMID:24948475

  9. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    PubMed

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-03-25

    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  10. 76 FR 41669 - Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace, Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ..., Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part Numbers 174006-( ), 174080-( ), 174085-( ), 174095... oxygen mask assemblies installed, an inspection to determine the manufacturing date and modification status if certain oxygen mask assemblies are installed, and corrective action for certain oxygen...

  11. Laser direct writing of circuit elements and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pique, Alberto; Chrisey, Douglas B.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Lakeou, Samuel; Chung, Russell; McGill, Robert A.; Wu, P. K.; Duignan, Michael T.; Fitz-Gerald, J. M.; Wu, H. D.

    1999-07-01

    A novel approach for maskless deposition of numerous materials has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. This technique evolved from the combination of laser induced forward transfer and Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), and utilizes a computer controlled laser micromachining system. The resulting process is called MAPLE-DW for MAPLE Direct Write. MAPLE-DW can be used for the rapid fabrication of circuits and their components without the use of masks. Using MAPLE-DW, a wide variety of materials have been transferred over different types of substrates such as glass, alumina, plastics, and various types of circuit boards. Materials such as metals, dielectrics, ferrites, polymers and composites have been successfully deposited without any loss in functionality. Using a computer controlled stage, the above mentioned materials were deposited at room temperature over various substrates independent of their stage, the above mentioned materials were deposited at room temperature over various substrates independent of their surface morphology, with sub-10micrometers resolution. In addition, multilayer structures comprising of different types of materials were demonstrated by this technique. These multilayer structures from the basis of prototype thin film electronics devices such as resistors, capacitors, cross-over lines, inductors, etc. An overview of the result obtained using MAPLE-DW as well as examples of several devices made using this technique is presented.

  12. Investigation into Oxygen-Enriched Bottom-Blown Stibnite and Direct Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Luo, Honglin; Qing, Wenqing; Zheng, Yongxing; Yang, Kang; Han, Junwei

    2014-08-01

    The direct oxidation of stibnite (Sb2S3) using a gas mixture of nitrogen-oxygen was investigated in a pilot plant. Steady-state pilot operation of 5 and 10 t/d was normally observed during the pilot test of 100 days, and a cleaning experiment of high-antimony molten slag from oxygen-enriched bottom-blown was tested by direct reduction in a laboratory-scale electric furnace. Autogenous smelting was achieved without adding any other fuel, which guaranteed the feasibility and advantage of oxygen-enriched bottom-blown stibnite. Through analysis and calculation, the sulfur dioxide concentration in offgas was more than 8 pct, which meets the requirement for the preparation of sulfuric acid. In the reduction experiment, the effects of added CaO, the ratio of coal ( ω = actual weight of coal/theoretical weight of coal), and the slag type on the reduction procedure were considered. The residual slag obtained after reduction averaged less than 1 g/ton Au and less than 1 wt pct Sb. The metal phase contained iron less than 3 wt pct, and the recoveries of Au in the metal phase were more than 98 pct. This process shows significant environmental and economic benefits compared with previous processes.

  13. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  14. Direct measurement of oxygen octahedral rotations in improper ferroelectric superlattices by STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapano, Jason; Haislmaier, Ryan; Stone, Gregory; Gopalan, Venkat; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    Complex ABO3 perovskites are an intensely studied class of materials due to their numerous magnetic and electronic functionalities. Using strain and A-site cation, can induce new high temperature functionality known as improper ferroelectricity1. Visualizing the interplay between strain, cation ordering and octahedral rotations in improper ferroelectics is crucial to understand how this property manifests itself in thin films2. A series of CaTiO3n/SrTiO3n with periodicities n =2-10 were grown on (La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O3 by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy. I will discuss how strain and layering affects the cation and oxygen sublattices, and how these distortions propagate through the layers, with direct imaging of the oxygen cations by annular bright field (ABF) STEM. I will then relate these back to understanding how improper ferroelectricity evolves in these films. National Science Foundation MRSEC.

  15. Patterns of discoloration and oxidation by direct and scattered fluxes on LDEF, including oxygen on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Filz, R. C.; Rich, F. J.; Sagalyn, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    A number of interesting discoloration patterns are clearly evident on MOOO2-1 which resides on the three faces of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Most interesting is the pattern of blue oxidation on polished single crystal silicon apparently produced by scattered or direct ram oxygen atoms along the earth face. A complete explanation for the patterns has not yet been obtained. All honeycomb outgassing holes have a small discoloration ring around them that varies in color. The shadow cast by a suspended wire on the earth face surface is not easily explained by either solar photons or by ram flux. The shadows and the dark/light regions cannot be explained consistently by the process of solar ultraviolet paint-darkening modulated by ram flux oxygen bleaching of the paint.

  16. Direct Measurements of Oxygen Gradients in Spheroid Culture System Using Electron Parametric Resonance Oximetry

    PubMed Central

    Langan, Laura M.; Dodd, Nicholas J. F.; Owen, Stewart F.; Purcell, Wendy M.; Jackson, Simon K.; Jha, Awadhesh N.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced in vitro culture from tissues of different origin includes three-dimensional (3D) organoid micro structures that may mimic conditions in vivo. One example of simple 3D culture is spheroids; ball shaped structures typically used as liver and tumour models. Oxygen is critically important in physiological processes, but is difficult to quantify in 3D culture: and the question arises, how small does a spheroid have to be to have minimal micro-environment formation? This question is of particular importance in the growing field of 3D based models for toxicological assessment. Here, we describe a simple non-invasive approach modified for the quantitative measurement and subsequent evaluation of oxygen gradients in spheroids developed from a non-malignant fish cell line (i.e. RTG-2 cells) using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) oximetry. Sonication of the paramagnetic probe Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) allows for incorporation of probe particulates into spheroid during its formation. Spectra signal strength after incorporation of probe into spheroid indicated that a volume of 20 μl of probe (stock solution: 0.10 mg/mL) is sufficient to provide a strong spectra across a range of spheroid sizes. The addition of non-toxic probes (that do not produce or consume oxygen) report on oxygen diffusion throughout the spheroid as a function of size. We provide evidence supporting the use of this model over a range of initial cell seeding densities and spheroid sizes with the production of oxygen distribution as a function of these parameters. In our spheroid model, lower cell seeding densities (∼2,500 cells/spheroid) and absolute size (118±32 μm) allow control of factors such as pre-existing stresses (e.g. ∼ 2% normoxic/hypoxic interface) for more accurate measurement of treatment response. The applied methodology provides an elegant, widely applicable approach to directly characterize spheroid (and other organoid) cultures in biomedical and toxicological

  17. Optical sensor based on fluorescent quenching and pulsed blue LED excitation for long-term monitoring of dissolved oxygen in NASA space bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Frank G; Fay, James M; Mathew, Grace; Jeevarajan, Antony S; Anderson, Melody M

    2005-01-01

    There is a need to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium for NASA's space cell biology experiments, as well as in earth-based cell cultures. Continuous measurement of DO concentration in the cell culture medium in perfused bioreactors requires that the oxygen sensor provide adequate sensitivity and low toxicity to the cells, as well as maintain calibration over several weeks. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An in-house optical oxygen sensor (HOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching of Tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) chloride and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. The sensing element consisted of the fluorescent dye embedded in a silicone matrix and coated onto a glass capillary. Photobleaching was minimized by a pulsed LED light source. The total noise in the sensor output is 2% and the sensor dynamic range is 0 to 200 mm Hg. The resolution of the sensor is 0.1 mm Hg at 50 mm Hg, and 0.25 mm Hg at 130 mm Hg, while the accuracy is 5%. The LED-based oxygen sensor exhibited stable performance and low drift, making it compatible for space-flight bioreactor systems.

  18. Design and Operation of an Electrochemical Methanol Concentration Sensor for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.; Chun, W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a 150-Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration. The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems.

  19. Optical sensor for dual sensing of oxygen and carbon dioxide based on sensing films coated on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Chu, Cheng-Shane; Syu, Jhih-Jheng

    2017-02-01

    An optical sensor for the dual sensing of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) based on sensing films coated on filter paper is proposed. Ethyl cellulose (EC) doped with platinum(II) meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (PtTFPP) and 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin serve as the oxygen sensing material and reference blue emission dye for the pH indicator, respectively. The CO2 sensing layer includes the pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator 1-hydroxy-3,6,8-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt immobilized within the EC. The O2- and CO2-sensitive materials can both be excited with a 405 nm LED, and the two emission wavelengths can be detected separately. The experimental result reveals that the optical O2 and CO2 sensors have sensitivities of IN2 /I100%O2 =22.8 and IN2 /I100%CO2 =3.6, respectively. The response times of the optical O2 sensor were 15 s upon switching from nitrogen to O2 and 41 s when moving from O2 to nitrogen (N2). The response times of the optical CO2 sensor were 7 s upon switching from 100% N2 to 100% CO2 and 39 s when moving from 100% CO2 to 100% N2. The proposed optical dual sensor can be used for the simultaneous sensing of O2 and CO2 concentrations in environmental applications.

  20. A new type of remote sensors which allow directly forming certain statistical estimates of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlaskin, Boris; Guk, Elena; Karpenko, Andrey

    2010-10-01

    A new approach to the problems of statistical and structural pattern recognition, a signal processing and image analysis techniques has been considered. These problems are extremely important for tasks being solved by airborne and space borne remote sensing systems. Development of new remote sensors for image and signal processing is inherently connected with a possibility of statistical processing of images. Fundamentally new optoelectronic sensors "Multiscan" have been suggested in the present paper. Such sensors make it possible to form directly certain statistical estimates, which describe completely enough the different types of images. The sensors under discussion perform the Lebesgue-Stieltjes signal integration rather than the Cauchy-Riemann one. That permits to create integral functionals for determining statistical features of images. The use of the integral functionals for image processing provides a good agreement of obtained statistical estimates with required image information features. The Multiscan remote sensors allows to create a set of integral moments of an input image right up to high-order integral moments, to form a quantile representation of an input image, which provides a count number limited texture, to form a median, which provides a localisation of a low-contrast horizon line in fog, localisation of water flow boundary etc. This work presents both the description of the design concept of the new remote sensor and mathematical apparatus providing the possibility to create input image statistical features and integral functionals.

  1. High temperature gradient micro-sensor for wall shear stress and flow direction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouila-Houri, C.; Claudel, J.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Gallas, Q.; Garnier, E.; Merlen, A.; Viard, R.; Talbi, A.; Pernod, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present an efficient and high-sensitive thermal micro-sensor for near wall flow parameters measurements. By combining substrate-free wire structure and mechanical support using silicon oxide micro-bridges, the sensor achieves a high temperature gradient, with wires reaching 1 mm long for only 3 μm wide over a 20 μm deep cavity. Elaborated to reach a compromise solution between conventional hot-films and hot-wire sensors, the sensor presents a high sensitivity to the wall shear stress and to the flow direction. The sensor can be mounted flush to the wall for research studies such as turbulence and near wall shear flow analysis, and for technical applications, such as flow control and separation detection. The fabrication process is CMOS-compatible and allows on-chip integration. The present letter describes the sensor elaboration, design, and micro-fabrication, then the electrical and thermal characterizations, and finally the calibration experiments in a turbulent boundary layer wind tunnel.

  2. Simple hybrid wire-wireless fiber laser sensor by direct photonic generation of beat signal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengchun; Gao, Liang; Yin, Zuowei; Shi, Yuechun; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Xiangfei; Cheng, Jianchun

    2011-04-20

    Based on direct photonic generation of a beat signal, a simple hybrid wire-wireless fiber laser sensor is proposed. In the sensor, an improved multilongitudinal modes fiber laser cavity is set up by only a fiber Bragg grating, a section of erbium-doped fiber, and a broadband reflector. A photodetector is used to detect the electrical beat signal. Next, the beat signal including the sensor information can access the wireless network through the wireless transmission. At last, a frequency spectrum analyzer is used to demodulate the sensing information. With this method, the long-distance real-time monitor of the fiber sensor can be realized. The proposed technique offers a simple and cheap way for sensing information of the fiber sensor to access the wireless sensor network. An experiment was implemented to measure the strain and the corresponding root mean square deviation is about -5.7 με at 916 MHz and -3.8 με at 1713 MHz after wireless transmission.

  3. Viscosity-density sensor with resonant torsional paddle for direct detection in liquid.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Wang, J; Li, X; Chen, D

    2011-12-01

    A novel micro-machined biosensor based on the resonant torsional paddle with electromagnetic excitation which can work in liquid directly is presented. The sensor designed consists of two paddles with resonant torsional mode, in which the energy loss of the resonator during the vibration is so lower that it can be suitable for detection in liquid. Finite element method analysis was carried out to guarantee the sensitivity of the sensor. Micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) bulk silicon processes were adopted to accomplish the fabrication. A positive-feedback circuit with energy compensation is designed to improve the characteristics of the sensor in liquid. Experiments show that the resonant torsional paddle can work directly in liquid and the Q-factor of the sensor in liquid can be improved from 2.65 to 40 with energy compensation. Viscosity tests and density tests for the sensor show that the decrease in frequency and the decrease in Q-factor are related to density and viscosity of the solutions, respectively.

  4. A "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for ozone detection in ambient air using protein-directed gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Qing

    2017-04-01

    A "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for ozone using bovine serum albumin-directed gold nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs) via energy transfer was developed. The spectral overlap of fluorescent spectrum of BSA-Au NCs with absorption spectrum of indigo carmine (IDS) was utilized. Ozone cleaves C = C bond of IDS and suppresses energy transfer from BSA-Au NCs to IDS. Therefore, this proposed fluorescent sensor is a "turn-on" detection motif. It is the first application of fluorescent nanoclusters in sensitively detecting ozone from 0.2 to 12 μM with the limit of detection of 35 nM (the volume of 500 μL, 1.68 ppb). The proposed fluorescent sensor for ozone is more sensitive and faster (within 2 min) than most methods and is with good selectivity for ozone detection against other reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen, or metallic ions. Besides, the proposed method is also utlized in ozone detection in ambient air by monitoring 1 h (60 min) in Qijiang district in Chongqing city. The average of concentration of ozone in ambient air ranges from 44.97 to 52.85 μg/m(3). The results are compared with the automatic monitoring data provided by Qijiang Environmental Monitoring Station and the relative deviations range, respectively, from 2.1 to 5.6%, which suggests that it is a promising fluorescent sensor for ozone in ambient air. This study not only develops a new model of energy transfer motif using BSA-Au NCs as donor and IDS as acceptor but also expands the application of BSA-Au NCs in environmental science. Graphical abstract A "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for ozone detection using bovine serum albumin-directed gold nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs) via energy transfer is developed. It is the first time to utilize spectral overlap of fluorescent spectrum of BSA-Au NCs with absorption spectrum of indigo carmine and to achieve fast, sensitive, and selective ozone detection with a limit of detection of down to 35 nM (the volume of 500 μL, 1.68 ppb).

  5. Fabrication and laser patterning of polystyrene optical oxygen sensor films for lab-on-a-chip applications.

    PubMed

    Grist, S M; Oyunerdene, N; Flueckiger, J; Kim, J; Wong, P C; Chrostowski, L; Cheung, K C

    2014-11-21

    We present a novel and simple method for patterning oxygen-sensitive polystyrene thin films and demonstrate its potential for integration with microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices. Optical oxygen sensing films composed of polystyrene with an embedded luminescent oxygen-sensitive dye present a convenient option for the measurement of oxygen levels in microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip devices; however, patterning and integrating the films with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices has proven difficult due to a residue after dry etch patterning that inhibits subsequent PDMS bonding. Our new method uses mask-less laser ablation by a commercial laser ablation system to define the outline of the structures and subsequent bulk film removal by aqueous lift-off. Because the bulk film is peeled or lifted off of the substrate rather than etched, the process is compatible with standard PDMS plasma bonding. We used ToF-SIMS analysis to investigate how laser ablation facilitates this fabrication process as well as why dry etching polystyrene inhibits PDMS plasma bonding. The results of this analysis showed evidence of chemical species formed during the laser ablation and dry etching processes that can produce these effects. Our new method's mask-less nature, simplicity, speed, and compatibility with PDMS bonding make it ideally suited for single-use lab-on-a-chip applications. To demonstrate the method's compatibility with PDMS microfluidics, we also present a demonstration of the sensors' integration into a microfluidic oxygen gradient generator device.

  6. An integrated laser Raman optical sensor for fast detection of nitrogen and oxygen in a cryogenic mixture.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vidhu S; Luanje, Appolinaire T; Kalluru, Rajamohan R; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P

    2011-04-01

    An integrated fiber optic Raman sensor was designed for real-time, nonintrusive detection of liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) in liquid oxygen (LO(2)) at high pressures and high flow rates. This was intended to monitor the quality of LO(2) in oxidizer feed lines during the ground testing of rocket engines. Various issues related to optical diagnosis of cryogenic fluids (LN(2)/LO(2)) in supercritical environment of rocket engine test facility, such as fluorescence from impurity in optical window of feed line, signal-noise ratio, and fast data acquisition time, etc., are well addressed. The integrated sensor employed a frequency doubled 532-nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser as an excitation light source. The other optical components included were InPhotonics Raman probes, spectrometers, and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The spectrometer was used to collect the Raman spectrum of LN(2) and LO(2). The PMT detection unit was integrated with home-built LABVIEW software for fast monitoring of concentration ratios LN(2) and LO(2). Prior to designing an integrated sensor system, its optical components were also tested with gaseous nitrogen (GN(2)) and oxygen (GO(2)).

  7. Direct determination of chemical oxygen demand by anodic decomposition of organic compounds at a diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Tamura, Yusuke; Hoshino, Masaki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Aikawa, Tatsuo; Yuasa, Makoto; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2014-08-19

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was measured directly with a simple electrochemical method using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. By applying a highly positive potential (+2.5 V vs Ag/AgCl) to an aqueous electrolyte containing potassium hydrogen phthalate, glucose, and lactic acid or sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate using a BDD electrode, an anodic current corresponding to the electrolytic decomposition of these organic compounds was observed. No such current was seen on glassy carbon or platinum electrodes due to a significant background current caused by the oxygen evolution reaction. The electric charge for the anodic current observed at the BDD electrode was found to be consistent with the theoretical charge required for the electrolytic decomposition of the organic compounds to CO2 and was used to calculate COD. This analysis was performed by a simple I-t measurement at constant potential using a BDD electrode, and no calibration was needed. This new simple indicator, "ECOD" (electrochemical oxygen demand), will be useful for continuous monitoring of industrial wastewater with low protein concentrations and on-site instant analysis of natural water with a BDD electrode-based portable ECOD meter.

  8. A New Highly Sensitive Method to Assess Respiration Rates and Kinetics of Natural Planktonic Communities by Use of the Switchable Trace Oxygen Sensor and Reduced Oxygen Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Tiano, Laura; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen respiration rates in pelagic environments are often difficult to quantify as the resolutions of our methods for O2 concentration determination are marginal for observing significant decreases during bottle incubations of less than 24 hours. Here we present the assessment of a new highly sensitive method, that combine Switchable Trace Oxygen (STOX) sensors and all-glass bottle incubations, where the O2 concentration was artificially lowered. The detection limit of respiration rate by this method is inversely proportional to the O2 concentration, down to <2 nmol L−1 h−1 for water with an initial O2 concentration of 500 nmol L−1. The method was tested in Danish coastal waters and in oceanic hypoxic waters. It proved to give precise measurements also with low oxygen consumption rates (∼7 nmol L−1 h−1), and to significantly decrease the time required for incubations (≤14 hours) compared to traditional methods. This method provides continuous real time measurements, allowing for a number of diverse possibilities, such as modeling the rate of oxygen decrease to obtain kinetic parameters. Our data revealed apparent half-saturation concentrations (Km values) one order of magnitude lower than previously reported for marine bacteria, varying between 66 and 234 nmol L−1 O2. Km values vary between different microbial planktonic communities, but our data show that it is possible to measure reliable respiration rates at concentrations ∼0.5–1 µmol L−1 O2 that are comparable to the ones measured at full air saturation. PMID:25127458

  9. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

    2002-01-31

    The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events

  10. Direct and dissolved oxygen involved photodegradation of MeO-PBDEs in water.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weifeng; Chen, Jingwen; Xie, Qing

    2016-04-15

    Photodegradation has been proved to be a crucial way of elimination for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated PBDEs (HO-PBDEs). However, it is still unknown whether methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) can also undergo photodegradation. In this study, 4'-MeO-BDE-17, 5-MeO-BDE-47, 5'-MeO-BDE-99, 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-85 were selected as targets to investigate their photodegradation in water. Meanwhile, the effects of dissolved oxygen on the photoreactions of MeO-PBDEs were also unveiled. Simulated sunlight experiments indicate that 6-MeO-BDE-47 resisted photodegradation for 20h, while other MeO-PBDEs underwent relatively fast photodegradation, which was greatly susceptible to the substitution patterns of methoxyl and bromine. Photo-excited MeO-PBDEs (except 6-MeO-BDE-47) can sensitize dissolved oxygen to generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2(-)). The generated (1)O2 cannot degrade the MeO-PBDEs, whereas O2(-) was reactive with MeO-PBDEs. The contribution of dissolved oxygen to the photodegradation of 4'-MeO-BDE-17 and 6-MeO-BDE-85 was negligible; while the negative contribution was observed for 5-MeO-BDE-47 and 5'-MeO-BDE-99. Hydrodebromination was a crucial photodegradation pathway for MeO-PBDEs (excluding 4'-MeO-BDE-17 and 6-MeO-BDE-47). Eventually, direct photolysis half-lives of MeO-PBDEs except 6-MeO-BDE-47 in the surface waters at 40 N latitude were calculated to be 1.35-3.46d in midsummer and 6.39-17.47d in midwinter.

  11. Direct interaction between sensor kinase proteins mediates acute and chronic disease phenotypes in a bacterial pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Andrew L.; Merighi, Massimo; Hyodo, Mamoru; Ventre, Isabelle; Filloux, Alain; Lory, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The genome of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes over 60 two-component sensor kinases and uses several (including RetS and GacS) to reciprocally regulate the production of virulence factors involved in the development of acute or chronic infections. We demonstrate that RetS modulates the phosphorylation state of GacS by a direct and specific interaction between these two membrane-bound sensors. The RetS–GacS interaction can be observed in vitro, in heterologous systems in vivo, and in P. aeruginosa. This function does not require the predicted RetS phosphorelay residues and provides a mechanism for integrating multiple signals without cross-phosphorylation from sensors to noncognate response regulators. These results suggest that multiple two-component systems found in a single bacterium can form multisensor signaling networks while maintaining specific phosphorelay pathways that remain insulated from detrimental cross-talk. PMID:19171785

  12. Direct and indirect measures of speech articulator motions using low power EM sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T; Burnett, G; Gable, T; Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L

    1999-05-12

    Low power Electromagnetic (EM) Wave sensors can measure general properties of human speech articulator motions, as speech is produced. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J.Acoust.Soc.Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). Experiments have demonstrated extremely accurate pitch measurements (< 1 Hz per pitch cycle) and accurate onset of voiced speech. Recent measurements of pressure-induced tracheal motions enable very good spectra and amplitude estimates of a voiced excitation function. The use of the measured excitation functions and pitch synchronous processing enable the determination of each pitch cycle of an accurate transfer function and, indirectly, of the corresponding articulator motions. In addition, direct measurements have been made of EM wave reflections from articulator interfaces, including jaw, tongue, and palate, simultaneously with acoustic and glottal open/close signals. While several types of EM sensors are suitable for speech articulator measurements, the homodyne sensor has been found to provide good spatial and temporal resolution for several applications.

  13. Low-Power Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Modem Architecture for Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, C; Elgorriaga, I; McConaghy, C

    2001-07-03

    Emerging CMOS and MEMS technologies enable the implementation of a large number of wireless distributed microsensors that can be easily and rapidly deployed to form highly redundant, self-configuring, and ad hoc sensor networks. To facilitate ease of deployment, these sensors should operate on battery for extended periods of time. A particular challenge in maintaining extended battery lifetime lies in achieving communications with low power. This paper presents a direct-sequence spread-spectrum modem architecture that provides robust communications for wireless sensor networks while dissipating very low power. The modem architecture has been verified in an FPGA implementation that dissipates only 33 mW for both transmission and reception. The implementation can be easily mapped to an ASIC technology, with an estimated power performance of less than 1 mW.

  14. A micro oxygen sensor based on a nano sol-gel TiO2 thin film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hairong; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiaxin; Sun, Quantao; Zhao, Yulong

    2014-09-03

    An oxygen gas microsensor based on nanostructured sol-gel TiO2 thin films with a buried Pd layer was developed on a silicon substrate. The nanostructured titania thin films for O2 sensors were prepared by the sol-gel process and became anatase after heat treatment. A sandwich TiO2 square board with an area of 350 μm × 350 μm was defined by both wet etching and dry etching processes and the wet one was applied in the final process due to its advantages of easy control for the final structure. A pair of 150 nm Pt micro interdigitated electrodes with 50 nm Ti buffer layer was fabricated on the board by a lift-off process. The sensor chip was tested in a furnace with changing the O2 concentration from 1.0% to 20% by monitoring its electrical resistance. Results showed that after several testing cycles the sensor's output becomes stable, and its sensitivity is 0.054 with deviation 2.65 × 10(-4) and hysteresis is 8.5%. Due to its simple fabrication process, the sensor has potential for application in environmental monitoring, where lower power consumption and small size are required.

  15. A Micro Oxygen Sensor Based on a Nano Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hairong; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiaxin; Sun, Quantao; Zhao, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    An oxygen gas microsensor based on nanostructured sol-gel TiO2 thin films with a buried Pd layer was developed on a silicon substrate. The nanostructured titania thin films for O2 sensors were prepared by the sol-gel process and became anatase after heat treatment. A sandwich TiO2 square board with an area of 350 μm × 350 μm was defined by both wet etching and dry etching processes and the wet one was applied in the final process due to its advantages of easy control for the final structure. A pair of 150 nm Pt micro interdigitated electrodes with 50 nm Ti buffer layer was fabricated on the board by a lift-off process. The sensor chip was tested in a furnace with changing the O2 concentration from 1.0% to 20% by monitoring its electrical resistance. Results showed that after several testing cycles the sensor's output becomes stable, and its sensitivity is 0.054 with deviation 2.65 × 10−4 and hysteresis is 8.5%. Due to its simple fabrication process, the sensor has potential for application in environmental monitoring, where lower power consumption and small size are required. PMID:25192312

  16. 76 FR 9984 - Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace, Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ..., Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part Numbers 174006-(), 174080-(), 174085-(), 174095... manufacturer and part number of the oxygen mask assemblies installed, an inspection to determine the manufacturing date and modification status if certain oxygen mask assemblies are installed, and...

  17. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Schmok, Jonathan C.; Liu, Meng-Chi (Andy); Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  18. Did IBEX detect interstellar neutral helium or oxygen from anti-ram direction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, André; Wurz, Peter; Park, Jeewoo; Kucharek, Harald; Möbius, Eberhard; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Bzowski, Maciej; Sokól, Justyna M.; Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, Pawel; Fuselier, Stephen A.; McComas, Dave J.

    2015-04-01

    The Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) directly measures the inflow of interstellar neutral (ISN) matter into the heliosphere. Inverting the signal strength and location of the neutral species (mainly helium, hydrogen, and oxygen) measured from Earth orbit allows to determine the flow velocity, direction, and temperature of the interstellar matter. So far, only observations from ram-directions when IBEX was moving toward the inflow direction (February and March of each year) showed a clear interstellar signal. Inverting these observations represents a partially degenerate problem; a unique solution for flow velocity, direction, and temperature cannot be found, and the uncertainty of the various fit parameters depends on each other. The detection of the anti-ram signal in October and November, when IBEX is moving away from the interstellar signal, would narrow the range of possible parameters of the interstellar neutral flow. This study presents a rigorous search for the fall signal during the first three years of IBEX data. The absence of an unambiguous fall signal translates into an upper observational limit with implications on the interstellar flow.

  19. Direct participation of DNA in the formation of singlet oxygen and base damage under UVA irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yagura, Teiti; Schuch, André Passaglia; Garcia, Camila Carrião Machado; Rocha, Clarissa Ribeiro Reily; Moreno, Natália Cestari; Angeli, José Pedro Friedmann; Mendes, Davi; Severino, Divinomar; Bianchini Sanchez, Angelica; Di Mascio, Paolo; de Medeiros, Marisa Helena Gennari; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2017-03-18

    UVA light is hardly absorbed by the DNA molecule, but recent works point to a direct mechanism of DNA lesion by these wavelengths. UVA light also excite endogenous chromophores, which causes DNA damage through ROS. In this study, DNA samples were irradiated with UVA light in different conditions to investigate possible mechanisms involved in the induction of DNA damage. The different types of DNA lesions formed after irradiation were determined through the use of endonucleases, which recognize and cleave sites containing oxidized bases and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), as well as through antibody recognition. The formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanine (8-oxodG) was also studied in more detail using electrochemical detection. The results show that high NaCl concentration and concentrated DNA are capable of reducing the induction of CPDs. Moreover, concerning damage caused by oxidative stress, the presence of sodium azide and metal chelators reduce their induction, while deuterated water increases the amounts of oxidized bases, confirming the involvement of singlet oxygen in the generation of these lesions. Curiously, however, high concentrations of DNA also enhanced the formation of oxidized bases, in a reaction that paralleled the increase in the formation of singlet oxygen in the solution. This was interpreted as being due to an intrinsic photosensitization mechanism, depending directly on the DNA molecule to absorb UVA and generate singlet oxygen. Therefore, the DNA molecule itself may act as a chromophore for UVA light, locally producing a damaging agent, which may lead to even greater concerns about the deleterious impact of sunlight.

  20. Comparison between direct and predicted maximal oxygen uptake measurement during cycling.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Pihlainen, Kai; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2013-02-01

    Predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements are based on the assumption of linear relationship between heart rate or power output and oxygen consumption during various intensities. To develop more reliable predicted test for soldiers, the purpose of the present study was to compare the results of direct measurements of VO2max to respective predicted values in cycling (military fitness test). The predicted mean (+/- SD) peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) value was 45.2 +/- 7.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1) during first week, whereas the respective direct value was 44.8 +/- 8.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1). During the ninth week, the predicted and measured mean (+/-SD) VO2max values were 47.4 +/- 6.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1) and 48.7 +/- 7.3 mL kg(-1) min(-1), respectively. The absolute differences between the methods were -0.42 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (p = 0.46) and 1.28 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (p < 0.05), which correspond to relative values of 0.9% and 2.7%, respectively. A Bland-Altman plot of measured VO2max and predicted VO2max showed no significant trend between the mean and the difference of the 2 methods either before (r = 0.14, p = 0.24) or after the basic military training period (r = 0.11, p = 0.36). Intraclass correlation coefficient varied between r = 0.82 to 0.94. In conclusion, the predicted protocol is fairly accurate (+/-3%) and reliable to predict VO2max values in male soldiers but the use for clinical purposes should be considered individually.

  1. Influence of oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber growth directly on nichrome foil.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Shinde, Sachin M; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Takahashi, Chisato; Papon, Remi; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-09

    The synthesis of various nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanostructures has been significantly explored as an alternative material for energy storage and metal-free catalytic applications. Here, we reveal a direct growth technique of N-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flexible nichrome (NiCr) foil using melamine as a solid precursor. Highly reactive Cr plays a critical role in the nanofiber growth process on the metal alloy foil in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Oxidation of Cr occurs in the presence of oxygen impurities, where Ni nanoparticles are formed on the surface and assist the growth of nanofibers. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly show the transformation process of the NiCr foil surface with annealing in the presence of oxygen impurities. The structural change of NiCr foil assists one-dimensional (1D) CNF growth, rather than the lateral two-dimensional (2D) growth. The incorporation of distinctive graphitic and pyridinic nitrogen in the graphene lattice are observed in the synthesized nanofiber, owing to better nitrogen solubility. Our finding shows an effective approach for the synthesis of highly N-doped carbon nanostructures directly on Cr-based metal alloys for various applications.

  2. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-06-10

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation.

  3. Influence of oxygen on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber growth directly on nichrome foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Shinde, Sachin M.; Saufi Rosmi, Mohamad; Takahashi, Chisato; Papon, Remi; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Ishii, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Shinji; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of various nitrogen-doped (N-doped) carbon nanostructures has been significantly explored as an alternative material for energy storage and metal-free catalytic applications. Here, we reveal a direct growth technique of N-doped carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on flexible nichrome (NiCr) foil using melamine as a solid precursor. Highly reactive Cr plays a critical role in the nanofiber growth process on the metal alloy foil in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Oxidation of Cr occurs in the presence of oxygen impurities, where Ni nanoparticles are formed on the surface and assist the growth of nanofibers. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) clearly show the transformation process of the NiCr foil surface with annealing in the presence of oxygen impurities. The structural change of NiCr foil assists one-dimensional (1D) CNF growth, rather than the lateral two-dimensional (2D) growth. The incorporation of distinctive graphitic and pyridinic nitrogen in the graphene lattice are observed in the synthesized nanofiber, owing to better nitrogen solubility. Our finding shows an effective approach for the synthesis of highly N-doped carbon nanostructures directly on Cr-based metal alloys for various applications.

