Science.gov

Sample records for direct solar floor

  1. The Floor in the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-07

    Paper 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Oct 2007 – 10 Nov 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Floor in the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Revisited...magnitude [B] had a floor of ≈ 4.6 nT in yearly averages, a value which the interplanetary magnetic - field [IMF] strength returned to, or approached, at...is implicit in the work of Owens and Crooker (2006, 2007) who simulated the interplanetary magnetic - field strength in terms of a constant open-flux

  2. Sea floor engineering geomorphology: recent achievements and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, David B.; Hooper, James R.

    1999-12-01

    New mapping technology is providing perspectives of the sea floor "as if there were no ocean", revealing that ocean floors exhibit a wide variety of relief, sediment properties, and active geologic processes such as erosion, faulting, fluid expulsion, and landslides. The development of coastal and offshore resources, such as oil and gas and minerals, involves sea floor engineering in remote, complex, and sometimes hazardous environments. Optimum engineering design and construction practice require detailed surveys of sea floor geomorphology, geologic conditions on the sea bed and to various depths beneath it, combined with geotechnical properties of the sediments and oceanographic information. Integrated site survey models attempt to predict conditions and process frequencies and magnitudes relevant to the engineering design lifetimes of sea floor installations, such as cables, pipelines, production platforms, as well as supporting coastal infrastructure such as jetties, wharves, bridges and harbors. Recent use of deep water areas for oil and gas production, pipelines, and cable routes are also showing that the "world's greatest slopes", beyond the continental shelves contain exciting, exotic, and enigmatic geomorphological features and processes. Safe and cost-effective engineering use of these regions depends upon exciting new technical and conceptual advances for understanding sea floor geomorphology — a task which has barely begun.

  3. Review Process for the Registration and Use Directions for Floor Wipe Towelette Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance provides Antimicrobials Division staff with guidance related to the registration requirements and use directions for presaturated/impregnated floor wipe towelette products. This document will be used for new and existing wipe registrations.

  4. Thermal stratification in direct gain passive heating systems with variable heating of the floor and one vertical wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. S.; Fisher, E. M.; Bohn, M. S.

    1985-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study that used a 1/4-scale, water-filled test cell to examine the effect of the natural convection flows created by horizontal and vertical heated surfaces upon thermal stratification in a single-zone enclosure. The study covered the range from pure floor heating to pure wall heating, including various levels of combined floor and wall heating. The presence of a cold window or thermal storage surface was simulated by cooling the wall directly opposite the heated vertical wall. Flow visualization studies were carried out to determine the structure of the flow in the test cell. Correlations are reported for heat transfer, temperature distributions, and thermal stratification as a function of the relative amount of heating that was provided to the floor and wall of the test cell. The results of the study can be used to predict the flow patterns, energy transfer, and levels of thermal stratification that occur in direct gain solar systems that are dominated by natural convection.

  5. Future Directions in Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss scientific opportunities for space-based solar physics instruments in the coming decade and their synergy with major new ground-based telescopes. l will also discuss ( pow small satellites may complement larger solar physics missions.

  6. New Directions for Solar Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Peter E.; Burke, James C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes new applications being found for solar energy as a result of technical advances and a variety of economic and social forces. Discusses the basic requirements for a solar climate control system and outlines factors that should stimulate greater use of solar energy in the near future. (JR)

  7. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from April 1, 1985 to Sept. 30, 1985 under NASA grant NAS1-441 entitled direct solar pumped iodine laser amplifier. During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator was carried out before the amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period following completion of the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) the radiation characteristics of solar simulator and the parametric characteristics of photodissociation iodine laser continuously pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  8. Direct solar heating for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Early investigations have shown that a large percentage of the power generated on the Space Station will be needed in the form of high-temperature thermal energy. The most efficient method of satisfying this requirement is through direct utilization of available solar energy. A system concept for the direct use of solar energy on the Space Station, including its benefits to customers, technologists, and designers of the station, is described. After a brief discussion of energy requirements and some possible applications, results of selective tradeoff studies are discussed, showing area reduction benefits and some possible configurations for the practical use of direct solar heating. Following this is a description of system elements and required technologies. Finally, an assessment of available contributive technologies is presented, and a Space Shuttle Orbiter flight experiment is proposed.

  9. Direct expansion solar collector and heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-05-01

    A hybrid heat pump/solar collector combination in which solar collectors replace the outside air heat exchanger found in conventional air-to-air heat pump systems is discussed. The solar panels ordinarily operate at or below ambient temperature, eliminating the need to install the collector panels in a glazed and insulated enclosure. The collectors simply consist of a flat plate with a centrally located tube running longitudinally. Solar energy absorbed by exposed panels directly vaporizes the refrigerant fluid. The resulting vapor is compressed to higher temperature and pressure; then, it is condensed to release the heat absorbed during the vaporization process. Control and monitoring of the demonstration system are addressed, and the tests conducted with the demonstration system are described. The entire heat pump system is modelled, including predicted performance and costs, and economic comparisons are made with conventional flat-plate collector systems.

  10. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  11. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.

    1987-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from March 1, 1987 to September 30, 1987 under NASA grant NAG1-441 entitled 'Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier'. During this period Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals have been tested for the solar-simulator pumped cw laser, and loss mechanisms of the laser output power in a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser also have been identified theoretically. It was observed that the threshold pump-beam intensities for both Nd:YAG and Nd:Cr:GSGG crystals were about 1000 solar constants, and the cw laser operation of the Nd:Cr:GSGG crystal was more difficult than that of the Nd:YAG crystal under the solar-simulator pumping. The possibility of the Nd:Cr:GSGG laser operation with a fast continuously chopped pumping was also observed. In addition, good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data on the loss mechanisms of a flashlamp-pumped iodine laser at various fill pressures and various lasants was achieved.

  12. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; Max, V.E.; Brase, J.M.; Caffano, C.J.; Gavel, D.T.; Macintosh, B.A.

    1997-03-01

    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets may be possible with the new generation of large ground-based telescopes equipped with state- of- the-art adaptive optics (AO) systems to compensate for the blurring effect of the Earth`s atmosphere. The first of these systems is scheduled to begin operation in 1998 on the 10 in Keck II telescope. In this paper, general formulas for high-contrast imaging with AO systems are presented and used to calculate the sensitivity of the Keck AO system. The results of these calculations show that the Keck AO system should achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect giant planets around several nearby bright stars.

  13. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1986-01-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility of the solar pumped dye laser, the parametric study of a dye laser amplifier pumped by a solar simulator and flashlamp was carried out, and the amplifier gains were measured at various pump beam irradiances on the dye cell. Rhodamine 6G was considered as a candidate for the solar pumped laser because of its good utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. The measurement shows that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye. The work to construct a kinetic model algorithm which predicts the output parameter of laser was progressed. The kinetic model was improved such that there is good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental data for the systems defined previously as flashlamp pumped laser oscillator, and the long path length solar pumped laser.

  14. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The improvement on the collection system of the Tarmarack Solar Simulator beam was attemped. The basic study of evaluating the solid state laser materials for the solar pumping and also the work to construct a kinetic model algorithm for the flashlamp pumped iodine lasers were carried out. It was observed that the collector cone worked better than the lens assembly in order to collect the solar simulator beam and to focus it down to a strong power density. The study on the various laser materials and their lasing characteristics shows that the neodymium and chromium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nr:Cr:GSGG) may be a strong candidate for the high power solar pumped solid state laser crystal. On the other hand the improved kinetic modeling for the flashlamp pumped iodine laser provides a good agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental data on the laser power output, and predicts the output parameters of a solar pumped iodine laser.

  15. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator were carried out before amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period after completing the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) a 10 W CW iodine laser pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling to predict the time to lasing threshold, lasing time, and energy output of solar-pumped iodine laser; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  16. Series-parallel method of direct solar array regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooder, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    A 40 watt experimental solar array was directly regulated by shorting out appropriate combinations of series and parallel segments of a solar array. Regulation switches were employed to control the array at various set-point voltages between 25 and 40 volts. Regulation to within + or - 0.5 volt was obtained over a range of solar array temperatures and illumination levels as an active load was varied from open circuit to maximum available power. A fourfold reduction in regulation switch power dissipation was achieved with series-parallel regulation as compared to the usual series-only switching for direct solar array regulation.

  17. Future Directions in Simulating Solar Geoengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Robock, Alan; Boucher, Olivier

    2014-08-05

    Solar geoengineering is a proposed set of technologies to temporarily alleviate some of the consequences of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) created a framework of geoengineering simulations in climate models that have been performed by modeling centers throughout the world (B. Kravitz et al., The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), Atmospheric Science Letters, 12(2), 162-167, doi:10.1002/asl.316, 2011). These experiments use state-of-the-art climate models to simulate solar geoengineering via uniform solar reduction, creation of stratospheric sulfate aerosol layers, or injecting sea spray into the marine boundary layer. GeoMIP has been quite successful in its mission of revealing robust features and key uncertainties of the modeled effects of solar geoengineering.

  18. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

    1990-01-01

    The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

  19. Approach to interior design for passive direct gain solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Kachadorian, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    In response to requests from buyers and builders of direct gain passive solar homes interior design criteria either specific to, or emphasized by, passive solar buildings are investigated. Problems of high sunlight penetration, secondary illumination, material selection, sound control and psychology are approached. Material deterioration, fading, glare, noise, and a sense of spacial confinement can be minimized, contributing to the appeal and saleability of passive solar homes.

  20. Heat Pumps With Direct Expansion Solar Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Sadasuke

    In this paper, the studies of heat pump systems using solar collectors as the evaporators, which have been done so far by reserchers, are reviwed. Usually, a solar collector without any cover is preferable to one with ac over because of the necessity of absorbing heat from the ambient air when the intensity of the solar energy on the collector is not enough. The performance of the collector depends on its area and the intensity of the convective heat transfer on the surface. Fins are fixed on the backside of the collector-surface or on the tube in which the refrigerant flows in order to increase the convective heat transfer. For the purpose of using a heat pump efficiently throughout year, a compressor with variable capacity is applied. The solar assisted heat pump can be used for air conditioning at night during the summer. Only a few groups of people have studied cooling by using solar assisted heat pump systems. In Japan, a kind of system for hot water supply has been produced commercially in a company and a kind of system for air conditioning has been installed in buildings commercially by another company.

  1. Solar Radiation: An Anomalous Decrease of Direct Solar Radiation.

    PubMed

    Flowers, E C; Viebrock, H J

    1965-04-23

    Beginning in November 1963, measurements made at the South Pole of solar radiation at normal incidence indicate a decrease of from 5 to 78 percent of the normal intensity. Similar measurements made at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, show a similar though smaller reduction. The causal factor is believed to be a layer of atmospheric dust resulting from the eruption of Mt. Agung, Bali, in March 1963.

  2. New directions for space solar power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-07-01

    Several of the central issues associated with the eventual realization of the vision of solar power from space for terrestrial markets resolve around the expect costs associated with the assembly, inspection, maintenance and repair of future solar power satellite (SPS) stations. In past studies (for example, NASA's "Fresh Look Study", c. 1995-1997) efforts were made to reduce both the scale and mass of large, systems-level interfaces (e.g., the power management and distribution (PMAD) system) and on-orbit fixed infrastructures through the use of modular systems strategies. These efforts have had mixed success (as reflected in the projected on-orbit mass of various systems concepts. However, the author remains convinced of the importance of modular strategies for exceptionally large space systems in eventually realizing the vision of power from space. This paper will introduce some of the key issues associated with cost-competitive space solar power in terrestrial markets. It will examine some of the relevant SPS concepts and will assess the 'pros and cons' of each in terms of space assembly, maintenance and servicing (SAMS) requirements. The paper discusses at a high level some relevant concepts and technologies that may play r role in the eventual, successful resolution of these challenges. The paper concludes with an example of the kind of novel architectural approach for space solar power that is needed.

  3. Small solar pump for direct irrigation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.G.; Willardson, L.S.

    1982-12-01

    A prototype solar powered water pump is described. The low-head vacuum lift pump uses a thermodynamic liquid to drive a floating piston which alternately draws water into a pumping chamber then pushes it past a check valve to a higher elevation. A discussion of typical crop requirements illustrates how this pump might be used in practice.

