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Sample records for direct soil exposures

  1. Impact of Direct Soil Exposures from Airborne Dust and Geophagy on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sing, David; Sing, Charles F

    2010-01-01

    Over evolutionary time humans have developed a complex biological relationship with soils. Here we describe modes of soil exposure and their biological implications. We consider two types of soil exposure, the first being the continuous exposure to airborne soil, and the second being dietary ingestion of soils, or geophagy. It may be assumed that airborne dust and ingestion of soil have influenced the evolution of particular DNA sequences which control biological systems that enable individual organisms to take advantage of, adapt to and/or protect against exposures to soil materials. We review the potential for soil exposure as an environmental source of epigenetic signals which may influence the function of our genome in determining health and disease. PMID:20617027

  2. Direct Detection of Soil-Bound Prions

    PubMed Central

    Genovesi, Sacha; Leita, Liviana; Sequi, Paolo; Andrighetto, Igino; Sorgato, M. Catia; Bertoli, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are contagious prion diseases affecting sheep and cervids, respectively. Studies have indicated that horizontal transmission is important in sustaining these epidemics, and that environmental contamination plays an important role in this. In the perspective of detecting prions in soil samples from the field by more direct methods than animal-based bioassays, we have developed a novel immuno-based approach that visualises in situ the major component (PrPSc) of prions sorbed onto agricultural soil particles. Importantly, the protocol needs no extraction of the protein from soil. Using a cell-based assay of infectivity, we also report that samples of agricultural soil, or quartz sand, acquire prion infectivity after exposure to whole brain homogenates from prion-infected mice. Our data provide further support to the notion that prion-exposed soils retain infectivity, as recently determined in Syrian hamsters intracerebrally or orally challanged with contaminated soils. The cell approach of the potential infectivity of contaminated soil is faster and cheaper than classical animal-based bioassays. Although it suffers from limitations, e.g. it can currently test only a few mouse prion strains, the cell model can nevertheless be applied in its present form to understand how soil composition influences infectivity, and to test prion-inactivating procedures. PMID:17957252

  3. Direct and indirect exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Thron, R W

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous substances that originally are discharged as air pollutants may find their pathway to human exposure through multiple routes, including ingestion and dermal contact, as well as direct inhalation. The mechanisms for modeling and understanding the fate of air pollutants through atmospheric transport, deposition into water and soil, bioaccumulation, and ultimate uptake to receptor organs and systems in the human body are complex. Pollution prevention programs can be better engineered, pollution priorities can be identified, and greater environmental public health gains (attributable to pollution prevention) can be achieved by evaluating the multiple pathways to human exposure and through improved dosage calculations. A single contaminant source often may represent only a fraction of a total body pollutant burden. Further research is needed on source culpability and attributable risk, long-range transport of air pollutants, human dose contributions by various pathways, better techniques for health risk assessment, and an identification of human behavior patterns that affect exposure and dose.

  4. Subchronic exposure of mice to Love Canal soil contaminants.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; McMartin, D N; Rej, R; Narang, R S; Stein, V B; Briggs, R G; Kaminsky, L S

    1984-04-01

    The health hazard potential of soil collected from the surface of the Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, New York, was assessed in 90-day exposure studies. Female CD-1 mice were exposed to two concentrations of the volatile components of 1 kg of soil with and without direct soil contact. Control mice were identically housed but without soil. The soil was replaced weekly and 87 compounds were detected in the air in the cages above fresh and 7-day-old soil as analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of many of these compounds decreased during the 7-day exposure cycle. Histopathologic, hematologic, and serum enzyme studies followed necropsy of all mice. There was no mortality of mice exposed for up to 90 days under any condition. Thymus and spleen weights relative to body weight were increased after 4 weeks of exposure by inhalation but not after 8 or 12 weeks of exposure. alpha-, beta-, and delta- Benzenehexachlorides , pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene were detected in liver tissue from these animals. Mice exposed to 5- to 10-fold elevated concentration of volatiles had increased body and relative kidney weights. There was no chemically induced lesion in any animal exposed only to the volatile soil contaminants. Mice exposed by direct contact with the soil without elevated volatile exposure had increased body (10%) and relative liver weights (169%). Centrolobular hepatocyte hypertrophy, which involved 40 to 70% of the lobules, was observed in all mice in this group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Subchronic exposure of mice to Love Canal soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Silkworth, J.B.; McMartin, D.N.; Rej, R.; Narang, R.S.; Stein, V.B.; Briggs, R.G.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1984-04-01

    The health hazard potential of soil collected from the surface of the Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, New York, was assessed in 90-day exposure studies. Female CD-1 mice were exposed to two concentrations of the volatile components of 1 kg of soil with and without direct soil contact. Control mice were identically housed but without soil. The soil was replaced weekly and 87 compounds were detected in the air in the cages above fresh and 7-day-old soil as analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of many of these compounds decreased during the 7-day exposure cycle. Histopathologic, hematologic, and serum enzyme studies followed necropsy of all mice. There was no mortality of mice exposed for up to 90 days under any condition. Thymus and spleen weights relative to body weight were increased after 4 weeks of exposure by inhalation but not after 8 or 12 weeks of exposure. alpha-, beta-, and delta- Benzenehexachlorides , pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene were detected in liver tissue from these animals. Mice exposed to 5- to 10-fold elevated concentration of volatiles had increased body and relative kidney weights. There was no chemically induced lesion in any animal exposed only to the volatile soil contaminants. Mice exposed by direct contact with the soil without elevated volatile exposure had increased body (10%) and relative liver weights (169%). Centrolobular hepatocyte hypertrophy, which involved 40 to 70% of the lobules, was observed in all mice in this group.

  6. Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.

    1998-04-01

    A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

  7. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway

    PubMed Central

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:346–357. PMID:24470189

  8. Deriving site-specific clean-up criteria to protect ecological receptors (plants and soil invertebrates) exposed to metal or metalloid soil contaminants via the direct contact exposure pathway.

    PubMed

    Checkai, Ron; Van Genderen, Eric; Sousa, José Paulo; Stephenson, Gladys; Smolders, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Soil contaminant concentration limits for the protection of terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates are commonly based on thresholds derived using data from laboratory ecotoxicity tests. A comprehensive assessment has been made for the derivation of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSL) in the United States; however, these limits are conservative because of their focus on high bioavailability scenarios. Here, we explain and evaluate approaches to soil limit derivation taken by 4 jurisdictions, 2 of which allow for correction of data for factors affecting bioavailability among soils, and between spiked and field-contaminated soils (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals [REACH] Regulation, European Union [EU], and the National Environment Protection Council [NEPC], Australia). Scientifically advanced features from these methods have been integrated into a newly developed method for deriving soil clean-up values (SCVs) within the context of site-specific baseline ecological risk assessment. Resulting site-specific SCVs that account for bioavailability may permit a greater residual concentration in soil when compared to generic screening limit concentrations (e.g., Eco-SSL), while still affording acceptable protection. Two choices for selecting the level of protection are compared (i.e., allowing higher effect levels per species, or allowing a higher percentile of species that are potentially unprotected). Implementation of this new method is presented for the jurisdiction of the United States, with a focus on metal and metalloid contaminants; however, the new method can be used in any jurisdiction. A case study for molybdate shows the large effect of bioavailability corrections and smaller effects of protection level choices when deriving SCVs. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  9. Soil quality assessment in long-term direct seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers in the Pacific Northwest are adopting direct seed farming to reduce soil erosion, improve soil quality and increase water infiltration. Some direct seed producers are concerned with reaching the yield and profit potential expected with long-term direct seed, and this may be due to soil st...

  10. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, H M; Wang, J D; Zhang, X L

    2006-11-01

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mgkg(-1)). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure.

  11. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN EXPOSURE SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure is the contact between a stressor and a human or ecological receptor. Risk analysis step in which receptor interaction with the exposure stressor of concern is evaluated. To assess exposure to a particular stressor we need to know - Properties of the stressor; Sources, p...

  12. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN EXPOSURE SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure is the contact between a stressor and a human or ecological receptor. Risk analysis step in which receptor interaction with the exposure stressor of concern is evaluated. To assess exposure to a particular stressor we need to know - Properties of the stressor; Sources, p...

  13. Recommendations to improve wildlife exposure estimation for development of soil screening and cleanup values.

    PubMed

    Sample, Bradley E; Schlekat, Chris; Spurgeon, David J; Menzie, Charlie; Rauscher, Jon; Adams, Bill

    2014-07-01

    An integral component in the development of media-specific values for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals is the derivation of safe levels of exposure for wildlife. Although the derivation and subsequent application of these values can be used for screening purposes, there is a need to identify the threshold for effects when making remedial decisions during site-specific assessments. Methods for evaluation of wildlife exposure are included in the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs), registration, evaluation, authorization, and restriction of chemicals (REACH), and other risk-based soil assessment approaches. The goal of these approaches is to ensure that soil-associated contaminants do not pose a risk to wildlife that directly ingest soil, or to species that may be exposed to contaminants that persist in the food chain. These approaches incorporate broad assumptions in the exposure and effects assessments and in the risk characterization process. Consequently, thresholds for concluding risk are frequently very low with conclusions of risk possible when soil metal concentrations fall in the range of natural background. A workshop held in September, 2012 evaluated existing methods and explored recent science about factors to consider when establishing appropriate remedial goals for concentrations of metals in soils. A Foodweb Exposure Workgroup was organized to evaluate methods for quantifying exposure of wildlife to soil-associated metals through soil and food consumption and to provide recommendations for the development of ecological soil cleanup values (Eco-SCVs) that are both practical and scientifically defensible. The specific goals of this article are to review the current practices for quantifying exposure of wildlife to soil-associated contaminants via bioaccumulation and trophic transfer, to identify potential opportunities for refining and improving these exposure estimates, and finally, to make

  14. Pesticide Uptake Across the Amphibian Dermis Through Soil and Overspray Exposures.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Garrison, A Wayne; Cyterski, Mike; Purucker, S Thomas

    2015-11-01

    For terrestrial amphibians, accumulation of pesticides through dermal contact is a primary route of exposure in agricultural landscapes and may be contributing to widespread amphibian declines. To show pesticide transfer across the amphibian dermis at permitted label application rates, our study was designed to measure pesticide body burdens after two simulated exposure scenarios. We compared direct exposures, where amphibians were present when spraying occurred, to indirect exposures, where amphibians were exposed to soils after pesticide application. During summer 2012, we reared barking (Hyla gratiosa) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) through 60-90 days post-metamorphosis at a United States Environmental Protection Agency research laboratory. We tested exposure for 8 h to five pesticide active ingredients (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, or pendimethalin) in glass aquaria lined with soil in the laboratory. We quantified total pesticide body burden and soil concentrations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All individuals in both treatments had measurable body burdens at the end of the study. A randomized block design analysis of variance (n = 18) showed that body burdens (p = 0.03) and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) (p = 0.01) were significantly greater in the direct overspray treatment relative to the indirect soil spray treatment for both species and tested pesticides. BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.16 and from 0.013 to 0.78 in the direct and indirect treatments, respectively. Our study shows dermal uptake for multiple pesticides from both direct spray and indirect soil exposures and provides empirical support for the degree to which terrestrial phase amphibians have higher body burdens after overspray pesticide exposure.

  15. Use of Tradescantia clone 4430 for direct long-term soil mutagenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Cėsnienė, Tatjana; Kleizaitė, Violeta; Rančelis, Vytautas; Zvingila, Donatas; Svabauskas, Kęstutis; Taraškevičius, Ričardas

    2014-07-01

    Soil mutagens permanently and directly affect terrestrial plants, soil microorganisms and invertebrates and indirectly impact vertebrate and human populations. However, the dynamic response to soil mutagens under conditions of long-term exposure has been studied insufficiently. The clonal nature of Tradescantia #4430 and the well-developed associated test systems for evaluation of genotoxicity allow investigation of the permanent effects of direct exposure to the soil not only on plants of the same genotype, but even with the same individual plants, as was done in the present study. Twenty soil samples of different origin were studied in Tradescantia after 0.5, 1 and 2 years of direct exposure to the soil, in order to examine the induction of pink cells (PC), colorless cells (CC) and branched hairs (BH). Additionally, after 0.5 years, micronucleus (MN) formation was assessed, and after 1 year, the variation of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was evaluated. Nine soil samples were of urban origin, and the others came from different soils from former military grounds. The results of the 0.5-year exposure were compared with the effects of aqueous/DMSO extracts tested in previous work. The long-term exposure period allowed not only a better differentiation of the soils within territories, but also permitted detection of differences between soils of urban and military origin. The results also depended on the test used to evaluate genotoxicity. The 'burst' phenomenon, consisting of a sudden increase of BH variation and, especially, of CC, was observed only in tests of samples from several military sites, mainly after a 2-year exposure. MN formation was less frequent after 0.5 years of exposure compared with the results from aqueous extracts, and this difference was highly significant. The variation of the RAPD markers in a significant portion of the soil samples coincided with a higher level of variation according to other tests (PC, CC, BH), but

  16. European scenarios for exposure of soil organisms to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Tiktak, Aaldrik; Boesten, Jos J T I; Egsmose, Mark; Gardi, Ciro; Klein, Michael; Vanderborght, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Standardised exposure scenarios play an important role in European pesticide authorisation procedures (a scenario is a combination of climate, weather and crop data to be used in exposure models). The European Food Safety Authority developed such scenarios for the assessment of exposure of soil organisms to pesticides. Scenarios were needed for both the concentration in total soil and for the concentration in the liquid phase. The goal of the exposure assessment is the 90th percentile of the exposure concentration in the area of agricultural use of a pesticide in each of three regulatory European zones (North, Centre and South). A statistical approach was adopted to find scenarios that are consistent with this exposure goal. Scenario development began with the simulation of the concentration distribution in the entire area of use by means of a simple analytical model. In the subsequent two steps, procedures were applied to account for parameter uncertainty and scenario uncertainty (i.e. the likelihood that a scenario that is derived for one pesticide is not conservative enough for another pesticide). In the final step, the six scenarios were selected by defining their average air temperature, soil organic-matter content and their soil textural class. Organic matter of the selected scenarios decreased in the order North-Centre-South. Because organic matter has a different effect on the concentration in total soil than it has on the concentration in the liquid phase, the concentration in total soil decreased in the order North-Centre-South whereas the concentration in the liquid phase decreased in the opposite order. The concentration differences between the three regulatory zones appeared to be no more than a factor of two. These differences were comparatively small in view of the considerable differences in climate and soil properties between the three zones.

  17. Functional traits of soil invertebrates as indicators for exposure to soil disturbance.

    PubMed

    Hedde, Mickaël; van Oort, Folkert; Lamy, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    We tested a trait-based approach to link a soil disturbance to changes in invertebrate communities. Soils and macro-invertebrates were sampled in sandy soils contaminated by long-term wastewater irrigation, adding notably organic matter and trace metals (TM). We hypothesized that functional traits of invertebrates depict ways of exposure and that exposure routes relate to specific TM pools. Geophages and soft-body invertebrates were chosen to inform on exposure by ingestion or contact, respectively. Trait-based indices depicted more accurately effects of pollution than community density and diversity did. Exposure by ingestion had more deleterious effects than by contact. Both types of exposed invertebrates were influenced by TM, but geophages mainly responded to changes in soil organic matter contents. The trait-based approach requires to be applied in various conditions to uncorrelate specific TM impacts from those of other environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are associated with severe lead poisoning. Leaded gasoline and lead in food, but not lead-based paint, are strongly associated with population blood lead levels in both young children and adults. Soil lead and house dust, but not lead-based paint, are associated with population blood lead levels in children. Most soil lead and house dust are associated with leaded gasoline. Lead-based paint dust is associated with cases of renovation of either exterior or interior environments in which the paint was pulverized. Based upon the limited data to date, abatement of soil lead is more effective than abatement of lead-based paint in reducing blood lead levels of young children. About equal numbers of children under 7 years of age are exposed to soil lead and lead-based paint. Seasonality studies point to soil lead as the main source of population blood lead levels. Soil lead is a greater risk factor than lead-based paint to children engaged in hand-to-mouth and pica behavior. In summary, soil lead is important for addressing the population of children at risk of lead poisoning. When soil lead is acknowledged by regulators and the public health community as an important pathway of human lead exposure, then more effective opportunities for improving primary lead prevention can become a reality. Images Figure 1 PMID:9539015

  19. Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Edward; van der Wal, René; Sommerkorn, Martin; Bardgett, Richard D

    2006-06-22

    Mosses are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of plants and often form the dominant vegetation in montane, boreal and arctic ecosystems. However, unlike higher plants, mosses lack developed root and vascular systems, which is thought to limit their access to soil nutrients. Here, we test the ability of two physiologically and taxonomically distinct moss species to take up soil- and wet deposition-derived nitrogen (N) in natural intact turfs using stable isotopic techniques (15N). Both species exhibited increased concentrations of shoot 15N when exposed to either soil- or wet deposition-derived 15N, demonstrating conclusively and for the first time, that mosses derive N from the soil. Given the broad physiological and taxonomic differences between these moss species, we suggest soil N uptake may be common among mosses, although further studies are required to test this prediction. Soil N uptake by moss species may allow them to compete for soil N in a wide range of ecosystems. Moreover, since many terrestrial ecosystems are N limited, soil N uptake by mosses may have implications for plant community structure and nutrient cycling. Finally, soil N uptake may place some moss species at greater risk from N pollution than previously appreciated.

  20. Direct uptake of soil nitrogen by mosses

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, Edward; van der Wal, René; Sommerkorn, Martin; Bardgett, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    Mosses are one of the most diverse and widespread groups of plants and often form the dominant vegetation in montane, boreal and arctic ecosystems. However, unlike higher plants, mosses lack developed root and vascular systems, which is thought to limit their access to soil nutrients. Here, we test the ability of two physiologically and taxonomically distinct moss species to take up soil- and wet deposition-derived nitrogen (N) in natural intact turfs using stable isotopic techniques (15N). Both species exhibited increased concentrations of shoot 15N when exposed to either soil- or wet deposition-derived 15N, demonstrating conclusively and for the first time, that mosses derive N from the soil. Given the broad physiological and taxonomic differences between these moss species, we suggest soil N uptake may be common among mosses, although further studies are required to test this prediction. Soil N uptake by moss species may allow them to compete for soil N in a wide range of ecosystems. Moreover, since many terrestrial ecosystems are N limited, soil N uptake by mosses may have implications for plant community structure and nutrient cycling. Finally, soil N uptake may place some moss species at greater risk from N pollution than previously appreciated. PMID:17148384

  1. Soil ecotoxicology: state of the art and future directions.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2012-01-01

    Developments in soil ecotoxicology started with observations on pesticide effects on soil invertebrates in the 1960s. To support the risk assessment of chemicals, in the 1980s and 1990s development of toxicity tests was the main issue, including single species tests and also more realistic test systems like model ecosystems and field tests focusing on structural and functional endpoints. In the mean time, awareness grew about issues like bioavailability and routes of exposure, while biochemical endpoints (biomarkers) were proposed as sensitive and potential early-warning tools. In recent years, interactions between different chemicals (mixture toxicity) and between chemical and other stressors attracted scientific interest. With the development of molecular biology, omics tools are gaining increasing interest, while the ecological relevance of exposure and effects is translating into concepts like (chemical) stress ecology, ecological vulnerability and trait-based approaches. This contribution addresses historical developments and focuses on current issues in soil ecotoxicology. It is concluded that soil ecotoxicological risk assessment would benefit from extending the available battery of toxicity tests by including e.g. isopods, by paying more attention to exposure, bioavailability and toxicokinetics, and by developing more insight into the ecology of soil organisms to support better understanding of exposure and long-term consequences of chemical exposure at the individual, population and community level. Ecotoxicogenomics tools may also be helpful in this, but will require considerable further research before they can be applied in the practice of soil ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  2. Temporal observations of bright soil exposures at Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, M.S.; Bell, J.F.; Cloutis, E.A.; Wray, J.J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Sullivan, R.; Johnson, J. R.; Anderson, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has discovered bright soil deposits in its wheel tracks that previously have been confirmed to contain ferric sulfates and/or opaline silica. Repeated Pancam multispectral observations have been acquired at four of these deposits to monitor spectral and textural changes over time during exposure to Martian surface conditions. Previous studies suggested that temporal spectral changes occur because of mineralogic changes (e.g., phase transitions accompanying dehydration). In this study, we present a multispectral and temporal analysis of eight Pancam image sequences at the Tyrone exposure, three at the Gertrude Weise exposure, two at the Kit Carson exposure, and ten at the Ulysses exposure that have been acquired as of sol 2132 (1 January 2010). We compare observed variations in Pancam data to spectral changes predicted by laboratory experiments for the dehydration of ferric sulfates. We also present a spectral analysis of repeated Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE observations spanning 32 sols and a textural analysis of Spirit Microscopic Imager observations of Ulysses spanning 102 sols. At all bright soil exposures, we observe no statistically significant spectral changes with time that are uniquely diagnostic of dehydration and/or mineralogic phase changes. However, at Kit Carson and Ulysses, we observe significant textural changes, including slumping within the wheel trench, movement of individual grains, disappearance of fines, and dispersal of soil clods. All observed textural changes are consistent with aeolian sorting and/or minor amounts of air fall dust deposition. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Temporal observations of bright soil exposures at Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, M.S.; Bell, J.F.; Cloutis, E.A.; Wray, J.J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Sullivan, R.; Johnson, J. R.; Anderson, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has discovered bright soil deposits in its wheel tracks that previously have been confirmed to contain ferric sulfates and/or opaline silica. Repeated Pancam multispectral observations have been acquired at four of these deposits to monitor spectral and textural changes over time during exposure to Martian surface conditions. Previous studies suggested that temporal spectral changes occur because of mineralogic changes (e.g., phase transitions accompanying dehydration). In this study, we present a multispectral and temporal analysis of eight Pancam image sequences at the Tyrone exposure, three at the Gertrude Weise exposure, two at the Kit Carson exposure, and ten at the Ulysses exposure that have been acquired as of sol 2132 (1 January 2010). We compare observed variations in Pancam data to spectral changes predicted by laboratory experiments for the dehydration of ferric sulfates. We also present a spectral analysis of repeated Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE observations spanning 32 sols and a textural analysis of Spirit Microscopic Imager observations of Ulysses spanning 102 sols. At all bright soil exposures, we observe no statistically significant spectral changes with time that are uniquely diagnostic of dehydration and/or mineralogic phase changes. However, at Kit Carson and Ulysses, we observe significant textural changes, including slumping within the wheel trench, movement of individual grains, disappearance of fines, and dispersal of soil clods. All observed textural changes are consistent with aeolian sorting and/or minor amounts of air fall dust deposition.

  4. Direct Cellular Lysis/Protein Extraction Protocol for Soil Metaproteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Chourey, Karuna; Jansson, Janet; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Shah, Manesh B; Chavarria, Krystle L.; Tom, Lauren M; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel direct protocol for deep proteome characterization of microorganisms in soil. The method employs thermally assisted detergent-based cellular lysis (SDS) of soil samples, followed by TCA precipitation for proteome extraction/cleanup prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization. This approach was developed and optimized using different soils inoculated with genome-sequenced bacteria (Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida or Gram-positive Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus). Direct soil protein extraction was compared to protein extraction from cells isolated from the soil matrix prior to lysis (indirect method). Each approach resulted in identification of greater than 500 unique proteins, with a wide range in molecular mass and functional categories. To our knowledge, this SDS-TCA approach enables the deepest proteome characterizations of microbes in soil to date, without significant biases in protein size, localization, or functional category compared to pure cultures. This protocol should provide a powerful tool for ecological studies of soil microbial communities.

  5. Direct cellular lysis/protein extraction protocol for soil metaproteomics.

    PubMed

    Chourey, Karuna; Jansson, Janet; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Shah, Manesh; Chavarria, Krystle L; Tom, Lauren M; Brodie, Eoin L; Hettich, Robert L

    2010-12-03

    We present a novel direct protocol for deep proteome characterization of microorganisms in soil. The method employs thermally assisted detergent-based cellular lysis (SDS) of soil samples, followed by TCA precipitation for proteome extraction/cleanup prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization. This approach was developed and optimized using different soils inoculated with genome-sequenced bacteria (Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida or Gram-positive Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus). Direct soil protein extraction was compared to protein extraction from cells isolated from the soil matrix prior to lysis (indirect method). Each approach resulted in identification of greater than 500 unique proteins, with a wide range in molecular mass and functional categories. To our knowledge, this SDS-TCA approach enables the deepest proteome characterizations of microbes in soil to date, without significant biases in protein size, localization, or functional category compared to pure cultures. This protocol should provide a powerful tool for ecological studies of soil microbial communities.

  6. Evaluation of Exposure to Arsenic in Residential Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Joyce S.; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Kaetzel, Rhonda; Scrafford, Carolyn; Mink, Pamela; Barraj, Leila M.; Crecelius, Eric A.; Goodman, Michael

    2005-12-01

    In response to concerns regarding arsenic in soil from a pesticide manufacturing plant, we conducted a biomonitoring study on children younger than 7 years of age, the age category of children most exposed to soil. Urine samples from 77 children (47% participation rate) were analyzed for total arsenic and arsenic species related to ingestion of inorganic arsenic. Older individuals also provided urine (n = 362) and toenail (n = 67) samples. Speciated urinary arsenic levels were similar between children (geometric mean, geometric SD, and range: 4.0, 2.2, and 0.89?17.7 ?g/L, respectively) and older participants (3.8, 1.9, 0.91?19.9 ?g/L) and consistent with unexposed populations. Toenail samples were < 1 mg/kg. Correlations between speciated urinary arsenic and arsenic in soil (r = 0.137, p = 0.39; n = 41) or house dust (r = 0.049, p = 0.73; n = 52) were not significant for children. Similarly, questionnaire responses indicating soil exposure were not associated with increased urinary arsenic levels. Relatively low soil arsenic exposure likely precluded quantification of arsenic exposure above background.

  7. External exposure to radionuclides in air, water, and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. The dose coefficients are intended for use by Federal Agencies in calculating the dose equivalent to organs and tissues of the body.

  8. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Ellen Stephanie; Liberda, Eric Nicholas; Tsuji, Leonard James S

    2015-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT), other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling) from 3 plots (A, B, and C) in Fort Albany (on the mainland), subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes.

  9. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Ellen Stephanie; Liberda, Eric Nicholas; Tsuji, Leonard James S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT), other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling) from 3 plots (A, B, and C) in Fort Albany (on the mainland), subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusion Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes. PMID:26025557

  10. Exposure scenarios and guidance values for urban soil pollutants.

    PubMed

    Boyd, H B; Pedersen, F; Cohr, K H; Damborg, A; Jakobsen, B M; Kristensen, P; Samsøe-Petersen, L

    1999-12-01

    In general, risk assessments of urban soil pollution are prepared by comparing the levels of pollutants with soil quality criteria. However, large urban areas are contaminated with concentrations of pollutants far exceeding the existing soil quality criteria and would consequently be considered to be of potential risk to humans. This is, however, a rather rigid approach, and for risk management purposes it would be desirable to have more than just one level of soil quality criteria. Therefore, a generic risk assessment model was developed for five different use scenarios: child-care centers, kitchen gardens, ornamental gardens, parks, and sports grounds. In each of the scenarios, three different types of expected behavior are described for children and adults, respectively, resulting in different levels of exposure to the pollutants. For risk management purposes, various guidance values can then be derived for each use scenario. Below a lower guidance value, a free use of the area according to the defined use is possible without an unacceptable risk to the public. Above an upper value, a cutoff of the exposure is necessary. In between, the use may be regulated by different types of advice. The model is still preliminary but was, however, used for derivation of guidance values for five commonly found soil pollutants, of which the results for benzo[a]pyrene and lead are presented.

  11. Salmonella survival in manure-treated soils during simulated seasonal temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Holley, Richard A; Arrus, Katia M; Ominski, Kimberly H; Tenuta, Mario; Blank, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Addition of animal manure to soil can provide opportunity for Salmonella contamination of soil, water, and food. This study examined how exposure of hog manure-treated loamy sand and clay soils to different simulated seasonal temperature sequences influenced the length of Salmonella survival. A six-strain cocktail of Salmonella serovars (Agona, Hadar, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Oranienburg, and Typhimurium) was added to yield 5 log cfu/g directly to about 5 kg of the two soils and moisture adjusted to 60 or 80% of field capacity (FC). Similarly, the Salmonella cocktail was mixed with fresh manure slurry from a hog nursery barn and the latter added to the two soils at 25 g/kg to achieve 5 log cfu/g Salmonella. Manure was mixed either throughout the soil or with the top kilogram of soil and the entire soil volume was adjusted to 60 or 80% FC. Soil treatments were stored 180 d at temperature sequences representing winter to summer (-18, 4, 10, 25 degrees C), spring to summer (4, 10, 25, 30 degrees C), or summer to winter (25, 10, 4, -18 degrees C) seasonal periods with each temperature step lasting 45 d. Samples for Salmonella recovery by direct plating or enrichment were taken at 0, 7, and 15 d post-inoculation and thereafter at 15-d intervals to 180 d. Salmonella numbers decreased during application to soil and the largest decreases occurred within the first week. Higher soil moisture, manure addition, and storage in the clay soil increased Salmonella survival. Salmonella survived longest (> or = 180 d) in both soils during summer-winter exposure but was not isolated after 160 d from loamy sand soil exposed to other seasonal treatments. For all but one treatment decimal reduction time (DRT45d) values calculated from the first 45 d after application were < or = 30 d and suggested that a 30-d delay between field application of manure in the spring or fall and use of the land would provide reasonable assurance that crop and animal contamination by Salmonella would be

  12. Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with residential exposure to volcanic and related soils in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Pelser, Colleen; Dazzi, Carmelo; Graubard, Barry I.; Lauria, Carmela; Vitale, Francesco; Goedert, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Before AIDS, endemic (African) Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was noted to occur in volcanic areas and was postulated to result from dirt chronically embedded in the skin of the lower extremities. The primary cause of all KS types is KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, but co-factors contribute to the neoplasia. We investigated whether residential exposure volcanic or related soils was associated with the risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma (cKS) in Sicily. Methods Risk of incident cKS (n=141) compared to population-based KSHV seropositive controls (n=123) was estimated for residential exposure to four types of soil, categorized with maps from the European Soil Database and direct surveying. Questionnaire data provided covariates. Results Residents in communities high in luvisols were approximately 2.7-times more likely to have cKS than those in communities with no luvisols. Risk was not specific for cKS on the limbs, but it was elevated approximately 4–5-fold with frequent bathing or tap water drinking in high luvisols communities. Risk was unrelated to communities high in andosols, tephra, or clay soils. Conclusions Iron and alumino-silicate clay, major components of luvisols, may increase cKS risk, but formal investigation and consideration of other soil types and exposures are needed. PMID:19576540

  13. Multistage exposure history of the 72461 soil constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, O.

    1985-11-01

    Gray soil 74261 collected on the rim of the Shorty crater in the Taurus Littrow valley, which may represent old lunar regolith material, was studied. The exposure history of different soil components was investigated by calculating the duration of the pre-Shorty stage from Kr-81-Kr dating and by deriving the shielding of this stage from the depth-sensitive cosmic ray-produced ratio Xe-131/Xe-126. An attempt is made to date the time when the exposure prior to the Shorty event occurred, using the U-235-Xe-136 dating method. The isotopic composition of the trapped noble gases, in particular the Ar-40/Ar-36 ratio, of the soil constituents is measured. The results indicate that preexposure to volatiles in the lunar atmosphere and to solar and cosmic radiations occurred early in the history of the moon, perhaps about three eons ago. In this scenario, the 74261 soil was buried after the preexposure period beneath some shielding material until it was reexcavated by the Shorty crater impact.

  14. The Tale of a Neglected Energy Source: Elevated Hydrogen Exposure Affects both Microbial Diversity and Function in Soil

    DOE PAGES

    Khdhiri, Mondher; Piché-Choquette, Sarah; Tremblay, Julien; ...

    2017-03-31

    The enrichment of H2-oxidizing bacteria (HOB) by H2 generated by nitrogen-fixing nodules has been shown to have a fertilization effect on several different crops. The benefit of HOB is attributed to their production of plant growth-promoting factors, yet their interactions with other members of soil microbial communities have received little attention. In this paper, we report that the energy potential of H2, when supplied to soil, alters ecological niche partitioning of bacteria and fungi, with multifaceted consequences for both generalist and specialist microbial functions. We used dynamic microcosms to expose soil to the typical atmospheric H2 mixing ratio (0.5 ppmv)more » permeating soils, as well as mixing ratios comparable to those found at the soil-nodule interface (10,000 ppmv). Elevated H2 exposure exerted direct effects on two HOB subpopulations distinguished by their affinity for H2 while enhancing community level carbon substrate utilization potential and lowering CH4 uptake activity in soil. We found that H2 triggered changes in the abundance of microorganisms that were reproducible yet inconsistent across soils at the taxonomic level and even among HOB. Overall, H2 exposure altered microbial process rates at an intensity that depends upon soil abiotic and biotic features. Finally, we argue that further examination of direct and indirect effects of H2 on soil microbial communities will lead to a better understanding of the H2 fertilization effect and soil biogeochemical processes.« less

  15. Ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils through direct toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Dolores; Cagigal, Ekain; Vega, María Milagrosa; Urzelai, Arantzazu; Babín, Mar; Pro, Javier; Tarazona, José Vicente

    2005-10-01

    A microcosm (MS-3) with a multispecies soil system is introduced as an experimental tool for direct toxicity assessment of contaminated soils. The capacity of MS-3 to determine soil ecotoxicity potential was evaluated using samples from three sites contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Soils were toxic to soil-dwelling organisms (earthworm, plants, and microorganisms) and to aquatic organisms (algae and RTG-2 cell fish). As expected, responses varied substantially among different soils and organisms. The application of this evaluation system provided complementary information to the chemical characterization. For soils containing metals the toxic response was lower than predicted from total metal concentrations. For hydrocarbons, the toxicity response agreed with estimated values. The induction of EROD activity suggested the presence of dioxin-like compounds, which had not been addressed in the chemical characterization. The proposed multispecies system affords the measurement of 11 endpoints covering three soil and three aquatic taxonomic groups, reproduces soil conditions and gradients, and appears as an excellent complementary tool to chemical analysis for characterization of contaminated sites.

  16. A molecular zoom into soil Humeome by a direct sequential chemical fractionation of soil.

    PubMed

    Drosos, Marios; Nebbioso, Antonio; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Vinci, Giovanni; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2017-02-14

    A Humeomics sequential chemical fractionation coupled to advanced analytical identification was applied directly to soil for the first time. Humeomics extracted ~235% more soil organic carbon (SOC) than by the total alkaline extraction traditionally employed to solubilise soil humic molecules (soil Humeome). Seven fractions of either hydro- or organo-soluble components and a final unextractable humic residue were separated from soil. These materials enabled an unprecedented structural identification of solubilised heterogeneous humic molecules by combining NMR, GC-MS, and ESI-Orbitrap-MS. Identified molecules and their relative abundance were used to build up structure-based van Krevelen plots to show the specific contribution of each fraction to SOC. The stepwise isolation of mostly hydrophobic and unsaturated molecules of progressive structural complexity suggests that humic suprastructures in soil are arranged in multi-molecular layers. These comprised molecules either hydrophobically adsorbed on soil aluminosilicate surfaces in less stable fractions, or covalently bound in amorphous organo-iron complexes in more recalcitrant fractions. Moreover, most lipid molecules of the soil Humeome appeared to derive from plant polyesters rather than bacterial metabolism. An advanced understanding of soil humic molecular composition by Humeomics may enable control of the bio-organic dynamics and reactivity in soil.

  17. Direct microscopy of bacillus endospore germination in soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Thrane, C; Olsson, S; Wolstrup, J; Sørensen, J

    2000-10-01

    Antagonistic endospore-forming Bacillus spp. offer a large potential as seed inoculants for control of soil-borne pathogens. In the soil, however, inoculated Bacillus endospores may remain dormant without germination, and plant protection can therefore be inefficient and unpredictable. A method based on direct fluorescence microscopy in soil microcosms was used to determine whether low-cost organic additives incorporated into seed coating material could stimulate endospore germination. Complex organic additives supported a high level of endospore germination of the fungal antagonist Paenibacillus polymyxa CM5-5. Skim milk is a low-cost additive that may be incorporated into seed coating material for efficient induction of Bacillus endospore germination in soil.

  18. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Mark D; Balmes, John; Yelin, Edward H; Katz, Patricia P; Hammond, S Katherine; Benowitz, Neal; Blanc, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    Background Although personal cigarette smoking is the most important cause and modulator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure could influence the course of the disease. Despite the importance of this question, the impact of SHS exposure on COPD health outcomes remains unknown. Methods We used data from two waves of a population-based multiwave U.S. cohort study of adults with COPD. 77 non-smoking respondents with a diagnosis of COPD completed direct SHS monitoring based on urine cotinine and a personal badge that measures nicotine. We evaluated the longitudinal impact of SHS exposure on validated measures of COPD severity, physical health status, quality of life (QOL), and dyspnea measured at one year follow-up. Results The highest level of SHS exposure, as measured by urine cotinine, was cross-sectionally associated with poorer COPD severity (mean score increment 4.7 pts; 95% CI 0.6 to 8.9) and dyspnea (1.0 pts; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.7) after controlling for covariates. In longitudinal analysis, the highest level of baseline cotinine was associated with worse COPD severity (4.7 points; 95% CI -0.1 to 9.4; p = 0.054), disease-specific QOL (2.9 pts; -0.16 to 5.9; p = 0.063), and dyspnea (0.9 pts; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.6 pts; p < 0.05), although the confidence intervals did not always exclude the no effect level. Conclusion Directly measured SHS exposure appears to adversely influence health outcomes in COPD, independent of personal smoking. Because SHS is a modifiable risk factor, clinicians should assess SHS exposure in their patients and counsel its avoidance. In public health terms, the effects of SHS exposure on this vulnerable subpopulation provide a further rationale for laws prohibiting public smoking. PMID:16756671

  19. Remote determination of exposure degree and iron concentration of lunar soils using VIS-NIR spectroscopic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Erich M.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1994-01-01

    On the Moon, space weathering processes such as micrometeorite bombardment alter the optical properties of lunar soils. As a consequence, lunar soil optical properties are a function not only of composition, but of degree of exposure on the lunar surface as well. In order to accurately assess the compositional properties of the lunar surface using remotely acquired visible and near-infrared spectroscopic data, it is thus necessary either (1) to compare optical properties only of soils characterized by similar degrees of exposure or (2) to otherwise normalize or remove the optical effects due to exposure. Laboratory spectroscopic data for lunar soils are used to develop and test remote spectrocopic methods for determining degree of exposure and for distinguishing between the optical effects due to exposure and those due to composition. A method employing a ratio between reflectances within and outside of the 1 micrometer Fe(2+) crystal field absorption band was developed for remotely identifying highland soils that have reached a steady-state maturity. The relative optical properties of these soils are a function solely of composition and as such can be directly compared. Spectroscopic techniques for accurate quantitative determination of iron content for lunar highland soils are investigated as well. It is shown that approximations of the 1 micrometer Fe(2+) absorption band depth using few to several channel multispectral data or spectroscopic data of inadequate spectral range cannot be used with confidence for compositional analysis. However, band depth measurements derived from continuum-removed high spectral resolution data can be used to calculate the weight percent FeO and relative proportion of iron-bearing silicates in mature lunar highland and mare/highland mixture soils. A preliminary effort to calibrate telescopic band depth to laboratory soil measurements is described.

  20. OSHA lead in construction compliance directive: Exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, L.S.

    1994-07-01

    This article is the second in a series that reviews the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Instruction CPL 2-2.58, a compliance directive for 29 CFR 1926.62, Lead Exposure in Construction. The OSHA document is intended to provide guidance to those charged with field enforcement of the lead regulation; however, it also provides vital information to those in industry who must comply with the regulation. This month, the requirements for compliance with 29 CFR 1926.62 (d) Exposure Assessment are discussed.

  1. Direct Extraction and Amplification of DNA from Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevors, Jack T.; Leung, K.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise that describes the direct extraction and purification of DNA from a small soil sample. Also discusses the subsequent amplification of a 343-bp Tn7 transposate A gene fragment (tnsA) from a strain of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 3732RNL11. Contains 21 references. (DDR)

  2. Direct Extraction and Amplification of DNA from Soil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevors, Jack T.; Leung, K.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise that describes the direct extraction and purification of DNA from a small soil sample. Also discusses the subsequent amplification of a 343-bp Tn7 transposate A gene fragment (tnsA) from a strain of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 3732RNL11. Contains 21 references. (DDR)

  3. Direct mass spectrometric detection of trace explosives in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lipo; Xin, Bin; Chen, Yi

    2012-04-07

    The detection of explosives in soil is of great significance in public security programmes and environmental science. In the present work, a ppb-level method was established to directly detect the semi-volatile explosives, RDX and TNT, present in complex soil samples. The method used thermal sampling technique and a direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge source mounted with a brass cylinder electrode (9 mm × 4.6 mm i.d./5.6 mm o.d.) to face the samples, requiring no sample pretreatment steps such as soil extraction (about ten hours). It was characterized by the merits of easy operation, high sensitivity and fast speed, and has been validated by real soil samples from various locations around a factory or firecracker releasing fields. It took only 5 min per sample, with the limit of detection down to 0.5 ppb (S/N = 3) trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine in soils heated at 170 °C. It is also extendable to the analysis of other volatile analytes.

  4. Early exposure to agricultural soil accelerates the maturation of the early-life pig gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nguyen; Tsai, Tsung Cheng; Maxwell, Charles; Carbonero, Franck

    2017-02-27

    Reduced microbial exposure in early childhood is postulated to be associated with subsequent immune deficiencies and associated health conditions. This corollary to the "hygiene hypothesis" has grown of popularity in the medical field, but can only be really tested with animal models. Based on previous observation that access to outdoor environment improves piglets' growth performance, we simulated early microbial exposure by providing pigs with topsoil during the lactation phase. Specifically, pigs from 20 litters were assigned to either control treatments (C) or soil treatments (S): pigs exposed to topsoil from day 4 postpartum to the end of lactation. At weaning, five unisex littermates of 10 sows from each treatment were penned together and grew up in the same conditions. Fecal samples were collected at on d 13 (Lactation: L), 21 (Weaning: WT), 35 (Mid-nursery, MNT), 56 (End of Nursery: EONT) and 96 (End of Growth: EGT) for 16s rRNA amplicon high-throughput sequencing. Overall, common trends of gut microbiota maturation, associated with diet switch from maternal milk to plant-based diet, were observed. Bacteroides, Clostridium XIVa and Enterobacteriaceae were most abundant during lactation, while Prevotella, Megasphaera and Blautia became abundant after weaning. Remarkably, exposure to soil resulted in a faster maturation of the piglets gut microbiota at weaning, while a completely distinct phase was observed at day 35 for control piglets. Soil-exposed piglets tened to harbor a more diverse gut microbiota at weaning and day35, however the more significant changes were at those time points in terms of composition. Prevotella, and a wide range of Firmicutes members were significantly enriched in soil-exposed piglets from the lactation to the end of nursery phase. It can be hypothesized that those taxa were either directly transmitted from the soil or stimulated by the presence of plant material in the soil. Those changes were accompanied by depletion in several

  5. Mapping Soil Salinity with ECa-Directed Soil Sampling: History, Protocols, Guidelines, Applications, and Future Research Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Soil salinity is a spatially complex and dynamic property of soil that influences crop yields when the threshold salinity level is exceeded. Mapping soil salinity is necessary for soil classification, reclamation, crop selection, and site-specific irrigation management of salt-affected soils in the arid and semi-arid agricultural regions of the world. Because of its spatial and temporal heterogeneity soil salinity is difficult to map and monitor at field scales. There are various methods for characterizing soil salinity variability, but none of these approaches has been as extensively investigated and is as reliable and cost effective as apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) directed soil sampling. Geospatial measurements of ECa are well-suited for characterizing soil salinity spatial distribution because they are reliable, quick, and easy to take with GPS-based mobilized ECa measurement equipment. However, ECa is influenced by a variety of soil properties, which makes the measurement of soil salinity at field scale problematic. It is the goal of this presentation to provide an overview of the field-scale characterization of soil salinity distribution using ECa-directed soil sampling. A historical perspective, protocols and guidelines, strengths and limitations, applications, and future trends are presented for characterizing spatial and temporal variation in soil salinity using ECa-directed soil sampling. Land resource managers, farmers, extension specialists, soil classification specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of field-scale maps of soil salinity.

  6. Direct Evidence Linking Soil Organic Matter Development to Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenbach, C.; Grandy, S.

    2013-12-01

    Despite increasing recognition of microbial contributions to soil organic matter (SOM) formation there is little experimental evidence linking microbial processes to SOM development and the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Specifically, if stable SOM is largely comprised of microbial products, we need to better understand the soil conditions that influence microbial biomass production and ultimately its stability. Microbial physiology, such as microbial growth efficiency (MGE) and rate (MGR) have direct influences on microbial biomass production and are highly sensitive to resource quality. Therefore, the importance of resource quality on SOM is not necessarily a function of resistance to decay but the degree to which it optimizes microbial biomass production. While resource quality may have an indirect effect on SOM abundance via its influence on microbial physiology, SOM stabilization of labile microbial products may rely heavily on a soil's capacity to form organo-mineral interactions. To examine the relative importance of soil microbial community function, resource quality and mineralogy on direct microbial contributions to SOM formation and stability, an ongoing 15-mo incubation experiment was set up using artificial, initially C- and microbial-free soils. Soil microcosms were constructed by mixing sand with either kaolinite or montmorillonite clays followed with a natural soil microbial inoculum. For both soil mineral treatments, weekly additions of glucose, cellobiose, or syringol are carried out, with an additional treatment of plant leachate to serve as a reference. This simplified system allows us to determine if, in the absence of plant-derived C, microbial products using simple substrates can result in chemically complex SOM similar to natural soils. Over the course of the incubation, MGE, MGR, microbial activity, and SOM accumulation rates are monitored. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) is used to track the microbial

  7. Metagenomic comparison of direct and indirect soil DNA extraction approaches.

    PubMed

    Delmont, Tom O; Robe, Patrick; Clark, Ian; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M

    2011-09-01

    Full pyrosequencing runs of both direct-extracted (high yield, low DNA size) and indirect-extracted DNA (low yield, high DNA size) from the same prairie soil show that the sequence distribution of the majority of the metabolic functions and species detected were statistically similar. Although some microbial functions differed at the 95% confidence interval in bootstrap analyses, the overall functional diversity was the same. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Direct and Indirect Exposure of Insecticides to Garden Symphylan (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) in Laboratory Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Shimat V

    2015-12-01

    The garden symphylan, Scutigerella immaculata Newport, is a serious soil pest whose root feeding affects yield and survival of several high valued crops in the California's central coast. Because organophosphate insecticides, widely used for S. immaculata control, are rigorously regulated and little is known about the efficacy of alternate insecticides, laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine insecticide efficacy through repellency and lethality. To determine indirect repellency (noncontact) of insecticides, choice assays were conducted where five S. immaculata were introduced into the arena to choose between insecticide-treated and untreated wells whereas, in direct repellency (contact) assays, three insecticide-treated 1-cm-diameter discs were pasted into the arena and the number of visits, time spent per visitation, and number of long-duration (>10 s) stays of five S. immaculata were quantified. To determine efficacy through direct mortality, number of S. immaculata died after 72 h were determined by introducing 10 S. immaculata to insecticide-treated soil assays. In indirect exposure bioassays, seven (clothianidin, oxamyl, zeta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, ethoprop, azadirachtin, and a combination of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid) out of 14 insecticides tested elicited repellency to S. immaculata. Of six insecticides tested in the direct exposure assays, only tolfenpyrad elicited contact repellency. In soil assays, after 72 h of introduction, bifenthrin, oxamyl, clothianidin, zeta-cypermethrin, and tolfenpyrad caused 100, 95, 80, 44, and 44% S. immaculata mortality, respectively, which was significantly greater than distilled water and four other insecticides. The implications of these results on S. immaculata management in the California's central coast are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Recovery of soil nitrification after long-term zinc exposure and its co-tolerance to Cu in different soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aiju; Fang, Dianmei; Wang, Chao; Li, Menghong; Young, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Soils sampled from different locations of China were used to manipulate soil microbial diversity and to assess the effect of the diversity of the soil nitrifying community on the recovery of the soil nitrification to metal stress (zinc). Ten treatments were either or not amended with ZnCl2. Subsequently, a spike-on-spike assay was set up to test for the tolerance of soil nitrification to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Initially, Zn amendment completely inhibited nitrification. After a year of Zn exposure, recovery of the potential nitrification rate in Zn-amended soils ranged from 28 to 126% of the potential nitrification rate in the corresponding Zn-nonamended soils. This recovery was strongly related to the potential nitrification rate before Zn amendment and soil pH. Increased Zn tolerance of the soil nitrification was consistently observed in response to corresponding soil contamination. Co-tolerance to Cu was obtained in all 1,000-mg kg(-1) Zn-amended soils. This tolerance was also strongly related to the potential nitrification rate before Zn amendment and soil pH. Our data indicate that inherently microbial activity can be a significant factor for the recovery of soil functioning derived from metal contamination.

  10. Using growth-based methods to determine direct effects of salinity on soil microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Kristin; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinization is a widespread agricultural problem and increasing salt concentrations in soils have been found to be correlated with decreased microbial activity. A central challenge in microbial ecology is to link environmental factors, such as salinity, to responses in the soil microbial community. That is, it can be difficult to distinguish direct from indirect effects. In order to determine direct salinity effects on the community we employed the ecotoxicological concept of Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance (PICT). This concept is built on the assumption that if salinity had an ecologically relevant effect on the community, it should have selected for more tolerant species and strains, resulting in an overall higher community tolerance to salt in communities from saline soils. Growth-based measures, such as the 3H-leucine incorporation into bacterial protein , provide sensitive tools to estimate community tolerance. They can also provide high temporal resolution in tracking changes in tolerance over time. In our study we used growth-based methods to investigate: i) at what levels of salt exposure and over which time scales salt tolerance can be induced in a non-saline soil, and (ii) if communities from high salinity sites have higher tolerance to salt exposure along natural salinity gradients. In the first part of the study, we exposed a non-saline soil to a range of salinities and monitored the development of community tolerance over time. We found that community tolerance to intermediate salinities up to around 30 mg NaCl per g soil can be induced at relatively short time scales of a few days, providing evidence that microbial communities can adapt rapidly to changes in environmental conditions. In the second part of the study we used soil samples originating from natural salinity gradients encompassing a wide range of salinity levels, with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.1 dS/m to >10 dS/m. We assessed community tolerance to salt by

  11. Improved exposure estimation in soil screening and clean-up criteria for volatile organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    DeVaull, George E

    2017-02-18

    Soil clean-up criteria define acceptable concentrations of organic chemical constituents for exposed humans. These criteria sum the estimated soil exposure over multiple pathways. Assumptions for ingestion, dermal contact, and dust exposure generally presume a chemical persists in surface soils at a constant concentration level for the entire exposure duration. For volatile chemicals this is an unrealistic assumption. A calculation method is presented for surficial soil criteria which include volatile depletion of chemical for these uptake pathways. The depletion estimates compare favorably with measured concentration profiles and with field measurements of soil concentration. Corresponding volatilization estimates compare favorably with measured data for a wide range of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals, including instances with and without the presence of a mixed-chemical residual phase. Selected examples show application of the revised factors in estimating screening levels for benzene in surficial soils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study: estimating residential soil and house dust exposures to young children.

    PubMed

    Paustenbach, Dennis J; Kerger, Brent D

    2013-04-01

    The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study provides extensive data on elevated residential soil and house dust concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and adult body burdens among residents near a chemical manufacturing plant in Midland, Michigan. Recent reports found no significant contribution of residential soil/dust concentrations to serum lipid PCDD/Fs in adults. Although child body burdens were not studied by the University of Michigan, internal dose modeling that incorporates recent findings on demonstrated shorter elimination half life of PCDD/Fs in children (1-2 year half life in children vs. ~7 years in older adults) can be applied to assess this important issue. The model examines children (ages 0-7 years) with background dietary intake and exposure to residential soils at selected concentrations (10, 100 and 1000 pg/g 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents, TEQ) using the congener patterns observed in Midland. Model predictions assuming 50th percentile TEQ uptake from soil/dust-related dermal and ingestion exposures indicate no measurable changes in serum lipid TEQ concentrations up to 1000 pg/g in soil/dust. Assuming 95th percentile uptake, the model shows no measurable serum lipid TEQ change up to 100 pg/g in soil/dust, but serum lipid TEQ levels rose ~2 pg/g at 1000 pg/g in soil/dust. Since the vast majority of soil/dust data were below 100 pg/g, Michigan children exposed to such soil/dust TEQ concentrations are not reasonably expected to exhibit measurable changes in serum lipid TEQ concentrations when compared to typical background dietary exposures. With adequate data, this approach can be applied to evaluate child dose and risk for other persistent chemicals.

  13. EPA EcoBox Tools by Exposure Pathways - Soil

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  14. Modeling of transmission line exposure to direct lightning strokes

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, F.A.M. )

    1990-10-01

    The paper introduces a new model for assessing the exposure of free-standing structures and horizontal conductors above flat ground to direct lightning strokes. The starting point of this work is a recently developed criterion for positive leader inception, modified to account for positive leaders initiated under the influence of a negative descending lightning stroke. Subsequent propagation of the positive leader is analyzed to define the point of encounter of the two leaders which determines the attractive radius of a structure or the attractive lateral distance of a conductor. These parameters are investigated for a wide range of heights and return-stroke currents. A method for analyzing shielding failure and determining the critical shielding angle is also described. The predictions of the model are compared with field observations and previously developed models.

  15. Limited recovery of soil microbial activity after transient exposure to gasoline vapors.

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, Jakub J; Christensen, Jan H; Mayer, Philipp; Brandt, Kristian K

    2016-09-01

    During gasoline spills complex mixtures of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released to terrestrial environments. Gasoline VOCs exert baseline toxicity (narcosis) and may thus broadly affect soil biota. We assessed the functional resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery of microbial functions) in soil microbial communities transiently exposed to gasoline vapors by passive dosing via headspace for 40 days followed by a recovery phase of 84 days. Chemical exposure was characterized with GC-MS, whereas microbial activity was monitored as soil respiration (CO2 release) and soil bacterial growth ([(3)H]leucine incorporation). Microbial activity was strongly stimulated and inhibited at low and high exposure levels, respectively. Microbial growth efficiency decreased with increasing exposure, but rebounded during the recovery phase for low-dose treatments. Although benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) concentrations decreased by 83-97% during the recovery phase, microbial activity in high-dose treatments did not recover and numbers of viable bacteria were 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than in control soil. Re-inoculation with active soil microorganisms failed to restore microbial activity indicating residual soil toxicity, which could not be attributed to BTEX, but rather to mixture toxicity of more persistent gasoline constituents or degradation products. Our results indicate a limited potential for functional recovery of soil microbial communities after transient exposure to high, but environmentally relevant, levels of gasoline VOCs which therefore may compromise ecosystem services provided by microorganisms even after extensive soil VOC dissipation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determining the relative importance of soil sample locations to predict risk of child lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W; McElmurry, Shawn P; Filippelli, Gabriel M; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Taylor, Mark P

    2013-10-01

    Soil lead in urban neighborhoods is a known predictor of child blood lead levels. In this paper, we address the question where one ought to concentrate soil sample collection efforts to efficiently predict children at-risk for soil Pb exposure. Two extensive data sets are combined, including 5467 surface soil samples collected from 286 census tracts, and geo-referenced blood Pb data for 55,551 children in metropolitan New Orleans, USA. Random intercept least squares, random intercept logistic, and quantile regression results indicate that soils collected within 1m adjacent to residential streets most reliably predict child blood Pb outcomes in child blood Pb levels. Regression decomposition results show that residential street soils account for 39.7% of between-neighborhood explained variation, followed by busy street soils (21.97%), open space soils (20.25%), and home foundation soils (18.71%). Just as the age of housing stock is used as a statistical shortcut for child risk of exposure to lead-based paint, our results indicate that one can shortcut the characterization of child risk of exposure to neighborhood soil Pb by concentrating sampling efforts within 1m and adjacent to residential and busy streets, while significantly reducing the total costs of collection and analysis. This efficiency gain can help advance proactive upstream, preventive methods of environmental Pb discovery.

  17. The development of applied action levels for soil contact: a scenario for the exposure of humans to soil in a residential setting.

    PubMed Central

    Sedman, R M

    1989-01-01

    The California Site Mitigation Decision Tree Manual, 1985, was developed by the California Department of Health Services to provide a detailed technical basis for managing uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The Decision Tree describes a process that relies on criteria, Applied Action Levels (AALs) to evaluate and, if necessary, mitigate the impact of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites on the public health and the environment. AALs are developed for individual substances, species, and media of exposure. AALs have been routinely developed for the media of air and water; however, an approach for developing AALs for soil contact was lacking. Given that the air pathway for soil contact is addressed in AALs for air, two routes of exposure, ingestion and dermal contact, are addressed in developing AALs for soil contact. The approach assumes a lifetime of exposure to soil in a residential setting. Age-related changes in exposure are included in the scenario. Exposure to soil due to ingestion and dermal contact are quantitated independently and then integrated in the final exposure scenario. A mass balance approach using four elements is employed to quantitate soil ingestion for a young child. Changes in soil ingestion with age are based on age-related changes in blood lead concentration and mouthing behavior. Dermal exposure to soil was determined from studies that reported skin soil load and from estimates of exposed skin surface area. Age-related changes in the dermal exposure to soil are also based on changes with age of blood lead concentration and mouthing behavior. The estimates of exposure to soil due to ingestion and dermal contact are integrated, and an approach for developing AALs is advanced. AALs are derived by allocating the Maximum Exposure Level as described in the Decision Tree to the average daily exposure to soil. Toxicokinetic considerations for the two routes of exposure must be included in deriving AALs for the soil medium of exposure. PMID:2651104

  18. Survival of Pochonia chlamydosporia on the soil surface after different exposure intervals at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Rafael Henrique; Lopes, Everaldo Antônio; Borges, Darlan Ferreira; Bontempo, Amanda Ferreira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2017-09-25

    Exposure of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia to solar radiation and elevated temperatures before being incorporated into the soil can reduce its survival and efficiency as biocontrol agent. A field experiment was carried out to assess the effect of the exposure period on the viability of P. chlamydosporia applied on the soil surface. A commercial bionematicide based on P. chlamydosporia was sprayed on soil, and soil samples were collected before and at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150min after fungal application. Relative humidity (RH), the irradiance (IR), air temperature (AT), and soil temperature (ST) were recorded. The number of P. chlamydosporia colony forming units (CFUs) was evaluated after 20 days of incubation. P. chlamydosporia survival decreased over the time of exposure on the soil surface. Overall, the number of CFUs decreased by more than 90% at 150min after application. Exposure to RH ≥61%, ST and AT between 25-35°C and 19-29°C, and IR between 1172 and 2126μmol of photons m(-2)s(-1) induced a negative exponential effect on the survival of the fungus over the time. Exposure to climatic conditions on the soil surface reduces P. chlamydosporia viability. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe use and cigarette smoking must be compared directly. The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=31; M=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (M=5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (M=9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes, or a single cigarette. Outcome measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session's end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2009. On average, CO increased by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe use (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette smoking (SD=1.8), while peak waterpipe COHb levels (M=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for cigarette smoking (M=1.3%, SD=0.5; p's<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (waterpipe M=10.2 ng/mL, SD=7.0; cigarette M=10.6 ng/mL, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at 5-minute intervals during the waterpipe session (p's<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 L for waterpipe use as compared to 1.0 L for cigarette smoking (p<0.001). Relative to cigarette smoking, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco-smoking methods likely share

  20. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods

  1. Reduction in the earthworm metabolomic response after phenanthrene exposure in soils with high soil organic carbon content.

    PubMed

    McKelvie, Jennifer R; Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Celejewski, Magda A; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the correlation between soil organic carbon (OC) content and metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to phenanthrene (58 ± 3 mg/kg) spiked into seven artificial soils with OC contents ranging from 1 to 27% OC. Principal component analysis of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of aqueous extracts identified statistically significant differences in the metabolic profiles of control and phenanthrene-exposed E. fetida in the 1% OC soil only. Partial least squares analysis identified a metabolic response in the four soils with OC values ≤11% which was well correlated to estimated phenanthrene porewater concentrations. The results suggest that the higher sorption capability of high OC soils decreased the bioavailability of phenanthrene and the subsequent metabolic response of E. fetida.