  4. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal–nitrogen coordination

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon–nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation. PMID:26059552

  5. High-angle-of-attack pneumatic lag and upwash corrections for a hemispherical flow direction sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Heeg, Jennifer; Larson, Terry J.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Hagen, Floyd W.; Deleo, Richard V.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the NASA F-14 high angle of attack flight test program, a nose mounted hemispherical flow direction sensor was calibrated against a fuselage mounted movable vane flow angle sensor. Significant discrepancies were found to exist in the angle of attack measurements. A two fold approach taken to resolve these discrepancies during subsonic flight is described. First, the sensing integrity of the isolated hemispherical sensor is established by wind tunnel data extending to an angle of attack of 60 deg. Second, two probable causes for the discrepancies, pneumatic lag and upwash, are examined. Methods of identifying and compensating for lag and upwash are presented. The wind tunnel data verify that the isolated hemispherical sensor is sufficiently accurate for static conditions with angles of attack up to 60 deg and angles of sideslip up to 30 deg. Analysis of flight data for two high angle of attack maneuvers establishes that pneumatic lag and upwash are highly correlated with the discrepancies between the hemispherical and vane type sensor measurements.

  6. Algorithm Determines Wind Speed and Direction from Venturi-Sensor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zysko, Jan A.; Perotti, Jose M.; Randazzo, John

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm computes the velocity of wind from the readings of an instrument like the one described in another Tech Brief. To recapitulate: The sensor has no moving parts and is a compact, rugged means of measuring wind vectors having magnitudes of as much as 300 mph (134 m/s). The sensor includes a Venturi gap bounded by a curved upper and a curved lower surface that are axisymmetric with respect to a vertical axis and mirror-symmetric with respect to a horizontal midplane. One of the curved surfaces is instrumented with multiple ports for measuring dynamic pressures. The sensor also incorporates auxiliary sensors for measuring temperature, relative humidity, and static atmospheric pressure. The design and operation of the sensor are based on the concepts of (1) using Bernoulli's equation (which expresses the relationship among variations of speed, density, and pressure along a streamline) to calculate the speed of the wind from differences among the pressure readings at the various ports; and (2) calculating the direction of the wind from the angular positions of ports selected according to comparisons among their pressure readings. The present algorithm performs these calculations.

  7. Fabrication of flex sensors through direct ink write technique and its electrical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Muhammad; Rahman, Khalid

    2016-11-01

    The present work is intended to fabricate low-cost flex sensor from conductive carbon paste using direct ink write (DIW) technique. DIW method is one of the additive manufacturing processes, which is capable to deposit a variety of material on a variety of substrates by a different mechanism to feature resolution at a microns level. It is widely used in the electronic industry for fabrication of PCBS and electrodes for different electronic devices. The DIW system in present study extrudes material stored in the syringe barrel through nozzle using compressed air. This mechanism will assist in creating patterns on a variety of substrates. Pneumatic controller is employed to control deposition of material, while computer-controlled X-Y stage is employed to control pattern generation. For effective and control patterning, printing parameters were optimized using Taguchi design optimization technique. The conductive carbon paste is used as ink for pattern generation on flexible PET substrate. Samples of flex sensor having different dimensions are prepared through DIW. The fabricated sensors were used as flexion sensor, and its electrical characteristic was evaluated. The obtained sensors are stable and reliable in performance.

  8. Measurement in a marine environment using low cost sensors of temperature and dissolved oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godshall, F.A.; Cory, R.L.; Phinney, D.E.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous records of physical parameters of the marine environment are difficult as well as expensive to obtain. This paper describes preliminary results of an investigative program with the purpose of developing low cost time integrating measurement and averaging devices for water temperature and dissolved oxygen. Measurements were made in an estuarine area of the Chesapeake Bay over two week periods. With chemical thermometers average water temperature for the two week period was found to be equal to average water temperature measured with thermocouples plus or minus 1.0 C. The slow diffusion of oxygen through the semipermiable sides of plastic bottles permitted the use of water filled bottles to obtain averaged oxygen measurements. Oxygen measurements for two week averaging times using 500 ml polyethylene bottles were found to vary from conventionally measured and averaged dissolved oxygen by about 1.8 mg/l. ?? 1974 Estuarine Research Federation.

  9. Transition metal substituted SrTiO3 perovskite oxides as promising functional materials for oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Sunasira

    2012-07-01

    Modern industries employ several gases as process fluids. Leakage of these gases in the operating area could lead to undesirable consequences. Even in chemical industries, which use large quantities of inert gases in confined areas, accidental leakage of these process gases would result in the reduction of oxygen partial pressure in atmospheric air. For instance, large amounts of gaseous nitrogen and argon are used in pharmaceutical industries, gas filling/bottling plants, operating area of Fast Breeder reactors, etc. Fall of concentration of oxygen in air below 17% could lead to life risk (Asphyxiation) of the working personnel that has to be checked well in advance. Further, when the leaking gas is of explosive nature, its damage potential would be very high if its concentration level in air increases beyond its lower explosive limit. Surveillance of the ambient within these industries at the critical areas and also in the environment around them for oxygen therefore becomes highly essential. Sensitive and selective gas sensors made of advanced materials are required to meet this demand of monitoring environmental pollution. The perovskite class of oxides (ABO3) is chemically stable even at high temperatures and can tolerate large levels of dopants without phase transformations. The electronic properties of this parent functional material can be tailored by adding appropriate dopants that exhibit different valence states. Aliovalent transition metal substituted SrTiO3 perovskites are good mixed ionic and electronic conductors and potential candidates for sensing oxygen at percentage level exploiting their oxygen pressure dependent electrical conductivity. This paper presents the preparation, study of electrical conductivity and oxygen-sensing characteristics of iron and cobalt substituted SrTiO3.

  10. Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D; Baker, K

    2006-04-12

    The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor has been extensively simulated in the direct phase mode using a wave optics code. The two-sided pyramid divides the focal plane so that each half of the core only interferes with the speckles in its half of the focal plane. A relayed image of the pupil plane is formed at the CCD camera for each half. Antipodal speckle pairs are separated so that a pure phase variation causes amplitude variations in the two images. The phase is reconstructed from the difference of the two amplitudes by transforming cosine waves into sine waves using the Hilbert transform. There are also other corrections which have to be applied in Fourier space. The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor performs extremely well: After two or three iterations, the phase error varies purely in y. The two-sided pyramid pair enables the phase to be completely reconstructed. Its performance has been modeled closed loop with atmospheric turbulence and wind. Both photon noise and read noise were included. The three-sided and four-sided pyramid wavefront sensors have also been studied in direct phase mode. Neither performs nearly as well as does the two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor.

  11. Wireless Capacitive Pressure Sensor With Directional RF Chip Antenna for High Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, M. C.; Jordan, J. L.; Ponchak, G. E.; Zorman, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a wireless capacitive pressure sensor with directional RF chip antenna that is envisioned for the health monitoring of aircraft engines operating in harsh environments. The sensing system is characterized from room temperature (25 C) to 300 C for a pressure range from 0 to 100 psi. The wireless pressure system consists of a Clapp-type oscillator design with a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor located in the LC-tank circuit of the oscillator. Therefore, as the pressure of the aircraft engine changes, so does the output resonant frequency of the sensing system. A chip antenna is integrated to transmit the system output to a receive antenna 10 m away.The design frequency of the wireless pressure sensor is 127 MHz and a 2 increase in resonant frequency over the temperature range of 25 to 300 C from 0 to 100 psi is observed. The phase noise is less than minus 30 dBcHz at the 1 kHz offset and decreases to less than minus 80 dBcHz at 10 kHz over the entire temperature range. The RF radiation patterns for two cuts of the wireless system have been measured and show that the system is highly directional and the MEMS pressure sensor is extremely linear from 0 to 100 psi.

  12. A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Mangmang; Chen, Chufeng; Gao, Chaosong; Han, Mikyung; Ji, Rong; Li, Xiaoting; Mei, Yuan; Sun, Quan; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Le; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a < 15e- analog noise and a 200e- minimum threshold for digital readout per pixel. The sensor is capable of detecting both electrons and ions drifting in gas. These characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.

  13. Fabrication of Direct Silicon Bonded Hybrid Orientation Substrate by Separation by Implanted Oxygen Layer Transfer and Oxide Dissolution Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xing; Xue, Zhongying; Wu, Aimin; Cao, Gongbai; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Chenglu; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Xi

    2011-03-01

    The quasi direct Si bonded (DSB) hybrid orientation substrate with a 3 nm interfacial oxide layer between the (100) superficial Si and the (110) handle wafer is fabricated by the separation by implanted oxygen layer transfer (SLT) process. The quasi DSB hybrid orientation substrates are annealed in oxygen-containing and oxygen-free ambient. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) results show the oxide-free (100) Si/(110) Si bonding interface, indicating that the direct Si-Si bonded structure is realized by these two processes. The anisotropic bonding interface morphology of the DSB hybrid orientation substrates is observed, and the formation mechanism is discussed in detail.

  14. Solid-Sampling Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry for Direct Determination of Total Oxygen in Coal.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Thomas; Bauer, Daniela; Nennstiel, David; Otto, Matthias

    2015-10-20

    A new analytical method for direct determination of total oxygen contents in eight coal samples of the Argonne Premium Coal (APC) series and in the NIST SRM 1632d is presented. The development of a suitable calibration procedure, optimization of measurement conditions, and the application of a tailored data processing for handling of plasma effects and high blanks enable the quantification of oxygen simultaneously with other trace, minor, or major elements in whole coal samples by means of electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ETV-ICP OES). For comparison, the oxygen contents were determined by a direct oxygen analyzer. The obtained oxygen values of the APC and the reference material NIST SRM 1632d were compared to data in the literature. The precision of the ETV-ICP OES was within ±3.5%, and the recovery better than 92%. With this good accuracy, the developed direct solid sampling method ETV-ICP OES is well suited for the fast determination of oxygen in coals, varying in rank from lignite to semianthracite, in a content range of about 100 ppm up to 27% using 1.5 mg sample weight. This direct analysis method represents an accurate, advantageous alternative to currently used methods for estimation of total oxygen contents in coals.

  15. The growth of urchin-like Co3O4 directly on sensor substrate and its gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Shui Fa; Xu, Mei Li; Lin, Dong Bao; Pan, Hai Bo

    2017-02-01

    Urchin-like Co3O4 has successfully grown directly on ITO glass and sensor ceramic substrate through hydrothermal reaction followed by calcination. The combined characterizations of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that the as-prepared product possesses good crystallinity, large specific surface area and urchin-like morphology which is greatly influenced by the reaction additives. The sensor with urchin-like Co3O4 growing directly on ceramic sensor tube exhibits higher response sensitivity than the sensors fabricated with other morphological Co3O4 or by traditional coating method.

  16. High-resolution compact shear stress sensor for direct measurement of skin friction in fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Muchen; Kim, Chang-Jin ``Cj''

    2015-11-01

    The high-resolution measurement of skin friction in complex flows has long been of great interest but also a challenge in fluid mechanics. Compared with indirect measurement methods (e.g., laser Doppler velocimetry), direct measurement methods (e.g., floating element) do not involve any analogy and assumption but tend to suffer from instrumentation challenges, such as low sensing resolution or misalignments. Recently, silicon micromachined floating plates showed good resolution and perfect alignment but were too small for general purposes and too fragile to attach other surface samples repeatedly. In this work, we report a skin friction sensor consisting of a monolithic floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder to measure its displacement. The key for the high resolution is in the suspension beams, which are very narrow (e.g., 0.25 mm) to sense small frictions along the flow direction but thick (e.g., 5 mm) to be robust along all other directions. This compact, low profile, and complete sensor is easy to use and allows repeated attachment and detachment of surface samples. The sheer-stress sensor has been tested in water tunnel and towing tank at different flow conditions, showing high sensing resolution for skin friction measurement. Supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) (No. 1336966) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (No. HR0011-15-2-0021).

  17. All-Direction Random Routing for Source-Location Privacy Protecting against Parasitic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na; Zeng, Jiwen

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are deployed to monitor the surrounding physical environments and they also act as the physical environments of parasitic sensor networks, whose purpose is analyzing the contextual privacy and obtaining valuable information from the original wireless sensor networks. Recently, contextual privacy issues associated with wireless communication in open spaces have not been thoroughly addressed and one of the most important challenges is protecting the source locations of the valuable packages. In this paper, we design an all-direction random routing algorithm (ARR) for source-location protecting against parasitic sensor networks. For each package, the routing process of ARR is divided into three stages, i.e., selecting a proper agent node, delivering the package to the agent node from the source node, and sending it to the final destination from the agent node. In ARR, the agent nodes are randomly chosen in all directions by the source nodes using only local decisions, rather than knowing the whole topology of the networks. ARR can control the distributions of the routing paths in a very flexible way and it can guarantee that the routing paths with the same source and destination are totally different from each other. Therefore, it is extremely difficult for the parasitic sensor nodes to trace the packages back to the source nodes. Simulation results illustrate that ARR perfectly confuses the parasitic nodes and obviously outperforms traditional routing-based schemes in protecting source-location privacy, with a marginal increase in the communication overhead and energy consumption. In addition, ARR also requires much less energy than the cloud-based source-location privacy protection schemes. PMID:28304367

  18. All-Direction Random Routing for Source-Location Privacy Protecting against Parasitic Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zeng, Jiwen

    2017-03-17

    Wireless sensor networks are deployed to monitor the surrounding physical environments and they also act as the physical environments of parasitic sensor networks, whose purpose is analyzing the contextual privacy and obtaining valuable information from the original wireless sensor networks. Recently, contextual privacy issues associated with wireless communication in open spaces have not been thoroughly addressed and one of the most important challenges is protecting the source locations of the valuable packages. In this paper, we design an all-direction random routing algorithm (ARR) for source-location protecting against parasitic sensor networks. For each package, the routing process of ARR is divided into three stages, i.e., selecting a proper agent node, delivering the package to the agent node from the source node, and sending it to the final destination from the agent node. In ARR, the agent nodes are randomly chosen in all directions by the source nodes using only local decisions, rather than knowing the whole topology of the networks. ARR can control the distributions of the routing paths in a very flexible way and it can guarantee that the routing paths with the same source and destination are totally different from each other. Therefore, it is extremely difficult for the parasitic sensor nodes to trace the packages back to the source nodes. Simulation results illustrate that ARR perfectly confuses the parasitic nodes and obviously outperforms traditional routing-based schemes in protecting source-location privacy, with a marginal increase in the communication overhead and energy consumption. In addition, ARR also requires much less energy than the cloud-based source-location privacy protection schemes.

  19. Oxygen transport properties estimation by classical trajectory–direct simulation Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2015-05-15

    Coupling direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations with classical trajectory calculations is a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational dilute gas dynamics. The considerable increase in computational effort outlined in early applications of the method can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, Graphics Processing Unit acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time of classical trajectory (CT)-DSMC simulations. The aim of the present work is to study dilute molecular oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions, in the rigid rotor approximation, through an accurate Potential Energy Surface (PES), obtained by molecular beams scattering. The PES accuracy is assessed by calculating molecular oxygen transport properties by different equilibrium and non-equilibrium CT-DSMC based simulations that provide close values of the transport properties. Comparisons with available experimental data are presented and discussed in the temperature range 300–900 K, where vibrational degrees of freedom are expected to play a limited (but not always negligible) role.

  20. Direct measurement of local oxygen concentration in the bone marrow of live animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Joel A.; Ferraro, Francesca; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Klein, Alyssa; Wu, Juwell; Runnels, Judith M.; Zaher, Walid; Mortensen, Luke J.; Alt, Clemens; Turcotte, Raphaël; Yusuf, Rushdia; Côté, Daniel; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Scadden, David T.; Lin, Charles P.

    2014-04-01

    Characterization of how the microenvironment, or niche, regulates stem cell activity is central to understanding stem cell biology and to developing strategies for the therapeutic manipulation of stem cells. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is commonly thought to be a shared niche characteristic in maintaining quiescence in multiple stem cell types. However, support for the existence of a hypoxic niche has largely come from indirect evidence such as proteomic analysis, expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) and related genes, and staining with surrogate hypoxic markers (for example, pimonidazole). Here we perform direct in vivo measurements of local oxygen tension (pO2) in the bone marrow of live mice. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy, we determined the absolute pO2 of the bone marrow to be quite low (<32 mm Hg) despite very high vascular density. We further uncovered heterogeneities in local pO2, with the lowest pO2 (~9.9 mm Hg, or 1.3%) found in deeper peri-sinusoidal regions. The endosteal region, by contrast, is less hypoxic as it is perfused with small arteries that are often positive for the marker nestin. These pO2 values change markedly after radiation and chemotherapy, pointing to the role of stress in altering the stem cell metabolic microenvironment.

  1. Oxygen transport properties estimation by classical trajectory-direct simulation Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo; Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Coupling direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations with classical trajectory calculations is a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational dilute gas dynamics. The considerable increase in computational effort outlined in early applications of the method can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, Graphics Processing Unit acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time of classical trajectory (CT)-DSMC simulations. The aim of the present work is to study dilute molecular oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions, in the rigid rotor approximation, through an accurate Potential Energy Surface (PES), obtained by molecular beams scattering. The PES accuracy is assessed by calculating molecular oxygen transport properties by different equilibrium and non-equilibrium CT-DSMC based simulations that provide close values of the transport properties. Comparisons with available experimental data are presented and discussed in the temperature range 300-900 K, where vibrational degrees of freedom are expected to play a limited (but not always negligible) role.

  2. A macroporous TiO2 oxygen sensor fabricated using anodic aluminium oxide as an etching mask.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Yong-Sheng; Huang, Jun-Wei; Chang, Chien-Kuo; Wu, Sheng-Po

    2010-01-01

    An innovative fabrication method to produce a macroporous Si surface by employing an anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) nanopore array layer as an etching template is presented. Combining AAO with a reactive ion etching (RIE) processes, a homogeneous and macroporous silicon surface can be effectively configured by modulating AAO process parameters and alumina film thickness, thus hopefully replacing conventional photolithography and electrochemical etch methods. The hybrid process integration is considered fully CMOS compatible thanks to the low-temperature AAO and CMOS processes. The gas-sensing characteristics of 50 nm TiO(2) nanofilms deposited on the macroporous surface are compared with those of conventional plain (or non-porous) nanofilms to verify reduced response noise and improved sensitivity as a result of their macroporosity. Our experimental results reveal that macroporous geometry of the TiO(2) chemoresistive gas sensor demonstrates 2-fold higher (∼33%) improved sensitivity than a non-porous sensor at different levels of oxygen exposure. In addition, the macroporous device exhibits excellent discrimination capability and significantly lessened response noise at 500 °C. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid process of such miniature and macroporous devices are compatible as well as applicable to integrated next generation bio-chemical sensors.

  3. A Macroporous TiO2 Oxygen Sensor Fabricated Using Anodic Aluminium Oxide as an Etching Mask

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Yong-Sheng; Huang, Jun-Wei; Chang, Chien-Kuo; Wu, Sheng-Po

    2010-01-01

    An innovative fabrication method to produce a macroporous Si surface by employing an anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) nanopore array layer as an etching template is presented. Combining AAO with a reactive ion etching (RIE) processes, a homogeneous and macroporous silicon surface can be effectively configured by modulating AAO process parameters and alumina film thickness, thus hopefully replacing conventional photolithography and electrochemical etch methods. The hybrid process integration is considered fully CMOS compatible thanks to the low-temperature AAO and CMOS processes. The gas-sensing characteristics of 50 nm TiO2 nanofilms deposited on the macroporous surface are compared with those of conventional plain (or non-porous) nanofilms to verify reduced response noise and improved sensitivity as a result of their macroporosity. Our experimental results reveal that macroporous geometry of the TiO2 chemoresistive gas sensor demonstrates 2-fold higher (∼33%) improved sensitivity than a non-porous sensor at different levels of oxygen exposure. In addition, the macroporous device exhibits excellent discrimination capability and significantly lessened response noise at 500 °C. Experimental results indicate that the hybrid process of such miniature and macroporous devices are compatible as well as applicable to integrated next generation bio-chemical sensors. PMID:22315561

  4. Determination of dissolved oxygen in the cryosphere: a comprehensive laboratory and field evaluation of fiber optic sensors.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, E A; Wadham, J L; Mowlem, M; Tranter, M; Eveness, J; Fountain, A G; Telling, J

    2011-01-15

    Recent advances in the Cryospheric Sciences have shown that icy environments are host to consortia of microbial communities, whose function and dynamics are often controlled by the concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) in solution. To date, only limited spot determinations of DO have been possible in these environments. They reveal the potential for rates of change that exceed realistic manual sampling rates, highlighting the need to explore methods for the continuous measurement of DO concentrations. We report the first comprehensive field and laboratory performance tests of fiber-optic sensors (PreSens, Regensburg, Germany) for measuring DO in icy ecosystems. A series of laboratory tests performed at low and standard temperatures (-5 to 20 °C) demonstrates high precision (0.3% at 50 μmol/kg and 1.3% at 300 μmol/kg), rapid response times (<20 s), and minimal drift (<0.4%). Survival of freeze thaw was problematic, unless the sensor film was mechanically fixed to the fiber and protected by a stainless steel sheath. Results of two field deployments of sensors to the Swiss Alps and Antarctica largely demonstrate a performance consistent with laboratory tests and superior to traditional methods.

  5. Accuracy and Resolution Analysis of a Direct Resistive Sensor Array to FPGA Interface.

    PubMed

    Oballe-Peinado, Óscar; Vidal-Verdú, Fernando; Sánchez-Durán, José A; Castellanos-Ramos, Julián; Hidalgo-López, José A

    2016-02-01

    Resistive sensor arrays are formed by a large number of individual sensors which are distributed in different ways. This paper proposes a direct connection between an FPGA and a resistive array distributed in M rows and N columns, without the need of analog-to-digital converters to obtain resistance values in the sensor and where the conditioning circuit is reduced to the use of a capacitor in each of the columns of the matrix. The circuit allows parallel measurements of the N resistors which form each of the rows of the array, eliminating the resistive crosstalk which is typical of these circuits. This is achieved by an addressing technique which does not require external elements to the FPGA. Although the typical resistive crosstalk between resistors which are measured simultaneously is eliminated, other elements that have an impact on the measurement of discharge times appear in the proposed architecture and, therefore, affect the uncertainty in resistance value measurements; these elements need to be studied. Finally, the performance of different calibration techniques is assessed experimentally on a discrete resistor array, obtaining for a new model of calibration, a maximum relative error of 0.066% in a range of resistor values which correspond to a tactile sensor.

  6. Automated and angular time-synchronized directional gamma-ray scintillation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G.J.

    1998-12-31

    The authors` previous research resulted in directional sensors for gamma rays and X rays that have a 4{pi} solid angle of acceptance and, at the same time, a high angular resolution that is limited only by their ability to measure small angles. Angular resolution of {approximately}1 s of arc was achieved. These sensors are capable of operating and accurately detecting high and very low intensity radiation patterns. Such a system can also be used to image broad area sources and their scattering patterns. The principle of operation and design of directional sensors used in this study was described elsewhere; however, for convenience, a part of that text is repeated here. It was shown analytically that the angular distribution of radiation incident on the sensor is proportional to the first derivative of the scan data, that is, of the events` count rate versus orientation of the detector. The previously published results were obtained with a annual operating system. The detector assembly was set at a specific angle, and a pulse rate count was made. This was repeated at numerous other angles of orientation, a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Recently, the authors automated this system, which is based on the detection of scintillations. The detector, which consists of a stack of plates of Lucite, plastic scintillator, and lead foils, rotates by means of a motor in front of a stationary photomultiplier tube (PMT). One revolution per second was chosen for the motor. At time zero, a trigger indicates that a revolution has started. The angle of orientation of the detector in the laboratory system is proportional to the time during one revolution. The process repeats itself a desired number of times. The trigger signal initiates a scan of a multichannel scalar (MCS). The detector assembly is allowed to rotate in the radiation field, and the MCS scans are repeated in an accumulated mode of operation until enough events are collected for the location of the

  7. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of

  8. Injectable LiNc-BuO loaded microspheres as in vivo EPR oxygen sensors after co-implantation with tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Frank, Juliane; Gündel, Daniel; Drescher, Simon; Thews, Oliver; Mäder, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is a technique which allows accurate and repeatable oxygen measurements. We encapsulated a highly oxygen sensitive particulate EPR spin probe into microparticles to improve its dispersibility and, hence, facilitate the administration. These biocompatible, non-toxic microspheres contained 5-10 % (w/w) spin probe and had an oxygen sensitivity of 0.60 ± 0.01 µT/mmHg. To evaluate the performance of the microparticles as oxygen sensors, they were co-implanted with syngeneic tumor cells in 2 different rat strains. Thus, tissue injury was avoided and the microparticles were distributed all over the tumor tissue. Dynamic changes of the intratumoral oxygen partial pressure during inhalation of 8 %, 21 %, or 100 % oxygen were monitored in vivo by EPR spectroscopy and quantified. Values were verified in vivo by invasive fluorometric measurements using Oxylite probes and ex vivo by pimonidazole adduct accumulation. There were no hints that the tumor physiology or tissue oxygenation had been altered by the microparticles. Hence, these microprobes offer great potential as oxygen sensors in preclinical research, not only for EPR spectroscopy but also for EPR imaging. For instance, the assessment of tissue oxygenation during therapeutic interventions might help understanding pathophysiological processes and lead to an individualized treatment planning or the use of formulations with hypoxia triggered release of active agents.

  9. Raman-based Oxygen and Nitrogen Sensor for Monitoring Empty Airplane Fuel Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a Raman-based method for detecting oxygen and nitrogen in empty fuel tanks. The need for such a method comes from the potential danger of allowing explosive oxygen-fuel mixtures to accumulate in empty airplane fuel tanks. An explosion resulting from such a mixture is believed to have caused the Flight TWA 800 disaster in 1996. Recently, (e.g., February 17,2004 press release) the FAA announced its intentions to make fuel tank inerting mandatory. One potential solution to this problem is to use an inert gas such as nitrogen to flood the empty fue1 tanks in order to reduce the concentration of oxygen.

  10. Oligomeric state affects oxygen dissociation and diguanylate cyclase activity of globin coupled sensors.

    PubMed

    Burns, Justin L; Deer, D Douglas; Weinert, Emily E

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation is regulated by enzymes, such as diguanylate cyclases, that respond to environmental signals and alter c-di-GMP levels. Diguanylate cyclase activity of two globin coupled sensors is shown to be regulated by gaseous ligands, with cyclase activity and O2 dissociation affected by protein oligomeric state.

  11. Direct single-molecule observation of calcium-dependent misfolding in human neuronal calcium sensor-1

    PubMed Central

    Heidarsson, Pétur O.; Naqvi, Mohsin M.; Otazo, Mariela R.; Mossa, Alessandro; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Cecconi, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are strongly linked to protein misfolding, and crucial to their explication is a detailed understanding of the underlying structural rearrangements and pathways that govern the formation of misfolded states. Here we use single-molecule optical tweezers to monitor misfolding reactions of the human neuronal calcium sensor-1, a multispecific EF-hand protein involved in neurotransmitter release and linked to severe neurological diseases. We directly observed two misfolding trajectories leading to distinct kinetically trapped misfolded conformations. Both trajectories originate from an on-pathway intermediate state and compete with native folding in a calcium-dependent manner. The relative probability of the different trajectories could be affected by modulating the relaxation rate of applied force, demonstrating an unprecedented real-time control over the free-energy landscape of a protein. Constant-force experiments in combination with hidden Markov analysis revealed the free-energy landscape of the misfolding transitions under both physiological and pathological calcium concentrations. Remarkably for a calcium sensor, we found that higher calcium concentrations increased the lifetimes of the misfolded conformations, slowing productive folding to the native state. We propose a rugged, multidimensional energy landscape for neuronal calcium sensor-1 and speculate on a direct link between protein misfolding and calcium dysregulation that could play a role in neurodegeneration. PMID:25157171

  12. A mitochondrial redox oxygen sensor in the pulmonary vasculature and ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J; Hong, Zhigang G; Xiong, Ping Y; Del Paggio, Joseph C; Herr, Julia E; Johri, Amer M; Archer, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian homeostatic oxygen sensing system (HOSS) initiates changes in vascular tone, respiration, and neurosecretion that optimize oxygen uptake and tissue oxygen delivery within seconds of detecting altered environmental or arterial PO2. The HOSS includes carotid body type 1 cells, adrenomedullary cells, neuroepithelial bodies, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in pulmonary arteries (PAs), ductus arteriosus (DA), and fetoplacental arteries. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes ventilation-perfusion matching. In utero, HPV diverts placentally oxygenated blood from the non-ventilated lung through the DA. At birth, increased alveolar and arterial oxygen tension dilates the pulmonary vasculature and constricts the DA, respectively, thereby transitioning the newborn to an air-breathing organism. Though modulated by endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors, O2 sensing is intrinsic to PASMCs and DASMCs. Within the SMC's dynamic mitochondrial network, changes in PO2 alter the reduction-oxidation state of redox couples (NAD(+)/NADH, NADP(+)/NADPH) and the production of reactive oxygen species, ROS (e.g., H2O2), by complexes I and III of the electron transport chain (ETC). ROS and redox couples regulate ion channels, transporters, and enzymes, changing intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i and calcium sensitivity and eliciting homeostatic responses to hypoxia. In PASMCs, hypoxia inhibits ROS production and reduces redox couples, thereby inhibiting O2-sensitive voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, depolarizing the plasma membrane, activating voltage-gated calcium channels (CaL), increasing [Ca(2+)]i, and causing vasoconstriction. In DASMCs, elevated PO2 causes mitochondrial fission, increasing ETC complex I activity and ROS production. The DASMC's downstream response to elevated PO2 (Kv channel inhibition, CaL activation, increased [Ca(2+)]i, and rho kinase activation) is similar to the PASMC's hypoxic response. Impaired O2 sensing contributes to

  13. Sympatho-excitatory neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla are oxygen sensors and essential elements in the tonic and reflex control of the systemic and cerebral circulations.

    PubMed

    Reis, D J; Golanov, E V; Ruggiero, D A; Sun, M K

    1994-12-01

    MEDULLARY ROSTRAL VENTROLATERAL RETICULAR NUCLEUS (RVL): Reticulospinal neurons are critical to control of the circulation by the brain. Its actions are implemented by a few reticulospinal neurons, 200 in the rat. These directly innervate and excite preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord by releasing L-glutamate. The RVL-spinal sympathetic premotor neurons are innervated by neurochemically diverse afferents from local and remote sources. They maintain arterial pressure tonically, mediate vasomotor reflexes elicited by stimulation of baro- or chemoreceptors or in response to pain or muscular exercise, and couple vasomotor responses to defense and conditioned fear behaviors. RVL-spinal neurons are central oxygen sensors, directly excited by hypoxia, and initiate sympathetic responses to cerebral ischemia or distortion (Cushing reflex). Stimulation of the RVL directly elevates cerebral flow independently of metabolism and initiates much of the cerebrovascular vasodilation in response to hypoxemia. RVL-SPINAL NEURONS IN RELATION TO HYPERTENSION AND SHOCK: RVL-spinal neurons are sites of action for many centrally acting antihypertensive drugs and some vasoactive hormones. Their integrity is required for expression of the elevated arterial pressure in neurogenic hypertension and for the compensatory sympathetic responses to hemorrhage. We propose that RVL-spinal neurons (1) maintain the activity of sympathetic neurons in mid-range amplifying, thereby, their signaling capacities; (2) initiate and integrate circulatory responses to a lack of oxygen so as to protect the brain from real or threatened hypoxia; (3) maintain, by tonic activity, normal expression of genes and gene products of central and peripheral sympathetic neurons and their peripheral targets that relate to their structure and neurotransmission-associated functions.