  4. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Kim, Khong Hon; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator was developed which will be incorporated into the Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) system. The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of rate equations was improved to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the calculation. The improved algorithm was applied to explain the existing experimental data taken from a flashlamp pumped iodine laser for three kinds of lasants, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, and t-C4F9I. Various solid laser materials were evaluated for solar-pumping. The materials studied were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and Cr:Nd:GSGG crystals. The slope efficiency of 0.17 percent was measured for the Nd:YLF near the threshold pump intensity which was 211 solar constants (29W/sq cm). The threshold pump intensity of the Nd:YAG was measured to be 236 solar constants (32W/sq cm) and the near-threshold slope efficiency was 0.12 percent. True CW laser operation of Cr:Nd:GSGG was possible only at pump intensities less than or equal to 1,500 solar constants (203 W/sq cm). This fact was attributed to the high thermal focusing effect of the Cr:Nd:GSGG rod.

  5. Goddard Space Flight Center solar array missions, requirements and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Edward; Day, John

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) develops and operates a wide variety of spacecraft for conducting NASA's communications, space science, and earth science missions. Some are 'in house' spacecraft for which the GSFC builds the spacecraft and performs all solar array design, analysis, integration, and test. Others are 'out of house' spacecraft for which an aerospace contractor builds the spacecraft and develops the solar array under direction from GSFC. The experience of developing flight solar arrays for numerous GSFC 'in house' and 'out of house' spacecraft has resulted in an understanding of solar array requirements for many different applications. This presentation will review those solar array requirements that are common to most GSFC spacecraft. Solar array technologies will be discussed that are currently under development and that could be useful to future GSFC spacecraft.

  6. Direct-Write Contacts for Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaydanova, T.; van Hest, M.F.A.M.; Miedaner, A.; Curtis, C. J.; Alleman, J. L.; Dabney, M. S.; Garnett, E.; Shaheen, S.; Ginley, D. S.; Smith, L.; Collins, R.; Hanoka, J. I.; Gabor, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    We report on our project to develop inkjet printable contacts for solar cells. Ag, Cu, and Ni metallizations were inkjet printed with near vacuum deposition quality. Thick, highly conducting lines of Ag and Cu demonstrating good adhesion to glass, Si, and PCB have been printed at 100-200 C in air and N2, respectively. Ag grids were inkjet-printed on Si solar cells and fired through silicon nitride AR layer at 850 C resulting in 8% cells. Next-generation multicomponent inks (including etching agents) have also been developed with improved fire-through contacts leading to higher cell efficiencies. The approach developed can be easily extended to other conductors such as Pt, Pd, and Au, etc. In addition, PEDOT-PSS polymer-based conductors were inkjet-printed with the conductivity as good or better than those of polymer-based conductors.

  7. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In H.; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser which was developed earlier for an iodine laser oscillator was modified in order to increase the output pulse energy of XeCl laser so that the iodine laser output energy could be increased. The electrical circuit of the XeCl laser was changed from a simple capacitor discharge circuit of the XeCl laser to a Marx system. Because of this improvement the output energy from the XeCl laser was increased from 60 mj to 80 mj. Subsequently, iodine laser output energy was increased from 100 mj to 3 mj. On the other hand, the energy storage capability and amplification characteristics of the Vortek solar simulator-pumped amplifier was calculated expecting the calculated amplification factor is about 2 and the energy extraction efficiency is 26 percent due to the very low input energy density to the amplifier. As a result of an improved kinetic modeling for the iodine solar simulator pumped power amplifier, it is found that the I-2 along the axis of the tube affects seriously the gain profile. For the gas i-C3F7I at the higher pressures, the gain will decrease due to the I-2 as the pumping intensity increases, and at these higher pressures an increase in flow velocity will increase the gain.

  8. Quantum-well lasers for direct solar photopumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, Sreenath; Anderson, Neal G.

    1993-09-01

    Semiconductor lasers directly photopumped by focused sunlight may be viable sources of coherent light for intersatellite communications and other low-power spaceborne applications. In this work, we theoretically explore the possibility of realizing such devices. We specifically assess solar pumped operation of separate-confinement-quantum-well heterostructure (SCQWH) lasers based on InGaAs, GaAs, and AlGaA, as fabrication technology for these lasers is mature and they can operate at very low thresholds. We develop a model for step-index single-well SCQWH lasers photopumped by sunlight, examine how threshold solar photoexcitation intensities depend upon material and structure parameters, design optimum structures for solar-pumped operation, and identify design tradeoffs. Our results suggest that laser action should be possible in properly designed structures at readily achievable solar concentrations and that optimum designs for solar-pumped SCQWH lasers differ significantly from those for analogous current injection devices.

  9. Direct Write Contacts for Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaydanova, T.; van Hest, M.F.A.M.; Miedaner, A.; Curtis, C. J.; Alleman, J. L.; Dabney, M. S.; Garnett, E.; Shaheen, S.; Smith, L.; Collins, R.; Hanoka, J. I.; Gabor, A. M.; Ginley, D.S.

    2005-02-01

    Ag, Cu, and Ni metallizations were inkjet-printed with near-vacuum deposition quality. The approach developed can be easily extended to other conductors such as Pt, Pd, and Au. Thick, highly conducting lines of Ag and Cu demonstrating good adhesion to glass, Si, and PCB have been printed at 100-200 C in air and N2, respectively. Ag grids were inkjet-printed on Si solar cells and fired through the silicon nitride antireflective layer at 850 C resulting in 8%-efficient cells. Next-generation multicomponent inks (including etching agents) have also been developed with improved fire-through contacts leading to higher cell efficiencies. PEDOT-PSS polymer-based conductors were inkjet-printed with conductivity as good or better than that of spin-coated films.

  10. Near-term Forecasting of Solar Total and Direct Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. N.; Riihimaki, L. D.; Berg, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Integration of solar renewable energy into the power grid, like wind energy, is hindered by the variable nature of the solar resource. One challenge of the integration problem for shorter time periods is the phenomenon of "ramping events" where the electrical output of the solar power system increases or decreases significantly and rapidly over periods of minutes or less. Advance warning, of even just a few minutes, allows power system operators to compensate for the ramping. However, the ability for short-term prediction on such local "point" scales is beyond the abilities of typical model-based weather forecasting. Use of surface-based solar radiation measurements has been recognized as a likely solution for providing input for near-term (5 to 30 minute) forecasts of solar energy availability and variability. However, it must be noted that while fixed-orientation photovoltaic panel systems use the total (global) downwelling solar radiation, tracking photovoltaic and solar concentrator systems use only the direct normal component of the solar radiation. Thus even accurate near-term forecasts of total solar radiation will under many circumstances include inherent inaccuracies with respect to tracking systems due to lack of information of the direct component of the solar radiation. We will present examples and statistical analyses of solar radiation partitioning showing the differences in the behavior of the total/direct radiation with respect to the near-term forecast issue. We will present an overview of the possibility of using a network of unique new commercially available total/diffuse radiometers in conjunction with a near-real-time adaptation of the Shortwave Radiative Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long et al., 2006). The results are used, in conjunction with persistence and tendency forecast techniques, to provide more accurate near-term forecasts of cloudiness, and both total and direct normal solar irradiance availability and

  11. Direct Solar Wind Proton Access into Permanently Shadowed Lunar Polar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent analyses of Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (LPNS) data have suggested that high abundances of hydrogen exist within cold traps at the lunar poles, and it has often been assumed that hydrogen-bearing volatiles sequestered in permanent shadow are topographically shielded from sputtering by solar wind protons. However, recent simulation results are presented showing that solar wind protons clearly access the floor of an idealized, shadowed lunar crater through a combination of thermal and ambipolar processes, in effect creating a plasma "miniwake". These simulations are the first to model the mini-wake environment in two spatial dimensions with a self-consistent lunar surface-plasma interaction. Progress is reported on constraining the nonzero particle fluxes and energies incident on kilometer-scale shadowed topography, such as a small crater embedded within a larger one. The importance of direct solar wind proton bombardment is discussed within the context of understanding the stability and inventory of hydrogen-bearing volatiles in shadow at the lunar poles. The support of the National Lunar Science institute, the DREAM institute, LPROPS, and the NASA Postdoctoral Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center administered by ORAU are gratefully acknowledged.

  12. Exterior direct view of (nonoriginal), solar heating panels, and top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior direct view of (non-original), solar heating panels, and top of typical rectangular trash-dump tower at roof of Building 6, looking north - North Beach Place, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, 401 Bay Street, 500 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Quantum-well lasers for direct solar photopumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnikrishnan, Sreenath; Anderson, Neal G.

    1993-09-01

    Semiconductor lasers directly photopumped by focused sunlight may be viable sources of coherent light for intersatellite communications and other low-power spaceborne applications. In this work, we theoretically explore the possibility of realizing such devices. We specifically assess solar pumped operation of separate-confinement-quantum-well heterostructure (SCQWH) lasers based on InGaAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, as fabrication technology for these lasers is mature and they can operate at very low thresholds. We develop a model for step-index single-well SCQWH lasers photopumped by sunlight, examine how threshold solar photoexcitation intensities (or solar magnification requirements) depend upon material and structure parameters, design optimum structures for solar-pumped operation, and identify design trade offs. Our results suggest that laser action should be possible in properly designed structures at readily achievable solar concentrations (103-104 suns under air-mass-zero conditions), and that optimum designs for solar-pumped SCQWH lasers differ significantly from those for analogous current injection devices.

  14. Direct and indirect solar signature on global ozone content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Maitra, Animesh; Saha, Upal

    Solar activities affecting the Earth’s climate, traditionally measured by the number of sunspots (SSN), shows a periodic variation of 8-11 years. The solar radiation is a major component which drives the atmospheric circulation and thus induces global ozone variability in different parts of the earth. Total ozone varies strongly with latitude over the globe and with solar activity, with the largest values occurring at middle and high latitudes during all seasons. A critical analysis is done to study the direct and indirect effects of solar activity on the total ozone content (TOC) and tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) over urban metropolitan location, Kolkata (22°32'N, 88°20'E), along with 30⁰N and 30⁰S and 0⁰(equator) during the period 1979-2012. It has been focused through our study that the solar parameters have positive correlations with TOC whereas TOR is not much linked with solar activity. The positive correlations with SSN and TOC are valid for all the cases of 30⁰N and 30⁰S, equator (0⁰) and Kolkata region. But it has been observed that no association is found to occur with TOR and SSN. The wavelet spectrum of the signal variation due to Sunspot Number (SSN), Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Mg II Index (proxy for solar UV radiation) show peaks corresponding to 11-year cycle of the solar parameters. The TOC, taken from TOMS satellite, also shows a clear 11-year solar signal in all the region. But the spectral analysis show a random signal variation, including a 11-year signal at 30⁰S. At Kolkata, a significant positive correlation is obtained between TOC and SSN as also shown by wavelet spectral analysis. The TOR, taken from calibrated GOME and OMI/AURA satellite data analysis, show no positive 11-year signal feedback at all regions, except 30⁰S. A clear positive 11-year solar signal is found to be observed over this tropical southern hemisphere. The sea-surface temperature (SST), taken from NOAA Optimum Interpolation 1⁰x 1⁰ NCEP

  15. Future Directions in Solar EUV/UV Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. A.

    1999-05-01

    Studies of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the Sun provide a unique and powerful means to investigate plasma properties, such as density, temperature, abundance and flow speeds throughout the low solar atmosphere, from chromsphere to corona. In particular, with the SOHO mission, recent EUV/UV spectroscopic studies have paved the way for significant advances in numerous areas of solar physics research, such as active region structure and evolution, quiet Sun transient processes, mass ejection onset, and so on... and the wealth of data will guarantee that we will be reaping the rewards for some time to come. However, spectroscopy demands relatively high mass, high telemetry instrumentation, and the products are not readily understood by the non-specialist. Thus, with the new breed of lighter missions and a greater need to enhance public awareness, what is the future for solar EUV/UV spectroscopy? The NASA STEREO mission due for launch in 2004 is not expected to carry a spectrometer. The Japanese Solar-B mission will be carrying an EUV spectrometer. The need for such instruments for the possible ESA Solar Orbiter, the NASA Solar Probe and other future missions must be addressed. SOHO comes from mid-1980's technology so we can readily enhance our current performances with the use of multilayers, improved CCD technology, multi-line-of-sight observations etc... So, as well as advertising the success of solar spectroscopy in recent years, an outline of possible directions willl be given which will underline the strong case for including such experiments in future solar missions.