  2. Exposure Assessment Tools by Media - Soil and Dust

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  3. Occurrence and human non-dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shan-Ping; Ni, Hong-Gang; Qin, Pei-Heng; Zeng, Hui

    2010-07-08

    Twenty eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined for a total of 203 top soil samples collected from eight different land categories in Shenzhen, China during the winter of 2007. The concentrations, compositional profile, and the potential sources of PAHs in soil were discussed. Overall, PAH pollution in the soil of Shenzhen is still in the low-end of the world after 30 years rapid urbanization. Based on that, human exposure to soil PAHs via inhalation and soil particle intake were estimated as well. The concentrations of Sigma(28)PAHs in Shenzhen soil ranged from 2.68 to 17,767 ng g(-1) (average: 546 ng g(-1)). The highest levels of PAHs were found in the traffic land (average: 2104 ng g(-1)) and the lowest concentrations were detected in forest land (average: 144 ng g(-1)) in eight land categories. PAH isomeric ratios indicated that PAHs in Shenzhen soil were mainly derived from combustion. In the current pollution levels in Shenzhen, children aged 0 to 8 were the most sensitive sub-group of exposure to PAHs (59.2 ng (kg d)(-1)), and the exposure to PAHs for males (36.2 ng (kg d)(-1)) was more serious than for females (32.7 ng (kg d)(-1)). Inhalation was the major way of non-dietary exposure (over 96%).

  4. Human health risks of Pb and As exposure via consumption of home garden vegetables and incidental soil and dust ingestion: a probabilistic screening tool.

    PubMed

    Bacigalupo, Chris; Hale, Beverley

    2012-04-15

    The consumption of home grown vegetables may represent a significant exposure pathway for arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) relative to direct incidental ingestion of soil, thus a probabilistic screening tool for estimating these exposures was developed using regression models relating co-located soil and home garden (HG) vegetable concentrations of Pb and As established from multiple independent studies and 2-dimensional Monte Carlo analyses. For high-quantity consumers of HG vegetables (i.e., the upper 95th percentile of consumers in the general population), the HG consumption pathway can be as significant as incidental soil and dust ingestion for inorganic As and, therefore, should be considered when developing generic health-based soil criteria in residential settings. Predicted Pb Hazard Quotient (HQ) estimates among young children resulting from HG consumption were 4- to 10-fold lower than exposures resulting from direct incidental soil and dust ingestion. The difference in soil/dust ingestion rates used to characterize young children (the 95th percentile of 202 mg/d) versus a lifetime residential receptor (the 95th percentile of 30 mg/d) was a primary factor contributing to the relative differences observed between HQ and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from these two exposure pathways for lead Pb and inorganic arsenic As, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Revised interim soil lead guidance for CERCLA sites and RCRA Corrective Action Facilities. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-14

    As part of the Superfund Administrative Improvements Initiative, this interim directive establishes a streamlined approach for determining protective levels for lead in soil at CERCLA sites and RCRA facilities that are subject to corrective action under RCRA section 3004(u) or 3008(h). This interim directive replaces all previous directives on soil lead cleanup for CERCLA and RCRA programs.

  6. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, J.M.; Balick, L.K.

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  7. Estimating human exposure to PFOS isomers and PFCA homologues: the relative importance of direct and indirect (precursor) exposure.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Berger, Urs; Cousins, Ian T

    2015-01-01

    Contributions of direct and indirect (via precursors) pathways of human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) isomers and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are estimated using a Scenario-Based Risk Assessment (SceBRA) modelling approach. Monitoring data published since 2008 (including samples from 2007) are used. The estimated daily exposures (resulting from both direct and precursor intake) for the general adult population are highest for PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), followed by perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), while lower daily exposures are estimated for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA). The precursor contributions to the individual perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) daily exposures are estimated to be 11-33% for PFOS, 0.1-2.5% for PFBA, 3.7-34% for PFHxA, 13-64% for PFOA, 5.2-66% for PFDA, and 0.7-25% for PFDoDA (ranges represent estimated precursor contributions in a low- and high-exposure scenario). For PFOS, direct intake via diet is the major exposure pathway regardless of exposure scenario. For PFCAs, the dominant exposure pathway is dependent on perfluoroalkyl chain length and exposure scenario. Modelled PFOS and PFOA concentrations in human serum using the estimated intakes from an intermediate-exposure scenario are in agreement with measured concentrations in different populations. The isomer pattern of PFOS resulting from total intakes (direct and via precursors) is estimated to be enriched with linear PFOS (84%) relative to technical PFOS (70% linear). This finding appears to be contradictory to the observed enrichment of branched PFOS isomers in recent human serum monitoring studies and suggests that either external exposure is not fully understood (e.g. there are unknown precursors, missing or poorly quantified exposure pathways) and/or that there is an incomplete understanding of the isomer-specific human pharmacokinetic processes of PFOS, its precursors and

  8. Direct and indirect effects of UV-B exposure on litter decomposition: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinzhang; Peng, Changhui; Jiang, Hong; Zhu, Qiuan; Wang, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure in the course of litter decomposition may have a direct effect on decomposition rates via changing states of photodegradation or decomposer constitution in litter while UV-B exposure during growth periods may alter chemical compositions and physical properties of plants. Consequently, these changes will indirectly affect subsequent litter decomposition processes in soil. Although studies are available on both the positive and negative effects (including no observable effects) of UV-B exposure on litter decomposition, a comprehensive analysis leading to an adequate understanding remains unresolved. Using data from 93 studies across six biomes, this introductory meta-analysis found that elevated UV-B directly increased litter decomposition rates by 7% and indirectly by 12% while attenuated UV-B directly decreased litter decomposition rates by 23% and indirectly increased litter decomposition rates by 7%. However, neither positive nor negative effects were statistically significant. Woody plant litter decomposition seemed more sensitive to UV-B than herbaceous plant litter except under conditions of indirect effects of elevated UV-B. Furthermore, levels of UV-B intensity significantly affected litter decomposition response to UV-B (P<0.05). UV-B effects on litter decomposition were to a large degree compounded by climatic factors (e.g., MAP and MAT) (P<0.05) and litter chemistry (e.g., lignin content) (P<0.01). Results suggest these factors likely have a bearing on masking the important role of UV-B on litter decomposition. No significant differences in UV-B effects on litter decomposition were found between study types (field experiment vs. laboratory incubation), litter forms (leaf vs. needle), and decay duration. Indirect effects of elevated UV-B on litter decomposition significantly increased with decay duration (P<0.001). Additionally, relatively small changes in UV-B exposure intensity (30%) had significant direct effects on litter

  9. Direct and Indirect Effects of UV-B Exposure on Litter Decomposition: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xinzhang; Peng, Changhui; Jiang, Hong; Zhu, Qiuan; Wang, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure in the course of litter decomposition may have a direct effect on decomposition rates via changing states of photodegradation or decomposer constitution in litter while UV-B exposure during growth periods may alter chemical compositions and physical properties of plants. Consequently, these changes will indirectly affect subsequent litter decomposition processes in soil. Although studies are available on both the positive and negative effects (including no observable effects) of UV-B exposure on litter decomposition, a comprehensive analysis leading to an adequate understanding remains unresolved. Using data from 93 studies across six biomes, this introductory meta-analysis found that elevated UV-B directly increased litter decomposition rates by 7% and indirectly by 12% while attenuated UV-B directly decreased litter decomposition rates by 23% and indirectly increased litter decomposition rates by 7%. However, neither positive nor negative effects were statistically significant. Woody plant litter decomposition seemed more sensitive to UV-B than herbaceous plant litter except under conditions of indirect effects of elevated UV-B. Furthermore, levels of UV-B intensity significantly affected litter decomposition response to UV-B (P<0.05). UV-B effects on litter decomposition were to a large degree compounded by climatic factors (e.g., MAP and MAT) (P<0.05) and litter chemistry (e.g., lignin content) (P<0.01). Results suggest these factors likely have a bearing on masking the important role of UV-B on litter decomposition. No significant differences in UV-B effects on litter decomposition were found between study types (field experiment vs. laboratory incubation), litter forms (leaf vs. needle), and decay duration. Indirect effects of elevated UV-B on litter decomposition significantly increased with decay duration (P<0.001). Additionally, relatively small changes in UV-B exposure intensity (30%) had significant direct effects on litter

  10. Electromagnetic exposure compliance estimation using narrowband directional measurements.

    PubMed

    Stratakis, D; Miaoudakis, A; Xenos, T; Zacharopoulos, V

    2008-01-01

    The increased number of everyday applications that rely on wireless communication has drawn an attention to several concerns on the adverse health effects that prolonged or even short time exposure might have on humans. International organisations and countries have adopted guides and legislation for the public safety. They include reference levels (RLs) regarding field strength electromagnetic quantities. To check for RLs compliance in an environment with multiple transmitters of various types, analytical simulation models may be implemented provided that all the necessary information are available. Since this is not generally the case in the most practical situations, on-site measurements have to be performed. The necessary equipment for measurements of this type usually includes broadband field metres suitable to measure the field strength over the whole bandwidth of the field sensor used. These types of measurements have several drawbacks; to begin with, given that RLs are frequency depended, compliance evaluation can be misleading since no information is available regarding the measured spectrum distribution. Furthermore, in a multi-transmitter environment there is no way of distinguishing the contribution of a specific source to the overall field measured. Of course, this problem can be resolved using narrowband directional receiver antennas, yet there is always the need for a priori knowledge of the polarisation of the incident electromagnetic wave. In this work, the use of measurement schemes of this type is addressed. A method independent to the polarisation of the incident wave is proposed and a way to evaluate a single source contribution to the total field in a multi-transmitter environment and the polarisation of the measured incident wave is presented.

  11. Airborne exposure and soil levels associated with lead abatement of a steel tank.

    PubMed

    Lange, John H

    2002-02-01

    This study reports on airborne exposure levels and soil concentrations of lead in regard to abatement of a steel structure (water tank). The tank was de-leaded by abrasive sand blasting. The ball of the tank had a lead surface level that exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) definition of lead-based paint (LBP) (0.5% lead), but paint on stem and base was below this criterion. Personal and area airborne samples were collected during different activities of lead abatement of the tank. Summary results suggest during abrasive blasting of ball and stem/base personal exposure levels, as reported with arithmetic and geometric means, exceed the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (50 microg/m3). Highest personal exposure (occupational exposure) was associated with blasting of ball. Distribution of airborne and soil samples suggest non-normality and is best represented by a logarithmic form. Geometric standard deviations for air and soil lead support a non-normal distribution. Outlying values were found for personal and area air samples. Exposure levels associated with blasting stem/base section of tank support OSHA's policy requiring air monitoring of work at levels below the criterion established by EPA in identifying LBP. Area samples were statistically lower than personal samples associated with blasting ball and stem/base of tank. Exposure data suggest that workers performing abatement on steel structures have elevated lead exposure from surface lead. Respirator protection requirements are discussed. Soil lead concentration was suggested to decrease as distance increased from tank. Soil lead is suggested to be a result of deposition from LBP on tank surface. Minimal efforts were required to reduce average lead soil levels below EPA's upper acceptable criterion (1200 ppm Pb).

  12. Direct modification of bioactive phenothiazines by exposure to laser radiation.

    PubMed

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Nastasa, Viorel; Smarandache, Adriana; Militaru, Andra; Martins, Ana; Viveiros, Miguel; Boni, Mihai; Andrei, Ionut Relu; Pascu, Alexandru; Staicu, Angela; Molnar, Joseph; Fanning, Seamus; Amaral, Leonard

    2011-05-01

    Whereas exposure of combinations of a phenothiazine and bacterium to incoherent UV increases the activity of the phenothiazine, exposure of the phenothiazine alone does not yield an increase of its activity. Because the laser beam energy is greater than that produced by the incoherent UV sources, exposure of phenothiazines to specific lasers may yield molecules with altered activities over that of the unexposed parent. Chlorpromazine, thioridazine and promethazine active against bacteria were exposed to two distinct lasers for varying periods of time. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were conducted prior to and post-exposure and the products of laser exposure evaluated for activity against a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strain via a disk susceptibility assay. Exposure to lasers alters the absorption/fluorescence spectra of the phenothiazines; reduces the activity of thioridazine against the test bacterium; produces a highly active chlorpromazine compound against the test organism. Exposure of phenothiazines to lasers alters their structure that results in altered activity against a bacterium. This is the first report that lasers can alter the physico-chemico characteristics to the extent that altered bioactivity results. Exposure to lasers is expected to yield compounds that are difficult to make via chemical manipulation methods. A survey of selected patents of interest, even co-lateral for the subject of this article is shortly made.

  13. Population exposure from the fuel cycle: Review and future direction

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The legacy of radiation exposures confronting man arises from two historical sources of energy, the sun and radioactive decay. Contemporary man continues to be dependent on these two energy sources, which include the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation exposures from all energy sources should be examined, with particular emphasis on the nuclear fuel cycle, incidents such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. In addition to risk estimation, concepts such as de minimis, life shortening as a measure of risk, and competing risks as projected into the future must be considered in placing radiation exposures in perspective. The utility of these concepts is in characterizing population exposures for decision makers in a manner that the public may judge acceptable. All these viewpoints are essential in the evaluation of population exposure from the nuclear fuel cycle.

  14. Concentration-time exposure index for modeling soil fumigation under various management scenarios.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; He, J M; Knuteson, J A

    2004-01-01

    Best management decisions in soil fumigation require informed management selections of soil type, field geometry, application dosage, and depth to maximize fumigant distribution for efficacy and minimize off-site transport for environmental safety. An efficacy- or exposure-based concentration-time exposure index (CTEI) was used to serve as a continuous quantitative efficacy assessment for soil fumigation by subsurface drip irrigation using numerical model simulations. The CTEI was defined as the ratio between the soil volume where concentration-time (CT) exceeded a threshold value for a particular pest-fumigant combination and the total soil volume required for fumigation treatment. Applications of CTEI as a simple efficacy index were demonstrated by simulating combinations of three soil types (loam, sandy loam, sand); three field configurations consisting of 102- and 203-cm-wide bed systems and a flat surface system; three application depths (15, 30, 45 cm); and two application rates (82 and 327 kg ha(-1)) for 1,3-dichloropropene against citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) using a threshold air-phase CT value of 12 microg h cm(-3) obtained from a separate field study. For soil fumigation by subsurface drip irrigation, the order of importance in optimizing CTEI was soil type, depth of application and depth of treatment, dosage, and field configuration. Model simulation using CTEI as a numeric efficacy index can be an effective alternative to assist in the planning of field trials for making final management decisions concerning soil fumigation or other pesticide applications.

  15. Exposure of soil microbial communities to chromium and arsenic alters their diversity and structure.

    PubMed

    Sheik, Cody S; Mitchell, Tyler W; Rizvi, Fariha Z; Rehman, Yasir; Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; McInerney, Michael J; Krumholz, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils) were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI)-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI). Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways.

  16. Estimating human exposure through multiple pathways from air, water, and soil.

    PubMed

    McKone, T E; Daniels, J I

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes a set of multipathway, multimedia models for estimating potential human exposure to environmental contaminants. The models link concentrations of an environmental contaminant in air, water, and soil to human exposure through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal-contact routes. The relationship between concentration of a contaminant in an environmental medium and human exposure is determined with pathway exposure factors (PEFs). A PEF is an algebraic expression that incorporates information on human physiology and lifestyle together with models of environmental partitioning and translates a concentration (i.e., mg/m3 in air, mg/liter in water, or mg/kg in soil) into a lifetime-equivalent chronic daily intake (CDI) in mg/kg-day. Human, animal, and environmental data used in calculating PEFs are presented and discussed. Generalized PEFs are derived for air----inhalation, air----ingestion, water----inhalation, water----ingestion, water----dermal uptake, soil----inhalation, soil----ingestion, and soil----dermal uptake pathways. To illustrate the application of the PEF expressions, we apply them to soil-based contamination of multiple environmental media by arsenic, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  17. The effect of ultralow-dose antibiotics exposure on soil nitrate and N2O flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devries, Stephanie L.; Loving, Madeline; Li, Xiqing; Zhang, Pengfei

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics has been shown to alter the metabolic activity of micro-organisms, but the impact on soil denitrification and N2O production has rarely been reported. In this study, incubation and column transport experiments were conducted on soils exposed to as many as four antibiotics in the ng·kg-1 range (several orders of magnitude below typical exposure rates) to evaluate the impact of ultralow dose exposure on net nitrate losses and soil N2O flux over time. Under anaerobic incubation conditions, three antibiotics produced statistically significant dose response curves in which denitrification was stimulated at some doses and inhibited at others. Sulfamethoxazole in particular had a stimulatory effect at ultralow doses, an effect also evidenced by a near 17% increase in nitrate removal during column transport. Narasin also showed evidence of stimulating denitrification in anaerobic soils within 3 days of exposure, which is concurrent to a statistically significant increase in N2O flux measured over moist soils exposed to similar doses. The observation that even ultralow levels of residual antibiotics may significantly alter the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in soil raises a number of concerns pertaining to agriculture, management of nitrogen pollution, and climate change, and warrants additional investigations.

  18. The effect of ultralow-dose antibiotics exposure on soil nitrate and N2O flux.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Stephanie L; Loving, Madeline; Li, Xiqing; Zhang, Pengfei

    2015-11-26

    Exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics has been shown to alter the metabolic activity of micro-organisms, but the impact on soil denitrification and N2O production has rarely been reported. In this study, incubation and column transport experiments were conducted on soils exposed to as many as four antibiotics in the ng · kg(-1) range (several orders of magnitude below typical exposure rates) to evaluate the impact of ultralow dose exposure on net nitrate losses and soil N2O flux over time. Under anaerobic incubation conditions, three antibiotics produced statistically significant dose response curves in which denitrification was stimulated at some doses and inhibited at others. Sulfamethoxazole in particular had a stimulatory effect at ultralow doses, an effect also evidenced by a near 17% increase in nitrate removal during column transport. Narasin also showed evidence of stimulating denitrification in anaerobic soils within 3 days of exposure, which is concurrent to a statistically significant increase in N2O flux measured over moist soils exposed to similar doses. The observation that even ultralow levels of residual antibiotics may significantly alter the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in soil raises a number of concerns pertaining to agriculture, management of nitrogen pollution, and climate change, and warrants additional investigations.

  19. The effect of ultralow-dose antibiotics exposure on soil nitrate and N2O flux

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Stephanie L.; Loving, Madeline; Li, Xiqing; Zhang, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics has been shown to alter the metabolic activity of micro-organisms, but the impact on soil denitrification and N2O production has rarely been reported. In this study, incubation and column transport experiments were conducted on soils exposed to as many as four antibiotics in the ng·kg−1 range (several orders of magnitude below typical exposure rates) to evaluate the impact of ultralow dose exposure on net nitrate losses and soil N2O flux over time. Under anaerobic incubation conditions, three antibiotics produced statistically significant dose response curves in which denitrification was stimulated at some doses and inhibited at others. Sulfamethoxazole in particular had a stimulatory effect at ultralow doses, an effect also evidenced by a near 17% increase in nitrate removal during column transport. Narasin also showed evidence of stimulating denitrification in anaerobic soils within 3 days of exposure, which is concurrent to a statistically significant increase in N2O flux measured over moist soils exposed to similar doses. The observation that even ultralow levels of residual antibiotics may significantly alter the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in soil raises a number of concerns pertaining to agriculture, management of nitrogen pollution, and climate change, and warrants additional investigations. PMID:26606964

  20. Estimating human exposure through multiple pathways from air, water, and soil

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes a set of multipathway, multimedia models for estimating potential human exposure to environmental contaminants. The models link concentrations of an environmental contaminant in air, water, and soil to human exposure through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal-contact routes. The relationship between concentration of a contaminant in an environmental medium and human exposure is determined with pathway exposure factors (PEFs). A PEF is an algebraic expression that incorporates information on human physiology and lifestyle together with models of environmental partitioning and translates a concentration (i.e., mg/m3 in air, mg/liter in water, or mg/kg in soil) into a lifetime-equivalent chronic daily intake (CDI) in mg/kg-day. Human, animal, and environmental data used in calculating PEFs are presented and discussed. Generalized PEFs are derived for air-inhalation, air-ingesstion, water-inhalation, water-ingestion, water-dermal uptake, soil-inhalation, soil-ingestion, and soil-dermal uptake pathways. To illustrate the application of the PEF expressions, we apply them to soil-based contamination of multiple environmental media by arsenic, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  1. Direct and residual effects of manure on soil chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastri, A.; Triberti, L.; Giordani, G.; Comellini, F.; Baldoni, G.

    2009-04-01

    ha-1 (+ 29%) and + 166 kg ha-1 (+107%), respectively, compared to the control. These significant increments were obtained linearly, at mean annual rates of: 0.15 t ha-1 year-1 for SOC, 20 kg ha-1 for TN and 4.18 kg ha-1 for P2O5. During the first 18 years, doubling the manure supply (M2) caused further increments (72%, 76% and 112% increases for SOC, TN and P2O5, respectively, compared to M1). The complete interruption of M2 application, from 1984 onward, gradually decreased the positive effects. In the 1990-93 period, no differences between M1 and M2 were detected. After 18 years all the amounts were lower in M2 than in M1. However, a residual effect of the double manuring was still evident: M2 plots had higher SOC, TN and P2O5, contents compared to the unfertilized control (+3.1 t ha-1, +0.21 t ha-1 and +88 kg ha-1, respectively). Inorganic fertilization, in the absence of manure, did not affect SOC dynamic, whereas it had significant cumulative effects on TN (+0.94 t ha-1 (+26%) increase in the '99-02 period compared to the initial contents) and P2O5, with 223 kg ha-1 (+160%) increment. Treatments slightly influenced pH (6.43, on average): compared to the unfertilized control, manure increased it a little (+2.7%), while mineral fertilization had an opposite effect (-2.7%). In conclusion, the direct influences of manure on main components of soil fertility appeared cumulative with time and proportional to the application rates, at least up to 40 t ha-1 year-1 of fresh material. Residual effects gradually disappeared, but at low speed, thus their study requires really long experiments, lasting more than 20-years. Inorganic fertilization could increase nitrogen and, even more, available phosphorus content in the soil, but, in our research where crop residues are always removed, it had a null effect on SOC.

  2. Directional reflectance factors for monitoring spatial changes in soil surface structure and soil organic matter erosion in agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, H.; Anderson, K.

    2012-04-01

    Soils can experience rapid structural degradation in response to land cover changes, resulting in reduced soil productivity, increased erodibility and a loss of soil organic matter (SOM). The breakdown of soil aggregates through slaking and raindrop impact is linked to organic matter turnover, with subsequently eroded material often displaying proportionally more SOM. A reduction in aggregate stability is reflected in a decline in soil surface roughness (SSR), indicating that a soil structural change can be used to highlight soil vulnerability to SOM loss through mineralisation or erosion. Accurate, spatially-continuous measurements of SSR are therefore needed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales to understand the spatial nature of SOM erosion and deposition. Remotely-sensed data can provide a cost-effective means of monitoring changes in soil surface condition over broad spatial extents. Previous work has demonstrated the ability of directional reflectance factors to monitor soil crusting within a controlled laboratory experiment, due to changes in the levels of self-shadowing effects by soil aggregates. However, further research is needed to test this approach in situ, where other soil variables may affect measured reflectance factors and to investigate the use of directional reflectance factors for monitoring soil erosion processes. This experiment assesses the potential of using directional reflectance factors to monitor changes in SSR, aggregate stability and soil organic carbon (SOC) content for two agricultural conditions. Five soil plots representing tilled and seedbed soils were subjected to different durations of natural rainfall, producing a range of different levels of SSR. Directional reflectance factors were measured concomitantly with sampling for soil structural and biochemical tests at each soil plot. Soil samples were taken to measure aggregate stability (wet sieving), SOC (loss on ignition) and soil moisture (gravimetric method). SSM

  3. Preliminary assessment of worker and ambient air exposures during soil remediation technology demonstration.

    PubMed

    Romine, James D; Barth, Edwin F

    2002-01-01

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead-contaminated soil sites. Industrial hygiene surveys and air monitoring programs for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling activities and during pilot scale technology demonstration activities at two lead-contaminated soil sites to assess whether worker protection or temporary resident relocation would be suggested during any subsequent remediation technology activities. The concentrations of lead and dust in the air during pilot scale technology demonstration studies were within applicable exposure guidelines, including Occupational Health and Safety Administration permissible exposure limits, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limits, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene threshold limit values, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards program limits.

  4. Reducing Nutrient Losses with Directed Fertilization of Degraded Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.; Schneider, R.

    2016-12-01

    Degraded soils around the world are stunting agricultural productivity in places where people need it the most. In China, hundreds of years of agriculture and human activity have turned large swaths of productive grasslands into expanses of sandy soils where nothing can grow. Returning soils such as these to healthy productive landscapes is crucial to the livelihoods of rural families and to feeding the expanding population of China and the world at large. Buried wood chips can be used to improve the soils' water holding capacity but additional nutrient inputs are crucial to support plant growth and completely restore degraded soils in China and elsewhere. Improperly applied fertilizer can cause large fluxes of soluble nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to pollute groundwater, and reach surface water bodies causing harmful algal blooms or eutrophication. Similarly, fertilization can create increases in nutrient losses in the form of greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is imperative that nutrient additions to this system be done in a way that fosters restoration and a return to productivity, but minimizes nutrient losses to adjacent surface water bodies and the atmosphere. The primary objective of this study is to characterize soluble and gaseous N and P losses from degraded sandy soils with wood chip and fertilizer amendments in order to identify optimal fertilization methods, frequencies, and quantities for soil restoration. A laboratory soil column study is currently underway to begin examining these questions results of this study will be presented at the Fall Meeting.

  5. Directly coupled vs conventional time domain reflectometry in soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR), a technique for estimation of soil water, measures the travel time of an electromagnetic pulse on electrodes embedded in the soil, but has limited application in commercial agriculture due to costs, labor, and sensing depth. Conventional TDR systems have employed ana...

  6. Enantioselective bioaccumulation and toxic effects of fipronil in the earthworm Eisenia foetida following soil exposure.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Xu, Peng; Guo, Baoyuan; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2015-04-01

    Enantiomers of chiral pesticides often have different bioactivity, toxicity and environmental behaviours. Fipronil has been used in racemate for agricultural purposes against soil insects, leading to increased inputs into soil environments and complex biota exposures. To understand the potential risk associated with fipronil enantiomer exposure, subchronic toxicity and bioaccumulation tests with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) in fipronil-spiked soils were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Enantioselective toxicity was measured in E. foetida biomass after 28 days of subchronic exposure, with increased toxicity from racemate and S-fipronil compared with R-fipronil. The bioaccumulation of fipronil in earthworm tissues was also enantioselective, with a preferential accumulation of S-fipronil, and the enantiomer fraction was approximately 0.56-0.60. During soil exposure, fipronil was transformed primarily into fipronil sulfide, sulfone and amide, and E. foetida rapidly accumulated fipronil and sulfone. This work demonstrates the enantioselective subchronic toxicity and bioaccumulation of enantiomers of fipronil in E. foetida. The earthworm tissues exhibited a relative enrichment of fipronil and fipronil sulfone, and these compounds might biomagnify (with a biota-to-soil accumulation factor of ≥1.0 kgOCkglip-1), allowing for the possible trophic transfer and/or bioaccumulation of all these chemicals if earthworms were consumed by predator organisms. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Direct determination of photoresist composition changes during UV exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houle, Frances A.; Deline, Vaughn R.; Truong, Hoa; Sooriyakumaran, Ratnam

    2006-03-01

    Exposure of photoresists to ultraviolet light results in outgassing of species that have the potential to contaminate surrounding optical surfaces. Of particular concern are silicon-containing products which cannot be cleaned and permanently detune optical coatings. Collection and identification of those species and quantification of the amounts formed is a difficult analytical problem because of the number and variety of products. We describe a general methodology for determining acidolytic decomposition pathways and absolute elemental composition changes induced in photoresists during exposure. Two silicon-containing 193 nm resists that differ in the mode of attachment of trimethylsilyl to the polymer have been investigated. Elemental abundances are measured in post-apply baked, exposed and post-expose baked films by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), thus probing volatile product formation from all photochemical and thermal decomposition pathways. Complementary data on primary thermal acidolytic deprotection pathways during post-exposure bake are obtained by mass spectrometry, enabling SIMS elemental abundance changes to be interpreted. The results show that decomposition of both the polymer protecting groups through room temperature acidolysis and the photoacid generator by photolysis lead to volatile product formation during exposure. Silicon bound through oxygen is acid labile while silicon bound through carbon is not, resulting in very low to no silicon outgassing from the latter polymer. Sulfur-containing products formed from PAGs outgas in significant amounts from the photoresists investigated, supporting recent mass spectrometric observations of sulfur outgassing by R. Kunz and coworkers.

  8. Disorders Induced by Direct Occupational Exposure to Noise: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years),” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders. PMID:27762251

  9. Disorders induced by direct occupational exposure to noise: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: "Noise, Occupational," "Occupational Exposure," and "Occupational Disease." The following limits were considered: "Humans," "Adult (more than 18 years)," and "Comparative Studies." A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders.

  10. Characterising soil surface condition and carbon vulnerability using spatial statistics and directional reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, H.; Anderson, K.

    2008-12-01

    Soils can experience rapid structural degradation in response to land cover changes, resulting in reduced soil productivity, increased erodibility and a loss of Soil Organic Matter (SOM). The breakdown of soil aggregates through slaking and raindrop impact is linked to soil organic matter turnover, with subsequently eroded material often displaying proportionally more SOM. A reduction in aggregate stability is reflected in a decline in soil surface roughness, indicating that a physical soil structural change can be used to highlight soil vulnerability to SOM loss through mineralisation or erosion. Remotely sensed data can provide a cost- effective means of monitoring changes in soil surface condition over broad spatial extents. Growing recognition of the importance of the directional reflectance domain has highlighted their potential application for monitoring changes in soil surface roughness, associated with the breakdown of macro-aggregates and therefore SOM release. This is particularly relevant for soil condition monitoring because during soil structural degradation, changes in the self-shadowing effects of soil aggregates has a measurable effect on directional reflectance factors measured by proximal remote sensing devices. Field and laboratory data are therefore required for an empirical understanding of soil directional reflectance, underpinning subsequent model development. This experiment details the use of hyperspectral multiple view angle, proximal reflectance data (400-2500 nm) for describing changes in soil surface structure. Five different soil crusting states were produced, simulating a progressive decline in soil surface structure using artificial rainfall. Each stage was characterised using a close-range laser scanning device with a 2 mm spatial sampling methodology. Data were analysed within a geostatistical framework, where variogram analysis quantitatively confirmed the change in soil surface structure during crusting (sill variance = 0

  11. Validation of Sensor-Directed Spatial Simulated Annealing Soil Sampling Strategy.

    PubMed

    Scudiero, Elia; Lesch, Scott M; Corwin, Dennis L

    2016-07-01

    Soil spatial variability has a profound influence on most agronomic and environmental processes at field and landscape scales, including site-specific management, vadose zone hydrology and transport, and soil quality. Mobile sensors are a practical means of mapping spatial variability because their measurements serve as a proxy for many soil properties, provided a sensor-soil calibration is conducted. A viable means of calibrating sensor measurements over soil properties is through linear regression modeling of sensor and target property data. In the present study, two sensor-directed, model-based, sampling scheme delineation methods were compared to validate recent applications of soil apparent electrical conductivity (EC)-directed spatial simulated annealing against the more established EC-directed response surface sampling design (RSSD) approach. A 6.8-ha study area near San Jacinto, CA, was surveyed for EC, and 30 soil sampling locations per sampling strategy were selected. Spatial simulated annealing and RSSD were compared for sensor calibration to a target soil property (i.e., salinity) and for evenness of spatial coverage of the study area, which is beneficial for mapping nontarget soil properties (i.e., those not correlated with EC). The results indicate that the linear modeling EC-salinity calibrations obtained from the two sampling schemes provided salinity maps characterized by similar errors. The maps of nontarget soil properties show similar errors across sampling strategies. The Spatial Simulated Annealing methodology is, therefore, validated, and its use in agronomic and environmental soil science applications is justified.

  12. Risk of classic Kaposi sarcoma with exposures to plants and soils in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecologic and in vitro studies suggest that exposures to plants or soil may influence risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Methods In a population-based study of Sicily, we analyzed data on contact with 20 plants and residential exposure to 17 soils reported by 122 classic KS cases and 840 sex- and age-matched controls. With 88 KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositive controls as the referent group, novel correlates of KS risk were sought, along with factors distinguishing seronegatives, in multinomial logistic regression models that included matching variables and known KS cofactors - smoking, cortisone use, and diabetes history. All plants were summed for cumulative exposure. Factor and cluster analyses were used to obtain scores and groups, respectively. Individual plants and soils in three levels of exposure with Ptrend ≤ 0.15 were retained in a backward elimination regression model. Results Adjusted for known cofactors, KS was not related to cumulative exposures to 20 plants [per quartile adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 - 1.25, Ptrend = 0.87], nor was it related to any factor scores or cluster of plants (P = 0.11 to 0.81). In the elimination regression model, KS risk was associated with five plants (Ptrend = 0.02 to 0.10) and with residential exposure to six soils (Ptrend = 0.01 to 0.13), including three soils (eutric regosol, chromic/pellic vertisol) used to cultivate durum wheat. None of the KS-associated plants and only one soil was also associated with KSHV serostatus. Diabetes was associated with KSHV seronegativity (ORadj 4.69, 95% CI 1.97 - 11.17), but the plant and soil associations had little effect on previous findings that KS risk was elevated for diabetics (ORadj 7.47, 95% CI 3.04 - 18.35) and lower for current and former smokers (ORadj 0.26 and 0.47, respectively, Ptrend = 0.05). Conclusions KS risk was associated with exposure to a few plants and soils, but these may merely be due to chance. Study of

  13. Potential exposure to clothianidin and risk assessment of manual users of treated soil.

    PubMed

    Ren, JingXia; Tao, ChuanJiang; Zhang, LiYing; Ning, Jun; Mei, XiangDong; She, DongMei

    2017-09-01

    Treated soil is the second most prevalent application technique for all registered pesticides in China. Some developing countries also adopt this method. However, the safety of this scenario has not been reported in the literature. Experiments were therefore conducted to assess exposure using standard whole-body dosimetry and air sampling methodologies. Dermal deposition was the main route of exposure in this scenario. The total dermal unit exposure (UE) of operators to clothianidin-treated soil was 51.7 mg kg(-1) AI handled (SD = 20.59, n = 16), and hands accounted for 36%. Inhalation UE was 0.04 mg kg(-1) AI handled (SD = 0.02, n = 4), negligible compared with dermal exposure. Using an NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) , the margin of exposure was 773, i.e. greater than 100. For the first time, the scenario of treated soil exposure was assessed and was found to pose less risk than conventional pesticide application. These results can be used as a reference in pesticide management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Developmental effects of parental exposure to soil contaminated with urban metals.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Edariane Menestrino; da Silva Junior, Flavio Manoel Rodrigues; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores; Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luiza

    2015-07-01

    Soil is a highly complex material, and because of rapid population growth, intense industrial activity and petrochemical development, it has suffered from contamination with substances of various origins. These environmental contaminants may have detrimental effects on human health, particularly during development. Due to the ability to transmit contaminants to the fetus, evaluating the effects of exposure of pregnant women on the psychomotor development of their offspring is of particular interest. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure of female rats to an urban soil influenced by the dispersion of air contaminants during periods of pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation on offspring development. Using physiological, behavioral and hematological parameters, deleterious effects on offspring were assessed. In behavioral parameters, parental exposure during pregnancy and lactation resulted in no significant differences in the evaluated parameters when compared to the control group. In contrast, pups from the pre-pregnancy group displayed decreased locomotor and exploratory activity in addition to increased levels of anxiety. Furthermore, offspring of rats exposed to contaminated urban soil during pre-pregnancy demonstrated significant changes in weight gain and development length and a reduction in the number of platelets compared to controls. Significantly, pups born to mothers exposed to contaminated urban soil during the pregnancy displayed changes in birth weight, weight gain during the growth, development length, incisor eruption and opening of the ears in addition to a reduction in their physical performance and a change in the number of lymphocytes. These results clearly show the negative influence of parental exposure to contaminated urban soil on the general development of the rats during the periods studied. These data indicate that developing organisms are highly sensitive to external factors. Further, they demonstrate the

  15. Quantitative Field Testing Heterodera glycines from Metagenomic DNA Samples Isolated Directly from Soil under Agronomic Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

  16. Quantitative field testing Heterodera glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from soil under agronomic production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil.

  17. Anatomical exposure patterns of skin to sunlight: relative contributions of direct, diffuse and reflected ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Vernez, D; Milon, A; Vuilleumier, L; Bulliard, J-L

    2012-08-01

    The dose-response between ultraviolet (UV) exposure patterns and skin cancer occurrence is not fully understood. Sun-protection messages often focus on acute exposure, implicitly assuming that direct UV radiation is the key contributor to the overall UV exposure. However, little is known about the relative contribution of the direct, diffuse and reflected radiation components. To investigate solar UV exposure patterns at different body sites with respect to the relative contribution of the direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. A three-dimensional numerical model was used to assess exposure doses for various body parts and exposure scenarios of a standing individual (static and dynamic postures). The model was fed with erythemally weighted ground irradiance data for the year 2009 in Payerne, Switzerland. A year-round daily exposure (08:00-17:00 h) without protection was assumed. For most anatomical sites, mean daily doses were high (typically 6.2-14.6 standard erythemal doses) and exceeded the recommended exposure values. Direct exposure was important during specific periods (e.g. midday during summer), but contributed moderately to the annual dose, ranging from 15% to 24% for vertical and horizontal body parts, respectively. Diffuse irradiation explained about 80% of the cumulative annual exposure dose. Acute diffuse exposures were also observed during cloudy summer days. The importance of diffuse UV radiation should not be underestimated when advocating preventive measures. Messages focused on avoiding acute direct exposures may be of limited efficiency to prevent skin cancers associated with chronic exposure. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Direct soil contact values for ecological receptors exposed to weathered petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) fraction 2.

    PubMed

    Angell, Robin A; Kullman, Steve; Shrive, Emma; Stephenson, Gladys L; Tindal, Miles

    2012-11-01

    Ecological tier 1 Canada-wide standards (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) fraction 2 (F2; >nC10-C16) in soil were derived using ecotoxicological assessment endpoints (effective concentrations [ECs]/lethal concentrations [LCs]/inhibitory concentrations, 25% [IC25s]) with freshly spiked (fresh) fine- and coarse-grained soils. These soil standards might be needlessly conservative when applied to field samples with weathered hydrocarbons. The purpose of the present study was to assess the degradation and toxicity of weathered PHC F2 in a fine-grained soil and to derive direct soil contact values for ecological receptors. Fine-grained reference soils were spiked with distilled F2 and weathered for 183 d. Toxicity tests using plants and invertebrates were conducted with the weathered F2-spiked soils. Endpoint EC/IC25s were calculated and used to derive soil standards for weathered F2 in fine-grained soil protective of ecological receptors exposed via direct soil contact. The values derived for weathered F2 were less restrictive than current ecological tier 1 CWS for F2 in soil.

  19. Direct detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei and biological factors in soil.

    PubMed

    Sermswan, Rasana W; Royros, Phairat; Khakhum, Nittaya; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Tuanyok, Apichai

    2015-07-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative saprophytic bacillus, is a severe infectious agent that causes melioidosis and soil is the most important reservoir. One hundred and forty soil samples were tested for pH, moisture content and total C and N measurements and used for DNA extraction and culture for B. pseudomallei. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting wcbG, a putative capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis protein gene of B. pseudomallei, was developed to detect the bacterium, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to detect the microbial diversity in soil. The acidic pH was correlated with the presence of the bacterium. Forty-four soil sites (44/140, 31.4%) were positive for B. pseudomallei by qPCR, of which 21 were positive by culture. The limit of detection is 32 fg of DNA (about 4 genomes). The RAPD method could classify the soil samples into low diversity (LD) and high diversity (HD) sites. The trend of LD was found with B. pseudomallei positive soil sites. The acidity of the soil or metabolites from organisms in the sites may contribute to the presence of the bacterium. Further investigation of microbes by a more robust method should elucidate biological factors that promote the presence of B. pseudomallei and may be used for controlling the bacterium in the environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Update for Chapter 5 of the Exposure Factors Handbook: Soil and Dust Ingestion

    EPA Science Inventory

    This update includes new information on soil and dust ingestion that has become available since the Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition was released. The recommended values have also been revised, as needed, to reflect the new information. This chapter explains the ...

  1. Exposure of Soil Microbial Communities to Chromium and Arsenic Alters Their Diversity and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Fariha Z.; Rehman, Yasir; Faisal, Muhammad; Hasnain, Shahida; McInerney, Michael J.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) based preservatives from the leather tanning industry in Pakistan has had a deleterious effect on the soils surrounding production facilities. Bacteria have been shown to be an active component in the geochemical cycling of both Cr and As, but it is unknown how these compounds affect microbial community composition or the prevalence and form of metal resistance. Therefore, we sought to understand the effects that long-term exposure to As and Cr had on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities. Soils from three spatially isolated tanning facilities in the Punjab province of Pakistan were analyzed. The structure, diversity and abundance of microbial 16S rRNA genes were highly influenced by the concentration and presence of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and arsenic. When compared to control soils, contaminated soils were dominated by Proteobacteria while Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria (which are generally abundant in pristine soils) were minor components of the bacterial community. Shifts in community composition were significant and revealed that Cr (VI)-containing soils were more similar to each other than to As contaminated soils lacking Cr (VI). Diversity of the arsenic resistance genes, arsB and ACR3 were also determined. Results showed that ACR3 becomes less diverse as arsenic concentrations increase with a single OTU dominating at the highest concentration. Chronic exposure to either Cr or As not only alters the composition of the soil bacterial community in general, but affects the arsenic resistant individuals in different ways. PMID:22768219

  2. A risk assessment of direct and indirect exposure to emissions from a proposed hazardous waste incinerator in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinger, K.; Huggins, A.; Warner, L.

    1995-12-31

    An Indirect Exposure Assessment (IEA) was conducted, under USEPA`s RCRA Combustion Strategy, as part of the Part B permitting process for a proposed hazardous waste incinerator. The IEA involved identification of constituents of concern, emissions estimations, air dispersion and deposition modeling, evaluation of site-specific exposure pathways/scenarios, and food chain modeling in order to evaluate potential human health and environmental risks. The COMPDEP model was used to determine ambient ground level concentrations and dry and wet deposition rates of constituents of concern. The air modeling results were input into 50th percentile (Central) and 95th percentile (High-End) exposure scenarios which evaluated direct exposure via inhalation, dermal contact, and soil ingestion pathways, and indirect exposure through the food chain. The indirect pathway analysis considered the accumulation of constituents in plants and animals used as food sources by local inhabitants. Local food consumption data obtained from the Puerto Rico USDA were combined with realistic present-day and future-use exposure scenarios such as residential use, pineapple farming, and subsistence farming to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of risk, Overall risk was calculated using constituent doses and toxicity factors associated with the various routes of exposure. Risk values for each exposure pathway were summed to determine total carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic hazard to exposed individuals. A population risk assessment was also conducted in order to assess potential risks to the population surrounding the facility. Results of the assessment indicated no acute effects from constituents of concern, and a high-end excess lifetime cancer risk of approximately 6 in a million with dioxins (as 2,3,7,8-TCDD) and arsenic dominating the risk estimate.

  3. Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Soils: The Roles of Surface Exposure Time and Bulk Chemical Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Shouliang; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering effects on lunar soil grains result from both radiation-damaged and deposited layers on grain surfaces. Typically, solar wind irradiation forms an amorphous layer on regolith silicate grains, and induces the formation of surficial metallic Fe in Fe-bearing minerals [1,2]. Impacts into the lunar regolith generate high temperature melts and vapor. The vapor component is largely deposited on the surfaces of lunar soil grains [3] as is a fraction of the melt [4, this work]. Both the vapor-deposits and the deposited melt typically contain nanophase Fe metal particles (npFe0) as abundant inclusions. The development of these rims and the abundance of the npFe0 in lunar regolith, and thus the optical properties, vary with the soil mineralogy and the length of time the soil grains have been exposed to space weathering effects [5]. In this study, we used the density of solar flare particle tracks in soil grains to estimate exposure times for individual grains and then perform nanometer-scale characterization of the rims using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The work involved study of lunar soil samples with different mineralogy (mare vs. highland) and different exposure times (mature vs. immature).

  4. Nitrogen isotopes in lunar soils as a measure of cosmic-ray exposure and regolith history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Clayton, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the bulk of the nitrogen in soils has been implanted by the solar wind, that the N-15/N-14 ratio of the implanted nitrogen has apparently increased with time, and that both soils and rocks contain a nitrogen component greatly enriched in N-15, relative to natural abundance ratios, due to cosmic-ray spallation. An investigation was, therefore, conducted to test the feasibility of using spallation-produced N-15 for determining cosmic-ray exposure ages. Samples from several depths in the Apollo 15 deep drill core were analyzed. The data obtained have also been evaluated with regard to possible models for the prior history of the material now in the Apollo 15 core. In addition, analyses have been performed of several other soil samples considered for various reasons to be of particular interest, such as orange soil 74220 and its companion 74240, Apollo 16 drill core sample 60002, and the apparently peculiar fillet soil 67461. Wherever possible, analyses were carried out by step-wise heating rather than by total pyrolysis. On the basis of the results of the investigation it is concluded that nitrogen isotope ratio determinations provide a usable method for determining cosmic-ray exposures for soils.

  5. Nitrogen isotopes in lunar soils as a measure of cosmic-ray exposure and regolith history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Clayton, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the bulk of the nitrogen in soils has been implanted by the solar wind, that the N-15/N-14 ratio of the implanted nitrogen has apparently increased with time, and that both soils and rocks contain a nitrogen component greatly enriched in N-15, relative to natural abundance ratios, due to cosmic-ray spallation. An investigation was, therefore, conducted to test the feasibility of using spallation-produced N-15 for determining cosmic-ray exposure ages. Samples from several depths in the Apollo 15 deep drill core were analyzed. The data obtained have also been evaluated with regard to possible models for the prior history of the material now in the Apollo 15 core. In addition, analyses have been performed of several other soil samples considered for various reasons to be of particular interest, such as orange soil 74220 and its companion 74240, Apollo 16 drill core sample 60002, and the apparently peculiar fillet soil 67461. Wherever possible, analyses were carried out by step-wise heating rather than by total pyrolysis. On the basis of the results of the investigation it is concluded that nitrogen isotope ratio determinations provide a usable method for determining cosmic-ray exposures for soils.

  6. Occurrence and exposure evaluation of perchlorate in outdoor dust and soil in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Wang, Ruonan; Deng, Yuanyuan

    2014-02-01

    A total of 98 paired soil and outdoor dust samples were collected across mainland China for survey of perchlorate. Perchlorate was detected in all of the soil and outdoor dust samples. High levels of perchlorate were found in soil, ranging from 0.001 to 216 mg/kg in Northern China and from 0.001 to 25.8 mg/kg in Southern China. Even higher perchlorate concentrations were detected in dust samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.132 to 5,300 mg/kg in Northern China, and from 0.270 to 3,700 mg/kg in Southern China. This is the first known report of perchlorate in dust samples. The high perchlorate levels in soil and dust may raise concern on the potential risk for organisms and human. The daily perchlorate intakes were evaluated based on our measured perchlorate concentrations via inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact of soil and dust for both children and adults, respectively. In general, the exposure from soil does not appear to lead to perchlorate intakes exceeding the US EPA reference for both children and adults. However, children can be at risk from exposure to perchlorate via dust, and it needs considerable concern for both children and adults at the sites with high dust perchlorate concentrations. After comparison with other possible exposure pathways, such as from drinking water, we suggested that dust may be an important potential source of perchlorate exposure in China, and further study is needed, especially for indoor dust. © 2013.

  7. Protection from radon exposure at home and at work in the directive 2013/59/Euratom.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, F

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, international organisations involved in radiation protection and public health have produced new guidance, recommendations and requirements aiming better protection from radon exposure. These organisations have often worked in close collaboration in order to facilitate the establishment of harmonised standards. This paper deals with such standards and specifically with the new European Council Directive of 5 December 2013 on basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation (2013/59/Euratom). This new Directive has established a harmonised framework for the protection against ionising radiations, including protection from radon exposure. Requirements for radon in workplace are much more tightening than in previous Directive, and exposures to radon in dwellings are regulated for the first time in a Directive. Radon-related articles of this Directive are presented and discussed in this paper, along with some comparisons with other relevant international standards.

  8. Gamma exposure rates due to neutron activation of soil: site of Hood detonation, Operation Plumbbob

    SciTech Connect

    Auxier, J.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.

    1980-06-01

    This paper is the result of some recent discussions of exposure rates within the first few hours of the Hood detonation of the Plumbbob series due to neutron activation of soil. We estimated the exposure rates from 1/2 to 3 h after the detonation from ground zero to 1000 yards from ground zero. The area was assumed to be uncontaminated by fallout. Soil samples from the area of the Nevada Test Site at which the Hood device was detonated were sent to ORNL by Dr. John Malik of Los Alamos and by Mr. Gordon Jacks of the Nevada Test Site. These samples were irradiated at the DOSAR facility and the resulting activity analyzed. Calculations of exposure rates were then made based on the analyzed activity and the measured thermal neutron fluences at DOSAR and at the Hood Site.

  9. Quantitative field testing Rotylenchulus reniformis DNA from metagenomic samples isolated directly from soil.

    PubMed

    Showmaker, Kurt; Lawrence, Gary W; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the β-tubulin gene determined the number of Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira 1940 in metagenomic DNA samples isolated from soil. Of note, this outcome was in the presence of other soil-dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including its sister genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from soil.

  10. Simulating multi-angle imaging spectro-radiometer (MISR) sampling and retrieval of soil surface roughness and composition changes using a bi-directional soil spectral reflectance model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil surface changes due to soil erosion can be detected by ground-based, hyper-spectral measurements of angular reflectance and a bi-directional soil spectral reflectance model. The next generation of wind and water erosion models should incorporate directional remote sensing data to improve large ...

  11. The International year of soils: thoughts on future directions for experiments in soil erosion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2015-04-01

    The 2015 UN Year of Soils (IYS), implemented by the FAO, aims to increase awareness and understanding of the importance of soil for food security and essential ecosystem functions. The IYS has six specific objectives, ranging from raising the awareness among civil society and decision makers about the profound importance of soils, to the development of policies supporting the sustainable use of the non-renewable soil resource. For scientists and academic teachers using experiments to study soil erosion processes, two objectives appear of particular relevance. First is need for the rapid capacity enhancement for soil information collection and monitoring at all levels (global, regional and national). While at first glance, this objective appears to relate mostly to traditional mapping, sampling and monitoring, the threat of large-scale soil loss, at least with regards to their ecosystem services, illustrates the need for approaches of studying soils that avoids such irreversible destruction. Relying on often limited data and their extrapolation does not cover this need for soil information because rapid change of the drivers of change itself carry the risk of unprecedented soil reactions not covered by existing data sets. Experiments, on the other hand, offer the possibility to simulate and analyze future soil change in great detail. Furthermore, carefully designed experiments may also limit the actual effort involved in collecting the specific required information, e.g. by applying tests designed to study soil system behavior under controlled conditions, compared to field monitoring. For rainfall simulation, experiments should therefore involve the detailed study of erosion processes and include detailed recording and reporting of soil and rainfall properties. The development of a set of standardised rainfall simulations would widen the use data collected by such experiments. A second major area for rainfall simulation lies in the the education of the public about

  12. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  13. Ecological risk assessment of radiological exposure to depleted uranium in soils at a weapons testing facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Cheng, J.; Tsao, C.; Environmental Assessment

    2004-01-01

    The potential for unacceptable risks to biota from radiological exposure to depleted uranium (DU) in soils was evaluated at two sites where DU weapons testing had been conducted in the past. A screening risk assessment was conducted to determine if measured concentrations of DU-associated radionuclides in site soils exceed radionuclide levels considered protective of biota. While concentrations of individual radionuclides did not exceed acceptable levels, total radionuclide concentrations could result in potentially unacceptable doses to exposed biota. Thus, a receptor-specific assessment was conducted to estimate external and internal radiological doses to vegetation and wildlife known or expected to occur at the sites. Wildlife evaluated included herbivores, omnivores, and top-level predators. Internal dose estimates to wildlife considered exposure via fugitive dust inhalation and soil and food ingestion; root uptake was the primary exposure route evaluated for vegetation. Total doses were compared with acceptable dose levels of 1.0 and 0.1 rad/day for vegetation and wildlife, respectively, with potentially unacceptable risks indicated for doses exceeding these levels. All estimated doses were below or approximated acceptable levels, typically by an order of magnitude or more. These results indicate that current levels of DU in soils do not pose unacceptable radiological risks to biota at the sites evaluated.

  14. Epilogue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure--Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Way, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    This epilogue summarizes the six articles presented in the clinical forum focused on understanding children who have been affected by maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure. It presents common themes that emerged among the articles and future research directions.

  15. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population.

  16. Assessment of the human health risks posed by exposure to chromium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, P.J.; Meyer, D.M.; Sauer, M.M.; Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Millions of tons of chromite-ore processing residue have been used as fill in various locations in northern New Jersey and elsewhere in the United States. The primary toxicants in the residue are trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). The hazard posed by Cr(III) is negligible due to its low acute and chronic toxicity. In contrast, Cr(VI) is a human carcinogen following inhalation of high concentrations. It can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. This evaluation addresses a residential site where the arithmetic mean (x) and geometric mean (gm) concentrations of Cr(III) in soil were 2879 and 1212 mg/kg (ppm). The mean concentrations of Cr(VI) were 180 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. The uptake (absorbed dose) of Cr(III) via soil ingestion, consumption of homegrown vegetables, and ingestion of inspired particles was determined. The uptake of Cr(VI) via dermal absorption from contact with surface soil and building wall surfaces, as well as inhalation, was also evaluated. The techniques used in this assessment are applicable for evaluating the human health risks posed by any residential site having contaminated soil. The potential for both sensitized and unsensitized persons to develop allergic contact dermatitis due to exposure to soil contaminated at these levels was found to be negligible. The estimated average daily dose (ADD) via ingestion and dermal absorption for the maximally exposed individual (MEI) was about 1500- and 40-fold below the EPA reference dose (RfD) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively. It was shown that for residential sites, the most important route of exposure to Cr(III) was incidental soil ingestion. Although not relevant to these sites specifically, if garden vegetables could be successfully grown in these soils, then they would probably be the predominant source of uptake of Cr(III). 163 refs.

  17. Ecotoxicological effects on the earthworm Eisenia fetida following exposure to soil contaminated with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingming; Zhang, Baohua; Wang, Caixia

    2014-11-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, has been used widely in agriculture worldwide. The adverse effects of imidacloprid on exposed biota have brought it increasing attention. However, knowledge about the effects of imidacloprid on antioxidant defense systems and digestive systems in the earthworm is vague and not comprehensive. In the present study, the changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), cellulase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to artificial soil treated with imidacloprid were examined systematically. The results showed that the activity of these biomarkers was closely related to the dose and duration of the exposure to imidacloprid. The activity of SOD was stimulated significantly at doses of 0.66 and 2 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid but markedly inhibited at a dose of 4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid with prolonged exposure. The activities of CAT and POD increased irregularly at 0.2-4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid over different exposure times. The level of ROS at a dose of 2 or 4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid was significantly increased over the entire exposure period. When the concentration of imidacloprid was above 0.66 mg kg(-1), the balance of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and ROS level was interrupted. The activity of cellulase decreased significantly with prolonged exposure. At the stress of 4 mg kg(-1) imidacloprid, the content of MDA was significantly increased with increasing exposure time. The results of the present study suggest that imidacloprid has a potentially harmful effect on E. fetida and may be helpful for assessment of the risk of imidacloprid to the soil ecosystem environment. However, to obtain more comprehensive toxicity data, it is necessary to investigate the effects of imidacloprid on earthworm using native soils in the future work.

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers following direct and indirect trauma exposure to Ground Zero.

    PubMed

    Zimering, Rose; Gulliver, Suzy B; Knight, Jeffrey; Munroe, James; Keane, Terence M

    2006-08-01

    The present study compared rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relief workers at the World Trade Center collapse from two sources: direct exposure to the disaster site and indirect exposure through survivor narratives. Standardized clinical interviews for PTSD were conducted with 109 relief workers 6-8 months after the September 11th terrorist attacks. Rates of acute PTSD from direct and indirect exposure to traumatic stressors were 6.4% and 4.6%, respectively. The findings suggest that indirect exposures can lead to PTSD even when Criterion A1 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 463), i.e., "experienced by a family member or other close associate" is not met. Further research is necessary to define precisely the parameters of indirect traumatic exposure that may be linked to the development of PTSD.

  19. Toxicological responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to soil exposures of copper.

    PubMed

    Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; Mozzachio, Kristie; Bleiler, John A; Archer, Christine R; Phillips, Carlton T; Johnson, Mark S

    2009-07-01

    Copper (Cu) has widespread military use in munitions and small arms, particularly as a protective jacket for lead projectiles. The distribution of Cu at many US military sites is substantial and sites of contamination include habitats in and around military storage facilities, manufacturing, load and packing plants, open burning/open detonation areas, and firing ranges. Some of these areas include habitat for amphibian species, which generally lack toxicity data for risk assessment purposes. In an effort to ascertain Cu concentrations in soil that are toxic to terrestrial amphibians, 100 red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) were randomly sorted by weight, assigned to either a control soil or one of four treatments amended with copper acetate in soil, and exposed for 28 days. Analytical mean soil concentrations were 18, 283, 803, 1333, and 2700 mg Cu/kg soil dry weight. Food consisted of uncontaminated flightless Drosophila melanogaster. Survival was reduced in salamanders exposed to 1333 and 2700 mg/kg by 55% and 100%, respectively. Mortality/morbidity occurred within the first 4 days of exposure. These data suggest that a Cu soil concentration of and exceeding 1333.3 +/- 120.2 mg/kg results in reduced survival, whereas hematology analyses suggest that a concentration of and exceeding 803.3 +/- 98.4 mg/kg might result in reduced total white blood cell count. No effects were observed at 283.3 +/- 36.7 mg/kg.

  20. The Revised Electromagnetic Fields Directive and Worker Exposure in Environments With High Magnetic Flux Densities

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Rianne

    2014-01-01

    Some of the strongest electromagnetic fields (EMF) are found in the workplace. A European Directive sets limits to workers’ exposure to EMF. This review summarizes its origin and contents and compares magnetic field exposure levels in high-risk workplaces with the limits set in the revised Directive. Pubmed, Scopus, grey literature databases, and websites of organizations involved in occupational exposure measurements were searched. The focus was on EMF with frequencies up to 10 MHz, which can cause stimulation of the nervous system. Selected studies had to provide individual maximum exposure levels at the workplace, either in terms of the external magnetic field strength or flux density or as induced electric field strength or current density. Indicative action levels and the corresponding exposure limit values for magnetic fields in the revised European Directive will be higher than those in the previous version. Nevertheless, magnetic flux densities in excess of the action levels for peripheral nerve stimulation are reported for workers involved in welding, induction heating, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The corresponding health effects exposure limit values for the electric fields in the worker’s body can be exceeded for welding and MRI, but calculations for induction heating and transcranial magnetic stimulation are lacking. Since the revised European Directive conditionally exempts MRI-related activities from the exposure limits, measures to reduce exposure may be necessary for welding, induction heating, and transcranial nerve stimulation. Since such measures can be complicated, there is a clear need for exposure databases for different workplace scenarios with significant EMF exposure and guidance on good practices. PMID:24557933

  1. The revised electromagnetic fields directive and worker exposure in environments with high magnetic flux densities.

    PubMed

    Stam, Rianne

    2014-06-01

    Some of the strongest electromagnetic fields (EMF) are found in the workplace. A European Directive sets limits to workers' exposure to EMF. This review summarizes its origin and contents and compares magnetic field exposure levels in high-risk workplaces with the limits set in the revised Directive. Pubmed, Scopus, grey literature databases, and websites of organizations involved in occupational exposure measurements were searched. The focus was on EMF with frequencies up to 10 MHz, which can cause stimulation of the nervous system. Selected studies had to provide individual maximum exposure levels at the workplace, either in terms of the external magnetic field strength or flux density or as induced electric field strength or current density. Indicative action levels and the corresponding exposure limit values for magnetic fields in the revised European Directive will be higher than those in the previous version. Nevertheless, magnetic flux densities in excess of the action levels for peripheral nerve stimulation are reported for workers involved in welding, induction heating, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The corresponding health effects exposure limit values for the electric fields in the worker's body can be exceeded for welding and MRI, but calculations for induction heating and transcranial magnetic stimulation are lacking. Since the revised European Directive conditionally exempts MRI-related activities from the exposure limits, measures to reduce exposure may be necessary for welding, induction heating, and transcranial nerve stimulation. Since such measures can be complicated, there is a clear need for exposure databases for different workplace scenarios with significant EMF exposure and guidance on good practices.