  14. High sensitivity sensor for continuous direct measurement of bipolar charged aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Karen; Jones, Chris; Fletcher-Wood, Guy

    2008-12-01

    The disruptive generation of aerosols is known to cause particles to carry electrostatic charges. Anthropogenic aerosol may have a standard deviation of charges when generated that is different to other sources or equilibrated aerosols. A simple, low cost 'Bipolar Charged Aerosol Sensor' (BCAS) has been developed to continuously measure charged aerosol in the ambient environment in real-time. Direct measurement of the current released from the charged aerosol particles when they deposit onto an electrode in a DC field is achieved using custom designed, sensitive electrometers. The mobility range of particles collected is defined by the DC field strength, air flow rate through the instrument and the electrode geometry. The mobility range of interest has been selected based on measurements made previously with a complex Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) based instrument. The BCAS has been assessed in laboratory. The sensor design and initial measurement data will be discussed.

  15. 76 FR 12556 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Transport Category Airplanes Equipped With Chemical Oxygen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Category Airplanes Equipped With Chemical Oxygen Generators Installed in a Lavatory AGENCY: Federal... affected airplanes identified above. This AD requires modifying the chemical oxygen generators in the lavatory. This AD was prompted by reports that the current design of these oxygen generators presents...

  16. Luminescent metal-organic framework films as highly sensitive and fast-response oxygen sensors.

    PubMed

    Dou, Zhongshang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Yang, Deren; Qian, Guodong

    2014-04-16

    Luminescent metal-organic framework films, CPM-5⊃Tb(3+) and MIL-100(In)⊃Tb(3+), have been constructed by postfunctionalization of two porous indium-organic frameworks with different structures, respectively. The MIL-100(In)⊃Tb(3+) film shows high oxygen sensitivity (KSV = 7.59) and short response/recovery time (6 s/53 s).

  17. The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    The experiment of determination of the percent of oxygen in air is performed in a general chemistry laboratory in which students compare the results calculated from the pressure measurements obtained with the calculator-based systems to those obtained in a water-measurement method. This experiment allows students to explore a fundamental reaction…

  18. Non-Invasive NIR Sensor for Quantification of Deep Tissue Oxygenation. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    be determined by differential absorption spectroscopy using two wavelengths, 0/oSat- ga(, l)/p[a(X2)I [ Hielscher , et al., 1993; Haida and Chance...Biol 345:829-35, 1994. Hielscher AH, Tittel FK, and Jacques SL: Non-invasive monitoring of blood oxygenation by phase resolved transmission spectroscopy

  19. A non-invasive fluorescence-based oxygen sensor and platform for studying cell responses to metabolic agents in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchapudi, Koutilya Reddy

    A fluorescence-based sensor in a transverse flow/stop measurement platform has been developed to determine real-time changes in oxygen consumption rates for cell metabolic studies. The oxygen sensitive fluorophore platinum octaethylporphyrin was embedded in a cellulose acetate matrix and affixed to a fiber optic bundle, which provided for transmission of the excitation and emission wavelengths of the film. The fiber optic bundle was sealed in a sensor head that can be used in standard 24-well plates common to research labs. The utility of the sensor and sensing platform were determined by measuring the changes in oxygen consumption rates of Candida albicans during 90/30 s flow/stop cycles. Exposure of these cells to metabolic antagonists and an enhancer showed the expected decrease and increase in oxygen consumption rates in real time. The applicability of the platform to biological studies is illustrated by determination of synergistic activities between antifungal drugs and fluoride exposure in Candida albicans. The robustness of the fluorophore film is demonstrated by perfusion with different media and analyte conditions in the absence of cells. For stop cycle time intervals less than 1 minute the sensor exhibited a rapid and fairly linear change in fluorescence intensity to changing oxygen concentrations in the measurement chamber. Flow cycle fluorescence intensities were used as a baseline correction for treating the stop cycle fluorescence peaks.

  20. Cell death induced by direct laser activation of singlet oxygen at 1270 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anquez, F.; El Yazidi Belkoura, I.; Suret, P.; Randoux, S.; Courtade, E.

    2013-02-01

    Singlet oxygen plays a major role in many chemical and biological photo-oxidation processes. It has a high chemical reactivity, which is commonly harnessed for therapeutic issues. Indeed, singlet oxygen is recognized as the major cytotoxic agent in photodynamic therapy. In this treatment of cancer, singlet oxygen is created, among other reactive species, by an indirect transfer of energy from light to molecular oxygen via excitation of a photosensitizer. In this paper, we show that the conventional singlet oxygen production scheme can be simplified. Production of singlet oxygen is achieved in living cells from photosensitizer-free 1270 nm laser excitation of the electronic ground state of molecular oxygen. The quantity of singlet oxygen produced in this way is sufficient to induce an oxidative stress leading to cell death. Other effects such as thermal stress are discriminated, and we conclude that cell death is only due to singlet oxygen creation. This new simplified scheme of singlet oxygen activation can be seen as a breakthrough for phototherapies of malignant diseases and/or as a non-invasive possibility to generate reactive oxygen species in a tightly controlled manner.

  1. A Method to Perform Direct Oxygen Analysis on Lunar Simulants and Other Complex Oxide Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    An essential requirement for making space travel and long term missions more efficient and affordable to NASA includes finding innovative ways to supply oxygen for life support and propulsion. In this experiment, carrier gas hot extraction was investigated as a possible method for measuring the oxygen from samples of lunar soil simulants before and after oxygen extraction. The determination of oxygen using the R0600 Oxygen Determinator is usually limited to oxides with low oxygen concentrations, but after the manipulation of certain furnace operating parameters such as analysis time and ramp rate, the R0600 was used to determine the oxygen content of high concentration oxides such as Fe 2O3 , Al2O3 , and SiO2.

  2. Role of distal arginine in early sensing intermediates in the heme domain of the oxygen sensor FixL.

    PubMed

    Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Balland, Veronique; Vos, Marten H; Liebl, Ursula

    2006-05-16

    FixL is a bacterial heme-based oxygen sensor, in which release of oxygen from the sensing PAS domain leads to activation of an associated kinase domain. Static structural studies have suggested an important role of the conserved residue arginine 220 in signal transmission at the level of the heme domain. To assess the role of this residue in the dynamics and properties of the initial intermediates in ligand release, we have investigated the effects of R220X (X = I, Q, E, H, or A) mutations in the FixLH heme domain on the dynamics and spectral properties of the heme upon photolysis of O(2), NO, and CO using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparison of transient spectra for CO and NO dissociation with steady-state spectra indicated less strain on the heme in the ligand dissociation species for all mutants compared to the wild type (WT). For CO and NO, the kinetics were similar to those of the wild type, with the exception of (1) a relatively low yield of picosecond NO rebinding to R220A, presumably related to the increase in the free volume of the heme pocket, and (2) substantial pH-dependent picosecond to nanosecond rebinding of CO to R220H, related to formation of a hydrogen bond between CO and histidine 220. Upon excitation of the complex bound with the physiological sensor ligand O(2), a 5-8 ps decay phase and a nondecaying (>4 ns) phase were observed for WT and all mutants. The strong distortion of the spectrum associated with the decay phase in WT is substantially diminished in all mutant proteins, indicating an R220-induced role of the heme in the primary intermediate in signal transmission. Furthermore, the yield of dissociated oxygen after this phase ( approximately 10% in WT) is increased in all mutants, up to almost unity in R220A, indicating a key role of R220 in caging the oxygen near the heme through hydrogen bonding. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborate these findings and suggest motions of O(2) and arginine 220 away from the heme

  3. Soft Nanocomposite Based Multi-point, Multi-directional Strain Mapping Sensor Using Anisotropic Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyosang; Kwon, Donguk; Cho, Haedo; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Jung

    2017-01-25

    The practical utilization of soft nanocomposites as a strain mapping sensor in tactile sensors and artificial skins requires robustness for various contact conditions as well as low-cost fabrication process for large three dimensional surfaces. In this work, we propose a multi-point and multi-directional strain mapping sensor based on multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-silicone elastomer nanocomposites and anisotropic electrical impedance tomography (aEIT). Based on the anisotropic resistivity of the sensor, aEIT technique can reconstruct anisotropic resistivity distributions using electrodes around the sensor boundary. This strain mapping sensor successfully estimated stretch displacements (error of 0.54 ± 0.53 mm), surface normal forces (error of 0.61 ± 0.62 N), and multi-point contact locations (error of 1.88 ± 0.95 mm in 30 mm × 30 mm area for a planar shaped sensor and error of 4.80 ± 3.05 mm in 40 mm × 110 mm area for a three dimensional contoured sensor). In addition, the direction of lateral stretch was also identified by reconstructing anisotropic distributions of electrical resistivity. Finally, a soft human-machine interface device was demonstrated as a practical application of the developed sensor.

  4. Soft Nanocomposite Based Multi-point, Multi-directional Strain Mapping Sensor Using Anisotropic Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyosang; Kwon, Donguk; Cho, Haedo; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Jung

    2017-01-01

    The practical utilization of soft nanocomposites as a strain mapping sensor in tactile sensors and artificial skins requires robustness for various contact conditions as well as low-cost fabrication process for large three dimensional surfaces. In this work, we propose a multi-point and multi-directional strain mapping sensor based on multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-silicone elastomer nanocomposites and anisotropic electrical impedance tomography (aEIT). Based on the anisotropic resistivity of the sensor, aEIT technique can reconstruct anisotropic resistivity distributions using electrodes around the sensor boundary. This strain mapping sensor successfully estimated stretch displacements (error of 0.54 ± 0.53 mm), surface normal forces (error of 0.61 ± 0.62 N), and multi-point contact locations (error of 1.88 ± 0.95 mm in 30 mm × 30 mm area for a planar shaped sensor and error of 4.80 ± 3.05 mm in 40 mm × 110 mm area for a three dimensional contoured sensor). In addition, the direction of lateral stretch was also identified by reconstructing anisotropic distributions of electrical resistivity. Finally, a soft human-machine interface device was demonstrated as a practical application of the developed sensor. PMID:28120886

  5. Soft Nanocomposite Based Multi-point, Multi-directional Strain Mapping Sensor Using Anisotropic Electrical Impedance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyosang; Kwon, Donguk; Cho, Haedo; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Jung

    2017-01-01

    The practical utilization of soft nanocomposites as a strain mapping sensor in tactile sensors and artificial skins requires robustness for various contact conditions as well as low-cost fabrication process for large three dimensional surfaces. In this work, we propose a multi-point and multi-directional strain mapping sensor based on multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-silicone elastomer nanocomposites and anisotropic electrical impedance tomography (aEIT). Based on the anisotropic resistivity of the sensor, aEIT technique can reconstruct anisotropic resistivity distributions using electrodes around the sensor boundary. This strain mapping sensor successfully estimated stretch displacements (error of 0.54 ± 0.53 mm), surface normal forces (error of 0.61 ± 0.62 N), and multi-point contact locations (error of 1.88 ± 0.95 mm in 30 mm × 30 mm area for a planar shaped sensor and error of 4.80 ± 3.05 mm in 40 mm × 110 mm area for a three dimensional contoured sensor). In addition, the direction of lateral stretch was also identified by reconstructing anisotropic distributions of electrical resistivity. Finally, a soft human-machine interface device was demonstrated as a practical application of the developed sensor.

  6. TiO2 nanotube sensor for online chemical oxygen demand determination in conjunction with flow injection technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejin; Yin, Weiping; Li, Jianyong; Bai, Jing; Huang, Ke; Li, Jinhua; Zhou, Baoxue

    2014-06-01

    A simple, rapid and environmental friendly online chemical oxygen demand (COD) analytical method based on TiO2 nanotube sensor in conjunction with the flow injection technique was proposed to determine the COD of aqueous samples, especially for refractory organics, low-concentration wastewater, and surface water. The new method can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional COD determination methods. The results show that with the new method, each analysis takes only about 1 to 3 min, the linear range is up to 1 to 500 mg x L(-1) of the compound of interest, and the detection limit is 1 mg x L(-1). The COD values obtained by the proposed method are more accurate than those obtained by the conventional method.

  7. How bold is blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging of the kidney? Opportunities, challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Niendorf, T; Pohlmann, A; Arakelyan, K; Flemming, B; Cantow, K; Hentschel, J; Grosenick, D; Ladwig, M; Reimann, H; Klix, S; Waiczies, S; Seeliger, E

    2015-01-01

    Renal tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia are key elements in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury and its progression to chronic kidney disease. Yet, in vivo assessment of renal haemodynamics and tissue oxygenation remains a challenge. Many of the established approaches are invasive, hence not applicable in humans. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers an alternative. BOLD-MRI is non-invasive and indicative of renal tissue oxygenation. Nonetheless, recent (pre-) clinical studies revived the question as to how bold renal BOLD-MRI really is. This review aimed to deliver some answers. It is designed to inspire the renal physiology, nephrology and imaging communities to foster explorations into the assessment of renal oxygenation and haemodynamics by exploiting the powers of MRI. For this purpose, the specifics of renal oxygenation and perfusion are outlined. The fundamentals of BOLD-MRI are summarized. The link between tissue oxygenation and the oxygenation-sensitive MR biomarker T2∗ is outlined. The merits and limitations of renal BOLD-MRI in animal and human studies are surveyed together with their clinical implications. Explorations into detailing the relation between renal T2∗ and renal tissue partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 ) are discussed with a focus on factors confounding the T2∗ vs. tissue pO2 relation. Multi-modality in vivo approaches suitable for detailing the role of the confounding factors that govern T2∗ are considered. A schematic approach describing the link between renal perfusion, oxygenation, tissue compartments and renal T2∗ is proposed. Future directions of MRI assessment of renal oxygenation and perfusion are explored.

  8. Atomic Oxygen Sensors Based on Nanograin ZnO Films Prepared by Pulse Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yunfei; Chen Xuekang; Li Zhonghua; Zheng Kuohai; Wang Lanxi; Feng Zhanzu; Yang Shengsheng

    2009-01-05

    High-quality nanograin ZnO thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the samples. The structural and morphological properties of ZnO films under different deposition temperature have been investigated before and after atomic oxygen (AO) treatment. XRD has shown that the intensity of the (0 0 2) peak increases and its FWHM value decreases after AO treatment. The AO sensing characteristics of nano ZnO film also has been investigated in a ground-based atomic oxygen simulation facility. The results show that the electrical conductivity of nanograin ZnO films decreases with increasing AO fluence and that the conductivity of the films can be recovered by heating.

  9. High Frequency Magnetic Field Direction Finding Using MGL-S9A B-dot Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-21

    RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United ...States Air Force, the Department of Defense, or the United States Government. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-13-M-02 HIGH FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELD DIRECTION FINDING USING MGL-S8A B-DOT SENSORS THESIS

  10. Cavity Ring Down Absorption of Oxygen in Air as a Temperature Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanares, Carlos; Nyaupane, Parashu R.

    2016-06-01

    The A-band of oxygen has been measured at low resolution at temperatures between 90 K and 373 K using the phase shift cavity ring down (PS-CRD) technique. For temperatures between 90 K and 295 K, the PS-CRD technique presented here involves an optical cavity attached to a cryostat. The static cell and mirrors of the optical cavity are all inside a vacuum chamber at the same temperature of the cryostat. The temperature of the cell can be changed between 77 K and 295 K. For temperatures above 295 K, a hollow glass cylindrical tube without windows has been inserted inside an optical cavity to measure the temperature of air flowing through the tube. The cavity consists of two highly reflective mirrors which are mounted parallel to each other and separated by a distance of 93 cm. In this experiment, air is passed through a heated tube. The temperature of the air flowing through the tube is determined by measuring the intensity of the oxygen absorption as a function of the wavenumber. The A-band of oxygen is measured between 298 K and 373 K, with several air flow rates. Accuracy of the temperature measurement is determined by comparing the calculated temperature from the spectra with the temperature obtained from a calibrated thermocouple inserted at the center of the tube.

  11. Field demonstrations of a direct push FO-LIBS metal sensor.

    PubMed

    Mosier-Boss, P A; Lieberman, S H; Theriault, G A

    2002-09-15

    A direct push, FO-LIBS sensor probe for real-time, in-situ measurement of metals in soils has been built and its capabilities demonstrated at three sites. The response of the FO-LIBS sensor is affected by the soil matrix conditions of grain size, composition, and water content. For each site, uncontaminated soil was collected and spiked with known quantities of the metal under investigation. These calibration standards were used to generate a site-specific calibration curve, which compensates for variations in soil matrix conditions of grain size, composition, porosity, etc. To compensate for moisture content, extra laser pulses are used to volatilize the water, higher power densities and/or shortened acquisition delay times are used. The LIBS experiment inherently exhibits poor precision since it is a point measurement. When multiple spectra are taken of a single, homogenized soil sample, there is a significant amount of variability in the peak intensities. There is no internal standard available to correct for this variability. In this communication, it is shown that normalizing the peak areas under the spectral curves to one effectively corrects for variation due to differences in the plasma volume. Because the LIBS technique is essentially a point measurement the FO-LIBS sensor is used as a semiquantitative field screening tool and not as a quantitative analytical method. In the field demonstrations reported in this communication, remarkably good agreement between the in-situ FO-LIBS results and ICP lab results were obtained.

  12. The vector modulation method to make precise measurements with directional sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. S.; Lin, Y. R.; Deng, Z. L.

    2007-01-01

    The best plan to curtail measurement errors is to modulate the input signal before it enters a sensor. As far as linear directional sensors are concerned, VMM (the vector modulation method) can make the earliest modulation and appropriate demodulation to curtail measurement errors and then improve the precision of measurement. According to the modulation-demodulation principle and the linear system theory, especially the frequency-remaining character and the superposition theorem of linear systems, a precise response to the input signal will be resolved by means of demodulation. VMM curtails the main elements of errors, including quantization error and bias of a measurement system, along with bias, drift, noise and disturbance of sensors. Experiments measuring ERR (the Earth's rate of rotation) are presented, and a design for an experiment measuring gravitational acceleration with VMM is presented. The preliminary experiments have given positive support. VMM, which can remarkably get rid of errors, is much clearer in theory and easier to implement in engineering practice.

  13. Evaluation of direct push probes: Sensor interface analysis of DC resistivity probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Daniel; Bumberger, Jan; Paasche, Hendrik

    2015-11-01

    In near surface sedimentary exploration direct push technology has become popular for geophysical logging. The method is thought to have great potential to offer accurate information about the variability of physical parameters since the region of disturbed sedimentary formation due to probe injection is considered to be smaller compared to disturbances by classical borehole measurements. Technical and experimental design of direct push probes follow often those of established borehole probes. A systematic appraisal of the suitability of such tools for direct push logging procedure exposing the probes to a very high mechanical stress and rapid aging process has been missing in the past. Following a recently developed general framework for direct push system decomposition we analyze two different DC resistivity direct push probes with regard to their sensor interface. Simple laboratory experiments validate the setup of a numerical simulation of both probes revealing significant differences on the suitability of the chosen electrode arrangement. Differences in robustness with regard to surface abrasion result in changing probe responses which could, depending on the experimental design of the probe, cause resistivity value changes of almost 25% within approximately 15 operational hours, which leaves severe doubts about the suitability of established direct push logging probes for quantitative geophysical probing.

  14. Compact Reconfigurable Antenna with an Omnidirectional Pattern and Four Directional Patterns for Wireless Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ren; Wang, Bing-Zhong; Huang, Wei-Ying; Ding, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A compact reconfigurable antenna with an omnidirectional mode and four directional modes is proposed. The antenna has a main radiator and four parasitic elements printed on a dielectric substrate. By changing the status of diodes soldered on the parasitic elements, the proposed antenna can generate four directional radiation patterns and one omnidirectional radiation pattern. The main beam directions of the four directional modes are almost orthogonal and the four directional beams can jointly cover a 360° range in the horizontal plane, i.e., the main radiation plane of omnidirectional mode. The whole volume of the antenna and the control network is approximately 0.70 λ × 0.53 λ × 0.02 λ, where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency. The proposed antenna has a simple structure and small dimensions under the requirement that the directional radiation patterns can jointly cover the main radiation plane of the omnidirectional mode, therefore, it can be used in smart wireless sensor systems for different application scenarios. PMID:27092512

  15. Compact Reconfigurable Antenna with an Omnidirectional Pattern and Four Directional Patterns for Wireless Sensor Systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ren; Wang, Bing-Zhong; Huang, Wei-Ying; Ding, Xiao

    2016-04-16

    A compact reconfigurable antenna with an omnidirectional mode and four directional modes is proposed. The antenna has a main radiator and four parasitic elements printed on a dielectric substrate. By changing the status of diodes soldered on the parasitic elements, the proposed antenna can generate four directional radiation patterns and one omnidirectional radiation pattern. The main beam directions of the four directional modes are almost orthogonal and the four directional beams can jointly cover a 360° range in the horizontal plane, i.e., the main radiation plane of omnidirectional mode. The whole volume of the antenna and the control network is approximately 0.70 λ × 0.53 λ × 0.02 λ, where λ is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency. The proposed antenna has a simple structure and small dimensions under the requirement that the directional radiation patterns can jointly cover the main radiation plane of the omnidirectional mode, therefore, it can be used in smart wireless sensor systems for different application scenarios.

  16. Objectively Optimized Observation Direction System Providing Situational Awareness for a Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulov, O.; Lary, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    There is great utility in having a flexible and automated objective observation direction system for the decadal survey missions and beyond. Such a system allows us to optimize the observations made by suite of sensors to address specific goals from long term monitoring to rapid response. We have developed such a prototype using a network of communicating software elements to control a heterogeneous network of sensor systems, which can have multiple modes and flexible viewing geometries. Our system makes sensor systems intelligent and situationally aware. Together they form a sensor web of multiple sensors working together and capable of automated target selection, i.e. the sensors “know” where they are, what they are able to observe, what targets and with what priorities they should observe. This system is implemented in three components. The first component is a Sensor Web simulator. The Sensor Web simulator describes the capabilities and locations of each sensor as a function of time, whether they are orbital, sub-orbital, or ground based. The simulator has been implemented using AGIs Satellite Tool Kit (STK). STK makes it easy to analyze and visualize optimal solutions for complex space scenarios, and perform complex analysis of land, sea, air, space assets, and shares results in one integrated solution. The second component is target scheduler that was implemented with STK Scheduler. STK Scheduler is powered by a scheduling engine that finds better solutions in a shorter amount of time than traditional heuristic algorithms. The global search algorithm within this engine is based on neural network technology that is capable of finding solutions to larger and more complex problems and maximizing the value of limited resources. The third component is a modeling and data assimilation system. It provides situational awareness by supplying the time evolution of uncertainty and information content metrics that are used to tell us what we need to observe and the

  17. MoS{sub 2} oxygen sensor with gate voltage stress induced performance enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yu; Lin, Zhenhua; Thong, John T. L.; Chan, Daniel S. H.; Zhu, Chunxiang

    2015-09-21

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently attracted wide attention and rapidly established themselves in various applications. In particular, 2D materials are regarded as promising building blocks for gas sensors due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, ease in miniaturization, and flexibility in enabling wearable electronics. Compared with other 2D materials, MoS{sub 2} is particularly intriguing because it has been widely researched and exhibits semiconducting behavior. Here, we have fabricated MoS{sub 2} resistor based O{sub 2} sensors with a back gate configuration on a 285 nm SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The effects of applying back gate voltage stress on O{sub 2} sensing performance have been systematically investigated. With a positive gate voltage stress, the sensor response improves and the response is improved to 29.2% at O{sub 2} partial pressure of 9.9 × 10{sup −5} millibars with a +40 V back-gate bias compared to 21.2% at O{sub 2} partial pressure of 1.4 × 10{sup −4} millibars without back-gate bias; while under a negative gate voltage stress of −40 V, a fast and full recovery can be achieved at room temperature. In addition, a method in determining O{sub 2} partial pressure with a detectability as low as 6.7 × 10{sup −7} millibars at a constant vacuum pressure is presented and its potential as a vacuum gauge is briefly discussed.

  18. A miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on organic electrochemical transistor for sensitive determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jianjun; Lin, Shiwei; Zeng, Min; Yang, Yue

    2016-05-01

    A three-electrode configuration is often required in the conventional photoelectrochemical measurements. Nevertheless, one common drawback is the reference electrode and the counter electrode used in the measurements, which has been proved to be an impediment for the miniaturization. In this study, a simple, cost-effective and miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on high sensitive organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) is developed and used for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewaters. The devices show detection limit down to 0.01 mg/L COD, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the conventional photoelectrochemical method. The excellent sensing performance can be contributed to the novel sensing mechanism of OECT devices. That is, the devices are sensitive to the potential changes induced by the photoelectrochemical reaction on TiO2 nanotube arrays gate electrodes. Real sample analyses are also carried out. The results demonstrate that the measured COD values using the OECT devices and the standard dichromate methods are in a good agreement. Since the proposed sensor is constructed on a miniature transistor, it is expected that the device shows a promising application on the integrated COD monitoring platform.

  19. Operation of the computer model for direct atomic oxygen exposure of Earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gillis, J. R.; Hargraves, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the primary causes of material degradation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is exposure to atomic oxygen. When atomic oxygen molecules collide with an orbiting spacecraft, the relative velocity is 7 to 8 km/sec and the collision energy is 4 to 5 eV per atom. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen may initiate a number of chemical and physical reactions with exposed materials. These reactions contribute to material degradation, surface erosion, and contamination. Interpretation of these effects on materials and the design of space hardware to withstand on-orbit conditions requires quantitative knowledge of the atomic oxygen exposure environment. Atomic oxygen flux is a function of orbit altitude, the orientation of the orbit plan to the Sun, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the angle between exposed surfaces and the spacecraft heading. We have developed a computer model to predict the atomic oxygen exposure of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. The application of this computer model is discussed.

  20. A Lab Assembled Microcontroller-Based Sensor Module for Continuous Oxygen Measurement in Portable Hypoxia Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Mathupala, Saroj P.; Kiousis, Sam; Szerlip, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-based cell culture experiments are routine and essential components of in vitro cancer research. Most laboratories use low-cost portable modular chambers to achieve hypoxic conditions for cell cultures, where the sealed chambers are purged with a gas mixture of preset O2 concentration. Studies are conducted under the assumption that hypoxia remains unaltered throughout the 48 to 72 hour duration of such experiments. Since these chambers lack any sensor or detection system to monitor gas-phase O2, the cell-based data tend to be non-uniform due to the ad hoc nature of the experimental setup. Methodology With the availability of low-cost open-source microcontroller-based electronic project kits, it is now possible for researchers to program these with easy-to-use software, link them to sensors, and place them in basic scientific apparatus to monitor and record experimental parameters. We report here the design and construction of a small-footprint kit for continuous measurement and recording of O2 concentration in modular hypoxia chambers. The low-cost assembly (US$135) consists of an Arduino-based microcontroller, data-logging freeware, and a factory pre-calibrated miniature O2 sensor. A small, intuitive software program was written by the authors to control the data input and output. The basic nature of the kit will enable any student in biology with minimal experience in hobby-electronics to assemble the system and edit the program parameters to suit individual experimental conditions. Results/Conclusions We show the kit’s utility and stability of data output via a series of hypoxia experiments. The studies also demonstrated the critical need to monitor and adjust gas-phase O2 concentration during hypoxia-based experiments to prevent experimental errors or failure due to partial loss of hypoxia. Thus, incorporating the sensor-microcontroller module to a portable hypoxia chamber provides a researcher a capability that was previously available

  1. Direct observation of localized radial oxygen migration in functioning tantalum oxide memristors

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Suhas; Graves, Catherine E.; Strachan, John Paul; Grafals, Emmanuelle Merced; Arthur L. David Kilcoyne; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Weker, Johanna Nelson; Nishi, Yoshio; Williams, R. Stanley

    2016-02-02

    Oxygen migration in tantalum oxide, a promising next-generation storage material, is studied using in operando x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy and is used to microphysically describe accelerated evolution of conduction channel and device failure. Furthermore, the resulting ring-like patterns of oxygen concentration are modeled using thermophoretic forces and Fick diffusion, establishing the critical role of temperature-activated oxygen migration that has been under question lately.

  2. Model-based cell number quantification using online single-oxygen sensor data for tissue engineering perfusion bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, T; Papantoniou, I; Sonnaert, M; Schrooten, J; Aerts, J-M

    2014-10-01

    Online and non-invasive quantification of critical tissue engineering (TE) construct quality attributes in TE bioreactors is indispensable for the cost-effective up-scaling and automation of cellular construct manufacturing. However, appropriate monitoring techniques for cellular constructs in bioreactors are still lacking. This study presents a generic and robust approach to determine cell number and metabolic activity of cell-based TE constructs in perfusion bioreactors based on single oxygen sensor data in dynamic perfusion conditions. A data-based mechanistic modeling technique was used that is able to correlate the number of cells within the scaffold (R(2)  = 0.80) and the metabolic activity of the cells (R(2)  = 0.82) to the dynamics of the oxygen response to step changes in the perfusion rate. This generic non-destructive measurement technique is effective for a large range of cells, from as low as 1.0 × 10(5) cells to potentially multiple millions of cells, and can open-up new possibilities for effective bioprocess monitoring.

  3. Random and directed walk-based top-(k) queries in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun-Song; Liu, Yun

    2015-05-26

    In wireless sensor networks, filter-based top-  query approaches are the state-of-the-art solutions and have been extensively researched in the literature, however, they are very sensitive to the network parameters, including the size of the network, dynamics of the sensors' readings and declines in the overall range of all the readings. In this work, a random walk-based top-  query approach called RWTQ and a directed walk-based top-  query approach called DWTQ are proposed. At the beginning of a top-  query, one or several tokens are sent to the specific node(s) in the network by the base station. Then, each token walks in the network independently to record and process the readings in a random or directed way. A strategy of choosing the "right" way in DWTQ is carefully designed for the token(s) to arrive at the high-value regions as soon as possible. When designing the walking strategy for DWTQ, the spatial correlations of the readings are also considered. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that RWTQ and DWTQ both are very robust against these parameters discussed previously. In addition, DWTQ outperforms TAG, FILA and EXTOK in transmission cost, energy consumption and network lifetime.

  4. Direct Measurement Sensor of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Kerenyi, Kornel; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Trease, Brian P.; Widholm, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The flow fields and boundary erosion that are associated with scour at bridge piers are very complex. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress and boundary pressure fluctuations in experimental scour research has always been a challenge and high spatial resolution and fidelity have been almost impossible. Most researchers have applied an indirect process to determine shear stress using precise measured velocity profiles. Laser Doppler Anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry are common techniques used to accurately measure velocity profiles. These methods are based on theoretical assumptions to estimate boundary shear stress. In addition, available turbulence models cannot very well account for the effect of bed roughness which is fundamentally important for any CFD simulation. The authors have taken on the challenge to advance the magnitude level to which direct measurements of the shear stress in water flow can be performed. This paper covered the challenges and the efforts to develop a higher accuracy and small spatial resolution sensor. Also, preliminary sensor designs and test results are presented.

  5. Characterization Of Station Quality From The CHILE RAMP Deployment - Direct Burial Sensor Installation And Its Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. Y.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Barstow, N.; Slad, G.

    2010-12-01

    IRIS PASSCAL supported a NSF-funded project to collect an open community dataset from a portable seismograph deployment following the magnitude 8.8 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 (an experiment of the Rapid Array Mobilization Program - RAMP). In part, due to logistical constraints, the broadband sensors (Guralp CMG3T) for this deployment were buried directly in soil. Direct burial refers to installation of a broadband sensor in a small hand-dug hole, encased in plastic bags, and ideally backfilled with well tamped and dampened sand. Field conditions did not provide ideal installations in all cases. Because of the variability in actual installation practices, the Chile RAMP data provide an opportunity to examine the impact of several factors on the direct burial data quality. Using McNamara and Boaz (2005) PQLX statistical analysis software, which calculates the power spectral density (PSD) and plots the probability density function (PDF)(McNamara and Buland, 2004), we characterize the background seismic noise levels and signal quality for 58 directly buried installations at the Chile RAMP. Data return and data quality during the deployment (April -September 2010) will be evaluated considering a variety of parameters including installation technique, site characteristics, and equipment performance. Preliminary results using data from two service runs (April - June), suggest variation in the data quality and recovery due to slightly different installation practices and/or possibly environmental factors. We seek to evaluate and characterize parameters that affect the resulting data recovery and their quality; this study is an important test case for future PASSCAL and RAMP installations. If possible we would like to compare data from other local networks to identify distinctive characteristics from different installation set-ups.