  16. Direct solar pumping of semiconductor lasers: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Neal G.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes results of NASA Grant NAG-1-1148, entitled Direct Solar Pumping of Semiconductor Lasers: A Feasibility Study. The goals of this study were to provide a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of pumping semiconductor lasers in space with directly focused sunlight and to identify semiconductor laser structures expected to operate at the lowest possible focusing intensities. It should be emphasized that the structures under consideration would provide direct optical-to-optical conversion of sunlight into laser light in a single crystal, in contrast to a configuration consisting of a solar cell or storage battery electrically pumping a current injection laser. With external modulation, such lasers could perhaps be efficient sources for intersatellite communications. We proposed specifically to develop a theoretical model of semiconductor quantum-well lasers photopumped by a broadband source, test it against existing experimental data where possible, and apply it to estimating solar pumping requirements and identifying optimum structures for operation at low pump intensities. These tasks have been accomplished, as described in this report of our completed project. The report is organized as follows: Some general considerations relevant to the solar-pumped semiconductor laser problem are discussed in Section 2, and the types of structures chosen for specific investigation are described. The details of the laser model we developed for this work are then outlined in Section 3. In Section 4, results of our study are presented, including designs for optimum lattice-matched and strained-layer solar-pumped quantum-well lasers and threshold pumping estimates for these structures. It was hoped at the outset of this work that structures could be identified which could be expected to operate continuously at solar photoexcitation intensities of several thousand suns, and this indeed turned out to be the case as described in this section. Our project is

  17. All inorganic semiconductor nanowire mesh for direct solar water splitting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Wu, Cheng-Hao; Miao, Jianwei; Yang, Peidong

    2014-11-25

    The generation of chemical fuels via direct solar-to-fuel conversion from a fully integrated artificial photosynthetic system is an attractive approach for clean and sustainable energy, but so far there has yet to be a system that would have the acceptable efficiency, durability and can be manufactured at a reasonable cost. Here, we show that a semiconductor mesh made from all inorganic nanowires can achieve unassisted solar-driven, overall water-splitting without using any electron mediators. Free-standing nanowire mesh networks could be made in large scales using solution synthesis and vacuum filtration, making this approach attractive for low cost implementation.

  18. Physics from solar neutrinos in dark matter direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdeño, David G.; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Jubb, Thomas; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Vincent, Aaron C.; Bœhm, Céline

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of dark matter direct detection experiments will be sensitive to both coherent neutrino-nucleus and neutrino-electron scattering. This will enable them to explore aspects of solar physics, perform the lowest energy measurement of the weak angle sin2 θ W to date, and probe contributions from new theories with light mediators. In this article, we compute the projected nuclear and electron recoil rates expected in several dark matter direct detection experiments due to solar neutrinos, and use these estimates to quantify errors on future measurements of the neutrino fluxes, weak mixing angle and solar observables, as well as to constrain new physics in the neutrino sector. Our analysis shows that the combined rates of solar neutrino events in second generation experiments (SuperCDMS and LZ) can yield a measurement of the pp flux to 2.5% accuracy via electron recoil, and slightly improve the 8B flux determination. Assuming a low-mass argon phase, projected tonne-scale experiments like DARWIN can reduce the uncertainty on both the pp and boron-8 neutrino fluxes to below 1%. Finally, we use current results from LUX, SuperCDMS and CDMSlite to set bounds on new interactions between neutrinos and electrons or nuclei, and show that future direct detection experiments can be used to set complementary constraints on the parameter space associated with light mediators.

  19. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Konings, J.; Xie, Y.; Dooraghi, M.; Sengupta, M.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 micrometers and 50 micrometers, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 micrometers to 3 micrcometers, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 micrometers to 1 micrometers. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 micrometers to 50 micrometers, as first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degres to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  20. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 um and 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and are calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degrees to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  1. Direct evidence for kinetic effects associated with solar wind reconnection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Wang, Yi; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Deng, Xiaohua; Ma, Yonghui; Zhou, Meng; Pang, Ye; Wong, Hon-Cheng

    2015-01-28

    Kinetic effects resulting from the two-fluid physics play a crucial role in the fast collisionless reconnection, which is a process to explosively release massive energy stored in magnetic fields in space and astrophysical plasmas. In-situ observations in the Earth's magnetosphere provide solid consistence with theoretical models on the point that kinetic effects are required in the collisionless reconnection. However, all the observations associated with solar wind reconnection have been analyzed in the context of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) although a lot of solar wind reconnection exhausts have been reported. Because of the absence of kinetic effects and substantial heating, whether the reconnections are still ongoing when they are detected in the solar wind remains unknown. Here, by dual-spacecraft observations, we report a solar wind reconnection with clear Hall magnetic fields. Its corresponding Alfvenic electron outflow jet, derived from the decouple between ions and electrons, is identified, showing direct evidence for kinetic effects that dominate the collisionless reconnection. The turbulence associated with the exhaust is a kind of background solar wind turbulence, implying that the reconnection generated turbulence has not much developed.

  2. Anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells utilizing directly solar light illumination.

    PubMed

    Chu, Daobao; Wang, Shuxi; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Jian; Zha, Longwu; Hou, Yuanyuan; He, Jianguo; Xiao, Ying; Lin, Huashui; Tian, Zhaowu

    2009-01-01

    Shine a light: A PtNiRu/TiO(2) anode catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells shows photocatalytic activity. The peak current density for ethanol oxidation under solar light illumination is 2-3 times greater than that in the absence of solar light. Ethanol is oxidized by light-generated holes, and the electrons are collected by the TiO(2) support to generate the oxidation current.Novel PtNiRu/TiO(2) anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) were prepared from PtNiRu nanoparticles (1:1:1 atomic ratios) and a nanoporous TiO(2) film by a sol-gel and electrodeposition method. The performances of the catalysts for ethanol oxidation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate a remarkable enhancement of activity for ethanol oxidation under solar light illumination. Under solar light illumination, the generated oxidation peak current density is 24.6 mA cm(-2), which is about 2.5 times higher than that observed without solar light (9.9 mA cm(-2)). The high catalytic activity of the PtNiRu/TiO(2) complex catalyst for the electrooxidation of ethanol may be attributed to the modified metal/nanoporous TiO(2) film, and the enhanced electrooxidation of ethanol under solar light may be due to the photogeneration of holes in the modified nanoporous TiO(2) film.

  3. Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground Floor Plan, West Bunkhouse - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  4. New directions in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Brinker, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent research efforts representing new directions in InP solar cell research are reviewed. These include heteroepitaxial growth on silicon and gallium arsenide substrates, V-grooved cells, large area high efficiency cells, and surface passivation. Improvements in heteroepitaxial cell efficiency are described together with processing of 19.1 percent, 4 sq cm cells. Recommendations are made for improvements in processing leading to increased efficiencies.

  5. Design and development of a solar array drive. [a direct drive solar array pointing mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, T.; Standing, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The design and development of a dry lubricated direct drive solar array pointing mechanism is discussed for use on the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS), MAROTS, European Communication Satellite (ECS), and others. Results of life testing the original prototype and the OTS mechanism are presented together with an appraisal of expected future development.

  6. Paleomagnetic directions and thermoluminescence dating from a bread oven-floor sequence in Lübeck (Germany): A record of 450 years of geomagnetic secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepp, Elisabeth; Pucher, Rudolf; Goedicke, Christian; Manzano, Ana; Müller, Uwe; Lanos, Philippe

    2003-02-01

    A record of about 450 years of geomagnetic secular variation is presented from a single archaeological site in Lübeck (Germany) where a sequence of 25 bread oven floors has been preserved in a bakery from medieval times until today. The age dating of the oven-floor sequence is based on historical documents, 14C-dating and thermoluminescence dating. It confines the time interval from about 1300 to 1800 A.D. Paleomagnetic directions have been determined from each oven floor by means of 198 oriented hand samples. After alternating field as well as thermal demagnetization experiments, the characteristic remanent magnetization direction was obtained using principal component analysis. The mean directions of 24 oven floors are characterized by high Fisherian precision parameters (>146) and small α95 confidence limits (1.2°-4.6°). For obtaining a smooth curve of geomagnetic secular variation for Lübeck, a spherical spline function was fitted to the data using a Bayesian approach, which considers not only the obtained ages, but also stratigraphic order. Correlation with historical magnetic records suggests that the age estimation for the upper 10 layers was too young and must date from the end of the sixteenth to the mid of the eighteenth century. For the lowermost 14 layers, dating is reliable and provides a secular variation curve for Germany. The inclination shows a minimum in the fourteenth century and then increases by more than 10°. Declination shows a local minimum around 1400 A.D. followed by a maximum in the seventeenth century. This is followed by the movement of declination about 30° to western directions.

  7. First and Second Floor Window Sills; First Floor, Second Floor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First and Second Floor Window Sills; First Floor, Second Floor, and Third Floor Door Jambs; Stair and Second Floor Baseboards; First Floor Window Jamb - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Treasurer's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  8. Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert A; Phelan, Patrick E; Otanicar, Todd P; Adrian, Ronald; Prasher, Ravi

    2011-03-15

    Suspensions of nanoparticles (i.e., particles with diameters < 100 nm) in liquids, termed nanofluids, show remarkable thermal and optical property changes from the base liquid at low particle loadings. Recent studies also indicate that selected nanofluids may improve the efficiency of direct absorption solar thermal collectors. To determine the effectiveness of nanofluids in solar applications, their ability to convert light energy to thermal energy must be known. That is, their absorption of the solar spectrum must be established. Accordingly, this study compares model predictions to spectroscopic measurements of extinction coefficients over wavelengths that are important for solar energy (0.25 to 2.5 μm). A simple addition of the base fluid and nanoparticle extinction coefficients is applied as an approximation of the effective nanofluid extinction coefficient. Comparisons with measured extinction coefficients reveal that the approximation works well with water-based nanofluids containing graphite nanoparticles but less well with metallic nanoparticles and/or oil-based fluids. For the materials used in this study, over 95% of incoming sunlight can be absorbed (in a nanofluid thickness ≥10 cm) with extremely low nanoparticle volume fractions - less than 1 × 10-5, or 10 parts per million. Thus, nanofluids could be used to absorb sunlight with a negligible amount of viscosity and/or density (read: pumping power) increase.

  9. Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Suspensions of nanoparticles (i.e., particles with diameters < 100 nm) in liquids, termed nanofluids, show remarkable thermal and optical property changes from the base liquid at low particle loadings. Recent studies also indicate that selected nanofluids may improve the efficiency of direct absorption solar thermal collectors. To determine the effectiveness of nanofluids in solar applications, their ability to convert light energy to thermal energy must be known. That is, their absorption of the solar spectrum must be established. Accordingly, this study compares model predictions to spectroscopic measurements of extinction coefficients over wavelengths that are important for solar energy (0.25 to 2.5 μm). A simple addition of the base fluid and nanoparticle extinction coefficients is applied as an approximation of the effective nanofluid extinction coefficient. Comparisons with measured extinction coefficients reveal that the approximation works well with water-based nanofluids containing graphite nanoparticles but less well with metallic nanoparticles and/or oil-based fluids. For the materials used in this study, over 95% of incoming sunlight can be absorbed (in a nanofluid thickness ≥10 cm) with extremely low nanoparticle volume fractions - less than 1 × 10-5, or 10 parts per million. Thus, nanofluids could be used to absorb sunlight with a negligible amount of viscosity and/or density (read: pumping power) increase. PMID:21711750

  10. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  11. Overview and future direction for blackbody solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A review of solar-pumped blackbody lasers is given which addresses their present status and suggests future research directions. The blackbody laser concept is one system proposed to scale to multimegawatt power levels for space-to-space power transmissions for such applications as onboard spacecraft electrical or propulsion needs. Among the critical technical issues are the scalability to high powers and the laser wavelength which impacts the transmission optics size as well as the laser-to-electric converter at the receiver. Because present blackbody solar-pumped lasers will have laser wavelengths longer than 4 microns, simple photovoltaic converters cannot be used, and transmission optics will be large. Thus, future blackbody laser systems should emphasize near visible laser wavelengths.