  2. Guilt is more strongly associated with suicidal ideation among military personnel with direct combat exposure.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Morrow, Chad E; Etienne, Neysa

    2013-05-15

    Suicide rates in the U.S. military have been rising rapidly in the past decade. Research suggests guilt is a significant predictor of suicidal ideation among military personnel, and may be especially pronounced among those who have been exposure to combat-related traumas. The current study explored the interactive effect of direct combat exposure and guilt on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of military personnel. Ninety-seven active duty U.S. Air Force personnel receiving outpatient mental health treatment at two military clinics completed self-report symptom measures of guilt, depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Generalized multiple regression analyses indicated a significant interaction of guilt and direct combat exposure (B=.124, SE=.053, p=.020), suggesting a stronger relationship of guilt with suicidal ideation among participants who had direct combat exposure as compared to those who had not. The interactions of direct combat exposure with depression (B=.004, SE=.040, p=.926), PTSD symptoms (B=.016, SE=.018, p=.382), perceived burdensomeness (B=.159, SE=.152, p=.300) and hopelessness (B=.069, SE=.036, p=.057) were nonsignificant. Although guilt is associated with more severe suicidal ideation in general among military personnel, it is especially pronounced among those who have had direct combat exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Personal air sampling and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to the soil fumigant cis-1,3-dichloropropene

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, E; Verplanke, A; Boogaard, P; Bloemen, L; Van Sittert, N J; Christian, F; Stokkentreeff, M; Dijksterhuis, A; Mulder, A; De Wolff, F A

    2000-01-01

    always in accordance with the statutory directions of use. Dermal exposure to liquid cis-DCP was found four times during repair and maintenance, but the biological monitoring data did not suggest a significant increase in cis-DCP uptake.
CONCLUSIONS—The application of cis-DCP in the potato growing industry can be performed at exposure concentrations below the Dutch OEL of 5 mg/m3 if the working days are limited to 8 hours. An injector equipped with either kind of antidrip system which is in good working order, as well as the consistent use of personal protection in accordance with the statutory directions of use, may ensure exposure concentrations below the Dutch OEL.


Keywords: cis-1,3-dichloropropene; occupational exposure; soil fumigation; N-acetyl-S-(cis-3-chloro-2-propenyl)-L-cysteine PMID:11024197

  4. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on soil microbial and soil microbial-plant interactions: What lies ahead?

    DOE PAGES

    Classen, Aimée T.; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Henning, Jeremiah A.; ...

    2015-08-07

    Global change is altering species distributions and thus interactions among organisms. Organisms live in concert with thousands of other species, some beneficial, some pathogenic, some which have little to no effect in complex communities. Since natural communities are composed of organisms with very different life history traits and dispersal ability it is unlikely they will all respond to climatic change in a similar way. Disjuncts in plant-pollinator and plant-herbivore interactions under global change have been relatively well described, but plant-soil microorganism and soil microbe-microbe relationships have received less attention. Since soil microorganisms regulate nutrient transformations, provide plants with nutrients, allowmore » co-existence among neighbors, and control plant populations, changes in soil microorganism-plant interactions could have significant ramifications for plant community composition and ecosystem function. Finally, in this paper we explore how climatic change affects soil microbes and soil microbe-plant interactions directly and indirectly, discuss what we see as emerging and exciting questions and areas for future research, and discuss what ramifications changes in these interactions may have on the composition and function of ecosystems.« less

  5. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on soil microbial and soil microbial-plant interactions: What lies ahead?

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Aimée T.; Sundqvist, Maja K.; Henning, Jeremiah A.; Newman, Gregory S.; Moore, Jessica A. M.; Cregger, Melissa A.; Moorhead, Leigh C.; Patterson, Courtney M.

    2015-08-07

    Global change is altering species distributions and thus interactions among organisms. Organisms live in concert with thousands of other species, some beneficial, some pathogenic, some which have little to no effect in complex communities. Since natural communities are composed of organisms with very different life history traits and dispersal ability it is unlikely they will all respond to climatic change in a similar way. Disjuncts in plant-pollinator and plant-herbivore interactions under global change have been relatively well described, but plant-soil microorganism and soil microbe-microbe relationships have received less attention. Since soil microorganisms regulate nutrient transformations, provide plants with nutrients, allow co-existence among neighbors, and control plant populations, changes in soil microorganism-plant interactions could have significant ramifications for plant community composition and ecosystem function. Finally, in this paper we explore how climatic change affects soil microbes and soil microbe-plant interactions directly and indirectly, discuss what we see as emerging and exciting questions and areas for future research, and discuss what ramifications changes in these interactions may have on the composition and function of ecosystems.

  6. The astonishingly holistic role of urban soil in the exposure of children to lead.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Howard; Gonzales, Christopher; Powell, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The long-term resilience and sustainability of urban communities is associated with its environmental quality. One major impediment to community welfare is children's exposure to lead because it is a root cause of disparity and chronic conditions including health, learning, and behavioral differences. There is no safe level of lead exposure and this revelation is confounded by the lack of an effective intervention after exposure takes place. In August, 2005, Hurricane Katrina flooded 80% of New Orleans. This report explores the natural experiment of the dynamic changes of soil and children's blood lead in New Orleans before and ten years after the flood. Matched pre- and post-Hurricane soil lead and children's blood lead results were stratified by 172 communities of New Orleans. GIS methods were used to organize, describe, and map the pre- and post-Katrina data. Comparing pre- and post-Katrina results, simultaneous decreases occurred in soil lead and children's blood lead response. Health and welfare disparities continue to exist between environments and children's exposure living in interior compared with outer communities of the city. At the scale of a city this investigation demonstrates that declining soil lead effectively reduces children's blood lead. The astonishingly holistic role of soil relates to its position as a lead dust deposition reservoir and, at the same time, as an open source of ingestible and inhalable lead dust. Decreasing the soil lead on play areas of urban communities is beneficial and economical as a method for effective lead intervention and primary prevention. References Mielke, H.W.; Gonzales, C.R.; Powell, E.T.; Mielke, P.W. Jr. Spatiotemporal dynamic transformations of soil lead and children's blood lead ten years after Hurricane Katrina: New grounds for primary prevention. Environ. Int. 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.06.017. Mielke, H.W.; Gonzales, C.R.; Powell, E.T. In review. The dynamic lead exposome and children's health in New

  7. Direct measurement of surface carbon concentrations. [in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filleux, C.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of surface concentrations of carbon in lunar soils and soil breccias provide information on the origin of carbon in the regolith. The reaction C-12 (d, p sub zero) is used to measure 'surface' and 'volume' concentrations in lunar samples. This method has a depth resolution of 1 micron, which permits only a 'surface' and a 'volume' component to be measured. Three of four Apollo 16 double drive tube samples show a surface carbon concentration of about 8 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm, whereas the fourth sample gave 4 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm. It can be convincingly shown that the measured concentration does not originate from fluorocarbon or hydrocarbon contaminants. Surface adsorbed layers of CO or CO2 are removed by a sputter cleaning procedure using a 2-MeV F beam. It is shown that the residual C concentration of 8 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm cannot be further reduced by increased F fluence, and it is therefore concluded that it is truly lunar. If one assumes that the measured surface C concentration is a steady-state concentration determined only by a balance between solar-wind implantation and sputtering, a sputter erosion rate of 0.1 A/yr is obtained. However, it would be more profitable to use an independently derived sputter erosion rate to test the hypothesis of a solar-wind origin of the surface carbon.

  8. Direct measurement of surface carbon concentrations. [in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filleux, C.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of surface concentrations of carbon in lunar soils and soil breccias provide information on the origin of carbon in the regolith. The reaction C-12 (d, p sub zero) is used to measure 'surface' and 'volume' concentrations in lunar samples. This method has a depth resolution of 1 micron, which permits only a 'surface' and a 'volume' component to be measured. Three of four Apollo 16 double drive tube samples show a surface carbon concentration of about 8 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm, whereas the fourth sample gave 4 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm. It can be convincingly shown that the measured concentration does not originate from fluorocarbon or hydrocarbon contaminants. Surface adsorbed layers of CO or CO2 are removed by a sputter cleaning procedure using a 2-MeV F beam. It is shown that the residual C concentration of 8 by 10 to the 14th power/sq cm cannot be further reduced by increased F fluence, and it is therefore concluded that it is truly lunar. If one assumes that the measured surface C concentration is a steady-state concentration determined only by a balance between solar-wind implantation and sputtering, a sputter erosion rate of 0.1 A/yr is obtained. However, it would be more profitable to use an independently derived sputter erosion rate to test the hypothesis of a solar-wind origin of the surface carbon.

  9. Sources, sinks, and exposure pathways of lead in urban garden soil.

    PubMed

    Clark, Heather F; Brabander, Daniel J; Erdil, Rachel M

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry of Pb in urban soil must be understood in order to limit human exposure to Pb in soil and produce and to implement remediation schemes. In inner-city gardens where Pb contamination is prevalent and financial resources are limited, it is critical to identify the variables that control Pb bioavailability. Field-portable X-ray fluorescence was used to measure Pb in 103 urban gardens in Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, and 88% were found to contain Pb above the USEPA reportable limit of 400 mug g(-1). Phosphorus, iron, loss on ignition, and pH data were collected, Pb-bearing phases were identified by X-ray diffraction, and Pb isotopes were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Four test crops were grown both in situ and in Roxbury soil in a greenhouse, and plant tissue was analyzed for Pb uptake by polarized energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Variation at the neighborhood scale in soil mineralogical and chemical characteristics suggests that the bioavailable fraction of Pb in gardens is site specific. Based on Pb isotope analysis, two historical Pb sources appear to dominate the inventory of Pb in Roxbury gardens: leaded gasoline ((207) Pb/(206) Pb = 0.827) and Pb-based paint ((207)Pb/(206) Pb = 0.867). Nearly 70% of the samples analyzed can be isotopically described by mixing these two end members, with Pb-based paint contributing 40 to 80% of the mass balance. A simplified urban human exposure model suggests that the consumption of produce from urban gardens is equivalent to approximately 10 to 25% of children's daily exposure from tap water. Furthermore, analysis of over 60 samples of plant tissue from the four test species suggests that in these urban gardens unamended phytoremediation is an inadequate tool for decreasing soil Pb.

  10. Exposure of agricultural crops to nanoparticle CeO2 in biochar-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Servin, Alia D; De la Torre-Roche, Roberto; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Pagano, Luca; Hawthorne, Joseph; Musante, Craig; Pignatello, Joseph; Uchimiya, Minori; White, Jason C

    2017-01-01

    Biochar is seeing increased usage as an amendment in agricultural soils but the significance of nanoscale interactions between this additive and engineered nanoparticles (ENP) remains unknown. Corn, lettuce, soybean and zucchini were grown for 28 d in two different soils (agricultural, residential) amended with 0-2000 mg engineered nanoparticle (ENP) CeO2 kg(-1) and biochar (350 °C or 600 °C) at application rates of 0-5% (w/w). At harvest, plants were analyzed for biomass, Ce content, chlorophyll and lipid peroxidation. Biomass from the four species grown in residential soil varied with species and biochar type. However, biomass in the agricultural soil amended with biochar 600 °C was largely unaffected. Biochar co-exposure had minimal impact on Ce accumulation, with reduced or increased Ce content occurring at the highest (5%) biochar level. Soil-specific and biochar-specific effects on Ce accumulation were observed in the four species. For example, zucchini grown in agricultural soil with 2000 mg CeO2 kg(-1) and 350 °C biochar (0.5-5%) accumulated greater Ce than the control. However, for the 600 °C biochar, the opposite effect was evident, with decreased Ce content as biochar increased. A principal component analysis showed that biochar type accounted for 56-99% of the variance in chlorophyll and lipid peroxidation across the plants. SEM and μ-XRF showed Ce association with specific biochar and soil components, while μ-XANES analysis confirmed that after 28 d in soil, the Ce remained largely as CeO2. The current study demonstrates that biochar synthesis conditions significantly impact interactions with ENP, with subsequent effects on particle fate and effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Soil Cadmium on Land Snails: A Two-Stage Exposure Approach under Semi-Field Conditions Using Bioaccumulative and Conchological End-Points of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Nica, Dragos V.; Filimon, Marioara Nicoleta; Bordean, Despina-Maria; Harmanescu, Monica; Draghici, George Andrei; Dragan, Simona; Gergen, Iosif I.

    2015-01-01

    Land snails are highly tolerant to cadmium exposure and are able to accumulate soil cadmium independently of food ingestion. However, little information exists on the kinetics of cadmium retention in terrestrial gastropods exposed to an increase in the soil cadmium content, over time. There is also little knowledge about how exposure to cadmium-polluted soils influences shell growth and architecture. In this context, we examined cadmium accumulation in the hepatopancreas and shell of juvenile Cantareus aspersus exposed to elevating high levels of cadmium in soil. Also, the toxicity of cadmium to snails was assessed using a range of conchological endpoints, including shell height, width, volume, allometry and integrity. Test snails, aged three months, were reared under semi-field conditions, fed an uncontaminated diet and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil cadmium concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher cadmium content. Cadmium showed a dose-dependent accumulation in both the hepatopancreas and shell. The kinetics of cadmium retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to cadmium-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The shell was not a relevant bioaccumulator for soil cadmium. Under the present experimental conditions, only high cadmium exposure significantly affected either the shell growth or snail survival. There was no consistent effect on shell allometry, but the shell integrity, especially in rapidly growing parts, appeared to be affected by high cadmium exposure. Our results attest to the value of hepatopancreas for describing cadmium retention in land snails and to the difficulty of using conchological parameters in field surveys for estimating the environmental hazard of soil cadmium. PMID:25790135

  12. Impact of soil cadmium on land snails: a two-stage exposure approach under semi-field conditions using bioaccumulative and conchological end-points of exposure.

    PubMed

    Nica, Dragos V; Filimon, Marioara Nicoleta; Bordean, Despina-Maria; Harmanescu, Monica; Draghici, George Andrei; Dragan, Simona; Gergen, Iosif I

    2015-01-01

    Land snails are highly tolerant to cadmium exposure and are able to accumulate soil cadmium independently of food ingestion. However, little information exists on the kinetics of cadmium retention in terrestrial gastropods exposed to an increase in the soil cadmium content, over time. There is also little knowledge about how exposure to cadmium-polluted soils influences shell growth and architecture. In this context, we examined cadmium accumulation in the hepatopancreas and shell of juvenile Cantareus aspersus exposed to elevating high levels of cadmium in soil. Also, the toxicity of cadmium to snails was assessed using a range of conchological endpoints, including shell height, width, volume, allometry and integrity. Test snails, aged three months, were reared under semi-field conditions, fed an uncontaminated diet and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil cadmium concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher cadmium content. Cadmium showed a dose-dependent accumulation in both the hepatopancreas and shell. The kinetics of cadmium retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to cadmium-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The shell was not a relevant bioaccumulator for soil cadmium. Under the present experimental conditions, only high cadmium exposure significantly affected either the shell growth or snail survival. There was no consistent effect on shell allometry, but the shell integrity, especially in rapidly growing parts, appeared to be affected by high cadmium exposure. Our results attest to the value of hepatopancreas for describing cadmium retention in land snails and to the difficulty of using conchological parameters in field surveys for estimating the environmental hazard of soil cadmium.

  13. Respirable dust and quartz exposure from three South African farms with sandy, sandy loam, and clay soils.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Andrew J; Kromhout, Hans; Jinnah, Zubair A; Portengen, Lützen; Renton, Kevin; Gardiner, Kerry; Rees, David

    2011-07-01

    To quantify personal time-weighted average respirable dust and quartz exposure on a sandy, a sandy loam, and a clay soil farm in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa and to ascertain whether soil type is a determinant of exposure to respirable quartz. Three farms, located in the Free State and North West provinces of South Africa, had their soil type confirmed as sandy, sandy loam, and clay; and, from these, a total of 298 respirable dust and respirable quartz measurements were collected between July 2006-November 2009 during periods of major farming operations. Values below the limit of detection (LOD) (22 μg · m(-3)) were estimated using multiple 'imputation'. Non-parametric tests were used to compare quartz exposure from the three different soil types. Exposure to respirable quartz occurred on all three farms with the highest individual concentration measured on the sandy soil farm (626 μg · m(-3)). Fifty-seven, 59, and 81% of the measurements on the sandy soil, sandy loam soil, and clay soil farm, respectively, exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 25 μg · m(-3). Twelve and 13% of respirable quartz concentrations exceeded 100 μg · m(-3) on the sandy soil and sandy loam soil farms, respectively, but none exceeded this level on the clay soil farm. The proportions of measurements >100 μg · m(-3) were not significantly different between the sandy and sandy loam soil farms ('prop.test'; P = 0.65), but both were significantly larger than for the clay soil farm ('prop.test'; P = 0.0001). The percentage of quartz in respirable dust was determined for all three farms using measurements > the limit of detection. Percentages ranged from 0.5 to 94.4% with no significant difference in the median quartz percentages across the three farms (Kruskal-Wallis test; P = 0.91). This study demonstrates that there is significant potential for over-exposure to respirable quartz in

  14. Bioavailability of Sodium and Trace Metals under Direct and Indirect Effects of Compost in Urban Soils.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Maryam; Clark, O Grant; Hendershot, William H; Jutras, Pierre; Prasher, Shiv O

    2016-05-01

    The contamination of urban soil with sodium (Na) and trace metals can be one of the major concerns for groundwater contamination and street tree health. The bioavailability of Na, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in urban soil amended with 0, 5, and 10% w/w compost was evaluated at none, medium, and high contamination levels of soil mixtures. The relationship between soil properties, compost addition, contamination level and metal uptake by barley ( L.) was determined using multivariate linear regression and path analysis. The results indicated the direct negative effect of compost on metal absorption possibly through specific complexation for Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. Compost can also affect the absorption of Na and Cd indirectly by means of cation exchange capacity (CEC) and pH. The degree of soil contamination with metals can affect the competition of cations for the complexing sites of the soil mixtures and, therefore, can induce changes in metal availability for plants. Compost addition to the soil also increased nutrient availability, except for ammonium (NH) and nitrate (NO). We concluded that in the short term, the addition of compost significantly reduced metal bioavailability and improved nutrient availability. However, more studies are required to monitor the long-term ability of the compost to reduce Na and trace metal bioavailability in urban soil. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Role of Siderophores in Dissimilatory Iron Reduction in Arctic Soils : Effect of Direct Amendment of Siderophores to Arctic Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, A. J.; Dinsdale, E. A.; Lipson, D.

    2014-12-01

    Dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR), where ferric iron (Fe3+) is reduced to ferrous iron (Fe2+) anaerobically, is an important respiratory pathway used by soil bacteria. DIR contributes to carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the wet sedge tundra biome in the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) in Alaska, and could competitively inhibit the production of methane, a stronger greenhouse gas than CO2, from arctic soils. The occurrence of DIR as a dominant anaerobic process depends on the availability of substantial levels of Fe3+ in soils. Siderophores are metabolites made by microbes to dissolve Fe3+ from soil minerals in iron deficient systems, making Fe3+ soluble for micronutrient uptake. However, as the ACP is not iron deficient, siderophores in arctic soils may play a vital role in anaerobic respiration by dissolving Fe3+ for DIR. We studied the effects of direct siderophore addition to arctic soils through a field study conducted in Barrow, Alaska, and a laboratory incubation study conducted at San Diego State University. In the field experiment, 50μM deferroxamine mesylate (a siderophore), 50μM trisodium nitrilotriacetate (an organic chelator) or an equal volume of water was added to isolated experimental plots, replicated in clusters across the landscape. Fe2+ concentrations were measured in soil pore water samples collected periodically to measure DIR over time in each. In the laboratory experiment, frozen soil samples obtained from drained thaw lake basins in the ACP, were cut into cores and treated with the above-mentioned compounds to the same final concentrations. Along with measuring Fe2+ concentrations, CO2 output was also measured to monitor DIR over time in each core. Experimental addition of siderophores to soils in both the field and laboratory resulted in increased concentrations of soluble Fe3+ and a sustained increase in Fe2+concentrations over time, along with increased respiration rates in siderophore-amended cores. These results show increased DIR in

  16. Field evaluation of a direct push deployed sensor probe for vertical soil water content profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienken, Thomas; Reboulet, Ed; Leven, Carsten; Kreck, Manuel; Zschornack, Ludwig; Dietrich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Reliable high-resolution information about vertical variations in soil water content, i.e. total porosity in the saturated zone, is essential for flow and transport predictions within the subsurface. However, porosity measurements are often associated with high efforts and high uncertainties, e.g. caused by soil disturbance during sampling or sensor installation procedures. In hydrogeological practice, commonly applied tools for the investigation of vertical soil water content distribution include gravimetric laboratory analyses of soil samples and neutron probe measurements. A yet less well established technique is the use of direct push-deployed sensor probes. Each of these methods is associated with inherent advantages and limitations due to their underlying measurement principles and operation modes. The presented study describes results of a joint field evaluation of the individual methods under different depositional and hydrogeological conditions with special focus on the performance on the direct push-deployed water content profiler. Therefore, direct push-profiling results from three different test sites are compared with results obtained from gravimetric analysis of soil cores and neutron probe measurements. In direct comparison, the applied direct push-based sensor probe proved to be a suitable alternative for vertical soil water content profiling to neutron probe technology, and, in addition, proved to be advantageous over gravimetric analysis in terms vertical resolution and time efficiency. Results of this study identify application-specific limitations of the methods and thereby highlight the need for careful data evaluation, even though neutron probe measurements and gravimetric analyses of soil samples are well established techniques (see Vienken et al. 2013). Reference: Vienken, T., Reboulet, E., Leven, C., Kreck, M., Zschornack, L., Dietrich, P., 2013. Field comparison of selected methods for vertical soil water content profiling. Journal of

  17. Impact of wind direction and speed on the spatial distribution of soil loss on catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J.; von Werner, M.

    2012-04-01

    This work reports on EROSION 3D simulations assessing the effects of wind speed and wind direction on soil erosion by water. These effects are based essentially on the fact that wind impact forces the rain drops to divert from their vertical fall direction. In order to simulate the effect of wind impact, an algorithm was implemented into the model, which describes the relation between wind speed and the diversion angle of the rain drops. This algorithm is based on measured data achieved by wind tunnel experiments performed by Gabriels et al. 1997. Referring to a small subcatchment located in the ore mountains of Saxony the impact of wind direction and wind speed was evaluated using the enhanced EROSION 3D model. As the simulated scenarios show erosion can be increased as well as decreased due to wind impact. The spatial distribution of soil loss and deposition obviously depends on the orientation of inclined field blocks towards wind direction with increased soil loss on blocks oriented windward and decreased soil loss on those oriented leeward. The effect of wind impact on soil erosion by water is substantial, and thus it should not be neglected in mathematical soil erosion models.

  18. Exposure and bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated soils from the La Parrilla mine, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawar, H. M.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Murciego, A.; Buyolo, T.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic derived from mining activity may contaminate water, soil and plant ecosystems resulting in human health and ecotoxicological risks. In this study, exposure assessment of arsenic (As) in soil, spoil, pondwater and plants collected from the areas contaminated by mine tailings and spoils in and around the La Parrilla mine, Caceres province, Spain, was carried out using AAS method. Water solubility, bioavailability and soil-plant transfer coefficients of As and phytoremediation potential of plants were determined. Arsenic concentrations varied from 148 to 2,540 mg/kg in soils of site 1 and from 610 to 1,285 mg/kg in site 2 exceeding the guideline limit for agricultural soil (50 mg/kg). Arsenic concentrations in pond waters varied from 8.8 to 101.4 μg/l. High concentrations of water-soluble As in the soils that ranged from 0.10 to 4.71 mg/kg in site 1 and from 0.46 to 4.75 mg/kg in site 2 exceeded the maximum permitted level of water-soluble As (0.04 mg/kg) in agricultural soils. Arsenic concentrations varied from 0.8 to 149.5 mg/kg dry wt in the plants of site 1 and from 2.0 to 10.0 mg/kg in the plants of site 2. Arsenic concentrations in plants increased in the approximate order: Retama sphaerocarpa < Pteridium aquilinum < Erica australis < Juncus effusus < Phalaris caerulescens < Spergula arvensis in site 1. The soil-plant transfer coefficients for As ranged from 0.001 to 0.21 in site 1 and from 0.004 to 0.016 in site 2. The bioconcentration factor based on water-soluble As of soil varied from 3.2 to 593.9 in the plants of site 1 whereas it varied from 2.1 to 20.7 in the plants of site 2. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Europe to report that the fern species P. aquilinum accumulates extremely low contents of As in its fronds despite high As levels in the soils. Therefore, the S. arvensis, P. caerulescens and J. effusus plant species grown in this area might be used to partly remove the bioavailable toxic As for the purpose of minimization of

  19. Direct comparison of repeated soil inventory and carbon flux budget to detect soil carbon stock changes in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.; Fuhrer, J.

    2012-04-01

    Experimental assessment of soil carbon (C) stock changes over time is typically based on the application of either one of two methods, namely (i) repeated soil inventory and (ii) determination of the ecosystem C budget or net biome productivity (NBP) by continuous measurement of CO2 exchange in combination with quantification of other C imports and exports. However, there exist hardly any published study hitherto that directly compared the results of both methods. Here, we applied both methods in parallel to determine C stock changes of two temperate grassland fields previously converted from long-term cropland. The grasslands differed in management intensity with either intensive management (high fertilization, frequent cutting) or extensive management (no fertilization, less frequent cutting). Soil organic C stocks (0-45 cm depth) were quantified at the beginning (2001) and the end (2006) of a 5 year observational period using the equivalent soil mass approach. For the same period and in both fields, NBP was quantified from net CO2 fluxes monitored using eddy covariance systems, and measured C import by organic fertilizer and C export by harvest. Both NBP and repeated soil inventories revealed a consistent and significant difference between management systems of 170 ± 48 and 253 ± 182 g C m-2 a-1, respectively. For both fields, the inventory method showed a tendency towards higher C loss/smaller C gain than NBP. In the extensive field, a significant C loss was observed by the inventory but not by the NBP approach. Thus both, flux measurements and repeated soil sampling, seem to be adequate and equally suited for detecting relative management effects. However, the suitability for tracking absolute changes in SOC could not be proven for neither of the two methods. Overall, our findings stress the need for more direct comparisons to evaluate whether the observed difference in the outcome of the two approaches reflects a general methodological bias, which would

  20. Lead exposure from soil in Peruvian mining towns: a national assessment supported by two contrasting examples

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Carolina; Gil, Vladimir; Sherpa, Shaky; Jack, Darby

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the population of Peru living in the vicinity of active or former mining operations that could be exposed to lead from contaminated soil. Methods Geographic coordinates were compiled for 113 active mines, 138 ore processing plants and 3 smelters, as well as 7743 former mining sites. The population living within 5 km of these sites was calculated from census data for 2000. In addition, the lead content of soil in the historic mining town of Cerro de Pasco and around a recent mine and ore processing plant near the city of Huaral was mapped in 2009 using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence analyser. Findings Spatial analysis indicated that 1.6 million people in Peru could be living within 5 km of an active or former mining operation. Two thirds of the population potentially exposed was accounted for by 29 clusters of mining operations, each with a population of over 10 000 each. These clusters included 112 active and 3438 former mining operations. Soil lead levels exceeded 1200 mg/kg, a reference standard for residential soil, in 35 of 74 sites tested in Cerro de Pasco but in only 4 of 47 sites tested around the newer operations near Huaral. Conclusion Soil contamination with lead is likely to be extensive in Peruvian mining towns but the level of contamination is spatially far from uniform. Childhood exposure by soil ingestion could be substantially reduced by mapping soil lead levels, making this information public and encouraging local communities to isolate contaminated areas from children. PMID:23284193

  1. Lead exposure from soil in Peruvian mining towns: a national assessment supported by two contrasting examples.

    PubMed

    van Geen, Alexander; Bravo, Carolina; Gil, Vladimir; Sherpa, Shaky; Jack, Darby

    2012-12-01

    To estimate the population of Peru living in the vicinity of active or former mining operations that could be exposed to lead from contaminated soil. Geographic coordinates were compiled for 113 active mines, 138 ore processing plants and 3 smelters, as well as 7743 former mining sites. The population living within 5 km of these sites was calculated from census data for 2000. In addition, the lead content of soil in the historic mining town of Cerro de Pasco and around a recent mine and ore processing plant near the city of Huaral was mapped in 2009 using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence analyser. Spatial analysis indicated that 1.6 million people in Peru could be living within 5 km of an active or former mining operation. Two thirds of the population potentially exposed was accounted for by 29 clusters of mining operations, each with a population of over 10 000 each. These clusters included 112 active and 3438 former mining operations. Soil lead levels exceeded 1200 mg/kg, a reference standard for residential soil, in 35 of 74 sites tested in Cerro de Pasco but in only 4 of 47 sites tested around the newer operations near Huaral. Soil contamination with lead is likely to be extensive in Peruvian mining towns but the level of contamination is spatially far from uniform. Childhood exposure by soil ingestion could be substantially reduced by mapping soil lead levels, making this information public and encouraging local communities to isolate contaminated areas from children.

  2. Minimal second language exposure, SES, and early word comprehension: New evidence from a direct assessment.

    PubMed

    Deanda, Stephanie; Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Although the extant literature provides robust evidence of the influence of language exposure and socioeconomic status (SES) on language acquisition, it is unknown how sensitive the early receptive vocabulary system is to these factors. The current study investigates effects of minimal second language exposure and SES on the comprehension vocabulary of 16-month-old children in the language in which they receive the greatest exposure. Study 1 revealed minimal second language exposure and SES exert significant and independent effects on a direct measure of vocabulary comprehension in English-dominant and English monolingual children (N = 72). In Study 2, we replicated the effect of minimal second language exposure in Spanish-dominant and Spanish monolingual children (N = 86), however no effect of SES on vocabulary was obtained. Our results emphasize the sensitivity of the language system to minimal changes in the environment in early development.

  3. Minimal second language exposure, SES, and early word comprehension: New evidence from a direct assessment*

    PubMed Central

    Deanda, Stephanie; Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal; Friend, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Although the extant literature provides robust evidence of the influence of language exposure and socioeconomic status (SES) on language acquisition, it is unknown how sensitive the early receptive vocabulary system is to these factors. The current study investigates effects of minimal second language exposure and SES on the comprehension vocabulary of 16-month-old children in the language in which they receive the greatest exposure. Study 1 revealed minimal second language exposure and SES exert significant and independent effects on a direct measure of vocabulary comprehension in English-dominant and English monolingual children (N = 72). In Study 2, we replicated the effect of minimal second language exposure in Spanish-dominant and Spanish monolingual children (N = 86), however no effect of SES on vocabulary was obtained. Our results emphasize the sensitivity of the language system to minimal changes in the environment in early development. PMID:26957947

  4. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation exposure and dose to small mammals in radon-rich soils.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, C R; Laverock, M J

    1998-07-01

    Protection of the environment from radionuclide releases requires knowledge of the normal background levels of radiation exposure in the exposed biotic community and an estimate of the detriment caused by additional exposure. This study modeled the background exposure and dose to the lungs of small burrowing mammals from 222Rn in artificial burrows in radon-rich soils at a site in southeastern Manitoba. E-PERM chambers used to measure 222Rn in soil showed good reproducibility of measurement, with an average coefficient of variance (CV) of about 10%. Geometric mean (GM) 222Rn concentrations at nine randomly selected sites ranged from 5,490 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.57, n = 7) to 41,000 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.02, n = 5). Long-term monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in artificial burrows showed large variation within and between burrows and did not show consistent variation with season, orientation of the burrow opening, or levels of 226Ra in the soil. Annual GM concentrations in individual burrows ranged from 7,480 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.60) to 18,930 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.81) in burrows several meters apart. A grand GM of 9,990 Bq/m3 (GSD = 1.81, n = 214) was measured over the site for the year. An exposure model was constructed for five small mammal species based on their respiration rates and the number of hours spent in the burrow, active or hibernating, exposed to soil gas 222Rn, and the time spent out of the burrow exposed to atmospheric 222Rn. A background dose of 0.9 mGy/a from atmospheric 222Rn (40 Bq/m3) was estimated for a large-bodied (80 kg), nonburrowing animal living on the soil surface. The highest exposures (mJ/a) in burrowing mammals occurred in those species with the highest respiration rates. Hibernation accounted for a small fraction of total annual exposure (<5%) because of very low respiration rates during this period. Absorbed dose to lung (mGy/a) was highest in the pocket gopher and decreased in the larger animals because of larger lung mass. Using mean 222Rn concentrations

  6. In situ exposure to non-directional beacons for air traffic control.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2012-04-01

    In situ electromagnetic field exposure of workers and the general public due to non-directional beacons (NDB) for air traffic control is assessed and characterized. For occupational exposure, the maximal measured electric field value is 881.6 V/m and the maximal magnetic field value is 9.1 A/m. The maximum electric fields exceed the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels at all seven NDB sites, and the magnetic fields at two of the seven NDB sites (occupational exposure). Recommendations and compliance distances for workers and the general public are provided. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Risk Factors for and Behavioral Consequences of Direct Versus Indirect Exposure to Violence.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Posick, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that direct exposure (personal victimization) and indirect exposure (witnessing or hearing about the victimization of a family member, friend, or neighbor) to violence are correlated. However, questions remain about the co-occurrence of these phenomena within individuals. We used data on 1915 youths (with an average age of 12 years at baseline) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine this issue. Results indicated that youths who tended to be personally victimized were also likely to witness violence; conversely, youths who disproportionately witnessed violence were relatively unlikely to experience personal victimization. In addition, direct and indirect exposures to violence were associated with subsequent adverse outcomes in similar ways. The key distinguishing factor was, rather, the cumulative level of violence (both direct and indirect) to which youths were exposed.

  8. Direct and indirect costs of rabies exposure: a retrospective study in southern California (1998-2002).

    PubMed

    Shwiff, Stephanie A; Sterner, Ray T; Jay, Michele T; Parikh, Shefali; Bellomy, Amy; Meltzer, Martin I; Rupprecht, Charles E; Slate, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    The direct and indirect costs of suspected human rabies exposure were estimated for San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties, California, USA. Clinic, hospital, and county public health records (1998-2002) were examined to determine direct costs for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), and 55 (41%) former patients were contacted to voluntarily provide estimates of their indirect costs associated with receiving PEP. Additional costs due to public health and animal control personnel responses to rabid animals were collected, including diagnostic testing and wages. The mean total cost of a suspected human rabies exposure was $3,688, the direct costs per case were $2,564, and the indirect costs were $1,124 of that total. About one third of the total cost for suspected human rabies exposure was attributed to indirect costs (e.g., lost wages, transportation, and day-care fees), most of which were not reimbursable to the patient.

  9. ECa-Directed Soil Sampling for Characterizing Spatial Variability: Monitoring Management- Induced Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, D. L.

    2006-05-01

    Characterizing spatial variability is an important consideration of any landscape-scale soil-related problem. Geospatial measurements of apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) are useful for characterizing spatial variability by directing soil sampling. The objective of this presentation is to discuss equipment, protocols, sampling designs, and a case study of an ECa survey to characterize spatial variability. Specifically, a preliminary spatio-temporal study of management-induced changes to soil quality will be demonstrated for a drainage water reuse study site. The spatio-temporal study used electromagnetic induction ECa data and a response surface sampling design to select 40 sites that reflected the spatial variability of soil properties (i.e., salinity, Na levels, Mo, and B) impacting the intended agricultural use of a saline-sodic field in California's San Joaquin Valley. Soil samples were collected in August 1999 and April 2002. Data from 1999 indicate the presence of high salinity, which increased with depth, high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), which also increased with depth, and moderate to high B and Mo, which showed no specific trends with depth. The application of drainage water for 32 months resulted in leaching of B from the top 0.3 of soil, leaching of salinity from the top 0.6 m of soil, and leaching of Na and Mo from the top 1.2 m of soil. The leaching fraction over the time period from 1999-2002 was estimated to be 0.10. The level of salinity in the reused drainage water (i.e., 3-5 dS/m) allowed infiltration and leaching to occur even though high sodium and high expanding-lattice clay levels posed potential water flow problems. The leaching of salinity, Na, Mo, and B has resulted in increased forage yield and improved quality of those yields. Preliminary spatio-temporal analyses indicate at least short-term feasibility of drainage water reuse from the perspective of soil quality when the goal is forage production for grazing livestock. The

  10. The dating of pre-exposure times of lunar rocks and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugster, O.

    1986-01-01

    Xenon produced by fission of uranium, thorium and plutonium has repeatedly been observed in lunar rocks and soils. In two basaltic rocks and in two soils Xe was found originating from fission of U-235 induced by neutrons which are due to the interactions of cosmic ray particles with lunar matter. Two facts lead to this conclusion: (1) fission Xe is present in excess of that expected for the U, Th, and Pu concentrations and for the gas retention age of the samples; and (2) the Xe-134/Xe-136 ratio of excess fission Xe is close to 1.25 as expected for neutron induced fission of U-235. Information on the duration of the exposure to cosmic rays was obtained from the Kr-81-Kr systematics whereas the effective shielding conditions were derived from the depth sensitive cosmogenic ratio Xe-131/Xe-126. For the four samples the exposure to cosmic rays in the lunar regolith is described by a two stage exposure model. The history of the four samples was derived in terms of duration and shielding depth of the two stages.

  11. Human exposure to metals in groundwater affected by acid sulfate soil disturbance.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A; Horwitz, P; Rogan, R

    2008-10-01

    The disturbance and oxidation of sulfidic soils can cause an increase in acidity resulting in the mobilization of high concentrations of metals in groundwater or connected surface water. This is an increasing problem in urban areas of Australia and internationally. We hypothesized that the risks of exposure to contaminated water would be increased by this phenomenon. We undertook a preliminary investigation of human exposure to metals recruiting 27 residents in an acid sulfate soil-affected area, 21 residents using a bore (groundwater) for home-grown produce irrigation, and 6 residents who did not. Participants completed a questionnaire and provided a sample of urine (first morning void), toenails (from all 10 toes), hair, and borewater. Only hair metal concentrations were higher in those using bore water and ranged from below detection (exposure to metals in bore-water users might be occurring and further investigation is warranted even though the concentrations recorded in this study are considered low.

  12. A national survey of natural radionuclides in soils and terrestrial radiation exposure in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kardan, M R; Fathabdi, N; Attarilar, A; Esmaeili-Gheshlaghi, M T; Karimi, M; Najafi, A; Hosseini, S S

    2017-08-24

    In the past, some efforts have been made for measuring natural radioactivity and evaluating public exposure to natural radiation in certain areas of Iran especially in well-known High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRA) in Ramsar and Mahallat. However, the information on radionuclide concentrations, and, consequently, terrestrial radiation exposure for many other areas are not available. There was therefore a need for a systematic and nation-wide survey. For this purpose, 979 soil samples from 31 provinces were collected. The activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were measured by HPGe detector. The average activity concentrations for Iran were found to be 457.7 Bq/kg for (40)K, 24.3 Bq/kg for (226)Ra and 25.8 Bq/kg for (232)Th. Results were compared with previous regional or provincial surveys. The population-weighted average outdoor and indoor annual effective dose due to external exposure to terrestrial sources of radiation are 0.06 mSv and 0.33 mSv, respectively. It was shown that there is a significant correlation between the activity concentrations of (232)Th and (40)K in soil. In addition, the results of chi square tests show normal and lognormal distributions cannot be considered for the frequency distributions of activity concentration of (232)Th and (226) Ra while (40)K has a normal distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct monitoring of wind-induced pressure-pumping on gas transport in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laemmel, Thomas; Mohr, Manuel; Schindler, Dirk; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Maier, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Gas exchange between soil and atmosphere is important for the biogeochemistry of soils and is commonly assumed to be governed by molecular diffusion. Yet a few previous field studies identified other gas transport processes such as wind-induced pressure-pumping to enhance soil-atmosphere fluxes significantly. However, since these wind-induced non-diffusive gas transport processes in soil often occur intermittently, the quantification of their contribution to soil gas emissions is challenging. To quantify the effects of wind-induced pressure-pumping on soil gas transport, we developed a method for in situ monitoring of soil gas transport. The method includes the use of Helium (He) as a tracer gas which was continuously injected into the soil. The resulting He steady-state concentration profile was monitored. Gas transport parameters of the soil were inversely modelled. We used our method during a field campaign in a well-aerated forest soil over three months. During periods of low wind speed, soil gas transport was modelled assuming diffusion as transport process. During periods of high wind speed, the previously steady diffusive He concentration profile showed temporary concentration decreases in the topsoil, indicating an increase of the effective gas transport rate in the topsoil up to 30%. The enhancement of effective topsoil soil gas diffusivity resulted from wind-induced air pressure fluctuations which are referred to as pressure-pumping. These air pressure fluctuations had frequencies between 0.1 and 0.01 Hz and amplitudes up to 10 Pa and occurred at above-canopy wind speeds greater than 5 m s-1. We could show the importance of the enhancement of the gas transport rate in relation with the wind intensity and corresponding air pressure fluctuations characteristics. We directly detected and quantified the pressure-pumping effect on gas transport in soil in a field study for the first time, and could thus validate and underpin the importance of this non

  14. Exploring the transfer of recent plant photosynthates to soil microbes: mycorrhizal pathway vs direct root exudation

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christina; Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Koranda, Marianne; Cliff, John B; Solaiman, Zakaria M; Murphy, Daniel V

    2015-01-01

    Plants rapidly release photoassimilated carbon (C) to the soil via direct root exudation and associated mycorrhizal fungi, with both pathways promoting plant nutrient availability. This study aimed to explore these pathways from the root's vascular bundle to soil microbial communities. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging and 13C-phospho- and neutral lipid fatty acids, we traced in-situ flows of recently photoassimilated C of 13CO2-exposed wheat (Triticum aestivum) through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) into root- and hyphae-associated soil microbial communities. Intraradical hyphae of AM fungi were significantly 13C-enriched compared to other root-cortex areas after 8 h of labelling. Immature fine root areas close to the root tip, where AM features were absent, showed signs of passive C loss and co-location of photoassimilates with nitrogen taken up from the soil solution. A significant and exclusively fresh proportion of 13C-photosynthates was delivered through the AM pathway and was utilised by different microbial groups compared to C directly released by roots. Our results indicate that a major release of recent photosynthates into soil leave plant roots via AM intraradical hyphae already upstream of passive root exudations. AM fungi may act as a rapid hub for translocating fresh plant C to soil microbes. PMID:25382456

  15. Exploring the transfer of recent plant photosynthates to soil microbes: mycorrhizal pathway vs direct root exudation.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Christina; Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Koranda, Marianne; Cliff, John B; Solaiman, Zakaria M; Murphy, Daniel V

    2015-03-01

    Plants rapidly release photoassimilated carbon (C) to the soil via direct root exudation and associated mycorrhizal fungi, with both pathways promoting plant nutrient availability. This study aimed to explore these pathways from the root's vascular bundle to soil microbial communities. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging and (13) C-phospho- and neutral lipid fatty acids, we traced in-situ flows of recently photoassimilated C of (13) CO2 -exposed wheat (Triticum aestivum) through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) into root- and hyphae-associated soil microbial communities. Intraradical hyphae of AM fungi were significantly (13) C-enriched compared to other root-cortex areas after 8 h of labelling. Immature fine root areas close to the root tip, where AM features were absent, showed signs of passive C loss and co-location of photoassimilates with nitrogen taken up from the soil solution. A significant and exclusively fresh proportion of (13) C-photosynthates was delivered through the AM pathway and was utilised by different microbial groups compared to C directly released by roots. Our results indicate that a major release of recent photosynthates into soil leave plant roots via AM intraradical hyphae already upstream of passive root exudations. AM fungi may act as a rapid hub for translocating fresh plant C to soil microbes. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. SCR and GCR exposure ages of plagioclase grains from lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etique, P.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.; Wieler, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of solar wind implanted Ar-36 in mineral grains extracted from lunar soils show that they were exposed to the solar wind on the lunar surface for an integrated time of 10E4 to 10E5 years. From the bulk soil 61501 plagioclase separates of 8 grain size ranges was prepared. The depletion of the implanted gases was achieved by etching aliquot samples of 4 grain sizes to various degrees. The experimental results pertinent to the present discussion are: The spallogenic Ne is, as in most plagioclases from lunar soils, affected by diffusive losses and of no use. The Ar-36 of solar wind origin amounts to (2030 + or - 100) x 10E-8 ccSTP/g in the 150 to 200 mm size fraction and shows that these grains were exposed to the solar wind for at least 10,000 years. The Ne-21/Ne-22 ratio of the spallogenic Ne is 0.75 + or - 0.01 and in very good agreement with the value of this ratio in a plagioclase separate from rock 76535. This rock has had a simple exposure history and its plagioclases have a chemical composition quite similar to those studied. In addition to the noble gases, the heavy particle tracks in an aliquot of the 150 to 200 mm plagioclase separate were investigated and found 92% of the grains to contain more than 10E8 tracks/sq cm. This corresponds to a mean track density of (5 + or - 1) x 10E8 tracks/sq cm. The exploration of the exposure history of the plagioclase separates from the soil 61501 do not contradict the model for the regolith dynamics but also fail to prove it.

  17. Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values

    PubMed Central

    Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight–normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014

  18. Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values.

    PubMed

    Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

    2014-10-01

    Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight-normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic.

  19. Emotional Distress and Posttraumatic Stress in Children: The Impact of Direct versus Indirect Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Braj; Kumar, J. Sathya

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether familiarity with the physical environment and verbal/pictorial exposure to a tsunami also inducted posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) were administered to 231 subjects (130 directly exposed and 101 indirectly exposed). The directly…

  20. Emotional Distress and Posttraumatic Stress in Children: The Impact of Direct versus Indirect Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Braj; Kumar, J. Sathya

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether familiarity with the physical environment and verbal/pictorial exposure to a tsunami also inducted posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescents. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS) were administered to 231 subjects (130 directly exposed and 101 indirectly exposed). The directly…

  1. A novel multi-isotope tracer approach to test ZnO nanoparticle and soluble Zn bioavailability in joint soil exposures.

    PubMed

    Laycock, Adam John; Romero-Freire, Ana; Najorka, Jens; Svendsen, Claus; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Rehkaemper, Mark

    2017-10-10

    Here we use two enriched stable isotopes, (68)Znen and (64)Znen (>99%), to prepare (68)ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and soluble (64)ZnCl2. The standard LUFA 2.2 test soil was dosed with (68)ZnO NPs and soluble (64)ZnCl2 to 5 mg kg(-1) each, plus between 0 and 95 mg kg(-1) of soluble ZnCl2 with a natural isotope composition. After 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of soil incubation, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were introduced for 72-hour exposures. Analyses of soils, pore waters and earthworm tissues using multiple collector ICP-MS allowed the simultaneous measurement of the diagnostic (68)Zn/(66)Zn, (64)Zn/(66)Zn and (68)Zn/(64)Zn ratios, from which the three different isotopic forms of Zn were quantified. Eisenia andrei was able to regulate Zn body concentrations with no difference observed between the different total dosing concentrations. The accumulation of labelled Zn by the earthworms showed a direct relationship with the proportion of labelled to total Zn in the pore water, which increased with longer soil incubation times and decreasing soil pH. The (68)Znen/(64)Znen ratios determined for earthworms (1.09 ± 0.04), soils (1.09 ± 0.02) and pore waters (1.08 ± 0.02) indicate indistinguishable environmental distribution and uptake of the Zn forms, most likely due to rapid dissolution of the ZnO NPs.

  2. Direct evidence for microbial-derived soil organic matter formation and its ecophysiological controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kallenbach, Cynthia M.; Frey, Serita D.; Grandy, A. Stuart

    2016-11-28

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and the carbon and nutrients therein drive fundamental submicron- to global-scale biogeochemical processes and influence carbon-climate feedbacks. Consensus is emerging that microbial materials are an important constituent of stable SOM, and new conceptual and quantitative SOM models are rapidly incorporating this view. However, direct evidence demonstrating that microbial residues account for the chemistry, stability and abundance of SOM is still lacking. Further, emerging models emphasize the stabilization of microbial-derived SOM by abiotic mechanisms, while the effects of microbial physiology on microbial residue production remain unclear. Here we provide the first direct evidence that soil microbes produce chemically diverse, stable SOM. As a result, we show that SOM accumulation is driven by distinct microbial communities more so than clay mineralogy, where microbial-derived SOM accumulation is greatest in soils with higher fungal abundances and more efficient microbial biomass production.

  3. Direct evidence for microbial-derived soil organic matter formation and its ecophysiological controls

    DOE PAGES

    Kallenbach, Cynthia M.; Frey, Serita D.; Grandy, A. Stuart

    2016-11-28

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and the carbon and nutrients therein drive fundamental submicron- to global-scale biogeochemical processes and influence carbon-climate feedbacks. Consensus is emerging that microbial materials are an important constituent of stable SOM, and new conceptual and quantitative SOM models are rapidly incorporating this view. However, direct evidence demonstrating that microbial residues account for the chemistry, stability and abundance of SOM is still lacking. Further, emerging models emphasize the stabilization of microbial-derived SOM by abiotic mechanisms, while the effects of microbial physiology on microbial residue production remain unclear. Here we provide the first direct evidence that soil microbes producemore » chemically diverse, stable SOM. As a result, we show that SOM accumulation is driven by distinct microbial communities more so than clay mineralogy, where microbial-derived SOM accumulation is greatest in soils with higher fungal abundances and more efficient microbial biomass production.« less

  4. Direct evidence for microbial-derived soil organic matter formation and its ecophysiological controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenbach, Cynthia M.; Frey, Serita D.; Grandy, A. Stuart

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and the carbon and nutrients therein drive fundamental submicron- to global-scale biogeochemical processes and influence carbon-climate feedbacks. Consensus is emerging that microbial materials are an important constituent of stable SOM, and new conceptual and quantitative SOM models are rapidly incorporating this view. However, direct evidence demonstrating that microbial residues account for the chemistry, stability and abundance of SOM is still lacking. Further, emerging models emphasize the stabilization of microbial-derived SOM by abiotic mechanisms, while the effects of microbial physiology on microbial residue production remain unclear. Here we provide the first direct evidence that soil microbes produce chemically diverse, stable SOM. We show that SOM accumulation is driven by distinct microbial communities more so than clay mineralogy, where microbial-derived SOM accumulation is greatest in soils with higher fungal abundances and more efficient microbial biomass production.

  5. Direct evidence for microbial-derived soil organic matter formation and its ecophysiological controls

    PubMed Central

    Kallenbach, Cynthia M.; Frey, Serita D.; Grandy, A. Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and the carbon and nutrients therein drive fundamental submicron- to global-scale biogeochemical processes and influence carbon-climate feedbacks. Consensus is emerging that microbial materials are an important constituent of stable SOM, and new conceptual and quantitative SOM models are rapidly incorporating this view. However, direct evidence demonstrating that microbial residues account for the chemistry, stability and abundance of SOM is still lacking. Further, emerging models emphasize the stabilization of microbial-derived SOM by abiotic mechanisms, while the effects of microbial physiology on microbial residue production remain unclear. Here we provide the first direct evidence that soil microbes produce chemically diverse, stable SOM. We show that SOM accumulation is driven by distinct microbial communities more so than clay mineralogy, where microbial-derived SOM accumulation is greatest in soils with higher fungal abundances and more efficient microbial biomass production. PMID:27892466

  6. Estimation of NH3 Bi-Directional Flux from Managed Agricultural Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model (CMAQ v4.7) contains a bi-directional ammonia (NH3) flux option that computes emission and deposition of ammonia derived from commercial fertilizer via a temperature dependent parameterization of canopy and soil compensation ...

  7. Estimation of NH3 Bi-Directional Flux from Managed Agricultural Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model (CMAQ v4.7) contains a bi-directional ammonia (NH3) flux option that computes emission and deposition of ammonia derived from commercial fertilizer via a temperature dependent parameterization of canopy and soil compensation ...

  8. Soil-Root Processes Responsible for Arsenic Uptake in Rice: A Route of Human Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is causing the largest mass poisoning in history, but we are only beginning to understand the extent of human exposure through contaminated food. Although second to drinking water in terms of human exposure, the consumption of As-laden food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily As exposure especially for populations already exposed through drinking water. Arsenic contamination of soils and groundwater is widespread In South and Southeast Asia, which is also one of the largest rice-growing regions of the world. As the demand for food has increased, so too has the use of irrigation practices to meet food demand, and much of this is via water contaminated with arsenic. In order to accurately predict human exposure to arsenic through rice consumption, we must first understand the processes that affect As dynamics in the rhizosphere and thus uptake by rice. Here, we examine As cycling in the rhizosphere, As distribution on and uptake by rice roots, the influence of Fe dynamics on As uptake, and mitigation strategies to reduce concentrations of As in rice grains.

  9. Crop-specific human exposure assessment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Czech soils.

    PubMed

    Kulhánek, Ales; Trapp, Stefan; Sismilich, Milos; Janků, Josef; Zimová, Magdalena

    2005-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are pollutants frequently found in soils, particularly in urban areas. From polluted soils, the PAH can be taken up into crops and the consumption of these crops can result in a human health risk. We estimated the bioconcentration factors (BCF) in the edible plant tissues for PAH using crop-specific models for leafy vegetables, root vegetables, potatoes and tree fruits. The estimates were compared with results from the empirical regression of Travis and Arms (T&A) for above-ground vegetation. The comparison shows that the use of crop-specific models resulted in lower BCF values of pollutant concentrations in fruits, potatoes and leafy vegetables, particularly for the heavier PAH (M>220 g mol(-1)). However, the crop-specific models yielded higher BCF values for root vegetables (carrot) and leafy vegetables if the attached soil particles (1%) were considered. Consequently, the average daily intake of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by an adult Czech through fruits and vegetables was estimated with the crop-specific models to be 190 ng BaP per person, and 460 ng BaP per person with the T&A regression, for a soil concentration of 1 mg BaP kg(-1) soil (wet wt.). A virtually safe oral dose of BaP, as a marker of the carcinogenic PAH, was suggested by a European expert commission to be below 4.2 to 35 ng per person and day. Using these figures, an acceptable soil concentration of BaP was estimated for the purpose of crop production to be below 0.02 or 0.18 mg kg(-1) (wet wt.) with the crop-specific models, and below 0.01 or 0.08 mg kg(-1) (wet wt.) with T&A. The results demonstrate clearly the advantage of the crop-specific exposure assessment: it can be adapted to different food baskets and allows more effective risk assessment and management of soil pollution.

  10. Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Wepking, Carl; Avera, Bethany; Badgley, Brian; Barrett, John E; Franklin, Josh; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, Partha P; Smitherman, Crystal; Strickland, Michael S

    2017-03-29

    Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given that manure exposure has been shown to elicit increased antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities, we expect that manure-exposed sites will exhibit (i) compositionally different soil microbial communities, with shifts toward taxa known to exhibit resistance; (ii) greater abundance of antibiotic resistance genes; and (iii) corresponding maintenance of antibiotic resistance would lead to decreased microbial efficiency. We found that bacterial and fungal communities differed between reference and manure-exposed sites. Additionally, the β-lactam resistance gene ampC was 5.2-fold greater under manure exposure, potentially due to the use of cephalosporin antibiotics in dairy herds. Finally, ampC abundance was positively correlated with indicators of microbial stress, and microbial mass-specific respiration, which increased 2.1-fold under manure exposure. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of antibiotic resistance associated with manure inputs alters soil microbial communities and ecosystem function.

  11. Pesticides in household dust and soil: exposure pathways for children of agricultural families.

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, N J; Fenske, R A; Wolz, S A; Lee, I C; Kalman, D A

    1995-01-01

    Child of agriculture families are likely to be exposed to agricultural chemicals, even if they are not involved in farm activities. This study was designed to determine whether such children are exposed to higher levels of pesticides than children whose parents are not involved in agriculture and whose homes are not close to farms. Household dust and soil samples were collected in children's play areas from 59 residences in eastern Washington State (26 farming, 22 farmworker, and 11 nonfarming families). The majority of the farm families lived within 200 feet of an operating apple or pear orchard, whereas all reference homes were located at least a quarter of a mile from an orchard. Four organophosphorous (OP) insecticides commonly used on tree fruit were targeted for analysis: azinphosmethyl, chlorpyrifos, parathion, and phosmet. Samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass selective detection. Pesticide concentrations in household dust were significantly higher than in soil for all groups. OP levels for farmer/farm-worker families ranged from nondetectable to 930 ng/g in soil (0.93 ppm) and from nondetectable to 17,000 ng/g in dust (17 ppm); all four OP compounds were found in 62% of household dust samples, and two-thirds of the farm homes contained at least one OP above 1000 ng/g. Residues were found less frequently in reference homes and all levels were below 1000 ng/g. Household dust concentrations for all four target compounds were significantly lower in reference homes when compared to farmer/farmworker homes (Mann Whitney, U test; p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that children of agricultural families have a higher potential for exposure to OP pesticides than children of nonfarm families in this region. Measurable residues of a toxicity, I compound registered exclusively for agricultural use, azcnphosmettyl were found in household dust samples from all study homes, suggesting that low level exposure to such chemicals occurs throughout

  12. Microbial community in the soil determines the forest recovery post-exposure to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vishal; Shah, Shreya; Mackey, Herman; Kambhampati, Murty; Collins, Daniel; Dowd, Scot E; Colichio, Robert; McDonnell, Kevin T; Green, Timothy

    2013-10-15

    Exposure of an ecosystem to ionizing radiation remains a possibility either due to accidents involving nuclear fuel rods or contamination with high-level radioactive wastes. While the short and long-term effect of ionizing radiation on higher eukaryotes has been well documented, we do not have an understanding on the recovery of the microbial community post radiation. Here we report that at a site within Brookhaven National Laboratory that was radiated from 1961 to 1978 with γ rays (Gamma Forest), the ecosystem has not yet fully recovered from the effects of radiation. The current vegetation type in the Gamma Forest varies as one goes away from the source of ionizing radiation, with the region closest to the source having no vegetation. The microbial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of the soil from different regions suggests that the current microbial community structure is identical in all the Zones. When soil samples from each vegetation zone of the Gamma Forest were radiated with 1.8 kGy γ radiation and survival microbial community analyzed, clear difference in the microbial communities were observed. It is evident based on the experimental data that the colonization of soil with Nitrosomonadaceae is critical for the higher plants in pine barrens to reestablish and grow after the area had been exposed to ionizing radiation.