  6. A directional cylindrical anemometer with four sets of differential pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Du, L.; Zhao, Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a solid-state directional anemometer for simultaneously measuring the speed and direction of a wind in a plane in a speed range 1-40 m/s. This instrument has a cylindrical shape and works by detecting the pressure differences across diameters of the cylinder when exposed to wind. By analyzing our experimental data in a Reynolds number regime 1.7 × 103-7 × 104, we figure out the relationship between the pressure difference distribution and the wind velocity. We propose a novel and simple solution based on the relationship and design an anemometer which composes of a circular cylinder with four sets of differential pressure sensors, tubes connecting these sensors with the cylinder's surface, and corresponding circuits. In absence of moving parts, this instrument is small and immune of friction. It has simple internal structures, and the fragile sensing elements are well protected. Prototypes have been fabricated to estimate performance of proposed approach. The power consumption of the prototype is less than 0.5 W, and the sample rate is up to 31 Hz. The test results in a wind tunnel indicate that the maximum relative speed measuring error is 5% and the direction error is no more than 5° in a speed range 2-40 m/s. In theory, it is capable of measuring wind up to 60 m/s. When the air stream goes slower than 2 m/s, the measuring errors of directions are slightly greater, and the performance of speed measuring degrades but remains in an acceptable range of ±0.2 m/s.

  7. A directional cylindrical anemometer with four sets of differential pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Du, L; Zhao, Z

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a solid-state directional anemometer for simultaneously measuring the speed and direction of a wind in a plane in a speed range 1-40 m/s. This instrument has a cylindrical shape and works by detecting the pressure differences across diameters of the cylinder when exposed to wind. By analyzing our experimental data in a Reynolds number regime 1.7 × 10(3)-7 × 10(4), we figure out the relationship between the pressure difference distribution and the wind velocity. We propose a novel and simple solution based on the relationship and design an anemometer which composes of a circular cylinder with four sets of differential pressure sensors, tubes connecting these sensors with the cylinder's surface, and corresponding circuits. In absence of moving parts, this instrument is small and immune of friction. It has simple internal structures, and the fragile sensing elements are well protected. Prototypes have been fabricated to estimate performance of proposed approach. The power consumption of the prototype is less than 0.5 W, and the sample rate is up to 31 Hz. The test results in a wind tunnel indicate that the maximum relative speed measuring error is 5% and the direction error is no more than 5° in a speed range 2-40 m/s. In theory, it is capable of measuring wind up to 60 m/s. When the air stream goes slower than 2 m/s, the measuring errors of directions are slightly greater, and the performance of speed measuring degrades but remains in an acceptable range of ±0.2 m/s.

  8. Low Power Resistive Oxygen Sensor Based on Sonochemical SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (STFO40)

    PubMed Central

    Stratulat, Alisa; Serban, Bogdan-Catalin; de Luca, Andrea; Avramescu, Viorel; Cobianu, Cornel; Brezeanu, Mihai; Buiu, Octavian; Diamandescu, Lucian; Feder, Marcel; Ali, Syed Zeeshan; Udrea, Florin

    2015-01-01

    The current paper reports on a sonochemical synthesis method for manufacturing nanostructured (typical grain size of 50 nm) SrTi0.6Fe0.4O2.8 (Sono-STFO40) powder. This powder is characterized using X ray-diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and results are compared with commercially available SrTi0.4Fe0.6O2.8 (STFO60) powder. In order to manufacture resistive oxygen sensors, both Sono-STFO40 and STFO60 are deposited, by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) method, on an SOI (Silicon-on-Insulator) micro-hotplate, employing a tungsten heater embedded within a dielectric membrane. Oxygen detection tests are performed in both dry (RH = 0%) and humid (RH = 60%) nitrogen atmosphere, varying oxygen concentrations between 1% and 16% (v/v), at a constant heater temperature of 650 °C. The oxygen sensor, based on the Sono-STFO40 sensing layer, shows good sensitivity, low power consumption (80 mW), and short response time (25 s). These performance are comparable to those exhibited by state-of-the-art O2 sensors based on STFO60, thus proving Sono-STFO40 to be a material suitable for oxygen detection in harsh environments. PMID:26205267

  9. Reversion of lethality and growth defects in Fatiga oxygen-sensor mutant flies by loss of hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha/Sima.

    PubMed

    Centanin, Lázaro; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Wappner, Pablo

    2005-11-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domains (PHDs) have been proposed to act as sensors that have an important role in oxygen homeostasis. In the presence of oxygen, they hydroxylate two specific prolyl residues in HIF-alpha polypeptides, thereby promoting their proteasomal degradation. So far, however, the developmental consequences of the inactivation of PHDs in higher metazoans have not been reported. Here, we describe novel loss-of-function mutants of fatiga, the gene encoding the Drosophila PHD oxygen sensor, which manifest growth defects and lethality. We also report a null mutation in dHIF-alpha/sima, which is unable to adapt to hypoxia but is fully viable in normoxic conditions. Strikingly, loss-of-function mutations of sima rescued the developmental defects observed in fatiga mutants and enabled survival to adulthood. These results indicate that the main functions of Fatiga in development, including control of cell size, involve the regulation of dHIF/Sima.

  10. Reversion of lethality and growth defects in Fatiga oxygen-sensor mutant flies by loss of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-α/Sima

    PubMed Central

    Centanin, Lázaro; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Wappner, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domains (PHDs) have been proposed to act as sensors that have an important role in oxygen homeostasis. In the presence of oxygen, they hydroxylate two specific prolyl residues in HIF-α polypeptides, thereby promoting their proteasomal degradation. So far, however, the developmental consequences of the inactivation of PHDs in higher metazoans have not been reported. Here, we describe novel loss-of-function mutants of fatiga, the gene encoding the Drosophila PHD oxygen sensor, which manifest growth defects and lethality. We also report a null mutation in dHIF-α/sima, which is unable to adapt to hypoxia but is fully viable in normoxic conditions. Strikingly, loss-of-function mutations of sima rescued the developmental defects observed in fatiga mutants and enabled survival to adulthood. These results indicate that the main functions of Fatiga in development, including control of cell size, involve the regulation of dHIF/Sima. PMID:16179946

  11. Bi-directional flow sensor with a wide dynamic range for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Al-Salaymeh, A; Jovanović, J; Durst, F

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes a novel three-wire thermal flow sensor for medical applications. The present innovation for low-frequency measurements involves the use of a pulsed-wire anemometer with a comparatively large wire diameter (12.5 microm and larger) together with a novel signal processing approach. A small wire is heated using a sinusoidal alternating current, and two sensing wires, acting as resistance thermometers, are set parallel to, and at a small distance on either side of, the pulsed wire. The thermal wake of the pulsed wire is convected downstream to one of the two receiving wires which detect its delayed arrival. This arrangement allows the sensing of both the direction and the flow velocity component normal to the three probes. By appropriate signal processing, the present sensor can be operated such that the phase shift between the periodic current that drives the central wire and the detected signal by either the upstream or downstream wire takes into account a combination of convection, diffusion and the finite thermal response time of both the pulsed wire and the receiving wire. Because the time constants increase as the flow velocity decreases, the time lag due to thermal inertia supplements the time lag due to the true time of flight, thus yielding an effective operating range of 0.05 m/s directional thermal flowmeter is the measurement of human respiration, e.g. for early diagnostics of asthmatic attacks. The main advantage of the present sensor is its low sensitivity to variations in temperature and also to the composition of the flowing gas. Also, a calibration will be not needed for each density and gas used in addition to that for velocity. The resultant design work aimed at developing a sensor that can be mass

  12. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants.

  13. Sensing properties of an oxygen sensor using BaCe{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3{minus}{alpha}} ceramics as electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Noboru; Yasumoto, Eiichi; Nakagiri, Yasushi; Gamo, Takaharu

    1998-05-01

    Limiting-current-type oxygen sensors using BaCe{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3{minus}{alpha}} (BCG) ceramics as electrolytes were constructed on a trial basis and their sensing properties investigated in order to develop a new oxygen sensor to replace the zirconia type. BCG ceramics exhibited high conductivity in the temperature range 200--1,000 C, and it was verified that the oxide ion could be a conductive carrier in BCG in oxygen at low temperatures (300 C). The oxygen sensors using BCGs worked at 300 C, and their output currents linearly increased with an increase in oxygen concentration in the range 1--22%. They could respond within 30 s between 1 and 21%, and humidity only slightly affected sensing performance. BCG seems to be a promising electrolyte material for an oxygen sensor operating at low temperatures (300 C).

  14. Micelle-Encapsulated Quantum Dot-Porphyrin Assemblies as in Vivo Two-Photon Oxygen Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Christopher M.; Karnas, Elizabeth; Han, Xiaoxing; Bruns, Oliver T.; Kempa, Thomas J.; Fukumura, Dai; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Duda, Dan G.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Micelles have been employed to encapsulate the supramolecular assembly of quantum dots with palladium(II) porphyrins for the quantification of O2 levels in aqueous media and in vivo. Förster resonance energy transfer from the quantum dot (QD) to the palladium porphyrin provides a means for signal transduction under both one- and two-photon excitation. The palladium porphyrins are sensitive to O2 concentrations in the range of 0–160 Torr. The micelle-encapsulated QD-porphyrin assemblies have been employed for in vivo multiphoton imaging and lifetime-based oxygen measurements in mice with chronic dorsal skinfold chambers or cranial windows. Our results establish the utility of the QD-micelle approach for in vivo biological sensing applications. PMID:26149349

  15. Recent Trends in Monitoring of European Water Framework Directive Priority Substances Using Micro-Sensors: A 2007–2009 Review

    PubMed Central

    Namour, Philippe; Lepot, Mathieu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses from a critical perspective the development of new sensors for the measurement of priority pollutants targeted in the E.U. Water Framework Directive. Significant advances are reported in the paper and their advantages and limitations are also discussed. Future perspectives in this area are also pointed out in the conclusions. This review covers publications appeared since December 2006 (the publication date of the Swift report). Among priority substances, sensors for monitoring the four WFD metals represent 81% of published papers. None of analyzed publications present a micro-sensor totally validated in laboratory, ready for tests under real conditions in the field. The researches are mainly focused on the sensing part of the micro-sensors. Nevertheless, the main factor limiting micro-sensor applications in the environment is the ruggedness of the receptor towards environmental conditions. This point constitutes the first technological obstacle to be overcome for any long-term field tests. PMID:22163635

  16. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed.

  17. A Coral Reef Algorithm Based on Learning Automata for the Coverage Control Problem of Heterogeneous Directional Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Coverage control is one of the most fundamental issues in directional sensor networks. In this paper, the coverage optimization problem in a directional sensor network is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. It takes into account the coverage rate of the network, the number of working sensor nodes and the connectivity of the network. The coverage problem considered in this paper is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events and heterogeneity of the sensor nodes in terms of sensing radius, field of angle and communication radius. To solve this multi-objective problem, we introduce a learning automata-based coral reef algorithm for adaptive parameter selection and use a novel Tchebycheff decomposition method to decompose the multi-objective problem into a single-objective problem. Simulation results show the consistent superiority of the proposed algorithm over alternative approaches. PMID:26690162

  18. A Coral Reef Algorithm Based on Learning Automata for the Coverage Control Problem of Heterogeneous Directional Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril

    2015-12-04

    Coverage control is one of the most fundamental issues in directional sensor networks. In this paper, the coverage optimization problem in a directional sensor network is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. It takes into account the coverage rate of the network, the number of working sensor nodes and the connectivity of the network. The coverage problem considered in this paper is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events and heterogeneity of the sensor nodes in terms of sensing radius, field of angle and communication radius. To solve this multi-objective problem, we introduce a learning automata-based coral reef algorithm for adaptive parameter selection and use a novel Tchebycheff decomposition method to decompose the multi-objective problem into a single-objective problem. Simulation results show the consistent superiority of the proposed algorithm over alternative approaches.

  19. Development of an Innovative Direct Push Sensor System for Long Term Monitoring of Environmental Waste Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddy-Dilek, C. A.; Riha, B. D.; Bosze, S.; Rossabi, J.

    2001-12-01

    As the focus of environmental restoration in the federal complex moves from active characterization and remediation to long term monitoring, the costs of long-term monitoring will escalate and eventually dominate ongoing environmental restoration budgets. Most of the major DOE sites including the Savannah River Site have a documented need for some type of long term monitoring system that does not rely on the use of standard groundwater monitoring wells. We have developed and installed a prototype monitoring system that can be used to measure and/or sample multiple parameters appropriate for long term monitoring of environmental waste sites. This system is designed to function as a sentinel system that detects when a significant change in water quality parameters or contaminant concentration occurs in a well characterized system. The sensor drive configuration is flexible and the sensor system is installed using direct push methods. Site specific monitoring scenarios will be need to be developed to address the specific long term monitoring objectives at a given site. The drive point has a sample port (soil gas or groundwater) and windows/ports for additional sensors. A prototype system was installed and has been monitored at the D-area at the Savannah River Site since July. The probes are located in an area where multiple contaminant plumes dominated by volatile organic compounds, metals and tritium are currently monitored using standard groundwater wells. Currently, the prototype system measures temperature, resisitivity, ORP and pH on a continuous basis. In addition, concetrations of volatile organic compounds and tritium are measured periodically by laboratory analysis of diffusion bag samples deployed in the sample ports of the prototype system. Results will be reported from a three-month monitoring interval. The results will be compared with baseline analyses of samples collected from the adjacent groundwater well.

  20. Cutting Edge Technologies Presentation: An Overview of Developing Sensor Technology Directions and Possible Barriers to New Technology Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    The aerospace industry requires the development of a range of chemical sensor technologies for such applications as leak detection, emission monitoring, fuel leak detection, environmental monitoring, and fire detection. A range of chemical sensors are being developed based on micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate microsensors with minimal size, weight, and power consumption; and the use of nanomaterials and structures to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity, However, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. These technologies and technical approaches have direct relevance to breath monitoring for clinical applications. This presentation gives an overview of developing cutting-edge sensor technology and possible barriers to new technology implementation. This includes lessons learned from previous microsensor development, recent work in development of a breath monitoring system, and future directions in the implementation of cutting edge sensor technology.

  1. Direct, Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction by Laccase on Anthracene-2-methanethiol Modified Gold.

    PubMed

    Thorum, Matthew S; Anderson, Cyrus A; Hatch, Jeremy J; Campbell, Andrew S; Marshall, Nicholas M; Zimmerman, Steven C; Lu, Yi; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2010-08-01

    Laccase, a multicopper oxidase, catalyses the four electron reduction of oxygen to water. Upon adsorption to an electrode surface, laccase is known to reduce oxygen at overpotentials lower than the best noble metal electrocatalysts usually employed. While the electrocatalytic activity of laccase is well established on carbon electrodes, laccase does not typically adsorb to better defined noble metal surfaces in an orientation that allows for efficient electrocatalysis. In this work, we utilized anthracene-2-methanethiol (AMT) to modify the surface of Au electrodes and examined the electrocatalytic activity of adsorbed laccase. AMT facilitated the adsorption of laccase, and the onset of electrocatalytic oxygen reduction was observed as high as 1.13 V(RHE). We observed linear Tafel behavior with a 144 mV/dec slope, consistent with an outer sphere single electron transfer from the electrode to a Cu site in the enzyme as the rate determining step of the oxygen reduction mechanism.

  2. Microfluidic surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors based on nanopillar forests realized by an oxygen-plasma-stripping-of-photoresist technique.

    PubMed

    Mao, Haiyang; Wu, Wengang; She, Didi; Sun, Gongchen; Lv, Pengpeng; Xu, Jun

    2014-01-15

    A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor is developed for real-time and highly repeatable detection of trace chemical and biological indicators. The sensor consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel cap and a nanopillar forest-based open SERS-active substrate. The nanopillar forests are fabricated based on a new oxygen-plasma-stripping-of-photoresist technique. The enhancement factor (EF) of the SERS-active substrate reaches 6.06 × 10(6) , and the EF of the SERS sensor is about 4 times lower due to the influence of the PDMS cap. However, the sensor shows much higher measurement repeatability than the open substrate, and it reduces the sample preparation time from several hours to a few minutes, which makes the device more reliable and facile for trace chemical and biological analysis.

  3. Sensor for Direct Measurement of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Chang, Zensheu; Chen, Beck; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear and normal stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear and normal stress and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, this approach is a challenging one especially for high spatial resolution and high fidelity measurements. The authors designed and fabricated a prototype miniature shear stress sensor including an EDM machined floating plate and a high-resolution laser optical encoder. Tests were performed both in air as well as operation in water with controlled flow. The sensor sensitivity, stability and signal-to-noise level were measured and evaluated. The detailed test results and a discussion of future work will be presented in this paper.

  4. Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06038a

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anderson D.; Elgammal, Karim; Delin, Anna; Fischer, Andreas C.; Vaziri, Sam; Forsberg, Fredrik; Råsander, Mikael; Hugosson, Håkan; Bergqvist, Lars; Schröder, Stephan; Kataria, Satender; Östling, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate humidity sensing using a change of the electrical resistance of single-layer chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene that is placed on top of a SiO2 layer on a Si wafer. To investigate the selectivity of the sensor towards the most common constituents in air, its signal response was characterized individually for water vapor (H2O), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). In order to assess the humidity sensing effect for a range from 1% relative humidity (RH) to 96% RH, the devices were characterized both in a vacuum chamber and in a humidity chamber at atmospheric pressure. The measured response and recovery times of the graphene humidity sensors are on the order of several hundred milliseconds. Density functional theory simulations are employed to further investigate the sensitivity of the graphene devices towards water vapor. The interaction between the electrostatic dipole moment of the water and the impurity bands in the SiO2 substrate leads to electrostatic doping of the graphene layer. The proposed graphene sensor provides rapid response direct electrical readout and is compatible with back end of the line (BEOL) integration on top of CMOS-based integrated circuits. PMID:26523705

  5. [Early goal-directed therapy (EDGT) using continuous central venous oxygen saturation monitoring in a patient with septic shock].

    PubMed

    Oyama, Yoshimasa; Goto, Koji; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Kusaka, Jyunya; Hidaka, Seigo; Shingu, Chihiro; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2008-04-01

    Septic shock is an adverse clinical condition resulting in multiple organ failure from global tissue hypoxia. The importance of initial treatment is widely recognized. Thus, guidelines for septic shock recommend early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) during the first six hours of treatment. Central venous oxygen saturation monitoring is useful to maintain adequate tissue oxygen delivery. A newly developed central venous oximetry catheter (PreSep Oximetery Catheter, Edwards Lifesciences) allows continuous and easy monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation. This report shows the usefulness of this catheter in a patient who developed septic shock during an emergency operation for perforated bowel. By using EGDT perioperatively with continuous central venous oximetry, multiple organ failure might be successfully avoided.

  6. Fabrication of Wearable Sensors for Human Health Monitoring through Magnetically Directed Assembly Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Azar; Ashe, Jeffrey; Misner, Matthew; Yang, Yanzhe; Zhong, Sheng; Yin, Ming; Brewer, Joleyn; Karp, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Many previous efforts to modify patient monitors for remote or wearable use have suffered from high cost, poor performance, and low medical acceptance. A new technology approach is needed to enable these clinical benefits and to satisfy challenging economic, clinical, and user-acceptance criteria. Here, we present results on our initial efforts aimed at designing and building a prototype multi-wavelength arrayed photoplethysmograph (PPG) by using magnetically directed self-assembly (MDSA). We will discuss novel approaches in magnetic nanomaterial design, synthesis and deposition to enable MDSA based manufacturing. We will also demonstrate that multiple devices can be deposited through heterogeneous MDSA. The novel MDSA technology could make such PPG sensors a reality. This effort is sponsored by the Department of the Army under award W81XWH1110833

  7. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as unmanned airborne systems (UAS) or remotely piloted airborne systems (RPAS), are an established platform for close range airborne photogrammetry. Compared to manned platforms, the acquisition of local remote sensing data by UAVs is a convenient and very flexible option. For the application in photogrammetry UAVs are typically equipped with an autopilot and a lightweight digital camera. The autopilot includes several navigation sensors, which might allow an automated waypoint flight and offer a systematic data acquisition of the object resp. scene of interest. Assuming a sufficient overlap between the captured images, the position (3 coordinates: x, y, z) and the orientation (3 angles: roll, pitch, yaw) of the images can be estimated within a bundle block adjustment. Subsequently, coordinates of observed points that appear in at least two images, can be determined by measuring their image coordinates or a dense surface model can be generated from all acquired images by automated image matching. For the bundle block adjustment approximate values of the position and the orientation of the images are needed. To gather this information, several methods exist. We introduce in this contribution one of them: the direct georeferencing of images by using the navigation sensors (mainly GNSS and INS) of a low-cost on-board autopilot. Beside automated flights, the autopilot offers the possibility to record the position and the orientation of the platform during the flight. These values don't correspond directly to those of the images. To compute the position and the orientation of the images two requirements must be fulfilled. First the misalignment angles and the positional differences between the camera and the autopilot must be determined (mounting calibration). Second the synchronization between the camera and the autopilot has to be established. Due to the limited accuracy of the navigation sensors, a small number of ground

  8. An Optical Sensor for Measuring the Position and Slanting Direction of Flat Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ta; Huang, Yen-Sheng; Liu, Chien-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Automated optical inspection is a very important technique. For this reason, this study proposes an optical non-contact slanting surface measuring system. The essential features of the measurement system are obtained through simulations using the optical design software Zemax. The actual propagation of laser beams within the measurement system is traced by using a homogeneous transformation matrix (HTM), the skew-ray tracing method, and a first-order Taylor series expansion. Additionally, a complete mathematical model that describes the variations in light spots on photoelectric sensors and the corresponding changes in the sample orientation and distance was established. Finally, a laboratory prototype system was constructed on an optical bench to verify experimentally the proposed system. This measurement system can simultaneously detect the slanting angles (x, z) in the x and z directions of the sample and the distance (y) between the biconvex lens and the flat sample surface. PMID:27409619

  9. Airborne Digital Sensor System and GPS-aided inertial technology for direct geopositioning in rough terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution airborne digital cameras with onboard data collection based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation systems (INS) technology may offer a real-time means to gather accurate topographic map information by reducing ground control and eliminating aerial triangulation. Past evaluations of this integrated system over relatively flat terrain have proven successful. The author uses Emerge Digital Sensor System (DSS) combined with Applanix Corporation?s Position and Orientation Solutions for Direct Georeferencing to examine the positional mapping accuracy in rough terrain. The positional accuracy documented in this study did not meet large-scale mapping requirements owing to an apparent system mechanical failure. Nonetheless, the findings yield important information on a new approach for mapping in Antarctica and other remote or inaccessible areas of the world.

  10. Effect of Cu pad morphology on direct-Cu pillar formation in CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunmi; Kim, Areum; Cui, Eunwha; Lee, Ukjae; Son, Hyung Bin; Hahn, Sang June; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2014-09-01

    We report the feasibility of forming Ni bumps directly on Cu pads in CMOS image sensor (CIS) logic elements formed by Cu wires with diameters of less than 65 nm. The direct Ni bump process proposed in this study simplifies the fabrication process and reduces costs by eliminating the need for Al pad process. In addition, this process can secure the margin of the final layer, enabling the realization of thin camera modules. In this study, we evaluated the effect of pad annealing on the direct formation of Ni bumps over Cu pads. The results suggest that the morphology of the Cu pad varies depending on the annealing sequence, and post-passivation annealing resulted in fewer defects than pad etch annealing. The shear stress of the Ni bumps was 57.77 mgf/m2, which is six times greater than the corresponding reference value. Furthermore, we evaluated the reliability of a chip with an anisotropic conductive film (ACF) and a non-conducting paste (NCP) by using high-temperature storage (HTS), thermal cycling (TC), and wet high-temperature storage (WHTS) reliability tests. The evaluation results suggest the absence of abnormalities in all samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Wind speed and direction measurement based on arc ultrasonic sensor array signal processing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinbo; Sun, Haixin; Gao, Wei; Shi, Yaowu; Liu, Guojun; Wu, Yue

    2016-11-01

    This article investigates a kind of method to measure the wind speed and the wind direction, which is based on arc ultrasonic sensor array and combined with array signal processing algorithm. In the proposed method, a new arc ultrasonic array structure is introduced and the array manifold is derived firstly. On this basis, the measurement of the wind speed and the wind direction is analyzed and discussed by means of the basic idea of the classic MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm, which achieves the measurements of the 360° wind direction with resolution of 1° and 0-60m/s wind speed with resolution of 0.1m/s. The implementation of the proposed method is elaborated through the theoretical derivation and corresponding discussion. Besides, the simulation experiments are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed method. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed method has superiority on anti-noise performance and improves the wind measurement accuracy.

  12. Reactive oxygen species cause direct damage of Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Riedle, B.; Kerjaschki, D.

    1997-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced and released into the extracellular spaces in numerous diseases and contribute to development and progression, for example, of inflammatory diseases, proteinuria, and tumor invasion. However, little is known about ROS-induced chemical changes of interstitial matrix proteins and their consequences for the integrity of the matrix meshwork. As basement membranes and other matrices are highly cross-linked and complex, the relatively simple matrix produced by Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) sarcoma, and proteins isolated therefrom, were incubated in vitro with defined concentrations of ROS that were generated by the Fenton or xanthine oxidase/xanthine reactions. This resulted in two counter-current effects. Although up to approximately 15% of the EHS matrix proteins were released into the supernatant in a ROS dose-response relationship, the residual insoluble matrix was partially cross-linked by ROS. Matrix proteins released into the supernatants were examined by rotary shadowing, quantitative sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and fluorospectrometry for loss of tryptophans and formation of bityrosine residues. At relatively low ROS concentrations, selective liberation of morphologically intact laminin/entactin was found that, however, failed to reassociate and showed oxidative damage of its tryptophan residues. At higher ROS concentrations, laminin and entactin were progressively disintegrated, partially fragmented, and eventually completely degraded. At this point oligomers of type IV collagen predominated in the supernatant, and proteoglycans were not encountered at any concentration of ROS. Similar gradual molecular changes were also obtained when fractions of isolated soluble EHS matrix proteins were incubated with graded concentrations of ROS. In these experiments, the formation of covalently linked oligomers and aggregates paralleled the ROS-dependent formation of cross

  13. Gyroscopic sensing in the wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: the role of sensor location and directional sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Brian T; Morgansen, Kristi A

    2015-10-06

    The wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta are lined with mechanoreceptors called campaniform sensilla that encode wing deformations. During flight, the wings deform in response to a variety of stimuli, including inertial-elastic loads due to the wing flapping motion, aerodynamic loads, and exogenous inertial loads transmitted by disturbances. Because the wings are actuated, flexible structures, the strain-sensitive campaniform sensilla are capable of detecting inertial rotations and accelerations, allowing the wings to serve not only as a primary actuator, but also as a gyroscopic sensor for flight control. We study the gyroscopic sensing of the hawkmoth wings from a control theoretic perspective. Through the development of a low-order model of flexible wing flapping dynamics, and the use of nonlinear observability analysis, we show that the rotational acceleration inherent in wing flapping enables the wings to serve as gyroscopic sensors. We compute a measure of sensor fitness as a function of sensor location and directional sensitivity by using the simulation-based empirical observability Gramian. Our results indicate that gyroscopic information is encoded primarily through shear strain due to wing twisting, where inertial rotations cause detectable changes in pronation and supination timing and magnitude. We solve an observability-based optimal sensor placement problem to find the optimal configuration of strain sensor locations and directional sensitivities for detecting inertial rotations. The optimal sensor configuration shows parallels to the campaniform sensilla found on hawkmoth wings, with clusters of sensors near the wing root and wing tip. The optimal spatial distribution of strain directional sensitivity provides a hypothesis for how heterogeneity of campaniform sensilla may be distributed.

  14. Field Calibration of Wind Direction Sensor to the True North and Its Application to the Daegwanryung Wind Turbine Test Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Wan

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a field calibration technique for aligning a wind direction sensor to the true north. The proposed technique uses the synchronized measurements of captured images by a camera, and the output voltage of a wind direction sensor. The true wind direction was evaluated through image processing techniques using the captured picture of the sensor with the least square sense. Then, the evaluated true value was compared with the measured output voltage of the sensor. This technique solves the discordance problem of the wind direction sensor in the process of installing meteorological mast. For this proposed technique, some uncertainty analyses are presented and the calibration accuracy is discussed. Finally, the proposed technique was applied to the real meteorological mast at the Daegwanryung test site, and the statistical analysis of the experimental testing estimated the values of stable misalignment and uncertainty level. In a strict sense, it is confirmed that the error range of the misalignment from the exact north could be expected to decrease within the credibility level. PMID:27873957

  15. Design and Characterization of a Sensorized Microfluidic Cell-Culture System with Electro-Thermal Micro-Pumps and Sensors for Cell Adhesion, Oxygen, and pH on a Glass Chip

    PubMed Central

    Bonk, Sebastian M.; Stubbe, Marco; Buehler, Sebastian M.; Tautorat, Carsten; Baumann, Werner; Klinkenberg, Ernst-Dieter; Gimsa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We combined a multi-sensor glass-chip with a microfluidic channel grid for the characterization of cellular behavior. The grid was imprinted in poly-dimethyl-siloxane. Mouse-embryonal/fetal calvaria fibroblasts (MC3T3-E1) were used as a model system. Thin-film platinum (Pt) sensors for respiration (amperometric oxygen electrode), acidification (potentiometric pH electrodes) and cell adhesion (interdigitated-electrodes structures, IDES) allowed us to monitor cell-physiological parameters as well as the cell-spreading behavior. Two on-chip electro-thermal micro-pumps (ETμPs) permitted the induction of medium flow in the system, e.g., for medium mixing and drug delivery. The glass-wafer technology ensured the microscopic observability of the on-chip cell culture. Connecting Pt structures were passivated by a 1.2 μm layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4). Thin Si3N4 layers (20 nm or 60 nm) were used as the sensitive material of the pH electrodes. These electrodes showed a linear behavior in the pH range from 4 to 9, with a sensitivity of up to 39 mV per pH step. The oxygen sensors were circular Pt electrodes with a sensor area of 78.5 μm2. Their sensitivity was 100 pA per 1% oxygen increase in the range from 0% to 21% oxygen (air saturated). Two different IDES geometries with 30- and 50-μm finger spacings showed comparable sensitivities in detecting the proliferation rate of MC3T3 cells. These cells were cultured for 11 days in vitro to test the biocompatibility, microfluidics and electric sensors of our system under standard laboratory conditions. PMID:26263849

  16. Semi-specific Microbacterium phyllosphaerae-based microbial sensor for biochemical oxygen demand measurements in dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kibena, Elo; Raud, Merlin; Jõgi, Eerik; Kikas, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Although the long incubation time of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7) measurements has been addressed by the use of microbial biosensors, the resulting sensor-BOD values gained from the measurements with specific industrial wastewaters still underestimates the BOD value of such samples. This research aims to provide fast and more accurate BOD measurements in the dairy wastewater samples. Unlike municipal wastewater, wastewater from the dairy industry contains many substrates that are not easily accessible to a majority of microorganisms. Therefore, a bacterial culture, Microbacterium phyllosphaerae, isolated from dairy wastewater was used to construct a semi-specific microbial biosensor. A universal microbial biosensor based on Pseudomonas fluorescens, which has a wide substrate spectrum but is nonspecific to dairy wastewater, was used as a comparison. BOD biosensors were calibrated with OECD synthetic wastewater, and experiments with different synthetic and actual wastewater samples were carried out. Results show that the semi-specific M. phyllosphaerae-based microbial biosensor is more sensitive towards wastewaters that contain milk derivates and butter whey than the P. fluorescens-based biosensor. Although the M. phyllosphaerae biosensor underestimates the BOD7 value of actual dairy wastewaters by 25-32%, this bacterial culture is more suitable for BOD monitoring in dairy wastewater than P. fluorescens, which underestimated the same samples by 46-61%.

  17. Identification of HIF-1 signaling pathway in Pelteobagrus vachelli using RNA-Seq: effects of acute hypoxia and reoxygenation on oxygen sensors, respiratory metabolism, and hematology indices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guosong; Zhao, Cheng; Wang, Qintao; Gu, Yichun; Li, Zecheng; Tao, Panfeng; Chen, Jiawei; Yin, Shaowu

    2017-03-28

    Oxygen is a vital element in aquatic environments. The concentration of oxygen to which aquatic organisms are exposed is influenced by salinity, water temperature, weather, and surface water runoff. Hypoxia has a serious effect on fish populations, and can lead to the loss of habitat and die-offs. Therefore, in the present study we used next-generation sequencing technology to characterize the transcriptomes of Pelteobagrus vachelli and identified 70 candidate genes in the HIF-1 signaling pathway that are important for the hypoxic response in all metazoan species. For the first time, the present study reported the effects of acute hypoxia and reoxygenation on oxygen sensors, respiratory metabolism, and hematology indices in P. vachelli. The predicted physiological adjustments show that P. vachelli's blood oxygen-carrying capacity was increased through increased RBC, HB, and SI after hypoxia exposure. Glycolysis-related enzyme activities (PFK, HK, and PK) and LDH in the brain and liver also increased, indicating a rise in anaerobic metabolism. The observed reduction in oxidative enzyme level (CS) in the liver during hypoxia suggests a concomitant depression in aerobic metabolism. There were significant increases in oxygen sensor mRNA expression and HIF-1α protein expression during hypoxia and reoxygenation exposure, suggesting that the HIF-1 signaling pathway was activated in the liver and brain of P. vachelli in response to acute hypoxia and reoxygenation. Our findings suggest that oxygen sensors (e.g., HIF-1α) of P. vachelli are potentially useful biomarkers of environmental hypoxic exposure. These data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the hypoxia signaling pathway in fish under hypoxia and reoxygenation.