  12. Starting characteristics of direct current motors powered by solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, S.; Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    Direct current motors are used in photovoltaic systems. Important characteristics of electric motors are the starting to rated current and torque ratios. These ratios are dictated by the size of the solar cell array and are different for the various dc motor types. Discussed here is the calculation of the starting to rated current ratio and starting to rated torque ratio of the permanent magnet, and series and shunt excited motors when powered by solar cells for two cases: with and without a maximum-power-point-tracker (MPPT) included in the system. Comparing these two cases, one gets a torque magnification of about 3 for the permanent magnet motor and about 7 for other motor types. The calculation of the torques may assist the PV system designer to determine whether or not to include an MPPT in the system.

  13. A solar simulator-pumped gas laser for the direct conversion of solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. R.; Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Most proposed space power systems are comprised of three general stages, including the collection of the solar radiation, the conversion to a useful form, and the transmission to a receiver. The solar-pumped laser, however, effectively eliminates the middle stage and offers direct photon-to-photon conversion. The laser is especially suited for space-to-space power transmission and communication because of minimal beam spread, low power loss over large distances, and extreme energy densities. A description is presented of the first gas laser pumped by a solar simulator that is scalable to high power levels. The lasant is an iodide C3F7I that as a laser-fusion driver has produced terawatt peak power levels.

  14. Investigation of direct solar-to-microwave energy conversion techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterton, N. E.; Mookherji, T. K.; Wunsch, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    Identification of alternative methods of producing microwave energy from solar radiation for purposes of directing power to the Earth from space is investigated. Specifically, methods of conversion of optical radiation into microwave radiation by the most direct means are investigated. Approaches based on demonstrated device functioning and basic phenomenologies are developed. There is no system concept developed, that is competitive with current baseline concepts. The most direct methods of conversion appear to require an initial step of production of coherent laser radiation. Other methods generally require production of electron streams for use in solid-state or cavity-oscillator systems. Further development is suggested to be worthwhile for suggested devices and on concepts utilizing a free-electron stream for the intraspace station power transport mechanism.

  15. Turbulent and directed plasma motions in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fludra, A.; Bentley, R. D.; Lemen, J. R.; Jakimiec, J.; Sylwester, J.

    1989-01-01

    An improved method for fitting asymmetric soft X-ray line profiles from solar flares is presented. A two-component model is used where one component represents the total emission from directed upflow plasma and the other the emission from the plasma at rest. Unlike previous methods, the width of the moving component is independent from that of the stationary component. Time variations of flare plasma characteristics (i.e., temperature, emission measure of moving and stationary plasma, upflow and turbulent velocities) are derived from the Ca XIX and Fe XXV spectra recorded by the Bent Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission. The fitting technique provides a statistical estimation for the uncertainties in the fitting parameters. The relationship between the directed and turbulent motions has been studied, and a correlation of the random and directed motions has been found in some flares with intensive plasma upflows. Mean temperatures of the upflowing and stationary plasmas are compared for the first time from ratios of calcium to iron X-ray line intensities. Finally, evidence for turbulent motions and the possibility of plasma upflow late into the decay phase is presented and discussed.

  16. An array of directable mirrors as a photovoltaic solar concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ittner, W. B., III

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of the optics of heliostats for use in large thermal power towers have been carried out in considerable detail, chiefly by Vant-Hull et al. This paper describes a simplified method for calculating the images generated by a special type of concentrator, i.e. an array of independently steered mirrors on a single frame, intended to direct the solar image onto a flat photovoltaic solar cell target. The case of interest is one in which the field of illumination on the target is as uniform as possible, and the emphasis is thus on small 'rim angle' geometries (a configuration which also minimizes mirror interference effects). Calculations are presented for constructing the individual mirror target images in terms of three angles: (1) the angle between the photovoltaic target normal and the reflecting mirror (called here the mirror position angle), (2) the angle between the target center and the sun as measured from the center of the reflecting mirror, and (3) the angle at which the plane defined by the center of the sun, the mirror center and the target center intersects the plane of the target. The overall system efficiency for various mirror configurations, characterized by such parameters as the maximum mirror angle (i.e. 'rim angle'), target-mirror plane separation, and mirror aiming accuracy is discussed in terms of the specifications desirable in an optical concentrator designed specifically to illuminate uniformly a photovoltaic solar cell target.

  17. Direct solar pumping of semiconductor lasers: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Neal G.

    1991-01-01

    The primary goals of the feasibility study are the following: (1) to provide a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of pumping semiconductor lasers in space directly focused sunlight; and (2) to identify semiconductor laser structures expected to operate at the lowest possible focusing intensities. It should be emphasized that the structures under consideration would provide direct optical-to-optical conversion of sunlight into laser light in a single crystal, in contrast to a configuration consisting of a solar cell or battery electrically pumping a current injection laser. With external modulation, such lasers may prove to be efficient sources for intersatellite communications. We proposed to develop a theoretical model of semiconductor quantum-well lasers photopumped by a broadband source, test it against existing experimental data where possible, and apply it to estimating solar pumping requirements and identifying optimum structures for operation for operation at low pump intensities. This report outlines our progress toward these goals. Discussion of several technical details are left to the attached summary abstract.

  18. Leaf color is fine-tuned on the solar spectra to avoid strand direct solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kume, Atsushi; Akitsu, Tomoko; Nasahara, Kenlo Nishida

    2016-07-01

    The spectral distributions of light absorption rates by intact leaves are notably different from the incident solar radiation spectra, for reasons that remain elusive. Incident global radiation comprises two main components; direct radiation from the direction of the sun, and diffuse radiation, which is sunlight scattered by molecules, aerosols and clouds. Both irradiance and photon flux density spectra differ between direct and diffuse radiation in their magnitude and profile. However, most research has assumed that the spectra of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) can be averaged, without considering the radiation classes. We used paired spectroradiometers to sample direct and diffuse solar radiation, and obtained relationships between the PAR spectra and the absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments and organs. As monomers in solvent, the spectral absorbance of Chl a decreased with the increased spectral irradiance (W m(-2) nm(-1)) of global PAR at noon (R(2) = 0.76), and was suitable to avoid strong spectral irradiance (λmax = 480 nm) rather than absorb photon flux density (μmol m(-2) s(-1) nm(-1)) efficiently. The spectral absorption of photosystems and the intact thallus and leaves decreased linearly with the increased spectral irradiance of direct PAR at noon (I dir-max), where the wavelength was within the 450-650 nm range (R(2) = 0.81). The higher-order structure of photosystems systematically avoided the strong spectral irradiance of I dir-max. However, when whole leaves were considered, leaf anatomical structure and light scattering in leaf tissues made the leaves grey bodies for PAR and enabled high PAR use efficiency. Terrestrial green plants are fine-tuned to spectral dynamics of incident solar radiation and PAR absorption is increased in various structural hierarchies.

  19. Direct observation of a submarine volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow.

    PubMed

    Fox, C G; Chadwick, W W; Embley, R W

    2001-08-16

    Our understanding of submarine volcanic eruptions has improved substantially in the past decade owing to the recent ability to remotely detect such events and to then respond rapidly with synoptic surveys and sampling at the eruption site. But these data are necessarily limited to observations after the event. In contrast, the 1998 eruption of Axial volcano on the Juan de Fuca ridge was monitored by in situ sea-floor instruments. One of these instruments, which measured bottom pressure as a proxy for vertical deformation of the sea floor, was overrun and entrapped by the 1998 lava flow. The instrument survived-being insulated from the molten lava by the solidified crust-and was later recovered. The data serendipitously recorded by this instrument reveal the duration, character and effusion rate of a sheet flow eruption on a mid-ocean ridge, and document over three metres of lava-flow inflation and subsequent drain-back. After the brief two-hour eruption, the instrument also measured gradual subsidence of 1.4 metres over the next several days, reflecting deflation of the entire volcano summit as magma moved into the adjacent rift zone. These findings are consistent with our understanding of submarine lava effusion, as previously inferred from seafloor observations, terrestrial analogues, and laboratory simulations.

  20. Efficient direct ZnO/CIS solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, L.C.; William Addis, F.; Lei, W.; Li, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes investigations of CIS solar cells with ZnO window layers deposited by MOCVD. These studies have been conducted with graded absorber CIS substrates obtained from Siemens Solar. Cell fabrication involves surface preparation of the Siemens substrate, growth of 200 to 400 A of undoped ZnO by MOCVD, deposition of a highly conducting ZnO top contact layer and deposition of a Ni/Ag collector grid. MOCVD growth of ZnO is accomplished in a SPIRE 500XT reactor by reacting a zinc adduct and tetrahydrofuran. Processing development has been conducted by forming test cells on ZnO/CIS structures by depositing thin, transparent Al contacts 2.8 mm in diameter on top of the ZnO window layer to serve as contacts. Several cells have been completed with a total area efficiency {ge}11.0{percent}, with the best result being 11.3{percent}. The best active area efficiency is approximately 12{percent}. Other topics discussed include current-voltage characteristics of direct ZnO/CIS cells. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Thermal Characterization of a Direct Gain Solar Thermal Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Reginald A.; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1999-01-01

    A thermal/fluids analysis of a direct gain solar thermal upper stage engine is presented and the results are discussed. The engine was designed and constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for ground testing in a facility that can provide about 10 kilowatts of concentrated solar energy to the engine. The engine transfers energy to a coolant (hydrogen) that is heated and accelerated through a nozzle to produce thrust. For the nominal design values and a hydrogen flowrate of 2 lb./hr., the results of the analysis show that the hydrogen temperature in the chamber (nozzle entrance) reaches about 3800 F after 30 minutes of heating and about 3850 F at steady-state (slightly below the desired design temperature of about 4100 F. Sensitivity analyses showed these results to be relatively insensitive to the values used for the absorber surface infrared emissivity and the convection coefficient within the cooling ducts but very sensitive to the hydrogen flowrate. Decreasing the hydrogen flowrate to 1 lb./hr. increases the hydrogen steady-state chamber temperature to about 4700 F, but also of course causes a decrease in thrust.

  2. Thermal Characterization of a Direct Gain Solar Thermal Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Reginald A.; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    A thermal/fluids analysis of a direct gain solar thermal upper stage engine is presented and the results are discussed. The engine has been designed and constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for ground testing in a facility that can provide about 10 kilowatts of concentrated solar energy to the engine. The engine transfers that energy to a coolant (hydrogen) that is heated and accelerated through a nozzle to produce thrust. For the nominal design values and a hydrogen flowrate of 2 lb/hr., the results of the analysis show that the hydrogen temperature in the chamber (nozzle entrance) reaches about 3800 F after 30 minutes of heating and about 3850 F at steady-state (slightly below the desired design temperature of about 4100 F). Sensitivity analyses showed these results to be relatively insensitive to the values used for the absorber surface infrared emissivity and the convection coefficient within the cooling ducts but very sensitive to the hydrogen flowrate. Decreasing the hydrogen flowrate to 1 lb/hr. increases the hydrogen steady-state chamber temperature to about 4700 F, but also causes an undesirable decrease in thrust.

  3. Decontamination of drinking water by direct heating in solar panels.

    PubMed

    Fjendbo Jørgensen, A J; Nøhr, K; Sørensen, H; Boisen, F

    1998-09-01

    A device was developed for direct heating of water by solar radiation in a flow-through system of copper pipes. An adjustable thermostat valve prevents water below the chosen temperature from being withdrawn. The results show that it is possible to eliminate coliform and thermotolerant coliform bacteria from naturally contaminated river water by heating to temperatures of 65 degrees C or above. Artificial additions of Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli to contaminated river water were also inactivated after heating to 65 degrees C and above. The total viable count could be reduced by a factor of 1000. The heat-resistant bacteria isolated from the Mlalakuva River (Tanzania) were spore-forming bacteria which exhibited greater heat resistance than commonly used test bacteria originating from countries with colder climates. To provide a good safety margin it is recommended that an outlet water temperature of 75 degrees C be used. At that temperature the daily production was about 501 of decontaminated water per m2 of solar panel, an amount that could be doubled by using a heat exchanger to recycle the heat.