  13. Dust and nutrient enrichment by wind erosion from Danish soils in dependence of tillage direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadian Behbahani, Ali; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Wind erosion is a selective process, which promotes erosion of fine particles. Therefore, it can be assumed that increasing erosion rates are generally associated with increasing loss of dust sized particles and nutrients. However, this selective process is strongly affected by the orientation and respective trapping efficiency of tillage ridges and furrows. Since tillage ridges are often the only protection measure available on poorly aggregated soils in absence of a protective vegetation cover, it is very important to know which orientation respective to the dominant wind direction provides best protection. This knowledge could be very helpful for planning erosion protection measures on fields with high wind erosion susceptibility. The main objective of this study, therefore, was to determine the effect of tillage direction on dust and nutrient mobilization by wind, using wind tunnel simulations. In order to assess the relationship between the enrichment ratio of specific particle sizes and the amount of eroded nutrients, three soils with loamy sand texture, but varying amounts of sand-sized particles, were selected. In addition, a soil with slightly less sand, but much higher organic matter content was chosen. The soils were tested with three different soil surface scenarios - flat surface, parallel tillage, perpendicular tillage. The parallel tillage operation experienced the greatest erosion rates, independent of soil type. Particles with D50 between 100-155 μm showed the greatest risk of erosion. However, due to a greater loss of dust sized particles from perpendicularly tilled surfaces, this wind-surface arrangement showed a significant increase in nutrient enrichment ratio compared to parallel tillage and flat surfaces. The main reason for this phenomenon is most probably the trapping of larger particles in the perpendicular furrows. This indicates that the highest rate of soil protection does not necessarily coincide with lowest soil nutrient losses and

  14. Subcellular partitioning of metals in Aporrectodea caliginosa along a gradient of metal exposure in 31 field-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Beaumelle, Léa; Gimbert, Frédéric; Hedde, Mickaël; Guérin, Annie; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-07-01

    Subcellular fractionation of metals in organisms was proposed as a better way to characterize metal bioaccumulation. Here we report the impact of a laboratory exposure to a wide range of field-metal contaminated soils on the subcellular partitioning of metals in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. Soils moderately contaminated were chosen to create a gradient of soil metal availability; covering ranges of both soil metal contents and of several soil parameters. Following exposure, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined both in total earthworm body and in three subcellular compartments: cytosolic, granular and debris fractions. Three distinct proxies of soil metal availability were investigated: CaCl2-extractable content dissolved content predicted by a semi-mechanistic model and free ion concentration predicted by a geochemical speciation model. Subcellular partitionings of Cd and Pb were modified along the gradient of metal exposure, while stable Zn partitioning reflected regulation processes. Cd subcellular distribution responded more strongly to increasing soil Cd concentration than the total internal content, when Pb subcellular distribution and total internal content were similarly affected. Free ion concentrations were better descriptors of Cd and Pb subcellular distribution than CaCl2 extractable and dissolved metal concentrations. However, free ion concentrations and soil total metal contents were equivalent descriptors of the subcellular partitioning of Cd and Pb because they were highly correlated. Considering lowly contaminated soils, our results raise the question of the added value of three proxies of metal availability compared to soil total metal content in the assessment of metal bioavailability to earthworm.

  15. Exposure to arsenic and lead of children living near a copper-smelter in San Luis Potosi, Mexico: Importance of soil contamination for exposure of children.

    PubMed

    Carrizales, Leticia; Razo, Israel; Téllez-Hernández, Jesús I; Torres-Nerio, Rocío; Torres, Arturo; Batres, Lilia E; Cubillas, Ana-Cristina; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the levels of soil contamination and child exposure in areas next to a primary smelter (arsenic-copper metallurgical) located in the community of Morales in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. In Morales, 90% of the soil samples studied in this work were above 400 mg/kg of lead, and above 100 mg/kg of arsenic, which are guidelines recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Bioaccessibility of these metals was studied in vitro in 10 soil samples; the median values of bioaccessibility obtained in these samples were 46.5% and 32.5% for arsenic and lead. Since the concentrations of arsenic and lead in soil were above normal values, and taking into account the bioaccessibility results, exposure to these metals was evaluated in children. Regarding lead, children aged 3-6 years had the highest mean blood lead levels; furthermore, 90% of them had concentrations above 10 microg/dl (CDC's action level). Total urinary arsenic was higher in children aged 8-9 yr; however, the percentage of children with concentrations above 50 microg/g creatinine (CDC's action level) or 100 microg/g creatinine (World Health Organization [WHO] action level) was similar among different age groups. Using the EPAs integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children (IEUBK), we estimated that 87% of the total lead in blood is obtained from the soil/dust pathway. The exposure dose to arsenic, estimated for the children living in Morales using Monte Carlo analysis and the arsenic concentrations found in soil, was above the EPA's reference dose. With all these results, it is evident that studies are needed in order to identify adverse health effects in children living in Morales; nevertheless, it is more important to develop a risk reduction program as soon as possible.

  16. Review and possible development direction of the methods for modeling of soil pollutants spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, D. A.; Medvedev, A. N.; Sergeev, A. P.; Buevich, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Forecasting of environmental pollutants spatial distribution is a significant field of research in view of the current concerns regarding environment all over the world. Due to the danger to health and environment associated with an increase in pollution of air, soil, water and biosphere, it is very important to have the models that are capable to describe the modern distribution of contaminants and to forecast the dynamic of their spreading in future at different territories. This article addresses the methods, which applied the most often in this field, with an accent on soil pollution. The possible direction of such methods further development is suggested.

  17. Direct Detection of 16S rRNA in Soil Extracts by Using Oligonucleotide Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Small, Jack; Call, Douglas R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Straub, Timothy M.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development and validation of a simple microarray method for the direct detection of intact 16S rRNA from unpurified soil extracts. Total RNAs from Geobacter chapellei and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans were hybridized to an oligonucleotide array consisting of universal and species-specific 16S rRNA probes. PCR-amplified products from Geobacter and Desulfovibrio were easily and specifically detected under a range of hybridization times, temperatures, and buffers. However, reproducible, specific hybridization and detection of intact rRNA could be accomplished only by using a chaperone-detector probe strategy. With this knowledge, assay conditions were developed for rRNA detection using a 2-h hybridization time at room temperature. Hybridization specificity and signal intensity were enhanced using fragmented RNA. Formamide was required in the hybridization buffer in order to achieve species-specific detection of intact rRNA. With the chaperone detection strategy, we were able to specifically hybridize and detect G. chapellei 16S rRNA directly from a total-RNA soil extract, without further purification or removal of soluble soil constituents. The detection sensitivity for G. chapellei 16S rRNA in soil extracts was at least 0.5 μg of total RNA, representing approximately 7.5 × 106 Geobacter cell equivalents of RNA. These results suggest that it is now possible to apply microarray technology to the direct detection of microorganisms in environmental samples, without using PCR. PMID:11571176

  18. The surface exposure /maturity/ of lunar soils - Some concepts and I sub s/FeO compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.

    1978-01-01

    Surface exposure (or, equivalently, maturity) indices of lunar soils are a measure of residence time of soil in the upper one millimeter of the regolith. Several concepts concerning the use of and terminology associated with maturity indices are discussed. For reasons which include its generally-applicable nature and large data base, the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) surface exposure (maturity) index I sub s/FeO (the ratio of the value of the intensity in arbitrary units of the FMR resonance at g equal to about 2.1 to the FeO concentration) is particularly suitable and useful. A compilation of values of I sub s/FeO for 164 Apollo surface and trench soils and six Luna 24 core soils is given.

  19. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    PubMed

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal.

  20. Quantitation of Aristolochic Acids in Corn, Wheat Grain, and Soil Samples Collected in Serbia: Identifying a Novel Exposure Pathway in the Etiology of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wan; Pavlović, Nikola M; Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Liu, Jingjing; Deng, Kailin; Wang, Yinan; Milosavljević, Biljana; Kostić, Emina N

    2016-07-27

    While to date investigations provided convincing evidence on the role of aristolochic acids (AAs) in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and upper urothelial cancer (UUC), the exposure pathways by which AAs enter human bodies to cause BEN and UUC remain obscure. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that environmental pollution by AAs and root uptake of AAs in the polluted soil may be one of the pathways by which AAs enter the human food chain. The hypothesis driving this study was that the decay of Aristolochia clematitis L., a AA-containing herbaceous plant that is found growing widespread in the endemic regions, could release free AAs to the soil, which could be taken up by food crops growing nearby, thereby transferring this potent human nephrotoxin and carcinogen into their edible parts. Using the highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection method, we identified and quantitated in this study for the first time AAs in corn, wheat grain, and soil samples collected from the endemic village Kutles in Serbia. Our results provide the first direct evidence that food crops and soil in the Balkans are contaminated with AAs. It is possible that the presence of AAs in edible parts of crops originating from the AA-contaminated soil could be one of the major pathways by which humans become exposed to AAs.

  1. Biodegradation of Dinoseb (2-sec-Butyl-4,6-Dinitrophenol) in Several Idaho Soils with Various Dinoseb Exposure Histories †

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Todd O.; Crawford, Ronald L.; Crawford, Don L.

    1990-01-01

    We examined the ability of native microorganisms in various Idaho soils to degrade dinoseb and studied some physical and chemical soil characteristics which might affect the biodegradation process. Dinoseb biodegradation rates were higher in silt-loam soils than in loamy-sand soils. Biodegradation rates were not influenced by previous exposure of the soils to dinoseb. Bacterial numbers, measured by standard plate counts on soil extract agar, were the best predictors of biodegradation rates, accounting for 53% of the variability between soils. Soil nitrate-N inhibited dinoseb biodegradation and accounted for 39% of the variability. Sorption of dinoseb to soil surfaces also appeared to influence biodegradation rates. No other soil parameter contributed significantly to the variability in biodegradation rates. Persistence of dinoseb in one soil was due to inhibition of biodegradation by nitrate, while in another soil persistence appeared to be due to lack of native degradative microorganisms. PMID:16348086

  2. Direct pulp capping after a carious exposure versus root canal treatment: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, Falk; Stolpe, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Excavation of deep caries often leads to pulpal exposure even in teeth with sensible, nonsymptomatic pulps. Although direct pulp capping (DPC) aims to maintain pulpal health, it frequently requires follow-up treatments like root canal treatment (RCT), which could have been performed immediately after the exposure, with possibly improved outcomes. We quantified and compared the long-term cost-effectiveness of both strategies. A Markov model was constructed following a molar with an occlusally located exposure of a sensible, nonsymptomatic pulp in a 20-year-old male patient over his lifetime. Transition probabilities or hazard functions were estimated based on systematically and nonsystematically assessed literature. Costs were estimated based on German health care, and cost-effectiveness was analyzed using Monte Carlo microsimulations. Despite requiring follow-up treatments significantly earlier, teeth treated by DPC were retained for long periods of time (52 years) at significantly reduced lifetime costs (545 vs 701 Euro) compared with teeth treated by RCT. For teeth with proximal instead of occlusal exposures or teeth in patients >50 years of age, this cost-effectiveness ranking was reversed. Although sensitivity analyses found substantial uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of both strategies, DPC was usually found to be less costly than RCT. We found both DPC and RCT suitable to treat exposed vital, nonsymptomatic pulps. DPC was more cost-effective in younger patients and for occlusal exposure sites, whereas RCT was more effective in older patients or teeth with proximal exposures. These findings might change depending on the health care system and underlying literature-based probabilities. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protocols and guidelines for field-scale measurement of soil salinity distribution with ECa-directed soil sampling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil salinity is a spatially complex and dynamic property of soil that influences crop yields when the threshold salinity level is exceeded. The mapping and monitoring of soil salinity is necessary for reclamation, crop selection, and site-specific irrigation management of salt-affected soils in th...

  4. Health risk assessment of urban population exposure to contaminants in the soils of the Southern Kuzbass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipova, N. A.; Tarasova, N. P.; Osipov, K. Yu.; Maximova, D. I.

    2015-11-01

    This study concerns the human health risk due to exposure of Co, Cu, As, Mn contained in soils of the Southern Kuzbass, where the coal industry is developed. Soil samples of 200 were taken in Mezhdurechensk - city with intensive coal mining and processing industries. The content of heavy metals in samples were determined using the electron spectroscopy. Several samples were also investigated by methods of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With regard to the effects of heavy metals on the adult population health the total Hazard Index (HI) for ingestion and inhalation routes was 0.87×10-1 and 7.8×10-1 respectively. According to the contribution of Co, Cu, As, Mn to the total HI the elements form the decreasing series Mn (0,42-0,50)> Co (0.18-0.20)> Cu (0,13-0,19 )> As (0,05-0,09). These chemical elements are present in the organic and inorganic forms in coals and coal wastes. Ranking the city territory has shown that administrative districts have different HI values (8.4 10-1 - 8.8 10-1). When analyzing the human health risks of coal mining and coal-processing enterprises the impact of heavy metals as components of coals and combustion products should be taken into account.

  5. Surface exposure to sunlight stimulates CO2 release from permafrost soil carbon in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Cory, Rose M; Crump, Byron C; Dobkowski, Jason A; Kling, George W

    2013-02-26

    Recent climate change has increased arctic soil temperatures and thawed large areas of permafrost, allowing for microbial respiration of previously frozen C. Furthermore, soil destabilization from melting ice has caused an increase in thermokarst failures that expose buried C and release dissolved organic C (DOC) to surface waters. Once exposed, the fate of this C is unknown but will depend on its reactivity to sunlight and microbial attack, and the light available at the surface. In this study we manipulated water released from areas of thermokarst activity to show that newly exposed DOC is >40% more susceptible to microbial conversion to CO(2) when exposed to UV light than when kept dark. When integrated over the water column of receiving rivers, this susceptibility translates to the light-stimulated bacterial activity being on average from 11% to 40% of the total areal activity in turbid versus DOC-colored rivers, respectively. The range of DOC lability to microbes seems to depend on prior light exposure, implying that sunlight may act as an amplification factor in the conversion of frozen C stores to C gases in the atmosphere.

  6. Acid sulphate soil disturbance and metals in groundwater: implications for human exposure through home grown produce.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Horwitz, Pierre; Appleyard, Steve; Barton, Caroline; Wajrak, Magda

    2006-09-01

    A significant emerging environmental problem is the disturbance and oxidation of soils with high levels of iron sulphide minerals resulting in acidification and causing the mobilization of metals into groundwater. This process is occurring in many parts of the world. In Western Australia, impacted groundwater is extracted by residents for domestic use. We sought to establish domestic use patterns of bore water and the concentration of metals. Sixty-seven domestic bore water samples clearly indicated oxidation of sulphidic materials with heavy metal concentrations ranging for aluminium (exposure to heavy metals via the consumption of home grown produce. This warrants further investigation in light of increasing acid sulphate soil disturbance in many locations.

  7. Surface exposure to sunlight stimulates CO2 release from permafrost soil carbon in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Cory, Rose M.; Crump, Byron C.; Dobkowski, Jason A.; Kling, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent climate change has increased arctic soil temperatures and thawed large areas of permafrost, allowing for microbial respiration of previously frozen C. Furthermore, soil destabilization from melting ice has caused an increase in thermokarst failures that expose buried C and release dissolved organic C (DOC) to surface waters. Once exposed, the fate of this C is unknown but will depend on its reactivity to sunlight and microbial attack, and the light available at the surface. In this study we manipulated water released from areas of thermokarst activity to show that newly exposed DOC is >40% more susceptible to microbial conversion to CO2 when exposed to UV light than when kept dark. When integrated over the water column of receiving rivers, this susceptibility translates to the light-stimulated bacterial activity being on average from 11% to 40% of the total areal activity in turbid versus DOC-colored rivers, respectively. The range of DOC lability to microbes seems to depend on prior light exposure, implying that sunlight may act as an amplification factor in the conversion of frozen C stores to C gases in the atmosphere. PMID:23401500

  8. Direct and Passive Prenatal Nicotine Exposure and the Development of Externalizing Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2009-01-01

    The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood antisocial outcomes has been demonstrated repeatedly across a variety of outcomes. Yet debate continues as to whether this association reflects a direct programming effect of nicotine on fetal brain development, or a phenotypic indicator of heritable liability passed from mother to child. In the current study, we examine relations between maternal smoking and child behavior among 133 women and their 7–15-year-olds, who were recruited for clinical levels of psychopathology. In order to disentangle correlates of maternal smoking, women who smoked during pregnancy were compared with (a) those who did not smoke, and (b) those who did not smoke but experienced significant second-hand exposure. Second-hand exposure was associated with increased externalizing psychopathology in participant mothers’ offspring. Moreover, regression analyses indicated that smoke exposure during pregnancy predicted conduct disorder symptoms, over and above the effects of income, parental antisocial tendencies, prematurity, birth weight, and poor parenting practices. This is the first study to extend the findings of externalizing vulnerability to second hand smoke exposure. PMID:17520361

  9. Creating nanoporosity in silver nanocolumns by direct exposure to radio-frequency air plasma.

    PubMed

    El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Stephant, Nicolas; Hamon, Jonathan; Thiry, Damien; Chauvin, Adrien; Chettab, Meriem; Gautron, Eric; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Granier, Agnès; Tessier, Pierre-Yves

    2016-01-07

    Nanoporous materials are of great importance for a broad range of applications including catalysis, optical sensors and water filtration. Although several approaches already exist for the creation of nanoporous materials, the race for the development of versatile methods, more suitable for the nanoelectronics industry, is still ongoing. In this communication we report for the first time on the possibility of generating nanoporosity in silver nanocolumns using a dry approach based on the oxidation of silver by direct exposure to a commercially available radio-frequency air plasma. The silver nanocolumns are created by glancing angle deposition using magnetron sputtering of a silver target in pure argon plasma. We show that upon exposure to the rf air plasma, the nanocolumns transform from solid silver into nanoporous silver oxide. We further show that by tuning the plasma pressure and the exposure duration, the oxidation process can be finely adjusted allowing for precisely controlling the morphology and the nanoporosity of the silver oxide nanocolumns. The generation of porosity within the silver nanocolumns is explained according to a cracking-induced oxidation mechanism based on two repeated events occurring alternately during the oxidation process: (i) oxidation of silver upon exposure to the air plasma and (ii) generation of nanocracks and blisters within the oxide layer due to the high internal stress generated within the material during oxidation.

  10. Creating nanoporosity in silver nanocolumns by direct exposure to radio-frequency air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Stephant, Nicolas; Hamon, Jonathan; Thiry, Damien; Chauvin, Adrien; Chettab, Meriem; Gautron, Eric; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Granier, Agnès; Tessier, Pierre-Yves

    2015-12-01

    Nanoporous materials are of great importance for a broad range of applications including catalysis, optical sensors and water filtration. Although several approaches already exist for the creation of nanoporous materials, the race for the development of versatile methods, more suitable for the nanoelectronics industry, is still ongoing. In this communication we report for the first time on the possibility of generating nanoporosity in silver nanocolumns using a dry approach based on the oxidation of silver by direct exposure to a commercially available radio-frequency air plasma. The silver nanocolumns are created by glancing angle deposition using magnetron sputtering of a silver target in pure argon plasma. We show that upon exposure to the rf air plasma, the nanocolumns transform from solid silver into nanoporous silver oxide. We further show that by tuning the plasma pressure and the exposure duration, the oxidation process can be finely adjusted allowing for precisely controlling the morphology and the nanoporosity of the silver oxide nanocolumns. The generation of porosity within the silver nanocolumns is explained according to a cracking-induced oxidation mechanism based on two repeated events occurring alternately during the oxidation process: (i) oxidation of silver upon exposure to the air plasma and (ii) generation of nanocracks and blisters within the oxide layer due to the high internal stress generated within the material during oxidation.

  11. Direct and indirect effects of invasive plants on soil chemistry and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Callaway, Ragan M

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants have a multitude of impacts on plant communities through their direct and indirect effects on soil chemistry and ecosystem function. For example, plants modify the soil environment through root exudates that affect soil structure, and mobilize and/or chelate nutrients. The long-term impact of litter and root exudates can modify soil nutrient pools, and there is evidence that invasive plant species may alter nutrient cycles differently from native species. The effects of plants on ecosystem biogeochemistry may be caused by differences in leaf tissue nutrient stoichiometry or secondary metabolites, although evidence for the importance of allelochemicals in driving these processes is lacking. Some invasive species may gain a competitive advantage through the release of compounds or combinations of compounds that are unique to the invaded community—the “novel weapons hypothesis.” Invasive plants also can exert profound impact on plant communities indirectly through the herbicides used to control them. Glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the world, often is used to help control invasive weeds, and generally is considered to have minimal environmental impacts. Most studies show little to no effect of glyphosate and other herbicides on soil microbial communities. However, herbicide applications can reduce or promote rhizobium nodulation and mycorrhiza formation. Herbicide drift can affect the growth of non-target plants, and glyphosate and other herbicides can impact significantly the secondary chemistry of plants at sublethal doses. In summary, the literature indicates that invasive species can alter the biogeochemistry of ecosystems, that secondary metabolites released by invasive species may play important roles in soil chemistry as well as plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions, and that the herbicides used to control invasive species can impact plant chemistry and ecosystems in ways that have yet to be fully explored.

  12. Assessing natural direct and indirect effects for a continuous exposure and a dichotomous outcome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the literature on mediation have extended from traditional linear structural equation modeling approach to causal mediation analysis using potential outcomes framework. Pearl proposed a mediation formula to calculate expected potential outcomes used in the natural direct and indirect effects definition under the key sequential ignorability assumptions. Current methods mainly focused on binary exposure variables, and in this article, this approach is further extended to settings in which continuous exposures may be of interest. Focusing on a dichotomous outcome, we give precise definitions of the natural direct and indirect effects on both the risk difference and odds ratio scales utilizing the empirical joint distribution of the exposure and baseline covariates from the whole sample analysis population. A mediation-formula based approach is proposed to estimate the corresponding causal quantities. Simulation study is conducted to assess the statistical properties of the proposed method and we illustrate our approach by applying it to the Jackson Heart Study to estimate the mediation effects of diabetes on the relation between obesity and chronic kidney disease. Sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the impact of violation of no unmeasured mediator-outcome confounder assumption.

  13. Validation of the Dynamic Direct Exposure Method for Toxicity Testing of Diesel Exhaust In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Amanda; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emission is a major health concern because of the complex nature of its gaseous content (e.g., NO2, NO, CO, and CO2) and high concentration of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5 μm which allows for deeper penetration into the human pulmonary system upon inhalation. The aim of this research was to elucidate the potential toxic effects of diesel exhaust on a human pulmonary-based cellular system. Validation of a dynamic direct exposure method for both laboratory (230 hp Volvo truck engine) and field (Volkswagen Passat passenger car) diesel engines, at idle mode, was implemented. Human pulmonary type II epithelial cells (A549) grown on porous membranes were exposed to unmodified diesel exhaust at a low flow rate (37.5 mL/min). In parallel, diesel emission sampling was also conducted using real-time air monitoring techniques. Induced cellular effects were assessed using a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (MTS, ATP, and NRU). Reduction of cell viability was observed in a time-dependent manner following 30–60 mins of exposure with NRU as the most sensitive assay. The results suggest that the dynamic direct exposure method has the potential to be implemented for both laboratory- and field-based in vitro toxicity studies of diesel exhaust emissions. PMID:23986878

  14. Exposure to aggressive behaviour and burnout in direct support providers: The role of positive work factors.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Jennifer M; Lunsky, Yona; Dewa, Carolyn S

    2014-11-11

    Many direct support providers (DSPs) are exposed to aggressive behaviour in their work supporting adults with developmental disabilities service recipients. This is a work environment factor that has been linked to job burnout. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of positive work factors on emotional exhaustion (EE) among DSPs who are exposed to aggressive behaviour. Survey responses from 671 DSPs who were working in community service settings for adults with developmental disabilities, and were exposed to aggressive behaviour at least monthly were examined. Hierarchical linear regression examined the direct contribution and moderating role of positive work factors (self-efficacy for dealing with aggression and work contributions) on EE measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, after controlling for demographics, occupational variables, exposure to aggression and negative emotional reactions to aggression. Results showed that younger age, more experience, more depression/anger emotions in response to aggression, lower self-efficacy and low positive work contributions were significantly associated with EE. Positive work motivation was a moderator of exposure to aggression and EE. When work motivations were low, DSPs were more negatively affected by higher exposure to aggression. These findings suggest that in addition to addressing the negative emotional reactions to the aggressive behaviour encountered at work, it is also important to foster positive work factors which may be protective against EE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of the dynamic direct exposure method for toxicity testing of diesel exhaust in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joeng, Lucky; Hayes, Amanda; Bakand, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emission is a major health concern because of the complex nature of its gaseous content (e.g., NO2, NO, CO, and CO2) and high concentration of particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5  μ m which allows for deeper penetration into the human pulmonary system upon inhalation. The aim of this research was to elucidate the potential toxic effects of diesel exhaust on a human pulmonary-based cellular system. Validation of a dynamic direct exposure method for both laboratory (230 hp Volvo truck engine) and field (Volkswagen Passat passenger car) diesel engines, at idle mode, was implemented. Human pulmonary type II epithelial cells (A549) grown on porous membranes were exposed to unmodified diesel exhaust at a low flow rate (37.5 mL/min). In parallel, diesel emission sampling was also conducted using real-time air monitoring techniques. Induced cellular effects were assessed using a range of in vitro cytotoxicity assays (MTS, ATP, and NRU). Reduction of cell viability was observed in a time-dependent manner following 30-60 mins of exposure with NRU as the most sensitive assay. The results suggest that the dynamic direct exposure method has the potential to be implemented for both laboratory- and field-based in vitro toxicity studies of diesel exhaust emissions.

  16. Occurrence of nitro- and oxy-PAHs in agricultural soils in eastern China and excess lifetime cancer risks from human exposure through soil ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhe; Zhu, Ying; Zhuo, Shaojie; Liu, Weiping; Zeng, Eddy Y; Wang, Xilong; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-09

    The quality of agricultural soil is vital to human health, however soil contamination is a severe problem in China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been found to be among the major soil contaminants in China. PAH derivatives could be more toxic but their measurements in soils are extremely limited. This study reports levels, spatial distributions and compositions of 11 nitrated (nPAHs) and 4 oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) in agricultural soils covering 26 provinces in eastern China to fill the data gap. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) from the exposure to them in addition to 21 parent PAHs (pPAHs) via soil ingestion has been estimated. The mean concentration of ∑nPAHs and ∑oPAHs in agricultural soils is 50±45μg/kg and 9±8μg/kg respectively. Both ∑nPAHs and ∑oPAHs follow a similar spatial distribution pattern with elevated concentrations found in Liaoning, Shanxi, Henan and Guizhou. However if taking account of pPAHs, the high ELCR by soil ingestion is estimated for Shanxi, Zhejiang, Liaoning, Jiangsu and Hubei. The maximum ELCR is estimated at ca.10(-5) by both deterministic and probabilistic studies with moderate toxic equivalent factors (TEFs). If maximum TEFs available are applied, there is a 0.2% probability that the ELCR will exceed 10(-4) in the areas covered. There is a great chance to underestimate the ELCR via soil ingestion for some regions if only the 16 priority PAHs in agricultural soils are considered. The early life exposure and burden are considered extremely important to ELCR. Emission sources are qualitatively predicted and for areas with higher ELCR such as Shanxi and Liaoning, new loadings of PAHs and derivatives are identified. This is the first large scale study on nPAHs and oPAHs contamination levels in agricultural soils in China. The risk assessment based on this underpins the policy making and is valuable for both scientists and policy makers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pre-exposure to drought increases the resistance of tropical forest soil bacterial communities to extended drought

    Treesearch

    Nicholas J. Bouskill; Hsiao Chien Lim; Sharon Borglin; Rohit Salve; Tana Wood; Whendee L. Silver; Eoin L. Brodie

    2013-01-01

    Global climate models project a decrease in the magnitude of precipitation in tropical regions. Changes in rainfall patterns have important implications for the moisture content and redox status of tropical soils, yet little is known about how these changes may affect microbial community structure. Specifically, does exposure to prior stress confer increased resistance...

  18. Exposure to a Rotating Virtual Environment During Treadmill Locomotion Causes Adaptation in Heading Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Marshburn, A.; Nomura, Y.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the adaptive effects of variation in the direction of optic flow, experienced during linear treadmill walking, on modifying locomotor trajectory. Subjects (n = 30) walked on a motorized linear treadmill at 4.0 km/h for 24 minutes while viewing the interior of a 3D virtual scene projected onto a screen 1.5 m in front of them. The virtual scene depicted constant self-motion equivalent to either 1) walking around the perimeter of a room to one s left (Rotating Room group) 2) walking down the center of a hallway (Infinite Hallway group). The scene was static for the first 4 minutes, and then constant rate self-motion was simulated for the remaining 20 minutes. Before and after the treadmill locomotion adaptation period, subjects performed five stepping trials where in each trial they marched in place to the beat of a metronome at 90 steps/min while blindfolded in a quiet room. The subject s final heading direction (deg), final X (for-aft, cm) and final Y (medio-lateral, cm) positions were measured for each trial. During the treadmill locomotion adaptation period subject s 3D torso position was measured. We found that subjects in the Rotating Room group as compared to the Infinite Hallway group: 1) showed significantly greater deviation during post exposure testing in the heading direction and Y position opposite to the direction of optic flow experienced during treadmill walking 2) showed a significant monotonically increasing torso yaw angular rotation bias in the direction of optic flow during the treadmill adaptation exposure period. Subjects in both groups showed greater forward translation (in the +X direction) during the post treadmill stepping task that differed significantly from their pre exposure performance. Subjects in both groups reported no perceptual deviation in position during the stepping tasks. We infer that 3 viewing simulated rotary self-motion during treadmill locomotion causes adaptive modification

  19. Exposure to a Rotating Virtual Environment During Treadmill Locomotion Causes Adaptation in Heading Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, T; Marshburn, A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Nomura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the adaptive effects of variation in the direction of optic flow, experienced during linear treadmill walking, on modifying locomotor trajectory. Subjects (n = 30) walked on a motorized linear treadmill at 4.0 kilometers per hour for 24 minutes while viewing the interior of a 3D virtual scene projected onto a screen 1.5 in in front of them. The virtual scene depicted constant self-motion equivalent to either 1) walking around the perimeter of a room to one s left (Rotating Room group) 2) walking down the center of a hallway (Infinite Hallway group). The scene was static for the first 4 minutes, and then constant rate self-motion was simulated for the remaining 20 minutes. Before and after the treadmill locomotion adaptation period, subjects performed five stepping trials where in each trial they marched in place to the beat of a metronome at 90 steps/min while blindfolded in a quiet room. The subject's final heading direction (deg), final X (for-aft, cm) and final Y (medio-lateral, cm) positions were measured for each trial. During the treadmill locomotion adaptation period subject's 3D torso position was measured. We found that subjects in the Rotating Room group as compared to the Infinite Hallway group: 1) showed significantly greater deviation during post exposure testing in the heading direction and Y position opposite to the direction of optic flow experienced during treadmill walking 2) showed a significant monotonically increasing torso yaw angular rotation bias in the direction of optic flow during the treadmill adaptation exposure period. Subjects in both groups showed greater forward translation (in the +X direction) during the post treadmill stepping task that differed significantly from their pre exposure performance. Subjects in both groups reported no perceptual deviation in position during the stepping tasks. We infer that viewing simulated rotary self-motion during treadmill locomotion causes

  20. Direct estimation of mass flow and diffusion of nitrogen compounds in solution and soil.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, Olusegun Ayodeji; Inselsbacher, Erich; Näsholm, Torgny

    2014-02-01

    Plant nutrient uptake from soil is mainly governed by diffusion and transpirationally induced mass flow, but the current methods for assessing the relative importance of these processes are indirect. We developed a microdialysis method using solutions of different osmotic potentials as perfusates to simulate diffusion and mass flow processes, and assessed how induced mass flow affected fluxes of nitrogen (N) compounds in solution and in boreal forest soil. Varying the osmotic potential of perfusates induced vertical fluxes in the direction of the dialysis membranes at rates of between 1 × 10(-8) and 3 × 10(-7)  m s(-1) , thus covering the estimated range of water velocities perpendicular to root surfaces and induced by transpiration. Mass flow increased N fluxes in solution but even more so in soil. This effect was explained by an indirect effect of mass flow on rates of diffusive fluxes, possibly caused by the formation of steeper gradients in concentrations of N compounds from membrane surfaces out in the soil. Our results suggest that transpiration may be an essential driver of plant N acquisition. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. A model for inferring canopy and underlying soil temperatures from multi-directional measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Brakke, T. W.; Susskind, J.

    1992-01-01

    A model is presented of thermal emission from a canopy/soil surface, where the soil and the leaves are at different temperatures, Tg and Tc, respectively. The temperature Tm corresponding to a radiometer reading is given by B sub lambda(Tm) = chi-B sub lambda(Tg) + (1-chi)B sub lambda(Tc), where B sub lambda denotes the Planck blackbody function at wavelength lambda, chi specifies the fraction of the field of view occupied by the soil at a given view direction, and an emissivity of 1.0 is assumed for the plants and the soil. It is observed that at large view zenith angles, only the plants are effectively seen, and therefore Tc can be determined from the observations a large zenith angles, to the extent that such observations are practical. Water stress can produce an increase of chi and thus tends to produce an exaggerated increase in the observed temperature compared to the actual increase in canopy temperature. These effects are analyzed for a simulated soybean canopy.

  2. Estimates of potential childhood lead exposure from contaminated soil using the US EPA IEUBK Model in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, Mark A S; Mohmmad, Shaike M; Gulson, Brian L; Taylor, Mark P; Kristensen, Louise J; Birch, Gavin

    2017-07-01

    Surface soils in portions of the Sydney (New South Wales, Australia) urban area are contaminated with lead (Pb) primarily from past use of Pb in gasoline, the deterioration of exterior lead-based paints, and industrial activities. Surface soil samples (n=341) were collected from a depth of 0-2.5cm at a density of approximately one sample per square kilometre within the Sydney estuary catchment and analysed for lead. The bioaccessibility of soil Pb was analysed in 18 samples. The blood lead level (BLL) of a hypothetical 24 month old child was predicted at soil sampling sites in residential and open land use using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Integrated Exposure Uptake and Biokinetic (IEUBK) model. Other environmental exposures used the Australian National Environmental Protection Measure (NEPM) default values. The IEUBK model predicted a geometric mean BLL of 2.0±2.1µg/dL using measured soil lead bioavailability measurements (bioavailability =34%) and 2.4±2.8µg/dL using the Australian NEPM default assumption (bioavailability =50%). Assuming children were present and residing at the sampling locations, the IEUBK model incorporating soil Pb bioavailability predicted that 5.6% of the children at the sampling locations could potentially have BLLs exceeding 5µg/dL and 2.1% potentially could have BLLs exceeding 10µg/dL. These estimations are consistent with BLLs previously measured in children in Sydney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: the New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Howard W; Covington, Tina P; Mielke, Paul W; Wolman, Fredericka J; Powell, Eric T; Gonzales, Chris R

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 μg/m(2) (454 μg/ft(2)) range 603-56650 μg/m(2) (56-5263 μg/ft(2)) to a median of 398 μg/m(2) (37 μg/ft(2)) range 86-980 μg/m(2) (8-91 μg/ft(2)). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At ∼$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention.

  4. In vitro particulate matter exposure causes direct and lung-mediated indirect effects on cardiomyocyte function.

    PubMed

    Gorr, Matthew W; Youtz, Dane J; Eichenseer, Clayton M; Smith, Korbin E; Nelin, Timothy D; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Wold, Loren E

    2015-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure induces a pathological response from both the lungs and the cardiovascular system. PM is capable of both manifestation into the lung epithelium and entrance into the bloodstream. Therefore, PM has the capacity for both direct and lung-mediated indirect effects on the heart. In the present studies, we exposed isolated rat cardiomyocytes to ultrafine particulate matter (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) and examined their contractile function and calcium handling ability. In another set of experiments, lung epithelial cells (16HBE14o- or Calu-3) were cultured on permeable supports that allowed access to both the basal (serosal) and apical (mucosal) media; the basal media was used to culture cardiomyocytes to model the indirect, lung-mediated effects of PM on the heart. Both the direct and indirect treatments caused a reduction in contractility as evidenced by reduced percent sarcomere shortening and reduced calcium handling ability measured in field-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with various anti-oxidants before culture with DEP was able to partially prevent the contractile dysfunction. The basal media from lung epithelial cells treated with PM contained several inflammatory cytokines, and we found that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was a key trigger for cardiomyocyte dysfunction. These results indicate the presence of both direct and indirect effects of PM on cardiomyocyte function in vitro. Future work will focus on elucidating the mechanisms involved in these separate pathways using in vivo models of air pollution exposure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Edaphic factors and plant-insect interactions: direct and indirect effects of serpentine soil on florivores and pollinators.

    PubMed

    Meindl, George A; Bain, Daniel J; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-12-01

    Edaphic factors can lead to differences in plant morphology and tissue chemistry. However, whether these differences result in altered plant-insect interactions for soil-generalist plants is less understood. We present evidence that soil chemistry can alter plant-insect interactions both directly, through chemical composition of plant tissue, and indirectly, through plant morphology, for serpentine-tolerant Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae). First, we scored floral display (corolla width, number of open flowers per inflorescence, and inflorescence height), flower chemistry, pollinator visitation and florivory of M. guttatus growing on natural serpentine and non-serpentine soil over 2 years. Second, we conducted a common garden reciprocal soil transplant experiment to isolate the effect of serpentine soil on floral display traits and flower chemistry. And last, we observed arrays of field-collected inflorescences and potted plants to determine the effect of soil environment in the field on pollinator visitation and florivore damage, respectively. For both natural and experimental plants, serpentine soil caused reductions in floral display and directly altered flower tissue chemistry. Plants in natural serpentine populations received fewer pollinator visits and less damage by florivores relative to non-serpentine plants. In experimental arrays, soil environment did not influence pollinator visitation (though larger flowers were visited more frequently), but did alter florivore damage, with serpentine-grown plants receiving less damage. Our results demonstrate that the soil environment can directly and indirectly affect plant-mutualist and plant-antagonist interactions of serpentine-tolerant plants by altering flower chemistry and floral display.

  6. Occupational exposure to base stations-compliance with EU directive 2004/40/EC.

    PubMed

    Gajsek, Peter; Simunić, Dina

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth of mobile communications has not only led to a rising number of mobile telephones. It has also made base stations essential for these services widespread on many roofs. However, not everyone is aware that working close to sources of high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF), such as transmitter antennas for mobile phones, pagers and police, fire and other emergency services, can result in high EMF exposure. This paper deals with measurements and calculations of the compliance boundary for workers in one typical roof top base station setting according to EU Directive and other relevant EN standards.

  7. An adaptable internal dose model for risk assessment of dietary and soil dioxin exposures in young children.

    PubMed

    Kerger, Brent D; Leung, Hon-Wing; Scott, Paul K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-11-01

    An adaptable model is presented for assessing the blood lipid concentrations of polychlorodibenzodioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from dietary (breast milk, formula, milk, and other foods) and soil pathway exposures (soil ingestion and dermal contact) utilizing age-specific exposure and intake estimates for young children. The approach includes a simple one-compartment (adipose volume) toxicokinetic model that incorporates empirical data on age-dependent half-lives and bioavailability of PCDD/F congeners, child body size and intake rates, and recent data on breast milk and food dioxin levels. Users can enter site-specific soil concentration data on 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDD/F congeners for specific assessment of body burden changes from soil pathways in combination with background dietary exposures from birth through age 7 years. The model produces a profile of the estimated PCDD/F concentration in blood lipid (in World Health Organization 1998 dioxin toxic equivalents) versus time for a child from birth through age 7 years. The peak and time-weighted average (TWA) internal dose (defined as blood lipid dioxin toxic equivalents) for a variety of specific child exposure assumptions can then be compared to safe internal dose benchmarks for risk assessment purposes, similar to an approach taken by United States Environmental Protection Agency for assessing child lead exposures. We conclude that this adaptable toxicokinetic model can provide a more comprehensive assessment of potential health risks of PCDD/Fs to children because it integrates recent empirical findings on PCDD/F kinetics in humans and allows users to assess contributions from varied dietary and site-specific environmental exposure assumptions.

  8. Contingency in the Direction and Mechanics of Soil Organic Matter Responses to Increased Rainfall

    SciTech Connect

    Berhe, Asmeret A.; Suttle, K. Blake; Burton, Sarah D.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2012-09-03

    Shifts in regional precipitation patterns will be a major component of global climate change. Rainfall will show greater and more variable changes in response to rising earth surface temperatures than most other climatic variables, and will be a major driver of ecosystem change. We studied the consequences of predicted changes in California’s rainy season for storage and stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter (SOM). In a controlled and replicated experiment, we amended rainfall over large plots of natural grassland in accordance with alternative scenarios of future climate change. Results show that increases in annual rainfall have important consequences for soil C storage, but that the strength and even direction of these effects depend entirely on seasonal timing. Rainfall increases during the winter rainy season led to pronounced C loss from soil while rainfall increases after the typical rainy season increased soil C stocks. Analysis of mineral-OM associations reveals a powerful mechanism underlying this difference: increased winter rainfall vastly diminished the role of Fe and Al oxides in SOM stabilization. Dithionite extractable crystalline Fe oxides explained more than 35 percent of the variability in C storage in ambient control and spring-addition treatments, compared to less than 0.01 percent in the winter-addition treatment. Likewise, poorly crystalline Fe and Al oxides explained more than 25 and 40 percent of the variability in C storage, respectively, in the control and spring-addition treatments compared to less than 5 percent in the -winter-addition treatment. Increases in annual precipitation identical in amount but at three-month offsets produced opposite effects on soil C storage. These results highlight the complexity inherent in biospheric feedbacks to the climate system, and the way that careful experimentation can penetrate that complexity to improve predictions of ecosystem and climatic change.

  9. Direct nocturnal water transfer from oaks to their mycorrhizal symbionts during severe soil drying.

    PubMed

    Querejeta, José Ignacio; Egerton-Warburton, Louise M; Allen, Michael F

    2003-01-01

    Symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the absorption of soil nutrients and water by most plants. It has been suggested that hydraulically lifted water might maintain the integrity of the external mycorrhizal mycelium during drought. We tested this hypothesis in the obligately mycorrhizal species, coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), using a microcosm system that separated the effects of hydraulic lift in roots from those in the external mycelium. Mycorrhizal oak seedlings were established in microcosms comprising three discrete compartments for (1) upper roots, (2) tap roots, and (3) external fungal mycelium. Eight months after planting, a drought treatment was initiated: irrigation to the upper root and fungal chambers was terminated and only irrigation to the taproot compartment was maintained. After 3, 12, 30, 50, 70 and 80 days of drought, tracers were injected into the taproot compartment at dusk. At dawn the following morning, mycorrhizal hyphae (EM and AM) and spores (AM) in upper root and fungal compartments were extensively labeled with the tracers. In contrast, no labeling was observed when tracers were injected into the taproot compartment during daytime. Nocturnal water translocation from plant to mycorrhizal fungi occurred in association with hydraulic lift. Saprotrophic/parasitic fungi in the microcosms were not labeled, suggesting a direct water transfer from plants to their mycorrhizal mutualists and not to other fungi in the soil. Even after prolonged drought (70-80 days), mycorrhizal hyphae persisted in soils with water potential values as low as -20 MPa. Maintaining mycorrhizal activity through direct water translocation could potentially improve the nutrient status of deep-rooted plants during periods when the fertile upper soil is dry.

  10. Anaerobic soil disinfestation for soil borne disease control in strawberry and vegetable systems: Current knowledge and future directions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), a biological alternative to soil fumigation, has been shown to control a wide range of soil-borne pathogens and nematodes in numerous crop production systems across Japan, the Netherlands and the U.S. A brief review of the status of the science behind ASD and its...

  11. Infant and Early Childhood Exposure to Adult-Directed and Child-Directed Television Programming: Relations with Cognitive Skills at Age Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Lauricella, Alexis; Zach, Elizabeth; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study described the relations among the amount of child-directed versus adult-directed television exposure at ages 1 and 4 with cognitive outcomes at age 4. Sixty parents completed 24-hour television diaries when their children were 1 and 4 years of age. At age 4, their children also completed a series of cognitive measures and parents…

  12. Infant and Early Childhood Exposure to Adult-Directed and Child-Directed Television Programming: Relations with Cognitive Skills at Age Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Lauricella, Alexis; Zach, Elizabeth; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study described the relations among the amount of child-directed versus adult-directed television exposure at ages 1 and 4 with cognitive outcomes at age 4. Sixty parents completed 24-hour television diaries when their children were 1 and 4 years of age. At age 4, their children also completed a series of cognitive measures and parents…

  13. Direct impacts of biochar on N2O production during denitrification by a soil microbial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Akanksha; Harter, Johannes; Hagemann, Nikolas; Kappler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Biochar, i.e. biomass heated under O2 limitation to 350-1000°C (pyrolysis), is suggested as a beneficial soil amendment to mitigate climate change and to maintain and restore the fertility of agro-ecosystems. Its stability enables long-term carbon sequestration and biochar effectively reduces soil-borne N2O emissions. Biochar's ability to reduce N2O emissions is well recognized through field and laboratory experiments as well as meta-analyses. However, the underlying mechanisms remain widely debated. Microbial nitrogen transformations, especially denitrification, the stepwise reduction of nitrate/nitrite via NO and N2O to N2, are considered to be a major source of N2O emissions. Soil microcosm experiments showed lower N2O emissions in the presence of biochar often correlate with a higher abundance and/or activity of N2O reducing bacteria in the presence of biochar. However, it is still unknown whether these shifts in the microbial community and/or activity is cause or effect of reduced N2O production. Biochar has the potential to change the physico-chemical environment towards conditions that favor complete denitrification, i.e. decrease the N2O/(N2O+N2) product ratio. Specifically, biochar can increase soil pH, reduce the availability of nitrate and increase the entrapment of gases, including N2O. These effects are known to decrease the N2O/(N2O+N2) ratio. In addition to the observed effects in the physio-chemical environment, we hypothesized that biochar has a direct impact on the soil microbial community. For instance, it has been shown to provide a suitable habitat to microorganisms, or facilitate electron transfer between microbe and substrates by acting as an electron shuttle or as a temporary acceptor/donor of electrons. To test this hypothesis, our experiment consisted of a microbial community extracted from soil and cultivated under anoxic conditions. It was introduced as an inoculum into three different treatments: biochar, quartz (control with a solid

  14. Wearable real-time direct reading naphthalene and VOC personal exposure monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R. D.; Reid, M. R.; Oswal, P.; Lane, A. L.; Sijapati, K.; Sullivan, K.; Hulla, J. E.; Snawder, J.; Proctor, S. P.

    2012-06-01

    Naphthalene has been identified by the National Research Council as a serious health hazard for personnel working with jet fuels and oil-based sealants containing naphthalene. We are developing a family of miniature, self-contained, direct reading personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to detect, differentiate, quantify, and log naphthalene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breathing zone of the wearer or in the hands of an industrial hygienist with limits of detection in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. The VOC Dosimeter (VOCDos) described here is a PEM that provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose, with alarms addressing long term and immediate exposure limits. We will describe the sensor, which employs optical methods with a unique excitation source and rapidly refreshable vapor concentrator. This paper addresses the rapidly increasing awareness of the health risks of inhaling jet fuel vapors by Department of Defense (DOD) personnel engaged in or around jet fueling operations. Naphthalene is a one to three percent component of the 5 billion gallons of jet fuels used annually by DOD. Naphthalene is also a component of many other petroleum products such as asphalt and other oil-based sealants. The DOD is the single largest user of petroleum fuels in the United States (20% of all petroleum fuel used). The VOCDos wearable sensor provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose. We will describe the sensor, which employs endogenous fluorescence from VOCs accumulated on a unique, rapidly refreshable, patent-pending concentrator, excited by a unique deep ultraviolet excitation source.

  15. Distributions of Direct, Reflected, and Diffuse Irradiance for Ocular UV Exposure at Different Solar Elevation Angles

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiaming; Hua, Hui; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze intensities of ocular exposure to direct (Eo,dir), reflected (Eo,refl), and diffuse (Eo,diff) ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at different solar elevation angles (SEAs), a rotating manikin and dual-detector spectrometer were used to monitor the intensity of ocular exposure to UV irradiation (Eo) and ambient UV radiation (UVR) under clear skies in Sanya, China. Eo,dir was derived as the difference between maximum and minimum measured Eo values. Eo,refl was converted from the value measured at a height of 160 cm. Eo,diff was calculated as the minimum measured Eo value minus Eo,refl. Regression curves were fitted to determine distributions of intensities and growth rates at different wavelengths and SEAs. Eo,dir differed from ambient UVR exposure. Linear, quadratic, and linear Eo,dir distributions were obtained in SEA ranges of 14°–30°, 30°–50°, and 50°–90°, respectively, with maximum Eo,dir at 32°–38° SEA. Growth rates of Eo,dir with increasing wavelength were fitted with quadratic functions in all SEA ranges. Distributions and growth rate of Eo,refl values were fitted with quadratic functions. Maximum Eo,diff was achieved at the same SEA for all fitted quadratic functions. Growth rate of Eo,diff with increasing wavelength was fitted with a linear function. Eo,dir distributions were fitted with linear or quadratic functions in different SEA ranges. All Eo,refl and Eo,diff distributions were fitted with quadratic functions. As SEA increased, the Eo,dir portion of Eo increased and then decreased; the Eo,refl portion increased from an initial minimum; and the Eo,diff portion first decreased and then increased. The findings may provide data supporting on construction of a mathematical model of ocular UV exposure. PMID:27846278

  16. Modified procedure of a direct in vitro exposure system for mammalian cells to whole cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yasuo; Ogura, Maiko; Eguchi, Kentaro; Shibagaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Mutsuaki

    2004-03-01

    In vitro biological studies on cigarette smoke have usually been made using either cigarette smoke condensate--obtained by trapping the particulate phase of smoke on a filter, or soluble smoke components--obtained by trapping cigarette smoke in buffer solution. However, these approaches may not truly reflect the physical and chemical condition of freshly generated smoke. Clearly it is important to be able to evaluate the biological effects of fresh smoke on mammalian cells for a better understanding of the potential effects of smoking. The CULTEX technology is a new experimental system for cultivation and exposure techniques enhanced the efficiency of in vitro studies, and allows direct exposure of cells intermittently at the air/liquid interface with ultrafine particles, gases, or mixtures of both which fixedly flows. The CULTEX technology has therefore been modified to evaluate the biological effects of whole cigarette smoke in an in vitro system. The exposure system design was based on a combination of the sedimentation procedure and the CULTEX cultivation technique. After freshly generated smoke was delivered onto cells, the flow was shut off and the medium was slowly removed. In this manner, cells were exposed to both the vapor and particulate phase of smoke efficiently. Cells were maintained in the liquid medium except during the exposure period to maintain the culture conditions and to protect the cells from both the influence of puff pressure and the airflow, which served to remove residual cigarette smoke. The medium was changed at every puff of smoke and so effectively eliminating the possibility of any effects caused by accumulation of soluble cigarette smoke components into the medium. This cycle was repeated and cells were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke intermittently.

  17. Distributions of Direct, Reflected, and Diffuse Irradiance for Ocular UV Exposure at Different Solar Elevation Angles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaming; Hua, Hui; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze intensities of ocular exposure to direct (Eo,dir), reflected (Eo,refl), and diffuse (Eo,diff) ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at different solar elevation angles (SEAs), a rotating manikin and dual-detector spectrometer were used to monitor the intensity of ocular exposure to UV irradiation (Eo) and ambient UV radiation (UVR) under clear skies in Sanya, China. Eo,dir was derived as the difference between maximum and minimum measured Eo values. Eo,refl was converted from the value measured at a height of 160 cm. Eo,diff was calculated as the minimum measured Eo value minus Eo,refl. Regression curves were fitted to determine distributions of intensities and growth rates at different wavelengths and SEAs. Eo,dir differed from ambient UVR exposure. Linear, quadratic, and linear Eo,dir distributions were obtained in SEA ranges of 14°-30°, 30°-50°, and 50°-90°, respectively, with maximum Eo,dir at 32°-38° SEA. Growth rates of Eo,dir with increasing wavelength were fitted with quadratic functions in all SEA ranges. Distributions and growth rate of Eo,refl values were fitted with quadratic functions. Maximum Eo,diff was achieved at the same SEA for all fitted quadratic functions. Growth rate of Eo,diff with increasing wavelength was fitted with a linear function. Eo,dir distributions were fitted with linear or quadratic functions in different SEA ranges. All Eo,refl and Eo,diff distributions were fitted with quadratic functions. As SEA increased, the Eo,dir portion of Eo increased and then decreased; the Eo,refl portion increased from an initial minimum; and the Eo,diff portion first decreased and then increased. The findings may provide data supporting on construction of a mathematical model of ocular UV exposure.

  18. Evidence of the direct adsorption of mercury in human hair during occupational exposure to mercury vapour.

    PubMed

    Queipo Abad, Silvia; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-07-01

    We have found clear evidence of direct adsorption of mercury in human hair after the occupational exposure to mercury vapour. We have performed both longitudinal analysis of human hair by laser ablation ICP-MS and speciation analysis by gas chromatography ICP-MS in single hair strands of 5 individuals which were occupationally exposed to high levels of mercury vapour and showed acute mercury poisoning symptoms. Hair samples, between 3.5 and 11cm long depending on the individual, were taken ca. three months after exposure. Single point laser ablation samples of 50μm diameter were taken at 1mm intervals starting from the root of the hairs. Sulfur-34 was used as internal standard. The ratio (202)Hg/(34)S showed a distinct pattern of mercury concentration with much lower levels of mercury near the root of the hair and high levels of mercury near the end of the hair. In all cases a big jump in the concentration of mercury in hair occurred at a given distance from the root, between 32 and 42mm depending on the individual, with a high and almost constant concentration of mercury for longer distances to the root. When we took into account the rate of hair growth in humans, 9-15mm/month, the jump in mercury concentration agreed approximately with the dates when the contamination occurred with the new growing hair showing much lower mercury concentration. In some cases the concentration of mercury at the tip of the hair was ca. 1000 times higher than that near the root. Additionally, speciation studies confirmed that mercury in all hair samples was present as inorganic mercury. The only explanation for these results was the direct adsorption of mercury vapour in hair at the time of exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Alluvial and riparian soils as major sources of lead exposure in young children in the Philippines: the role of floods.

    PubMed

    Ostrea, Enrique M; Ostrea, Angelo M; Villanueva-Uy, Ma Esterlita; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence and sources of high lead (Pb) exposure among children in Bulacan, Philippines. A total of 150 children (6-7 years old) and their caregivers were studied. Lead was analyzed in children hair and deciduous teeth. Sources of lead exposure were determined by caregiver interview and Pb analysis of house soil, drinking faucet water, air, and water from seven Bulacan rivers. Lead was positive in 91.3% of children's hair (MC or median concentration = 8.9 μg/g; range = 0-38.29), in 46.2% of the teeth (MC = 0.000 μg/mg in positive samples; range = 0.00-0.020), in 100% of soil (MC = 27.06 mg/kg; range = 3.05-1155.80), in 21.1% of air (MC = 0 μg/Ncm; range = 0-0.10), in 4% of house, faucet water (MC = 0.0 ppm; range = 0-40). There was a significant correlation (Spearman's rho) between Pb in children's hair and soil (r = 0.195; p = 0.017) and between Pb in house water and outdoor air (r = 0.616; p = 0.005). There is no significant correlation between Pb in children's hair and teeth. None of the potential sources of Pb from interview were related to lead exposure in the children. Water from seven Bulacan rivers was 100% positive for lead (MC = 70.00 ppb; range = 30-90). Widespread flooding with river overflow occurred in Bulacan in 2009 which likely caused lead contamination of the soil. There was no significant difference in the lead concentration of the soil whether near or far from the river (p = 0.205, Mann-Whitney U test). High lead exposure in children in Bulacan is likely from soil contaminated by lead-polluted rivers during flooding. In areas where flooding is common, alluvial and riparian soils from polluted rivers are important sources of lead exposure in children.

  20. Metal bioaccumulation and mutagenesis in a Tradescantia clone following long-term exposure to soils from urban industrial areas and closed landfills.

    PubMed

    Čėsnienė, Tatjana; Kleizaitė, Violeta; Bondzinskaitė, Skaistė; Taraškevičius, Ričardas; Žvingila, Donatas; Šiukšta, Raimondas; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2017-11-01

    Soil mutagens, particularly metals, may persist long after the source of pollution has been removed, representing a hazard to plants, animals, and humans in or near contaminated areas. Often, due to urban growth, previous land uses may be forgotten and hazards overlooked. We exposed Tradescantia clone #4430 plants to soil from two industrial areas (with different former uses) and two urban waste landfills in the city of Vilnius, all of which were long disused. Two modes of exposure were used: long-term exposure of growing plants in test soils for 0.5 or 1.0y, and short-term exposure of cuttings to water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) soil extracts. An increased frequency of micronuclei (MN) was observed with both modes of exposure. The concentrations of 24 metals and other elements were analyzed in the test soils and in above-ground plant parts, under both exposure modes, and the concentration coefficients (Cc) for various elements, the total contamination index (Zs) for soils and plants, and the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for plants were calculated. These measurements allow a comparison of the contamination levels of soils and plants with equalized values. Metal accumulation levels in plants and soils showed significant differences, providing a better understanding of the genotoxicity of soils from closed landfills and highlighting the need to determine the concentrations of metals and other genotoxicants in plants in relation to genotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct observation of local xylem embolisms induced by soil drying in intact Zea mays leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jeongeun; Hwang, Bae Geun; Kim, Yangmin X.; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability of vascular plants to xylem embolism is closely related to their stable long-distance water transport, growth, and survival. Direct measurements of xylem embolism are required to understand what causes embolism and what strategies plants employ against it. In this study, synchrotron X-ray microscopy was used to non-destructively investigate both the anatomical structures of xylem vessels and embolism occurrence in the leaves of intact Zea mays (maize) plants. Xylem embolism was induced by water stress at various soil drying periods and soil water contents. X-ray images of dehydrated maize leaves showed that the ratio of gas-filled vessels to all xylem vessels increased with decreased soil water content and reached approximately 30% under severe water stress. Embolism occurred in some but not all vessels. Embolism in maize leaves was not strongly correlated with xylem diameter but was more likely to occur in the peripheral veins. The rate of embolism formation in metaxylem vessels was higher than in protoxylem vessels. This work has demonstrated that xylem embolism remains low in maize leaves under water stress and that there xylem has characteristic spatial traits of vulnerability to embolism. PMID:26946123

  2. Direct Determination of the Space Weathering Rates in Lunar Soils and Itokawa Regolith from Sample Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Christoffersen, R.; Zhang, S.

    2016-01-01

    Space weathering effects on airless bodies result largely from micrometeorite impacts and solar wind interactions. Decades of research have provided insights into space weathering processes and their effects, but a major unanswered question still remains: what is the rate at which these space weathering effects are acquired in lunar and asteroidal regolith materials? To determine the space weathering rate for the formation of rims on lunar anorthite grains, we combine the rim width and type with the exposure ages of the grains, as determined by the accumulation of solar flare particle tracks. From these analyses, we recently showed that space weathering effects in mature lunar soils (both vapor-deposited rims and solar wind amorphized rims) accumulate and attain steady state in 10(sup 6)-10(sup 7) y. Regolith grains from Itokawa also show evidence for space weathering effects, but in these samples, solar wind interactions appear to dominate over impactrelated effects such as vapor-deposition. While in our lunar work, we focused on anorthite, given its high abundance on the lunar surface, for the Itokawa grains, we focused on olivine. We previously studied 3 olivine grains from Itokawa and determined their solar flare track densities and described their solar wind damaged rims]. We also analyzed olivine grains from lunar soils, measured their track densities and rim widths, and used this data along with the Itokawa results to constrain the space weathering rate on Itokawa. We observe that olivine and anorthite have different responses to solar wind irradiation.

  3. A structural equation model of soil metal bioavailability to earthworms: confronting causal theory and observations using a laboratory exposure to field-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Beaumelle, Léa; Vile, Denis; Lamy, Isabelle; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Gimbert, Frédéric; Hedde, Mickaël

    2016-11-01

    Structural equation models (SEM) are increasingly used in ecology as multivariate analysis that can represent theoretical variables and address complex sets of hypotheses. Here we demonstrate the interest of SEM in ecotoxicology, more precisely to test the three-step concept of metal bioavailability to earthworms. The SEM modeled the three-step causal chain between environmental availability, environmental bioavailability and toxicological bioavailability. In the model, each step is an unmeasured (latent) variable reflected by several observed variables. In an exposure experiment designed specifically to test this SEM for Cd, Pb and Zn, Aporrectodea caliginosa was exposed to 31 agricultural field-contaminated soils. Chemical and biological measurements used included CaC12-extractable metal concentrations in soils, free ion concentration in soil solution as predicted by a geochemical model, dissolved metal concentration as predicted by a semi-mechanistic model, internal metal concentrations in total earthworms and in subcellular fractions, and several biomarkers. The observations verified the causal definition of Cd and Pb bioavailability in the SEM, but not for Zn. Several indicators consistently reflected the hypothetical causal definition and could thus be pertinent measurements of Cd and Pb bioavailability to earthworm in field-contaminated soils. SEM highlights that the metals present in the soil solution and easily extractable are not the main source of available metals for earthworms. This study further highlights SEM as a powerful tool that can handle natural ecosystem complexity, thus participating to the paradigm change in ecotoxicology from a bottom-up to a top-down approach.