  18. Bulk Data Dissemination in Low Power Sensor Networks: Present and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhirong; Hu, Tianlei; Song, Qianshu

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor network-based (WSN-based) applications need an efficient and reliable data dissemination service to facilitate maintenance, management and data distribution tasks. As WSNs nowadays are becoming pervasive and data intensive, bulk data dissemination protocols have been extensively studied recently. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art bulk data dissemination protocols. The large number of papers available in the literature propose various techniques to optimize the dissemination protocols. Different from the existing survey works which separately explores the building blocks of dissemination, our work categorizes the literature according to the optimization purposes: Reliability, Scalability and Transmission/Energy efficiency. By summarizing and reviewing the key insights and techniques, we further discuss on the future directions for each category. Our survey helps unveil three key findings for future direction: (1) The recent advances in wireless communications (e.g., study on cross-technology interference, error estimating codes, constructive interference, capture effect) can be potentially exploited to support further optimization on the reliability and energy efficiency of dissemination protocols; (2) Dissemination in multi-channel, multi-task and opportunistic networks requires more efforts to fully exploit the spatial-temporal network resources to enhance the data propagation; (3) Since many designs incur changes on MAC layer protocols, the co-existence of dissemination with other network protocols is another problem left to be addressed. PMID:28098830

  19. Combined rigorous-generic direct orthorectification procedure for IRS-p6 sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefzadeh, Meisam; Mojaradi, Barat

    2012-11-01

    The accessibility of global data, such as the digital elevation model (DEM), and the development of global visualisations allow promising new methods for minimising the distortion in the online generation of rough orthorectified products to be developed. Direct georeferencing (DG) has attracted a considerable amount of attention in the applications of pushbroom raw images in orthorectification or mono-plotting using ancillary satellite data. This study builds on recent DG studies to achieve an "orthoimage" from raw data and to determine potential mapping errors due to the DG procedure. Thus, this paper focuses on establishing a simple method for mitigating the misalignments of space-borne imageries to be used in direct orthorectification. Towards this goal, instead of image resectioning, affine transformation in different coordinate systems is employed in the orthorectification algorithm to compensate for the systematic DG errors. For a given point, the elevation corresponding to the obtained planimetric coordinate is extracted using available topographic maps and global DEMs, such as SRTM's and ASTER's DEMs. As a result, parameters no longer need to be updated, as in the conventional orthophoto generation methods. To evaluate the proposed procedures, experiments were conducted over three different IRS-p6 sensors in five datasets with different swath widths and tilt angles. The obtained results also demonstrate that the geographic coordinate system and a simple 2D affine transformation can efficiently correct misalignments.

  20. Direct synthesis of graphene-chitosan composite and its application as an enzymeless methyl parathion sensor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanli; Luo, Shenglian; Liu, Chengbin; Wei, Wanzhi

    2012-08-01

    This paper proposed a direct electrodeposition approach to synthesis of graphene-chitosan (GR-CS) composite onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) under controlled potential. This direct electrodeposition approach for the construction of GR-based hybrid was environmentally friendly, which would not involve the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and therefore result in no further contamination. The whole procedure was simply and cost only several minutes. Moreover, Combining the advantages of GR (large surface-to-volume ratio and high conductivity) and CS (good biocompatibility and adsorption), the GR-CS composite could be highly efficient to capture OPs and used as solid phase extraction (SPE). The GR-CS/GCE was used to detect organophosphate pesticides (OPs), using methyl parathion (MP) as a model analyte. The significantly redox response of MP on the GR-CS/GCE was proved. The linear range was wide from 4.0 ng mL(-1) to 400 ng mL(-1), and a low detection limit of 0.8 ng mL(-1) for MP was achieved. Moreover, the proposed sensor exhibited high reproducibility, long-time storage stability and satisfactory anti-interference ability. The proposed GR-CS/GCE opens new opportunity for green, fast, simple, and sensitive analysis of OP compounds.

  1. Nitrate and Nitrite Variability at the Seafloor of an Oxygen Minimum Zone Revealed by a Novel Microfluidic In-Situ Chemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Mustafa; Beaton, Alexander D.; Dengler, Marcus; Mowlem, Matthew C.; Sohl, Frank; Sommer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics, or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a promising technology that allows the development of miniaturized chemical sensors. In contrast to the surging interest in biomedical sciences, the utilization of LOC sensors in aquatic sciences is still in infancy but a wider use of such sensors could mitigate the undersampling problem of ocean biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the first underwater test of a novel LOC sensor to obtain in situ calibrated time-series (up to 40 h) of nitrate+nitrite (ΣNOx) and nitrite on the seafloor of the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone, offshore Western Africa. Initial tests showed that the sensor successfully reproduced water column (160 m) nutrient profiles. Lander deployments at 50, 100 and 170 m depth indicated that the biogeochemical variability was high over the Mauritanian shelf: The 50 m site had the lowest ΣNOx concentration, with 15.2 to 23.4 μM (median=18.3 μM); while at the 100 site ΣNOx varied between 21.0 and 30.1 μM over 40 hours (median = 25.1μM). The 170 m site had the highest median ΣNOx level (25.8 μM) with less variability (22.8 to 27.7 μM). At the 50 m site, nitrite concentration decreased fivefold from 1 to 0.2 μM in just 30 hours accompanied by decreasing oxygen and increasing nitrate concentrations. Taken together with the time series of oxygen, temperature, pressure and current velocities, we propose that the episodic intrusion of deeper waters via cross-shelf transport leads to intrusion of nitrate-rich, but oxygen-poor waters to shallower locations, with consequences for benthic nitrogen cycling. This first validation of an LOC sensor at elevated water depths revealed that when deployed for longer periods and as a part of a sensor network, LOC technology has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the benthic biogeochemical dynamics. PMID:26161958

  2. Nitrate and Nitrite Variability at the Seafloor of an Oxygen Minimum Zone Revealed by a Novel Microfluidic In-Situ Chemical Sensor.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Mustafa; Beaton, Alexander D; Dengler, Marcus; Mowlem, Matthew C; Sohl, Frank; Sommer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics, or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a promising technology that allows the development of miniaturized chemical sensors. In contrast to the surging interest in biomedical sciences, the utilization of LOC sensors in aquatic sciences is still in infancy but a wider use of such sensors could mitigate the undersampling problem of ocean biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the first underwater test of a novel LOC sensor to obtain in situ calibrated time-series (up to 40 h) of nitrate+nitrite (ΣNOx) and nitrite on the seafloor of the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone, offshore Western Africa. Initial tests showed that the sensor successfully reproduced water column (160 m) nutrient profiles. Lander deployments at 50, 100 and 170 m depth indicated that the biogeochemical variability was high over the Mauritanian shelf: The 50 m site had the lowest ΣNOx concentration, with 15.2 to 23.4 μM (median=18.3 μM); while at the 100 site ΣNOx varied between 21.0 and 30.1 μM over 40 hours (median = 25.1 μM). The 170 m site had the highest median ΣNOx level (25.8 μM) with less variability (22.8 to 27.7 μM). At the 50 m site, nitrite concentration decreased fivefold from 1 to 0.2 μM in just 30 hours accompanied by decreasing oxygen and increasing nitrate concentrations. Taken together with the time series of oxygen, temperature, pressure and current velocities, we propose that the episodic intrusion of deeper waters via cross-shelf transport leads to intrusion of nitrate-rich, but oxygen-poor waters to shallower locations, with consequences for benthic nitrogen cycling. This first validation of an LOC sensor at elevated water depths revealed that when deployed for longer periods and as a part of a sensor network, LOC technology has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the benthic biogeochemical dynamics.

  3. Long-term performance of Aanderaa optodes and sea-bird SBE-43 dissolved-oxygen sensors bottom mounted at 32 m in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, Marinna; Butman, Bradford; Mickelson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A field evaluation of two new dissolved-oxygen sensing technologies, the Aanderaa Instruments AS optode model 3830 and the Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc., model SBE43, was carried out at about 32-m water depth in western Massachusetts Bay. The optode is an optical sensor that measures fluorescence quenching by oxygen molecules, while the SBE43 is a Clark polarographic membrane sensor. Optodes were continuously deployed on bottom tripod frames by exchanging sensors every 4 months over a 19-month period. A Sea-Bird SBE43 was added during one 4-month deployment. These moored observations compared well with oxygen measurements from profiles collected during monthly shipboard surveys conducted by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. The mean correlation coefficient between the moored measurements and shipboard survey data was >0.9, the mean difference was 0.06 mL L−1, and the standard deviation of the difference was 0.15 mL L−1. The correlation coefficient between the optode and the SBE43 was >0.9 and the mean difference was 0.07 mL L−1. Optode measurements degraded when fouling was severe enough to block oxygen molecules from entering the sensing foil over a significant portion of the sensing window. Drift observed in two optodes beginning at about 225 and 390 days of deployment is attributed to degradation of the sensing foil. Flushing is necessary to equilibrate the Sea-Bird sensor. Power consumption by the SBE43 and required pump was 19.2 mWh per sample, and the optode consumed 0.9 mWh per sample, both within expected values based on manufacturers’ specifications.

  4. [Fabrication of sensor for reactive oxygen species using gold electrodes modified with electropolymerized porphyrins and application for detection of stress of plants].

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Makoto; Oyaizu, Kenichi; Murata, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Chihiro

    2007-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Spiecies (ROS) such as superoxide anion radical (.O(2)(-)) act as signals for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. However, excess ROS generated by perturbing .O(2)(-) homeostasis stimulated many environmental stress, including intense light, drought, temperature stress, herbicides, induce high radical toxicity. Consequently, quantitative analysis of .O(2)(-) is a subject of intense research, since most of ROS are derived from .O(2)(-). Iron meso-tetrakis(3-thienyl)porphyrin complexes were electropolymerized onto a Au wire electrode. The modified Au electrode were applied to .O(2)(-) sensor to detect catalytic oxidation current of .O(2)(-) which was generated as an intermediate during the oxidation of xanthine by catalystic XOD. It was revealed that the sensor was quantitative to measure .O(2)(-). The modified Au electrode were applied to measure oxidation current of .O(2)(-) in mung beans under environmental stress condition. Plants were grown in atmosphere, 25 degrees C and in black darkness. The other plants were exposed to oxygen excess. The oxidation current of .O(2)(-) were increased plants were grown by high-oxygen environment compared to plants were grown at atmosphere. This experiment was indicated that environmental stress such as hyperoxia induced excess .O(2)(-) and Au wire sensor using iron porphyrin complexes is capable of .O(2)(-) detection in plants under environmental stresses.

  5. Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Intractable Pulmonary Insufficiency: Practical Issues and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Delnoij, T. S. R.; Driessen, R.; Sharma, A. S.; Bouman, E. A.; Strauch, U.; Roekaerts, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) is a highly invasive method for organ support that is gaining in popularity due to recent technical advances and its successful application in the recent H1N1 epidemic. Although running a vv-ECMO program is potentially feasible for many hospitals, there are many theoretical concepts and practical issues that merit attention and require expertise. In this review, we focus on indications for vv-ECMO, components of the circuit, and management of patients on vv-ECMO. Concepts regarding oxygenation and decarboxylation and how they can be influenced are discussed. Day-to-day management, weaning, and most frequent complications are covered in light of the recent literature. PMID:27127794

  6. Brazing of zirconia to metal for development of oxygen and pH sensors for high-temperature, high-pressure aqueous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, G.P.; Biswas, R.; Bertuch, A.

    1997-11-01

    Zirconia electrodes are routinely used as oxygen sensors at temperatures of 600{degrees}C and are now extensively used as pH sensors in high-temperature high-pressure aqueous systems (300{degrees}C and 3000 psi). Brazing of zirconia tubes to metal is one approach to making such sensors. A variety of metal supports (304L SS, Ni, Cu), three braze alloys in the Ag-Cu-Ti system and their combinations were investigated in bonding with the zirconia tubes. The important issues were the weakening of the zirconia matrix during brazing, bonding with the metal, and corrosion of the braze under operating conditions of 300{degrees}C and 3000 psi in aqueous environments. The results obtained are discussed along with guidelines for further investigations.

  7. Anti-xa directed protocol for anticoagulation management in children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, L Carlisle; Alten, Jeffrey A; Goldberg, Kellen G; Timpa, Joseph G; Phillips, Jay; Laney, Debbie; Borasino, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The optimum heparin monitoring method during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is unknown. We report a protocol utilizing only anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) to manage anticoagulation in 22 consecutive ECMO patients. Anti-Xa was monitored with heparin titration every hour until goal 0.4-0.8 IU/ml. Once therapeutic, monitoring was progressively spaced up to every 6 hours. Patients received frequent antithrombin III (ATIII). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation indications were as follows: 13 cardiorespiratory failures, eight extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitations (ECPRs), and one pulmonary hypertension. Median weight was 4 kg, age 12.5 days, and ECMO duration 88 hours. Survival was 50%. Mean heparin dose was 38 ± 11 unit/kg/hr. Eight patients received no heparin for median 9 hours because of postoperative bleeding. Compared with prior activated clotting time (ACT) protocol, there were 20 fewer blood draws per day to manage anticoagulation, p < 0.001. Only 9% of the anti-Xa levels were outside therapeutic range versus 22% using ACT, p < 0.01. Six patients had bleeding complications, and seven had oxygenator change-out. Change-out was associated with blood product administration and bleeding but not with heparin-free period (p = 0.39). Survival to discharge was higher among those who did not require circuit/oxygenator change-outs, 4/7 versus 7/7 (p < 0.01). Anti-factor Xa-based ECMO heparin management protocol is feasible, decreases blood sampling and heparin infusion adjustments, and does not appear to increase complications.

  8. Stretchable Complementary Split Ring Resonator (CSRR)-Based Radio Frequency (RF) Sensor for Strain Direction and Level Detection

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Seunghyun; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed a stretchable radio frequency (RF) sensor to detect strain direction and level. The stretchable sensor is composed of two complementary split ring resonators (CSRR) with microfluidic channels. In order to achieve stretchability, liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium, EGaIn) and Ecoflex substrate are used. Microfluidic channels are built by Ecoflex elastomer and microfluidic channel frames. A three-dimensional (3D) printer is used for fabrication of microfluidic channel frames. Two CSRR resonators are designed to resonate 2.03 GHz and 3.68 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the +x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 3.68 GHz to 3.13 GHz. When the proposed sensor is stretched from 0 to 8 mm along the −x direction, the resonant frequency is shifted from 2.03 GHz to 1.78 GHz. Therefore, we can detect stretched length and direction from independent variation of two resonant frequencies. PMID:27727173

  9. DPO and POPOP carboxylate-analog sensors by sequential palladium-catalysed direct arylation of oxazole-4-carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Cécile; Fiol-Petit, Catherine; Hoarau, Christophe; Marsais, Francis

    2011-09-21

    Sequential palladium-catalysed direct (het)arylation of oxazole-4-carboxylates is achieved to give rapid access to DPO and POPOP (di)carboxylate-analogs. Three novel DPO- and POPOP-type sensors with unusual Stokes shifts and high quantum yields are discovered.

  10. Inkjet printing of nanoporous gold electrode arrays on cellulose membranes for high-sensitive paper-like electrochemical oxygen sensors using ionic liquid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chengguo; Bai, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yingkai; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Shengshui

    2012-04-17

    A simple approach to the mass production of nanoporous gold electrode arrays on cellulose membranes for electrochemical sensing of oxygen using ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes was established. The approach, combining the inkjet printing of gold nanoparticle (GNP) patterns with the self-catalytic growth of these patterns into conducting layers, can fabricate hundreds of self-designed gold arrays on cellulose membranes within several hours using an inexpensive inkjet printer. The resulting paper-based gold electrode arrays (PGEAs) had several unique properties as thin-film sensor platforms, including good conductivity, excellent flexibility, high integration, and low cost. The porous nature of PGEAs also allowed the addition of electrolytes from the back cellulose membrane side and controllably produced large three-phase electrolyte/electrode/gas interfaces at the front electrode side. A novel paper-based solid-state electrochemical oxygen (O(2)) sensor was therefore developed using an IL electrolyte, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF(6)). The sensor looked like a piece of paper but possessed high sensitivity for O(2) in a linear range from 0.054 to 0.177 v/v %, along with a low detection limit of 0.0075% and a short response time of less than 10 s, foreseeing its promising applications in developing cost-effective and environment-friendly paper-based electrochemical gas sensors.

  11. Direct assembly of multiply oxygenated carbon chains by decarbonylative radical-radical coupling reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kengo; Nagatomo, Masanori; Inoue, Masayuki

    2016-10-01

    Pentoses and hexoses contain more than three oxygen-bearing stereocentres and are ideal starting materials for the synthesis of multiply oxygenated natural products such as sagittamide D, maitotoxin and hikizimycin. Here we demonstrate new radical-radical homocoupling reactions of sugar derivatives with minimal perturbation of their chiral centres. The radical exchange procedure using Et3B/O2 converted sugar-derived α-alkoxyacyl tellurides into α-alkoxy radicals via decarbonylation and rapidly dimerized the monomeric radicals. The robustness of this process was demonstrated by a single-step preparation of 12 stereochemically diverse dimers with 6-10 secondary hydroxy groups, including the C5-C10 stereohexad of sagittamide D and the enantiomer of the C51-C60 stereodecad of maitotoxin. Furthermore, the optimally convergent radical-radical cross-coupling reaction achieved a one-step assembly of the protected C1-C11 oxygenated carbon chain of the anthelmintic hikizimycin. These exceptionally efficient homo- and heterocoupling methods together provide a powerful strategy for the expedited total synthesis of contiguously hydroxylated natural products.

  12. Electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction on perovskite oxides: series versus direct pathway.

    PubMed

    Poux, Tiphaine; Bonnefont, Antoine; Kéranguéven, Gwénaëlle; Tsirlina, Galina A; Savinova, Elena R

    2014-07-21

    The mechanism of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on LaCoO(3) and La(0.8)Sr(0.2)MnO(3) perovskite oxides is studied in 1 M NaOH by using the rotating ring disc electrode (RRDE) method. By combining experimental studies with kinetic modeling, it was demonstrated that on perovskite, as well as on perovskite/carbon electrodes, the ORR follows a series pathway through the intermediate formation of hydrogen peroxide. The escape of this intermediate from the electrode strongly depends on: 1) The loading of perovskite; high loadings lead to an overall 4 e(-) oxygen reduction due to efficient hydrogen peroxide re-adsorption on the active sites and its further reduction. 2) The addition of carbon to the catalytic layer, which affects both the utilization of the perovskite surface and the production of hydrogen peroxide. 3) The type of oxide; La(0.8)Sr(0.2)MnO(3) displays higher (compared to LaCoO(3)) activity in the reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide and in the reduction/oxidation of the latter.

  13. Manipulation based on sensor-directed control: An integrated end effector and touch sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    A hand/touch sensing system is described that, when mounted on a position-controlled manipulator, greatly expands the kinds of automated manipulation tasks that can be undertaken. Because of the variety of coordinate conversions, control equations, and completion criteria, control is necessarily dependent upon a small digital computer. The sensing system is designed both to be rugged and to sense the necessary touch and force information required to execute a wide range of manipulation tasks. The system consists of a six-axis wrist sensor, external touch sensors, and a pair of matrix jaw sensors. Details of the construction of the particular sensors, the integration of the end effector into the sensor system, and the control algorithms for using the sensor outputs to perform manipulation tasks automatically are discussed.

  14. Gesture-Directed Sensor-Information Fusion for Communication in Hazardous Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    sensors for gesture recognition [1], [2]. An important future step to enhance the effectiveness of the war fighter is to integrate CBRN and other...addition to the standard eGlove magnetic and motion gesture recognition sensors. War fighters progressing through a battlespace are now providing...a camera for gesture recognition is absolutely not an option for a CBRN war fighter in a battlefield scenario. Multi sensor fusion is commonly

  15. Nutrient Sensor in the Brain Directs the Action of the Brain-Gut Axis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dus, Monica; Sih-Yu Lai, Jason; Gunapala, Keith M.; Min, Soohong; Tayler, Timothy D.; Hergarden, Anne C.; Geraud, Eliot; Joseph, Christina M.; Suh, Greg S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animals can detect and consume nutritive sugars without the influence of taste. However, the identity of the taste-independent nutrient sensor and the mechanism by which animals respond to the nutritional value of sugar are unclear. Here, we report that six neurosecretory cells in the Drosophila brain that produce Diuretic hormone 44 (Dh44), a homologue of the mammalian corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), were specifically activated by nutritive sugars. Flies in which the activity of these neurons or the expression of Dh44 was disrupted failed to select nutritive sugars. Manipulation of the function of Dh44 receptors had a similar effect. Notably, artificial activation of Dh44 receptor-1 neurons resulted in proboscis extensions, and frequent episodes of excretion. Conversely, reduced Dh44 activity led to decreased excretion. Together, these actions facilitate ingestion and digestion of nutritive foods. We propose that the Dh44 system directs the detection and consumption of nutritive sugars through a positive feedback loop. PMID:26074004

  16. A direct sequence spread spectrum code acquisition circuit for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaisari, Jafar; Ferdosi, Arash

    2011-06-01

    Narrow band (NB), spread spectrum (SS), and ultra wide band (UWB) are three physical layer bandwidth types used in wireless sensor networks (WSN). SS and UWB technologies have many advantages over NB, which make them preferable for WSN. Synchronisation of different nodes in a WSN is an important task that is necessary to improve cooperation and lifetime of nodes. Code acquisition is the main step of a node's time synchronisation. In this article, a pseudo noise code generator and a code acquisition circuit are proposed, designed and tested using direct sequence SS technique. To investigate the properties of the designed circuits, simulations are carried out via Xilinx Foundation Series software in the real mode. The results demonstrate excellent performance of the proposed algorithms and circuits in all realistic conditions. The code acquisition circuit proposed an adaptive testing window for single dwell serial search method. The code acquisition circuit is a clock phase free approach, thus the clock coherency step is cancelled. Moreover, clock phase difference between transmitter and receiver nodes does not mostly affect the acquisition and thus synchronisation time.

  17. Atypical sensors for direct and rapid neuronal detection of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Choi, Seung-In; Choi, Geunyeol; Hwang, Sun Wook

    2016-03-09

    Bacterial infection can threaten the normal biological functions of a host, often leading to a disease. Hosts have developed complex immune systems to cope with the danger. Preceding the elimination of pathogens, selective recognition of the non-self invaders is necessary. At the forefront of the body's defenses are the innate immune cells, which are equipped with particular sensor molecules that can detect common exterior patterns of invading pathogens and their secreting toxins as well as with phagocytic machinery. Inflammatory mediators and cytokines released from these innate immune cells and infected tissues can boost the inflammatory cascade and further recruit adaptive immune cells to maximize the elimination and resolution. The nervous system also seems to interact with this process, mostly known to be affected by the inflammatory mediators through the binding of neuronal receptors, consequently activating neural circuits that tune the local and systemic inflammatory states. Recent research has suggested new contact points: direct interactions of sensory neurons with pathogens. Latest findings demonstrated that the sensory neurons not only share pattern recognition mechanisms with innate immune cells, but also utilize endogenous and exogenous electrogenic components for bacterial pathogen detection, by which the electrical firing prompts faster information flow than what could be achieved when the immune system is solely involved. As a result, rapid pain generation and active accommodation of the immune status occur. Here we introduced the sensory neuron-specific detector molecules for directly responding to bacterial pathogens and their signaling mechanisms. We also discussed extended issues that need to be explored in the future.

  18. The Impact of Direct Cardiac Output Determination On Using A Widely Available Direct Continuous Oxygen Consumption Measuring Device On The Hemodynamic Assessment of Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Fanari, Zaher; Grove, Matthew; Rajamanickam, Anitha; Hammami, Sumaya; Walls, Cassie; Kolm, Paul; Saltzberg, Mitchell; Weintraub, William S.; Doorey, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of cardiac output (CO) is essential for the hemodynamic assessment of aortic valve area (AVA). Estimation of oxygen consumption (VO2) and Thermodilution (TD) is employed in many cardiac catheterization laboratories (CCL) given the historically cumbersome nature of direct continuous VO2 measurement, the “gold standard” for this technique. A portable facemask device simplifies the direct continuous measurement of VO2, allowing for relatively rapid and continuous assessment of CO and AVA. Methods and Materials Seventeen consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization had simultaneous determination of CO by both direct continuous and assumed VO2 and TD. Assessments were only made when a plateau of VO2 had occurred. All measurements of direct continuous and assumed VO2, as well as, TD CO were obtained in triplicate. Results Direct continuous VO2 CO and assumed VO2 CO correlated poorly (R= 0.57; ICC =0.59). Direct continuous VO2 CO and TD CO also correlated poorly (R= 0.51; ICC=0.60). Similarly AVA derived from direct continuous VO2 correlated poorly with those of assumed VO2 (R= 0.68; ICC=0.55) and TD (R=0.66, ICC=0.60). Repeated direct continuous VO2 CO and AVA measurements were extremely correlated and reproducible [(R=0.93; ICC=0.96) and (R=0.99; ICC>0.99) respectively], suggesting that this was the most reliable measurement of CO. Conclusions CO calculated from direct continuous VO2 measurement varies substantially from both assumed VO2 and TD based CO, which are widely used in most CCL. These differences may significantly impact the CO and AVA measurements. Furthermore, continuous, rather than average, measurement of VO2 appears to give highly reproducible results. PMID:27904163

  19. Patterns of discoloration and oxidation by direct and scattered fluxes, especially oxygen on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Filz, R. C.; Rich, F. J.; Sagalyn, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    A number of interesting discoloration patterns are clearly evident on M0002-1 which resides on three faces of LDEF: front face, rear face, and earth face. Most interesting is the pattern of blue oxidation on polished single crystal silicon apparently produced by once-scattered ram oxygen atoms along the earth face. Most of the other patterns are seen in the Thermal Control Paint. Also, severe oxidation of CR-39 polycarbonate occurred on the front face of LDEF, as expected. A complete explanation for the patterns has not yet been obtained.

  20. Range estimation techniques in single-station thunderstorm warning sensors based upon gated, wideband, magnetic direction finder technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifer, Alburt E.; Hiscox, William L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Neumann, William T.

    1991-01-01

    Gated, wideband, magnetic direction finders (DFs) were originally designed to measure the bearing of cloud-to-ground lightning relative to the sensor. A recent addition to this device uses proprietary waveform discrimination logic to select return stroke signatures and certain range dependent features in the waveform to provide an estimate of range of flashes within 50 kms. The enhanced ranging techniques are discussed which were designed and developed for use in single station thunderstorm warning sensor. Included are the results of on-going evaluations being conducted under a variety of meteorological and geographic conditions.

  1. Underwater imaging using a hybrid Kirchhoff migration: direction of arrival method and a sparse surface sensor array.

    PubMed

    Dord, Jean-Francois; Farhat, Charbel

    2010-08-01

    This paper considers the problem of imaging a complex object submerged in shallow waters using a sparse surface sensor array and a hybrid signal processing method. This method is constructed by refining the Kirchhoff migration technique to incorporate a zoning of the sensors and an analysis of multiple reflections, and combining it with the direction of arrival estimation method. Its performance is assessed and analyzed with the shape identification of a mockup submarine by numerical simulation. The obtained numerical results highlight the potential of this approach for identifying underwater intruders.

  2. Multi-sensor for measuring erythemally weighted irradiance in various directions simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Peleg, I.; Peled, A.

    2016-10-01

    Estimating the ultraviolet-B (UV-B) solar irradiance and its angular distribution is a matter of interest to both research and commercial institutes. A static multi-sensor instrument is developed in this paper for a simultaneous measuring of the sky and the reflected erythemally weighted UV-B irradiance on multiple inclined surfaces. The instrument employs a pre-developed simple solar irradiance model and a minimum mean square error method to estimate the various irradiance parameters. The multi-sensor instrument comprises a spherical shaped apparatus with the UV-B sensors mounted as follows: seven sky-facing sensors to measure the hemispherical sky irradiance and six sensors facing downwards to measure the reflection from ground. This work aims to devise and outline an elementary, low-cost multi-sensor instrument. The sensor may usefully serve research, commercial, and medical institutes to sample and measure the UV-B irradiance on horizontal as well as on inclined surfaces. The various UV-B calculations for inclined surfaces are aided by the sensor's integrated software.

  3. Flow cytometric assessment of reactive oxygen species generations that are directly related to cellular ZnO nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a simple flow cytometry protocol to evaluate nanoparticle associated biological response was proposed. Particularly, we have evaluated the effect of surface charge on the cellular nanoparticle associations and nanoparticle-induced apoptosis. Significant enhancement in side scattering intensity was observed for the HeLa cells treated with positively charged (PLL)ZnO nanoparticles, suggesting that the (PLL)ZnO nanoparticles may induce cell death via adsorption and endocytosis of the nanoparticles. On the other hand, the negatively charged (PAA)ZnO nanoparticle seems to cause cell death process indirectly via the released Zn ions, with less contribution from cellular association of nanoparticles. Time- and dose-dependent studies on cellular association of ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnO associated reactive oxygen species generation were also performed for the HeLa cells exposed to the (PLL)ZnO nanoparticle. For those cells associated with (PLL)ZnO nanoparticle, a significant enhancement in reactive oxygen species generation was observed even at a lower concentration (10 ppm), which was not observable for the results with the whole cell population. By using this approach, we are able to distinguish biological responses (e.g., reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation) directly related to the cellular associations of NPs from those indirectly related to the cellular associations of NPs, such as the cytotoxicity caused by the NP released metal ions.

  4. Thin-film transistor array technology for high-performance direct-conversion x-ray sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Boer, Willem; Aggas, Steven; Byun, Young H.; Gu, Tieer; Zhong, Johnny Q.; Thomsen, Scott V.; Jeromin, Lothar S.; Lee, Denny L. Y.

    1998-07-01

    Thin Film Transistor (TFT) array technology is presented for Digital X-ray Sensors in Direct Radiography applications. Circuit simulations were performed to optimize the design of the TFT array. The sensor array uses a combination of a mushroom electrode with a high fill factor of 86% and a polymer passivation dielectric to minimize column capacitance and improve signal-to-noise ratio. A 14 in. X 8.5 in. sensor array with 1536 X 2560 pixels was developed using this technology. The TFT arrays are processed entirely in Class 1 clean room environments to eliminate line defects and minimize pixel defects. The best 14 in. X 8.5 in. panels have exhibited fewer than 0.001% pixel defects, as detected during in process testing prior to Se coating. In typical image quality comparisons with conventional X-ray film/screen combinations, the digital X-ray sensor exhibited equal or better performance than film-screens. Clinical studies were also conducted. Radiologists concluded that diagnostically significant projection radiographic images can be produced with the new digital X-ray sensor that are equivalent or superior to conventional film/screen images at the same X-ray exposures. The detector recently received FDA approval.

  5. Using Optical Oxygen Sensors and Injection Experiments to Determine in situ Microbial Rate Constants for Methane Oxidation and Heterotrophic Respiration in a Boreal Bog and Fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldo, N.; Moorberg, C.; Waldrop, M. P.; Turetsky, M. R.; Neumann, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and play a key role in feedback cycles to climate change. In recognition of this, many researchers are developing process-based models of wetland methane emissions at various scales. In these models, the three key biogeochemical reactions are methane production, methane oxidation, and heterotrophic respiration, and they are modeled using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The majority of Michaelis-Menten rate constants used in models are based on experiments involving slurries of peat incubated in vials. While these slurries provide a highly controlled setting, they are different from in situ conditions in multiple ways; notably they lack live plants and the centimeter-scale heterogeneities that exist in the field. To determine rate constants in a system more representative of in situ conditions, we extracted peat cores intact from a bog and fen located in the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest near Fairbanks, Alaska and part of the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) research program. Into those cores we injected water with varying concentrations of methane and oxygen at multiple depths. We used planar oxygen sensors installed on the peat cores to collect high resolution, two dimensional oxygen concentration data during the injections and used oxygen consumption rates under various conditions to calculate rate constants. Results were compared to a similar but smaller set of injection experiments conducted against planar oxygen sensors installed in the bog. Results will inform parametrization of microbial processes in wetland models, improving estimates of methane emissions both under current climate conditions and in the future.