  4. A search for energetic ion directivity in large solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vestrand, W. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    One of the key observational questions for solar flare physics is: What is the number, the energy spectrum, and the angular distribution of flare accelerated ions? The standard method for deriving ion spectral shape employs the ratio of influences observed on the 4-7 MeV band to the narrow neutron capture line at 2.223 MeV. The 4-7 MeV band is dominated by the principal nuclear de-excitation lines from C-12 and O-16 which are generated in the low chromosphere by the direct excitation or spallation of nuclei by energetic ions. In contrast, the narrow 2.223 MeV line is produced by the capture of thermal neutrons on protons in the photosphere. These capture neutrons are generated by energetic ion interactions and thermalized by scattering in the solar atmosphere. In a series of papers, Ramaty, Lingenfelter, and their collaborators have calculated the expected ratio of fluence in the 4-7 MeV band to the 2.223 MeV line for a wide range of energetic ion spectral shapes (see, e.g. Hua and Lingenfelter 1987). Another technique for deriving ion spectral shapes and angular distributions uses the relative strength of the Compton tail associated with the 2.223 MeV neutron capture line (Vestrand 1988, 1990). This technique can independently constrain both the angular and the energy distribution of the energetic parent ions. The combination of this tail/line strength diagnostic with the line/(4-7) MeV fluence ratio can allow one to constrain both properties of the energetic ion distributions. The primary objective of our Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigator program was to study measurements of neutron capture line emission and prompt nuclear de-excitation for large flares detected by the Solar Maximum Mission/ Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SMM/GRS) and to use these established line diagnostics to study the properties of flare accelerated ions.

  5. Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  6. Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series are presented. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical invariants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), given a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.

  7. Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical in variants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), give a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.

  8. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  9. Wiring photosystem I for direct solar hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Lubner, Carolyn E; Grimme, Rebecca; Bryant, Donald A; Golbeck, John H

    2010-01-26

    The generation of H(2) by the use of solar energy is a promising way to supply humankind's energy needs while simultaneously mitigating environmental concerns that arise due to climate change. The challenge is to find a way to connect a photochemical module that harnesses the sun's energy to a catalytic module that generates H(2) with high quantum yields and rates. In this review, we describe a technology that employs a "molecular wire" to connect a terminal [4Fe-4S] cluster of Photosystem I directly to a catalyst, which can be either a Pt nanoparticle or the distal [4Fe-4S] cluster of an [FeFe]- or [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzyme. The keys to connecting these two moieties are surface-located cysteine residues, which serve as ligands to Fe-S clusters and which can be changed through site-specific mutagenesis to glycine residues, and the use of a molecular wire terminated in sulfhydryl groups to connect the two modules. The sulfhydryl groups at the end of the molecular wire form a direct chemical linkage to a suitable catalyst or can chemically rescue a [4Fe-4S] cluster, thereby generating a strong coordination bond. Specifically, the molecular wire can connect the F(B) iron-sulfur cluster of Photosystem I either to a Pt nanoparticle or, by using the same type of genetic modification, to the differentiated iron atom of the distal [4Fe-4S].(Cys)(3)(Gly) cluster of hydrogenase. When electrons are supplied by a sacrificial donor, this technology forms the cathode of a photochemical half-cell that evolves H(2) when illuminated. If such a device were connected to the anode of a photochemical half-cell that oxidizes water, an in vitro solar energy converter could be realized that generates only O(2) and H(2) in the light. A similar methodology can be used to connect Photosystem I to other redox proteins that have surface-located [4Fe-4S] clusters. The controlled light-driven production of strong reductants by such systems can be used to produce other biofuels or to provide

  10. Performance tests and efficiency analysis of Solar Invictus 53S - A parabolic dish solar collector for direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Umer; Ali, Wajahat

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on Solar Invictus 53S `system'; an economically effective solar steam generation solution designed and developed by ZED Solar Ltd. The system consists of a dual axis tracking parabolic solar dish and bespoke cavity type receiver, which works as a Once Through Solar Steam Generator `OTSSG' mounted at the focal point of the dish. The overall performance and efficiency of the system depends primarily on the optical efficiency of the solar dish and thermal efficiency of the OTSSG. Optical testing performed include `on sun' tests using CCD camera images and `burn plate' testing to evaluate the sunspot for size and quality. The intercept factor was calculated using a colour look-back method to determine the percentage of solar rays focused into the receiver. Solar dish tracking stability tests were carried out at different times of day to account for varying dish elevation angles and positions, movement of the sunspot centroid was recorded and logged using a CCD camera. Finally the overall performance and net solar to steam efficiency of the system was calculated by experimentally measuring the output steam parameters at varying Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) levels at ZED Solar's test facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Thermal losses from OTSSG were calculated using the known optical efficiency and measured changes in output steam enthalpy.

  11. Comparison of Direct Solar Energy to Resistance Heating for Carbothermal Reduction of Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Gustafson, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of two methods of delivering thermal energy to regolith for the carbo thermal reduction process has been performed. The comparison concludes that electrical resistance heating is superior to direct solar energy via solar concentrators for the following reasons: (1) the resistance heating method can process approximately 12 times as much regolith using the same amount of thermal energy as the direct solar energy method because of superior thermal insulation; (2) the resistance heating method is more adaptable to nearer-term robotic exploration precursor missions because it does not require a solar concentrator system; (3) crucible-based methods are more easily adapted to separation of iron metal and glass by-products than direct solar energy because the melt can be poured directly after processing instead of being remelted; and (4) even with projected improvements in the mass of solar concentrators, projected photovoltaic system masses are expected to be even lower.

  12. Intermediate band solar cells: Recent progress and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Y. Tamaki, R.; Farrell, D. J.; Yoshida, K.; Ahsan, N.; Shoji, Y.; Sogabe, T.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J. Yoshida, M.; Pusch, A.; Hess, O.; Phillips, C. C.; Kita, T.; Guillemoles, J.-F.

    2015-06-15

    Extensive literature and publications on intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) are reviewed. A detailed discussion is given on the thermodynamics of solar energy conversion in IBSCs, the device physics, and the carrier dynamics processes with a particular emphasis on the two-step inter-subband absorption/recombination processes that are of paramount importance in a successful implementation high-efficiency IBSC. The experimental solar cell performance is further discussed, which has been recently demonstrated by using highly mismatched alloys and high-density quantum dot arrays and superlattice. IBSCs having widely different structures, materials, and spectral responses are also covered, as is the optimization of device parameters to achieve maximum performance.

  13. Direct Observations of Excess Solar Absorption by Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, Peter; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of solar flux in the cloudy tropical atmosphere reveal that solar absorption by clouds is anomalously large when compared to theoretical estimates. The ratio of cloud forcing at an altitude of 20 kilometers to that at the surface is 1.58 rather than 1.0 as predicted by models. These results were derived from a cloud radiation experiment in which identical instrumentation was deployed on coordinated stacked aircraft. These findings indicate a significant difference between measurements and theory and imply that the interaction between clouds and solar radiation is poorly understood.

  14. Pelvic Floor Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pelvic Floor Disorders: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is the pelvic floor? The term "pelvic floor" refers to the group ...

  15. An experimental analysis of a doped lithium fluoride direct absorption solar receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesseli, James; Pollak, Tom; Lacy, Dovie

    1988-01-01

    An experimental analysis of two key elements of a direct absorption solar receiver for use with Brayton solar dynamic systems was conducted. Experimental data are presented on LiF crystals doped with dysprosium, samarium, and cobalt fluorides. In addition, a simulation of the cavity/window environment was performed and a posttest inspection was conducted to evaluate chemical reactivity, transmissivity, and condensation rate.

  16. A comparison of microwave versus direct solar heating for lunar brick production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yankee, S. J.; Strenski, D. G.; Pletka, B. J.; Patil, D. S.; Mutsuddy, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    Two processing techniques considered suitable for producing bricks from lunar regolith are examined: direct solar heating and microwave heating. An analysis was performed to compare the two processes in terms of the amount of power and time required to fabricate bricks of various sizes. Microwave heating was shown to be significantly faster than solar heating for rapid production of realistic-size bricks. However, the relative simplicity of the solar collector(s) used for the solar furnace compared to the equipment necessary for microwave generation may present an economic tradeoff.

  17. Direct measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux with 192 days of borexino data.

    PubMed

    Arpesella, C; Back, H O; Balata, M; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bonetti, S; Brigatti, A; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Carraro, C; Cecchet, G; Chavarria, A; Chen, M; Dalnoki-Veress, F; D'Angelo, D; de Bari, A; de Bellefon, A; de Kerret, H; Derbin, A; Deutsch, M; di Credico, A; di Pietro, G; Eisenstein, R; Elisei, F; Etenko, A; Fernholz, R; Fomenko, K; Ford, R; Franco, D; Freudiger, B; Galbiati, C; Gatti, F; Gazzana, S; Giammarchi, M; Giugni, D; Goeger-Neff, M; Goldbrunner, T; Goretti, A; Grieb, C; Hagner, C; Hampel, W; Harding, E; Hardy, S; Hartman, F X; Hertrich, T; Heusser, G; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Joyce, M; Kiko, J; Kirsten, T; Kobychev, V; Korga, G; Korschinek, G; Kryn, D; Lagomarsino, V; Lamarche, P; Laubenstein, M; Lendvai, C; Leung, M; Lewke, T; Litvinovich, E; Loer, B; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Machulin, I; Malvezzi, S; Manecki, S; Maneira, J; Maneschg, W; Manno, I; Manuzio, D; Manuzio, G; Martemianov, A; Masetti, F; Mazzucato, U; McCarty, K; McKinsey, D; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Montanari, D; Monzani, M E; Muratova, V; Musico, P; Neder, H; Nelson, A; Niedermeier, L; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Orsini, M; Ortica, F; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Parmeggiano, S; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R S; Ranucci, G; Rau, W; Razeto, A; Resconi, E; Risso, P; Romani, A; Rountree, D; Sabelnikov, A; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schimizzi, D; Schönert, S; Shutt, T; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sonnenschein, A; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vitale, S; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; von Hentig, R; von Hentig, T; Wojcik, M; Wurm, M; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuzel, G

    2008-08-29

    We report the direct measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino signal rate performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The interaction rate of the 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is 49+/-3stat+/-4syst counts/(day.100 ton). The hypothesis of no oscillation for 7Be solar neutrinos is inconsistent with our measurement at the 4sigma C.L. Our result is the first direct measurement of the survival probability for solar nu(e) in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations. The measurement improves the experimental determination of the flux of 7Be, pp, and CNO solar nu(e), and the limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment using solar neutrinos.

  18. Analysis of Direct Solar Illumination on the Backside of Space Station Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delleur, Ann M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Scheiman, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a complex spacecraft that will take several years to assemble in orbit. During many of the assembly and maintenance procedures, the space station's large solar arrays must he locked, which can significantly reduce power generation. To date, power generation analyses have not included power generation from the backside of the solar cells in a desire to produce a conservative analysis. This paper describes the testing of ISS solar cell backside power generation, analytical modeling and analysis results on an ISS assembly mission.

  19. Proper determination of direct solar radiation in NWP and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhian; Li, Jiangnan; He, Yongjian; Liu, Aixia; Li, Jiandong; Zhang, Feng

    2017-02-01

    An issue in the determination of the direct component of solar radiation involving the circumsolar contribution in numerical weather prediction and climate models is discussed. The direct flux determined using the delta-Eddington approximation is assessed against observations. The results show that errors due to the use of the delta-scaling are much larger than errors if the circumsolar contribution is ignored. In order to include the scattering contribution in the direct flux calculation properly, a simple parameterization for dust aerosol is developed which can be used to consider the scattering contribution due to the particular case of dust aerosol to the direct solar radiation within the circumsolar region.

  20. Floor of Hellas Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With a diameter of roughly 2000 km and a depth of over 7 km, the Hellas Basin is the largest impact feature on Mars. Because of its great depth, there is significantly more atmosphere to peer through in order to see its floor, reducing the quality of the images taken from orbit. This THEMIS image straddles a scarp between the Hellas floor and an accumulation of material at least a half kilometer thick that covers much of the floor. The southern half of the image contains some of this material. Strange ovoid landforms are present here that give the appearance of flow. It is possible that water ice or even liquid water was present in the deposits and somehow responsible for the observed landscape. The floor of Hellas remains a poorly understood portion of the planet that should benefit from the analysis of new THEMIS data.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  1. [Aging-related changes of the female pelvic floor].

    PubMed

    Scheiner, David; Betschart, Cornelia; Perucchini, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The pelvic floor as lower closure of the abdominal cavity has to withstand the abdominal pressure. Meanwhile, the pelvic floor has to allow physiologic functions like micturition, defecation, sexual function and reproduction. But while pregnancy and vaginal delivery damage the pelvic floor directly, chronic stress like caugh, heavy lifting, or obesity lead to a chronic overstraining of the pelvic floor. Aging, structural changes, and possibly estrogen deficiency have a negative impact on the pelvic floor.