  4. TEM Analyses of Itokawa Regolith Grains and Lunar Soil Grains to Directly Determine Space Weathering Rates on Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Christoffersen, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Samples returned from the moon and Asteroid Itokawa by NASA's Apollo Missions and JAXA's Hayabusa Mission, respectively, provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Space weathering effects result from micrometeorite impact activity and interactions with the solar wind. While the effects of solar wind interactions, ion implantation and solar flare particle track accumulation, have been studied extensively, the rate at which these effects accumulate in samples on airless bodies has not been conclusively determined. Results of numerical modeling and experimental simulations do not converge with observations from natural samples. We measured track densities and rim thicknesses of three olivine grains from Itokawa and multiple olivine and anorthite grains from lunar soils of varying exposure ages. Samples were prepared for analysis using a Leica EM UC6 ultramicrotome and an FEI Quanta 3D dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses were performed on the JEOL 2500SE 200kV field emission STEM. The solar wind damaged rims on lunar anorthite grains are amorphous, lack inclusions, and are compositionally similar to the host grain. The rim width increases as a smooth function of exposure age until it levels off at approximately 180 nm after approximately 20 My (Fig. 1). While solar wind ion damage can only accumulate while the grain is in a direct line of sight to the Sun, solar flare particles can penetrate to mm-depths. To assess whether the track density accurately predicts surface exposure, we measured the rim width and track density in olivine and anorthite from the surface of rock 64455, which was never buried and has a surface exposure age of 2 My based on isotopic measurements. The rim width from 64455 (60-70nm) plots within error of the well-defined trend for solar wind amorphized rims in Fig. 1. Measured solar flare track densities are accurately reflecting the

  5. Soils

    Treesearch

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  6. Comparison of earthworm responses to petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in aged field contaminated soil using traditional ecotoxicity endpoints and 1H NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Stephenson, Gladys L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2013-11-01

    (1)H NMR metabolomics and conventional ecotoxicity endpoints were used to examine the response of earthworms exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil samples collected from a site that was contaminated with crude oil from a pipeline failure in the mid-1990s. The conventional ecotoxicity tests showed that the soils were not acutely toxic to earthworms (average survival ≥ 90%), but some soil samples impaired reproduction endpoints by >50% compared to the field control soil. Additionally, metabolomics revealed significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles (collected after 2 or 14 days of exposure) and soil properties including soil PHC concentration. Further comparisons by partial least squares regression revealed a significant relationship between the earthworm metabolomic data (collected after only 2 or 14 days) and the reproduction endpoints (measured after 63 days). Therefore, metabolomic responses measured after short exposure periods may be predictive of chronic, ecologically relevant toxicity endpoints for earthworms exposed to soil contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to toxicants in soil and bottom ash deposits in Agbogbloshie, Ghana: human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Obiri, S; Ansa-Asare, O D; Mohammed, S; Darko, H F; Dartey, A G

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of e-waste using informal or crude techniques poses serious health risk not only to the workers but also to the environment as whole. It is against this background that this paper sought to measure health risk faced by informal e-waste workers from exposure to toxicants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, arsenic, tin, zinc and cobalt via oral and dermal contact with bottom ash and soil. Using random sampling techniques, 3 separate sites each (where burning and manual dismantling of e-wastes are usually carried) were identified, and a total of 402 samples were collected. The samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical analysis prescribed by the American Water Works Association (AWWA). Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Sn, Zn and Co in bottom ash samples from location ASH1 are 5388 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Pb), 2.39 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cd), 42 ± 0.05 mg/kg (Cr), 7940 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cu), 20 ± 0.07 mg/kg (As), 225 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Sn), 276 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Zn) and 123 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Co), while concentrations of the aforementioned toxicants in soil samples at location ASG1 are as follows: 1685 ± 0.14 mg/kg (Pb), 26.89 ± 0.30 mg/kg (Cd), 36.86 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Cr), 1427 ± 0.08 mg/kg (Cu), 1622 ± 0.12 mg/kg (As), 234 ± 0.25 mg/kg (Sn), 783 ± 0.31 mg/kg (Zn) and 135 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Co); used as input parameters in assessing health risk faced by workers. The results of cancer health risk faced by e-waste workers due to accidental ingestion of As in bottom ash at ASH1 is 4.3 × 10(-3) (CTE) and 6.5 × 10(-2) (RME), i.e. approximately 4 out of 1000 e-waste workers are likely to suffer from cancer-related diseases via central tendency exposure (CTE parameters), and 7 out of every 100 e-waste worker is also likely to suffer from cancer cases by reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters, respectively. The cancer health risk results for the other sampling sites were found to have exceeded the acceptable

  8. SOIL MICROARTHROPODS AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS IN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT RANGELANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied soil microarthropod communities along livestock grazing disturbance gradients, inside and outside grazing exclosures, and on areas subjected to restoration efforts (herbicide and bulldozing) in order to test the suitability of mites as indicators of rangeland soil qual...

  9. SOIL MICROARTHROPODS AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS IN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT RANGELANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied soil microarthropod communities along livestock grazing disturbance gradients, inside and outside grazing exclosures, and on areas subjected to restoration efforts (herbicide and bulldozing) in order to test the suitability of mites as indicators of rangeland soil qual...

  10. Soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  11. Comparison of direct measurement methods for headset noise exposure in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Nassrallah, Flora G; Giguere, Christian; Dajani, Hilmi R; Ellaham, Nicolas N

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of noise exposure from communication headsets poses a methodological challenge. Although several standards describe methods for general noise measurements in occupational settings, these are not directly applicable to noise assessments under communication headsets. For measurements under occluded ears, specialized methods have been specified by the International Standards Organization (ISO 11904) such as the microphone in a real ear and manikin techniques. Simpler methods have also been proposed in some national standards such as the use of general purpose artificial ears and simulators in conjunction with single number corrections to convert measurements to the equivalent diffuse field. However, little is known about the measurement agreement between these various methods and the acoustic manikin technique. Twelve experts positioned circum-aural, supra-aural and insert communication headsets on four different measurement setups (Type 1, Type 2, Type 3.3 artificial ears, and acoustic manikin). Fit-refit measurements of four audio communication signals were taken under quiet laboratory conditions. Data were transformed into equivalent diffuse-field sound levels using third-octave procedures. Results indicate that the Type 1 artificial ear is not suited for the measurement of sound exposure under communication headsets, while Type 2 and Type 3.3 artificial ears are in good agreement with the acoustic manikin technique. Single number corrections were found to introduce a large measurement uncertainty, making the use of the third-octave transformation preferable.

  12. Comparison of direct measurement methods for headset noise exposure in the workplace

    PubMed Central

    Nassrallah, Flora G.; Giguère, Christian; Dajani, Hilmi R.; Ellaham, Nicolas N.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of noise exposure from communication headsets poses a methodological challenge. Although several standards describe methods for general noise measurements in occupational settings, these are not directly applicable to noise assessments under communication headsets. For measurements under occluded ears, specialized methods have been specified by the International Standards Organization (ISO 11904) such as the microphone in a real ear and manikin techniques. Simpler methods have also been proposed in some national standards such as the use of general purpose artificial ears and simulators in conjunction with single number corrections to convert measurements to the equivalent diffuse field. However, little is known about the measurement agreement between these various methods and the acoustic manikin technique. Twelve experts positioned circum-aural, supra-aural and insert communication headsets on four different measurement setups (Type 1, Type 2, Type 3.3 artificial ears, and acoustic manikin). Fit-refit measurements of four audio communication signals were taken under quiet laboratory conditions. Data were transformed into equivalent diffuse-field sound levels using third-octave procedures. Results indicate that the Type 1 artificial ear is not suited for the measurement of sound exposure under communication headsets, while Type 2 and Type 3.3 artificial ears are in good agreement with the acoustic manikin technique. Single number corrections were found to introduce a large measurement uncertainty, making the use of the third-octave transformation preferable. PMID:26960783

  13. Malfunction of cardiac devices after radiotherapy without direct exposure to ionizing radiation: mechanisms and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Zecchin, Massimo; Morea, Gaetano; Severgnini, Mara; Sergi, Elisabetta; Baratto Roldan, Anna; Bianco, Elisabetta; Magnani, Silvia; De Luca, Antonio; Zorzin Fantasia, Anna; Salvatore, Luca; Milan, Vittorino; Giannini, Gianrossano; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-02-01

    Malfunctions of cardiac implantable electronical devices (CIED) have been described after high-energy radiation therapy even in the absence of direct exposure to ionizing radiation, due to diffusion of neutrons (n) causing soft errors in inner circuits. The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of scattered radiation on different types and models of CIED and the possible sources of malfunctions. Fifty-nine explanted CIED were placed on an anthropomorphous phantom of tissue-equivalent material, and a high-energy photon (15 MV) radiotherapy course (total dose = 70 Gy) for prostate treatment was performed. All devices were interrogated before and after radiation. Radiation dose, the electromagnetic field, and neutron fluence at the CIED site were measured. Thirty-four pacemakers (PM) and 25 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) were analysed. No malfunctions were detected before radiation. After radiation a software malfunction was evident in 13 (52%) ICD and 6 (18%) PM; no significant electromagnetic field or photon radiations were detected in the thoracic region. Neutron capture was demonstrated by the presence of the (198)Au((197)Au + n) or (192)Ir((191)Ir + n) isotope activation; it was significantly greater in ICD than in PM and non-significantly greater in damaged devices. A greater effect in St Jude PM (2/2 damaged), Boston (9/11), and St Jude ICD (3/6) and in older ICD models was observed; the year of production was not relevant in PM. High-energy radiation can cause different malfunctions on CIED, particularly ICD, even without direct exposure to ionizing radiation due to scattered radiation of neutrons produced by the linear accelerator. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mercury in Hazel Bolete Leccinum griseum and soil substratum: Distribution, bioconcentration and dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Krasińska, Grażyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the accumulation and distribution of total mercury (Hg) in fruiting bodies of edible wild-grown mushroom Hazel Bolete Leccinum griseum (Quél.) Singer, collected from six spatially distantly distributed places across Poland and to assess the probable dietary intake of the element by consumers. Mercury content of fungal and soil samples were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) with a direct sample thermal decomposition coupled with gold wool trap of Hg and its further desorption and quantitative measurement at the wavelength of 296 nm. The median values of Hg content in caps of L. griseum collected from less-contaminated places (< 0.10 mg Hg kg(-1) dry matter in upper 0-10 cm layer of soil substratum) were from 0.23 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.43 mg kg(-1) dm. And for more contaminated topsoil (0.15 mg Hg kg(-1) dry matter), the median in caps was about 1.5 mg kg(-1) dry matter. The mushroom L. griseum has potential to accumulate Hg in fruiting bodies, while quantities of this element noted in consignments of this species originating from the forests with typical background values of Hg in topsoil are low. In the light of the published value of PTWI for Hg consumption of fruiting bodies of L. griseus emerged in forests of Poland is without health risk for consumers. Information on total mercury and methylmercury in Fungi of the genus Leccinum is also described briefly.

  15. Responses of soil ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms to repeated exposure of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinglin; Wang, Hui; Yang, Baoshan; He, Fei; Han, Xuemei; Song, Ziheng

    2015-02-01

    The impacts of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on soil microbial biomass and microbial community composition (especially on ammonium oxidizing microorganisms) have been evaluated. The first exposure of CNTs lowered the microbial biomass immediately, but the values recovered to the level of the control at the end of the experiment despite the repeated addition of CNTs. The abundance and diversity of ammonium-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were higher than that of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) under the exposure of CNTs. The addition of CNTs decreased Shannon-Wiener diversity index of AOB and AOA. Two-way ANOVA analysis showed that CNTs had significant effects on the abundance and diversity of AOB and AOA. Dominant terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) of AOB exhibited a positive relationship with NH4(+), while AOA was on the contrary. It implied that AOB prefer for high-NH4(+) soils whereas AOA is favored in low NH4(+) soils in the CNT-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel α-ketoglutarate dioxygenase tfdA-related genes are found in soil DNA after exposure to phenoxyalkanoic herbicides.

    PubMed

    Gazitúa, M C; Slater, A W; Melo, F; González, B

    2010-09-01

    Phenoxyalkanoic herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D), 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) or mecoprop are widely used to control broad-leaf weeds. Several bacteria have been reported to degrade these herbicides using the α-ketoglutarate-dependent, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate dioxygenase encoded by the tfdA gene, as the enzyme catalysing the first step in the catabolic pathway. The effects of exposure to different phenoxyalkanoic herbicides in the soil bacterial community and in the tfdA genes diversity were assessed using an agricultural soil exposed to these anthropogenic compounds. Total community bacterial DNA was analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA and the tfdA gene markers, and detection and cloning of tfdA gene related sequences, using PCR primer pairs. After up to 4 months of herbicide exposure, significant changes in the bacterial community structure were detected in soil microcosms treated with mecoprop, 2,4-DB and a mixture of both plus 2,4-D. An impressive variety of novel tfdA gene related sequences were found in these soil microcosms, which cluster in new tfdA gene related sequence groups, unequally abundant depending on the specific herbicide used in soil treatment. Structural analysis of the putative protein products showed small but significant amino acid differences. These tfdA gene sequence variants are, probably, required for degradation of natural substrate(s) structurally related to these herbicides and their presence explains self-remediation of soils exposed to phenoxyalkanoic herbicides. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Garden soil and house dust as exposure media for lead uptake in the mining village of Stratoni, Greece.

    PubMed

    Argyraki, Ariadne

    2014-08-01

    The relationships between two exposure media, garden soil and house dust, were studied for Pb uptake in Stratoni village in northern Greece, an industrial area of mining and processing of sulphide ore. Lead data for the two media were assessed in terms of total and bioaccessible content, measurement and geochemical variability, and mineralogical composition. It was found that total Pb was enriched in house dust samples by a factor of 2 on average. Total Pb concentration in soil samples had a maximum of 2,040 mg/kg and reached a maximum of 7,000 mg/kg in house dust samples. The estimated variability due to measurement uncertainty was dominated by the sampling process, and the proportion of sampling variance was greater for soil samples, indicating a higher degree of Pb heterogeneity in soil on the given spatial scale of sampling strata. Although the same general spatial trend was observed for both sampling media with decreasing Pb concentration by increasing distance from the ore-processing plant, Pb in dust samples displayed the highest concentrations within a 300-600-m zone from the ore-processing facility. The significant differences which were observed in Pb speciation between the studied media were explained by differences in mineralogical composition of outdoor soil and indoor dust. Lead-enriched Fe and Mn oxides predominated in soil samples while fine galena grains (<10-20 μm diameter) were the major Pb-bearing phase in dust samples. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model was used to predict the risk of elevated blood lead levels in children of Stratoni. Model prediction indicated an average probability of 61 % for blood-Pb to exceed 10 μg/dl. The results underline the importance of house dust in risk assessment and highlight the effect of outdoor and indoor conditions on the fate of Pb in the particular environment of Stratoni.

  18. Rapid mortality of pest arthropods by direct exposure to a dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bures, Brian Lee

    The spread of arthropods due to trade of agricultural commodities and travel of humans is a significant problem in many countries. Limiting the movement of pest species is commonly achieved by the use of chemical pesticides at quarantine facilities. One potential alternative to chemical pesticides is direct exposure of contaminated commodities to ambient pressure electrical discharges. The arthropods are directly exposed to a 5.0 cm helium discharge with power densities on the order of 60 mW/cm3. Direct measurement of chemical species and ambient gas temperature shows the DBD treatment remains effective when the chemically reactive species are suppressed by helium, and when the ambient gas temperature of the discharge is below 40°C. In addition to gas temperature measurements and chemical species identification, the electron temperature and electron density were measured using the neutral bremsstrahlung continuum technique. This study is the first successful implementation of the neutral bremsstrahlung continuum emission diagnostic to a barrier discharge. The primary advantages of the diagnostic for barrier discharges are the measurement is passive and the spatial resolution is only limited by the collimation of the light and the sensitivity of the detector. Although the electron temperature (1.0--1.5 eV) and electron density (˜108 cm-3) are modest, non-chemical dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) treatment of arthropods has proven effective in significantly reducing the population of some arthropods including human body lice, green peach aphids, and western flower thrips. However, the treatment was not universally effective on all arthropod species. German cockroaches and citrus mealy bugs showed substantial resistance to the treatment. The study has shown the treatment does not always induce instant mortality: however, the mortality increases over a 24 hr-period after treatment. Based upon visual observation and the time after treatment to reach maximum

  19. A novel lithography process for 3D (three-dimensional) interconnect using an optical direct-writing exposure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, T.; Sekiguchi, M.; Matsuo, M.; Kawasaki, A.; Hagiwara, K.; Matsui, H.; Kawamura, N.; Kishimoto, K.; Nakamura, A.; Washio, Y.

    2010-03-01

    A novel lithography process for 3D (Three-dimensional) interconnect was developed using an optical direct-writing exposure tool. A reflective IR (Infra-red) alignment system allows a direct detection of alignment marks both on front-side and back-side of wafer, and consequently allows feasible micro-fabrication for 3D interconnect using the reversed wafer. A combination of the optical direct-writing exposure tool of Dainippon Screen MFG. Co., Ltd. with the reflective IR alignment system and a high aspect chemically amplified resist of Tokyo Ohka Kogyo Co., Ltd. provides the lithography process exclusively for 12-inch wafer level 3D interconnect.

  20. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges,...

  1. Environmental Variables Shaping the Ecological Niche of Thaumarchaeota in Soil: Direct and Indirect Causal Effects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Kyung; Cho, Jae-Chang

    2015-01-01

    To find environmental variables (EVs) shaping the ecological niche of the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota in terrestrial environments, we determined the abundance of Thaumarchaeota in various soil samples using real-time PCR targeting thaumarchaeotal 16S rRNA gene sequences. We employed our previously developed primer, THAUM-494, which had greater coverage for Thaumarchaeota and lower tolerance to nonthaumarchaeotal taxa than previous Thaumarchaeota-directed primers. The relative abundance estimates (RVs) of Thaumarchaeota (RTHAUM), Archaea (RARCH), and Bacteria (RBACT) were subjected to a series of statistical analyses. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed a significant (p < 0.05) canonical relationship between RVs and EVs. Negative causal relationships between RTHAUM and nutrient level-related EVs were observed in an RDA biplot. These negative relationships were further confirmed by correlation and regression analyses. Total nitrogen content (TN) appeared to be the EV that affected RTHAUM most strongly, and total carbon content (TC), which reflected the content of organic matter (OM), appeared to be the EV that affected it least. However, in the path analysis, a path model indicated that TN might be a mediator EV that could be controlled directly by the OM. Additionally, another path model implied that water content (WC) might also indirectly affect RTHAUM by controlling ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) level through ammonification. Thus, although most directly affected by NH4+-N, RTHAUM could be ultimately determined by OM content, suggesting that Thaumarchaeota could prefer low-OM or low-WC conditions, because either of these EVs could subsequently result in low levels of NH4+-N in soil.

  2. Short-Term Exposure of Paddy Soil Microbial Communities to Salt Stress Triggers Different Transcriptional Responses of Key Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jingjing; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Liesack, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization due to seawater intrusion along coastal areas is an increasing threat to rice cultivation worldwide. While the detrimental impact on rice growth and yield has been thoroughly studied, little is known about how severe salinity affects structure and function of paddy soil microbial communities. Here, we examined their short-term responses to half- and full-strength seawater salinity in controlled laboratory experiments. Slurry microcosms were incubated under anoxic conditions, with rice straw added as carbon source. Stress exposure time was for 2 days after a pre-incubation period of 7 days. Relative to the control, moderate (300 mM NaCl) and high (600 mM NaCl) salt stress suppressed both net consumption of acetate and methane production by 50% and 70%, respectively. Correspondingly, community-wide mRNA expression decreased by 50–65%, with significant changes in relative transcript abundance of family-level groups. mRNA turnover was clearly more responsive to salt stress than rRNA dynamics. Among bacteria, Clostridiaceae were most abundant and the only group whose transcriptional activity was strongly stimulated at 600 mM NaCl. In particular, clostridial mRNA involved in transcription/translation, fermentation, uptake and biosynthesis of compatible solutes, and flagellar motility was significantly enriched in response salt stress. None of the other bacterial groups were able to compete at 600 mM NaCl. Their responses to 300 mM NaCl were more diverse. Lachnospiraceae increased, Ruminococcaceae maintained, and Peptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, and Syntrophomonadaceae decreased in relative mRNA abundance. Among methanogens, Methanosarcinaceae were most dominant. Relative to other family-level groups, salt stress induced a significant enrichment of transcripts related to the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-coenzyme A synthase complex, methanogenesis, heat shock, ammonium uptake, and thermosomes, but the absolute abundance of methanosarcinal mRNA decreased

  3. Short-Term Exposure of Paddy Soil Microbial Communities to Salt Stress Triggers Different Transcriptional Responses of Key Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jingjing; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Liesack, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization due to seawater intrusion along coastal areas is an increasing threat to rice cultivation worldwide. While the detrimental impact on rice growth and yield has been thoroughly studied, little is known about how severe salinity affects structure and function of paddy soil microbial communities. Here, we examined their short-term responses to half- and full-strength seawater salinity in controlled laboratory experiments. Slurry microcosms were incubated under anoxic conditions, with rice straw added as carbon source. Stress exposure time was for 2 days after a pre-incubation period of 7 days. Relative to the control, moderate (300 mM NaCl) and high (600 mM NaCl) salt stress suppressed both net consumption of acetate and methane production by 50% and 70%, respectively. Correspondingly, community-wide mRNA expression decreased by 50-65%, with significant changes in relative transcript abundance of family-level groups. mRNA turnover was clearly more responsive to salt stress than rRNA dynamics. Among bacteria, Clostridiaceae were most abundant and the only group whose transcriptional activity was strongly stimulated at 600 mM NaCl. In particular, clostridial mRNA involved in transcription/translation, fermentation, uptake and biosynthesis of compatible solutes, and flagellar motility was significantly enriched in response salt stress. None of the other bacterial groups were able to compete at 600 mM NaCl. Their responses to 300 mM NaCl were more diverse. Lachnospiraceae increased, Ruminococcaceae maintained, and Peptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, and Syntrophomonadaceae decreased in relative mRNA abundance. Among methanogens, Methanosarcinaceae were most dominant. Relative to other family-level groups, salt stress induced a significant enrichment of transcripts related to the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-coenzyme A synthase complex, methanogenesis, heat shock, ammonium uptake, and thermosomes, but the absolute abundance of methanosarcinal mRNA decreased. Most

  4. Evaluation of the potential of soil remediation by direct multi-channel pulsed corona discharge in soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tie Cheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Li, Jie; Liang, Dongli

    2014-01-15

    A novel approach, named multi-channel pulsed corona discharge in soil, was developed for remediating organic pollutants contaminated soil, with p-nitrophenol (PNP) as the model pollutant. The feasibility of PNP degradation in soil was explored by evaluating effects of pulse discharge voltage, air flow rate and soil moisture on PNP degradation. Based on roles of chemically active species and evolution of degradation intermediates, PNP degradation processes were discussed. Experimental results showed that about 89.4% of PNP was smoothly degraded within 60min of discharge treatment at pulse discharge voltage 27kV, soil moisture 5% and air flow rate 0.8Lmin(-1), and the degradation process fitted the first-order kinetic model. Increasing pulse discharge voltage was found to be favorable for PNP degradation, but not for energy yield. There existed appropriate air flow rate and soil moisture for obtaining gratifying PNP degradation efficacy. Roles of radical scavenger and measurement of active species suggested that ozone, H2O2, and OH radicals played very important roles in PNP degradation. CN bond in PNP molecule was cleaved, and the main intermediate products such as hydroquinone, benzoquinone, catechol, phenol, acetic acid, formic acid, oxalic acid, NO2(-) and NO3(-) were identified. Possible pathway of PNP degradation in soil in such a system was proposed.

  5. Insecticide residues in soil, water, and eggplant fruits and farmers' health effects due to exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Del Prado-Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2015-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas in Asia. Globally, the top three eggplant producers are China, India, and Egypt. The Philippines has been one of the top 10 eggplant-producing countries based on area planted and crop productivity. This study aims to describe the insecticide residues found in soil, water, and eggplant fruits in eggplant farms in Sta. Maria, Pangasinan. The study design is a cross sectional of randomly selected eggplant farms in Sta. Maria, Pangasinan. Soil, water, and eggplant fruits were collected and subjected to gas chromatography (Shimadzu) analysis for multi-pesticide residues. Farmers from Sta. Maria, Pangasinan were found to be applying a broad spectrum of insecticides on their eggplant crop. Soil samples from 11 (about 42%) out of the 26 farms tested positive for insecticide residues, six of which from four farms exceeded the acceptable maximum residue limit. These residues were profenofos, triazophos, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, and malathion. No insecticide residues were detected from water samples taken from the 26 farms. Cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were the insecticide residues detected in eggplant fruit samples. A maximum of 20% of the eggplant samples tested positive for insecticide residues. In the eggplant fruit study, all farmers have been using Prevathon(®) for 24 years at a rate of 10 ml/application, and Malathion(®) for 25 years at about 16.5 ml/application, respectively equivalent to 0.24 liter-years and 0.413 liter-years of exposure. Similarly, to the findings in the soil and water study, although Brodan(®) and Magnum(®) were not prevalently applied, the farmers' liter-years of exposure to these insecticides, and their active ingredients, were highest at about 18.92 and 10.0, respectively. The farmers and farm workers in the soil and water study reported experiencing itchiness of the skin (63.8%), redness of the eyes (29

  6. Effects of bifenthrin exposure in soil on whole-organism endpoints and biomarkers of earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingling; Yang, Da; Song, Yufang; Shi, Yi; Huang, Bin; Yan, Jun; Dong, Xinxin

    2017-02-01

    In this study, toxic effects of bifenthrin in soil on earthworms were evaluated by acute and chronic toxic endpoints combined with a set of biomarkers. Bifenthrin was moderately toxic in 72-h filter paper test and low toxic in 14-d soil test. The exposure of earthworms to bifenthrin-polluted soil for 8 weeks showed that cocoons were inhibited by high dose of bifenthrin, and larvae were stimulated by low dose but inhibited by high dose of bifenthrin. Furthermore, 28-d soil test on the responses of enzymes associated with antioxidation and detoxification in worms showed that peroxidase (POD) was stimulated by bifenthrin, superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited in the early period but stimulated in the later period, glutathione S- transferase (GST) inhibited in the later period, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) inhibited at day 3 but markedly stimulated at day 28 at high dose. The different responses of these indexes indicated that multi indexes should be jointly taken into account for comprehensive evaluation of the environmental risk of contaminants in soil.

  7. An examination of direct and indirect effects of exposure and attention to health media on intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Jennette; Riffe, Daniel; Lovejoy, Travis I

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States, accounting for more than 2 million diagnoses and more than 9,000 deaths annually. A regional online survey of students enrolled at institutions of higher education (N = 1,251) examined (a) associations between health media use and intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure and (b) theoretically derived health behavior constructs that may mediate the relationship between media use and individuals' decisions to avoid unprotected sun exposure. Individuals with greater exposure and attention to health information in television, magazines, and newspapers had higher intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure. Multiple mediation models indicated that health behavior constructs collectively mediated the relationship between television use and sun-protective behavioral intentions. Both cumulative and specific indirect mediating effects were observed for the relationship between magazine use and sun-protective behavioral intentions. However, the direction of effects was opposite to the hypothesized direction, due primarily to the association of magazine use with less favorable attitudes about sun protection and reduced behavioral control to avoid unprotected sun exposure. This study provides preliminary evidence for the interrelationships among media use, internal psychological states and cognitions, and health behavior decision making. Future studies should further explicate the mediating processes that account for the relationships between media and health behavior.

  8. Effects of feral horses in Great Basin landscapes on soils and ants: Direct and indirect mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Herrick, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    We compared soil-surface penetration resistance and abundance of ant mounds at 12 western Great Basin sites (composed of 19 plots) either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or having had horses removed for the last 10–14 years. Across this broad spatial domain (3.03 million ha), we minimized confounding due to abiotic factors by selecting horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During both 1997 and 1998, we found 2.2–8.4 times greater abundance of ant mounds and 3.0–15.4 times lower penetration resistance in soil surfaces at horse-removed sites. In 1998, thatched Formica ant mounds, which existed predominately at high elevations, were 3.3 times more abundant at horse-removed sites, although abundance varied widely among sites within treatments. Several types of analyses suggested that horses rather than environmental variability were the primary source of treatment differences we observed in ecosystem components. Tests of several predictions suggest that alterations occurred through not only direct effects, but also indirect effects and potentially feedback loops. Free-roaming horses as well as domestic grazers should be considered in conservation planning and land management in the Great Basin, an ecoregion that represents both an outstanding conservation opportunity and challenge.

  9. Accelerated Biodegradation of Veterinary Antibiotics in Agricultural Soil following Long-Term Exposure, and Isolation of a Sulfamethazine-degrading sp.

    PubMed

    Topp, Edward; Chapman, Ralph; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Hartmann, Alain; Marti, Romain; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Sabourin, Lyne; Scott, Andrew; Sumarah, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization has identified antibiotic resistance as one of the top three threats to global health. There is concern that the use of antibiotics as growth promoting agents in livestock production contributes to the increasingly problematic development of antibiotic resistance. Many antibiotics are excreted at high rates, and the land application of animal manures represents a significant source of environmental exposure to these agents. To evaluate the long-term effects of antibiotic exposure on soil microbial populations, a series of field plots were established in 1999 that have since received annual applications of a mixture of sulfamethazine (SMZ), tylosin (TYL), and chlortetracycline (CTC). During the first 6 yr (1999-2004) soils were treated at concentrations of 0, 0.01 0.1, and 1.0 mg kg soil, in subsequent years at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg kg soil. The lower end of this concentration range is within that which would result from an annual application of manure from medicated swine. Following ten annual applications, the fate of the drugs in the soil was evaluated. Residues of SMZ and TYL, but not CTC were removed much more rapidly in soil with a history of exposure to 10 mg/kg drugs than in untreated control soil. Residues of C-SMZ were rapidly and thoroughly mineralized to CO in the historically treated soils, but not in the untreated soil. A SMZ-degrading sp. was isolated from the treated soil. Overall, these results indicate that soil bacteria adapt to long-term exposure to some veterinary antibiotics resulting in sharply reduced persistence. Accelerated biodegradation of antibiotics in matrices exposed to agricultural, wastewater, or pharmaceutical manufacturing effluents would attenuate environmental exposure to antibiotics, and merits investigation in the context of assessing potential risks of antibiotic resistance development in environmental matrices.

  10. Sensitivity analysis for direct and indirect effects in the presence of exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    Questions of mediation are often of interest in reasoning about mechanisms, and methods have been developed to address these questions. However, these methods make strong assumptions about the absence of confounding. Even if exposure is randomized, there may be mediator-outcome confounding variables. Inference about direct and indirect effects is particularly challenging if these mediator-outcome confounders are affected by the exposure because in this case these effects are not identified irrespective of whether data is available on these exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders. In this paper, we provide a sensitivity analysis technique for natural direct and indirect effects that is applicable even if there are mediator-outcome confounders affected by the exposure. We give techniques for both the difference and risk ratio scales and compare the technique to other possible approaches. PMID:25580387

  11. Health risk characterization of maximum legal exposures for persistent organic pollutant (POP) pesticides in residential soil: An analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zijian

    2017-10-02

    Regulations for pesticides in soil are important for controlling human health risk; humans can be exposed to pesticides by ingesting soil, inhaling soil dust, and through dermal contact. Previous studies focused on analyses of numerical standard values for pesticides and evaluated the same pesticide using different standards among different jurisdictions. To understand the health consequences associated with pesticide soil standard values, lifetime theoretical maximum contribution and risk characterization factors were used in this study to quantify the severity of damage using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) under the maximum "legal" exposure to persistent organic pollutant (POP) pesticides that are commonly regulated by the Stockholm Convention. Results show that computed soil characterization factors for some pesticides present lognormal distributions, and some of them have DALY values higher than 1000.0 per million population (e.g., the DALY for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT] is 14,065 in the Netherlands, which exceeds the tolerable risk of uncertainty upper bound of 1380.0 DALYs). Health risk characterization factors computed from national jurisdictions illustrate that values can vary over eight orders of magnitude. Further, the computed characterization factors can vary over four orders of magnitude within the same national jurisdiction. These data indicate that there is little agreement regarding pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) among worldwide national jurisdictions or even RGV standard values within the same jurisdiction. Among these POP pesticides, lindane has the lowest median (0.16 DALYs) and geometric mean (0.28 DALYs) risk characterization factors, indicating that worldwide national jurisdictions provide relatively conservative soil RGVs for lindane. In addition, we found that some European nations and members of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics share the same pesticide RGVs and data clusters for the

  12. Toxicologic and histopathologic response of the terrestrial salamander Plethodon cinereus to soil exposures of 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M S; Paulus, H I; Salice, C J; Checkai, R T; Simini, M

    2004-11-01

    Red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) were exposed to four different concentrations of 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil under controlled laboratory conditions for 28 days. Wild-caught P. cinereus (N = 20/treatment) were exposed to target concentrations of 5,000, 1000, 100, 10, and 0 mg RDX/kg soil (dry wt) using a microcosm design. Animals were fed 5 to 10 uncontaminated mutant Drosophila flies every 3 days and monitored daily. Animals were weighed 1 day before being placed in treatment and weekly thereafter. RDX concentrations in soil were analytically determined after the compound was added and mixed at the beginning, the midpoint, and the end of exposure. RDX soil concentrations were relatively stable throughout the exposure period. Signs of overt toxicity were observed primarily in the highest exposure group. Salamanders exposed to 5,000 mg RDX/kg soil exhibited signs of neuromuscular effects (lethargy, gaping, hypersensitivity, tremors) and exhibited significant weight loss. A single moribund animal from this group lost >20% of its original body weight and was killed. Animals in this exposure group also lost weight relative to animals in other treatments. Histopathologic evaluations, including an evaluation of melanomacrophage parameters, indicated no strong treatment-related findings. This study provided information regarding the effects from subchronic dermal exposure of a terrestrial amphibian species to RDX in soil and provides a microcosm approach to the evaluation of toxicity of contaminants in soil to a terrestrial vertebrate.

  13. Early-life residential exposure to soil components in rural areas and childhood respiratory health and allergy.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Graham; Tagiyeva, Nara; Turner, Stephen W; Ayres, Jon G; Seaton, Anthony; Hudson, Gordon; Hough, Rupert L; Campbell, Colin D; Shand, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    The increase in asthma and allergies has been attributed to declining exposure to environmental microorganisms. The main source of these is soil, the composition of which varies geographically and which is a major component (40-45%) of household dust. Our hypothesis-generating study aimed to investigate associations between soil components, respiratory health and allergy in a Scottish birth cohort. The cohort was recruited in utero in 1997/8, and followed up at one, two and five years for the development of wheezing, asthma and eczema. Lung function, exhaled nitric oxide and allergic sensitization were measured at age five in a subset. The Scottish Soils Database held at The James Hutton Institute was linked to the birth cohort data by the residential postcode at birth and five years. The soil database contained information on size separates, organic matter concentration, pH and a range of inorganic elements. Soil and clinical outcome data were available for 869, 790 and 727 children at one, two and five years. Three hundred and fifty nine (35%) of children had the same address at birth and five years. No associations were found between childhood outcomes and soil content in the residential area at age five. The soil silt content (2-20 μm particle size) of the residential area at birth was associated with childhood wheeze (adjusted OR 1.20, 95% CI [1.05; 1.37]), wheeze without a cold (1.41 [1.18; 1.69]), doctor-diagnosed asthma (1.54 [1.04; 2.28]), lung function (FEV1: beta -0.025 [-0.047;-0.001]) and airway inflammation (FENO: beta 0.15 [0.03; 0.27]) at age five, but not with allergic status or eczema. Whilst residual confounding is the most likely explanation for the associations reported, the results of this study lead us to hypothesise that early life exposure to residential soil silt may adversely influence childhood respiratory health, possibly because of the organic components of silt. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutrient-cycling mechanisms other than the direct absorption from soil may control forest structure and dynamics in poor Amazonian soils.

    PubMed

    Grau, Oriol; Peñuelas, Josep; Ferry, Bruno; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Desprez, Mathilde; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jérôme; Descroix, Laurent; Dourdain, Aurélie; Guitet, Stéphane; Janssens, Ivan A; Sardans, Jordi; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-03-23

    Tropical forests store large amounts of biomass despite they generally grow in nutrient-poor soils, suggesting that the role of soil characteristics in the structure and dynamics of tropical forests is complex. We used data for >34 000 trees from several permanent plots in French Guiana to investigate if soil characteristics could predict the structure (tree diameter, density and aboveground biomass), and dynamics (growth, mortality, aboveground wood productivity) of nutrient-poor tropical forests. Most variables did not covary with site-level changes in soil nutrient content, indicating that nutrient-cycling mechanisms other than the direct absorption from soil (e.g. the nutrient uptake from litter, the resorption, or the storage of nutrients in the biomass), may strongly control forest structure and dynamics. Ecosystem-level adaptations to low soil nutrient availability and long-term low levels of disturbance may help to account for the lower productivity and higher accumulation of biomass in nutrient-poor forests compared to nutrient-richer forests.

  15. Nutrient-cycling mechanisms other than the direct absorption from soil may control forest structure and dynamics in poor Amazonian soils

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Oriol; Peñuelas, Josep; Ferry, Bruno; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Desprez, Mathilde; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jérôme; Descroix, Laurent; Dourdain, Aurélie; Guitet, Stéphane; Janssens, Ivan A.; Sardans, Jordi; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of biomass despite they generally grow in nutrient-poor soils, suggesting that the role of soil characteristics in the structure and dynamics of tropical forests is complex. We used data for >34 000 trees from several permanent plots in French Guiana to investigate if soil characteristics could predict the structure (tree diameter, density and aboveground biomass), and dynamics (growth, mortality, aboveground wood productivity) of nutrient-poor tropical forests. Most variables did not covary with site-level changes in soil nutrient content, indicating that nutrient-cycling mechanisms other than the direct absorption from soil (e.g. the nutrient uptake from litter, the resorption, or the storage of nutrients in the biomass), may strongly control forest structure and dynamics. Ecosystem-level adaptations to low soil nutrient availability and long-term low levels of disturbance may help to account for the lower productivity and higher accumulation of biomass in nutrient-poor forests compared to nutrient-richer forests. PMID:28332608

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) following exposure to whole cigarette smoke on a direct in vitro exposure system.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yasuo; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takemi

    2006-07-01

    Many in vitro studies have employed cigarette smoke condensates or soluble smoke components to investigate the biological effects of cigarette smoke. However, neither of these methods evaluates the biological effects of fresh whole cigarette smoke. It is most desirable to conduct in vitro biological studies under conditions which accommodate the dynamic physicochemical character of fresh cigarette smoke. Previously we reported the development of a whole smoke exposure system to assess the biological effects of mainstream cigarette smoke. The exposure system design was based on a combination of the sedimentation procedure and the CULTEX cultivation technique, which includes a systemized air/liquid interface methodology and exposes the cells to fresh smoke at every puff. The aim of this study was to adopt the other biological endpoint to our whole smoke exposure system. We focused on heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA gene expression, an enzyme which has recently been shown to be highly responsible for oxidative stress. In the present study, a dose-response relationship between the HO-1 mRNA expression based on the reverse transcription real-time PCR method and total exposure to cigarette smoke was observed. When a Cambridge filter pad was placed between the cigarette and exposure module, to ensure the cells were only exposed to the gas/vapor phase, the latter, as well as the whole smoke, induced HO-1 mRNA dose dependently. For the next step, acetate plain and charcoal filters with the same pressure drop were prepared to assess the potential ability of charcoal filters with regard to the vapor phase performance. The results revealed reduced HO-1 mRNA gene expression when a charcoal filter was used. Direct whole smoke exposure is a significant approach and may reflect the conditions of exposure essentially resulting from direct contact between cells and a dynamic mixture of gaseous and particulate constituents. We were able to adopt a gene expression assay for oxidative

  17. Seasonal exposure to drought and air warming affects soil Collembola and mites.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4 °C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length ≤ 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type.

  18. Seasonal Exposure to Drought and Air Warming Affects Soil Collembola and Mites

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Kuster, Thomas M.; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S.; Dobbertin, Matthias; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes affect not only the aboveground but also the belowground components of ecosystems. The effects of seasonal drought and air warming on the genus level richness of Collembola, and on the abundance and biomass of the community of Collembola and mites were studied in an acidic and a calcareous forest soil in a model oak-ecosystem experiment (the Querco experiment) at the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL in Birmensdorf. The experiment included four climate treatments: control, drought with a 60% reduction in rainfall, air warming with a seasonal temperature increase of 1.4°C, and air warming + drought. Soil water content was greatly reduced by drought. Soil surface temperature was slightly increased by both the air warming and the drought treatment. Soil mesofauna samples were taken at the end of the first experimental year. Drought was found to increase the abundance of the microarthropod fauna, but reduce the biomass of the community. The percentage of small mites (body length 0.20 mm) increased, but the percentage of large mites (body length >0.40 mm) decreased under drought. Air warming had only minor effects on the fauna. All climate treatments significantly reduced the richness of Collembola and the biomass of Collembola and mites in acidic soil, but not in calcareous soil. Drought appeared to have a negative impact on soil microarthropod fauna, but the effects of climate change on soil fauna may vary with the soil type. PMID:22905210

  19. In Vitro Exposures in Diesel Exhaust Atmospheres: Resuspension of PM from Filters Verses Direct Deposition of PM from Air

    PubMed Central

    Lichtveld, Kim M.; Ebersviller, Seth M.; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Vizuete, William; Jaspers, Ilona; Jeffries, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most widely used in vitro particulate matter (PM) exposures methods is the collection of PM on filters, followed by resuspension in a liquid medium, with subsequent addition onto a cell culture. To avoid disruption of equilibria between gases and PM, we have developed a direct in vitro sampling and exposure method (DSEM) capable of PM-only exposures. We hypothesize that the separation of phases and post-treatment of filter-collected PM significantly modifies the toxicity of the PM compared to direct deposition, resulting in a distorted view of the potential PM health effects. Controlled test environments were created in a chamber that combined diesel exhaust with an urban-like mixture. The complex mixture was analyzed using both the DSEM and concurrently-collected filter samples. The DSEM showed that PM from test atmospheres produced significant inflammatory response, while the resuspension exposures at the same exposure concentration did not. Increasing the concentration of resuspended PM sixteen times was required to yield measurable IL-8 expression. Chemical analysis of the resuspended PM indicated a total absence of carbonyl compounds compared to the test atmosphere during the direct-exposures. Therefore, collection and resuspension of PM into liquid modifies its toxicity and likely leads to underestimating toxicity. PMID:22834915

  20. Trends in Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Exposure and Preterm Birth: Use of Smoking Bans and Direct ETS Exposure Assessments in Study Designs.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Elana R; O'Neill, Marie S

    2017-07-17

    For decades, many studies have linked maternal smoking to an increased risk of preterm birth. As a result, the scientific community has long hypothesized that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly referred to as second-hand smoke, is also associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Multiple studies have examined this proposed association through different strategies and approaches. Recently, a small number of epidemiology studies have examined preterm birth trends before and after the implementation of antismoking legislation in various jurisdictions. We found that these studies have largely revealed a significant trend of decreasing population-level preterm birth rates after the implementation of smoking bans. However, most of the studies reviewed did not distinguish the impact of maternal smoking from ETS in their analyses, making it difficult to specifically evaluate the effects of smoking bans on ETS exposure. Other studies have taken the approach of directly measuring maternal ETS exposure and associations with preterm birth within particular study populations. In contrast to smoking ban studies, the latter group of studies had more inconclusive results. The use of a variety of exposure assessment methods ranging from different self-reporting techniques to biomarker measurements posed a challenge to compare studies. We evaluate current scientific literature for evidence of an association between maternal ETS exposure and risk of preterm birth. We also discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches to study this association as well as methods used for ETS exposure assessment. We propose that more studies, specifically, evaluating rates of preterm birth among nonsmoking women before and after smoking bans, are needed as well as using better ETS exposure assessments methods in studies measuring maternal ETS exposure.

  1. Exposure Assessment Tools by Approaches - Direct Measurement (Point-of-Contact Measurement)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  2. Cadmium exposure via diet and its implication on the derivation of health-based soil screening values in China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Mao-Sheng; Jiang, Lin; Han, Dan; Xia, Tian-Xiang; Yao, Jue-Jun; Jia, Xiao-Yang; Peng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The cadmium (Cd) intake rates via diet of adults from different regions in China were between 0.160 and 0.557 μg/(kg BW·day), which were less than the provisional tolerable monthly intake (0.833 μg/(kg BW·day)) issued by Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization in 2010, but higher than the one (0.365 μg/(kg BW·day)) issued by the European Food Safety Authority in 2011, to protect children, vegetarians and people living in heavily contaminated regions, and the intake rate of children (1.007 μg/(kg BW·day)) at the national scale was higher than the values recommended by the above institutes and those of adults. Vegetables were the critical contributors, followed by rice, flour, meats and aquatic products. Cd concentration in vegetable was the most sensitive factor in calculating the intake rate, followed by its contents in rice and aquatic products, and the intake rate of flour, indicating that more attention should be given to these parameters in future total diet surveys. When dietary exposure was incorporated, the derived national screening value of Cd under commercial scenario was reduced from 825 to 458 mg/kg, while the values of the north, south, Beijing and Shanghai were reduced to 627, 365, 693 and 489 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that the hazard would be underestimated if dietary exposure was not taken into account, especially for the south. The great variance between the screening values was due to the varied Cd intake rates, which indicated that deriving a screening value for each specific area based on its corresponding exposure characteristics was more appropriate. The national screening level for the residential scenario derived theoretically based on the dietary exposure characteristics of children was a negative value, meaning that the dietary intake rate was above the tolerable value. The method used in the United Kingdom to derive soil guideline values when non-soil exposure accounted for more than half of

  3. Implementing a soil framework directive in Italy: a contribution from the Italian scientific societies working in agriculture and forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbetti, Marco; Terribile, Fabio; Authors, Other

    2013-04-01

    Soil Thematic Strategy (STS, COM 2006) acknowledge that soil can be considered essentially as a nonrenewable resource and it provides food, biomass, raw materials and many ecosystems functions. STS emphasizes that these functions are often subjected to a series of degradation processes or threats. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. A combination of some of these threats can ultimately lead to desertification, then soil conservation actions are very much required ! Some six years after the adoption of the Soil Thematic Strategy, on 13 February 2012 the European Commission published a policy report on the implementation of the Strategy and ongoing activities (COM(2012) 46). From this report it was rather evident that the road leading to the key issue of producing a Soil Framework Directive it seems still very far and this proposal remains on the EU Council's table. Such important time delay is rather worrying considering that many soil degradation processes, including soil sealing, do not experience any pause. In such scenario, the 19 Italian Scientific Societies working in the field of agriculture and forestry and gathered into the AISSA association decided to activate a series of activities (initiator, organizing, technical, steering committees) in order to produce a proposal for a "Soil Framework Directive". This proposal aims to operate on the Italian scenario where soil issues are governed by the interaction of 3 major (plus many other minor) public bodies namely: Ministry of Agriculture (MIPAF), Ministry of Environment (MATTM) and Administrative regions. AISSA plans to present this proposal to the general public and to politicians sometime in 2013 but it is presented here at EGU 2013 for an open discussion. With this work AISSA aims also to show that scientific societies have to take onboard the third mission of universities and

  4. Risk analysis of PCB exposure via the soil-food crop pathway, and alternatives for remediation at Serpukhov, Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tsongas, T; Orlinskii, D; Priputina, I; Pleskachevskaya, G; Fetishchev, A; Hinman, G; Butcher, W

    2000-02-01

    A risk assessment was conducted to determine the likelihood of certain health risks resulting from exposure to soils and food crops contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs). PCBs have contaminated soils, river sediments, and air in the past as a result of industrial activities at a capacitor plant located in the City of Serpukhov, Russian Federation. This risk assessment and suggestions for remediation are designed to aid in decision-making efforts by a joint Russian-American research team developing a community, national, and international response to industrial contamination. Bobovnikova et al. (The Science of the Total Environment 139/140, 357-364, [1993]) have reported that PCBs are elevated in soils and sediments, breast milk, and locally grown foods in the Serpukhov area. Data from these and other investigators have been used in this risk assessment to calculate a potential cancer risk resulting from exposure to PCBs. Our assessment indicates that members of the local population may be at increased risk of cancer, and possibly other adverse health effects, as a result of PCB contamination of their environment. Because previously unassessed environmental contamination is a common problem in the former Soviet Republics, as well as many other areas of the world, we believe this type of evaluation, using known methods, can serve as a model for assessment efforts in other parts of the globe and result in remediative efforts in regions constrained by faltering economies.

  5. Effects of soil water content on the external exposure of fauna to radioactive isotopes.

    PubMed

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2016-01-01

    Within a recent model intercomparison about radiological risk assessment for contaminated wetlands, the influence of soil saturation conditions on external dose rates was evidenced. This issue joined concerns of assessors regarding the choice of the soil moisture value to input in radiological assessment tools such as the ERICA Tool. Does it really influence the assessment results and how? This question was investigated under IAEA's Modelling and Data for Radiological Impacts Assessments (MODARIA) programme via 42 scenarios for which the soil water content varied from 0 (dry soil) to 100% (saturated soil), in combination with other parameters that may influence the values of the external dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) calculated for terrestrial organisms exposed in soil. A set of α, β, and γ emitters was selected in order to cover the range of possible emission energies. The values of their external DCCs varied generally within a factor 1 to 1.5 with the soil water content, excepted for β emitters that appeared more sensitive (DCCs within a factor of about 3). This may be of importance for some specific cases or for upper tiers of radiological assessments, when refinement is required. But for the general purpose of screening assessment of radiological impact on fauna and flora, current approaches regarding the soil water content are relevant.

  6. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF WORKER AND AMBIENT AIR EXPOSURES DURING SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead contaminated soil sites. An industrial hygiene survey and air monitoring program for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling acti...

  7. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF WORKER AND AMBIENT AIR EXPOSURES DURING SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead contaminated soil sites. An industrial hygiene survey and air monitoring program for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling acti...

  8. SOIL MICROARTHROPODS AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS IN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT RANGELANDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied soil microarthropod communities along livestock grazing disturbance gradients, inside and outside grazing exclosures, and on areas subjected to restoration efforts(herbicide and bulldozing)in order to test the suitability of mites as indicators of rangeland soil qualit...

  9. Parental binge alcohol abuse alters F1 generation hypothalamic gene expression in the absence of direct fetal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Przybycien-Szymanska, Magdalena M; Rao, Yathindar S; Prins, Sarah A; Pak, Toni R

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent binge alcohol exposure has long-lasting effects on the expression of hypothalamic genes that regulate the stress response, even in the absence of subsequent adult alcohol exposure. This suggests that alcohol can induce permanent gene expression changes, potentially through epigenetic modifications to specific genes. Epigenetic modifications can be transmitted to future generations therefore, and in these studies we investigated the effects of adolescent binge alcohol exposure on hypothalamic gene expression patterns in the F1 generation offspring. It has been well documented that maternal alcohol exposure during fetal development can have devastating neurological consequences. However, less is known about the consequences of maternal and/or paternal alcohol exposure outside of the gestational time frame. Here, we exposed adolescent male and female rats to a repeated binge EtOH exposure paradigm and then mated them in adulthood. Hypothalamic samples were taken from the offspring of these animals at postnatal day (PND) 7 and subjected to a genome-wide microarray analysis followed by qRT-PCR for selected genes. Importantly, the parents were not intoxicated at the time of mating and were not exposed to EtOH at any time during gestation therefore the offspring were never directly exposed to EtOH. Our results showed that the offspring of alcohol-exposed parents had significant differences compared to offspring from alcohol-naïve parents. Specifically, major differences were observed in the expression of genes that mediate neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity during neurodevelopment, genes important for directing chromatin remodeling, posttranslational modifications or transcription regulation, as well as genes involved in regulation of obesity and reproductive function. These data demonstrate that repeated binge alcohol exposure during pubertal development can potentially have detrimental effects on future offspring even in the absence of direct fetal alcohol

  10. Physiologic reactivity despite emotional resilience several years after direct exposure to terrorism.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Phebe M; Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Kent, Adrian; Burgin, Christie E; Parker, Don E; Hossain, Akm; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Trautman, Richard P

    2007-02-01

    Six and a half to 7 years after the 1995 terrorist bombing in Oklahoma City, the authors assessed autonomic reactivity to trauma reminders and psychiatric symptoms in adults who had some degree of direct exposure to the blast. Sixty survivors who were listed in a state health department registry of persons exposed to the bombing and 60 age- and gender-matched members of the Oklahoma City metropolitan area community were assessed for symptoms of PTSD and depression and for axis I diagnoses. Heart rate and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were measured before, during, and after bombing-related interviews. The two groups were compared on both psychometric and physiologic assessments. Posttraumatic stress but not depressive symptoms were significantly more prevalent in the survivor group than in the comparison group, although symptoms were below levels considered clinically relevant. Despite apparent emotional resilience or recovery, blast survivors had significantly greater autonomic reactivity to trauma reminders on all measures than comparison subjects. The results suggest that physiologic assessment may capture long-term effects of terrorism that are not identified by psychometric instruments. The consequences of autonomic reactivity despite emotional resilience years after experiencing trauma are unknown but theoretically could range from facilitating a protective vigilance toward future disasters to more maladaptive avoidance behaviors, somatic symptoms, or medical problems.

  11. Doses under automatic exposure control (AEC) for direct digital radiographic (DDR) X-ray systems.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Louise; Faulkner, Ronan; Clancy, Conor; Gallagher, Aoife; Devine, Mark; Gorman, Dermot; O'Reilly, Geraldine; Dowling, Anita

    2011-09-01

    Current guidelines quote tolerances for automatic exposure control (AEC) device performance for X-ray systems as 'Baseline ± X %'. However, in the situation where a baseline figure has not yet been achieved, as in the case of commissioning assessments, this tolerance is not relevant. The purpose of this work is to provide mean doses for direct digital radiography (DDR) X-ray system, operating in AEC, against which comparisons can be made. Dose measurements have been recorded under AEC operation on 29 DDR detectors from three different manufacturers. Two different testing protocols were examined: (1) water equivalent phantoms in front of the DDR detector and (2) aluminium block at the tube head. The average patient exit dose, using the aluminium block was 4.6 μGy with the antiscatter grid in place and 4.0 μGy with the grid removed. Using the water phantoms, the average dose was measured at 17.1 μGy with the antiscatter grid in place and 5.4 μGy with grid removed. Based on these results, it is clear that different testing configurations significantly impact on the measured dose.

  12. The development of behavioral and endocrine abnormalities in rats after repeated exposure to direct and indirect stress

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Willie Mark Uren; de Klerk Uys, Joachim; van Vuuren, Petra; Stein, Daniel Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of direct and indirect stress on the behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of rats. Animals were placed in a two compartment box. In one compartment the direct stressed rat was subjected to electric foot shocks randomly applied for 10 minutes (0.5 mA of 1 s duration). In the adjacent compartment, the indirect stressed rats witnessed the application of these electric foot shocks. Our data showed substantial behavioral changes in the open field test, but limited effects in the elevated plus maze. The findings suggested that single and repeated stress exposure may have different consequences, that the effects of stress exposure may develop over time and persist for an extended period, and that both direct and indirect stressed rats displayed a hyposensitive HPA axis following acute restraint stress. Overall our observations moderately indicate direct exposure to elicit behavioral changes, and both direct and indirect exposure to stress to result in aberrations within the neuroendocrine system. With additional development our stress models may be considered for studying the complex interrelationship between an external stressor, and the experience of the organism. PMID:18728793

  13. Theoretically exploring direct and indirect chemical effects across ecological and exposure scenarios using mechanistic fate and effects modelling.

    PubMed

    De Laender, F; Morselli, M; Baveco, H; Van den Brink, P J; Di Guardo, A

    2015-01-01

    Predicting ecosystem response to chemicals is a complex problem in ecotoxicology and a challenge for risk assessors. The variables potentially influencing chemical fate and exposure define the exposure scenario while the variables determining effects at the ecosystem level define the ecological scenario. In absence of any empirical data, the objective of this paper is to present simulations by a fugacity-based fate model and a differential equation-based ecosystem model to theoretically explore how direct and indirect effects on invertebrate shallow pond communities vary with changing ecological and exposure scenarios. These simulations suggest that direct and indirect effects are larger in mesotrophic systems than in oligotrophic systems. In both trophic states, interaction strength (quantified using grazing rates) was suggested a more important driver for the size and recovery from direct and indirect effects than immigration rate. In general, weak interactions led to smaller direct and indirect effects. For chemicals targeting mesozooplankton only, indirect effects were common in (simple) food-chains but rare in (complex) food-webs. For chemicals directly affecting microzooplankton, the dominant zooplankton group in the modelled community, indirect effects occurred both in food-chains and food-webs. We conclude that the choice of the ecological and exposure scenarios in ecotoxicological modelling efforts needs to be justified because of its influence on the prevalence and magnitude of the predicted effects. Overall, more work needs to be done to empirically test the theoretical expectations formulated here. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxicological responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to subchronic soil exposures of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Bazar, Mathew A; Quinn, Michael J; Mozzachio, Kristie; Johnson, Mark S

    2008-06-01

    Since World War I, trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been the most commonly used explosive. Environmental contamination associated with synthesis, manufacture of weapons, and use during training exercises has been extensive, with soil concentrations reaching 145,000 mg/kg. Some of these areas include habitats for amphibian species. Earlier studies have shown that salamanders dermally absorb TNT from soil. To ascertain what soil concentrations of TNT are toxic to amphibians, red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) were exposed to one of five concentrations of TNT in soil for 28 d and evaluated for indicators of toxicity. A total of 100 salamanders were randomly sorted by weight and assigned to target TNT concentrations in soil of either 3,000, 1,500, 750, 325, or 0 mg/kg dry weight. Food consisted of uncontaminated flightless Drosophila melanogaster. Survival was reduced in salamanders exposed to 1,500 and 3,000 mg/kg by 10 and 55%, respectively. Most mortality/morbidity occurred within the first week of exposure. Salamanders had a reduction in hemoglobin at 750 mg/kg or greater and a reduction in red blood cell concentration at 1,500 mg/kg or greater. Food consumption was affected in salamanders at 750 mg/kg or greater; a reduction in body mass and liver glycogen content also occurred at and above this concentration. Splenic congestion also was observed in salamanders from these groups. These data suggest that soil TNT concentrations of 373 +/- 41.0 mg/kg or greater result in reduced body mass, reduced feed intake, and hematological effects.

  15. Microbial transformation of triadimefon to triadimenol in soils: selective production rates of triadimenol stereoisomers affect exposure and risk.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Arthur W; Avants, Jimmy K; Jones, W Jack

    2011-03-15

    The microbial transformation of triadimefon, an agricultural fungicide of the 1,2,4-triazole class, was followed at a nominal concentration of 50 μg/mL over 4 months under aerobic conditions in three different soil types. Rates and products of transformation were measured, as well as enantiomer fractions of parent and products. The transformation was biotic and enantioselective, and in each soil the S-(+)-enantiomer reacted faster than the R-(-) one. Rates of the first-order reactions were 0.047, 0.057, and 0.107 d(-1) for the three soils. The transformation involves reduction of the prochiral ketone moiety of triadimefon to an alcohol, resulting in triadimenol, which has two chiral centers and four stereoisomers. The abundances of the four product stereoisomers were different from each other, but abundance ratios were similar for all three soil types. Triadimenol is also a fungicide; the commercial product is composed of two diastereomers of unequal amounts (ratio of about 4.3:1), each having two enantiomers of equal amounts. However, the triadimenol formed by soil transformation of triadimefon exhibited no such stereoisomer profile. Instead, different production rates were observed for each of the four triadimenol stereoisomers, resulting in all stereoisomer concentrations being different from each other and very different from concentration/abundance patterns of the commercial standard. This result is important in risk assessment if the toxicity of the environmental transformation product were to be compared to that of the commercial triadimenol. Because triadimenol stereoisomers differ in their toxicities, at least to fungi and rats, the biological activity of the triadimenol formed by microbes or other biota in soils depends on the relative abundances of its four stereoisomers. This is an exposure and risk assessment issue that, in principle, applies to any chiral pesticide and its metabolites.