  6. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour.

  7. Dissolved Oxygen Sensor in Animal-Borne Instruments: An Innovation for Monitoring the Health of Oceans and Investigating the Functioning of Marine Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Frederic; Vacquie-Garcia, Jade; Guinet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems’ health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO). Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project). Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour. PMID:26200780

  8. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  9. Directed evolution of bright mutants of an oxygen-independent flavin-binding fluorescent protein from Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluorescent reporter proteins have revolutionized our understanding of cellular bioprocesses by enabling live cell imaging with exquisite spatio-temporal resolution. Existing fluorescent proteins are predominantly based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and related analogs. However, GFP-family proteins strictly require molecular oxygen for maturation of fluorescence, which precludes their application for investigating biological processes in low-oxygen environments. A new class of oxygen-independent fluorescent reporter proteins was recently reported based on flavin-binding photosensors from Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. However, flavin-binding fluorescent proteins show very limited brightness, which restricts their utility as biological imaging probes. Results In this work, we report the discovery of bright mutants of a flavin-binding fluorescent protein from P. putida using directed evolution by site saturation mutagenesis. We discovered two mutations at a chromophore-proximal amino acid (F37S and F37T) that confer a twofold enhancement in brightness relative to the wild type fluorescent protein through improvements in quantum yield and holoprotein fraction. In addition, we observed that substitution with other aromatic amino acids at this residue (F37Y and F37W) severely diminishes fluorescence emission. Therefore, we identify F37 as a key amino acid residue in determining fluorescence. Conclusions To increase the scope and utility of flavin-binding fluorescent proteins as practical fluorescent reporters, there is a strong need for improved variants of the wild type protein. Our work reports on the application of site saturation mutagenesis to isolate brighter variants of a flavin-binding fluorescent protein, which is a first-of-its-kind approach. Overall, we anticipate that the improved variants will find pervasive use as fluorescent reporters for biological studies in low-oxygen environments. PMID:23095243

  10. Community Sewage Sensors towards Evaluation of Drug Use Trends: Detection of Cocaine in Wastewater with DNA-Directed Immobilization Aptamer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhugen; Castrignanò, Erika; Estrela, Pedro; Frost, Christopher G.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Illicit drug use has a global concern and effective monitoring and interventions are highly required to combat drug abuse. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative and cost-effective approach to evaluate community-wide drug use trends, compared to traditional population surveys. Here we report for the first time, a novel quantitative community sewage sensor (namely DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors, DDIAS) for rapid and cost-effective estimation of cocaine use trends via WBE. Thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was hybridized with aptamer ssDNA in solution, followed by co-immobilization with 6-mercapto-hexane onto the gold electrodes to control the surface density to effectively bind with cocaine. DDIAS was optimized to detect cocaine at as low as 10 nM with a dynamic range from 10 nM to 5 μM, which were further employed for the quantification of cocaine in wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in seven consecutive days. The concentration pattern of the sampling week is comparable with that from mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that the developed DDIAS can be used as community sewage sensors for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of drug use trends, and potentially implemented as a powerful tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of wastewater by un-skilled personnel. PMID:26876971

  11. Community Sewage Sensors towards Evaluation of Drug Use Trends: Detection of Cocaine in Wastewater with DNA-Directed Immobilization Aptamer Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhugen; Castrignanò, Erika; Estrela, Pedro; Frost, Christopher G.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Illicit drug use has a global concern and effective monitoring and interventions are highly required to combat drug abuse. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative and cost-effective approach to evaluate community-wide drug use trends, compared to traditional population surveys. Here we report for the first time, a novel quantitative community sewage sensor (namely DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors, DDIAS) for rapid and cost-effective estimation of cocaine use trends via WBE. Thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe was hybridized with aptamer ssDNA in solution, followed by co-immobilization with 6-mercapto-hexane onto the gold electrodes to control the surface density to effectively bind with cocaine. DDIAS was optimized to detect cocaine at as low as 10 nM with a dynamic range from 10 nM to 5 μM, which were further employed for the quantification of cocaine in wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in seven consecutive days. The concentration pattern of the sampling week is comparable with that from mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that the developed DDIAS can be used as community sewage sensors for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of drug use trends, and potentially implemented as a powerful tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of wastewater by un-skilled personnel.

  12. Gesture-Directed Sensor-Information Fusion (GDSIF) for Protection and Communication in Hazardous Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-20

    G. Rogers, R. Luna, and J. Ellen, “Wireless Communication Glove Apparatus for Motion Tracking, Gesture Recognition , Data Transmission, and Reception...and easier to deploy in a variety of ways. (See, for example, [1] and [3].) The current eGloves have magnetic and motion sensors for gesture ... recognition [5], [6]. An important future step to enhance the effectiveness of the war fighter is to integrate CBRN and other sensors into the eGloves

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Oxygen in Metal Oxides with SEM/EDS by Direct Measurement of all X-ray Peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Historically, conventional wisdom surrounding SEM/EDS elemental analysis has it that quantitative estimates for oxygen in oxides cannot be reliably arrived at by direct measurement of the oxygen peak. It is a difficult measurement and EDS detectors have historically been not efficient at measuring soft x-rays. Because EDS results are proportional to weight percent and since oxygen is a relatively light atom changes in atom percent of oxygen in a sample result in smaller weight percent changes raising the precision required of the measurement. Analysis used to be performed with so called Si(Li) style EDS detectors. These had sealed, thin entrance windows that allowed the detection of oxygen, but the detectors and electronics did not allow for high count rates. Typically, quantitative work was done with an overall count rate of about 3,000 cps for the entire spectrum. Assuming an upper limit to the acquisition time of a few minutes put a limit on the x-rays the number of x-rays acquired and, therefore, put a limit on the precision of the measurement. Since the middle of the 1990s a new EDS detector technology has been developed called the Silicon Drift Detector. This detector features improved soft x-ray measurement capabilities but most importantly it allows for very high count rates while maintaining good energy resolution. It is easy to count at rates of many tens of thousands of counts per second while collecting a clean spectrum. These changed capabilities, especially the ability to acquire large numbers of x-ray photons in a short time, present a good opportunity to revisit the old assumptions and see how much things have changed. The goal of this work is to analyze a number of different metal oxides, measuring both the metal and oxygen peaks, and look for consistency and precision in the result. While it is always gratifying if the results match the expected quantitative values, if the peaks can be measured precisely and consistently then it should always be

  14. Characterization of the MEMS Directional Sound Sensor in the High Frequency (15-20 kHz) Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    and deposit her parasitic larvae on a live field cricket . The female fly locates her host at night, relying on auditory cues from the cricket’s...mating call [2]. The Ormia ochracea has the ability to locate a cricket acoustically despite the fact that its sensors are only separated by...However, the Ormia ochracea has the ability to determine the direction of the chirping cricket . How does this fly accomplish this seemingly difficult

  15. Retrieve Ocean Bottom and Downhole Seismic sensors orientation using integrated low cost gyroscope and direct rotation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    is deployed, but are not applicable to individual sensors or sensor-very far from each other. For all the above reasons it would be desirable a direct determinations of absolute orientation of horizontal components, not dependent on the nature, quantity and quality of the data acquired. The simplest solution to the problem would be the installation together with the sensors of an electronic compass able to directly measure the real horizontal orientation of the seismometer. However, as well known, all seismic sensors currently used to record earthquakes, produces strong electromagnetic fields which make data recorded by an electronic compass placed in their proximity unusable for the described purpose. For this reason, in this work, we propose a method for the estimation of the absolute orientation of horizontal components of a seismic sensor based on the use of a Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscope. MEMS gyroscope are low-cost electromechanical devices able to measure angular rate. The results of several tests have shown that these devices can allow an accurate determination of sensor orientation, better than that determined by post-procesing techniques. The small size, low power consumption and cost make these devices suitable in down hole or ocean bottom seismology.

  16. Direct Interaction between the Voltage Sensors Produces Cooperative Sustained Deactivation in Voltage-gated H+ Channel Dimers*

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hiroko; Yonezawa, Yasushige; Takano, Yu; Okamura, Yasushi; Fujiwara, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    The voltage-gated H+ channel (Hv) is a voltage sensor domain-like protein consisting of four transmembrane segments (S1–S4). The native Hv structure is a homodimer, with the two channel subunits functioning cooperatively. Here we show that the two voltage sensor S4 helices within the dimer directly cooperate via a π-stacking interaction between Trp residues at the middle of each segment. Scanning mutagenesis showed that Trp situated around the original position provides the slow gating kinetics characteristic of the dimer's cooperativity. Analyses of the Trp mutation on the dimeric and monomeric channel backgrounds and analyses with tandem channel constructs suggested that the two Trp residues within the dimer are functionally coupled during Hv deactivation but are less so during activation. Molecular dynamics simulation also showed direct π-stacking of the two Trp residues. These results provide new insight into the cooperative function of voltage-gated channels, where adjacent voltage sensor helices make direct physical contact and work as a single unit according to the gating process. PMID:26755722

  17. Direct-write nanoscale printing of nanogranular tunnelling strain sensors for sub-micrometre cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Dukic, Maja; Winhold, Marcel; Schwalb, Christian H; Adams, Jonathan D; Stavrov, Vladimir; Huth, Michael; Fantner, Georg E

    2016-09-26

    The sensitivity and detection speed of cantilever-based mechanical sensors increases drastically through size reduction. The need for such increased performance for high-speed nanocharacterization and bio-sensing, drives their sub-micrometre miniaturization in a variety of research fields. However, existing detection methods of the cantilever motion do not scale down easily, prohibiting further increase in the sensitivity and detection speed. Here we report a nanomechanical sensor readout based on electron co-tunnelling through a nanogranular metal. The sensors can be deposited with lateral dimensions down to tens of nm, allowing the readout of nanoscale cantilevers without constraints on their size, geometry or material. By modifying the inter-granular tunnel-coupling strength, the sensors' conductivity can be tuned by up to four orders of magnitude, to optimize their performance. We show that the nanoscale printed sensors are functional on 500 nm wide cantilevers and that their sensitivity is suited even for demanding applications such as atomic force microscopy.

  18. Direct-write nanoscale printing of nanogranular tunnelling strain sensors for sub-micrometre cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukic, Maja; Winhold, Marcel; Schwalb, Christian H.; Adams, Jonathan D.; Stavrov, Vladimir; Huth, Michael; Fantner, Georg E.

    2016-09-01

    The sensitivity and detection speed of cantilever-based mechanical sensors increases drastically through size reduction. The need for such increased performance for high-speed nanocharacterization and bio-sensing, drives their sub-micrometre miniaturization in a variety of research fields. However, existing detection methods of the cantilever motion do not scale down easily, prohibiting further increase in the sensitivity and detection speed. Here we report a nanomechanical sensor readout based on electron co-tunnelling through a nanogranular metal. The sensors can be deposited with lateral dimensions down to tens of nm, allowing the readout of nanoscale cantilevers without constraints on their size, geometry or material. By modifying the inter-granular tunnel-coupling strength, the sensors' conductivity can be tuned by up to four orders of magnitude, to optimize their performance. We show that the nanoscale printed sensors are functional on 500 nm wide cantilevers and that their sensitivity is suited even for demanding applications such as atomic force microscopy.

  19. Direct-write nanoscale printing of nanogranular tunnelling strain sensors for sub-micrometre cantilevers

    PubMed Central

    Dukic, Maja; Winhold, Marcel; Schwalb, Christian H.; Adams, Jonathan D.; Stavrov, Vladimir; Huth, Michael; Fantner, Georg E.

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity and detection speed of cantilever-based mechanical sensors increases drastically through size reduction. The need for such increased performance for high-speed nanocharacterization and bio-sensing, drives their sub-micrometre miniaturization in a variety of research fields. However, existing detection methods of the cantilever motion do not scale down easily, prohibiting further increase in the sensitivity and detection speed. Here we report a nanomechanical sensor readout based on electron co-tunnelling through a nanogranular metal. The sensors can be deposited with lateral dimensions down to tens of nm, allowing the readout of nanoscale cantilevers without constraints on their size, geometry or material. By modifying the inter-granular tunnel-coupling strength, the sensors' conductivity can be tuned by up to four orders of magnitude, to optimize their performance. We show that the nanoscale printed sensors are functional on 500 nm wide cantilevers and that their sensitivity is suited even for demanding applications such as atomic force microscopy. PMID:27666316

  20. Estimating the direct aerosol radiative effect over China using multi-sensor satellite remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundström, Anu-Maija; Arola, Antti; Kolmonen, Pekka; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2013-04-01

    The quantification of aerosol radiative effects is complex and large uncertainties still exist, mainly due to the high spatial and temporal variation of the aerosol concentration and mass as well as their relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere. In this work a multi-sensor satellite based approach is studied for defining the direct short wave aerosol radiative effect (ADRE) over China. ADRE at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is defined as the difference between the net solar flux with (F) and without (F0) aerosols. The negative values of ADRE correspond to increased outgoing radiation and planetary cooling, whereas positive values correspond to decreased outgoing radiation at TOA and increased atmospheric warming. To derive instantaneous ADRE from the satellite observations, the challenge is to estimate the value for F0. In this work F0 is derived using the colocated observations of CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radian Energy System) short wave broad band TOA-flux and MODIS (Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol optical depth (AOD). Assuming that aerosol type does not change systematically within a 0.5 deg. grid cell over a month, a linear relationship is established between the TOA-flux and AOD when AOD < 2.0. Using the linear fit an estimate for F0 can be obtained and F is the monthly mean of CERES observations. However, there are several other parameters affecting the observed TOA flux than the aerosol loading and aerosol type, such as solar zenith angle, water vapour, land surface albedo and Earth-Sun distance. Changes in these parameters within a grid cell over a month inflect the correlation. To minimize the effect of zenith angle, water vapour, and Earth-Sun distance the CERES fluxes are normalized before the linear fitting using reference fluxes calculated with a radiative transfer code (Libradtran). The normalization, especially to a fixed zenith angle increases the correlation between TOA flux and AOD significantly. For a comparison theF0 is

  1. Design optimization of the sensor spatial arrangement in a direct magnetic field-based localization system for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Marechal, Luc; Shaohui Foong; Zhenglong Sun; Wood, Kristin L

    2015-08-01

    Motivated by the need for developing a neuronavigation system to improve efficacy of intracranial surgical procedures, a localization system using passive magnetic fields for real-time monitoring of the insertion process of an external ventricular drain (EVD) catheter is conceived and developed. This system operates on the principle of measuring the static magnetic field of a magnetic marker using an array of magnetic sensors. An artificial neural network (ANN) is directly used for solving the inverse problem of magnetic dipole localization for improved efficiency and precision. As the accuracy of localization system is highly dependent on the sensor spatial location, an optimization framework, based on understanding and classification of experimental sensor characteristics as well as prior knowledge of the general trajectory of the localization pathway, for design of such sensing assemblies is described and investigated in this paper. Both optimized and non-optimized sensor configurations were experimentally evaluated and results show superior performance from the optimized configuration. While the approach presented here utilizes ventriculostomy as an illustrative platform, it can be extended to other medical applications that require localization inside the body.

  2. Flight parameter estimation using instantaneous frequency and direction of arrival measurements from a single acoustic sensor node.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kam W

    2017-03-01

    When an airborne sound source travels past a stationary ground-based acoustic sensor node in a straight line at constant altitude and constant speed that is not much less than the speed of sound in air, the movement of the source during the propagation of the signal from the source to the sensor node (commonly referred to as the "retardation effect") enables the full set of flight parameters of the source to be estimated by measuring the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signal at the sensor node over a sufficiently long period of time. This paper studies the possibility of using instantaneous frequency (IF) measurements from the sensor node to improve the precision of the flight parameter estimates when the source spectrum contains a harmonic line of constant frequency. A simplified Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis shows that the standard deviations in the estimates of the flight parameters can be reduced when IF measurements are used together with DOA measurements. Two flight parameter estimation algorithms that utilize both IF and DOA measurements are described and their performances are evaluated using both simulated data and real data.

  3. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of lobetyolin via magnetic functionalized reduced graphene oxide film fabricated electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bolu; Gou, Xiaodan; Bai, Ruibin; Abdelmoaty, Ahmed Attia Ahmed; Ma, Yuling; Zheng, Xiaoping; Hu, Fangdi

    2017-05-01

    A novel lobetyolin electrochemical sensor based on a magnetic functionalized reduced graphene oxide/Nafion nanohybrid film has been introduced in this work. The magnetic functionalized reduced graphene oxide was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The scanning electron microscopy characterized the morphology and microstructure of the prepared sensors, and the electrochemical effective surface areas of the prepared sensors were also calculated by chronocoulometry method. The electrochemical behavior of lobetyolin on the magnetic functionalized reduced graphene oxide/Nafion nanohybrid modified glassy carbon electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry in a phosphate buffer solution of pH6.0. The electron-transfer coefficient (α), electron transfer number (n), and electrode reaction rate constant (Κs) were calculated as 0.78, 0.73, and 4.63s(-1), respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the sensor based on magnetic functionalized reduced graphene oxide/Nafion showed a linear voltammetric response to the lobetyolin concentration at 1.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-4)mol/L with detection limit (S/N=3)of 4.3×10(-8)mol/L. The proposed sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity, and performs well for analysis of lobetyolin in real samples. The voltammetric sensor was successfully applied to detect lobetyolin in Codonopsis pilosula with recovery values in the range of 96.12%-102.66%.

  4. Directed assembly of nanomaterials for miniaturized sensors by dip-pen nanolithography using precursor inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming

    The advent of nanomaterials with enhanced properties and the means to pattern them in a controlled fashion have paved the way to construct miniaturized sensors for improved detection. However it remains a challenge for the traditional methods to create such sensors and sensor arrays. Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) can form nanostructures on a substrate by controlling the transfer of molecule inks. However, previous DPN can not pattern solid materials on insulating surfaces, which are necessary to form functional electronic devices. In the dissertation, the concept of reactive precursor inks for DPN is developed for the generation of solid functional nanostructures of the following materials: organic molecule, sol-gel material, and conducting polymer. First, the covalent bonding is unnecessary for DPN as shown in the colored ink DPN; therefore the numbers of molecules that can be patterned is extended beyond thiol or thiolated molecules. Subsequently, a reactive precursor strategy (sol) is developed to pattern inorganic or organic/inorganic composite nanostructures on silicon based substrates. The method works by hydrolysis of metal precursors in the water meniscus and allows the preparation of solid structures with controlled geometry beyond the individual molecule level. Then the SnO 2 nanostructures patterned between the gaps of electrodes are tested as gas sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments are demonstrated on miniaturized sensors that show fast response and recovery to certain gases. Furthermore, an eight-unit sensor array is fabricated on a chip using SnO2 sols that are doped with different metals. The multiplexed device can recognize different gases by comparing the response patterns with the reference patterns of known gases generated on the same array. At last, the idea of precursor ink for DPN is extended to construct conducting polymer based devices. By using an acid promoted polymerization approach, conducting polymers are patterned on silicon dioxide

  5. Characterising the Hyporheic Environment and Inferring Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions with Continuous Monitoring of Dissolved Oxygen Using Optical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulsby, C.; Malcolm, I. A.; Youngson, A. F.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2007-12-01

    The recent development of optical sensors that facilitate continuous, accurate in situ measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels have revolutionised our ability to monitor the hydrochemistry of the hyporheic zone; an important ecological and biogeochemical hot spot in streams. In addition, this has also provided invaluable insight into the nature of local groundwater - surface water exchange in stream-aquifer systems. This contribution will report the use of optode technology over a 2 year period in a gravel-bed stream draining a 30km2 montane watershed in the Scottish Highlands. Laboratory calibration of the optodes before and after installation confirmed excellent reliability and data quality. Two contrasting sites were monitored where previous work had suggested the hyporheic zone was respectively characterised by upwelling groundwater and downwelling surface water. At each site, replicated logging optodes recorded DO levels in the stream and in hyporheic water at depths of 15cm and 30cm in the stream bed. At the upwelling site, DO levels in the stream were close to 100% throughout the 2 years; levels in the hyporheic zone were highly dynamic and could range between 0 and 100% saturation in a matter of hours. Associated piezometry indicated that such changes were strongly influenced by high water table levels in hillslope groundwater, which resulted in positive pressures allowing the discharge of groundwater through the hyporheic zone. As such, hyporheic DO levels exhibited marked seasonal and inter- annual variability with values close to 100% saturation for prolonged periods during summer and other times when rainfall was low and there was poor connectivity between groundwater and the stream. In contrast, winter and wetter times, when hillslope groundwater-hyporheic connectivity was good, resulted in prolonged periods - up to several months - when hyporheic DO levels were at or close to zero. In addition, short transient spells of low DO followed some small

  6. Project of the borehole neutron generator for the direct determination of oxygen and carbon by activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, B. Yu; Vovchenko, E. D.; Iliinskiy, A. V.; Isaev, A. A.; Kozlovskiy, K. I.; Nesterovich, A. V.; Senyukov, V. A.; Shikanov, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with application features of borehole neutron generator (BNG) based on the vacuum accelerating tube (AT) with laser-plasma ion source for determination of oxygen isotope 16O and carbon isotope 12C by direct activation. The project of pulsed BNG for realization of an activation method in the conditions of natural presence of productive hydrocarbons is offered. The diode system with radial acceleration, magnetic electron insulation and laser-plasma source of deuterons at the anode in a sealed-off vacuum accelerating tube is applied. The permanent NdFeB magnet with induction about 0.5 T for produce the insulating magnetic field in the diode gap is proposed. In the experiments on the model of BNG with the accelerating voltage source (≈350 kV), performed by the scheme of Arkadiev-Marx generator, the output of (d, d) neutrons was ∼107 pulse-1.

  7. Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen species to directly affect antioxidant concentrations in cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, J T; Willey, N J; Hancock, J T

    2012-08-23

    It has been hypothesized that radiation-induced oxidative stress is the mechanism for a wide range of negative impacts on biota living in radioactively contaminated areas around Chernobyl. The present study tests this hypothesis mechanistically, for the first time, by modelling the impacts of radiolysis products within the cell resulting from radiations (low linear energy transfer β and γ), and dose rates appropriate to current contamination types and densities in the Chernobyl exclusion zone and at Fukushima. At 417 µGy h(-1) (illustrative of the most contaminated areas at Chernobyl), generation of radiolysis products did not significantly impact cellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species, or cellular redox potential. This study does not support the hypothesis that direct oxidizing stress is a mechanism for damage to organisms exposed to chronic radiation at dose rates typical of contaminated environments.

  8. Structure-Guided Directed Evolution of Highly Selective P450-based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sensors for Dopamine and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Brustad, Eric M.; Lelyveld, Victor S.; Snow, Christopher D.; Crook, Nathan; Jung, Sang Taek; Martinez, Francisco M.; Scholl, Timothy J.; Jasanoff, Alan; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-01-01

    New tools that allow dynamic visualization of molecular neural events are important for studying the basis of brain activity and disease. Sensors that permit ligand-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful reagents due to the non-invasive nature and good temporal and spatial resolution of MR methods. Paramagnetic metalloproteins can be effective MRI sensors due to the selectivity imparted by the protein active site and the ability to tune protein properties using techniques such as directed evolution. Here we show that structure-guided directed evolution of the active site of the cytochrome P450 BM3 heme domain (BM3h) produces highly selective MRI probes with sub-micromolar affinities for small molecules. We report a new, high affinity dopamine sensor as well as the first MRI reporter for serotonin, with which we demonstrate quantification of neurotransmitter release in vitro. We also present a detailed structural analysis of evolved BM3h lineages to systematically dissect the molecular basis of neurotransmitter binding affinity, selectivity, and enhanced MRI contrast activity in these engineered proteins. PMID:22659321

  9. Fabrication of a polyvinylidene difluoride fiber with a metal core and its application as directional air flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Yixiang; Liu, Rongrong; Hui, Shen

    2016-09-01

    We fabricated a sensitive air flow detector that mimic the sensing mechanism found at the tail of some insects. [see Y. Yang, A. Klein, H. Bleckmann and C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2) (2011); J. J. Heys, T. Gedeon, B. C. Knott and Y. Kim, J. Biomech. 41(5), 977 (2008); J. Tao and X. Yu, Smart Mat. Struct. 21(11) (2012)]. Our bionic airflow sensor uses a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) microfiber with a molybdenum core which we produced with the hot extrusion tensile method. The surface of the fiber is partially coated with conductive silver adhesive that serve as surface electrodes. A third electrode, the metal core is used to polarize polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) under the surface electrodes. The cantilever beam structure of the prepared symmetric electrodes of metal core piezoelectric fiber (SMPF) is used as the artificial hair airflow sensor. The surface electrodes are used to measure output voltage. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the SMPF responds fast to air flow changes, the output charge has an exponential correlation with airflow velocity and a cosine relation with the direction of airflow. Our bionic airflow sensor with directional sensing ability can also measure air flow amplitude. [see H. Droogendijk, R. G. P. Sanders and G. J. M. Krijnen, New J. Phys. 15 (2013)]. By using two surface electrodes, our sensing circuit further improves sensitivity.

  10. Toward increased reliability in the electric power industry: direct temperature measurement in transformers using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Greg

    1998-09-01

    Optimal loading, prevention of catastrophic failures and reduced maintenance costs are some of the benefits of accurate determination of hot spot winding temperatures in medium and high power transformers. Temperature estimates obtained using current theoretical models are not always accurate. Traditional technology (IR, thermocouples...) are unsuitable or inadequate for direct measurement. Nortech fiber-optic temperature sensors offer EMI immunity and chemical resistance and are a proven solution to the problem. The Nortech sensor's measurement principle is based on variations in the spectral absorption of a fiber-mounted semiconductor chip and probes are interchangeable with no need for recalibration. Total length of probe + extension can be up to several hundred meters allowing system electronics to be located in the control room or mounted in the transformer instrumentation cabinet. All of the sensor materials withstand temperatures up to 250 degree(s)C and have demonstrated excellent resistance to the harsh transformer environment (hot oil, kerosene). Thorough study of the problem and industry collaboration in testing and installation allows Nortech to identify and meet the need for durable probes, leak-proof feedthroughs, standard computer interfaces and measurement software. Refined probe technology, the method's simplicity and reliable calibration are all assets that should lead to growing acceptance of this type of direct measuring in the electric power industry.

  11. Validation of sensor-directed spatial simulated annealing soil sampling strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil spatial variability has a profound influence on most agronomical and environmental processes at field- and landscape-scales, including: site-specific management, vadose zone hydrology and transport, and soil quality, to mention a few. Mobile sensors are a practical means of mapping spatial vari...

  12. Design and field tests of a directly coupled waveguide-on-access-tube soil water sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensor systems capable of monitoring soil water content can provide a useful tool for irrigation control. Current systems are limited by installation depth, labor, accuracy, and cost. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is an approach for monitoring soil water content that relates the travel time of an ...

  13. Direct measurement of ammonia in simulated human breath using an inkjet-printed polyaniline nanoparticle sensor.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Troy; Crowley, Karl; Killard, Anthony J

    2013-05-24

    A sensor fabricated from the inkjet-printed deposition of polyaniline nanoparticles onto a screen-printed silver interdigitated electrode was developed for the detection of ammonia in simulated human breath samples. Impedance analysis showed that exposure to ammonia gas could be measured at 962 Hz at which changes in resistance dominate due to the deprotonation of the polymer film. Sensors required minimal calibration and demonstrated excellent intra-electrode baseline drift (≤1.67%). Gases typically present in breath did not interfere with the sensor. Temperature and humidity were shown to have characteristic impedimetric and temporal effects on the sensor that could be distinguished from the response to ammonia. While impedance responses to ammonia could be detected from a single simulated breath, quantification was improved after the cumulative measurement of multiple breaths. The measurement of ammonia after 16 simulated breaths was linear in the range of 40-2175 ppbv (27-1514 μg m(-3)) (r(2)=0.9963) with a theoretical limit of detection of 6.2 ppbv (4.1 μg m(-3)) (SN(-1)=3).

  14. Designing an Electronic Readout for a Directional Micro Electro-Mechanical (MEMS) Sound Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Pins CHPRST, V2P25, TESTSEL, SDATA & SCLK are required for data comunications from the computer to the MS3110 IC/die and pins VDD & GND are...LIST OF REFERENCES [1] Irvine Sensors Corporation , “MS3110 universal capacitive readoutTM IC data sheet,” May 2004. [2] K. Simsek, “Developing a

  15. 77 FR 42419 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... certain aircraft equipped with Honeywell International, Inc. Model KGS200 Mercury\\2\\ wide area... positioning system (GPS) sensor and the same software as the Model KGS200 Mercury\\2\\ GNSSU. A software problem... as the Honeywell International, Inc. Model KGS200 Mercury\\2\\ WAAS GNSSU, a software problem...

  16. Sentient Structures: Optimising Sensor Layouts for Direct Measurement of Discrete Variables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    et al. (2008). Trendafilova et.al. (2001) also utilised a mutual information criterion for sensor layouts for damage detection. In this case the aim...distributions for impact detection in composite materials” Smart Mater. Struct. 9, 298- 303. Trendafilova , I., Heylen, W., Van Brussel, H. (2001

  17. Using Vanadium in Spinel as a Sensor of Oxygen Fugacity in Meteorites: Applications to Mars, Vesta, and Other Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Le, L.; Newville, M.

    2009-03-01

    Some meteorites do not contain mineral assemblages required to apply traditional oxy-barometers. Here we introduce a technique using vanadium X-ray absorption features in spinels to characterize the oxygen fugacity of meteoritic dunites, pyroxenites, and chondrites.

  18. Site-specific Protein Dynamics in Communication Pathway from Sensor to Signaling Domain of Oxygen Sensor Protein, HemAT-Bs

    PubMed Central

    El-Mashtoly, Samir F.; Kubo, Minoru; Gu, Yuzong; Sawai, Hitomi; Nakashima, Satoru; Ogura, Takashi; Aono, Shigetoshi; Kitagawa, Teizo

    2012-01-01

    HemAT-Bs is a heme-based signal transducer protein responsible for aerotaxis. Time-resolved ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) studies of wild-type and Y70F mutant of the full-length HemAT-Bs and the truncated sensor domain were performed to determine the site-specific protein dynamics following carbon monoxide (CO) photodissociation. The UVRR spectra indicated two phases of intensity changes for Trp, Tyr, and Phe bands of both full-length and sensor domain proteins. The W16 and W3 Raman bands of Trp, the F8a band of Phe, and the Y8a band of Tyr increased in intensity at hundreds of nanoseconds after CO photodissociation, and this was followed by recovery in ∼50 μs. These changes were assigned to Trp-132 (G-helix), Tyr-70 (B-helix), and Phe-69 (B-helix) and/or Phe-137 (G-helix), suggesting that the change in the heme structure drives the displacement of B- and G-helices. The UVRR difference spectra of the sensor domain displayed a positive peak for amide I in hundreds of nanoseconds after photolysis, which was followed by recovery in ∼50 μs. This difference band was absent in the spectra of the full-length protein, suggesting that the isolated sensor domain undergoes conformational changes of the protein backbone upon CO photolysis and that the changes are restrained by the signaling domain. The time-resolved difference spectrum at 200 μs exhibited a pattern similar to that of the static (reduced − CO) difference spectrum, although the peak intensities were much weaker. Thus, the rearrangements of the protein moiety toward the equilibrium ligand-free structure occur in a time range of hundreds of microseconds. PMID:22528495

  19. Silver nanoparticle piezoresistive sensors fabricated by roll-to-roll slot-die coating and laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungman; Lee, Dongjin; Hwang, Junghwan; Nam, Dongil; Byeon, Changwan; Ko, Seung Hwan; Lee, Seungsub

    2014-04-21

    In this study, we propose new fusion technology to overcome the limitations of the current printing process for printed electronics. The combinative slot-die coating and laser direct writing on a roll-to-roll (R2R) basis was studied and applied to the fabrication of piezoresistive strain gauges. Piezoresistive sensors were fabricated for the first time by this developed fusion technology. A parametric study was performed for the R2R process, followed by a comparison of the fabricated functional devices with commercial products, which confirmed a 40% increase in the gauge factor of the fabricated sensors over the commercial product. The combinative manufacturing process for functional device fabrication will open a new chapter in the future of printed electronics due to its large area capacity at low cost.