  2. Dark matter vs. neutrinos: the effect of astrophysical uncertainties and timing information on the neutrino floor

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jonathan H.

    2015-03-09

    Future multi-tonne Direct Detection experiments will be sensitive to solar neutrino induced nuclear recoils which form an irreducible background to light Dark Matter searches. Indeed for masses around 6 GeV the spectra of neutrinos and Dark Matter are so similar that experiments are said to run into a neutrino floor, for which sensitivity increases only marginally with exposure past a certain cross section. In this work we show that this floor can be overcome using the different annual modulation expected from solar neutrinos and Dark Matter. Specifically for cross sections below the neutrino floor the DM signal is observable through a phase shift and a smaller amplitude for the time-dependent event rate. This allows the exclusion power to be improved by up to an order of magnitude for large exposures. In addition we demonstrate that, using only spectral information, the neutrino floor exists over a wider mass range than has been previously shown, since the large uncertainties in the Dark Matter velocity distribution make the signal spectrum harder to distinguish from the neutrino background. However for most velocity distributions it can still be surpassed using timing information, and so the neutrino floor is not an absolute limit on the sensitivity of Direct Detection experiments.

  3. Dark matter vs. neutrinos: the effect of astrophysical uncertainties and timing information on the neutrino floor

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jonathan H.

    2015-03-01

    Future multi-tonne Direct Detection experiments will be sensitive to solar neutrino induced nuclear recoils which form an irreducible background to light Dark Matter searches. Indeed for masses around 6 GeV the spectra of neutrinos and Dark Matter are so similar that experiments are said to run into a neutrino floor, for which sensitivity increases only marginally with exposure past a certain cross section. In this work we show that this floor can be overcome using the different annual modulation expected from solar neutrinos and Dark Matter. Specifically for cross sections below the neutrino floor the DM signal is observable through a phase shift and a smaller amplitude for the time-dependent event rate. This allows the exclusion power to be improved by up to an order of magnitude for large exposures. In addition we demonstrate that, using only spectral information, the neutrino floor exists over a wider mass range than has been previously shown, since the large uncertainties in the Dark Matter velocity distribution make the signal spectrum harder to distinguish from the neutrino background. However for most velocity distributions it can still be surpassed using timing information, and so the neutrino floor is not an absolute limit on the sensitivity of Direct Detection experiments.

  4. A methodology for calculating percentile values of annual direct normal solar irradiation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruchena, Carlos M. Fernández; Ramírez, Lourdes; Silva, Manuel; Lara, Vicente; Bermejo, Diego; Gastón, Martín; Moreno, Sara; Pulgar, Jesús; Liria, Juan; Macías, Sergio; Gonzalez, Rocio; Bernardos, Ana; Castillo, Nuria; Bolinaga, Beatriz; Valenzuela, Rita X.; Zarzalejo, Luis

    2016-05-01

    A detailed knowledge of the solar resource is a critical point in the performance of an economic feasibility analysis of solar thermal electricity plants. In particular, the Direct Normal solar Irradiance (DNI) is the most determining variable in its final energy yield. Inter-annual variations of DNI can be large and seriously compromise the viability of solar energy projects. In this work, a methodology for evaluating the statistical properties of annual DNI series is presented for generating inputs to risk assessments in an economic feasibility analysis of a solar power plant. The methodology relies on the construction of a cumulative distribution function of annual DNI values, which allows for the evaluation of both mean and extreme climate characterization at a particular location in the long term.

  5. Direct Comparison of a Solar Moreton Wave, EUV Wave and CME (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-30

    Patsourakos, S. & Vourlidas , A. 2009, Astrophys. J. Letters, 700, L182 —. 2012, Solar Phys., 281, 187 Patsourakos, S., Vourlidas , A., Wang, Y. M., Stenborg...Physics of Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 12 the Solar Corona , ed. C. J. Macris, 156 Temmer, M., Veronig, A. M., Gopalswamy...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2014-0004 TP-2014-0004 DIRECT COMPARISON OF A SOLAR MORETON WAVE, EUV WAVE AND CME (PREPRINT) S. M. White, et al. 30

  6. AlGaAs-GaAs quantum-well lasers for direct solar photopumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnikrishnan, Sreenath; Anderson, Neal G.

    1991-01-01

    The paper theoretically examines the solar power requirements for low-threshold AlGaAs-GaAs quantum-well lasers directly photopumped by focused sunlight. A model of separate-confinement quantum-well-heterostructure (SCQWH) lasers was developed, which explicitly treats absorption and transport phenomena relevant to solar pumping. The model was used to identify separate-confinement single-quantum-well laser structures which should operate at photoexcitation intensities of less than 10,000 suns.

  7. Effect of stratospheric aerosols on direct sunlight and implications for concentrating solar power.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Daniel M

    2009-04-15

    Light scattering calculations and data show that stratospheric aerosols reduce direct sunlight by about 4 W for every watt reflected to outer space. The balance becomes diffuse sunlight. One consequence of deliberate enhancement of the stratospheric aerosol layer would be a significant reduction in the efficiency of solar power generation systems using parabolic or other concentrating optics. There also would be a reduction in the effectiveness of passive solar design.

  8. Inbound waves in the solar corona: A direct indicator of Alfvén surface location

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    The tenuous supersonic solar wind that streams from the top of the corona passes through a natural boundary—the Alfvén surface—that marks the causal disconnection of individual packets of plasma and magnetic flux from the Sun itself. The Alfvén surface is the locus where the radial motion of the accelerating solar wind passes the radial Alfvén speed, and therefore any displacement of material cannot carry information back down into the corona. It is thus the natural outer boundary of the solar corona and the inner boundary of interplanetary space. Using a new and unique motion analysis to separate inbound and outbound motions in synoptic visible-light image sequences from the COR2 coronagraph on board the STEREO-A spacecraft, we have identified inbound wave motion in the outer corona beyond 6 solar radii for the first time and used it to determine that the Alfvén surface is at least 12 solar radii from the Sun over the polar coronal holes and 15 solar radii in the streamer belt, well beyond the distance planned for NASA's upcoming Solar Probe Plus mission. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of inbound waves in the outer solar corona and the first direct measurement of lower bounds for the Alfvén surface.

  9. First principle analyses of direct bandgap solar cells with absorbing substrates versus mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Alexander P.; Kirk, Wiley P.

    2013-11-07

    Direct bandgap InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells containing backside mirrors as well as parasitically absorbing substrates are analyzed for their limiting open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency with comparison to record solar cells. From the principle of detailed balance, it is shown quantitatively that mirror solar cells have greater voltage and power conversion efficiency than their substrate counterparts. Next, the radiative recombination coefficient and maximum radiative lifetime of GaAs mirror and substrate solar cells are calculated and compared to the nonradiative Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes. Mirror solar cells have greater radiative lifetime than their substrate variants. Auger lifetime exceeds radiative lifetime for both substrate and mirror cells while SRH lifetime may be less or greater than radiative lifetime depending on trap concentration and capture cross section. Finally, the change in free energy of the photogenerated carriers is analyzed in a comparison between InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P mirror and substrate solar cells in order to characterize the relationship between solar photon quality and free energy management in solar cells with differing bandgaps. Wider bandgap visible threshold Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells make better use of the available change in free energy of the photogenerated charge carriers, even when normalized to the bandgap energy, than narrower bandgap near-IR threshold InP, GaAs, and CdTe solar cells.

  10. First principle analyses of direct bandgap solar cells with absorbing substrates versus mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Alexander P.; Kirk, Wiley P.

    2013-11-01

    Direct bandgap InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga0.5In0.5P solar cells containing backside mirrors as well as parasitically absorbing substrates are analyzed for their limiting open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency with comparison to record solar cells. From the principle of detailed balance, it is shown quantitatively that mirror solar cells have greater voltage and power conversion efficiency than their substrate counterparts. Next, the radiative recombination coefficient and maximum radiative lifetime of GaAs mirror and substrate solar cells are calculated and compared to the nonradiative Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes. Mirror solar cells have greater radiative lifetime than their substrate variants. Auger lifetime exceeds radiative lifetime for both substrate and mirror cells while SRH lifetime may be less or greater than radiative lifetime depending on trap concentration and capture cross section. Finally, the change in free energy of the photogenerated carriers is analyzed in a comparison between InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga0.5In0.5P mirror and substrate solar cells in order to characterize the relationship between solar photon quality and free energy management in solar cells with differing bandgaps. Wider bandgap visible threshold Ga0.5In0.5P solar cells make better use of the available change in free energy of the photogenerated charge carriers, even when normalized to the bandgap energy, than narrower bandgap near-IR threshold InP, GaAs, and CdTe solar cells.

  11. Mixed-Up Floors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Examines the maintenance management problems inherent in cleaning multiple flooring materials revealing the need for school officials to keep it simple when choosing flooring types. Also highlighted is a carpet recycling program used by Wright State University (Ohio). (GR)

  12. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  13. Crater Wall and Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    3D Projection onto MOLA data [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The impact crater observed in this THEMIS image taken in Terra Cimmeria suggests sediments have filled the crater due to the flat and smooth nature of the floor compared to rougher surfaces at higher elevations. The abundance of several smaller impact craters on the floor of the larger crater indicate however that the flat surface has been exposed for an extended period of time. The smooth surface of the crater floor and rougher surfaces at higher elevations are observed in the 3-D THEMIS image that is draped over MOLA topography (2X vertical exaggeration).

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -22.9, Longitude 155.7 East (204.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  14. FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS (THE LATTER FLOOR WAS REMOVED MANY YEARS AGO), See also PA-1436 B-12 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoying; Chen, Wei; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhao, Sainan

    2015-12-04

    Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors' tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector (NDASC) employing uncoated collector tubes has been proposed, and its operating characteristics for medium-temperature solar collection were theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. CuO/oil nanofluid was prepared and used as working fluid of the NDASC. The heat-transfer mechanism of the NDASC with parabolic trough concentrator was theoretically evaluated and compared with a conventional indirect absorption solar collector (IASC). The theoretical analysis results suggested that the fluid's temperature distribution in the NDASC was much more uniform than that in the IASC, and an enhanced collection efficiency could be achieved for the NDASC operated within a preferred working temperature range. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed NDASC, experimental performances of an NDASC and an IASC with the same parabolic trough concentrator were furthermore evaluated and comparatively discussed.

  16. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoying; Chen, Wei; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhao, Sainan

    2015-01-01

    Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors’ tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector (NDASC) employing uncoated collector tubes has been proposed, and its operating characteristics for medium-temperature solar collection were theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. CuO/oil nanofluid was prepared and used as working fluid of the NDASC. The heat-transfer mechanism of the NDASC with parabolic trough concentrator was theoretically evaluated and compared with a conventional indirect absorption solar collector (IASC). The theoretical analysis results suggested that the fluid’s temperature distribution in the NDASC was much more uniform than that in the IASC, and an enhanced collection efficiency could be achieved for the NDASC operated within a preferred working temperature range. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed NDASC, experimental performances of an NDASC and an IASC with the same parabolic trough concentrator were furthermore evaluated and comparatively discussed. PMID:28347112

  17. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contract liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while there is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

  18. Carbon-Nanohorn Based Nanofluids for a Direct Absorption Solar Collector for Civil Application.

    PubMed

    Moradi, A; Sani, E; Simonetti, M; Francini, F; Chiavazzo, E; Asinari, P

    2015-05-01

    Direct solar absorption has been often considered in the past as a possible solution for solar thermal collectors for residential and small commercial applications. A direct absorption could indeed improve the performance of solar collectors by skipping one step of the heat transfer mechanism in standard devices and having a more convenient temperature distribution inside the collector. Classical solar thermal collectors have a metal sheet as absorber, designed such that water has the minimum temperature in each transversal section, in order to collect as much solar thermal energy as possible. On the other hand, in a direct configuration, the hottest part of the system is the operating fluid and this allows to have a more efficient conversion. Nanofluids, i.e., fluids with a suspension of nanoparticles, such as carbon nanohorns, could be a good and innovative family of absorbing fluids owing to their higher absorption coefficient compared to the base fluid and stability under moderate temperature gradients. Moreover, carbon nanohorns offer the remarkable advantage of a reduced toxicity over other carbon nanoparticles. In this work, a three-dimensional model of the absorption phenomena in nanofluids within a cylindrical tube is coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the flow and temperature field. Measured optical properties of nanofluids at different concentrations have been implemented in the model. Heat losses due to conduction, convection and radiation at the boundaries are considered as well.