  16. Effects of soil-plant interactive system on response to exposure to ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeon; Kim, Saeyeon; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Insook

    2012-09-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of nanomaterials on animal, plant, and soil microorganisms have been widely investigated; however, the nanotoxic effects of plant-soil interactive systems are still largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on the soil-plant interactive system were estimated. The growth of plant seedlings in the presence of different concentrations of ZnO NPs within microcosm soil (M) and natural soil (NS) was compared. Changes in dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and soil bacterial community diversity were estimated based on the microcosm with plants (M+P) and microcosm without plants (M-P) in different concentrations of ZnO NPs treatment. The shoot growth of M+P and NS+P was significantly inhibited by 24% and 31.5% relative to the control at a ZnO NPs concentration of 1,000 mg/kg. The DHA levels decreased following increased ZnO NPs concentration. Specifically, these levels were significantly reduced from 100 mg/kg in M-P and only 1,000 mg/kg in M+P. Different clustering groups of M+P and M-P were observed in the principal component analysis (PCA). Therefore, the M-P's soil bacterial population may have more toxic effects at a high dose of ZnO NPs than M+P's. The plant and activation of soil bacteria in the M+P may have a less toxic interactive effect on each of the soil bacterial populations and plant growth by the ZnO NPs attachment or absorption of plant roots surface. The soil-plant interactive system might help decrease the toxic effects of ZnO NPs on the rhizobacteria population.

  17. French children's exposure to metals via ingestion of indoor dust, outdoor playground dust and soil: contamination data.

    PubMed

    Glorennec, Philippe; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mandin, Corinne; Le Bot, Barbara

    2012-09-15

    In addition to dietary exposure, children are exposed to metals via ingestion of soils and indoor dust, contaminated by natural or anthropogenic outdoor and indoor sources. The objective of this nationwide study was to assess metal contamination of soils and dust which young French children are exposed to. A sample of 484 children (6 months to 6 years) was constituted in order to obtain representative results for young French children. In each home indoor settled dust was sampled by a wipe in up to five rooms. Outdoor playgrounds were sampled with a soil sample ring (n=315) or with a wipe in case of hard surfaces (n=53). As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V were measured because of their potential health concern due to soil and dust ingestion. The samples were digested with hydrochloric acid, and afterwards aqua regia in order to determine both leachable and total metal concentrations and loadings by mass spectrometry with a quadrupole ICP-MS. In indoor settled dust most (total) loadings were below the Limit of Quantification (LOQ), except for Pb and Sr, whose median loadings were respectively 9 and 10 μg/m². The 95th percentile of loadings were 2 μg/m² for As, <0.8 for Cd, 18 for Cr, 49 for Cu, <64 for Mn, 63 for Pb, 2 for Sb, 56 for Sr, and <8 for V. Median/95th percentile of loadings in settled dust on outdoor playgrounds were 2/16, <0.8/1.3, 17/53, 49/330, 99/424, 32/393, 2/13, 86/661 and 10/37 μg/m² for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V respectively. In outdoor playground soil median/95th percentile of concentrations (μg/g) were 8/26, <0.65/1, 25/52, <26/53,391/956, 27/254, 0.7/4, 54/295, 23/57 for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V respectively. These results are comparable with those observed in other countries. Because of their representative nature, we can assess children's exposures to these metals via soil and dust and the associated risks in urban and rural environments. Ratios of leachable/total concentrations and loadings, calculated on

  18. The direct and indirect effects of watershed land use and soil type on stream water metal concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taka, M.; Aalto, J.; Virkanen, J.; Luoto, M.

    2016-10-01

    Identifying the factors controlling stream water pollutants is challenged by the diversity of potential sources, pathways, and processes. This study tests the effects of watershed characteristics on stream water metal concentrations across environmental gradients. By using an extensive data set of 83 watersheds in southern Finland and structural equation modeling (SEM), the direct and indirect effects of land use and soil type on metal concentrations were explored. Both land use and soil type resulted in statistically significant direct effects on metals; for example, land use was found to control dissolved metal concentrations, whereas soil type had the strongest links for total metal concentrations. The consideration of indirect correlation further strengthened the effects of soil type up to 50%, thus suggesting the dominant role of soil across land use intensities. Moreover, the results indicate that modified landscapes mediate the effect of natural soil processes in controlling stream metal concentrations. This work highlights the benefits of structural equation model framework, as the underlying paths for water quality are more likely to be identified, compared to traditional regression methods. Thus, the implementation of SEM on water quality studies is highly encouraged.

  19. Direct and Indirect Measurement of Rock and Soil Physical Properties on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Bartlett, P.; Zacny, K.; Gorevan, S.; Roopnarine, R.

    2005-12-01

    Acquiring and analyzing samples from the Venusian surface is a primary goal of future Venus exploration. In addition to supplying in situ instruments with pristine samples, the data acquired during drilling operations (and any other material processing operations) can provide important information about the physical properties of the material encountered at the drilled sites. Data such as motor current draw, penetration rate, weight-on-bit, etc., can be used to indirectly infer physical properties about the medium being drilled via comparison to other materials drilled under the same conditions. Direct physical properties measurements may also be made, from dedicated tools such as imbedded shear strength test devices, provided that adequate space inside the drill string is available. Inferring physical properties from drill data is not a trivial matter but its benefit to science return is great. Honeybee Robotics is involved in several efforts that are attempting to directly and indirectly assess rock and soil physical properties based on drill data, which includes the Mars Exploration Rover mission Rock Abrasion Tool data set, though much more work is still required in this area. Lessons learned from these efforts so far have demonstrated the importance of co-developing the physical properties assessment techniques along with the drill system itself from the start of the design process. An overview of this process and how it relates to Venus exploration and science data return will be discussed.

  20. Direct assessment of viral diversity in soils by random PCR amplification of polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Srinivasiah, Sharath; Lovett, Jacqueline; Polson, Shawn; Bhavsar, Jaysheel; Ghosh, Dhritiman; Roy, Krishnakali; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J; Radosevich, Mark; Wommack, K Eric

    2013-09-01

    Viruses are the most abundant and diverse biological entities within soils, yet their ecological impact is largely unknown. Defining how soil viral communities change with perturbation or across environments will contribute to understanding the larger ecological significance of soil viruses. A new approach to examining the composition of soil viral communities based on random PCR amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) was developed. A key methodological improvement was the use of viral metagenomic sequence data for the design of RAPD-PCR primers. This metagenomically informed approach to primer design enabled the optimization of RAPD-PCR sensitivity for examining changes in soil viral communities. Initial application of RAPD-PCR viral fingerprinting to soil viral communities demonstrated that the composition of autochthonous soil viral assemblages noticeably changed over a distance of meters along a transect of Antarctic soils and across soils subjected to different land uses. For Antarctic soils, viral assemblages segregated upslope from the edge of dry valley lakes. In the case of temperate soils at the Kellogg Biological Station, viral communities clustered according to land use treatment. In both environments, soil viral communities changed along with environmental factors known to shape the composition of bacterial host communities. Overall, this work demonstrates that RAPD-PCR fingerprinting is an inexpensive, high-throughput means for addressing first-order questions of viral community dynamics within environmental samples and thus fills a methodological gap between narrow single-gene approaches and comprehensive shotgun metagenomic sequencing for the analysis of viral community diversity.

  1. Direct Assessment of Viral Diversity in Soils by Random PCR Amplification of Polymorphic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasiah, Sharath; Lovett, Jacqueline; Polson, Shawn; Bhavsar, Jaysheel; Ghosh, Dhritiman; Roy, Krishnakali; Fuhrmann, Jeffry J.; Radosevich, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant and diverse biological entities within soils, yet their ecological impact is largely unknown. Defining how soil viral communities change with perturbation or across environments will contribute to understanding the larger ecological significance of soil viruses. A new approach to examining the composition of soil viral communities based on random PCR amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) was developed. A key methodological improvement was the use of viral metagenomic sequence data for the design of RAPD-PCR primers. This metagenomically informed approach to primer design enabled the optimization of RAPD-PCR sensitivity for examining changes in soil viral communities. Initial application of RAPD-PCR viral fingerprinting to soil viral communities demonstrated that the composition of autochthonous soil viral assemblages noticeably changed over a distance of meters along a transect of Antarctic soils and across soils subjected to different land uses. For Antarctic soils, viral assemblages segregated upslope from the edge of dry valley lakes. In the case of temperate soils at the Kellogg Biological Station, viral communities clustered according to land use treatment. In both environments, soil viral communities changed along with environmental factors known to shape the composition of bacterial host communities. Overall, this work demonstrates that RAPD-PCR fingerprinting is an inexpensive, high-throughput means for addressing first-order questions of viral community dynamics within environmental samples and thus fills a methodological gap between narrow single-gene approaches and comprehensive shotgun metagenomic sequencing for the analysis of viral community diversity. PMID:23793630

  2. Highly sensitive direct detection and quantification of Burkholderia pseudomallei bacteria in environmental soil samples by using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Trung, Trinh Thanh; Hetzer, Adrian; Göhler, André; Topfstedt, Eylin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2011-09-01

    The soil bacterium and potential biothreat agent Burkholderia pseudomallei causes the infectious disease melioidosis, which is naturally acquired through environmental contact with the bacterium. Environmental detection of B. pseudomallei represents the basis for the development of a geographical risk map for humans and livestock. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly sensitive, culture-independent, DNA-based method that allows direct quantification of B. pseudomallei from soil. We established a protocol for B. pseudomallei soil DNA isolation, purification, and quantification by quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting a type three secretion system 1 single-copy gene. This assay was validated using 40 soil samples from Northeast Thailand that underwent parallel bacteriological culture. All 26 samples that were B. pseudomallei positive by direct culture were B. pseudomallei qPCR positive, with a median of 1.84 × 10(4) genome equivalents (range, 3.65 × 10(2) to 7.85 × 10(5)) per gram of soil, assuming complete recovery of DNA. This was 10.6-fold (geometric mean; range, 1.1- to 151.3-fold) higher than the bacterial count defined by direct culture. Moreover, the qPCR detected B. pseudomallei in seven samples (median, 36.9 genome equivalents per g of soil; range, 9.4 to 47.3) which were negative by direct culture. These seven positive results were reproduced using a nested PCR targeting a second, independent B. pseudomallei-specific sequence. Two samples were direct culture and qPCR negative but nested PCR positive. Five samples were negative by both PCR methods and culture. In conclusion, our PCR-based system provides a highly specific and sensitive tool for the quantitative environmental surveillance of B. pseudomallei.

  3. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils by young Douglas fir trees: effects of cadmium exposure on cell wall composition.

    PubMed

    Astier, Cédric; Gloaguen, Vincent; Faugeron, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Douglas fir trees grown on an artificially Cd-contaminated soil, can tolerate this trace element (up to 68 mg/kg in soil) during several months. Most of the absorbed Cd is retained in roots (25 mg/kg DM), but transfer to aerial part is also effective. Showing the highest content, up to 6 mg/kg DM, among all the aboveground parts, barks seem to be a preferred storage compartment. However, the transfer factor is quite low, about 0.3. Another objective of this study was to compare the cell wall components of trees exposed to increasing Cd amounts in soil. A decrease in lignin and an increase in pectin contents were observed in response to increasing soil cadmium concentration. A concurrent reduction in methyl-esterification of pectin suggests than the structure of this major binding site could therefore be modified as a reaction to cadmium contamination. Future prospects will focus on the modulation of pectin composition in response to Cd exposure.

  4. Direct interspecies electron transfer accelerates syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in paddy soil enrichments.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijuan; Chang, Jiali; Liu, Pengfei; Fu, Li; Ding, Dewen; Lu, Yahai

    2015-05-01

    Syntrophic interaction occurs during anaerobic fermentation of organic substances forming methane as the final product. H2 and formate are known to serve as the electron carriers in this process. Recently, it has been shown that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) occurs for syntrophic CH4 production from ethanol and acetate. Here, we constructed paddy soil enrichments to determine the involvement of DIET in syntrophic butyrate oxidation and CH4 production. The results showed that CH4 production was significantly accelerated in the presence of nanoFe3 O4 in all continuous transfers. This acceleration increased with the increase of nanoFe3 O4 concentration but was dismissed when Fe3 O4 was coated with silica that insulated the mineral from electrical conduction. NanoFe3 O4 particles were found closely attached to the cell surfaces of different morphology, thus bridging cell connections. Molecular approaches, including DNA-based stable isotope probing, revealed that the bacterial Syntrophomonadaceae and Geobacteraceae, and the archaeal Methanosarcinaceae, Methanocellales and Methanobacteriales, were involved in the syntrophic butyrate oxidation and CH4 production. Among them, the growth of Geobacteraceae strictly relied on the presence of nanoFe3 O4 and its electrical conductivity in particular. Other organisms, except Methanobacteriales, were present in enrichments regardless of nanoFe3 O4 amendment. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the nanoFe3 O4 -facilitated DIET occurred in syntrophic CH4 production from butyrate, and Geobacter species played the key role in this process in the paddy soil enrichments.

  5. Neutral red retention by lysosomes from earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) coelomocytes: A simple biomarker of exposure to soil copper

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, J.M.; Svendsen, C.

    1996-10-01

    A simple subcellular histochemical staining technique employing the lysosomal probe neutral red has been developed for use with the epiendogeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister. Coelomocytes extracted from the coelomic cavity of earthworms into an isotonic earthworm Ringer solution were allowed to adhere to a microscope slide for 30 s before the application of a neutral red dye. This red dye was rapidly accumulated within the lysosomes. Observation of the loss of this dye from these lysosomes into the surrounding cytosol has enabled the quantification of the degree of lysosomal damage caused to earthworms with exposure to an increasing range of soil copper concentrations, in both laboratory and mesocosm studies. This simple in vitro biomarker has potential for the rapid assessment of the toxic effects to earthworms from soils contaminated with heavy metals and metalloids.

  6. Effects of maternal versus direct exposure to pulp and paper mill effluent on rainbow trout early life stages.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Rosanne J; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Smith, Murray A; Ling, Nicholas

    2005-03-12

    The acute and chronic effects of secondary-treated effluent from a New Zealand pulp and paper mill were assessed using both long-term adult and early life stage (ELS) laboratory exposures of rainbow trout. The relative impact of maternal exposure versus ELS exposure was assessed by a comparison of directly exposed eggs and larvae with the eggs and larvae of exposed adult trout that were reared in reference water. Rainbow trout were exposed to a secondary-treated mixed thermomechanical/bleached kraft mill effluent at a concentration of 15% or to reference water from the egg through to 320-d-old juveniles. The 2 adult rainbow trout exposures were undertaken with nominal concentrations of 10% and 12% treated effluent, respectively. There was no marked effect of water hardening with 15% effluent on fertility or survival of eggs to 16 d. In a subsequent exposure (with hardening in reference water), no significant effects were found on mortality to hatch, time to hatch, length at hatch, mortality to swim-up, mortality to 320 d, or deformity rate at hatch. At experimental termination (320 d), direct-exposed juveniles had smaller livers and reduced condition factor, likely due to differences in food consumption. In 2 subsequent consecutive experiments, exposure of adult trout to 10% and 12% effluent for 2 mo, followed by incubation of the fertilized eggs in reference water, produced no impact on fertility, survival to hatch, survival to swim-up, or length and weight of fry at swim-up. Exposure of adult trout to 12% treated effluent for 8 mo prior to egg fertilization also did not result in differing rates of fertility, mortality to hatch or mortality to swim-up. However, the 8-mo maternal exposure did result in swim-up fry that were significantly shorter and weighed less than the reference swim-up fry. This difference was directly attributable to smaller eggs in the 8-mo-exposed female trout. These results demonstrate that this pulp and paper mill effluent is more likely

  7. The effects of second-hand and direct exposure to tobacco smoke on asthma and lung function in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tager, Ira B

    2008-03-01

    Cigarette smoking still is quite common in many parts of the world. In parallel, exposure to second-hand smoke continues to be common despite declines in smoking in developed countries and despite evidence of serious health effects in infants and children. This paper focuses on the effects of second-hand and direct exposure (personal smoking) on the respiratory health of adolescents, in particular effects on the occurrence of asthma and on lung function. Published data indicate that, in addition to whatever effects direct and postnatal second-hand tobacco smoke exposure have on the occurrence of asthma and impaired levels and growth of lung function in adolescents, there is an underlying alteration in the prenatal and early postnatal development of the structural and mechanical characteristics of the lung that contribute substantially to these deficits. These developmental effects may be important contributors to the future risks for impaired pulmonary function.

  8. Direct measurement of strontium-90 and uranium-238 in soils on a real-time basis: 1994 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Schilk, A.J.; Hubbard, C.W.; Knopf, M.A.; Thompson, R.C.

    1995-04-01

    Traditional methodologies for quantitative characterization of radionuclide-contaminated soils over extended areas are often tedious, costly, and non-representative. A rapid characterization methodology was designed that provides reliable output with spatial resolution on the order of a few meters or less. It incorporates an innovative sensor of square plastic scintillating fibers that has been designed to be placed directly on or above a contaminated soil to detect and quantify high-energy beta particles associated with the decay chains of uranium and/or strontium. Under the direction and auspices of the DOE`s Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a high-energy beta scintillation sensor that was optimized for the detection and quantification of uranium and strontium contamination in surface soils (in the presence of potentially interfering natural and anthropogenic radionuclides), demonstrated and evaluated this detector in various field and laboratory scenarios, and provides this document in completion of the aforementioned requirements.

  9. Monitoring of soil wetness variation using satellite microwave observations from the direct broadcast receiving system at IMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, A. K.; Bhan, S. C.; Sharma, A. K.; Parihar, Shaliesh

    2016-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing of soil related content for hydrological purposes have been considerably studied and developed over past three decades. This soil estimation by means of remote sensing depends upon the measurements of electromagnetic energy that has either been reflected or emitted from the soil surface and are accessible to remote sensing through measurements at the thermal infrared and microwave wavelengths. Recent advances in remote sensing, in the last few years, have shown that microwave techniques have the ability to measure soil moisture/wetness monitoring under a variety of topographic and vegetation cover conditions quantitatively. This is due to the all-weather and all-time capability of these data, as well as to their high sensitivity to water content in the soil. This study utilize the approach to investigate the soil wetness variation over the Jammu and Kashmir(J&K), which experienced one of the worst floods in the past 60 years, during first week of September 2014, due to unprecedented and intense rains. The Soil Wetness Estimation (SWE) has been computed from the data acquired by real time direct broadcast (DB) receiving system installed at three places of India Meteorological Department (IMD) using microwave radiometer AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit), flying aboard NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) polar satellites. A multi-temporal analysis of AMSU channel 15 (at 89 GHz) and channel 1 (at 23 GHz) have been used to find the variation of SWE. In the present analysis, the proposed SWE indicator has been very well brought out the soil wetness changes specifically for the flood event which could give some indication of early 'signals' of an anomalous value of soil water content. In order to improve the forecast capabilities over the tropics, SWE approach is found to be promising for operational use.

  10. Surface soil as a potential source of lead exposure for young children.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, N; Philion, J J; Larsen, A A; Harnadek, M; Lynch, A J

    1979-01-01

    Soil analyses revealed an elevated lead content in the surface soil of three British Columbia cities. The lead accumulations were largely attributed to dustfall from a nearby large lead-zinc smelter in Trail and to automotive traffic in Nelson and Vancouver. Although the mean concentrations of lead in the soil were relatively low at Nelson (192 parts per million [ppm]), in selected areas of Vancouver with heavy traffic they were similar to those found within 1.6 km of the large smelter at Trail (1545 and 1662 ppm respectively). In a study conducted in 1975, children aged 1 to 6 years in Trail and Nelson were found to have higher mean blood lead levels than grade nine students. The findings of the later study support the view that particulate lead in surface soil and dust accounted for most of the greater lead absorption in the younger children. PMID:519574

  11. Microbial Response to UV Exposure and Nitrogen Limitation in Desert Soil Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, J. M.; Van Mooy, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Microbiotic soil crusts have diverse biomarker distributions and C and N stable isotopic compositions that covary with soil type. Sparse plant cover and the relative lack of soil disturbance in arid/semi-arid landscapes allows populations of soil cyanobacteria to develop along with fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. Microbial communities in this extreme environment depend in part on the production of scytonemin, a UV protective pigment, by cyanobacteria near the top of the crust. N limitation of microbial growth also affects soil crust population dynamics, increasing the requirement of N2fixation by diazotrophic cyanobacteria. We collected 56 soil crust samples from 27 locations throughout the Great Salt Lake Desert, including four transects spanning high-elevation, erosion-dominated soils to lower elevation soils dominated by silt-accumulation. Erosion-dominated soil surfaces included rounded gravel and cobbles; in the interstices there were poorly-developed microbiotic crusts on sandy loam with low δ15N values near 0‰ that point toward microbial growth dependent on cyanobacterial N2 fixation. Nutrients regenerated by heterotrophic bacteria may have been eroded from the system, providing a positive feedback for N2 fixation. High scytonemin:chlorophyll a ratios suggest that cyanobacteria required enhanced protection from UV damage in these crusts. A similar increase in scytonemin:chlorophyll a ratio during soil crust rehydration experiments also points toward the importance of UV protection. Glycolipid:phospholipid ratios were lowest where N2 fixation was favored, however, suggesting that the cyanobacterial population was relatively small, possibly because of the metabolic cost of N2fixation. Microbiotic crusts on silt loam soils, on the other hand, had higher δ15N values between 3.5 and 7.8‰, consistent with heterotrophic growth and nutrient recycling. Lower scytonemin:chlorophyll a ratios suggest that relatively high photosynthetic activity was supported in

  12. Advances and Future Directions in the Study of Children's Neurobiological Responses to Trauma and Violence Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans, Katherine; Cerbone, Arleen B.; Overstreet, Stacy

    2005-01-01

    One of the most exciting developments to emerge from the field in the past 20 years is the increasing attention to neurobiological responses to violence and trauma exposure. Although researchers have yet to identify a consensual pattern of neurobiological response to violence and trauma exposure, it does appear that some type of alteration in the…

  13. Direct and indirect violence exposure: relations to depression for economically disadvantaged ethnic minority mid-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan Dushyant; Wiesner, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to violence remains a considerable public health problem for adolescents in the United States. This cross-sectional study examined relative associations between exposure to violence in 3 different contexts (home, school, community) and depressive symptoms, using data from 233 11th-graders (predominantly economically disadvantaged Hispanic and African American students). Analyses examined the effects of victimization and witnessing violence in each context and those of cumulative violence exposure across contexts on depression, controlling for other risk factors. Both victimization and witnessing violence at home significantly predicted depression. Violence exposure in school and neighborhood was unrelated to the outcome. Witnessing violence was slightly more effective in predicting depression than victimization. Cumulative violence exposure was significantly related to depression in a linear fashion.

  14. Arsenic in residential soil and household dust in Cornwall, south west England: potential human exposure and the influence of historical mining.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Daniel R S; Watts, Michael J; Beriro, Darren J; Hamilton, Elliott M; Leonardi, Giovanni S; Fletcher, Tony; Close, Rebecca M; Polya, David A

    2017-04-19

    Exposure to arsenic (As) via residential soil and dust is a global concern, in regions affected by mining or with elevated concentrations present in underlying geology. Cornwall in south west England is one such area. Residential soil (n = 127) and household dust (n = 99) samples were collected from across Cornwall as part of a wider study assessing exposure to environmental As. Samples were analysed for total As (soil and dust samples) and human ingestion bioaccessible As (soil samples from properties with home-grown produce). Arsenic concentrations ranged from 12 to 992 mg kg(-1) in soil and 3 to 1079 mg kg(-1) in dust and were significantly higher in areas affected by metalliferous mineralisation. Sixty-nine percent of soils exceeded the 37 mg kg(-1) Category 4 Screening Level (C4SL), a generic assessment criteria for As in residential soils in England, which assumes 100% bioavailability following ingestion. The proportion of exceedance was reduced to 13% when the bioavailability parameter in the CLEA model was changed to generate household specific bioaccessibility adjusted assessment criteria (ACBIO). These criteria were derived using bioaccessibility data for a sub-set of individual household vegetable patch soils (n = 68). Proximity to former As mining locations was found to be a significant predictor of soil As concentration. This study highlights the value of bioaccessibility measurements and their potential for adjusting generic assessment criteria.

  15. Accumulated metal speciation in earthworm populations with multigenerational exposure to metalliferous soils: cell fractionation and high-energy synchrotron analyses.

    PubMed

    Andre, Jane; Charnock, John; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R; Kille, Peter; Morgan, A John; Hodson, Mark E

    2009-09-01

    Predicting metal bioaccumulation and toxicity in soil organisms is complicated by site-specific biotic and abiotic parameters. In this study we exploited tissue fractionation and digestion techniques, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), to investigate the whole-body and subcellular distributions, ligand affinities, and coordination chemistry of accumulated Pb and Zn in field populations of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting three contrasting metalliferous and two unpolluted soils. Our main findings were (i) earthworms were resident in soils with concentrations of Pb and Zn ranging from 1200 to 27,000 mg kg(-1) and 200 to 34,000 mg kg(-1), respectively; (ii) Pb and Zn primarily accumulated in the posterior alimentary canal in nonsoluble subcellular fractions of earthworms; (iii) site-specific differences in the tissue and subcellular partitioning profiles of populations were observed, with earthworms from a calcareous site partitioning proportionally more Pb to their anterior body segments and Zn to the chloragosome-rich subcellular fraction than their acidic-soil inhabiting counterparts; (iv) XAS indicated that the interpopulation differences in metal partitioning between organs were not accompanied by qualitative differences in ligand-binding speciation, because crystalline phosphate-containing pyromorphite was a predominant chemical species in the whole-worm tissues of all mine soil residents. Differences in metal (Pb, Zn) partitioning at both organ and cellular levels displayed by field populations with protracted histories of metal exposures may reflect theirinnate ecophysiological responses to essential edaphic variables, such as Ca2+ status. These observations are highly significant in the challenging exercise of interpreting holistic biomarker data delivered by "omic" technologies.

  16. Metal contamination of home gardens soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: Implications for human exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R.; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G.

    2015-01-01

    Background For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Methods Home gardens (n=63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity duration in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Conclusions Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1+F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references. We

  17. Metal contamination of home garden soils and cultivated vegetables in the province of Brescia, Italy: implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Roberta; Hashim, Dana; Smith, Donald R; Guazzetti, Stefano; Donna, Filippo; Ferretti, Enrica; Curatolo, Michele; Moneta, Caterina; Beone, Gian Maria; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2015-06-15

    For the past century, ferroalloy industries in Brescia province, Italy produced particulate emissions enriched in manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al). This study assessed metal concentrations in soil and vegetables of regions with varying ferroalloy industrial activity levels. Home gardens (n=63) were selected in three regions of varying ferroalloy plant activity durations in Brescia province. Total soil metal concentration and extractability were measured by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), aqua regia extraction, and modified Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction. Unwashed and washed spinach and turnips cultivated in the same gardens were analyzed for metal concentrations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Median soil Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were significantly higher in home gardens near ferroalloy plants compared to reference home gardens. The BCR method yielded the most mobile soil fraction (the sum of extractable metals in Fractions 1 and 2) and all metal concentrations were higher in ferroalloy plant areas. Unwashed spinach showed higher metal concentrations compared to washed spinach. However, some metals in washed spinach were higher in the reference area likely due to history of agricultural product use. Over 60% of spinach samples exceeded the 2- to 4-fold Commission of European Communities and Codex Alimentarius Commission maximum Pb concentrations, and 10% of the same spinach samples exceeded 2- to 3-fold maximum Cd concentrations set by both organizations. Turnip metal concentrations were below maximum standard reference values. Prolonged industrial emissions increase median metal concentrations and most soluble fractions (BCR F1+F2) in home garden soils near ferroalloy plants. Areas near ferroalloy plant sites had spinach Cd and Pb metal concentrations several-fold above maximum standard references. We recommend thorough washing of vegetables

  18. Exposure to particulate matter in India: A synthesis of findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pant, Pallavi; Guttikunda, Sarath K; Peltier, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Air pollution poses a critical threat to human health with ambient and household air pollution identified as key health risks in India. While there are many studies investigating concentration, composition, and health effects of air pollution, investigators are only beginning to focus on estimating or measuring personal exposure. Further, the relevance of exposures studies from the developed countries in developing countries is uncertain. This review summarizes existing research on exposure to particulate matter (PM) in India, identifies gaps and offers recommendations for future research. There are a limited number of studies focused on exposure to PM and/or associated health effects in India, but it is evident that levels of exposure are much higher than those reported in developed countries. Most studies have focused on coarse aerosols, with a few studies on fine aerosols. Additionally, most studies have focused on a handful of cities, and there are many unknowns in terms of ambient levels of PM as well as personal exposure. Given the high mortality burden associated with air pollution exposure in India, a deeper understanding of ambient pollutant levels as well as source strengths is crucial, both in urban and rural areas. Further, the attention needs to expand beyond the handful large cities that have been studied in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Moving toward exposure and risk evaluation of nanomaterials: challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Treye; Bahadori, Tina; Savage, Nora; Thomas, Karluss

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the commercial development of engineered nanomaterials, promises breakthrough innovations by enhancing the performance of existing consumer products and enabling development of new devices, architectures, and applications. Although these materials and applications are being developed at an explosive pace, a fundamental understanding of any potential human health and environmental risks resulting from exposure throughout the lifecycle of these materials has not advanced as rapidly. Past experience has demonstrated that successful introduction of a new technology occurs more readily if it is precipitated by a robust appreciation for any inherent risks associated with the technology. Such understanding allows the timely development of occupational and consumer exposure standards that might be needed to protect human health and the environment. Although risk is recognized as the product of hazard and exposure, too often exposure patterns are poorly characterized, and risk is based primarily or exclusively on the hazard characterization. The extent of exposure to nanomaterials in currently available commercial products is relatively unknown. Given the number of commercial products that claim to contain engineered nanomaterials, it is possible that human and environmental exposure to these materials is widespread. This paper is intended to highlight the importance of exposure assessment for determining the potential risks of nanomaterials. In essence, this is a call to action to the community of exposure scientists, toxicologists, and risk assessors to develop, consider, and incorporate requisite exposure information in the risk assessment of nanomaterials. Without an integrated approach, it will be difficult to meaningfully assess the risks of nanomaterials, realize their potential benefits, and foster their sustainable development.

  20. How significant to plant N nutrition is the direct consumption of soil microbes by roots?

    PubMed

    Hill, Paul W; Marsden, Karina A; Jones, Davey L

    2013-09-01

    The high degree to which plant roots compete with soil microbes for organic forms of nitrogen (N) is becoming increasingly apparent. This has culminated in the finding that plants may consume soil microbes as a source of N, but the functional significance of this process remains unknown. We used (15) N- and (14) C-labelled cultures of soil bacteria to measure rates of acquisition of microbes by sterile wheat roots and plants growing in soil. We compared these rates with acquisition of (15) N delivered as nitrate, amino acid monomer (l-alanine) and short peptide (l-tetraalanine), and the rate of decomposition of [(14) C] microbes by indigenous soil microbiota. Acquisition of microbe (15) N by both sterile roots and roots growing in soil was one to two orders of magnitude slower than acquisition of all other forms of (15) N. Decomposition of microbes was fast enough to account for all (15) N recovered, but approximately equal recovery of microbe (14) C suggests that microbes entered roots intact. Uptake of soil microbes by wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots appears to take place in soil. If wheat is typical, the importance of this process to terrestrial N cycling is probably minor in comparison with fluxes of other forms of soil inorganic and organic N. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. A synthesis of current knowledge and future directions for soil magnetism research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Jacqueline A.; Van Dam, Remke L.; Harmon, Russell S.

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic properties of soils have adverse effects on metal detectors, particularly hampering operations during clearance of landmines and unexploded ordnance. Although there is well established research in soil magnetism and modeling electromagnetic induction systems these have tended to exist in disparate disciplines. Hence, a workshop was organized to bring together researchers, academics, stakeholders and manufacturers to discuss key priorities for research and technology in a unique multidisciplinary environment. Key knowledge gaps identified include limited information on the spatial heterogeneity of soil magnetic properties in 2D and 3D, whether current models describing soil responses are appropriate for all soils and the need for compensation mechanisms in detectors to be improved. Several priorities were identified that would maximize future developments for multidisciplinary research in soil magnetism and detector technology. These include acquiring well constrained empirical data on soil electromagnetic properties and detector response over the frequency range of detectors; development of predictive models of soil magnetic properties; investigating variability of soil magnetic properties in two and three dimensions across a range of scales. Improved communication between disciplines is key to effective targeting and realization of research priorities. Possible platforms include a multidisciplinary pilot study at an appropriate site and the development of an online repository to assist dissemination of results and information.

  2. How significant to plant N nutrition is the direct consumption of soil microbes by roots?

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Paul W; Marsden, Karina A; Jones, Davey L

    2013-01-01

    Summary –The high degree to which plant roots compete with soil microbes for organic forms of nitrogen (N) is becoming increasingly apparent. This has culminated in the finding that plants may consume soil microbes as a source of N, but the functional significance of this process remains unknown. –We used 15N- and 14C-labelled cultures of soil bacteria to measure rates of acquisition of microbes by sterile wheat roots and plants growing in soil. We compared these rates with acquisition of 15N delivered as nitrate, amino acid monomer (l-alanine) and short peptide (l-tetraalanine), and the rate of decomposition of [14C] microbes by indigenous soil microbiota. –Acquisition of microbe 15N by both sterile roots and roots growing in soil was one to two orders of magnitude slower than acquisition of all other forms of 15N. Decomposition of microbes was fast enough to account for all 15N recovered, but approximately equal recovery of microbe 14C suggests that microbes entered roots intact. –Uptake of soil microbes by wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots appears to take place in soil. If wheat is typical, the importance of this process to terrestrial N cycling is probably minor in comparison with fluxes of other forms of soil inorganic and organic N. PMID:23718181

  3. Tracing the fate of organic P compounds in soil - a direct investigation of microbial organic P use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasner, Daniel; Zezula, David; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In soils, the wide variety of organic phosphorus (Porg) compounds constitutes a large fraction of total soil P, and therefore represents an important pool of actively cycled terrestrial P. However, to date little is known about the decomposition dynamics of this highly heterogenic group of compounds in soil systems, mainly due to the lack of traceable Porg substrates for experimental approaches. It is further currently unknown whether Porg substrates released into the soil are generally mineralized to inorganic P by extracellular enzymes before microbial uptake or whether substantial amounts of low-molecular weight Porg compounds are taken up in an intact form. This study therefore aimed at directly investigating the short-term fate (0-24hours) of five different groups of 33P-labelled Porg components (teichoic acids in bacterial cell walls, DNA, RNA, phospholipids, and small organophosphates) relative to inorganic 33P in soils. To that end, depolymerization and dephosphorylation reactions of these Porg pools were measured concomitant with the uptake of organic versus inorganic 33P into soil microbial community. The purified 33P-labelled Porg components were obtained by growing Bacillus subtilis in a 33P amended liquid medium and subsequent fractionation of the biomass into the five groups of 33Porg compounds by optimized biochemical fractionation protocols. After adding these substrates to an agricultural soil and a pasture soil, the relevant organic, inorganic and microbial P pools were determined at seven timepoints over 24hours. The data of these experiments are currently under evaluation and will be presented at the conference.

  4. Exposure assessment of heavy metals on abandoned metal mine areas by ingestion of soil, crop plant and groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.-S.; Chon, H.-T.

    2003-05-01

    In order to assess the risk of adverse health effects on human exposure to arsenic and heavy metals influence by past mining activities, environmental geochemical survey was undertaken in the abandoned metal mine areas (Dongil Au-Ag-Cu-Zn mine, Okdong Cu-Pb-Zn mine, Myungbong Au-Ag mine). Arsenic and other heavy metals were highly elevated in the tailings from the Dongil mine (8,720 As mg/kg, 5.9 Cd mg/kg, 3,610 Cu mg/kg, 5,850 Pb mg/kg, 630 Zn mg/kg). Heavy metals except As from the Okdong mine (53.6 Cd mg/kg, 910 Cu mg/kg, 1,590 Pb mg/kg, 5,720 Zn mg/kg) and As from the Myungbong mine (5,810 As mg/kg) were also elevated. Elevated levels of As, Cd and Zn were also found in agricultural soils from these mine areas. The H.I. (hazard index) values of As and Cd from the Dongil, the Okdong and Myungbong mine areas are higher than 1.0. Therefore, toxic risk for As and Cd exist via exposure (ingestion) of contaminated soil, groundwater and rice grain in these mine areas.

  5. Immune response of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia andrei and Aporrectodea tuberculata) following in situ soil exposure to atmospheric deposition from a cement factory.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Richard; Robidoux, Pierre Yves; Sauvé, Sébastien; Flipo, Denis; Fournier, Michel; Trottier, Bertin

    2003-10-01

    In order to reduce their energy costs, many cement plants use fuel product substitutes (old tyres and used oil). The combustion of these products generates a metal increase (e.g. Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) in the atmospheric emissions. After their release, these elements are deposited into the environment and could eventually accumulate up to concentrations of concern. At the Saint-Laurent cement factory (Joliette, QC, Canada), maximum deposition of these elements occurs in the direction of prevailing winds (North-East). We evaluated the potential impact of these depositions upon the immune system of three earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia andrei and Aporrectodea tuberculata) exposed in a natural environment. The exposure sites were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 km downwind from the cement factory, along with an upwind reference site. The immune parameters studied were the cell viability and phagocytic potential of the immune cells (coelomocytes). For both L. terrestris and E. andrei, after 7 d exposure, none of the measured parameters showed significant differences among the sites. On the other hand, for the indigenous worm A. tuberculata, in the most exposed zone (at 0.5 km), we observed an increase in cell viability and phagocytic potential. This increase could possibly be attributed to physicochemical effects such as the alkaline pH of the soil, or alternatively, it could result from beneficial effects induced by an increased calcium supply.

  6. Widespread capacity to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls by diverse microbial communities in soils with no significant exposure to PCB contamination.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Alexandre J; Timmis, Kenneth N; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the extent of microbial metabolic potential for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils that have had no previous exposure to this class of xenobiotic pollutants. Soil and sediment samples of distinct characteristics from six sites in Germany were used to inoculate PCB oil (Aroclor 1242) microdroplets. All samples yielded multispecies biofilms, as revealed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of 16S rRNA genes, and sequence analysis of the main amplicons. Microbes representing 20 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in the biofilms, but only a few were common to all biofilms, namely those closely related to Aquabacterium sp., Caulobacter sp., Imtechium assamiensis, Nevskia ramosa, Parvibaculum lavamentivorans and Burkholderia sp. The PCB biofilm communities were always distinct from control biofilms developing from the same samples in the absence of PCB. All PCB droplet-grown biofilms degraded multiple PCB congeners but differed in the congener spectra they degraded. These findings reveal that microbial potential to degrade PCBs is widespread in soils that have not been subjected to PCB contamination, and that this potential is characteristic of consortia of very diverse phylogenetic composition.

  7. Coping with copper: legacy effect of copper on potential activity of soil bacteria following a century of exposure.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Inês; Jacquiod, Samuel; Brejnrod, Asker; Holm, Peter E; Johansen, Anders; Brandt, Kristian K; Priemé, Anders; Sørensen, Søren J

    2016-11-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure to normal (∼15 mg kg(-1)), high (∼450 mg kg(-1)) or extremely high (∼4500 mg kg(-1)) copper levels. Results showed that bioavailable copper had pronounced impacts on the structure of the transcriptionally active bacterial community, overruling other environmental factors (e.g. season and pH). As copper concentration increased, bacterial richness and evenness were negatively impacted, while distinct communities with an enhanced relative abundance of Nitrospira and Acidobacteria members and a lower representation of Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were selected. Our analysis showed the presence of six functional response groups (FRGs), each consisting of bacterial taxa with similar tolerance response to copper. Furthermore, the use of FRGs revealed that specific taxa like the genus Nitrospira and several Acidobacteria groups could accurately predict the copper legacy burden in our system, suggesting a potential promising role as bioindicators of copper contamination in soils. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Certain antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as early warning biomarkers of soil copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bai-Ye; Kan, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Yan-Zong; Deng, Shi-Huai; Wu, Jun; Yuan, Hao; Qi, Hui; Yang, Gang; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Hong; Wang, Ying-Jun; Peng, Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei

    2010-11-15

    Copper (Cu) is a major heavy metal contaminant with various anthropogenic and natural sources. Recently, using biomarkers to monitor the effects of pollutants has attracted increased interest. Pot culture experiments using radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was performed to investigate Cu phytotoxic effects on antioxidant enzymes and other early warning biomarkers of soil Cu exposure. Under low dose Cu stress (lower than the EC10, Cu concentration reducing root length by 10%), activity and isozyme expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidases (POD) increased significantly; no significant variations in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves and toxic symptoms were observed. Under a slightly higher Cu stress (close to the EC10), activity and isozyme expression of SOD and MDA content were enhanced significantly; those of CAT and POD decreased due to an inverted U-shape dose response. Chlorophyll content remained unchanged. Thus, antioxidant enzymes and MDA content are more sensitive to Cu stress, showing significant variations ahead of chlorophyll and toxic symptoms under Cu stress (lower than about 200 mg kg(-1) soil). Thus, the joint monitoring of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content of R. sativus can be used as biomarkers of soil Cu contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Properties of silver nanoparticles influencing their uptake in and toxicity to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus following exposure in soil.

    PubMed

    Makama, Sunday; Piella, Jordi; Undas, Anna; Dimmers, Wim J; Peters, Ruud; Puntes, Victor F; van den Brink, Nico W

    2016-11-01

    Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles influence their environmental fate and toxicity, and studies investigating this are vital for a holistic approach towards a comprehensive and adequate environmental risk assessment. In this study, we investigated the effects of size, surface coating (charge) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) - a most commonly-used nanoparticle-type, on the bioaccumulation in, and toxicity (survival, growth, cocoon production) to the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. AgNPs were synthesized in three sizes: 20, 35 and 50 nm. Surface-coating with bovine serum albumin (AgNP_BSA), chitosan (AgNP_Chit), or polyvinylpyrrolidone (AgNP_PVP) produced negative, positive and neutral particles respectively. In a 28-day sub-chronic reproduction toxicity test, earthworms were exposed to these AgNPs in soil (0-250 mg Ag/kg soil DW). Earthworms were also exposed to AgNO3 at concentrations below known EC50. Total Ag tissue concentration indicated uptake by earthworms was generally highest for the AgNP_BSA especially at the lower exposure concentration ranges, and seems to reach a plateau level between 50 and 100 mg Ag/kg soil DW. Reproduction was impaired at high concentrations of all AgNPs tested, with AgNP_BSA particles being the most toxic. The EC50 for the 20 nm AgNP_BSA was 66.8 mg Ag/kg soil, with exposure to <60 mg Ag/kg soil already showing a decrease in the cocoon production. Thus, based on reproductive toxicity, the particles ranked: AgNP_BSA (negative) > AgNP_PVP (neutral) > Chitosan (positive). Size had an influence on uptake and toxicity of the AgNP_PVP, but not for AgNP_BSA nor AgNP_Chit. This study provides essential information on the role of physicochemical properties of AgNPs in influencing uptake by a terrestrial organism L. rubellus under environmentally relevant conditions. It also provides evidence of the influence of surface coating (charge) and the limited effect of size in the range of 20-50 nm, in driving uptake and toxicity

  10. Adverse Birth Outcomes and Maternal Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene through Soil Vapor Intrusion in New York State

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Michl, Elizabeth L.; Gomez, Marta I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Industrial spills of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Endicott, New York (USA), have led to contamination of groundwater, soil, and soil gas. Previous studies have reported an increase in adverse birth outcomes among women exposed to VOCs in drinking water. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes among mothers exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene [or perchloroethylene (PCE)] in indoor air contaminated through soil vapor intrusion. Methods: We examined low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects among births to women in Endicott who were exposed to VOCs, compared with births statewide. We used Poisson regression to analyze births and malformations to estimate the association between maternal exposure to VOCs adjusting for sex, mother’s age, race, education, parity, and prenatal care. Two exposure areas were identified based on environmental sampling data: one area was primarily contaminated with TCE, and the other with PCE. Results: In the TCE-contaminated area, adjusted rate ratios (RRs) were significantly elevated for LBW [RR = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.73; n = 76], small for gestational age (RR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.48; n = 117), term LBW (RR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.34; n = 37), cardiac defects (RR = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.27, 3.62; n = 15), and conotruncal defects (RR = 4.91; 95% CI: 1.58, 15.24; n = 3). In the PCE-contaminated area, RRs for cardiac defects (five births) were elevated but not significantly. Residual socioeconomic confounding may have contributed to elevations of LBW outcomes. Conclusions: Maternal residence in both areas was associated with cardiac defects. Residence in the TCE area, but not the PCE area, was associated with LBW and fetal growth restriction. PMID:22142966

  11. Potential use of the plant antioxidant network for environmental exposure assessment of heavy metals in soils.

    PubMed

    Meers, E; Ruttens, A; Geebelen, W; Vangronsveld, J; Samson, R; Vanbroekhoven, K; Vandegehuchte, M; Diels, L; Tack, F M G

    2006-09-01

    In recent years, awareness has risen that the total soil content of pollutants by itself does not suffice to fully assess the potential ecotoxicological risks involved. Chemical analysis will require to be complemented with biological assays in a multidisciplinary approach towards site specific ecological risk assessment (SS-ERA). This paper evaluates the potential use of the plants' antioxidant response to metal-induced oxidative stress to provide a sensitive biological assay in SS-ERA. To this end, plants of Phaseolus vulgaris were grown for two weeks on 15 soils varying in contamination level. Morphological parameters and enzymatic plant responses were measured upon harvest. Foliar concentrations of the (heavy) metals Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn were also determined. Metal mobility in the soil was further assessed by determining soil solution and NH4OAc extractable levels. In general more significant correlations were observed between plant responses and foliar metal concentrations or exchangeable/soluble levels than between plant responses and the total soil content. The study demonstrates the potential use of the plants' antioxidant defence mechanisms to assess substrate phytotoxicity for application in SS-ERA protocols. However, the system, based on calculation of a soil Phytotoxicity Index (PI), will require adaptation and fine-tuning to meet the specific needs for this type of environmental monitoring. Large variation was observed in phytotoxicity classification based on the various test parameters. The thresholds for classification of the various morphological and enzymatic response parameters may require adaptation according to parameter stress sensitivity in order to decrease the observed variation. The use of partial PI's (leaves and roots separately) may in addition increase the sensitivity of the system since some metals show specific effects in one of both organs only. Loss of biological functionality of enzymes, as was observed for ICDH in

  12. Validation of sensor-directed spatial simulated annealing soil sampling strategy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil spatial variability has a profound influence on most agronomical and environmental processes at field- and landscape-scales, including: site-specific management, vadose zone hydrology and transport, and soil quality, to mention a few. Mobile sensors are a practical means of mapping spatial vari...

  13. Design and field tests of a directly coupled waveguide-on-access-tube soil water sensor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sensor systems capable of monitoring soil water content can provide a useful tool for irrigation control. Current systems are limited by installation depth, labor, accuracy, and cost. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is an approach for monitoring soil water content that relates the travel time of an ...

  14. Gamma-ray exposure from neutron-induced radionuclides in soil in Hiroshima and Nagasaki based on DS02 calculations.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2008-07-01

    As a result of joint efforts by Japanese, US and German scientists, the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) was developed as a new dosimetry system, to evaluate individual radiation dose to atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although the atomic bomb radiation consisted of initial radiation and residual radiation, only initial radiation was reevaluated in DS02 because, for most survivors in the life span study group, the residual dose was negligible compared to the initial dose. It was reported, however, that there were individuals who entered the city at the early stage after the explosion and experienced hemorrhage, diarrhea, etc., which were symptoms of acute radiation syndrome. In this study, external exposure due to radionuclides induced in soil by atomic bomb neutrons was reevaluated based on DS02 calculations, as a function of both the distance from the hypocenters and the elapsed time after the explosions. As a result, exposure rates of 6 and 4 Gy h(-1) were estimated at the hypocenter at 1 min after the explosion in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. These exposure rates decreased rapidly by a factor of 1,000 1 day later, and by a factor of 1 million 1 week later. Maximum cumulative exposure from the time of explosion was 1.2 and 0.6 Gy at the hypocenters in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. Induced radiation decreased also with distance from the hypocenters, by a factor of about 10 at 500 m and a factor of three to four hundreds at 1,000 m. Consequently, a significant exposure due to induced radiation is considered feasible to those who entered the area closer to a distance of 1,000 m from the hypocenters, within one week after the bombing.

  15. Soils

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    Edaphic and climatic characteristics of a site quite well define the quality of that site for plant growth. The importance of soil characteristics to the growth and well-being of aspen in the West is apparent from observations by many authors, from inferences resulting from work with other trees and agricultural crops, and from detailed study of aspen soils and site...

  16. DNA Damage in Vicia faba by Exposure to Agricultural Soils from Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Santacruz, L; García-Nieto, E; García-Gallegos, E; Romo-Gómez, C; Ortiz-Ortiz, E; Costilla-Salazar, R; Luna-Zendejas, H S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify some POPs, such as p,p' DDT, p,p' DDE, and PCBs in agricultural soils of Tlaxcala, Mexico and evaluate their capacity for eliciting DNA damage, using Vicia faba as bioindicator. The values of ΣDDTs and ΣPCBs ranged from 8-24 to 118-26,983 µg/kg, respectively. The samples T1 (HQ = 9.3) and T2 (HQ = 53.9) showed concentrations of ΣPCBs higher than Canadian guidelines (SQGE = 500 µg/kg). The genotoxicity testing produced percentages of DNA fragmentation higher than negative control and statistically significant (p < 0.05), both in agricultural soils and organic extracts. The soils T2, T3, N4, and N5 showed a DICA from 2.6 to 3.1 times, statistically higher (p < 0.05) than negative control. In general, the agricultural soils have greater genotoxic capacity than the organic extracts, suggesting a potential risk to biota that depends upon this ecosystem.

  17. Measurement of gamma radiation levels in soil samples from Thanjavur using gamma-ray spectrometry and estimation of population exposure.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, B; Dhavamani, V; Ramkumar, S; Philominathan, P

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclides (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in 10 soil samples collected from Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu, India) using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity profile of radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low level activity in Thanjavur. The geometric mean activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K is 42.9+/-9.4 Bq.kg(-1), 14.7+/-1.7 Bq.kg(-1) and 149.5+/-3.1 Bq.kg(-1) respectively are derived from all the soil samples studied. The activity concentration of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in soil is due to the presence of metamorphic rocks like shale, hornblende-biotite gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss in these areas. Gamma absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range between 32 nGy.h(-1) and 59.1 nGy.h(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 43.3 +/-9 nGy.h(-1). This value is lesser than the population weighted world-averaged of 60 nGy.h(-1). Inhabitants of Thanjavur are subjected to external gamma radiation exposure (effective dose) ranging between 39.2 and 72.6 muSv.y(-1) with an arithmetic mean of 53.1+/-11 muSv.y(-1). The values of the external hazard index determined from the soil radioactivity of the study area are less than the recommended safe levels.

  18. Measurement of gamma radiation levels in soil samples from Thanjavur using γ-ray spectrometry and estimation of population exposure

    PubMed Central

    Senthilkumar, B.; Dhavamani, V.; Ramkumar, S.; Philominathan, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 238U and 40K in 10 soil samples collected from Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu, India) using γ-ray spectrometry. The activity profile of radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low level activity in Thanjavur. The geometric mean activity concentrations of 232Th, 238U and 40K is 42.9±9.4 Bq.kg−1, 14.7±1.7 Bq.kg−1 and 149.5±3.1 Bq.kg−1 respectively are derived from all the soil samples studied. The activity concentration of 232Th, 238U and 40K in soil is due to the presence of metamorphic rocks like shale, hornblende-biotite gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss in these areas. Gamma absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range between 32 nGy.h−1 and 59.1 nGy.h−1 with an arithmetic mean of 43.3 ±9 nGy.h−1. This value is lesser than the population weighted world-averaged of 60 nGy.h−1. Inhabitants of Thanjavur are subjected to external gamma radiation exposure (effective dose) ranging between 39.2 and 72.6 μSv.y−1 with an arithmetic mean of 53.1±11 μSv.y−1. The values of the external hazard index determined from the soil radioactivity of the study area are less than the recommended safe levels. PMID:20177570

  19. Bioaccessibility and Human Exposure Assessment of Cadmium and Arsenic in Pakchoi Genotypes Grown in Co-Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoman; Shohag, Md. Jahidul Islam; Gu, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    In many countries cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) commonly coexist in soils contaminated by mining activities, and can easily enter the human body via consumption of leafy vegetables, like the popularly consumed pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), causing major health concerns. In the present study, bioaccessibility and human exposure of Cd and As were assessed in twenty genotypes of pakchoi cultured at two different levels of co-contamination to identify low health risk genotypes. The bioaccessibilities of Cd and As represent a fraction of the total metals content could be bioaccessible for human, in the present study, significant differences in pakchoi Cd and As bioaccessibility were observed among all tested genotypes and co-contaminated levels. Cd and As bioaccessibility of pakchoi were in the ranges of 24.0–87.6% and 20.1–82.5%, respectively, for in the high level co-contaminated soils, which was significantly higher than for low level co-contaminated soils with 7.9–71.8% for Cd bioaccessibility and 16.1–59.0% for As bioaccessibility. The values of bioaccessible established daily intakes (BEDI) and the total bioaccessible target hazard quotients (TBTHQ) of Cd and As were also considerably higher in high level co-contaminated soils than in low level co-contaminated soils. Two genotypes (Meiguanqinggengcai and Zhenqing60F1) contained relatively low concentrations and bioaccessible Cd and As and, their BEDI and TBTHQ for Cd and As ranged below the tolerable limits set by the FAO/WHO (BEDI of Cd < 0.83 μg kg−1 bw day−1, BEDI of As < 3 μg kg−1 bw day−1) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (TBTHQ for Cd and As < 1), this applied for both levels of co-contaminated soils for adults and children. Consequently, these findings suggest identification of safe genotypes in leafy vegetable with low health risk via genotypic screening and breeding methods could be a useful strategy to ensure the safety of food crops grown in those Cd and As co

  20. Bioaccessibility and Human Exposure Assessment of Cadmium and Arsenic in Pakchoi Genotypes Grown in Co-Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoman; Shohag, Md Jahidul Islam; Gu, Minghua

    2017-08-29

    In many countries cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) commonly coexist in soils contaminated by mining activities, and can easily enter the human body via consumption of leafy vegetables, like the popularly consumed pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), causing major health concerns. In the present study, bioaccessibility and human exposure of Cd and As were assessed in twenty genotypes of pakchoi cultured at two different levels of co-contamination to identify low health risk genotypes. The bioaccessibilities of Cd and As represent a fraction of the total metals content could be bioaccessible for human, in the present study, significant differences in pakchoi Cd and As bioaccessibility were observed among all tested genotypes and co-contaminated levels. Cd and As bioaccessibility of pakchoi were in the ranges of 24.0-87.6% and 20.1-82.5%, respectively, for in the high level co-contaminated soils, which was significantly higher than for low level co-contaminated soils with 7.9-71.8% for Cd bioaccessibility and 16.1-59.0% for As bioaccessibility. The values of bioaccessible established daily intakes (BEDI) and the total bioaccessible target hazard quotients (TBTHQ) of Cd and As were also considerably higher in high level co-contaminated soils than in low level co-contaminated soils. Two genotypes (Meiguanqinggengcai and Zhenqing60F1) contained relatively low concentrations and bioaccessible Cd and As and, their BEDI and TBTHQ for Cd and As ranged below the tolerable limits set by the FAO/WHO (BEDI of Cd < 0.83 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), BEDI of As < 3 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (TBTHQ for Cd and As < 1), this applied for both levels of co-contaminated soils for adults and children. Consequently, these findings suggest identification of safe genotypes in leafy vegetable with low health risk via genotypic screening and breeding methods could be a useful strategy to ensure the safety of food crops grown in those Cd and As co

  1. Assessment of soil remediation workers' exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): biomonitoring of naphthols, phenanthrols, and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine.

    PubMed

    Elovaara, Eivor; Mikkola, Jouni; Mäkelä, Mauri; Paldanius, Birgitta; Priha, Eero

    2006-04-10

    Urinalysis of multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biomarkers has been applied to assess the exposure of soil remediation workers on a former creosote wood impregnation site polluted with creosote oil. The uptake of PAHs was measured in preshift, end-of-shift, evening, and next preshift specimens (n=33) of nine volunteers with diverse tasks, using sensitive HPLC-FD methods. The ranges of biomarker concentrations in urine (nmol/l) were: 1-naphthol (14-159), 2-naphthol (9-166), 1- plus 2-naphthol (35-269), 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPhe) (6-56), 2- plus 3-OHPhe (6-70), 4-OHPhe (1-6), 9-OHPhe (1-7), the sum of phenanthrols (15-135), and 1-hydroxypyrene, OHP (2.2-67). Eight of nine workers had OHP levels higher than the Finnish biological limit value for non-occupationally exposed persons (3nmol/l). A linear correlation was observed between 1- and 2-naphthol (r=0.90). The biomarker OHP correlated well in urine both with the major (1-OHPhe, r=0.96; 2- plus 3-OHPhe, r=0.84) and the minor phenanthrene metabolites (4-OHPhe, r=0.77; 9-OHPhe, r=0.68), and with the sum of all phenanthrols (r=0.94), but not so well with the sum of naphthols (r=0.66, p<0.001). The smokers had 2.9-, 2.2-, and 4.8-fold higher average concentrations of naphthols, phenanthrols, and OHP, respectively, than the non-smokers. The PAH biomarker data (concentrations and diurnal excretion profiles) showed significant work-related exposure in both non-smoking and smoking subjects. The average exposure levels were clearly higher than those we have measured for instance in asphalt paving workers. The workers' exposure should be assessed by biological monitoring, because at this type of outdoor work the dermal and pulmonary uptake of PAHs are both likely. Adequate measures for preventing, particularly, dermal absorption are of crucial importance for reducing the workers' risk of exposure to carcinogens on soil remediation sites.

  2. Direct health costs of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and indirect health benefits due to smoking ban introduction.

    PubMed

    Hauri, Dimitri D; Lieb, Christoph M; Rajkumar, Sarah; Kooijman, Cornelis; Sommer, Heini L; Röösli, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Introducing comprehensive smoke-free policies to public places is expected to reduce health costs. This includes prevented health damages by avoiding environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure as well as indirect health benefits from reduced tobacco consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate direct health costs of ETS exposure in public places and indirect health benefits from reduced tobacco consumption. We calculated attributable hospital days and years of life lost (YLL), based on the observed passive smoking and disease rates in Switzerland. The exposure-response associations of all relevant health outcomes were derived by meta-analysis from prospective cohort studies in order to calculate the direct health costs. To assess the indirect health benefits, a meta-analysis of smoking ban studies on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction was conducted. ETS exposure in public places in Switzerland causes 32,000 preventable hospital days (95% CI: 10,000-61,000), 3000 YLL (95% CI: 1000-5000), corresponding to health costs of 330 Mio CHF. The number of hospital days for ischaemic heart disease attributable to passive smoking is much larger if derived from smoking ban studies (41,000) than from prospective cohort studies (3200), resulting in additional health costs of 89 Mio CHF, which are attributed to the indirect health benefits of a smoking ban introduction. The example of smoking ban studies on ischaemic heart disease hospitalization rates suggests that total health costs that can be prevented with smoking bans are considerably larger than the costs arising from the direct health impact of ETS exposure in public places.

  3. Post-wildfire soil erosion in the Mediterranean: Review and future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakesby, R. A.