  20. Determination of corrections to flow direction measurements obtained with a wing-tip mounted sensor. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moul, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of corrections for flow direction measurements obtained with a wing-tip mounted sensor was investigated. Corrections for the angle of attack and sideslip, measured by sensors mounted in front of each wing tip of a general aviation airplane, were determined. These flow corrections were obtained from both wind-tunnel and flight tests over a large angle-of-attack range. Both the angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip flow corrections were found to be substantial. The corrections were a function of the angle of attack and angle of sideslip. The effects of wing configuration changes, small changes in Reynolds number, and spinning rotation on the angle-of-attack flow correction were found to be small. The angle-of-attack flow correction determined from the static wind-tunnel tests agreed reasonably well with the correction determined from flight tests.

  1. Direct oxygen removal technique for recycling titanium using molten MgCl2 salt.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Toru H; Hamanaka, Yuki; Taninouchi, Yu-Ki

    2016-08-15

    Deoxidation of Ti, or direct removal of O dissolved in metallic Ti, is known to be extremely difficult when Mg is used as the deoxidizing agent. This difficulty arises because the chemical potential of O2, pO2, under Mg/MgO equilibrium is high (approximately 10(-41) atm at 1200 K) and is equivalent to that of Ti containing ∼2 mass% O at 1200 K. Therefore, when deoxidizing Ti to the commercial level of high-grade pure Ti (below 0.05 mass% O) using an Mg reductant at 1200 K, the activity of the reaction product MgO (aMgO) must be decreased to below ∼0.025, which is difficult in practice. In this study, the removal of O in Ti in molten MgCl2 salt using an electrochemical technique was examined at ∼1173 K with the objective of obtaining Ti containing less than 0.05 mass% O. Ti samples and graphite electrodes immersed in molten MgCl2 served as the cathode and anode, respectively. A constant voltage was applied between the electrodes using an external DC source. Molten MgCl2 was employed to produce the deoxidizing agent Mg and to facilitate deoxidation of Ti by decreasing the activity of the reaction product MgO. By applying a voltage of approximately 3.1 V between the electrodes, the chemical potential of Mg in the molten MgCl2 was increased at the surface of the Ti cathode, and the Ti samples were deoxidized. The resulting O species, mainly formed O(2-) dissolved in the molten MgCl2, was removed from the molten salt by reacting with the C anode to form CO (or CO2) gas. Ti wires containing 0.12 mass% O were deoxidized to less than 0.02 mass% O. In some cases, the O concentration in the Ti samples was reduced to the level of 0.01 mass%, which cannot be accomplished using the conventional Kroll process. The possible application of this deoxidation technique to practical industrial recycling processes is discussed.

  2. Anodized aluminum oxide-based capacitance sensors for the direct detection of DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bongkeun; Yeo, Unjin; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2010-03-15

    We fabricated a capacitance sensor based on an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous structure to detect DNA hybridization. We utilized Au film deposited on the surface of the AAO membrane and Au nanowires infiltrating the nanopores as the top and bottom electrodes, respectively. When completely complementary target DNA molecules were added to the sensor-immobilized DNA molecule probes, the capacitance was reduced; with a concentration of 1pM, the capacitance decreased by approximately 10%. We measured the capacitance change for different concentrations of the target DNA solution. A linear relationship was found between the capacitance change and DNA concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale. We also investigated the possibility of detecting DNA molecules with a single-base mismatch to the probe DNA molecule. In contrast to complementary target DNA molecules, the addition of one-base mismatch DNA molecules caused no significant change in capacitance, demonstrating that DNA hybridization was detected with single nucleotide polymorphism sensitivity.

  3. 75 FR 12713 - Airworthiness Directives; AVOX Systems and B/E Aerospace Oxygen Cylinders as Installed on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    .../E Aerospace Oxygen Cylinders as Installed on Various 14 CFR Part 23 and CAR 3 Airplanes AGENCY... and B/E Aerospace oxygen cylinders, as installed on various 14 CFR part 23 or CAR 3 airplanes. This proposed AD would require inspecting for and removing substandard oxygen cylinders from the airplane....

  4. 75 FR 3141 - Airworthiness Directives; AVOX Systems and B/E Aerospace Oxygen Cylinder Assemblies, as Installed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... B/E Aerospace Oxygen Cylinder Assemblies, as Installed on Various Transport Airplanes AGENCY... AVOX Systems and B/E Aerospace oxygen cylinder assemblies, as installed on various transport airplanes. That AD currently requires removing certain oxygen cylinder assemblies from the airplane. This...

  5. Determination of Oxygen by Means of a Biogas and Gas - Interference Study Using an Optical Tris (4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-Phenanthroline) Ruthenium(II) Dichloride Complex Sensor.

    PubMed

    Brglez, Polonca; Holobar, Andrej; Pivec, Aleksandra; Nataša, Belšak; Kolar, Mitja

    2012-03-01

    Biogas is a mixture of gases produced by anaerobic fermentation where biomass or animal waste is decomposed and methane and carbon dioxide are mainly released. Biogas also has a very high moisture content (up to 80%), temperatures of around 60 °C, high pressure, and can contain other gases (N2, H2S, NH3 and H2). We searched for an appropriate measuring system for the determining of oxygen in biogas, since the production process of biogas must be run under anaerobic conditions; as the presence of oxygen decreases the quality of the biogas. Ruthenium (II) complexes are by far the most widely-used oxygen dyes within optical oxygen sensors. In general, they have efficient luminescences, relatively long-life metal-ligand charge-transfer excited states, fast response times, strong visible absorptions, large Stokes shifts, and high-photochemical stability. The purpose of this work was to characterise and optimize an optical oxygen sensor using tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride complex for measuring oxygen. Different sensor properties were additionally studied, focusing on the interference of external light, temperature, and various gases. A special gas-mixing chamber was developed for gas interference study, and on-line experiments are presented for oxygen determination within the pilot biogas reactor.

  6. DELETION OR INHIBITION OF THE OXYGEN SENSOR PHD1 PROTECTS AGAINST ISCHEMIC STROKE VIA REPROGRAMMING OF NEURONAL METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Quaegebeur, Annelies; Segura, Inmaculada; Schmieder, Roberta; Verdegem, Dries; Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Dresselaers, Tom; Eelen, Guy; Ghosh, Debapriva; Schoors, Sandra; Janaki Raman, Sudha Rani; Cruys, Bert; Govaerts, Kristof; De Legher, Carla; Bouché, Ann; Schoonjans, Luc; Ramer, Matt S.; Hung, Gene; Bossaert, Goele; Cleveland, Don W.; Himmelreich, Uwe; Voets, Thomas; Lemmens, Robin; Bennett, C. Frank; Robberecht, Wim; De Bock, Katrien; Dewerchin, Mieke; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Ghesquière, Bart; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary The oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) regulate cellular metabolism, but their role in neuronal metabolism during stroke is unknown. Here we report that PHD1 deficiency provides neuroprotection in a murine model of permanent brain ischemia. This was not due to an increased collateral vessel network, nor to enhanced neurotrophin expression. Instead, PHD1−/− neurons were protected against oxygen-nutrient deprivation by reprogramming glucose metabolism. Indeed, PHD1−/− neurons enhanced glucose flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway by diverting glucose from glycolysis. As a result, PHD1−/− neurons increased their redox buffering capacity to scavenge oxygen radicals in ischemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of PHD1-antisense oligonucleotides reduced the cerebral infarct size and neurological deficits following stroke. These data identify PHD1 as a novel regulator of neuronal metabolism and a potential therapeutic target in ischemic stroke. PMID:26774962

  7. Deletion or Inhibition of the Oxygen Sensor PHD1 Protects against Ischemic Stroke via Reprogramming of Neuronal Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Quaegebeur, Annelies; Segura, Inmaculada; Schmieder, Roberta; Verdegem, Dries; Decimo, Ilaria; Bifari, Francesco; Dresselaers, Tom; Eelen, Guy; Ghosh, Debapriva; Davidson, Shawn M; Schoors, Sandra; Broekaert, Dorien; Cruys, Bert; Govaerts, Kristof; De Legher, Carla; Bouché, Ann; Schoonjans, Luc; Ramer, Matt S; Hung, Gene; Bossaert, Goele; Cleveland, Don W; Himmelreich, Uwe; Voets, Thomas; Lemmens, Robin; Bennett, C Frank; Robberecht, Wim; De Bock, Katrien; Dewerchin, Mieke; Ghesquière, Bart; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-02-09

    The oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) regulate cellular metabolism, but their role in neuronal metabolism during stroke is unknown. Here we report that PHD1 deficiency provides neuroprotection in a murine model of permanent brain ischemia. This was not due to an increased collateral vessel network. Instead, PHD1(-/-) neurons were protected against oxygen-nutrient deprivation by reprogramming glucose metabolism. Indeed, PHD1(-/-) neurons enhanced glucose flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway by diverting glucose away from glycolysis. As a result, PHD1(-/-) neurons increased their redox buffering capacity to scavenge oxygen radicals in ischemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of PHD1-antisense oligonucleotides reduced the cerebral infarct size and neurological deficits following stroke. These data identify PHD1 as a regulator of neuronal metabolism and a potential therapeutic target in ischemic stroke.

  8. Optimization of long-range BOTDA sensors with high resolution using first-order bi-directional Raman amplification.

    PubMed

    Soto, Marcelo A; Bolognini, Gabriele; Di Pasquale, Fabrizio

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we perform an optimization of Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensors for achieving high resolution over long sensing ranges using distributed Raman amplification. By employing an optimized first-order bi-directional Raman amplification scheme and combining high-power fiber-Raman lasers and Fabry-Pérot lasers with low relative-intensity-noise (RIN), we demonstrate distributed sensing over 120 km of standard single-mode fiber with 2 meter spatial resolution and with a strain/temperature accuracy of 45με/2.1°C respectively.

  9. Transition-Edge Sensor Arrays of Microcalorimeters with ^{163}Ho for Direct Neutrino Mass Measurements with HOLMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, A.; Biasotti, M.; Ceriale, V.; De Gerone, M.; Gatti, F.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Pizzigoni, G.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.

    2016-08-01

    The HOLMES experiment will provide an important step forward in direct neutrino mass measurements with a calorimetric approach as an alternative to spectrometry. HOLMES will perform a calorimetric measurement of the energy released in the decay of ^{163}Ho and will deploy a large array of transition-edge sensor microcalorimeters with implanted ^{163}Ho nuclei. The resulting mass sensitivity could be as low as 0.4 eV, and it will also establish the potential of this approach to extend the sensitivity down to 0.1 eV and lower.

  10. Testing Bearing Balls For Ignition In Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, William R.; Peroulias, Constantine; Pidcoke, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    Inexpensive, safe apparatus built to test cooling by, ignition in, and nucleate boiling to film boiling of liquid oxygen flowing around ball bearings. Provides for heating of bearing specimens, direct observations, and measurements of temperatures and temperature distributions by thermocouples and infrared sensors. Used to evaluate suitability of various materials and surface treatments for ball bearings in high-pressure liquid-oxygen turbopumps. Ball rests in fixture while liquid oxygen flows around it. Flow reversed so observer or infrared sensor can view phenomena on trailing or leading side of ball.

  11. A PAS domain with an oxygen labile [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster in the oxygen sensor kinase NreB of Staphylococcus carnosus.

    PubMed

    Müllner, Martin; Hammel, Oliver; Mienert, Bernd; Schlag, Steffen; Bill, Eckhard; Unden, Gottfried

    2008-12-30

    The cytoplasmic histidine sensor kinase NreB of Staphylococcus carnosus responds to O(2) and controls together with the response regulator NreC the expression of genes of nitrate/nitrite respiration. nreBC homologous genes were found in Staphylococcus strains and Bacillus clausii, and a modified form was found in some Lactobacillus strains. NreB contains a sensory domain with similarity to heme B binding PAS domains. Anaerobically prepared NreB of S. carnosus exhibited a (diamagnetic) [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster when assessed by Mossbauer spectroscopy. Upon reaction with air, the cluster was degraded with a half-life of approximately 2.5 min. No significant amounts of Mossbauer or EPR detectable intermediates were found during the decay, but magnetic Mossbauer spectra revealed formation of diamagnetic [2Fe-2S](2+) clusters. After extended exposure to air, NreB was devoid of a FeS cluster. Photoreduction with deazaflavin produced small amounts of [4Fe-4S](+), which were degraded subsequently. The magnetically perturbed Mossbauer spectrum of the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster corroborated the S = 0 spin state and revealed uniform electric field gradient tensors of the iron sites, suggesting full delocalization of the valence electrons and binding of each of the Fe ions by four S ligands, including the ligand to the protein. Mutation of each of the four Cys residues inactivated NreB function in vivo in accordance with their role as ligands. [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster-containing NreB had high kinase activity. Exposure to air decreased the kinase activity and content of the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster with similar half-lives. We conclude that the sensory domain of NreB represents a new type of PAS domain containing a [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster for sensing and function.

  12. Dependence of calibration sensitivity of a polysulfone/Ru(II)-tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)-based oxygen optical sensor on its structural parameters.

    PubMed

    Badocco, Denis; Mondin, Andrea; Pastore, Paolo; Voltolina, Stefano; Gross, Silvia

    2008-10-10

    The optimum performance of an optical oxygen sensor based on polysulfone (PSF)/[Ru(II)-Tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)] octylsulfonate (Ru(dpp)OS) was checked by carefully tuning the parameters affecting the membrane preparation. In particular, membranes having thickness ranging between 0.2 and 8.0 microm with various luminophore concentrations were prepared by dip-coating and tested. The membrane thickness was controlled by tuning the solution viscosity, and was measured both by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and by visible spectroscopy (Vis). Luminescence-quenching-based calibration was a single value of the Stern-Volmer constant (K'SV) for membranes containing up to 20 mmol Ru(dpp) g-1 PSF (1.35 microm average thickness). The K'SV value decreased for larger concentration. The highest sensitivity was obtained with membrane thickness around 1.6 microm, having a response time close to 1 s. Thicker membranes exhibited an emission saturation effect and were characterized by longer response time. The K'SV behavior was interpreted on the basis of a mathematical approach accounting for the contribution of luminescence lifetime (tau0), oxygen diffusion coefficient (DO2) and oxygen solubility inside the membrane (sO2) establishing the role of all of them and allowing their experimental determination. Moreover, a simple experimental way to estimate K'SV without needing calibration was proposed. It was based either on the light emission asymmetry or on the percent variation of light emission on passing from pure nitrogen to pure oxygen.

  13. NO Gas sensor of PEDOT: PSS nanowires by using direct patterning DPN.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui-Hisn; Lin, Chia-Yu; Fang, Yueh-Yuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Yang, Dongfang; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) detection is a critical issue for environmental safety and medical diagnosis due reasons with regard to the toxic properties for human body and metabolic index for respiratory disease, respectively. Development of gas sensor with high sensitivity is very important because the concentration of NO gas in the environment and respiratory tract is extremely low, therefore not readily detectable. The material with nanostructure can improve the sensitivity of sensor owning to surface effect and size effect. Herein, we developed a new type of gaseous nanosensor assembled by 34 nanowires of conducting polymer, PEDOT: PSS. The nanowires were fabricated by dip pen nanolithography (DPN) with the length of 55 um and diameter of 300 nm between golden wires. The NO gas measurement is based on chemiresistor based methods. The result of dynamic measurement of NO gas at 100 ppm shows repeatability and stability; the recovery time is 10.4 minutes. Moreover, the lowest concentration of NO gas in static measurement is 10ppm at 80 C, which also shows the ability sensing at low temperature.

  14. Highly sensitive reduced graphene oxide impedance sensor harnessing π-stacking interaction mediated direct deposition of protein probes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Su; Um, Yu Mi; Jang, Ji-Ryang; Choe, Woo-Seok; Yoo, Pil J

    2013-05-01

    Graphene-based electrochemical impedance sensors have recently received much attention due to their outstanding sensing capability and economic viability. In this study, we present a novel means of constructing an impedance sensing platform via harnessing intrinsic π-stacking interactions between probe protein molecules and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) substrate, obviating the need for introducing external chemical groups often required for covalent anchoring of the probes. To achieve this goal, protein molecules used as a probe were denatured to render their hydrophobic residues exposed in order to facilitate their direct π-stacking interactions with the surface of RGO nanosheets. The protein molecules in denatured form, which would otherwise have difficulty in undergoing π-stacking interactions with the RGO surface, were found to uniformly cover the RGO nanosheets at high density, conducive to providing a graphene-based impedance sensing platform capable of detecting a probe-specific analyte at high sensitivity. The proof-of-concept performance of thus-constructed RGO-based impedance sensors was demonstrated via selective detection of biological binding events of antigen-antibody reaction at a femtomolar range. Notably, since the π-stacking interaction can occur on the entire RGO surface, it can desirably exclude a backfill process indispensable for the conventional biosensors to suppress background noise signals. Since the procedure of π-stacking mediated direct deposition of on-purpose denatured protein probes onto the RGO surface is facile and straightforward, the proposed strategy is anticipated to extend its applicability for fabrication of high performance graphene-based bio or chemical sensors.

  15. Temperature, Oxygen, and Salt-Sensing Neurons in C. elegans Are Carbon Dioxide Sensors that Control Avoidance Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bretscher, Andrew Jonathan; Kodama-Namba, Eiji; Busch, Karl Emanuel; Murphy, Robin Joseph; Soltesz, Zoltan; Laurent, Patrick; de Bono, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Summary Homeostatic control of body fluid CO2 is essential in animals but is poorly understood. C. elegans relies on diffusion for gas exchange and avoids environments with elevated CO2. We show that C. elegans temperature, O2, and salt-sensing neurons are also CO2 sensors mediating CO2 avoidance. AFD thermosensors respond to increasing CO2 by a fall and then rise in Ca2+ and show a Ca2+ spike when CO2 decreases. BAG O2 sensors and ASE salt sensors are both activated by CO2 and remain tonically active while high CO2 persists. CO2-evoked Ca2+ responses in AFD and BAG neurons require cGMP-gated ion channels. Atypical soluble guanylate cyclases mediating O2 responses also contribute to BAG CO2 responses. AFD and BAG neurons together stimulate turning when CO2 rises and inhibit turning when CO2 falls. Our results show that C. elegans senses CO2 using functionally diverse sensory neurons acting homeostatically to minimize exposure to elevated CO2. PMID:21435556

  16. Characterization of the column-based priority logic readout of Topmetal-II‑ CMOS pixel direct charge sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, M.; Zhang, W.; Xiao, L.; Gao, C.; Chen, C.; Han, M.; Huang, G.; Ji, R.; Li, X.; Liu, J.; Mei, Y.; Pei, H.; Sun, Q.; Sun, X.; Wang, K.; Yang, P.; Zhou, W.

    2017-03-01

    We present the detailed study of the digital readout of Topmetal-II- CMOS pixel direct charge sensor. Topmetal-II- is an integrated sensor with an array of 72×72 pixels each capable of directly collecting external charge through exposed metal electrodes in the topmost metal layer. In addition to the time-shared multiplexing readout of the analog output from Charge Sensitive Amplifiers in each pixel, hits are also generated through comparators in each pixel with individually adjustable thresholds. The hits are read out via a column-based priority logic structure, retaining both hit location and time information. The in-array column-based priority logic features with a full clock-less circuitry hence there is no continuously running clock distributed in the pixel and matrix logic. These characteristics enable its use as the charge readout device in future Time Projection Chambers without gaseous gain mechanism, which has unique advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments. We studied the detailed working behavior and performance of this readout, and demonstrated its functional validity and potential in imaging applications.

  17. Oxidative Direct Arylation Polymerization Using Oxygen as the Sole Oxidant: Facile, Green Access to Bithiazole-Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Wu, Di; You, Jingsong

    2016-10-06

    The most appealing oxidant, molecular oxygen, is employed for the first time as the sole oxidant in the transition metal-catalyzed oxidative direct arylation polymerization (C-H/C-H-type DArP), which eliminates by-product formation of stoichiometric metal salts except for water . Compared to conventional approaches, other than the avoidance of an end-capping procedure, the current protocol is remarkably advanced in the aspect of eco-friendliness, step- and cost-economy, and, of special significance, the purity of polymer products. As illustrative examples, six 5,5'-bithiazole-based polymers are synthesized using this new method, demonstrating higher number-average molecular weight (Mn up to 33 700) in better yields (up to 93 %) through only one step. The evolution of C-H/C-H-type DArP from heavy metal salts to O2 alone as the oxidant could solve the problem of metal residues in polymers, which is considered harmful to the performance of devices.

  18. Humidity sensors applicative characteristics of granularized and porous Bi2O3 thin films prepared by oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudorache, Florin; Petrila, Iulian; Condurache-Bota, Simona; Constantinescu, Catalin; Praisler, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of pure bismuth targets in a plasma discharge followed by thermal treatment as preparation method for humidity high-sensitive bismuth trioxide thin films deposited onto Si/Pt substrates were analyzed. Several thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures during the pulsed laser deposition namely between 300 °C and 600 °C. Near to the electrical investigation, the structure and the morphology of the films as keys features for water adsorption are thoroughly investigated and correlated with their sensitivity as humidity sensors. Thus, it has been found that strong granularized Bi2O3 thin films obtained through oxygen plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition onto Si/Pt substrate at 500 °C provide the most interesting humidity sensing characteristics.

  19. Improving the efficiency of dissolved oxygen control using an on-line control system based on a genetic algorithm evolving FWNN software sensor.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jujun; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ya; Li, Peiyi; Yang, Zaizhi; Chen, Xiaohong; Huang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    This work proposes an on-line hybrid intelligent control system based on a genetic algorithm (GA) evolving fuzzy wavelet neural network software sensor to control dissolved oxygen (DO) in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process for treating papermaking wastewater. With the self-learning and memory abilities of neural network, handling the uncertainty capacity of fuzzy logic, analyzing local detail superiority of wavelet transform and global search of GA, this proposed control system can extract the dynamic behavior and complex interrelationships between various operation variables. The results indicate that the reasonable forecasting and control performances were achieved with optimal DO, and the effluent quality was stable at and below the desired values in real time. Our proposed hybrid approach proved to be a robust and effective DO control tool, attaining not only adequate effluent quality but also minimizing the demand for energy, and is easily integrated into a global monitoring system for purposes of cost management.

  20. Amorphous and polycrystalline photoconductors for direct conversion flat panel x-ray image sensors.

    PubMed

    Kasap, Safa; Frey, Joel B; Belev, George; Tousignant, Olivier; Mani, Habib; Greenspan, Jonathan; Laperriere, Luc; Bubon, Oleksandr; Reznik, Alla; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Karim, Karim S; Rowlands, John A

    2011-01-01

    In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs). We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se) has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF) and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI(2) and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the HARP has been

  1. Amorphous and Polycrystalline Photoconductors for Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-Ray Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Safa; Frey, Joel B.; Belev, George; Tousignant, Olivier; Mani, Habib; Greenspan, Jonathan; Laperriere, Luc; Bubon, Oleksandr; Reznik, Alla; DeCrescenzo, Giovanni; Karim, Karim S.; Rowlands, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs). We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se) has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF) and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI2 and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the HARP has been

  2. Coaxial printing method for directly writing stretchable cable as strain sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hai-liang; Chen, Yan-qiu; Deng, Yong-qiang; Zhang, Li-long; Hong, Xiao; Lau, Woon-ming; Mei, Jun; Hui, David; Yan, Hui; Liu, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Through applying the liquid metal and elastomer as the core and shell materials, respectively, a coaxial printing method is being developed in this work for preparing a stretchable and conductive cable. When liquid metal alloy eutectic Gallium-Indium is embedded into the elastomer matrix under optimized control, the cable demonstrates well-posed extreme mechanic performance, under stretching for more than 350%. Under developed compression test, the fabricated cable also demonstrates the ability for recovering original properties due to the high flowability of the liquid metal and super elasticity of the elastomeric shell. The written cable presents high cycling reliability regarding its stretchability and conductivity, two properties which can be clearly predicted in theoretical calculation. This work can be further investigated as a strain sensor for monitoring motion status including frequency and amplitude of a curved object, with extensive applications in wearable devices, soft robots, electronic skins, and wireless communication.

  3. NOx Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2010-11-01

    NO{sub x} compounds, specifically NO and NO{sub 2}, are pollutants and potent greenhouse gases. Compact and inexpensive NO{sub x} sensors are necessary in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles to meet government emission requirements and enable the more rapid introduction of more efficient, higher fuel economy CIDI vehicles. Because the need for a NO{sub x} sensor is recent and the performance requirements are extremely challenging, most are still in the development phase. Currently, there is only one type of NO{sub x} sensor that is sold commercially, and it seems unlikely to meet more stringent future emission requirements. Automotive exhaust sensor development has focused on solid-state electrochemical technology, which has proven to be robust for in-situ operation in harsh, high-temperature environments (e.g., the oxygen stoichiometric sensor). Solid-state sensors typically rely on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the oxygen-ion conducting electrolyte and then target different types of metal or metal-oxide electrodes to optimize the response. Electrochemical sensors can be operated in different modes, including amperometric (a current is measured) and potentiometric (a voltage is measured), both of which employ direct current (dc) measurements. Amperometric operation is costly due to the electronics necessary to measure the small sensor signal (nanoampere current at ppm NO{sub x} levels), and cannot be easily improved to meet the future technical performance requirements. Potentiometric operation has not demonstrated enough promise in meeting long-term stability requirements, where the voltage signal drift is thought to be due to aging effects associated with electrically driven changes, both morphological and compositional, in the sensor. Our approach involves impedancemetric operation, which uses alternating current (ac) measurements at a specified frequency. The approach is described in detail in previous reports and several publications

  4. TDLAS-based sensors for in situ measurement of syngas composition in a pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Ritobrata; Sun, Kai; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Pummill, Randy J.; Waind, Travis; Wagner, David R.; Whitty, Kevin J.

    2014-07-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy based in situ sensors for CO (2.33 μm), CO2 (2.02 μm), CH4 (2.29 μm) and H2O (1.35 μm) were deployed in a pilot-scale (1 ton/day), high-pressure (up to 18 atm), entrained flow, oxygen-blown, slagging coal gasifier at the University of Utah. Measurements of species mole fraction with 3-s time resolution were taken at the pre- and post-filtration stages of the gasifier synthesis gas (called here syngas) output flow. Although particulate scattering makes pre-filter measurements more difficult, this location avoids the time delay of flow through the filtration devices. With the measured species and known N2 concentrations, the H2 content was obtained via balance. The lower heating value and the Wobbe index of the gas mixture were estimated using the measured gas composition. The sensors demonstrated here show promise for monitoring and control of the gasification process.

  5. Highly dispersed encapsulated AuPd nanoparticles on ordered mesoporous carbons for the direct synthesis of H2O2 from molecular oxygen and hydrogen.

    PubMed

    García, Tomás; Murillo, Ramón; Agouram, Said; Dejoz, Ana; Lázaro, María J; Torrente-Murciano, Laura; Solsona, Benjamín

    2012-05-28

    AuPd nanoparticles (<3 nm) have been encapsulated on the pores of a nanostructured CMK-3 carbon prepared by a nanocasting procedure. This material has been shown to be an excellent catalyst for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from molecular hydrogen and oxygen.

  6. Characterisation of a smartphone image sensor response to direct solar 305nm irradiation at high air masses.

    PubMed

    Igoe, D P; Amar, A; Parisi, A V; Turner, J

    2017-06-01

    This research reports the first time the sensitivity, properties and response of a smartphone image sensor that has been used to characterise the photobiologically important direct UVB solar irradiances at 305nm in clear sky conditions at high air masses. Solar images taken from Autumn to Spring were analysed using a custom Python script, written to develop and apply an adaptive threshold to mitigate the effects of both noise and hot-pixel aberrations in the images. The images were taken in an unobstructed area, observing from a solar zenith angle as high as 84° (air mass=9.6) to local solar maximum (up to a solar zenith angle of 23°) to fully develop the calibration model in temperatures that varied from 2°C to 24°C. The mean ozone thickness throughout all observations was 281±18 DU (to 2 standard deviations). A Langley Plot was used to confirm that there were constant atmospheric conditions throughout the observations. The quadratic calibration model developed has a strong correlation between the red colour channel from the smartphone with the Microtops measurements of the direct sun 305nm UV, with a coefficient of determination of 0.998 and very low standard errors. Validation of the model verified the robustness of the method and the model, with an average discrepancy of only 5% between smartphone derived and Microtops observed direct solar irradiances at 305nm. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using the smartphone image sensor as a means to measure photobiologically important solar UVB radiation. The use of ubiquitous portable technologies, such as smartphones and laptop computers to perform data collection and analysis of solar UVB observations is an example of how scientific investigations can be performed by citizen science based individuals and groups, communities and schools.

  7. Directional frequency and recording (DIFAR) sensors in seafloor recorders to locate calling bowhead whales during their fall migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Charles R.; McLennan, Miles Wm.; Norman, Robert G.; McDonald, Trent L.; Jakubczak, Ray S.; Richardson, W. John

    2004-08-01

    Bowhead whales, Balaena mysticetus, migrate west during fall ~10-75 km off the north coast of Alaska, passing the petroleum developments around Prudhoe Bay. Oil production operations on an artificial island 5 km offshore create sounds heard by some whales. As part of an effort to assess whether migrating whales deflect farther offshore at times with high industrial noise, an acoustical approach was selected for localizing calling whales. The technique incorporated DIFAR (directional frequency and recording) sonobuoy techniques. An array of 11 DASARs (directional autonomous seafloor acoustic recorders) was built and installed with unit-to-unit separation of 5 km. When two or more DASARs detected the same call, the whale location was determined from the bearing intersections. This article describes the acoustic methods used to determine the locations of the calling bowhead whales and shows the types and precision of the data acquired. Calibration transmissions at GPS-measured times and locations provided measures of the individual DASAR clock drift and directional orientation. The standard error of the bearing measurements at distances of 3-4 km was ~1.35° after corrections for gain imbalance in the two directional sensors. During 23 days in 2002, 10 587 bowhead calls were detected and 8383 were localized.

  8. [Difference of orbit by rotation direction at automatic contouring SPECT using electrostatic capacitance sensor: effect of updating the software].

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, Masakazu; Fujino, Kouichi; Kamiya, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hisanori

    2010-10-20

    Automatic contouring system using electrostatic capacitance sensor can sense electrostatic capacitance between a detector and patients' side space. So the system can be set it at an arbitrary distance. On the other hand, this system is so complicated that it is difficult to forecast the detector motion. We studied the difference of the distance according to the rotation direction and verified the system accuracy. In addition, we studied it again after software updating. We compared the set distance with the distance between phantom and detector surface at the closest point. Next, we scanned the phantom with relative 90 degree detector position in a clockwise direction (CW) and a counterclockwise direction (CCW). We took a video of the detector trajectories and compared them. Finally, we compared the results before and after updating the software. At the set distance of 10 mm, the distance between phantom and detector surface distance was 12.00 mm. And at the set distance of 50 mm, it was 52.00 mm. Thus we confirmed the accuracy and repeatability of this system. For the rotation orbit, the CCW rotation kept the distance near the set distance. But the CW rotation rotated over a bigger distance than the set distance at the center position over the phantom. After software updating, this difference became small. Using this system, the rotation orbits differed by their rotation direction. However, after updating software, results indicated that selecting an adequate set distance for every patient and examination makes the image optimum.

  9. Directional drilling system with eccentric mounted motor and biaxial sensor and method

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, P.N.; Barbera, L.J.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a directional drilling system of the type which includes a drill string having a plurality of drill stems joined together for drilling a bore through the earth in a prescribed direction. It comprises: a drilling platform having two spaced apart end walls carried by the platform; a frame carried by the platform; a carriage carried by the frame; a drill string drive motor carried by the carriage for rotating the drill string; coupling means for coupling one of the drill stems to the drill string drive motor; and carriage advance means for moving the carriage longitudinally along the frame and platform as the drill string drive motor rotates the drill sting. This patent also describes a method of drilling a bore through the earth in a desired direction using a directional drilling device having a drill sting with a drilling head carried at an outer end. It comprises: excavating a pit in the earth at a starting point of the drill sting; placing a form in the earth pit at a prescribed inclination corresponding to a desired reference entry angle of the drilling string and drilling head; pouring concrete in the earth pit between the form and the earth; placing a drilling platform having a shape generally conforming to the shape of the form in the pit opening of the concrete pit; and assembling the drilling head and drill string on the platform so that the drilling head is oriented in the direction of the reference entry angle.