  19. Candor Chasma Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03080 Candor Chasma Floor

    This VIS image shows part of the layered and wind sculpted deposit that occurs on the floor of Candor Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.6S, Longitude 284.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Canyon Floor Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03598 Canyon Floor Deposits

    The layered and wind eroded deposits seen in this VIS image occur on the floor of Chandor Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.2S, Longitude 283.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Spallanzani Cr. Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03632 Spallanzani Cr. Floor

    This image was taken by one of the Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) teams. Their target is the unusual floor deposits in Spallanzani Crater. The wind may have affected the surface of the layered deposit. Small dunes have formed near the southern margin.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 57.9S, Longitude 86.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. FIRST DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF TRANSVERSE WAVES IN SOLAR POLAR PLUMES USING SDO/AIA

    SciTech Connect

    Thurgood, J. O.; Morton, R. J.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2014-07-20

    There is intense interest in determining the precise contribution of Alfvénic waves propagating along solar structures to the problems of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Since the launch of SDO/AIA, it has been possible to resolve transverse oscillations in off-limb solar polar plumes and recently McIntosh et al. concluded that such waves are energetic enough to play a role in heating the corona and accelerating the fast solar wind. However, this result is based on comparisons to Monte Carlo simulations and confirmation via direct measurements is still outstanding. Thus, this Letter reports on the first direct measurements of transverse wave motions in solar polar plumes. Over a four hour period, we measure the transverse displacements, periods, and velocity amplitudes of 596 distinct oscillations observed in the 171 Å channel of SDO/AIA. We find a broad range of non-uniformly distributed parameter values which are well described by log-normal distributions with peaks at 234 km, 121 s, and 8 km s{sup –1}, and mean and standard deviations of 407 ± 297 km, 173 ± 118 s, and 14 ± 10 km s{sup –1}. Within standard deviations, our direct measurements are broadly consistent with previous results. However, accounting for the whole of our observed non-uniform parameter distribution we calculate an energy flux of 9-24 W m{sup –2}, which is 4-10 times below the energy requirement for solar wind acceleration. Hence, our results indicate that transverse magnetohydrodynamic waves as resolved by SDO/AIA cannot be the dominant energy source for fast solar wind acceleration in the open-field corona.

  3. First evidence of pep solar neutrinos by direct detection in Borexino.

    PubMed

    Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonetti, S; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Buizza Avanzini, M; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Carraro, C; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; Chepurnov, A; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grandi, L; Guardincerri, E; Hardy, S; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Koshio, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lewke, T; Litvinovich, E; Loer, B; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Manuzio, G; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Montanari, D; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Quirk, J; Raghavan, R S; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Sabelnikov, A; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Xu, J; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuzel, G

    2012-02-03

    We observed, for the first time, solar neutrinos in the 1.0-1.5 MeV energy range. We determined the rate of pep solar neutrino interactions in Borexino to be 3.1±0.6{stat}±0.3{syst}  counts/(day·100  ton). Assuming the pep neutrino flux predicted by the standard solar model, we obtained a constraint on the CNO solar neutrino interaction rate of <7.9  counts/(day·100  ton) (95% C.L.). The absence of the solar neutrino signal is disfavored at 99.97% C.L., while the absence of the pep signal is disfavored at 98% C.L. The necessary sensitivity was achieved by adopting data analysis techniques for the rejection of cosmogenic {11}C, the dominant background in the 1-2 MeV region. Assuming the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle solution to solar neutrino oscillations, these values correspond to solar neutrino fluxes of (1.6±0.3)×10{8}  cm{-2} s^{-1} and <7.7×10{8}  cm{-2} s{-1} (95% C.L.), respectively, in agreement with both the high and low metallicity standard solar models. These results represent the first direct evidence of the pep neutrino signal and the strongest constraint of the CNO solar neutrino flux to date.

  4. Analysis of Direct Samples of Early Solar System Aqueous Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Bodnar, R J.; Fedele, L.; Yurimoto,H.; Itoh, S.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades we have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. Some carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have been altered by interactions with liquid water within the first 10 million years after formation of their parent asteroids. Millimeter to centimeter-sized aggregates of purple halite containing aqueous fluid inclusions were found in the matrix of two freshly-fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans (1998, hereafter simply "Monahans") (H5) and Zag (H3-6) (Zolensky et al., 1999; Whitby et al., 2000; Bogard et al., 2001) In order to understand origin and evolution of the aqueous fluids inside these inclusions we much measure the actual fluid composition, and also learn the O and H isotopic composition of the water. It has taken a decade for laboratory analytical techniques to catch up to these particular nanomole-sized aqueous samples. We have recently been successful in (1) measuring the isotopic composition of H and O in the water in a few fluid inclusions from the Zag and Monahans halite, (2) mineralogical characterization of the solid mineral phases associated with the aqueous fluids within the halite, and (3) the first minor element analyses of the fluid itself. A Cameca ims-1270 equipped with a cryo-sample-stage of Hokkaido University was specially prepared for the O and H isotopic measurements. The cryo-sample-stage (Techno. I. S. Corp.) was cooled down to c.a. -190 C using liquid nitrogen at which the aqueous fluid in inclusions was frozen. We excavated the salt crystal surfaces to expose the frozen fluids using a 15 keV Cs+ beam and measured negative secondary ions. The secondary ions from deep craters of approximately 10 m in depth emitted stably but the intensities changed gradually during measurement cycles because of shifting states of charge compensation, resulting in rather poor reproducibility of multiple measurements of standard fluid

  5. What determines the direction of minimum variance of the magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grappin, R.; Velli, M.

    1995-01-01

    The solar wind is not an isotropic medium; two symmetry axis are provided, first the radial direction (because the mean wind is radial) and second the spiral direction of the mean magnetic field, which depends on heliocentric distance. Observations show very different anisotropy directions, depending on the frequency waveband; while the large-scale velocity fluctuations are essentially radial, the smaller scale magnetic field fluctuations are mostly perpendicular to the mean field direction, which is not the expected linear (WkB) result. We attempt to explain how these properties are related, with the help of numerical simulations.

  6. Solar reforming of methane in a direct absorption catalytic reactor on a parabolic dish

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, J.F.; Hogan, R.E. Jr.; Skocypec, R.D. ); Buck, R. , Stuttgart . Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik)

    1990-01-01

    The concept of solar driven chemical reactions in a commercial-scale volumetric receiver/reactor on a parabolic concentrator was successfully demonstrated in the CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver (CAESAR) test. Solar reforming of methane (CH{sub 4}) with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was achieved in a 64-cm diameter direct absorption reactor on a parabolic dish capable of 150 kW solar power. The reactor was a catalytic volumetric absorber consisting of a multi-layered, porous alumina foam disk coated with rhodium (Rh) catalyst. The system was operated during both steady-state and solar transient (cloud passage) conditions. The total solar power absorbed reached values up to 97 kW and the maximum methane conversion was 70%. Receiver thermal efficiencies ranged up to 85% and chemical efficiencies peaked at 54%. The absorber performed satisfactorily in promoting the reforming reaction during the tests without carbon formation. However, problems of cracking and degradation of the porous matrix, nonuniform dispersion of the Rh through the absorber, and catalyst deactivation due to sintering and possible encapsulation, must be resolved to achieve long-term operation and eventual commercialization. 17 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Heliosynthesis: A solar biotechnology based on direct bioconversion of solar energy by photosynthetic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudin, C.

    1982-12-01

    Certain limiting aspects of current technology should be studied, such as the lifetimes of tubing material and the utilization of renewable sources of energy for pumping. Only exocellular or cellular biomass with high specific value, involving small markets and small plant areas (less than 1 ha), will be economically possible for the short term and will allow improvement of this technology. A valorization of the totality of photosynthetic biomass with respect to economics and energy is an absolute necessity. There is an immediate need for genetic studies of microalgae that will allow enhancement or even creation of chemical production satisfying economic and energy needs. Such efforts should permit the rapid establishment of an aggressive and sophisticated solar biotechnology that integrates scientific and technical' developments to meet the new needs of humanity for food, chemicals, and energy, thereby complementing agriculture with a sort of cellular horticulture.

  8. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam and Recent Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, Ibrahim; Andreas, Afshin; Dooraghi, Mike; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Kutchenreiter, Mark

    2016-12-14

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers such as pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). An ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure the extended broadband spectrum of the terrestrial direct solar beam irradiance that extends beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands; i.e. below 0.2 um and above 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, the pyranometers and pyrheliometers were developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to the spectral range of approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers, which measure the atmospheric longwave irradiance, are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, yet they are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster describes a method to measure the broadband longwave irradiance in the terrestrial direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The described method is used to measure the irradiance from sunrise to sunset; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 with an estimated uncertainty of 1.5 Wm-2, for a solar zenith angle range from 80 degrees to 16 degrees, respectively. Recent development shows that there is greater than 1.1 percent bias in measuring shortwave solar irradiance.

  9. First Direct Evidence for Matter Enhanced Neutrino Oscillation, Using Super-Kamiokande Solar Neutrino Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Andrew Lee

    Super-Kamiokande-IV has proven to be the largest and most precise SK data set yet. The data from this fourth phase of SK are combined with data from the previous three phases to give an extracted solar neutrino flux between 4.0 and 19.5 MeV (recoil electron kinetic energy) as (2.37+/-0.015(stat.)+/-0.04(syst.)) x 106cm-2sec-1. The SK combined recoil electron energy spectrum slightly favors a distorted shape over a flat shape. Comparing the day and night solar neutrino interactions rates separately, SK measures the day/night asymmetry as (-4.2+/-1.2+/-0.8)%. A maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK, results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.2+/-1.1+/-0.5)%. These results give 2.8 and 2.7 sigma significance for a non-zero day/night asymmetry. This is not only the first evidence for the regeneration of electron type solar neutrinos as they travel through Earth's matter, but the first direct evidence for matter enhanced neutrino oscillation of any kind. SK solar neutrino data measures the solar mixing angle as sin2theta12 = 0.341+0.029/-0.025, and the solar neutrino mass squared splitting as Deltam2/21=(4.8 +1.8/-0.9) x 10-5 eV2. When these results are combined with data from other solar neutrino experiments and the KamLAND experiment, sin2theta12 = 0.304+/-0.013 and Deltam2/21 = (7.45 +0.20/-0.19) x 10-5 eV2 give the most precise measurements to date.

  10. Nonaxisymmetric anisotropy of solar wind turbulence as a direct test for models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Turner, A J; Gogoberidze, G; Chapman, S C

    2012-02-24

    Single point spacecraft observations of the turbulent solar wind flow exhibit a characteristic nonaxisymmetric anisotropy that depends sensitively on the perpendicular power spectral exponent. We use this nonaxisymmetric anisotropy as a function of wave vector direction to test models of MHD turbulence. Using Ulysses magnetic field observations in the fast, quiet polar solar wind we find that the Goldreich-Sridhar model of MHD turbulence is not consistent with the observed anisotropy, whereas the observations are well reproduced by the "slab+2D" model. The Goldreich-Sridhar model alone cannot account for the observations unless an additional component is also present.

  11. Solar energy utilization in the direct photocarboxylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran using CO2.

    PubMed

    Aresta, Michele; Dibenedetto, Angela; Baran, Tomasz; Wojtyła, Szymon; Macyk, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of CO2 into high energy products (fuels) and the direct carboxylation of C-H bonds require a high energy input. Energy cannot be derived from fossil carbon, in this case. Solar energy can be used instead, with a low environmental impact and good profit. We have studied the use of white light or solar energy in the photoreduction of CO2 and in photocarboxylation reactions, using different semiconductors modified at their surface. Two examples of reduction of CO2 to methanol and CO will be shortly discussed, and two cases of carboxylation of organic substrates. The case of carboxylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran will be discussed in detail.