    2011-04-01

    Wildfires increased dramatically in frequency and extent in the European Mediterranean region from the 1960s, aided by a general warming and drying trend, but driven primarily by socio-economic changes, including rural depopulation, land abandonment and afforestation with flammable species. Published research into post-wildfire hydrology and soil erosion, beginning during the 1980s in Spain, has been followed by studies in other European Mediterranean countries together with Israel and has now attained a sufficiently large critical mass to warrant a major review. Although variations in climate, vegetation, soil, topography and fire severity cause differences in Mediterranean post-wildfire erosion, the long history of human landscape impact up to the present day is responsible for some its distinctive characteristics. This paper highlights these characteristics in reviewing wildfire impacts on hydrology, soil properties and soil erosion by water. The 'mosaic' nature of many Mediterranean landscapes (e.g. an intricate land-use pattern, abandoned terraces and tracks interrupting slopes) may explain sometimes conflicting post-fire hydrological and erosional responses at different sites and spatial scales. First-year post-wildfire soil losses at point- (average, 45-56 t ha - 1 ) and plot-scales (many < 1 t ha - 1 and the majority < 10 t ha - 1 in the first year) are similar to or even lower than those reported for fire-affected land elsewhere or other disturbed (e.g. cultivated) and natural poorly-vegetated (e.g. badlands, rangeland) land in the Mediterranean. The few published losses at larger-scales (hillslope and catchment) are variable. Thin soil and high stone content can explain supply-limited erosion preceding significant protection by recovering vegetation. Peak erosion can sometimes be delayed for years, largely through slow vegetation recovery and temporal variability of erosive storms. Preferential removal of organic matter and nutrients in the commonly thin

  4. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Possibilities of medical opinionating in cases associated with "exposure to direct danger of death or serious health damage"].

    PubMed

    Konopka, Tomasz; Skupień, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In the opinion of some forensic medicine experts, assessment of potential consequences in keeping with Article 160 of the Polish Penal code, which refers to the crime of "exposure to direct danger of death or severe health damage", lies within the competence of medicolegal specialists. This view is accepted by courts and prosecution offices. However, the knowledge of physicians in the field of predicting consequences which did not occur is only somewhat better than that of lawyers. In simple cases, e.g. in trauma involving a sensitive area of the body, passing an opinion confirming a serious danger is not associated with any major problems. Similarly, no problems arise when passing an opinion on the lack of such a danger e.g. in the case of traumawithout any injuries. In complex cases, however, which include the majority of medical error cases, passing an opinion on exposure to direct danger of death or severe health damage may be not feasible.

  6. Coping Skills and Exposure Therapy in Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia: Latest Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Meuret, Alicia E.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Twohig, Michael P.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral treatments for panic disorder have demonstrated efficacy, a considerable number of patients terminate treatment prematurely or remain symtpomatic. Cognitive and biobehavioral coping skills are taught to improve exposure therapy outcomes but evidence for an additive effect is largely lacking. Current methodologies used to study the augmenting effects of coping skills test the degree to which the delivery of coping skills enhances outcomes. However, they do not assess the degree to which acquisition of coping skills and their application during exposure therapy augment outcomes. We examine the extant evidence on the role of traditional coping skills in augmenting exposure for panic disorder, discuss the limitations of existing research, and offer recommendations for methodological advances. PMID:22440065

  7. Operation of the computer model for direct atomic oxygen exposure of Earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gillis, J. R.; Hargraves, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the primary causes of material degradation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is exposure to atomic oxygen. When atomic oxygen molecules collide with an orbiting spacecraft, the relative velocity is 7 to 8 km/sec and the collision energy is 4 to 5 eV per atom. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen may initiate a number of chemical and physical reactions with exposed materials. These reactions contribute to material degradation, surface erosion, and contamination. Interpretation of these effects on materials and the design of space hardware to withstand on-orbit conditions requires quantitative knowledge of the atomic oxygen exposure environment. Atomic oxygen flux is a function of orbit altitude, the orientation of the orbit plan to the Sun, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the angle between exposed surfaces and the spacecraft heading. We have developed a computer model to predict the atomic oxygen exposure of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. The application of this computer model is discussed.

  8. Future research directions for evaluating human genetic and cancer risk from environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Albertini, R J; Nicklas, J A; O'Neill, J P

    1996-01-01

    The utility of biomarkers for evaluating the genotoxicity of environmental exposures is well documented. Biomarkers of both exposure and effect provide bases for assessing human-genotoxicant interactions and may be indicative of future disease risk. At present, there is little information on the predictive value of these assays for either a population or the individuals tested. This paper describes some aspects of biomarker assays, the possible use of susceptibility measures in biomonitoring protocols, and the need for evaluation of disease relevance. A population study involving epidemiologists, geneticists, toxicologists, statisticians, and physicians is proposed to determine the disease relevance of these biomarkers. PMID:8781373

  9. MEMS pressure sensor with maximum performances by using novel back-side direct-exposure concept featuring through glass vias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, B.; Fritz, M.; Mackowiak, P.; Vu, T. C.; Ehrmann, O.; Lang, K.-D.; Ngo, H.-D.

    2013-05-01

    Design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of novel MEMS pressure sensors with new back-side-direct-exposure packaging concept are presented. The sensor design is optimized for harsh environments e.g. space, military, offshore and medical applications. Unbreakable connection between the active side of the Si-sensor and the protecting glass capping was realized by anodic bonding using a thin layer of metal. To avoid signal corruption of the measured pressure caused by an encapsulation system, the media has direct contact to the backside of the Si membrane and can deflect it.

  10. Experimental investigation of the effect of stiffness, exposure time and scan direction on the dimension of ultrasound histotripsy lesions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Bigelow, Timothy A

    2011-11-01

    Histotripsy uses high-intensity focused ultrasound to create energetic bubble clouds inside tissue to liquefy a region and has the advantages of higher contrast B-mode monitoring and sharp borders. This study experimentally investigated the effects of stiffness, exposure time and scan direction on the size of histotripsy-induced lesions in agar samples. A targeted region 0.45 cm wide (lateral) and 0.6 cm deep (axial) was scanned with the step sizes of 0.075 cm and 0.3 cm, respectively. The single-element spherically focused source (1.1 MHz, 6.34 cm focal length, f/1) had the peak compressional and rarefactional pressures of approximately 102 and 17 MPa. Pulses consisted of 20-cycle sine wave tone bursts with a burst period of 3 ms and exposure time of 15, 30 or 60 s. Also, both inward and outward scan direction were tested along the beam axis. The liquefied lesions generally had a larger size than the initially targeted region with larger sizes corresponding to softer agar and longer exposure. There was not a statistically significant difference in the lesion size with scan direction. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dose-response functions for the soiling of heritage materials due to air pollution exposure.

    PubMed

    Watt, John; Jarrett, David; Hamilton, Ron

    2008-08-01

    A set of materials (Portland limestone, white painted steel, white plastic and polycarbonate filter material) was exposed at locations in London, Athens and Krakow. Regular measurements of reflectance were taken over a period of twelve months. Co-located measurements of PM(10) concentrations were available. Based on these results, the relationship between soiling (measured as loss of reflectance) and ambient PM(10) concentrations was quantified leading to the development of dose-response functions for the soiling of materials. The results for limestone revealed too much scatter for a prediction to be made. Implications for air quality management and for the conservation of cultural heritage buildings are considered, including public acceptability and economic factors.

  12. Direction of Influence between Posttraumatic and Depressive Symptoms during Prolonged Exposure Therapy among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderka, Idan M.; Foa, Edna B.; Applebaum, Edna; Shafran, Naama; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our objective in the present study was to examine the temporal sequencing of posttraumatic and depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents. Method: Participants were 73 children and adolescents (56.2% female) between the ages of 8 and 18. Participants…

  13. Direction of Influence between Posttraumatic and Depressive Symptoms during Prolonged Exposure Therapy among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderka, Idan M.; Foa, Edna B.; Applebaum, Edna; Shafran, Naama; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our objective in the present study was to examine the temporal sequencing of posttraumatic and depressive symptoms during prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among children and adolescents. Method: Participants were 73 children and adolescents (56.2% female) between the ages of 8 and 18. Participants…

  14. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  15. Plagioclase-Rich Itokawa Grains: Space Weathering, Exposure Ages, and Comparison to Lunar Soil Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Berge, E.

    2017-01-01

    Regolith grains returned by the Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa provide the only samples currently available to study the interaction of chondritic asteroidal material with the space weathering environment. Several studies have documented the surface alterations observed on the regolith grains, but most of these studies involved olivine because of its abundance. Here we focus on the rarer Itokawa plagioclase grains, in order to allow comparisons between Itokawa and lunar soil plagioclase grains for which an extensive data set exists.

  16. Nitrogen and noble gases in the 71501 bulk soil and ilmenite as records of the solar wind exposure: Which is correct?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signer, P.; Baur, H.; Etique, P.; Wieler, R.

    1986-01-01

    The N determination in mg sized mineral separates from lunar soils by static mass spectrometry is an experimental break-through likely to contribute to the deciphering of the records left in the mineral grains by the exposure to the solar wind. In this discussion some comparisons of the results of N and noble gas analyses of the 71501 bulk soil and an ilmenite separate thereof are focussed on. Conclusions from noble gas data obtained on mineral separates from some 20 soils are summarized in a companion paper and are also discussed herein.

  17. Environmental exposure assessment of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents from sewage to soil.

    PubMed

    Golet, Eva M; Xifra, Irene; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Alder, Alfredo C; Giger, Walter

    2003-08-01

    The behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) during mechanical-biological wastewater treatment was studied by mass flow analysis. In addition, the fate of FQs in agricultural soils after sludge application was investigated. Concentrations of FQs in filtered wastewater (raw sewage, primary, secondary, and tertiary effluents) were determined using solid-phase extraction with mixed phase cation exchange disk cartridges and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. FQs in suspended solids, sewage sludge (raw, excess, and anaerobically digested sludge), and sludge-treated soils were determined as described for the aqueous samples but preceded by accelerated solvent extraction. Wastewater treatment resulted in a reduction of the FQ mass flow of 88-92%, mainly due to sorption on sewage sludge. A sludge-wastewater partition coefficient (log Kd approximately 4) was calculated in the activated sludge reactors with a hydraulic residence time of about 8 h. No significant removal of FQs occurred under methanogenic conditions of the sludge digesters. These results suggest sewage sludge as the main reservoir of FQ residues and outline the importance of sludge management strategies to determine whether most of the human-excreted FQs enter the environment. Field experiments of sludge-application to agricultural land confirmed the long-term persistence of trace amounts of FQs in sludge-treated soils and indicated a limited mobility of FQs into the subsoil.

  18. Direct Measurement of Perchlorate Exposure Biomarkers in a Highly Exposed Population: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michelle; Copan, Lori; Olmedo, Luis; Patton, Sharyle; Haas, Robert; Atencio, Ryan; Xu, Juhua; Valentin-Blasini, Liza

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to perchlorate is ubiquitous in the United States and has been found to be widespread in food and drinking water. People living in the lower Colorado River region may have perchlorate exposure because of perchlorate in ground water and locally-grown produce. Relatively high doses of perchlorate can inhibit iodine uptake and impair thyroid function, and thus could impair neurological development in utero. We examined human exposures to perchlorate in the Imperial Valley among individuals consuming locally grown produce and compared perchlorate exposure doses to state and federal reference doses. We collected 24-hour urine specimen from a convenience sample of 31 individuals and measured urinary excretion rates of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, and iodide. In addition, drinking water and local produce were also sampled for perchlorate. All but two of the water samples tested negative for perchlorate. Perchlorate levels in 79 produce samples ranged from non-detect to 1816 ppb. Estimated perchlorate doses ranged from 0.02 to 0.51 µg/kg of body weight/day. Perchlorate dose increased with the number of servings of dairy products consumed and with estimated perchlorate levels in produce consumed. The geometric mean perchlorate dose was 70% higher than for the NHANES reference population. Our sample of 31 Imperial Valley residents had higher perchlorate dose levels compared with national reference ranges. Although none of our exposure estimates exceeded the U. S. EPA reference dose, three participants exceeded the acceptable daily dose as defined by bench mark dose methods used by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. PMID:21394205

  19. Review and Future Research Directions about Major Monitoring Method of Soil Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, Yue; Bai, Xiaoyong; Tian, Yichao; Luo, Guangjie

    2017-05-01

    Soil erosion is a highly serious ecological problem that occurs worldwide. Hence,scientific methods for accurate monitoring are needed to obtain soil erosion data. At present,numerous methods on soil erosion monitoring are being used internationally. In this paper, wepresent a systematic classification of these methods based on the date of establishment andtype of approach. This classification comprises five categories: runoff plot method, erosion pinmethod, radionuclide tracer method, model estimation, and 3S technology combined method.The backgrounds of their establishment are briefly introduced, the history of their developmentis reviewed, and the conditions for their application are enumerated. Their respectiveadvantages and disadvantages are compared and analysed, and future prospects regarding theirdevelopment are discussed. We conclude that the methods of soil erosion monitoring in the past 100 years of their development constantly considered the needs of the time. According to the progress of soil erosion monitoring technology throughout its history, we predict that the future trend in this field would move toward the development of quantitative, precise, and composite methods. This report serves as a valuable reference for scientific and technological workers globally, especially those engaged in soil erosion research.

  20. Population Densities of Rhizobium japonicum Strain 123 Estimated Directly in Soil and Rhizospheres †

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, V. G.; Schmidt, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    Rhizobium japonicum serotype 123 was enumerated in soil and rhizospheres by fluorescent antibody techniques. Counting efficiency was estimated to be about 30%. Indigenous populations of strain 123 ranged from a few hundred to a few thousand per gram of field soil before planting. Rhizosphere effects from field-grown soybean plants were modest, reaching a maximum of about 2 × 104 cells of strain 123 per g of inner rhizosphere soil in young (16-day-old) plants. Comparably slight rhizosphere stimulation was observed with field corn. High populations of strain 123 (2 × 106 to 3 × 106 cells per g) were found only in the disintegrating taproot rhizospheres of mature soybeans at harvest, and these populations declined rapidly after harvest. Pot experiments with the same soil provided data similar to those derived from the field experiments. Populations of strain 123 reached a maximum of about 105 cells per g of soybean rhizosphere soil, but most values were lower and were only slightly higher than values in wheat rhizosphere soil. Nitrogen treatments had little effect on strain 123 densities in legume and nonlegume rhizospheres or on the nodulation success of strain 123. No evidence was obtained for the widely accepted theory of specific stimulation, which has been proposed to account for the initiation of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. PMID:16345383

  1. Linking the Epigenome with Exposure Effects and Susceptibility: The Epigenetic Seed and Soil Model.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The epigenome is a dynamic mediator of gene expression that shapes the way that cells, tissues, and organisms respond to their environment. Initial studies in the emerging field of “toxicoepigenetics” have described either the impact of an environmental exposure on t...

  2. Linking the Epigenome with Exposure Effects and Susceptibility: The Epigenetic Seed and Soil Model.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The epigenome is a dynamic mediator of gene expression that shapes the way that cells, tissues, and organisms respond to their environment. Initial studies in the emerging field of “toxicoepigenetics” have described either the impact of an environmental exposure on t...

  3. Assessment of exposure to soils contaminated with lead, cadmium, and arsenic near a zinc smelter, Cassiopée Study, France, 2008.

    PubMed

    Durand, Cécile; Sauthier, Nicolas; Schwoebel, Valérie

    2015-06-01

    After 150 years of industrial activity, significant pollution of surface soils in private gardens and locally produced vegetables with lead, cadmium, and arsenic has recently been observed in Viviez (Southern France). A public health intervention was conducted in 2008 to identify individual health risks of Viviez inhabitants and to analyze their environmental exposure to these pollutants. Children and pregnant women in Viviez were screened for lead poisoning. Urinary cadmium testing was proposed to all inhabitants. Those with urinary cadmium levels over 1 μg/g creatinine were then tested for kidney damage. Urinary cadmium and arsenic levels were compared between participants with non-occupational exposure from Viviez and Montbazens, a nearby town not exposed to these two pollutants, in order to identify environmental factors contributing to impregnation. No case of lead poisoning was detected in Viviez, but 23 % of adults had urinary cadmium over 1 μg/g creatinine, 14 % of whom having markers of kidney damage. Viviez adults had higher levels of urinary cadmium, and to a lesser extent, higher levels of urinary arsenic than those from Montbazens. Consumption of local produce (vegetables and animals) and length of residence in Viviez were associated with higher urinary cadmium levels, independently of known confounding factors, suggesting persisting environmental exposure to contaminated soil. To conclude, health risks related to cadmium exposure were identified in the Viviez population living on contaminated soils. Lead and arsenic exposure did not pose health concerns. Interventions were proposed to reduce exposure and limit health consequences.

  4. Chorioamnionitis-induced fetal gut injury is mediated by direct gut exposure of inflammatory mediators or by lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Thuijls, Geertje; Kemp, Matthew W; Saito, Masatoshi; Willems, Monique G M; Senthamarai-Kannan, Paranthaman; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2014-03-01

    Intra-amniotic exposure to proinflammatory agonists causes chorioamnionitis and fetal gut inflammation. Fetal gut inflammation is associated with mucosal injury and impaired gut development. We tested whether this detrimental inflammatory response of the fetal gut results from a direct local (gut derived) or an indirect inflammatory response mediated by the chorioamnion/skin or lung, since these organs are also in direct contact with the amniotic fluid. The gastrointestinal tract was isolated from the respiratory tract and the amnion/skin epithelia by fetal surgery in time-mated ewes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline (controls) was selectively infused in the gastrointestinal tract, trachea, or amniotic compartment at 2 or 6 days before preterm delivery at 124 days gestation (term 150 days). Gastrointestinal and intratracheal LPS exposure caused distinct inflammatory responses in the fetal gut. Inflammatory responses could be distinguished by the influx of leukocytes (MPO(+), CD3(+), and FoxP3(+) cells), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ expression and differential upregulation of mRNA levels for Toll-like receptor 1, 2, 4, and 6. Fetal gut inflammation after direct intestinal LPS exposure resulted in severe loss of the tight junctional protein zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) and increased mitosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Inflammation of the fetal gut after selective LPS instillation in the lungs caused only mild disruption of ZO-1, loss in epithelial cell integrity, and impaired epithelial differentiation. LPS exposure of the amnion/skin epithelia did not result in gut inflammation or morphological, structural, and functional changes. Our results indicate that the detrimental consequences of chorioamnionitis on fetal gut development are the combined result of local gut and lung-mediated inflammatory responses.

  5. Chorioamnionitis-induced fetal gut injury is mediated by direct gut exposure of inflammatory mediators or by lung inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wolfs, Tim G. A. M.; Kramer, Boris W.; Thuijls, Geertje; Kemp, Matthew W.; Saito, Masatoshi; Willems, Monique G. M.; Senthamarai-Kannan, Paranthaman; Newnham, John P.; Jobe, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Intra-amniotic exposure to proinflammatory agonists causes chorioamnionitis and fetal gut inflammation. Fetal gut inflammation is associated with mucosal injury and impaired gut development. We tested whether this detrimental inflammatory response of the fetal gut results from a direct local (gut derived) or an indirect inflammatory response mediated by the chorioamnion/skin or lung, since these organs are also in direct contact with the amniotic fluid. The gastrointestinal tract was isolated from the respiratory tract and the amnion/skin epithelia by fetal surgery in time-mated ewes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline (controls) was selectively infused in the gastrointestinal tract, trachea, or amniotic compartment at 2 or 6 days before preterm delivery at 124 days gestation (term 150 days). Gastrointestinal and intratracheal LPS exposure caused distinct inflammatory responses in the fetal gut. Inflammatory responses could be distinguished by the influx of leukocytes (MPO+, CD3+, and FoxP3+ cells), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ expression and differential upregulation of mRNA levels for Toll-like receptor 1, 2, 4, and 6. Fetal gut inflammation after direct intestinal LPS exposure resulted in severe loss of the tight junctional protein zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) and increased mitosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Inflammation of the fetal gut after selective LPS instillation in the lungs caused only mild disruption of ZO-1, loss in epithelial cell integrity, and impaired epithelial differentiation. LPS exposure of the amnion/skin epithelia did not result in gut inflammation or morphological, structural, and functional changes. Our results indicate that the detrimental consequences of chorioamnionitis on fetal gut development are the combined result of local gut and lung-mediated inflammatory responses. PMID:24458021

  6. Development and validation of a citrate synthase directed quantitative PCR marker for soil bacterial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Castro Gonzalez, Hector F; Classen, Aimee T; Austin, Emily E; Crawford, Kerri M; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2012-01-01

    Molecular innovations in microbial ecology are allowing scientists to correlate microbial community characteristics to a variety of ecosystem functions. However, to date the majority of soil microbial ecology studies target phylogenetic rRNA markers, while a smaller number target functional markers linked to soil processes. We validated a new primer set targeting citrate synthase (gtlA), a central enzyme in the citric acid cycle linked to aerobic respiration. Primers for a 225 bp fragment suitable for qPCR were tested for specificity and assay performance verified on multiple soils. Clone libraries of the PCR-amplified gtlA gene exhibited high diversity and recovered most major groups identified in a previous 16S rRNA gene study. Comparisons among bacterial communities based on gtlA sequencing using UniFrac revealed differences among the experimental soils studied. Conditions for gtlA qPCR were optimized and calibration curves were highly linear (R2 > 0.99) over six orders of magnitude (4.56 10^5 to 4.56 10^11 copies), with high amplification efficiencies (>1.7). We examined the performance of the gtlA qPCR across a variety of soils and ecosystems, spanning forests, old fields and agricultural areas. We were able to amplify gtlA genes in all tested soils, and detected differences in gtlA abundance within and among environments. These results indicate that a fully developed gtlA-targeted qPCR approach may have potential to link microbial community characteristics with changes in soil respiration.

  7. Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils under different land use in Brazil—a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, Katharina H. E.; Franko, Uwe; Stange, Claus F.; Dalla Rosa, Jaqueline; Madari, Beata E.; Jungkunst, Hermann F.

    2016-02-01

    Brazil typifies the land use changes happening in South America, where natural vegetation is continuously converted into agriculturally used lands, such as cattle pastures and croplands. Such changes in land use are always associated with changes in the soil nutrient cycles and result in altered greenhouse gas fluxes from the soil to the atmosphere. In this study, we analyzed literature values to extract patterns of direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils of different ecosystems in Brazil. Fluxes from natural ecosystems exhibited a wide range: whereas median annual flux rates were highest in Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests (2.42 and 0.88 kg N ha-1), emissions from cerrado soils were close to zero. The decrease in emissions from pastures with increasing time after conversion was associated with pasture degradation. We found comparatively low N2O-N fluxes from croplands (-0.07 to 4.26 kg N ha-1 yr-1 , median 0.80 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and a low response to N fertilization. Contrary to the assumptions, soil parameters, such as pH, Corg, and clay content emerged as poor predictors for N2O fluxes. This could be a result of the formation of micro-aggregates, which strongly affect the hydraulic properties of the soil, and consequently define nitrification and denitrification potentials. Since data from croplands mainly derived from areas that had been under natural cerrado vegetation before, it could explain the low emissions under agriculture. Measurements must be more frequent and regionally spread in order to enable sound national estimates.

  8. Early Exposure to Direct Instruction and Subsequent Juvenile Delinquency: A Prospective Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.; Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined juvenile delinquency outcomes for 171 children with disabilities participating in two different preschool models, one using direct instruction, the other using a cognitively oriented, child-directed model. At age 15, the groups did not differ significantly in their level of reported delinquency. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  9. Probabilistic assessment of environmental exposure to the polycyclic musk, HHCB and associated risks in wastewater treatment plant mixing zones and sludge amended soils in the United States.

    PubMed

    Federle, Thomas; Sun, Ping; Dyer, Scott; Kiel, Brian

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this work was to conduct an environmental risk assessment for the consumer use of the polycyclic musk, HHCB (CAS No. 1222-05-5) in the U.S. focusing on mixing zones downstream from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sludge amended soils. A probabilistic exposure approach was utilized combining statistical distributions of effluent and sludge concentrations for the U.S. WWTPs with distributions of mixing zone dilution factors and sludge loading rates to soil to estimate HHCB concentrations in surface waters and sediments below WWTPs and sludge amended soils. These concentrations were then compared to various toxicity values. Measured concentrations of HHCB in effluent and sludge from a monitoring program of 40 WWTPs across the U.S. formed the basis for estimating environmental loadings. Based upon a Monte Carlo analysis, the probability of HHCB concentrations being below the PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) for pelagic freshwater organisms was greater than or equal to 99.87% under both mean and low flow regimes. Similarly, the probability of HHCB concentrations being less than the PNEC for freshwater sediment organisms was greater than or equal to 99.98%. Concentrations of HHCB in sludge amended soils were estimated for single and repeated annual sludge applications with tilling of the sludge into the soil, surface application without tilling and a combination reflecting current practice. The probability of soil HHCB concentrations being below the PNEC for soil organisms after repeated sludge applications was 94.35% with current sludge practice. Probabilistic estimates of HHCB exposures in surface waters, sediments and sludge amended soils are consistent with the published values for the U.S. In addition, the results of these analyses indicate that HHCB entering the environment in WWTP effluent and sludge poses negligible risk to aquatic and terrestrial organisms in nearly all exposure scenarios.

  10. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain).

    PubMed

    Urosevic, Maja; Yebra-Rodríguez, Africa; Sebastián-Pardo, Eduardo; Cardell, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness (ΔL*) and chroma changes (ΔC*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration.

  11. Plausible Roles for RAGE in Conditions Exacerbated by Direct and Indirect (Secondhand) Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Joshua B.; Hirschi, Kelsey M.; Arroyo, Juan A.; Bikman, Benjamin T.; Kooyman, David L.; Reynolds, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure. Specifically, data are discussed relative to impaired lung physiology, cancer mechanisms, maternal-fetal complications, cardiometabolic, and joint disorders in the context of smoke exposure exacerbations. As a general unifying mechanism, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and its signaling axis is increasingly considered central to smoke-related pathogenesis. RAGE is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor whose expression increases following cigarette smoke exposure. RAGE signaling participates in the underpinning of inflammatory mechanisms mediated by requisite cytokines, chemokines, and remodeling enzymes. Understanding the biological contributions of RAGE during cigarette smoke-induced inflammation may provide critically important insight into the pathology of lung disease and systemic complications that combine during the demise of those exposed. PMID:28304347

  12. Plausible Roles for RAGE in Conditions Exacerbated by Direct and Indirect (Secondhand) Smoke Exposure.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Joshua B; Hirschi, Kelsey M; Arroyo, Juan A; Bikman, Benjamin T; Kooyman, David L; Reynolds, Paul R

    2017-03-17

    Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure. Specifically, data are discussed relative to impaired lung physiology, cancer mechanisms, maternal-fetal complications, cardiometabolic, and joint disorders in the context of smoke exposure exacerbations. As a general unifying mechanism, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and its signaling axis is increasingly considered central to smoke-related pathogenesis. RAGE is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor whose expression increases following cigarette smoke exposure. RAGE signaling participates in the underpinning of inflammatory mechanisms mediated by requisite cytokines, chemokines, and remodeling enzymes. Understanding the biological contributions of RAGE during cigarette smoke-induced inflammation may provide critically important insight into the pathology of lung disease and systemic complications that combine during the demise of those exposed.

  13. Human and soil exposure during mechanical chlorpyrifos, myclobutanil and copper oxychloride application in a peach orchard in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Berenstein, Giselle; Nasello, Soledad; Beiguel, Érica; Flores, Pedro; Di Schiena, Johanna; Basack, Silvana; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2017-05-15

    The objective of this study was to measure the impact of the mechanized chlorpyrifos, copper oxychloride and myclobutanil application in a small peach orchard, on humans (operators, bystanders and residents) and on the productive soil. The mean Potential Dermal Exposure (PDE) of the workers (tractor drivers) was 30.8mL·h(-1)±16.4mL·h(-1), with no specific pesticide distribution on the laborers body. Although the Margin of Safety (MOS) factor for the application stage were above 1 (safe condition) for myclobutanil and cooper oxycloride it was below 1 for chlorpyrifos. The mix and load stage remained as the riskier operation. Pesticide found on the orchard soil ranged from 5.5% to 14.8% of the total chlorpyrifos, copper oxychloride and myclobutanil applied. Pesticide drift was experimentally measured, finding values in the range of 2.4% to 11.2% of the total pesticide applied. Using experimental drift values, bystander (for one application), resident (for 20 applications) and earthworm (for one application) risk indicators (RIs) were calculated for the chlorpyrifos plus copper oxychloride and for myclobutanil treatments for different distances to the orchard border. Earthworm RI was correlated with experimental Eisenia andrei ecotoxicological assays (enzymatic activities: cholinesterases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-transferases; behavioral: avoidance and bait-lamina tests) with good correlation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil microbial community changes as a result of long-term exposure to a natural CO 2 vent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, B. I.; Michaelis, W.; Blumenberg, M.; Frerichs, J.; Schulz, H. M.; Schippers, A.; Beaubien, S. E.; Krüger, M.

    2010-05-01

    The capture and geological storage of CO 2 can be used to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. To assess the environmental impact of potential CO 2 leakage from deep storage reservoirs on the abundance and functional diversity of microorganisms in near-surface terrestrial environments, a natural CO 2 vent (>90% CO 2 in the soil gas) was studied as an analogue. The microbial communities were investigated using lipid biomarkers combined with compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses, the determination of microbial activities, and the use of quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCR). With this complementary set of methods, significant differences between the CO 2-rich vent and a reference site with a normal CO 2 concentration were detected. The δ 13C values of the plant and microbial lipids within the CO 2 vent demonstrate that substantial amounts of geothermal CO 2 were incorporated into the microbial, plant, and soil carbon pools. Moreover, the numbers of Archaea and Bacteria were highest at the reference site and substantially lower at the CO 2 vent. Lipid biomarker analyses, Q-PCR, and the determination of microbial activities showed the presence of CO 2-utilising methanogenic Archaea, Geobacteraceae, and sulphate-reducing Bacteria (SRB) mainly at the CO 2 vent, only minor quantities were found at the reference site. Stable carbon isotopic analyses revealed that the methanogenic Archaea and SRB utilised the vent-derived CO 2 for assimilatory biosynthesis. Our results show a shift in the microbial community towards anaerobic and acidophilic microorganisms as a consequence of the long-term exposure of the soil environment to high CO 2 concentrations.

  15. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil - Present works and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2016-08-15

    Oil spills result in negative impacts on the environment, economy and society. Due to tidal and waves actions, the oil spillage affects the shorelines by adhering to the soil, making it difficult for immediate cleaning of the soil. As shoreline clean-up is the most costly component of a response operation, there is a need for effective oil remediation technologies. This paper provides a review on the remediation technologies for soil contaminated with various types of oil, including diesel, crude oil, petroleum, lubricating oil, bitumen and bunker oil. The methods discussed include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal technologies, ultrasonication, flotation and integrated remediation technologies. Each of these technologies was discussed, and associated with their advantages, disadvantages, advancements and future work in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to note that no single remediation technology is considered the best solution for the remediation of oil contaminated soil. This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct Detection of Soil mRNAs using Targeted Microarrays for Genes Associated with Lignin Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Smith, Jeff L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Bolton, Harvey

    2010-07-04

    Microarrays have become established tools for describing microbial systems, however the assessment of expression profiles for environmental microbial communities still presents unique challenges. Notably, the concentration of particular transcripts are likely very dilute relative to the pool of total RNA, and PCR-based amplification strategies are vulnerable to amplification biases and the appropriate primer selection. Thus, we apply a signal amplification approach, rather than template amplification, to analyze the expression of genes encoding selected lignin-degrading enzymes in soil. Controls in the form of known amplicons and cDNA from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were included and mixed with the soil cDNA both before and after the signal amplification in order to assess the dynamic range of the microarray. We demonstrate that restored prairie soil expresses a diverse range of genes encoding lignin-degrading enzymes following incubation with lignin substrate, while farmed agricultural soil does not. The mixed additions of control cDNA with soil cDNA does interfere with detection of the low abundance transcripts, nevertheless this microarray approach consistently reports the higher-abundance transcripts which present more robust signals.

  17. Direct exposure of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma confers simultaneous oxidative and ultraviolet modifications in biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Yasumasa; Wang, Yue; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kano, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Koji; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Thermal plasmas and lasers are used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, little research has been done into the use of this technique for conventional free radical biology. Recently, we developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping revealed •OH as a major product. To obtain evidence of NEAPP-induced oxidative modifications in biomolecules and standardize them, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and α-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also observed after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in saline produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment. PMID:25411528

  18. Off-Pump Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting With a Heart Positioner: Direct Retraction for a Better Exposure.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Keita; Une, Dai; Suzuki, Koutaro; Endo, Yoshiki; Matsuyama, Takayoshi; Osaka, Shin-Ichi; Kurata, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Lateral and inferior territories are difficult to expose during off-pump minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICS CABG). The use of cardiopulmonary bypass is required at times. We initiated a direct retraction method by using a cardiac positioner for a better exposure, in order to complete off-pump, multivessel MICS CABG safely. We recently initiated multivessel MICS CABG, performed via a 6- to 9-cm left thoracotomy. For distal anastomoses, the lateral pericardial edge was pulled to the chest wall to optimize exposure of the lateral and inferior area. Next, a single- or multisuction cardiac positioner was put on the sides of the target vessel through the small thoracotomy and pulled directly toward the incision. Finally, a distal anastomosis was made with an epicardial stabilizer via the thoracotomy, as in standard off-pump CABG. There was no mortality or conversion to sternotomy. A total of 10 cases were targeted for off-pump multivessel MICS CABG with this approach. Nine were completed, while 1 still required pump assist. The average number of distal anastomoses was 2.8 ± 0.8. Two were successful off-pump quadruple bypass grafting with sequential anastomoses. All patients were discharged and remain well to this day. Most multivessel MICS CABG was feasible without pump assist even at the initiation period. This approach is easy and helpful in providing good exposure of target vessels without requirement of additional incisions.

  19. Ongoing soil arsenic exposure of children living in an historical gold mining area in regional Victoria, Australia: Identifying risk factors associated with uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim; Pearce, Dora; Bennett, John; Stopic, Attila

    2013-11-01

    Elevated levels of arsenic have been observed in some mine wastes and soils around historical gold mining areas in regional Victoria, Australia. Arsenic uptake from soil by children living in these areas has been demonstrated using toenail arsenic concentration as a biomarker, with evidence of some systemic absorption associated with periodic exposures. We conducted a follow-up study to ascertain if toenail arsenic concentrations, and risk factors for exposure, had changed over a five year period in an historical gold mining region in western regional Victoria, Australia. Residential soil samples (N = 14) and toenail clippings (N = 24) were analyzed for total arsenic using instrumental neutron activation analysis, including 19 toenail clippings samples that were obtained from the same study cohort in 2006. Toenail arsenic concentrations in 2011 (geometric mean, 0.171 μg/g; range, 0.030-0.540 μg/g) were significantly lower than those in 2006 (geometric mean, 0.464 μg/g; range, 0.150-2.10 μg/g; p < 0.001). However, toenail arsenic concentrations were again correlated with soil arsenic levels (Spearman's rho = 0.630; p = 0.001). Spending time outdoors more often and for longer periods correlates with increased arsenic uptake (p < 0.05). Mining-influenced residential soils represent a long-term continuing source for potential arsenic exposure for children living in this historical mining region.

  20. Bioassay-directed fractionation and chemical identification of mutagens in bioremediated soils.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, L R; Hughes, T J; Claxton, L D; Austern, B; Brenner, R; Kremer, F

    1998-01-01

    Soil from a Superfund site (Reilly Tar Site, St. Louis Park, Minnesota) contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from creosote was treated with several bioremediation technologies including bioslurry (BS), biopile (BP), compost (CMP), and land treatment (LT). These treatment technologies are being evaluated in pilot scale laboratory systems by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio. To evaluate the genotoxicity and identify the mutagens in the soil before and after the various treatments, fractionated extracts of five soils were bioassayed for mutagenic activity with a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella histidine reversion assay. Soils were extracted by sonication using dichloromethane (DCM). The five extracts were fractionated in triplicate (two for bioassay and one for chemical analysis) by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using hexane/DCM/methanol, and the fraction for bioassay were solvent-exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide by nitrogen evaporation. Forty HPLC fractions for each sample were bioassayed in strain YG1041 with and without exogenous liver metabolic activation. As shown in a companion paper, the mutagenicity of two treatments (BS and BP) was significantly greater than the mutagenicity of the untreated soil. Mutagenic fractions (> 500 revertants) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PAH analysis of the soils indicated that all treatments were effective in reducing the total PAH concentration (48-74%). Qualitative GC/MS analysis of the mutagenic fractions from the BS and BP treatments indicated that they contained azaarenes, which are mutagens. The CMP and LT processes were the most effective and least toxic bioremediation procedures based on mutagenic potency and chemical analysis. This research demonstrated that the combination of bioassays and chemical analysis provided a more accurate determination of

  1. Recovery of soil ammonia oxidation after long-term zinc exposure is not related to the richness of the bacterial nitrifying community.

    PubMed

    Ruyters, Stefan; Springael, Dirk; Smolders, Erik

    2013-08-01

    A soil sterilization-reinoculation approach was used to manipulate soil microbial diversity and to assess the effect of the diversity of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) on the recovery of the nitrifying community to metal stress (zinc). Gamma-irradiated soil was inoculated with 13 different combinations of up to 22 different soils collected worldwide to create varying degrees of AOB diversity. Two months after inoculation, AOB amoA DGGE based diversity (weighted richness) varied more than 10-fold among the 13 treatments, the largest value observed where the number of inocula had been largest. Subsequently, the 13 treatments were either or not amended with ZnCl2. Initially, Zn amendment completely inhibited nitrification. After 6 months of Zn exposure, recovery of the potential nitrification activity in the Zn amended soils ranged from <10 % to >100 % of the potential nitrification activity in the corresponding non-amended soils. This recovery was neither related to DGGE-based indices of AOB diversity nor to the AOB abundance assessed 2 months after inoculation (p > 0.05). However, recovery was significantly related (r = 0.75) to the potential nitrification rate before Zn amendment and only weakly to the number of soil inocula used in the treatments (r = 0.46). The lack of clear effects of AOB diversity on recovery may be related to an inherently sufficient diversity and functional redundancy of AOB communities in soil. Our data indicate that potential microbial activity can be a significant factor in recovery.

  2. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05). GDI engine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05), likely attributable to a combination of the gas and particulate fractions. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress.

  3. Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection of Cercospora Beticola in Field Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of sugar beet, survives as pseudostromata in infected beet leaf residues in the soil. Under optimal conditions, overwintering propagules germinate and produce conidia that are dispersed as primary inoculum to initiate infection in sugar b...

  4. Soil heat flux variability influenced by row direction in irrigated cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In applications of micrometeorological techniques for surface energy balance estimation, most often the least attention and effort has been devoted to determining the area-average soil heat flux (G). Although spatial and temporal variability in G under sparse/clumped vegetation conditions is signif...

  5. Soil vapor extraction and bioventing: Applications, limitations, and future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathfelder, K.; Lang, J. R.; Abriola, L. M.

    1995-07-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) has evolved over the past decade as an attractive in situ remediation method for unsaturated soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). SVE involves the generation of air flow through the pores of the contaminated soil to induce transfer of VOCs to the air stream. Air flow is established by pumping from vadose zone wells through which contaminant vapors are collected and transported above ground where they are treated, if required, and discharged to the atmosphere. The popularity of SVE technologies stems from their proven effectiveness for removing large quantities of VOCs from the soil, their cost competitiveness, and their relatively simple non-intrusive implementation. Widespread field application of SVE has occurred following the success of early laboratory and field scale feasibility studies [Texas Research Institute, 1980, 1984; Thornton and Wootan, 1982; Marley and Hoag, 1984; Crow et al., 1985, 1987]. As many as 18% of Superfund sites employ SVE remediation technologies [Travis and Macinnis, 1992] and numerous articles and reports have documented the application of SVE [e.g. Hutzler et al., 1989; Downey and Elliott, 1990; U.S. EPA, 1991; Sanderson et al, 1993; Gerbasi and Menoli, 1994; McCann et al., 1994;].

  6. Reproducible direct exposure environmental testing of metal-based magnetic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sides, Paul J.

    1994-01-01

    A flow geometry and flow rate for mixed flowing gas testing is proposed. Use of an impinging jet of humid polluted air can provide a uniform and reproducible exposure of coupons of metal-based magnetic media. Numerical analysis of the fluid flow and mass transfer in such as system has shown that samples confined within a distance equal to the nozzle radius on the surface of impingement are uniformly accessible to pollutants in the impinging gas phase. The critical factor is the nozzle height above the surface of impingement. In particular, the uniformity of exposure is less than plus/minus 2% for a volumetric flow rate of 1600 cm(exp 3)/minute total flow with the following specifications: For a one inch nozzle, the height of the nozzle opening above the stage should be 0.177 inches; for a 2 inch nozzle - 0.390 inches. Not only is the distribution uniform, but one can calculate the maximum delivery rate of pollutants to the samples for comparison with the observed deterioration.

  7. Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project: Phase 2 soils program

    SciTech Connect

    McArthur, R.D.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    To help estimate population doses of radiation from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site, soil samples were collected throughout the western United States. Each sample was prepared by drying and ball-milling, then analyzed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the amount of {sup 137}Cs it contained. Most samples were also analyzed by chemical separation and alpha-spectrometry to determine {sup 239 + 240}Pu and by isotope mass spectroscopy to determine the ratios of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu to {sup 239}Pu. The total inventories of cesium and plutonium at 171 sites were computed from the results. This report describes the sample collection, processing, and analysis, presents the analytical results, and assesses the quality of the data. 10 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Occupational Exposure Assessment in Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Primary and Secondary Manufacturers: Mobile Direct-Reading Sampling

    PubMed Central

    DAHM, MATTHEW M.; EVANS, DOUGLAS E.; SCHUBAUER-BERIGAN, MARY K.; BIRCH, M. EILEEN; DEDDENS, JAMES A.

    2015-01-01

    Research Significance Toxicological evidence suggests the potential for a wide range of health effects from exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). To date, there has been much focus on the use of direct-reading instruments (DRIs) to assess multiple airborne exposure metrics for potential exposures to CNTs and CNFs due to their ease of use and ability to provide instantaneous results. Still, uncertainty exists in the usefulness and interpretation of the data. To address this gap, air-monitoring was conducted at six sites identified as CNT and CNF manufacturers or users and results were compared with filter-based metrics. Methods Particle number, respirable mass, and active surface area concentrations were monitored with a condensation particle counter, a photometer, and a diffusion charger, respectively. The instruments were placed on a mobile cart and used as area monitors in parallel with filter-based elemental carbon (EC) and electron microscopy samples. Repeat samples were collected on consecutive days, when possible, during the same processes. All instruments in this study are portable and routinely used for industrial hygiene sampling. Results Differences were not observed among the various sampled processes compared with concurrent indoor or outdoor background samples while examining the different DRI exposure metrics. Such data were also inconsistent with results for filter-based samples collected concurrently at the same sites [Dahm MM, Evans DE, Schubauer-Berigan MK et al. (2012) Occupational exposure assessment in CNT and nanofiber primary and secondary manufacturers. Ann Occup Hyg; 56: 542–56]. Significant variability was seen between these processes as well as the indoor and outdoor backgrounds. However, no clear pattern emerged linking the DRI results to the EC or the microscopy data (CNT and CNF structure counts). Conclusions Overall, no consistent trends were seen among similar processes at the various sites. The DRI

  9. Direct and Passive Prenatal Nicotine Exposure and the Development of Externalizing Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2007-01-01

    The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood antisocial outcomes has been demonstrated repeatedly across a variety of outcomes. Yet debate continues as to whether this association reflects a direct programming effect of nicotine on fetal brain development, or a phenotypic indicator of heritable liability passed from…

  10. Direct and Passive Prenatal Nicotine Exposure and the Development of Externalizing Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2007-01-01

    The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood antisocial outcomes has been demonstrated repeatedly across a variety of outcomes. Yet debate continues as to whether this association reflects a direct programming effect of nicotine on fetal brain development, or a phenotypic indicator of heritable liability passed from…

  11. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  12. Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in scalp hair, soil and metallurgical wastes in Mitrovica, Kosovo: the role of oral bioaccessibility and mineralogy in human PHE exposure.

    PubMed

    Boisa, N; Bird, G; Brewer, P A; Dean, J R; Entwistle, J A; Kemp, S J; Macklin, M G

    2013-10-01

    Internationally publicized impacts upon human health associated with potentially harmful element (PHE) exposure have been reported amongst internally displaced populations (IDPs) in Mitrovica, Kosovo, following the Kosovan War. Particular concern has surrounded the exposure to Pb indicated by the presence of highly elevated concentrations of Pb in blood and hair samples. This study utilizes a physiologically-based in-vitro extraction method to assess the bioaccessibility of PHEs in surface soils and metallurgical waste in Mitrovica and assesses the potential daily intake of soil-bound PHEs. Maximum As (210mgkg(-1)), Cd (38mgkg(-1)), Cu (410mgkg(-1)), Pb (18790mgkg(-1)) and Zn (8500mgkg(-1)) concentrations in surface soils (0-10cm) are elevated above guideline values. Samples with high PHE concentrations (e.g. As >1000mgkg(-1); Pb >1500mgkg(-1)) exhibit a wide range of bioaccessibilities (5.40 - 92.20% in the gastric (G) phase and 10.00 - 55.80% in the gastric-intestinal (G-I) phase). Samples associated with lower bioaccessibilities typically contain a number of XRD-identifiable primary and secondary mineral phases, particularly As- and Pb-bearing arsenian pyrite, beudantite, galena and cerrusite. Quantification of the potential human exposure risk associated with the ingestion of soil-associated PHEs indicates that on average, 0.01μg Cd kg(-1) BW d(-1), 0.16μg Cu kg(-1) BW d(--1), 0.12μg As kg(-1) BW d(-1), 7.81μg Pb kg(-1) BW d(-1), and 2.68μg Zn kg(-1) BW d(-1) could be bioaccessible following ingestion of PHE-rich soils in the Mitrovica region, with Pb, and to a lesser extent As, indicating the likely possibility of local populations exceeding the recommended tolerable daily intake. Lead present within surface soils of the area could indeed have contributed to the human Pb burden due to the high bioaccessibility of Pb present within these soils (13.40 - 92.20% in the gastric phase). Data for Pb levels in scalp hair (≤120μgg(-1)) and blood (≥650μgdL(-1

  13. Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients from Malda district, West Bengal- A case study.

    PubMed

    Golui, Debasis; Guha Mazumder, D N; Sanyal, S K; Datta, S P; Ray, P; Patra, P K; Sarkar, S; Bhattacharya, K

    2017-10-01

    Safe limit of arsenic in soil in relation to dietary exposure of arsenicosis patients was established in Malda district of West Bengal. Out of 182 participants examined, 80 (43.9%) participants showed clinical features of arsenicosis, characterized by arsenical skin lesion (pigmentation and keratosis), while 102 participants did not have any such lesion (control). Experimental results of the twenty eight soils (own field) of the participants showed the mean Olsen extractable and total arsenic concentration of 0.206 and 6.70mgkg(-1), respectively. Arsenic concentration in rice grain ranged from 2.00 to 1260μgkg(-1) with the mean value of 146μgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) for intake of As by human through consumption of rice varied from 0.03 to 3.52. HQ exceeds 1.0 for drinking water and rice grain grown in the study area in many cases. As high as 77.6% variation in As content in rice grain could be explained by the solubility-free ion activity model. Toxic limit of extractable As in soil for rice in relation to soil properties and human health hazard, associated with consumption of rice grain by human, was established. For example, the permissible limit of Olsen extractable As in soil would be 0.43mgkg(-1) for rice cultivation, if soil pH and organic carbon content were 7.5% and 0.50%, respectively. However, the critical limit of Olsen extractable As in soil would be 0.54mgkg(-1), if soil pH and organic carbon were 8.5% and 0.75%, respectively. The conceptual framework of fixing the toxic limit of arsenic in soils with respect to soil properties and human health under modeling-framework was established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct surface analysis of pesticides on soil, leaves, grass, and stainless steel by static secondary ion mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, J.C.; Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E.; Olson, J.E.; Miller, D.L.

    1997-02-01

    Direct surface analyses by static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were performed for the following pesticides adsorbed on dandelion leaves, grass, soil, and stainless steel samples: alachlor, atrazine, captan, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorosulfuron, chlorthal-dimethyl, cypermethrin, 2,4-D, diuron, glyphosate, malathion, methomyl, methyl arsonic acid, mocap, norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, paraquat, temik, and trifluralin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate static SIMS as a tool for pesticide analysis, principally for use in screening samples for pesticides. The advantage of direct surface analysis compared with conventional pesticide analysis methods is the elimination of sample pretreatment including extraction, which streamlines the analysis substantially; total analysis time for SIMS analysis was ca. 10 min/sample. Detection of 16 of the 20 pesticides on all four substrates was achieved. Of the remaining four pesticides, only one (trifluralin) was not detected on any of the samples. The minimum detectable quantity was determined for paraquat on soil in order to evaluate the efficacy of using SIMS as a screening tool. Paraquat was detected at 3 pg/mm{sup 2} (c.a. 0.005 monolayers). The results of these studies suggest that SIMS is capable of direct surface detection of a range of pesticides, with low volatility, polar pesticides being the most easily detected. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. A soil water balance shift is driving directional change in northern forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, A. M.; Nitschke, C.; Coops, N. C.; Cumming, S.; Stenhouse, G.

    2014-12-01

    Human activities are driving climatic warming and more frequent extreme weather, persistent throughout the recent warming hiatus. The effects of these changes on vegetation phenology remains poorly understood. Forest phenology studies typically focus on the length of the growing season and related changes in carbon uptake. Changes to tree regeneration remain uncertain, yet carry multiple climate feedback pathways. Dominant tree species drive forest biogeochemistry, with species varying in nutrient cycling, soil biota, biogenic volatile organic compound emissions, and productivity under drought, while drought conditions are likely to increase in severity. Regeneration processes underlie forest dynamics, the largest source of biosphere model uncertainty. We applied a process-based tree germination and establishment model to a study area in western Canada in order to estimate the effects of 20th and 21stcentury climatic change on regeneration in northern forests. We parameterized the model for 21 major tree species using biophysical parameters derived from the literature. We classified daily weather station and soils data for fourteen biogeoclimatic regions within the study area for three historical 30-year periods and the most recent decade: 1923-1952, 1953-1982, 1983-2012, and 2003-2012. We simulated the effects of changing temperature and precipitation conditions on germination and establishment processes for 21 tree species, fourteen regions, and four time periods. We found that regeneration conditions diminished across the 1923 to 2012 period, driven by soil water limitations. While regeneration conditions improved during the recent warming hiatus, a downward trend persists at a multi-decadal scale. In contrast to studies indicating regenerational improvements in higher latitudes and elevations, with disequilibrium in lowland forests due to a higher velocity of climatic change, we found that a soil water balance shift drove species downhill, supporting a recent

  16. Isolation and characterization of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria induced following exposure of soil to hydrogen gas and their impact on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Jiamila; Zhang, Ye; Yang, Jing; Cen, Yan-Ping; Layzell, David B; Peoples, Mark; Dong, Zhongmin

    2007-02-01

    In many legumes, the nitrogen fixing root nodules produce H2 gas that diffuses into soil. It has been demonstrated that such exposure of soil to H2 can promote plant growth. To assess whether this may be due to H2-oxidizing microorganisms, bacteria were isolated from soil treated with H2 under laboratory conditions and from soils collected adjacent to H2 producing soybean nodules. Nineteen isolates of H2-oxidizing bacteria were obtained and all exhibited a half-saturation coefficient (Ks) for H2 of about 1 ml l(-1). The isolates were identified as Variovorax paradoxus, Flavobacterium johnsoniae and Burkholderia spp. using conventional microbiological tests and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Seventeen of the isolates enhanced (57-254%) root elongation of spring wheat seedlings. Using an Arabidopsis thaliana bioassay, plant biomass was increased by 11-27% when inoculated by one of four isolates of V. paradoxus or one isolate of Burkholderia that were selected for evaluation. The isolates of V. paradoxus found in both H2-treated soil and in soil adjacent to soybean nodules had the greatest impact on plant growth. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that H2-oxidizing bacteria in soils have plant growth promoting properties.

  17. Factors affecting osteoarthritis patients' self-reported goal-directed drug information-seeking behaviors after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising from physicians and the internet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifei; Farris, Karen B; Doucette, William R

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate appraisal of means (ie, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and affect) in predicting patients' goal-directed behaviors of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA)-prompted drug-information search from physicians and the internet. One thousand patients were randomly selected from a nationwide sample frame of 3000 osteoarthritis patients. A self-administered survey assessed exposure to DTCA, drug-information search as goal, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain. After 6 weeks, another survey measured the behavior of drug-information search for respondents to the first survey. Study subjects were those who were exposed to DTCA in the previous month, and who set drug-information search as their goal. For each information source, a multiple regression analysis was conducted in which drug-information search was the dependent variable, and self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain were the independent variables. Among 454 patients who were exposed to DTCA, 174 patients set drug-information search as their goal and were the study subjects. The regression for physicians was not statistically significant. The regression for the internet was significant, accounting for 15% of behavior variance. Self-efficacy was a strong predictor of goal-directed drug-information search from the internet. Appraisal of means was useful to predict the goal-directed behavior of DTCA-prompted drug-information search from the internet. For patients who set drug-information search as a goal, actions to promote drug-information search from the internet need to focus on self-efficacy.

  18. Dewetting of thin films on flexible substrates via direct-write laser exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Anthony Jesus

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have enabled a wide variety of technologies both in the consumer space and in industrial/research areas. At the market level, such devices advance by the invention and innovation of production techniques. Additionally, there has been increased demand for flexible versions of such MEMS devices. Thin film patterning, represents a key technology for the realization of such flexible electronics. Patterns and methods that can be directly written into the thin film allow for design modification on the fly with the need for harsh chemicals and long etching steps. Laser-induced dewetting has the potential to create patterns in thin films at both the microscopic and nanoscopic level without wasting deposited material. This thesis presents the first demonstration of high-speed direct-write patterning of metallic thin films that uses a laser-induced dewetting phenomenon to prevent material loss. The ability to build film material with this technique is explored using various scanning geometries. Finally, demonstrations of direct-write dewetting of a variety of thin films will be presented with special consideration for high melting point metals deposited upon polymer substrates.

  19. Ultrafine particle size distributions near freeways: Effects of differing wind directions on exposure.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Kathleen H; Winer, Arthur M; Fruin, Scott A

    2012-12-01

    High ambient ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations may play an important role in the adverse health effects associated with living near busy roadways. However, UFP size distributions change rapidly as vehicle emissions dilute and age. These size changes can influence UFP lung deposition rates and dose because deposition in the respiratory system is a strong function of particle size. Few studies to date have measured and characterized changes in near-road UFP size distributions in real-time, thus missing transient variations in size distribution due to short-term fluctuations in wind speed, direction, or particle dynamics. In this study we measured important wind direction effects on near-freeway UFP size distributions and gradients using a mobile platform with 5-s time resolution. Compared to more commonly measured perpendicular (downwind) conditions, parallel wind conditions appeared to promote formation of broader and larger size distributions of roughly one-half the particle concentration. Particles during more parallel wind conditions also changed less in size with downwind distance and the fraction of lung-deposited particle number was calculated to be 15% lower than for downwind conditions, giving a combined decrease of about 60%. In addition, a multivariate analysis of several variables found meteorology, particularly wind direction and temperature, to be important in predicting UFP concentrations within 150 m of a freeway (R(2) = 0.46, p = 0.014).

  20. Ultrafine particle size distributions near freeways: Effects of differing wind directions on exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozawa, Kathleen H.; Winer, Arthur M.; Fruin, Scott A.

    2012-12-01

    High ambient ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations may play an important role in the adverse health effects associated with living near busy roadways. However, UFP size distributions change rapidly as vehicle emissions dilute and age. These size changes can influence UFP lung deposition rates and dose because deposition in the respiratory system is a strong function of particle size. Few studies to date have measured and characterized changes in near-road UFP size distributions in real-time, thus missing transient variations in size distribution due to short-term fluctuations in wind speed, direction, or particle dynamics. In this study we measured important wind direction effects on near-freeway UFP size distributions and gradients using a mobile platform with 5-s time resolution. Compared to more commonly measured perpendicular (downwind) conditions, parallel wind conditions appeared to promote formation of broader and larger size distributions of roughly one-half the particle concentration. Particles during more parallel wind conditions also changed less in size with downwind distance and the fraction of lung-deposited particle number was calculated to be 15% lower than for downwind conditions, giving a combined decrease of about 60%. In addition, a multivariate analysis of several variables found meteorology, particularly wind direction and temperature, to be important in predicting UFP concentrations within 150 m of a freeway (R2 = 0.46, p = 0.014).

  1. The impacts of trail infrastructure on vegetation and soils: Current literature and future directions.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-12-01

    Reflecting the popularity of nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking, there are thousands of kilometres of recreational trails worldwide traversing a range of natural areas. These trails have environmental impacts on soils and vegetation, but where has there been research, what impacts have been found and how were they measured? Using a systematic quantitative literature review methodology, we assessed the impacts of trails on vegetation and soils, highlighting what is known, but also key knowledge gaps. Of the 59 original research papers identified on this topic that have been published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals, most were for research conducted in protected areas (71%), with few from developing countries (17%) or threatened ecosystems (14%). The research is concentrated in a few habitats and biodiversity hotspots, mainly temperate woodland, alpine grassland and Mediterranean habitats, often in the USA (32%) or Australia (20%). Most examined formal trails, with just 15% examining informal trails and 11% assessing both types. Nearly all papers report the results of observational surveys (90%), collecting quantitative data (66%) with 24% using geographic information systems. There was an emphasis on assessing trail impacts at a local scale, either on the trail itself and/or over short gradients away from the trail edge. Many assessed changes in composition and to some degree, structure, of vegetation and soils with the most common impacts documented including reduced vegetation cover, changes in plant species composition, trail widening, soil loss and soil compaction. There were 14 papers assessing how these local impacts can accumulate at the landscape scale. Few papers assessed differences in impacts among trails (7 papers), changes in impacts over time (4), species-specific responses (3) and only one assessed effects on plant community functioning. This review provides evidence that there are key research gaps

  2. Apollo 11 and 16 Soil Bi-directional Solar Reflectance Measurements, Models and LRO Diviner Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.; Shepard, M. K.; Johnson, J. R.; Biggar, S. F.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Allen, C.

    2010-12-01

    We have compared laboratory solar reflectance measurements of Apollo 11 and 16 soil samples to Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner orbital albedo measurements at the Apollo landing sites. The soil samples are two representative end member samples from the moon, low albedo lunar maria (sample 10084) and high albedo lunar highlands (sample 68810). Bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of the soil samples were conducted at Bloomsburg University (BUG) and at the University of Arizona [1,2]. We collected two different types of BUG datasets: a standard set of BRDF measurements at incidence angles of 0-60°, emission angles of 0-80°, and phase angles of 3-140°, and a high-incidence angle set of measurements along and perpendicular to the principal plane at incidence angles of 0-75° and phase angles of 3-155°. The BUG measurements generated a total of 765 data points in four different filters 450, 550, 750 and 950 nm. The Blacklab measurements were acquired at incidence angles of 60-88°, emission angles 60-82°, and phase angles of 17-93° at wavelengths of 455, 554, 699, 949nm. The BUG data were fit to two BRDF models: Hapke’s model [3] as described by Johnson et al, 2010 [4], and a simplified empirical function. The fact that both approaches can satisfactorily fit the BUG data is not unexpected, given the similarities between the functions and their input parameters, and the fact that the BRDF for dark lunar soil is dominated by the single scattering phase functions of the individual soil particles. To compare our lunar sample measurements with LRO Diviner data [5], we selected all daytime observations acquired during the first year of operation within 3 km square boxes centered at the landing sites. We compared Diviner Channel 1 (0.3 - 3 µm) Lambert albedos with model calculated Lambert albedos of the lunar samples at the same photometric angles. In general, we found good agreement between the laboratory and Diviner

  3. Direct and correlated effects of selection on flight after exposure to thermal stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Robert A; Thompson, Kimberly A

    2006-01-01

    To demonstrate how insects may adapt to ecologically relevant levels of heat stress, we performed artificial selection on the ability of Drosophila melanogaster to fly after an exposure to a high but non-lethal thermal stress. Both tolerance and intolerance to heat stress arose very quickly, as only a few generations of selection were necessary to cause significant separation between high and low lines for heat tolerance. Estimates of heritability based on the lines artificially selected for increased flight ability ranged from 0.024 to 0.052, while estimates of heritability based on the lines selected for the inability to fly after heat stress varied between 0.035 and 0.091. Reciprocal F1 crosses among these lines revealed strong additive effects of one or more autosomes and a weaker X-chromosome effect. This variation apparently affected flight specifically; neither survival to a more extreme stress nor knockdown by high temperature changed between lines selected for high and low heat tolerance as measured by flight ability. As the well-studied heat-shock response is associated with heat tolerance as measured by survival and knockdown, the aspects of the stress physiology that actually affect flight ability remains unknown.