  10. Directional Degradation of Spectralon Diffuser Under Ionizing Radiation for Calibration of Space-Based Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, G. T.; Butler, J. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Ding, L.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of the effect of Vacuum Ultra Violet (VUV) irradiation on the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of Spectralon is presented in this paper. The sample was a 99% white Spectralon calibration standard irradiated with VUV source positioned at 60o off the irradiation direction for a total of 20 hours. The BRDF before and after VUV irradiation was measured and compared at number of wavelengths in the UV, VIS and IR. Non-isotropic directional degradation of Spectralon diffuser under ionizing radiation was detected at different BRDF measurement geometries primarily at UV spectral range. The 8o directional/hemispherical reflectance of the same sample was also measured and compared from 200nm to 2500nm. Index Terms BRDF, Reflectance, Multiangular, Spectralon, Remote Sensing

  11. Crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate monoliths synthesized by directed soft template method for highly sensitive NO{sub 2} gas sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Duy, Nguyen Van; Hieu, Nguyen Van

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Mesoporous WO{sub 3} nanoplate monoliths were obtained by direct templating synthesis. ► Enable effective accession of the analytic molecules for the sensor applications. ► The WO{sub 3} sensor exhibited a high performance to NO{sub 2} gas at low temperature. -- Abstract: Controllable synthesis of nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with nanocrystalline size, porous structure, and large specific surface area is one of the key issues for effective gas sensor applications. In this study, crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate-like monoliths with high specific surface areas were obtained through instant direct-templating synthesis for highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sensor applications. The copolymer soft template was converted into a solid carbon framework by heat treatment in an inert gas prior to calcinations in air to sustain the mesoporous structure of tungsten oxide. The multidirectional mesoporous structures of tungsten oxide with small crystalline size, large specific surface area, and superior physical characteristics enabled the rapid and effective accession of analytic gas molecules. As a result, the sensor response was enhanced and the response and recovery times were reduced, in which the mesoporous tungsten oxide based gas sensor exhibited a superior response of 21,155% to 5 ppm NO{sub 2}. In addition, the developed sensor exhibited selective detection of low NO{sub 2} concentration in ammonia and ethanol at a low temperature of approximately 150 °C.

  12. Direct Drawing Method of Graphite onto Paper for High-Performance Flexible Electrochemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Santhiago, Murilo; Strauss, Mathias; Pereira, Mariane P; Chagas, Andréia S; Bufon, Carlos C B

    2017-04-05

    A simple and fast fabrication method to create high-performance pencil-drawn electrochemical sensors is reported for the first time. The sluggish electron transfer observed on bare pencil-drawn surfaces was enhanced using two electrochemical steps: first oxidizing the surface and then reducing it in a subsequent step. The heterogeneous rate constant was found to be 5.1 × 10(-3) cm s(-1), which is the highest value reported so far for pencil-drawn surfaces. We mapped the origin of such performance by atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Our results suggest that the oxidation process leads to chemical and structural transformations on the electrode surface. As a proof-of-concept, we modified the pencil-drawn surface with Meldola's blue to electrocatalytically detect nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The electrochemical device exhibited the highest catalytic constant (1.7 × 10(5) L mol(-1) s(-1)) and the lowest detection potential for NADH reported so far in paper-based electrodes.

  13. MicroRNA-135b suppresses extravillous trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion by directly down regulating CXCL12 under low oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tochigi, Hideno; Kajihara, Takeshi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Okagaki, Ryugo; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Ishihara, Osamu; Itakura, Atsuo

    2015-05-29

    The expression of numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) in the trophoblasts changes under low oxygen conditions. However, little is known regarding the regulation of the trophoblast invasion by miRNAs under low oxygen conditions. The aim of this study was to identify those miRNAs and their target genes associated with the trophoblast invasion under low oxygen conditions. Culturing the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, at 2% oxygen as compared to 20% oxygen suppressed trophoblast invasion that correlated with increased expression of microRNA-135b (miR-135b) and decreased expression of the its predicted target gene CXCL12. Overexpression of miR-135b suppressed CXCL12 mRNA expression and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Adding a neutralizing antibody against CXCL12 to the culture medium suppressed HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion. Reporter assays showed that the 3'UTR sequence of CXCL12 was directly targeted by miR-135b. Our results suggest that miR-135b and CXCL12 play important roles in modulating the EVT invasion under low oxygen conditions.

  14. Direct fabrication of Cu/Cu2O composite micro-temperature sensor using femtosecond laser reduction patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Ito, Yasuaki; Arakane, Shun; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi

    2016-06-01

    Micro-temperature sensors, which composed of a Cu2O-rich sensing part and two Cu-rich electrodes, were directly fabricated by femtosecond laser reduction patterning of CuO nanoparticles. Patterning of the microstructures was performed by laser scanning with pitches of 5, 10, and 15 µm. Cu2O-rich micropatterns were formed at the laser scan speed of 1 mm/s, the pitch of 5 µm, and the pulse energy of 0.54 nJ. Cu-rich micropatterns that had high generation selectivity of Cu against Cu2O were fabricated at the laser scan speed of 15 mm/s, the pitch of 5 µm, and the pulse energy of 0.45 nJ. Electrical resistivities of the Cu2O- and Cu-rich micropatterns were approximately 10 Ω m and 9 µΩ m, respectively. The temperature coefficient of the resistance of the micro-temperature sensor fabricated under these laser irradiation conditions was -5.5 × 10-3/°C. This resistance property with a negative value was consistent with that of semiconductor Cu2O.

  15. Improvement of the radiation hardness of a directly converting high resolution intra-oral X-ray imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spartiotis, Konstantinos; Pyyhtiä, Jouni; Schulman, Tom

    2003-11-01

    The radiation tolerance of a directly converting digital intra-oral X-ray imaging sensor reported in Spartiotis et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 501 (2003) 594] has been tested using a typical dental X-ray beam spectrum. Radiation induced degradation in the performance of the sensor which consists of CMOS signal readout circuits bump bonded to a high resistivity silicon pixel detector was observed already before a dose (in air) of 1 krad. Both increase in the leakage current of the pixel detector manufactured by Sintef, Norway and signal leakage to ground from the gate of the pixel input MOSFETs of the readout circuit were observed and measured. The sensitive part of the CMOS circuit was identified as the protection diode of the gate of the input MOSFET. After removing the gate protection diode no signal leakage was observed up to a dose of 5 krad (air) which approximately corresponds to 125.000 typical dental X-ray exposures. The radiation hardness of the silicon pixel detector was improved by using a modified oxidation process supplied by Colibrys, Switzerland. The improved pixel detectors showed no increase in the leakage current at dental doses.

  16. Using vanadium in spinel as a sensor of oxygen fugacity in meteorites: Applications to Mars, Vesta, and other asteroids.

    SciTech Connect

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Le, L.; Newville, M.

    2009-03-23

    Some meteorites do not contain mineral assemblages required to apply traditional oxy-barometers. Here we introduce a technique using vanadium X-ray absorption features in spinels to characterize the oxygen fugacity of meteoritic dunites, pyroxenites, and chondrites. Igneous and metamorphic rocks commonly contain a mineral assemblage that allows oxygen fugacity to be calculated or constrained such as FeTi oxides, olivine-opx-spinel, or some other oxybarometer. Some rocks, however, contain a limited mineral assemblage and do not provide constraints on fO{sub 2} using mineral equilibria. Good examples of the latter are orthopyroxenites or dunites, such as diogenites, ALH 84001, chassignites, or brachinites. In fact it is no surprise that the fO{sub 2} of many of these samples is not well known, other than being 'reduced' and below the metal saturation value. In order to bridge this gap in our understanding, we have initiated a study of V in chromites in natural meteorite samples. Because the V pre-edge peak intensity and energy in chromites varies with fO{sub 2}, and this has been calibrated over a large fO{sub 2} range, we can apply this relation to rocks for which we otherwise have no fO{sub 2} constraints.

  17. Investigation of source-detector separation optimization for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor for liver blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Akl, Tony; Cote, Gerard L.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, Milton Nance

    2011-01-01

    An implanted system is being developed to monitor transplanted liver health during the critical 7-10 day period posttransplantation. The unit will monitor organ perfusion and oxygen consumption using optically-based probes placed on both the inflow and outflow blood vessels, and on the liver parenchymal surface. Sensing probes are based on a 3- wavelength LED source and a photodiode detector. Sample diffuse reflectance is measured at 735, 805, and 940 nm. To ascertain optimal source-to-photodetector spacing for perfusion measurement in blood vessels, an ex vivo study was conducted. In this work, a dye mixture simulating 80% blood oxygen saturation was developed and perfused through excised porcine arteries while collecting data for various preset probe source-to-photodetector spacings. The results from this study demonstrate a decrease in the optical signal with decreasing LED drive current and a reduction in perfusion index signal with increasing probe spacing. They also reveal a 2- to 4-mm optimal range for blood vessel perfusion probe source-to-photodetector spacing that allows for sufficient perfusion signal modulation depth with maximized signal to noise ratio (SNR). These findings are currently being applied to guide electronic configuration and probe placement for in vivo liver perfusion porcine model studies.

  18. Validation and calibration of a TDLAS oxygen sensor for in-line measurement on flow-packed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocola, L.; Fedel, M.; Allermann, H.; Landa, S.; Tondello, G.; Bardenstein, A.; Poletto, L.

    2016-05-01

    A device based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has been developed for non-invasive evaluation of gaseous oxygen concentration inside packed food containers. This work has been done in the context of the SAFETYPACK European project in order to enable full, automated product testing on a production line. The chosen samples at the end of the manufacturing process are modified atmosphere bags of processed mozzarella, in which the target oxygen concentration is required to be below 5%. The spectrometer allows in-line measurement of moving samples which are passing on a conveyor belt, with an optical layout optimized for bags made of a flexible scattering material, and works by sensing the gas phase in the headspace at the top of the package. A field applicable method for the calibration of this device has been identified and validated against traditional, industry standard, invasive measurement techniques. This allows some degrees of freedom for the end-user regarding packaging dimensions and shape. After deployment and setup of the instrument at the end-user manufacturing site, performance has been evaluated on a different range of samples in order to validate the choice of electro optical and geometrical parameters regarding sample handling and measurement timing at the actual measurement conditions.

  19. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb

    2004-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  20. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for critically ill adults in the emergency department: history, current applications, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Jarrod M; Kelsey, Melissa; Raz, Yuval; Gunnerson, Kyle J; Meyer, Robyn; Hypes, Cameron D; Malo, Josh; Whitmore, Sage P; Spaite, Daniel W

    2015-12-17

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a mode of extracorporeal life support that augments oxygenation, ventilation and/or cardiac output via cannulae connected to a circuit that pumps blood through an oxygenator and back into the patient. ECMO has been used for decades to support cardiopulmonary disease refractory to conventional therapy. While not robust, there are promising data for the use of ECMO in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and cardiogenic shock and the potential indications for ECMO continue to increase. This review discusses the existing literature on the potential use of ECMO in critically ill patients within the emergency department.

  1. Direct observation of binding stress-induced crystalline orientation change in piezoelectric plate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2016-03-01

    We have examined the mechanism of the detection resonance frequency shift, Δf/f, of a 1370 μm long and 537 μm wide [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.65[PbTiO3]0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) made of a 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film. The Δf/f of the PEPS was monitored in a three-step binding model detections of (1) binding of maleimide-activated biotin to the sulfhydryl on the PEPS surface followed by (2) binding of streptavidin to the bound biotin and (3) subsequent binding of biotinylated probe deoxyribonucleic acid to the bound streptavidin. We used a PMN-PT surrogate made of the same 8-μm thick PMN-PT freestanding film that the PEPS was made of but was about 1 cm in length and width to carry out crystalline orientation study using X-ray diffraction (XRD) scan around the (002)/(200) peaks after each of the binding steps. The result of the XRD studies indicated that each binding step caused the crystalline orientation of the PMN-PT thin layer to switch from the vertical (002) orientation to the horizontal (200) orientation, and most of the PEPS detection Δf/f was due to the change in the lateral Young's modulus of the PMN-PT thin layer as a result of the crystalline orientation change.

  2. Ground water and snow sensor based on directional detection of cosmogenic neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Robert Lee; Marleau, Peter; Griffin, Patrick J.

    2011-06-01

    A fast neutron detector is being developed to measure the cosmic ray neutron flux in order to measure soil moisture. Soil that is saturated with water has an enhanced ability to moderate fast neutrons, removing them from the backscatter spectrum. The detector is a two-element, liquid scintillator detector. The choice of liquid scintillator allows rejection of gamma background contamination from the desired neutron signal. This enhances the ability to reconstruct the energy and direction of a coincident neutron event. The ability to image on an event-by-event basis allows the detector to selectively scan the neutron flux as a function of distance from the detector. Calibrations, simulations, and optimization have been completed to understand the detector response to neutron sources at variable distances and directions. This has been applied to laboratory background measurements in preparation for outdoor field tests.

  3. Integration of a High Sensitivity MEMS Directional Sound Sensor With Readout Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    device. The directional information for this hearing organ lies in the amplitude of oscillations in different resonant modes. Interdigitated comb...removed to eliminate squeezed-film damping. Each wing had a number of comb fingers that are interdigitated with stationary comb fingers connected to...discussion let CS1IN represent the capacitance of the interdigitated comb fingers on the perimeter of the MEMS wings. This capacitance varied as the

  4. Direct determination of p-nitrophenyl substituent organophosphorus nerve agents using a recombinant Pseudomonas putida JS444-modified Clark oxygen electrode.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Mulchandani, Priti; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2005-02-09

    A microbial biosensor for rapid, sensitive, selective, and cost-effective determination of the total content of organophosphorus nerve agents with p-nitrophenyl substituent is reported. The biosensor consisted of genetically engineered PNP-degrader Pseudomonas putida JS444 expressing organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) on its cell surface immobilized on a dissolved oxygen electrode. Surface-expressed OPH catalyzed the hydrolysis of organophosphorus pesticides with p-nitrophenyl substituent such as paraoxon, methyl parathion, and parathion to release p-nitrophenol that was oxidized by the enzymatic machinery of Pseudomonas putida JS444 to carbon dioxide while consuming oxygen. The oxygen consumption was measured and correlated to the concentration of organophosphates. The sensor signal and response time were optimized with 0.086 mg dry weight of cell and operating in 50 mM pH 7.5 citrate-phosphate buffer with 50 microM CoCl(2) at room temperature. When operated at optimized conditions, the biosensor measured as low as 55 ppb of paraoxon, 53 ppb of methyl parathion, and 58 ppb of parathion without interference from most phenolic compounds and other commonly used pesticides, such as atrazine, coumaphos, sutan, sevin, and diazinon. The operational life of the microbial biosensor was approximately 5 days when stored in the operating buffer at 4 degrees C.

  5. RadSensor: Xray Detection by Direct Modulation of an Optical Probe Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, M E; Bennett, C V; Vernon, S P; Bond, T; Welty, R; Behymer, E; Petersen, H; Krey, A; Stewart, R; Kobayashi, N P; Sperry, V; Stephan, P; Reinhardt, C; Simpson, S; Stratton, P; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Ables, E; Ott, L; Bond, S; Ayers, J.; Landen, O L; Bell, P M

    2003-08-01

    We present a new x-ray detection technique based on optical measurement of the effects of x-ray absorption and electron hole pair creation in a direct band-gap semiconductor. The electron-hole pairs create a frequency dependent shift in optical refractive index and absorption. This is sensed by simultaneously directing an optical carrier beam through the same volume of semiconducting medium that has experienced an xray induced modulation in the electron-hole population. If the operating wavelength of the optical carrier beam is chosen to be close to the semiconductor band-edge, the optical carrier will be modulated significantly in phase and amplitude. This approach should be simultaneously capable of very high sensitivity and excellent temporal response, even in the difficult high-energy xray regime. At xray photon energies near 10 keV and higher, we believe that sub-picosecond temporal responses are possible with near single xray photon sensitivity. The approach also allows for the convenient and EMI robust transport of high-bandwidth information via fiber optics. Furthermore, the technology can be scaled to imaging applications. The basic physics of the detector, implementation considerations, and preliminary experimental data are presented and discussed.

  6. Quality assessment of packaged foods by optical oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; O'Mahony, Fiach C.; Kerry, Joe P.; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.

    2005-11-01

    A phase-fluorometric oxygen sensor system has been developed, which allows non-destructive measurement of residual oxygen levels in sealed containers such as packaged foods. It operates with disposable solid-state sensors incorporated in each pack, and a portable detector which interrogates with the sensors through a (semi)transparent packaging material. The system has been optimized for packaging applications and validated in small and medium scale trials with different types of food, including MAP hams, cheese, convenience foods, smoked fish, bakery. It has demonstrated high efficiency in monitoring package integrity, oxygen profiles in packs, performance of packaging process and many other research and quality control tasks, allowing control of 100% of packs. The low-cost batch-calibrated sensors have demonstrated reliability, safety, stability including direct contact with food, high efficiency in the low oxygen range. Another system, which also employs the fluorescence-based oxygen sensing approach, provides rapid assessment of microbial contamination (total viable counts) in complex samples such as food homogenates, industrial waste, environmental samples, etc. It uses soluble oxygen-sensitive probes, standard microtitter plates and fluorescence measurements on conventional plate reader to monitor growth of aerobic bacteria in small test samples (e.g. food homogenates) via their oxygen respiration. The assay provides high sample through put, miniaturization, speed, and can serve as alternative to the established methods such as agar plate colony counts and turbidimetry.

  7. Knock Resistance and Fine Particle Emissions for Several Biomass-Derived Oxygenates in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Burton, Jonathan; Sindler, Petr; Christensen, Earl; Fouts, Lisa; Chupka, Gina M.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Several high octane number oxygenates that could be derived from biomass were blended with gasoline and examined for performance properties and their impact on knock resistance and fine particle emissions in a single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The oxygenates included ethanol, isobutanol, anisole, 4-methylanisole, 2-phenylethanol, 2,5-dimethyl furan, and 2,4-xylenol. These were blended into a summertime blendstock for oxygenate blending at levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent by volume. The base gasoline, its blends with p-xylene and p-cymene, and high-octane racing gasoline were tested as controls. Relevant gasoline properties including research octane number (RON), motor octane number, distillation curve, and vapor pressure were measured. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was used to estimate heat of vaporization and particulate matter index (PMI). Experiments were conducted to measure knock-limited spark advance and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results show a range of knock resistances that correlate well with RON. Molecules with relatively low boiling point and high vapor pressure had little effect on PM emissions. In contrast, the aromatic oxygenates caused significant increases in PM emissions (factors of 2 to 5) relative to the base gasoline. Thus, any effect of their oxygen atom on increasing local air-fuel ratio was outweighed by their low vapor pressure and high double-bond equivalent values. For most fuels and oxygenate blend components, PMI was a good predictor of PM emissions. However, the high boiling point, low vapor pressure oxygenates 2-phenylethanol and 2,4-xylenol produced lower PM emissions than predicted by PMI. This was likely because they did not fully evaporate and combust, and instead were swept into the lube oil.

  8. Using Vanadium in Spinel as a Sensor of Oxygen Fugacity in Meteorites: Applications to Mars, Vesta, and Other Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Le, L.; Newville, M.; Pando, K.

    2009-01-01

    Igneous and metamorphic rocks commonly contain a mineral assemblage that allows oxygen fugacity to be calculated or constrained such as FeTi oxides, olivine-opx-spinel, or some other oxybarometer [1]. Some rocks, however, contain a limited mineral assemblage and do not provide constraints on fO2 using mineral equilibria. Good examples of the latter are orthopyroxenites or dunites, such as diogenites, ALH 84001, chassignites, or brachinites. In fact it is no surprise that the fO2 of many of these samples is not well known, other than being "reduced" and below the metal saturation value. In order to bridge this gap in our understanding, we have initiated a study of V in chromites in natural meteorite samples. Because the V pre-edge peak intensity and energy in chromites varies with fO2 (Fig. 1) [2], and this has been calibrated over a large fO 2 range, we can apply this relation to rocks for which we otherwise have no fO2 constraints.

  9. Doping directed at the oxygen sites in Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) - The effect of sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, N. P.; Boyne, D.; Farrell, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of three dopants directed at the oxygen sites in Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) have been investigated: sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine. Single-phase material has been obtained up to a (nominal) replacement of about 1 percent of the oxygen. Although the lattice parameters are unchanged, all dopants raise Tc (very slightly), sharpen the resistive transition, reduce the normal state resistivity, and very substantially increase the (magnetically determined) fraction of the material that is superconducting. All of these results differ qualitatively from those obtained with dopants directed at other locations in the 123 structure, and it is suggested that small additions of sulfur, fluorine, or chlorine may help to stabilize the ideal 123 stoichiometry.

  10. Direct observation of microscopic change induced by oxygen vacancy drift in amorphous TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Jeong Yong; Choi, Sung-Yool

    2010-07-01

    To clarify the resistive switching and failure mechanisms in Al/amorphous TiO2/Al devices we investigate the microscopic change in amorphous titanium oxide films and interface layers after the set process according to film deposition temperatures. For low temperature (<150 °C) samples, the thickness of top interface layer decreased after the set process due to the dissociation of a top interface layer by uniform migration of oxygen vacancies. Meanwhile, for high temperature samples, crystalline TiO phases emerged in the failed state, meaning the formation of conducting paths from the local clustering of oxygen vacancies in nonhomogeneous titanium oxide film.

  11. Bias assisted scanning probe microscopy direct write lithography enables local oxygen enrichment of lanthanum cuprates thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lavini, Francesco; Yang, Nan; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Jesse, Stephen; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Di Castro, Daniele; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Foglietti, Vittorio; Aruta, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Here, scanning probe bias techniques have been used as a method to locally dope thin epitaxial films of La2CuO4 (LCO) fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The local electrochemical oxidation of LCO very efficiently introduces interstitial oxygen defects in the thin film. Details on the influence of the tip voltage bias and environmental conditions on the surface morphology have been investigated. The results show that a local uptake of oxygen occurs in the oxidized films.

  12. Measurement of oxygen transfer from air into organic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Hemalata; Hobisch, Mathias; Borisov, Sergey; Klimant, Ingo; Krühne, Ulrich; Woodley, John M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND The use of non‐aqueous organic media is becoming increasingly important in many biotechnological applications in order to achieve process intensification. Such media can be used, for example, to directly extract poorly water‐soluble toxic products from fermentations. Likewise many biological reactions require the supply of oxygen, most normally from air. However, reliable online measurements of oxygen concentration in organic solvents (and hence oxygen transfer rates from air to the solvent) has to date proven impossible due to limitations in the current analytical methods. RESULTS For the first time, online oxygen measurements in non‐aqueous media using a novel optical sensor are demonstrated. The sensor was used to measure oxygen concentration in various organic solvents including toluene, THF, isooctane, DMF, heptane and hexane (which have all been shown suitable for several biological applications). Subsequently, the oxygen transfer rates from air into these organic solvents were measured. CONCLUSION The measurement of oxygen transfer rates from air into organic solvents using the dynamic method was established using the solvent resistant optical sensor. The feasibility of online oxygen measurements in organic solvents has also been demonstrated, paving the way for new opportunities in process control. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27773958

  13. Feasibility of direct oxygenation of primary-cultured rat hepatocytes using polyethylene glycol-decorated liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH).

    PubMed

    Naruto, Hirosuke; Huang, Hongyun; Nishikawa, Masaki; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Atsushi; Ohta, Katsuji; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2007-10-01

    We tested the short-term efficacy of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) in cultured rat hepatocytes. Supplementation with LEH (20% of the hemoglobin concentration of blood) did not lower albumin production in static culture, and completely reversed the cell death and deterioration in albumin production caused by an oxygen shortage in 2D flat-plate perfusion bioreactors.

  14. Flow direction variations of low energy ions as measured by the ion electron sensor (IES) flying on board of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szegö, Karoly; Nemeth, Zoltan; Foldy, Lajos; Burch, James L.; Goldstein, Raymond; Mandt, Kathleen; Mokashi, Prachet; Broiles, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The Ion Electron Sensor (IES) simultaneously measures ions and electrons with two separate electrostatic plasma analyzers in the energy range of 4 eV- 22 keV for ions. The field of view is 90ox360o, with angular resolution 5ox45o for ions, with a sector containing the solar wind being further segmented to 5o × 5o. IES has operated continuously since early 2014. In the ion data a low energy (<50-100 eV) component is well separated from the higher energy ions. Here we analyze the arrival direction of this low energy component. The origin of these low energy ions is certainly the ionized component of the neutral gas emitted due to solar activity from comet 67P/Churiumov-Gerasimenko. The low energy component in general shows a 6h periodicity due to cometary rotation. The data show, however, that the arrival direction of the low energy ions is smeared both in azimuth and elevation, due possibly to the diverse mechanisms affecting these ions. One of these effects is the spacecraft potential (~-10V), which accelerates the ions towards the spacecraft omnidirectionally. To characterize the flow direction in azimuth-elevation, we have integrated over the lowest 8 energy channels using weighted energy: sum(counts * energy)/sum(counts); and considered only cases when the counts are above 30. When we apply higher cut for counts, the flow direction became more definite. For this analysis we use data files where the two neighbouring energy values and elevation values are collapsed; and the azimuthal resolution is 45o, that is the solar wind azimuthal segmentation is also collapsed. Here we use day 2014.09.11. as illustration. On that day a solar wind shock reached the spacecraft at about ~10 UT. After the shock transition the energy of the solar wind became higher, and after ~12 UT the flow direction of the solar wind fluctuated, sometimes by 35o. On this day Rosetta flew at about 29.3-29.6 km from the nucleus. In the azimuth-elevation plots summed over "weighted energy" (as

  15. Design and application of a novel high precision and low cost electronic tachogenerator for sensor-based brushless direct current motor drivers.

    PubMed

    Ozgenel, Mehmet Cihat; Bal, Gungor; Uygun, Durmus

    2017-03-01

    This study presents a precise speed control method for Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) Motors using an electronic tachogenerator (ETg) instead of an electro-mechanical tachogenerator. Most commonly used three-phase BLDC motors have three position sensors for rotor position data to provide commutation among stator windings. Aforementioned position sensors are usually Hall-effect sensors delivering binary-high and binary-low data as long as the motor rotates. These binary sets from three Hall-effect sensors can be used as an analogue rotor speed signal for closed loop applications. Each position sensor signal is apart from 120 electrical degrees. By using an electronic circuitry, a combination of position sensor signals is converted to the analogue signal providing an input to a PI speed controller. To implement this, a frequency to voltage converter has been used in this study. Then, the analogue speed signal has been evaluated as rotor speed data in comparison with the reference speed. So, an ETg system has been successfully achieved in place of an electro-mechanical tachogenerator for BLDC motor speed control. The proposed ETg has been tested under various speed conditions on an experimental setup. Employed tests and obtained results show that the proposed low-cost speed feedback sub-system can be effectively used in BLDC motor drive systems. Through the proved method and designed sub-system, a new motor controller chip with a speed feedback capability has been aimed.

  16. Design and application of a novel high precision and low cost electronic tachogenerator for sensor-based brushless direct current motor drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgenel, Mehmet Cihat; Bal, Gungor; Uygun, Durmus

    2017-03-01

    This study presents a precise speed control method for Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) Motors using an electronic tachogenerator (ETg) instead of an electro-mechanical tachogenerator. Most commonly used three-phase BLDC motors have three position sensors for rotor position data to provide commutation among stator windings. Aforementioned position sensors are usually Hall-effect sensors delivering binary-high and binary-low data as long as the motor rotates. These binary sets from three Hall-effect sensors can be used as an analogue rotor speed signal for closed loop applications. Each position sensor signal is apart from 120 electrical degrees. By using an electronic circuitry, a combination of position sensor signals is converted to the analogue signal providing an input to a PI speed controller. To implement this, a frequency to voltage converter has been used in this study. Then, the analogue speed signal has been evaluated as rotor speed data in comparison with the reference speed. So, an ETg system has been successfully achieved in place of an electro-mechanical tachogenerator for BLDC motor speed control. The proposed ETg has been tested under various speed conditions on an experimental setup. Employed tests and obtained results show that the proposed low-cost speed feedback sub-system can be effectively used in BLDC motor drive systems. Through the proved method and designed sub-system, a new motor controller chip with a speed feedback capability has been aimed.

  17. Terahertz in-line sensor for direct coating thickness measurement of individual tablets during film coating in real-time.

    PubMed

    May, Robert K; Evans, Michael J; Zhong, Shuncong; Warr, Ian; Gladden, Lynn F; Shen, Yaochun; Zeitler, J Axel

    2011-04-01

    We present a new in-line measurement technique to determine the coating thickness of individual pharmaceutical tablets during film coating in a pan coating unit using pulsed terahertz technology. Results of these real-time terahertz measurements acquired during a production scale coating run are validated using both off-line high-resolution terahertz pulsed imaging of the whole dosage form as well as weight-gain measurements made on sample tablets removed at discrete time intervals during the process run. The terahertz measurements provide a direct method of determining the coating thickness, and no chemometric calibration models are required for the quantification. The results, and their repeatability, demonstrate that real-time monitoring of pharmaceutical tablet coating is not only possible but also provides substantially more information of the coating quality than the standard quality control method. Rather than providing the average coating thickness of a large number of tablets, the terahertz sensor provides the thickness of up to 100 individual tablet coatings per minute. Using this information, the operator can get additional information about the thickness distribution in the coating pan and adjust the process accordingly. At present, a minimum coating thickness of 40 μm is required to determine the coating thickness. The technique is applicable for coatings up to 1 mm in thickness. Within that range, it provides thickness measurements of sub-micron resolution. Terahertz in-line coating process measurements show considerable potential for applications in real-time release, process analytical technology and quality by design.

  18. The Binding And Release of Oxygen And Hydrogen Peroxide are Directed 1 By a Hydrophobic Tunnel in Cholesterol Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Lyubimov, A.Y.; Brammer, L.; Vrielink, A.; Sampson, N.S.

    2009-05-12

    The usage by enzymes of specific binding pathways for gaseous substrates or products is debated. The crystal structure of the redox enzyme cholesterol oxidase, determined at sub-angstrom resolution, revealed a hydrophobic tunnel that may serve as a binding pathway for oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. This tunnel is formed by a cascade of conformational rearrangements and connects the active site with the exterior surface of the protein. To elucidate the relationship between this tunnel and gas binding and release, three mutant enzymes were constructed to block the tunnel or its putative gate. Mutation of the proposed gating residue Asn485 to Asp or tunnel residue Phe359 or Gly347 to Trp or Asn reduces the catalytic efficiency of oxidation. The K mO 2 increases from 300 +/- 35 microM for the wild-type enzyme to 617 +/- 15 microM for the F359W mutant. The k cat for the F359W mutant-catalyzed reaction decreases 13-fold relative to that of the wild-type-catalyzed reaction. The N485D and G347N mutants could not be saturated with oxygen. Transfer of hydride from the sterol to the flavin prosthetic group is no longer rate-limiting for these tunnel mutants. The steady-state kinetics of both wild-type and tunnel mutant enzymes are consistent with formation of a ternary complex of steroid and oxygen during catalysis. Furthermore, kinetic cooperativity with respect to molecular oxygen is observed with the tunnel mutants, but not with the wild-type enzyme. A rate-limiting conformational change for binding and release of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, is consistent with the cooperative kinetics. In the atomic-resolution structure of F359W, the indole ring of the tryptophan completely fills the tunnel and is observed in only a single conformation. The size of the indole is proposed to limit conformational rearrangement of residue 359 that leads to tunnel opening in the wild-type enzyme. Overall, these results substantiate the functional importance of the tunnel for

  19. The binding and release of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are directed by a hydrophobic tunnel in cholesterol oxidase†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Brammer, Leighanne; Vrielink, Alice; Sampson, Nicole S.

    2008-01-01

    The usage by enzymes of specific binding pathways for gaseous substrates or products is debated. The crystal structure of the redox enzyme cholesterol oxidase, solved at sub-Ångstrom resolution, revealed a hydrophobic tunnel that may serve as a binding pathway for oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. This tunnel is formed by a cascade of conformational rearrangements and connects the active site with the exterior surface of the protein. To understand the relationship between this tunnel and gas binding and release, three mutant enzymes were constructed to block the tunnel or its putative gate. Mutation of the proposed gating residue Asn485 to Asp or the tunnel residues Phe359 or Gly347 to Trp or Asn, reduces the catalytic efficiency of oxidation. The KmO2 increases from 300 ± 35 μM for the wild-type enzyme to 617 ± 15 μM for the F359W mutant. The kcat for the F359W mutant catalyzed reaction decreases 13-fold relative to the wild-type catalyzed reaction. The N485D and G347N mutants could not be saturated with oxygen. Hydride transfer from the sterol to the flavin prosthetic group is no longer rate limiting for these tunnel mutants. The steady-state kinetics of both wild-type and tunnel-mutant enzymes are consistent with formation of a ternary complex of steroid and oxygen during catalysis. Furthermore, kinetic cooperativity with respect to molecular oxygen is observed with the tunnel mutants, but not with the wild-type enzyme. A rate-limiting conformational change for