  4. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2015-07-01

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10(-6)) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes.

  5. Impacts of (Nano)formulations on the Fate of an Insecticide in Soil and Consequences for Environmental Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The development of nanopesticides has recently received an increased level of attention. However, there are very few data about the environmental fate of these new products, and it is not known whether nanoformulations can be evaluated within the current pesticide regulatory framework. Sorption and degradation parameters of the insecticide bifenthrin were measured in two soils for (i) the pure active ingredient, (ii) three nanoformulations, and (iii) a commercially available formulation. In most cases, fate parameters derived for the nanopesticides were significantly different from those derived for the pure active ingredient (factors of up to 10 for sorption and 1.8 for degradation), but discrepancies were not easy to relate to the characteristics of the nanocarriers. In some cases, differences were also observed between the commercial formulation and the pure active ingredient (factors of up to 1.4 for sorption and 1.7 for degradation). In the regulatory context, the common assumption that formulations do not influence the environmental fate of pesticide active ingredients after application seems therefore not always adequate. In the absence of direct measurement, an inverse modeling approach was successfully applied to evaluate the durability of the formulations in soil (release half-life ranged between 11 and 74 days). Predicted groundwater concentrations very much depended on the modeling approach adopted but overall suggest that the nanoformulations studied could reduce losses to groundwater. PMID:27648740

  6. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in soils and groundwater of a U.S. metropolitan area: migration and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Halbach, Thomas R; Gulliver, John S

    2015-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are emerging anthropogenic compounds that have recently become the target of global concern due to their ubiquitous presence in the environment, persistence, and bioaccumulative properties. This study was carried out to investigate the migration of PFOS and PFOA in soils and groundwater in a U.S. metropolitan area. We observed elevated levels in surface soils (median: 12.2 ng PFOS/g dw and 8.0 ng PFOA/g dw), which were much higher than the soil-screening levels for groundwater protection developed in this study. The measured levels in subsurface soils show a general increase with depth, suggesting a downward movement toward the groundwater table and a potential risk of aquifer contamination. Furthermore, concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in monitoring wells in the source zone varied insignificantly over 5 years (2009-2013), suggesting limited or no change in either the source or the magnitude of the source. The analysis also shows that natural processes of dispersion and dilution can significantly attenuate the groundwater contamination; the adsorption on aquifer solids, on the other hand, appears to have limited effects on the transport of PFOS and PFOA in the aquifer. The probabilistic exposure assessment indicates that ingestion of contaminated groundwater constitutes a much more important exposure route than ingestion of contaminated soil. Overall, the results suggest that (i) the transport of PFOS and PFOA is retarded in the vadose zone, but not in the aquifer; (ii) the groundwater contamination of PFOS and PFOA often follows their release to surface soils by years, if not decades; and (iii) the aquifer can be a major source of exposure for communities living near point sources.

  7. Direct incorporation of fatty acids into microbial phospholipids in soils: Position-specific labeling tells the story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dippold, Michaela A.; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acids have been used as plant and microbial biomarkers, and knowledge about their transformation pathways in soils and sediments is crucial for interpreting fatty acid signatures, especially because the formation, recycling and decomposition processes are concurrent. We analyzed the incorporation of free fatty acids into microbial fatty acids in soil by coupling position-specific 13C labeling with compound-specific 13C analysis. Position-specifically and uniformly 13C labeled palmitate were applied in an agricultural Luvisol. Pathways of fatty acids were traced by analyzing microbial utilization of 13C from individual molecule positions of palmitate and their incorporation into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). The fate of palmitate 13C in the soil was characterized by the main pathways of microbial fatty acid metabolism: Odd positions (C-1) were preferentially oxidized to CO2 in the citric acid cycle, whereas even positions (C-2) were preferentially incorporated into microbial biomass. This pattern is a result of palmitate cleavage to acetyl-CoA and its further use in the main pathways of C metabolism. We observed a direct, intact incorporation of more than 4% of the added palmitate into the PLFA of microbial cell membranes, indicating the important role of palmitate as direct precursor for microbial fatty acids. Palmitate 13C was incorporated into PLFA as intact alkyl chain, i.e. the C backbone of palmitate was not cleaved, but palmitate was incorporated either intact or modified (e.g. desaturated, elongated or branched) according to the fatty acid demand of the microbial community. These modifications of the incorporated palmitate increased with time. Future PLFA studies must therefore consider the recycling of existing plant and microbial-derived fatty acids. This study demonstrates the intact uptake and recycling of free fatty acids such as palmitate in soils, as well as the high turnover and transformation of cellular PLFA. Knowledge about the intact

  8. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p < 0.001) and in residents living in more contaminated areas (p < 0.001). We also found a significant correlation between the proportion of residents in each city with an estimated annual exposure dose exceeding 0.1 mSv and 137Cs concentration of soil samples from family farms (r = 0.828, p = 0.003). In conclusion, more than 25 years after the Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure.

  9. Evaluation of the Relationship between Current Internal 137Cs Exposure in Residents and Soil Contamination West of Chernobyl in Northern Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuko; Okubo, Yuka; Hayashida, Naomi; Takahashi, Jumpei; Gutevich, Alexander; Chorniy, Sergiy; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, the residents living around the Chernobyl were revealed to have been internally exposed to 137Cs through the intake of contaminated local foods. To evaluate the current situation of internal 137Cs exposure and the relationship between the 137Cs soil contamination and internal exposure in residents, we investigated the 137Cs body burden in residents who were living in 10 selected cities from the northern part of the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, and collected soil samples from three family farms and wild forests of each city to measured 137Cs concentrations. The total number of study participants was 36,862, of which 68.9% of them were female. After 2010, the annual effective doses were less than 0.1 mSv in over 90% of the residents. The 137Cs body burden was significantly higher in autumn than other seasons (p < 0.001) and in residents living in more contaminated areas (p < 0.001). We also found a significant correlation between the proportion of residents in each city with an estimated annual exposure dose exceeding 0.1 mSv and 137Cs concentration of soil samples from family farms (r = 0.828, p = 0.003). In conclusion, more than 25 years after the Chernobyl accident, the internal exposure doses to residents living in contaminated areas of northern Ukraine is limited but still related to 137Cs soil contamination. Furthermore, the consumption of local foods is considered to be the cause of internal exposure. PMID:26402065

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than farmers irrigating with clean water, but metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  11. Soil, Water, Plants and Preferred Flow in All Directions: A Biosphere-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, J.; Evaristo, J. A.; Kim, M.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Pangle, L. A.; Harman, C. J.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Measuring, understanding and predicting preferential flow in the critical zone is impossibly difficult, but we must try. While past work has focused on specific features of preferential flow pathways and model parameterizations, the resultant effect of preferential flow is often difficult to detect because we do not know the boundary conditions of our flow domain. Here we take a holistic view of preferential flow at the ecosystem level. We present new results from the tropical rainforest biome at Biosphere 2. We test the null hypothesis that the ecohydrological system is well mixed and that water forming groundwater recharge and plant transpiration is from a common pool. Our specific research question is what is the nature of preferential flow and partitioning of groundwater recharge, soil water recharge, and transpiration water after rainfall events? We performed a 10-week drought experiment and then added 66 mm of labelled rainfall with 152‰ deuterium (D), distributed over four events (mean 16.5 mm per event). This was followed by a total of 87 mm of rainfall (-60‰ D) distributed over 13 events that were spaced every 2-3 days. Our results show that flow in all ecohydrological domains (soil water, groundwater recharge and plant transpiration) was preferential. With known boundary conditions, we found that groundwater recharge was 3-8 times younger ( 8 days) than transpired water (range 24-64 days). The "age" of transpired water showed strong dependence on species and was intimately linked to driving force (difference between soil matric potential and midday leaf water potential). These results suggest that preferential flow in the critical zone is one whereby transpiration is strongly species-dependent, and groundwater recharge is controlled by inherent subsurface heterogeneity. The marked difference in the ages associated with these two fluxes supports the concept of ecohydrological separation—in this case, in a `time-based' context.

  12. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material. PMID:25083170

  13. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    PubMed

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material.

  14. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  15. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-07-15

    There is limited study focusing on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd) were measured in five types of vegetables, soil, root, and settled air particle samples from two sites (at a domestic waste incinerator and at 20km away from the incinerator) in Guangzhou, South China. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were greater than those in aerial parts of vegetables and roots, which indicated that vegetables bioaccumulated low amount of heavy metals from soil. The similar pattern of heavy metal (Cr, Cd) was found in the settled air particle samples and aerial parts of vegetables from two sites, which may suggest that foliar uptake may be an important pathway of heavy metal from the environment to vegetables. The highest levels of heavy metals were found in leaf lettuce (125.52μg/g, dry weight) and bitter lettuce (71.2μg/g) for sites A and B, respectively, followed by bitter lettuce and leaf lettuce for sites A and B, respectively. Swamp morning glory accumulated the lowest amount of heavy metals (81.02μg/g for site A and 53.2μg/g for site B) at both sites. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil ranged from Cr (2%) to Cu (71.78%). Risk assessment showed that Cd and Pb in soil samples resulted in the highest non-cancer risk and Cd would result in unacceptable cancer risk for children and risk. The non-dietary intake of soil was the most important exposure pathway, when the bioaccessibility of heavy metals was taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil coring at multiple field environments can directly quantify variation in deep root traits to select wheat genotypes for breeding

    PubMed Central

    Wasson, A. P.; Rebetzke, G. J.; Kirkegaard, J. A.; Christopher, J.; Richards, R. A.; Watt, M.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to incorporate deep root traits into future wheat varieties to increase access to stored soil water during grain development, which is twice as valuable for yield as water captured at younger stages. Most root phenotyping efforts have been indirect studies in the laboratory, at young plant stages, or using indirect shoot measures. Here, soil coring to 2 m depth was used across three field environments to directly phenotype deep root traits on grain development (depth, descent rate, density, length, and distribution). Shoot phenotypes at coring included canopy temperature depression, chlorophyll reflectance, and green leaf scoring, with developmental stage, biomass, and yield. Current varieties, and genotypes with breeding histories and plant architectures expected to promote deep roots, were used to maximize identification of variation due to genetics. Variation was observed for deep root traits (e.g. 111.4–178.5cm (60%) for depth; 0.09–0.22cm/°C day (144%) for descent rate) using soil coring in the field environments. There was significant variation for root traits between sites, and variation in the relative performance of genotypes between sites. However, genotypes were identified that performed consistently well or poorly at both sites. Furthermore, high-performing genotypes were statistically superior in root traits than low-performing genotypes or commercial varieties. There was a weak but significant negative correlation between green leaf score (–0.5), CTD (0.45), and rooting depth and a positive correlation for chlorophyll reflectance (0.32). Shoot phenotypes did not predict other root traits. This study suggests that field coring can directly identify variation in deep root traits to speed up selection of genotypes for breeding programmes. PMID:24963000

  17. Soil coring at multiple field environments can directly quantify variation in deep root traits to select wheat genotypes for breeding.

    PubMed

    Wasson, A P; Rebetzke, G J; Kirkegaard, J A; Christopher, J; Richards, R A; Watt, M

    2014-11-01

    We aim to incorporate deep root traits into future wheat varieties to increase access to stored soil water during grain development, which is twice as valuable for yield as water captured at younger stages. Most root phenotyping efforts have been indirect studies in the laboratory, at young plant stages, or using indirect shoot measures. Here, soil coring to 2 m depth was used across three field environments to directly phenotype deep root traits on grain development (depth, descent rate, density, length, and distribution). Shoot phenotypes at coring included canopy temperature depression, chlorophyll reflectance, and green leaf scoring, with developmental stage, biomass, and yield. Current varieties, and genotypes with breeding histories and plant architectures expected to promote deep roots, were used to maximize identification of variation due to genetics. Variation was observed for deep root traits (e.g. 111.4-178.5cm (60%) for depth; 0.09-0.22cm/°C day (144%) for descent rate) using soil coring in the field environments. There was significant variation for root traits between sites, and variation in the relative performance of genotypes between sites. However, genotypes were identified that performed consistently well or poorly at both sites. Furthermore, high-performing genotypes were statistically superior in root traits than low-performing genotypes or commercial varieties. There was a weak but significant negative correlation between green leaf score (-0.5), CTD (0.45), and rooting depth and a positive correlation for chlorophyll reflectance (0.32). Shoot phenotypes did not predict other root traits. This study suggests that field coring can directly identify variation in deep root traits to speed up selection of genotypes for breeding programmes.

  18. Glutathione transferase (GST) as a candidate molecular-based biomarker for soil toxin exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

    PubMed

    LaCourse, E James; Hernandez-Viadel, Mariluz; Jefferies, James R; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J; Barrett, John; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Brophy, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus (Hoffmeister, 1843) is a terrestrial pollution sentinel. Enzyme activity and transcription of phase II detoxification superfamily glutathione transferases (GST) is known to respond in earthworms after soil toxin exposure, suggesting GST as a candidate molecular-based pollution biomarker. This study combined sub-proteomics, bioinformatics and biochemical assay to characterise the L. rubellus GST complement as pre-requisite to initialise assessment of the applicability of GST as a biomarker. L. rubellus possesses a range of GSTs related to known classes, with evidence of tissue-specific synthesis. Two affinity-purified GSTs dominating GST protein synthesis (Sigma and Pi class) were cloned, expressed and characterised for enzyme activity with various substrates. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) following SDS-PAGE were superior in retaining subunit stability relative to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). This study provides greater understanding of Phase II detoxification GST superfamily status of an important environmental pollution sentinel organism.

  19. Different routes, same pathways: Molecular mechanisms under silver ion and nanoparticle exposures in the soil sentinel Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Novo, Marta; Lahive, Elma; Díez-Ortiz, María; Matzke, Marianne; Morgan, Andrew J; Spurgeon, David J; Svendsen, Claus; Kille, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Use of nanotechnology products is increasing; with silver (Ag) nanoparticles particularly widely used. A key uncertainty surrounding the risk assessment of AgNPs is whether their effects are driven through the same mechanism of action that underlies the toxic effects of Ag ions. We present the first full transcriptome study of the effects of Ag ions and NPs in an ecotoxicological model soil invertebrate, the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Gene expression analyses indicated similar mechanisms for both silver forms with toxicity being exerted through pathways related to ribosome function, sugar and protein metabolism, molecular stress, disruption of energy production and histones. The main difference seen between Ag ions and NPs was associated with potential toxicokinetic effects related to cellular internalisation and communication, with pathways related to endocytosis and cilia being significantly enriched. These results point to a common final toxicodynamic response, but initial internalisation driven by different exposure routes and toxicokinetic mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning revealed by a prolonged drought at a temperate forest site

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Lianhong; Meyers, T. P.; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hanson, Paul J; Yang, Bai; Heuer, Mark; Hosman, K. P.; Riggs, Jeffery S; Sluss, Daniel Wayne; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanism that controls the variation of surface energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes at a temperate deciduous forest site in central Missouri, USA. Taking advantage of multiple micrometeorological and ecophysiological measurements and a prolonged drought in the middle of the 2005 growing season at this site, we studied how soil moisture, atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and net radiation affected surface energy partitioning. We stratified these factors to minimize potential confounding effects of correlation among them. We found that all three factors had direct effects on surface energy partitioning, but more important, all three factors also had crucial indirect effects. The direct effect of soil moisture was characterized by a rapid decrease in Bowen ratio with increasing soil moisture when the soil was dry and by insensitivity of Bowen ratio to variations in soil moisture when the soil was wet. However, the rate of decrease in Bowen ratio when the soil was dry and the level of soil moisture above which Bowen ratio became insensitive to changes in soil moisture depended on atmospheric conditions. The direct effect of increased net radiation was to increase Bowen ratio. The direct effect of VPD was very nonlinear: Increased VPD decreased Bowen ratio at low VPD but increased Bowen ratio at high VPD. The indirect effects were much more complicated. Reduced soil moisture weakened the influence of VPD but enhanced the influence of net adiation on surface energy partitioning. Soil moisture also controlled how net radiation influenced the relationship between surface energy partitioning and VPD and how VPD affected the relationship between surface energy partitioning and net radiation. Furthermore, both increased VPD and increased net radiation enhanced the sensitivity of Bowen ratio to changes in soil moisture and the effect of drought on surface energy partitioning. The direct and indirect

  1. Patient-directed music therapy reduces anxiety and sedation exposure in mechanically-ventilated patients: a research critique.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Janice G; Kwan, Xiu Xian

    2015-05-01

    This research appraisal, guided by the CASP Randomised Controlled Trial Checklist, critiques a randomised, controlled trial of patient-directed music therapy compared to either noise-cancelling headphones or usual care. This study recruited 373 alert, mechanically-ventilated patients across five intensive care units in the United States. The Music Assessment Tool, administered by a music therapist, facilitated music selection by participants in the intervention group. Anxiety was measured using the VAS-A scale. Sedation exposure was measured by both sedation frequency and by sedation intensity using a daily sedation intensity score. Context for the data was supported by an environmental scan form recording unit activity and by written comments from nurses about the patient's responses to the protocol. Patient-directed music therapy allowed a significant reduction in sedation frequency compared to noise-cancelling headphones and usual care participants. Patient-directed music therapy led to significantly lower anxiety and sedation intensity compared to usual care, but not compared to noise-cancelling headphones. This is a robust study with clear aims and a detailed description of research methods and follow-up. While no participants were lost to follow-up, not all were included in the analysis: 37% did not have the minimum of two anxiety assessments for comparison and 23% were not included in sedation analysis. While some participants utilised the intervention or active control for many hours-per-day, half the music therapy participants listened for 12min or less per day and half of the noise-cancelling headphone participants did not appear to use them. While the results suggest that patient-directed music therapy and noise-cancelling headphones may be useful and cost-effective interventions that lead to an overall improvement in anxiety and sedation exposure, these may appeal to a subset of ICU patients. The self-directed use of music therapy and noise

  2. Human Exposure Assessment: Development of methods to assess the bioaccessibility of organic contaminants sorbed to soils and house dusts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research task- Are physicochemical properties of soil and house dust predictive of the bioaccessibility of sorbed organic compoundsGoalIdentify dust and soil characteristics that influence the bioaccessibility of organic compounds and provide chemical specific data on the fractio...

  3. Human Exposure Assessment: Development of methods to assess the bioaccessibility of organic contaminants sorbed to soils and house dusts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research task- Are physicochemical properties of soil and house dust predictive of the bioaccessibility of sorbed organic compoundsGoalIdentify dust and soil characteristics that influence the bioaccessibility of organic compounds and provide chemical specific data on the fractio...

  4. Long-term nickel exposure altered the bacterial community composition but not diversity in two contrasting agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Rong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Nickel pollution imposes deleterious effects on soil ecosystem. The responses of soil microorganisms to long-term nickel pollution under field conditions remain largely unknown. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to elucidate the impacts of long-term nickel pollution on soil bacterial communities in two contrasting agricultural soils. Our results found that the soil microbial biomass carbon consistently decreased along the nickel gradients in both soils. Nickel pollution selectively favored or impeded the prevalence of several dominant bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes displayed sensitivity. Despite the apparent shifts in the bacterial community composition, no clear tendency in the bacterial diversity and abundance was identified along the nickel gradients in either soil. Collectively, we provide evidence that long-term nickel pollution shifted the soil bacterial communities, resulting in the decrease of microbial biomass although the bacterial diversity was not significantly changed.

  5. Extraction of soil and vegetation parameters from high resolution bi-directional reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huete, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    High spectral resolution reflectance spectra were collected over a semi-desert grassland at both dry and wet season periods. Spectral reflectance measurements were made from several viewing angles at both low and high solar zenith angles. A mixture model was used to separate and extract green vegetation from dry/dead vegetation and soil. The extracted vegetation signal varied greatly with view and sun angle variations such that off-nadir viewing and illuminating angles resulted in the highest vegetation loadings. These variations were normalized with cosine functions for both sun and view angle. These results offer a methodology for standardizing multi-temporal and multi-angular satellite measurements of vegetation activity.

  6. Development of a direct exposure system for studying the mechanisms of central neurotoxicity caused by volatile organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    KANEMITSU, Masanari; FUETA, Yukiko; ISHIDAO, Toru; AOU, Shuji; HORI, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) used in work places are neurotoxic. However, it has been difficult to study the cellular mechanisms induced by a direct exposure to neurons because of their high volatility. The objective of this study was to establish a stable system for exposing brain slices to VOCs. With a conventional recording system for brain slices, it is not possible to keep a constant bath concentration of relatively highly volatile solvents, e.g. 1-bromopropane (1-BP). Here we report a new exposure system for VOCs that we developed in which a high concentration of oxygen is dissolved to a perfused medium applying a gas-liquid equilibrium, and in which the tubing is made of Teflon, non adsorptive material. Using our system, the bath concentration of the perfused 1-BP remained stable for at least 2 h in the slice chamber. Both 6.4 and 2.2 mM of 1-BP did not change the paired-pulse response, but fully suppressed long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampal slices obtained from rats, suggesting that 1-BP decreases synaptic plasticity in the DG at the concentrations tested. Our new system can be applicable for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the neurotoxicity of VOCs at the cellular level. PMID:26320726

  7. Direct determination of contact angles of model soils in comparison with wettability characterization by capillary rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Flores, Juan Carlos; Bachmann, Jörg; Marmur, Abraham

    2010-03-01

    SummaryAn accurate method to determine contact angles (CA) of soils as a measure of water repellency is still missing. In the present research, we evaluated and compared different methods to determine the CA of dry soil samples. Experiments were made by using a set of porous materials (silt, sand and glass beads) with different levels of water repellency. The CAs were measured with the Capillary Rise Method ( θCRM; liquid penetration into a 3-d system), the Wilhelmy plate method ( θWPM; measurement of capillary forces acting on a plane sample) and the Sessile Drop Method ( θSDM; optical CA analysis of drop contour on a plane sample). Results were compared with the CAs calculated from capillary rise in long vertical columns ( θECR), where liquid profiles of the final capillary rise of water and ethanol, respectively, were used to derive the contact angle under the assumed equilibrium conditions. The results showed the overestimation of the CA by using the well established bi-liquid CRM technique for porous materials, in particular for material with a low degree of water repellency (CA < 40°) and for the finer textured materials. In contrast, a variant of the Wilhelmy plate method, i.e. the cosine-averaged advancing CA and receding CA ( θEWPM), as well as the Sessile Drop CA, θSDM, were close to the ones of θECR. We concluded that θEWPM and θSDM are apparent CA, but nevertheless able to predict the impact of wettability on the final capillary rise which is affected by pore topology as well as by wettability.

  8. Field controlled experiments on the physiological responses of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves to low-level air and soil mercury exposures.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Sen; Zeng, Ming; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Yi; Ci, Zhijia

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of tons of mercury (Hg) are released from anthropogenic and natural sources to the atmosphere in a gaseous elemental form per year, yet little is known regarding the influence of airborne Hg on the physiological activities of plant leaves. In the present study, the effects of low-level air and soil Hg exposures on the gas exchange parameters of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves and their accumulation of Hg, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined via field open-top chamber and Hg-enriched soil experiments, respectively. Low-level air Hg exposures (<50 ng m(-3)) had little effects on the gas exchange parameters of maize leaves during most of the daytime (p > 0.05). However, both the net photosynthesis rate and carboxylation efficiency of maize leaves exposed to 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly lower than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg in late morning (p < 0.05). Additionally, the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves exposed to 20 and 50 ng m(-3) air Hg were significantly higher than those exposed to 2 ng m(-3) air Hg (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the increase in airborne Hg potentially damaged functional photosynthetic apparatus in plant leaves, inducing free proline accumulation and membrane lipid peroxidation. Due to minor translocation of soil Hg to the leaves, low-level soil Hg exposures (<1,000 ng g(-1)) had no significant influences on the gas exchange parameters, or the Hg, proline, and MDA concentrations in maize leaves (p > 0.05). Compared to soil Hg, airborne Hg easily caused physiological stress to plant leaves. The effects of increasing atmospheric Hg concentration on plant physiology should be of concern.

  9. Flow direction indicators in lithic-rich, basal ground layers in western exposures of the Miocene Peach Spring Tuff, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesch, D.

    2012-12-01

    Lithic-rich, basal ground layer (BGL) deposits occur in three western exposures of the 18.7 Ma Peach Spring Tuff (PST), and structures indicate directions of transport in the pyroclastic flow. Locations include (1) Kane Wash (Newberry Mountains), (2) "West Gem" (Daggett Ridge), and (3) Alvord Mountain area. These locations are 190-225 km from the PST source in the Silver Creek Caldera, southwest Black Mountain, Arizona (Pearthree and others, 2009); however, ~50 km is from extension across the Lower Colorado River Extensional Corridor. In each location, many lithic clasts were locally derived. Lithic-rich horizons in Kane Wash exposures of the PST were described by Buesch (1991). Total thickness of valley-filling ignimbrite ranges from <1-30 m and was deposited on alluvial fan and axial stream sandstone. Thickness of 8 individual lithic-rich horizons (a type of BGL) range from 4-300 cm with lithic clasts 2-472 cm. Clast size-grading, imbrication, and elongation indicate directions of flow. Each horizon was attributed to (1) incorporation and concentration of local clasts into a boundary layer of the pyroclastic flow as it traversed topography, (2) decoupling of a lithic-rich layer from the over riding flow, (3) independent movement of a lithic-rich flow along local topography (180°±30°) with the ash-rich pyroclastic flow direction probably independent of local topography, but along the main paleovalley (245°±20°), and (4) introduction and westward deflection of lithic-rich flows into the main, valley-filling, pyroclastic flow. Multiple lithic-rich horizons indicate repeated, locally developed boundary layers from the body of the pyroclastic flow throughout the flow history. In the West Gem exposure, the PST is 5.3 m thick and was deposited on alluvial sandstone. The 60-cm thick, lithic-rich, BGL contains lithic clasts <25 cm. Poorly developed clast imbrication and elongation, and a rip-up flap from the BGL folded into the lower part of the ignimbrite, indicate

  10. Replacing surrogate measures by direct quantification of ultraviolet radiation exposure in registry-based analyses of seasonality of melanoma diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Keller, Andrea K; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B; Radespiel-Tröger, Martin; Mayer, Ingo; Gefeller, Olaf

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal variation in melanoma diagnoses has been observed in numerous studies that used calendar time indicators. Depending on the latitude (and altitude) of the study region, the magnitude of seasonal and year-to-year variation of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is neglected in these studies. An alternative approach comprises the direct incorporation of UVR measurements into such analyses. The aim of this investigation is a comparative evaluation of these approaches. The population-based Bavarian cancer registry recorded 11 901 incident melanoma cases between 2003 and 2008 that were used for the analysis. UVR intensity data for the same period were available from the solar radiation station at Munich-Neuherberg. Negative binomial regression modelling yielded adjusted relative risks (RR) controlled for year of diagnosis and age in 16 subgroups defined by sex, Breslow thickness and localization. Overall, the analyses showed slightly differing yet consistent results for exposure effects in subgroups. Melanoma evolving on the extremities showed the most pronounced association with increasing level of the UV index among men [e.g. RR=1.086, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.054-1.119, and RR=1.102, 95% CI 1.046-1.161, for thin and thick melanoma on the upper limbs, respectively] and women (e.g. RR=1.088, 95% CI 1.058-1.119, and RR=1.056, 95% CI 1.010-1.103, for thin and thick melanoma on the lower limbs, respectively). Our analysis provides a benchmark for international comparisons and synthesis of epidemiologic evidence of seasonal variability in melanoma diagnoses. Future studies should use direct UVR measures to enable pooling of risk estimates and resolve remaining inconsistencies potentially resulting from latitudinal differences in exposure between international studies.

  11. A Study of the Frequency and Social Determinants of Exposure to Cancer-Related Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Among Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Tan, Andy S L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) is controversial because cancer treatment is complex and entails more risks and costs than typical treatments that are advertised for other conditions. Drawing from the Structural Influence Model of Communication, this study explores communication inequalities in DTCA exposure across social determinants among a population-based sample of 2013 patients diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancers. Three survey items assessed patients' frequency of encountering ads concerning treatment alternatives for cancer, dealing with side effects of treatment, and doctors or hospitals offering services for cancer following their diagnosis. The analysis showed that overall exposure to DTCA in this study population was modest (median was once per week). Breast cancer patients reported significantly higher exposure to all three ad categories and overall DTCA exposure than prostate and colorectal cancer patients. Older patients consistently reported lower overall exposure to DTCA across the three cancer types. Other significant correlates included ethnicity (higher exposures among African American prostate cancer patients vs. White; lower exposures in Hispanic colorectal cancer patients vs. White) and cancer stage (higher exposures in Stage IV prostate cancer patients vs. Stages 0-II). Education level did not predict patients' DTCA exposure. The implications of these observed inequalities in DTCA exposure on cancer outcomes are discussed.

  12. A Study of the Frequency and Social Determinants of Exposure to Cancer-Related Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Among Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Andy SL

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) is controversial because cancer treatment is complex and entails more risks and costs than typical treatments that are advertised for other conditions. Drawing from the Structural Influence Model of Communication, this study explores communication inequalities in DTCA exposure across social determinants among a population-based sample of 2013 patients diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancers. Three survey items assessed patients' frequency of encountering ads concerning treatment alternatives for cancer, dealing with side effects of treatment, and doctors or hospitals offering services for cancer following their diagnosis. The analysis showed that overall exposure to DTCA in this study population was modest (median was once per week). Breast cancer patients reported significantly higher exposure to all three ad categories and overall DTCA exposure than prostate and colorectal cancer patients. Older patients consistently reported lower overall exposure to DTCA across the three cancer types. Other significant correlates included ethnicity (higher exposures among African-American prostate cancer patients vs. white; lower exposures in Hispanic colorectal cancer patients vs. white), and cancer stage (higher exposures in stage IV prostate cancer patients vs. stages 0-II). Education level did not predict patients' DTCA exposure. The implications of these observed inequalities in DTCA exposure on cancer outcomes are discussed. PMID:25357119

  13. The assumption of heterogeneous or homogeneous radioactive contamination in soil/sediment: does it matter in terms of the external exposure of fauna?

    PubMed

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2014-12-01

    The classical approach to environmental radioprotection is based on the assumption of homogeneously contaminated media. However, in soils and sediments there may be a significant variation of radioactivity with depth. The effect of this heterogeneity was investigated by examining the external exposure of various sediment and soil organisms, and determining the resulting dose rates, assuming a realistic combination of locations and radionuclides. The results were dependent on the exposure situation, i.e., the organism, its location, and the quality and quantity of radionuclides. The dose rates ranged over three orders of magnitude. The assumption of homogeneous contamination was not consistently conservative (if associated with a level of radioactivity averaged over the full thickness of soil or sediment that was sampled). Dose assessment for screening purposes requires consideration of the highest activity concentration measured in a soil/sediment that is considered to be homogeneously contaminated. A more refined assessment (e.g., higher tier of a graded approach) should take into consideration a more realistic contamination profile, and apply different dosimetric approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxic effects of the joint exposure of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) on soil microorganism and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lei; An, Shuai; Liu, Kou; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhao, Li

    2014-09-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention. However, the impact on soil culturable microbial population and enzyme activity of joint exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the eco-toxicological response in the joint presence of BDE209 and TBBPA for the first time. The results have demonstrated some notable toxic effects due to long-term exposure to either or both contaminants. The inhibition ratios of microbial populations increased with incubation time and increasing concentrations of BDE209 or TBBPA following certain dose-response relationships and time-effect trends. The response sensitivity sequence was fungi>bacteria>actinomycete. The influence of the two chemicals on soil enzymes reached peak values on day 7, and highly significant differences (P<0.01) were observed compared to the controls. Urease was more susceptive to the two chemicals than catalase and saccharase activities. Generally, the joint toxicity of both contaminants on soil microbes, catalase or saccharase activities indicated antagonistic effects, while, as for urease activity, addition role was dominant. Such observations have provided the useful information of potential ecological effects of brominated flame retardants contamination in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Report on Initial Direct Soil Leaching Experiments Using Post-Detonation Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Gostic, R.; Knight, K. B.; Borg, L.

    2011-08-01

    A key challenge of nuclear forensics is reducing the time and manpower effort required to measure nuclear debris compositions. The overall motivation for this work is to explore development of a robust, automated system that can be used to concurrently analyze several elements/isotopes associated with the forensic signature of nuclear materials. The primary focus of this research has been to methodically investigate if rapid partial leaching of post-detonation debris can yield usable elemental and isotopic information for interpretation. The unique requirements of post-detonation nuclear forensics have not been fully adapted to or fully incorporated contemporary chemical separation techniques. Challenges include addressing the range of material matrices or mixed fission product and actinide compositions and concentrations that might be encountered. These include, but are not limited to, puddle melt glass, urban debris, seawater, air filters, iron-rich urban debris, asphalt, and silica sand. Separation of these elements and their subsequent measurement is a key element of related laboratory analysis activity. Existing practices at LLNL rely on proven but time-consuming and labor intensive processes. Significant time and labor savings are possible in chemical separations, however, if rapid processing methods can be adapted to post-detonation debris. Development of a simple and reliable leaching technique could shorten analytical times and would be useful as a field deployable method for the preliminary characterization of actinide isotopic ratios in soils. Measurement of isotopic ratios in the field using modern mass spectrometry capabilities such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is desirable, taking advantage of the extended range of isotopic systems measureable using such instruments. Sample introduction to these types of mass spectrometry instruments requires partial leaching or full dissolution of a sample to remove isobaric (same mass

  16. Direct N2O Fluxes from Agroecosystems in Cold Climates: Importance of Soil Freeze-Thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congreves, K. A.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Abalos, D.; Ambadan, J. T.; Brown, S. E.; Tenuta, M.; Gao, X.; Amiro, B. D.; Berg, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    To develop effective climate change mitigation strategies and reduce N2O emissions, the global contribution of freeze-thaw cycles from croplands must be characterized; we present the first study to do so. Long-term N2O flux datasets from micrometeorological approaches were compiled from two Canadian sites (Elora ON & Glenlea MB). Measurements encompassed a total of 21-yr on 16-ha of land producing annual field crops, yielding an unprecedented record of N2O fluxes (42118 half-hourly values) at sites subjected to freeze-thaw cycles from Nov-Apr. At Elora (the warmer site) N2O flux events were associated with thaw cycles throughout Nov-Apr and the main thaw event took place between mid/end of April when air temperatures rose above 0°C and snow melted. The continental site (Glenlea) did not have significant N2O flux events during the prolonged freeze period, but had considerably higher emissions over the thaw period when soil temperature and liquid water content increased more slowly than Elora. Based on cumulative N2O emissions from both sites (Nov-Apr), emissions were closely related to freezing degree days (FDD). An exponential-to-plateau model significantly fit (p<0.0001, r= 0.72) the relationship between N2O emissions and FDD, characterizing larger N2O emissions as FDD increased (y=1.95 (1-exp-0.00852x), y=cumulative N2O-N kg ha-1 and x=FDD). To estimate the global contribution of N2O emissions from seasonally frozen croplands in the northern hemisphere, we applied the algorithm to a global map of FDD derived from three reanalysis products (ERA-Interim, MERRA-Land, GLDAS-NOAH) combined with MODIS land fraction data for croplands. Average global freeze-thaw induced N2O emissions for croplands was estimated at 1.07 Tg N, though it may range from 0.79 - 1.35 Tg N due to model error and variation. This global contribution of N2O from seasonally frozen cropland soils may be responsible for previously observed discrepancies between top-down and bottom-up approaches.

  17. Direction and magnitude of change in soil use for a wetland area in Chile: Puren marshes, a priority site for biodiversity conservation (stage 1).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda-Varas, Alejandra

    2014-05-01

    Land managers and policymakers need information about soil change caused by anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors to predict the effects of management on soil function, compare alternatives, and make decisions. This is particularly relevant in highly fragile ecosystems such as wetlands or humid systems. The wetlands require the presence of three key components: hydric soils, hydrophytic vegetation and wetland hydrology. Therefore, the presence of hydric soils in humid systems is essential for the existence of a wetland. In Chile, one of the geographic zones with the greatest diversity of humid systems is the coast of the Araucanía Region, which contains one of the largest and most threatened humid systems of the region, Puren Marshes, whose soils are only generically described as alluvial terraces and miscellaneous swamp. In this area, studies have reported a high intensity of anthropogenic activity, generating soil erosion, loss of wetland coverage and landscape alteration. For this first stage of a main investigation about the vulnerability of hydric soils to changes in patterns of soil use, the objective was to characterize the variables of soil use in the Puren Marshes and determinate the direction and magnitude of change in soil use in the study area for the period between 1994 and 2007 (the official reports indicate that until 1994, the total area of Puren Marshes was 1147 ha). For the analyses, were used official reports of soil use, the coverages were obtained from the project map databases "Catastro y Evaluación de los Recursos Vegetacionales Nativos de Chile" 1993 and its update for La Araucanía, Regional Government of La Araucanía 2011, DMF CONAF 2010 and IGM 2007. The map information was processed in ARCGIS 9.3.1 software under UTM coordinates, datum WGS 84 and 18 South Time extended. Was developed a multitemporal analysis by construction of transition matrix and confusion matrix. The results obtained show that for the period analysed, the

  18. Chronic exposure to soil salinity in terrestrial species: Does plasticity and underlying physiology differ among specialized ground-dwelling spiders?

    PubMed

    Renault, D; Puzin, C; Foucreau, N; Bouchereau, A; Pétillon, J

    2016-07-01

    In salt marshes, the alternation of low and high tides entails rapid shifts of submersion and aerial exposure for terrestrial communities. In these intertidal environments, terrestrial species have to deal with an osmotic loss in body water content and an increase in sodium chloride concentration when salt load increases. In salt marshes, spiders represent an abundant arthropod group, whose physiological ecology in response to variations of soil salinity must be further investigated. In this study, we compared the effect of salinity on the survival and physiology of three species of Lycosidae; two salt marsh species (Arctosa fulvolineata and Pardosa purbeckensis) and one forest species (P. saltans). Spiders were individually exposed at three salinity conditions (0‰, 35‰ and 70‰) and survival, changes in body water content, hemolymph ions (Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+); ICP-MS technique) and metabolites (mainly amino acids, polyols, sugars; LC and GC techniques) were assessed. The survival of the forest species P. saltans was very quickly hampered at moderate and high salinities. In this spider, variations of hemolymph ions and metabolites revealed a quick loss of physiological homeostasis and a rapid salt-induced dehydration of the specimens. Conversely, high survival durations were measured in the two salt-marsh spiders, and more particularly in A. fulvolineata. In both P. purbeckensis and A. fulvolineata, the proportion of Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) remained constant at the three experimental conditions. Accumulation of hemolymph Na(+) and amino acids (mainly glutamine and proline) demonstrated stronger osmoregulatory capacities in these salt-marsh resident spiders. To conclude, even if phylogenetically close (belonging to the same, monophyletic, family), we found different physiological capacities to cope with salt load among the three tested spider species. Nevertheless, physiological responses to salinity were highly consistent with the realized

  19. Cadmium, lead, and arsenic contamination in paddy soils of a mining area and their exposure effects on human HEPG2 and keratinocyte cell-lines.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shengguo; Shi, Lizheng; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Hui; Qin, Yanyan; Pan, Weisong; Hartley, William; Cui, Mengqian

    2017-07-01

    A mining district in south China shows significant metal(loid) contamination in paddy fields. In the soils, average Pb, Cd and As concentrations were 460.1, 11.7 and 35.1mgkg(-1) respectively, which were higher than the environmental quality standard for agricultural soils in China (GB15618-1995) and UK Clea Soil Guideline Value. The average contents of Pb, Cd and As in rice were 5.24, 1.1 and 0.7mgkg(-1) respectively, which were about 25, 4.5 or 2.5 times greater than the limit values of the maximum safe contaminant concentration standard in food of China (GB 2762-2012), and about 25, 10 or 1 times greater than the limit values of FAO/WHO standard. The elevated contents of Pb, Cd and As detected in soils around the factories, indicated that their spatial distribution was influenced by anthropogenic activity, while greater concentrations of Cd in rice appeared in the northwest region of the factories, indicating that the spatial distribution of heavy metals was also affected by natural factors. As human exposure around mining districts is mainly through oral intake of food and dermal contact, the effects of these metals on the viability and MT protein of HepG2 and KERTr cells were investigated. The cell viability decreased with increasing metal concentrations. Co-exposure to heavy metals (Pb+Cd) increased the metals (Pb or Cd)-mediated MT protein induction in both human HepG2 and KERTr cells. Increased levels of MT protein will lead to greater risk of carcinogenic manifestations, and it is likely that chronic exposure to metals may increase the risk to human health. Nevertheless, when co-exposure to two or more metals occur (such as As+Pb), they may have an antagonistic effect thus reducing the toxic effects of each other. Metal contaminations in paddy soils and rice were influenced by anthropogenic activity; metal co-exposure induced MT protein in human cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Profiling of K0 lateral stress coefficient in soils using paired directional G0 ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Taeseo; Mayne, Paul W.

    2013-07-01

    Using a special database compiled from directional shear wave velocity measurements at 12 well-documented sites, the geostatic stress state and stress history are evaluated from shear stiffness ratios. At each site, a benchmark profile of lateral stress coefficient (K0) was detailed using direct in-situ methods (i.e., self-boring pressuremeter, total stress cells, and/or hydraulic fracture), and/or laboratory methods (i.e., suction, consolidometer, and/or triaxial stress path testing). Also, the yield stress ratio (YSR), or more common parameter: overconsolidation ratio (OCR), was available either from series of consolidation tests on undisturbed samples procured from various depths and/or engineering geology studies, or both. Statistical expressions are derived to relate both K0 and OCR in terms of the ratio G0,HH/G0,VH as well as other factors.

  1. Gaseous mercury emissions from unsterilized and sterilized soils: the effect of temperature and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Holsen, Thomas M

    2009-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from the soils taken from two different sites (deciduous and coniferous forests) in the Adirondacks were measured in outdoor and laboratory experiments. Some of the soil samples were irradiated to eliminate biological activity. The result from the outdoor measurements with different soils suggests the Hg emission from the soils is partly limited by fallen leaves covering the soils which helps maintain relatively high soil moisture and limits the amount of heat and solar radiation reaching the soil surface. In laboratory experiments exposure to UV-A (365 nm) had no significant effect on the Hg emissions while the Hg emissions increased dramatically during exposure to UV-B (302 nm) light suggesting UV-B directly reduced soil-associated Hg. Overall these results indicate that for these soils biotic processes have a relatively constant and smaller influence on the Hg emission from the soil than the more variable abiotic processes.

  2. Directing Traffic in the Rhizosphere: Using Isotopes and Imaging to Track Root-Microbe-Mineral Interactions in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Neurath, R.; Whitman, T.; Zhang, P.; Yuan, T.; Zhou, J.; Nico, P. S.; Lipton, A.; Weber, P. K.; Firestone, M.

    2016-12-01

    Stimulated by exudates and root decay, rhizosphere organisms control the critical pathways that move C from root tissues to mineral surfaces, and ultimately regulate how soil C is sequestered and stabilized. Yet we have a poor understanding of how roots affect the molecular ecology of microbial decomposers, and how this affects rates of organic matter breakdown or long-term OM association with minerals. In an isotope-enabled incubation experiment, we studied SOM-mineral interactions and the colonization of fresh minerals by soil microbes asking: (1) How does mineralogy impact SOM association? (2) who is there (which microbial taxa), (3) what chemical form the C is in, and (4) where C is associated within the soil physical environment. We followed the fate of 13C-labeled plant-derived C in Avena barbata (wild oat) California grassland soil microcosms incubated with three minerals representing a spectrum of structure and reactivity: quartz, kaolinite, and ferrihydrite-coated quartz. These minerals (isolated in mesh bags to exclude plant roots but not microorganisms) were extracted and measured for total C and 13C atom% after 1, 2, and 2.5 months incubation. We used sequencing of 16S and ITS2 genes and qPCR to characterize the microbial communities colonizing the minerals. At plant senescence, quartz had the least mineral-bound C and ferrihydrite the most. Ferrihydrite and kaolinite also accumulated more plant-derived C. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy analysis of the mineral-associated SOM indicated differences in the SOM composition with mineralogy. Bacterial and fungal communities associated with different minerals differed, with more arbuscular mycorrhial fungi found on ferrihydrite and quartz. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging of these minerals suggested that fungal hyphae moved C directly from roots to mineral surfaces. Additionally, mineral-associated microbes had an enriched

  3. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil.

    PubMed

    Lankadurai, Brian P; Furdui, Vasile I; Reiner, Eric J; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2013-08-27

    1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to measure the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil. Earthworms were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (five, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg) for two, seven and fourteen days. Earthworm tissues were extracted and analyzed by 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis of the metabolic response of E. fetida to PFOS exposure identified time-dependent responses that were comprised of two separate modes of action: a non-polar narcosis type mechanism after two days of exposure and increased fatty acid oxidation after seven and fourteen days of exposure. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-furansulfonate (HEFS), betaine, leucine, arginine, glutamate, maltose and ATP are potential indicators of PFOS exposure, as the concentrations of these metabolites fluctuated significantly. Overall, NMR-based metabolomic analysis suggests elevated fatty acid oxidation, disruption in energy metabolism and biological membrane structure and a possible interruption of ATP synthesis. These conclusions obtained from analysis of the metabolic profile in response to sub-lethal PFOS exposure indicates that NMR-based metabolomics is an excellent discovery tool when the mode of action (MOA) of contaminants is not clearly defined.

  4. 1H NMR-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Sub-Lethal Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure to the Earthworm, Eisenia fetida, in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Lankadurai, Brian P.; Furdui, Vasile I.; Reiner, Eric J.; Simpson, André J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2013-01-01

    1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to measure the response of Eisenia fetida earthworms after exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil. Earthworms were exposed to a range of PFOS concentrations (five, 10, 25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg) for two, seven and fourteen days. Earthworm tissues were extracted and analyzed by 1H NMR. Multivariate statistical analysis of the metabolic response of E. fetida to PFOS exposure identified time-dependent responses that were comprised of two separate modes of action: a non-polar narcosis type mechanism after two days of exposure and increased fatty acid oxidation after seven and fourteen days of exposure. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that 2-hexyl-5-ethyl-3-furansulfonate (HEFS), betaine, leucine, arginine, glutamate, maltose and ATP are potential indicators of PFOS exposure, as the concentrations of these metabolites fluctuated significantly. Overall, NMR-based metabolomic analysis suggests elevated fatty acid oxidation, disruption in energy metabolism and biological membrane structure and a possible interruption of ATP synthesis. These conclusions obtained from analysis of the metabolic profile in response to sub-lethal PFOS exposure indicates that NMR-based metabolomics is an excellent discovery tool when the mode of action (MOA) of contaminants is not clearly defined. PMID:24958147

  5. Direct plantlet inoculation with soil or insect-associated fungi may control cabbage root fly maggots.

    PubMed

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Palmisano, Marilena; Wohler, Christian; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    A potential Delia radicum biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with various fungi was investigated in a series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments. In addition to entomopathogenic fungi, fungi with a high rhizosphere competence and fungi with the ability to survive as saprotrophs in soil were tested. The following fungal species were evaluated in the experiments: Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. gamsii, Beauveria bassiana, Metharhizium anisopliae, M. brunneum and Clonostachys solani. A commercial carbosulfan-based insecticide was used as a positive control. Additionally, two commercial products, one based on B. bassiana (Naturalis) and one on Bacillus thuringiensis (Delfin) were used as reference biocontrol agents. The aims were (i) to assess the pathogenicity of the selected fungal isolates to Delia radicum, (ii) to evaluate the fungal isolates' rhizosphere competence, with the emphasis on the persistence of the original inoculum on the growing roots, (iii) to assess possible endophytic plant tissue colonization, and (iv) to evaluate potential plant growth stimulating effects of the added inoculi. Significant pathogenicity of tested fungi against Delia radicum was confirmed in in vitro and glasshouse experiments. All tested fungi persisted on cauliflower rhizoplane. More importantly, the added fungi were found on thoroughly washed roots outside the original point of inoculation. This provided us with evidence that our tested fungi could be transferred via or grow with the elongating roots. In addition to colonizing the rhizoplane, some fungi were found inside the plant root or stem tissue, thus exhibiting endophytic characteristics. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion in appropriate biological control agent selection is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Data Sources for Prioritizing Human Exposure to Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans may be exposed to thousands of chemicals through contact in the workplace, home, and via air, water, food, and soil. A major challenge is estimating chemical exposures, which requires understanding potential exposure pathways directly related to how chemicals are used. Wit...

  7. Data Sources for Prioritizing Human Exposure to Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans may be exposed to thousands of chemicals through contact in the workplace, home, and via air, water, food, and soil. A major challenge is estimating chemical exposures, which requires understanding potential exposure pathways directly related to how chemicals are used. Wit...

  8. Direct, delayed and residual effects of applied wastewater from olive processing on zinc and copper availability in the soil-plant system

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.D.; Gallardo-Lara, F.

    1993-08-01

    The authors tested the effects of wastewater from olive processing, applied alone or in combination with different mineral complements, in pots containing calcareous soil. An initial barley crop, and a subsequent ryegrass crop, yielded information on the direct and delayed effects, respectively, of the by-product on Zn and Cu assimilability in the soil-plant system. As a direct effect, the application of wastewater tended to decrease Zn assimilability, but the delayed effect showed the opposite trend, especially when the by-product was added together with N-containing mineral supplements. The direct effect generally did not significantly modify Cu assimilability, however, the delayed effect significantly enhanced Cu uptake; this effect was potentiated by the joint application of N and P. At the end of the experiment, a residual effect of the application of wastewater alone was observed, as a significant increase in extractable Cu in soil, and a nonsignificant rise in extractable Zn.

  9. Semi-quantitative analysis of contaminants in soils by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grange, Andrew H

    2013-01-30

    Cleaning up contaminated sites is a goal of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A simple, high-throughput, inexpensive, selective, and specific screening method for semi-volatile, polar organic contaminants would provide high spatial resolution for monitoring remediation and for documenting successful clean ups in numerous Superfund, Brownfield, and other contaminated sites. An autosampler/Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)/time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, with or without a Vapur® evacuated flange, was used to analyze 0.01-33% levels of aspirin, diphenylamine, and pentachlorophenol mixed with soil. Triplicate water-soaked swabs were manually rotated in wet analyte:soil mixtures, air dried for 2-3 h, and analyzed directly. To minimize carryover, insensitive and sensitive instrumental conditions were used to analyze high and low analyte levels, respectively. Simulated two-dimensional (2D) mapping and remediation threshold experiments were performed to test the utility of DART-TOFMS for possible sampling strategies. Analyte levels differing by factors of 10 were discernible. Data were acquired for 30 swabs in 0.9 min and 3 min with helium stream temperatures of 150 °C and 250 °C and swab transport velocities of 1.45 cm/s and 0.5 cm/s, respectively. With the Vapur flange attached, the average relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 3) were between 16% and 40% for different analytes and analyte levels. Carryover was greatly reduced by removing the Vapur flange, but higher RSDs and occasional plugging of the cone orifice were observed. A rapid, simple, rugged, and relatively inexpensive, but selective and sufficiently sensitive, semi-quantitative screening method for semi-volatile, polar, organic compounds in soil was demonstrated. The technique would provide the high spatial resolution necessary to find localized areas of high contamination within contaminated sites that might pose a risk to human and ecological health. Published 2012. This

  10. Vascular-directed responses of microglia produced by methamphetamine exposure: indirect evidence that microglia are involved in vascular repair?

    PubMed

    Bowyer, John F; Sarkar, Sumit; Tranter, Karen M; Hanig, Joseph P; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2016-03-12

    Brain microglial activations and damage responses are most commonly associated with neurodegeneration or systemic innate immune system activation. Here, we used histological methods to focus on microglial responses that are directed towards brain vasculature, previously undescribed, after a neurotoxic exposure to methamphetamine. Male rats were given doses of methamphetamine that produce pronounced hyperthermia, hypertension, and toxicity. Identification of microglia and microglia-like cells (pericytes and possibly perivascular cells) was done using immunoreactivity to allograft inflammatory factor 1 (Aif1 a.k.a Iba1) and alpha M integrin (Itgam a.k.a. Cd11b) while vasculature endothelium was identified using rat endothelial cell antigen 1 (RECA-1). Regions of neuronal, axonal, and nerve terminal degeneration were determined using Fluoro-Jade C. Dual labeling of vasculature (RECA-1) and microglia (Iba1) showed a strong association of hypertrophied cells surrounding and juxtaposed to vasculature in the septum, medial dorsal hippocampus, piriform cortex, and thalamus. The Iba1 labeling was more pronounced in the cell body while Cd11b more so in the processes of activated microglia. These regions have been previously identified to have vascular leakage after neurotoxic methamphetamine exposure. Dual labeling with Fluoro-Jade C and Iba1 indicated that there was minimal or no evidence of neuronal damage in the septum and hippocampus where many hypertrophied Iba1-labeled cells were found to be associated with vasculature. Although microglial activation around the prominent neurodegeneration was found in the thalamus, there were also many examples of activated microglia associated with vasculature. The data implicate microglia, and possibly related cell types, in playing a major role in responding to methamphetamine-induced vascular damage, and possibly repair, in the absence of neurodegeneration. Identifying brain regions with hypertrophied/activated microglial

  11. The Impact of a Soiled Airway on Intubation Success in the Emergency Department When Using the GlideScope or the Direct Laryngoscope.

    PubMed

    Sakles, John C; Corn, G Judson; Hollinger, Patrick; Arcaris, Brittany; Patanwala, Asad E; Mosier, Jarrod M

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to determine the impact of a soiled airway on firstpass success when using the GlideScope video laryngoscope or the direct laryngoscope for intubation in the emergency department (ED). Data were prospectively collected on all patients intubated in an academic ED from July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2016. Patients ≥ 18 years of age, who underwent rapid sequence intubation by an emergency medicine resident with the GlideScope or the direct laryngoscope, were included in the analysis. Data were stratified by device used (GlideScope or direct laryngoscope). The primary outcome was firstpass success. Patients were categorized as those without blood or vomitus (CLEAN) and those with blood or vomitus (SOILED) in their airway. Multivariate regression models were developed to control for confounders. When using the GlideScope, the firstpass success was lower in the SOILED group (249/306; 81.4%) than the in CLEAN group (586/644, 91.0%; difference = 9.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.7%-14.5%). Similarly, when using the direct laryngoscope, the firstpass success was lower in the SOILED group (186/284, 65.5%) than in the CLEAN group (569/751, 75.8%; difference = 10.3%; 95% CI = 4.0%-16.6%). The SOILED airway was associated with a decreased firstpass success in both the GlideScope cohort (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3-0.7) and the direct laryngoscope cohort (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.5-0.8). Soiling of the airway was associated with a reduced firstpass success during emergency intubation, and this reduction occurred to a similar degree whether using either the GlideScope or the direct laryngoscope. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Determining Consistency of Tillage Direction with Soil Erosion Protection Requirements as The Element of Decision-Making Process in Planning and Applying Land Consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, Piotr; Janus, Jaroslaw; Taszakowski, Jaroslaw; Glowacka, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    Water erosion is one of the factors which have negative effect on soil productivity. It often leads to irreversible soil degradation, making soil worthless for agricultural activities. One way of preventing water erosion is making the direction of cultivation perpendicular to the direction of rainwater run-off. Matching the direction with the shape of parcels boundaries in small and extended ones is often possible only through changes in the configuration of property boundaries, which is possible only in the process of land consolidation. The article presents methodology of qualifying the areas for changes in boundaries configuration and cultivation direction in view of existing erosion risk. A computation process was suggested that uses, among others, LIDAR data to model the terrain shape precisely as well as cadastral data that defines the geometry of parcels and, resulting from it, the direction of cultivation and form of use. The suggested process includes also the information on the texture of soil upper horizons from soil agricultural maps. The RUSLE erosion model was applied and the computation process took place in ArcGIS environment with the use of dedicated algorithms suggested and implemented to solve the formulated problem. Computations were conducted for test area of several hundred hectares which was characterized by vast diversity of soil types and landforms. The results prove the usefulness of the suggested method as an element of systems that support decision-making processes used in the stage of determining objects chosen for the realization of consolidating processes (including local consolidation, which covers only chosen fragment of a village). They can also be used in the stage of completing detailed plans of parcels distribution in land consolidation process. The importance of the method is particularly seen in the analysis of areas where land fragmentation indices are unfavourable. Especially in these cases, without the reorganization of

  13. Parenting Control in Contexts of Political Violence: Testing Bi-directional Relations between Violence Exposure and Control in Post-Accord Belfast

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The goal of the present study is to examine bi-directional relations between youth exposure to sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behavior and mothers’ efforts to control youth’s exposure to community violence in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Design Mother-child dyads (N=773) were interviewed in their homes twice over 2 years regarding youth’s exposure to sectarian (SAB) and nonsectarian (NAB) community antisocial behavior and mothers’ use of control strategies, including behavioral and psychological control. Results Youth’s exposure to NAB was related to increases in mothers’ use of both behavioral and psychological control strategies over time, controlling for earlier levels of these constructs. Reflecting bi-directional relations, mothers’ behavioral control strategies were associated with youth’s reduced exposure to both NAB and SAB over time, whereas psychological control was not related to reduced exposure. Conclusion Only nonsectarian community violence was associated longitudinally with mothers’ increased use of control strategies, and only behavioral control strategies were effective in reducing youth’s exposure to community antisocial behavior, including both sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behavior. PMID:22523479

  14. Long-Term Exposure of Tropical Soils to Pressure Treated Lumber, Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Impacts on Soil Metal Mobility and Microbial Community Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marietta, M. L.; Fowle, D. A.; Roberts, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Pressure treated lumber (CCA) has been used in a variety of structures for over seven decades, but recent concerns have been raised about leaching of metals such as chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) into proximal soils and water supplies. Pressure treated lumber abundance and its continued use necessitate a thorough understanding of metal release and sequestration in the subsurface. To date, no long-term, in situ study on the migration of CCA compounds from lumber has been performed. Barro Colorado Island, Panama is the site of several previous CCA studies and provides an opportunity to investigate the long-term (>70 years) effects of pressure treated lumber in oxisols, where high rainfall and warm temperatures may represent an end-member condition for the leaching and mobility of these metals. Soil samples from CCA and control sites were measured for Cr, As, Cu, Zn, and Fe abundances, microbial biomass and community structure via phospholipid fatty acid analysis, along with basic soil properties. CCA lumber samples were also characterized for their metal abundance. Lumber treated with zinc meta-arsenite displayed advanced decay with elevated As, Cu, and Zn concentrations observed in the adjacent soil. Increased soil organic matter and microbial biomass correlate to decreases in Fe and Fe-associated metals compared to the control. High As concentrations persist to <1 m of the source. Lumber treated with potassium dichromate contained high chromium concentrations and displayed little decay, however, soil concentrations of Cr, Fe, and Cu were generally less than control soils. Over these same intervals, soil organic matter and microbial biomass increased, particularly the fraction of metal reducing bacteria (MRB). We hypothesize that organic carbon loading from lumber stimulates MRB, leading to mobilization of Fe and Fe-associated metals from these oxide-rich soils. Principal component analysis of PLFA data confirms a distinction between controls and samples with

  15. The Biotoxicity of Mars Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerney, Krystal

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence from the Opportunity and Spirit rovers suggests that the soils on Mars might be very high in biotoxic materials induding sulfate salts, chlorides, and acidifying agents. Yet, very little is known about how the chemistries of Mars soils might affect the survival and growth of terrestrial microorganisms. The primary objectives of the proposed research will be to: (1) prepare and characterize Mars analog soils amended with potential biotoxic levels of sulfates, chlorides, and acidifying minerals; (2) use the stimulants to conduct a series of toxicology assays to determine if terrestrial microorganisms from spacecraft or extreme environments can survive direct exposure to the biotoxic soils, and (3) mix soils from extreme environments on Earth into Mars analog soils to determine if terrestrial microorganisms can grow and replicate under Martian conditions. The Mars analog soils will be thoroughly characterized by a wide diversity of soil chemistry assays to determine the exact nature of the soluble biotoxic components following hydration. The microbial experiments will be designed to test the effects of Mars stimulants on microbial survival, growth and replication during direct challenge experiments. Toxicology experiments will be designed to mimic terrestrial microbes coming into contact with biotoxic soils with and without liquid water. Results are expected to help" ... characterize the limits of life in ... planetary environments ... " and may help constrain the search for life on Mars.