  12. The Feasibility of a Stretched Lens Concentrating Solar Array Direct-Driving an Electric Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.; Best, Steve R.; Rodiek, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    As space exploration continues to be a primary focus of NASA, solar electric propulsion (SEP) becomes a forerunner in the mode of transportation to reach the moon and other planets in our solar system. The Stretched Lens Array (SLA) is a unique ultra-high-performance, ultra-light, cost-effective photovoltaic concentrator array using refractive concentrator technology. The SLA is capable of high voltage operation and sustainability in a high radiation environment and can be specifically optimized for SEP by the ability to direct-drive Hall-effect thrusters. Auburn University has performed a ``direct drive'' experiment using a high-voltage (600 Voc) ENTECH SunLine concentrator array powered with multijunction solar cells coupled to a Russian T-100 Hall Effect Thruster (HET). This appears to be the first time a Hall thruster has been run directly from III-V-based multi-junction solar cells and at this high voltage. This paper discusses the set-up and testing results. Testing includes the inclusion of ENTECH's Stretched Lens Array hardware in a vacuum chamber to measure plume impingement effects at various positions relative to the exhaust axis of the thruster. The goal is to define meaningful high voltage SLA concentrator array and Hall thruster demonstration tests relevant to SEP and to test SLA reliability.

  13. High Voltage Solar Array ARC Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, T.; Vaughn, J.; Carruth, M. R.; Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2003-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (112HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration "trigger" arcs as well as long duration "sustained" arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of vo!tage, (current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (>300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  14. Plasma Interactions with High Voltage Solar Arrays for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, T.; Horvater, M. A.; Vaughn, J.; Carruth, M. R.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    The Environmental Effects Group of NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting research into the effects of plasma interaction with high voltage solar arrays. These high voltage solar arrays are being developed for a direct drive Hall Effect Thruster propulsion system. A direct drive system configuration will reduce power system mass by eliminating a conventional power-processing unit. The Environmental Effects Group has configured two large vacuum chambers to test different high-voltage array concepts in a plasma environment. Three types of solar arrays have so far been tested, an International Space Station (ISS) planar array, a Tecstar planar array, and a Tecstar solar concentrator array. The plasma environment was generated using a hollow cathode plasma source, which yielded densities between 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) per cubic centimeter and electron temperatures of 0.5-1 eV. Each array was positioned in this plasma and biased in the -500 to + 500 volt range. The current collection was monitored continuously. In addition, the characteristics of arcing, snap over, and other features, were recorded. Analysis of the array performance indicates a time dependence associated with the current collection as well as a tendency for "conditioning" over a large number of runs. Mitigation strategies, to reduce parasitic current collection, as well as arcing, include changing cover-glass geometry and layout as well as shielding the solar cell edges. High voltage performance data for each of the solar array types tested will be presented. In addition, data will be provided to indicate the effectiveness of the mitigation techniques.

  15. High Voltage Solar Array Arc Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Todd; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Vaughn, J. A.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.; Ferguson, D.; Kerslake, T. W.; Peterson, T.; Snyder, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (D2HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration trigger arcs as well as long duration sustained arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of voltage, current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (greater than 300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  16. Flow Along Valley Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 May 2003

    Lines indicative of flow in a valley floor (east to west) cut across similar lines in a slightly smaller valley (southeast to northwest), indicating both that material flowed along the valley floor (as opposed to across it) and that relative flow ages may be determined from crosscutting relationships.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 39.6, Longitude 31.1East (328.9). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Direct solar radiation - Spectrum and irradiance derived from sun-photometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobrock, Wolfram; Eiden, Reiner

    1988-06-01

    The continuous spectrum of the direct solar radiation from wavelength = 330 to 2690 nm, penetrating a cloudless atmosphere and arriving on the earth surface, is determined by measuring the solar irradiance in ten selected discrete spectral ranges defined by interference filters. Heretofore knowledge of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum has been required as well as of the transmittance functions to describe the spectral optical properties of the atmosphere. A set of appropriate and simple functions is given and discussed, which allows calculation of the molecular, aerosol, oxygen, and ozone optical thicknesses. The influence of atmospheric water vapor is considered through line by line calculations. The dominant and most fluctuating extinction parameters are the aerosol optical thickness and the content of precipitable water vapor. These are obtained by measurements with two sun photometers, developed according to the World Meteorological Organization recommendation. To test the derived solar spectrum at ground level the photometers are also run with nine broadband filters. The values observed differ little from those obtained by integration of the deduced spectral irradiance. Furthermore, the integral value of the resulting entire spectrum agrees reasonably well with the total direct irradiance gained from actinometer measurements.

  18. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  19. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  20. Future mission studies: Forecasting solar flux directly from its chaotic time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashrafi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The mathematical structure of the programs written to construct a nonlinear predictive model to forecast solar flux directly from its time series without reference to any underlying solar physics is presented. This method and the programs are written so that one could apply the same technique to forecast other chaotic time series, such as geomagnetic data, attitude and orbit data, and even financial indexes and stock market data. Perhaps the most important application of this technique to flight dynamics is to model Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS) output of residues between observed position of spacecraft and calculated position with no drag (drag flag = off). This would result in a new model of drag working directly from observed data.

  1. A fully integrated nanosystem of semiconductor nanowires for direct solar water splitting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, Hao Ming; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

    2013-06-12

    Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight's energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12% solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

  2. A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, Hao Ming; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

    2013-06-12

    Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

  3. Solar power satellite rectenna design study: Directional receiving elements and parallel-series combining analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, R. J.; Borrego, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Rectenna conversion efficiencies (RF to dc) approximating 85 percent were demonstrated on a small scale, clearly indicating the feasibility and potential of efficiency of microwave power to dc. The overall cost estimates of the solar power satellite indicate that the baseline rectenna subsystem will be between 25 to 40 percent of the system cost. The directional receiving elements and element extensions were studied, along with power combining evaluation and evaluation extensions.

  4. Floors: Care and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post Office Dept., Washington, DC.

    Guidelines, methods and policies regarding the care and maintenance of post office building floors are overviewed in this handbook. Procedures outlined are concerned with maintaining a required level of appearance without wasting manpower. Flooring types and characteristics and the particular cleaning requirements of each type are given along with…

  5. School Flooring Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, John

    2012-01-01

    With all of the hype that green building is receiving throughout the school facility-management industry, it's easy to overlook some elements that may not be right in front of a building manager's nose. It is helpful to examine the role floor covering plays in a green building project. Flooring is one of the most significant and important systems…

  6. Synoptic Solar Radio Burst Source Directions Derived by the Ulysses URAP Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Hess, R. A.; Reiner, M. J.; Hoang, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma (URAP) investigation is one of 10 instruments on the Ulysses spacecraft. Ulysses, with its highly inclined orbit around the sun, provides URAP with a unique perspective on solar radio bursts, which are usually emitted at low heliolatitudes as the electron sources move outward from the sun. These radio bursts provide positional information relating to interplanetary coronal mass ejections (type II radio bursts), the initiation of CMEs (type III-L bursts), and solar flares (type III bursts). In this presentation, we use the routine radio direction-finding data from URAP to track radio bursts and locate their sources when Ulysses is near perihelion. Plots of these data are available on the URAP Goddard Space Flight Center web site (for example, http://urap.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi/giffer?date=20070726&PLOT_TYPE= DIRFIND), as are ASCII data files. The results shown are derived from fitting the spin-plane antenna data only; we compare the source directions so derived to the more accurate determinations made by fitting to both URAP antennas. The accuracy of the radio source directions to identify flare locations, determine solar wind densities remotely, etc., will be compared to previously published determinations. Applications to Wind Waves and STEREO Waves data, for which the spacecraft are in-ecliptic, will be addressed briefly.

  7. Directivity of 100 keV-1 MeV photon sources in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, S. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.

    1988-03-01

    Stereoscopic observations of 0.1-1.0 MeV photon sources in solar flares made with spectrometers aboard the ISEE 3 and PVO (Pioneer Venus Orbiter) have been analyzed to determine the directivity of the photon sources and its possible dependence on photon energy. During the period October 1, 1978-October 31, 1980, a total of 44 solar flares were observed simultaneously by the two instruments. Of these, 39 flares were in full view of both the instruments, the remaining five being partially occulted by the photosphere from the line of sight of at least one instrument. The view angles theta(P) and theta(I) of the PVO and ISEE 3 instruments with respect to the outward solar radius at the flare site varied from one flare to another and were in the range 9-88 deg. The difference between the two view angles varied from 1 deg to 66 deg. The observations of differential photon energy spectra averaged over more than about 16 s do not indicate any systematic directivity. In most flares the directivity of 0.1-1.0 MeV photon sources is found to be less than about 2.5.

  8. Heteroepitaxial InP, and ultrathin, directly glassed, GaAs 3-5 solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardingham, C. M.; Cross, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    The commercial application of Indium Phosphide solar cells in practical space missions is crucially dependent upon achieving a major cost reduction which could be offered by heteroepitaxy on cheaper, more rugged substrates. Furthermore, significant mass reduction, compatibility with mechanically stacked multijunction cells, and elimination of the current loss through glue discoloration, is possible in III-V solar cells by the development of ultrathin, directly glassed cells. The progress of a UK collaborative program to develop high efficiency, homojunction InP solar cells, grown by MOCVD on Si substrates, is described. Results of homoepitaxial cells (is greater than 17 percent 1 Sun AM0) are presented, together with progress in achieving low dislocation density heteroepitaxy. Also, progress in a UK program to develop ultrathin directly-glassed GaAs cells is described. Ultrathin (5 micron) GaAs cells, with 1 Sun AM0 efficiencies up to 19.1 percent, are presented, together with progress in achieving a direct (adhesive-less) bond between the cell and coverglass. Consequential development to, for example, cell grids, are also discussed.

  9. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. DROPOUT OF DIRECTIONAL ELECTRON INTENSITIES IN LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lun C.; Reames, Donald V.

    2016-01-10

    In the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event during solar cycle 23 we have observed the dispersionless modulation (“dropout”) in directional intensities of nonrelativistic electrons. The average duration of dropout periods is ∼0.8 hr, which is consistent with the correlation scale of solar wind turbulence. During the dropout period electrons could display scatter-free transport in an intermittent way. Also, we have observed a decrease in the anisotropic index of incident electrons with increasing electron energy (E{sub e}), while the index of scattered/reflected electrons is nearly independent of E{sub e}. We hence perform an observational examination of the correlation between the anisotropic index of low-energy scattered/reflected electrons and the signature of the locally measured solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range, which is responsible for resonant scattering of nonrelativistic electrons. Since during the dropout period the slab turbulence fraction is dominant (0.8 ± 0.1), we pay close attention to the effect of slab fraction on the correlation examined. Our observation is consistent with the simulation result that in the dominance of the slab turbulence component there should exist a dispatched structure of magnetic flux tubes, along which electrons could be transported in a scatter-free manner. Since a similar phenomenon is exhibited in the “impulsive” SEP event, electron dropout should be a transport effect. Therefore, being different from most ion dropout events, which are due to a compact flare source, the dropout of directional electron intensities should be caused by the change of turbulence status in the solar wind.

  12. Dropout of Directional Electron Intensities in Large Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lun C.; Reames, Donald V.

    2016-01-01

    In the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event during solar cycle 23 we have observed the dispersionless modulation (“dropout”) in directional intensities of nonrelativistic electrons. The average duration of dropout periods is ∼0.8 hr, which is consistent with the correlation scale of solar wind turbulence. During the dropout period electrons could display scatter-free transport in an intermittent way. Also, we have observed a decrease in the anisotropic index of incident electrons with increasing electron energy (Ee), while the index of scattered/reflected electrons is nearly independent of Ee. We hence perform an observational examination of the correlation between the anisotropic index of low-energy scattered/reflected electrons and the signature of the locally measured solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range, which is responsible for resonant scattering of nonrelativistic electrons. Since during the dropout period the slab turbulence fraction is dominant (0.8 ± 0.1), we pay close attention to the effect of slab fraction on the correlation examined. Our observation is consistent with the simulation result that in the dominance of the slab turbulence component there should exist a dispatched structure of magnetic flux tubes, along which electrons could be transported in a scatter-free manner. Since a similar phenomenon is exhibited in the “impulsive” SEP event, electron dropout should be a transport effect. Therefore, being different from most ion dropout events, which are due to a compact flare source, the dropout of directional electron intensities should be caused by the change of turbulence status in the solar wind.

  13. Direct-normal solar irradiance measurements and turbidity coefficient evaluation in central Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bllbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Miguel, Argimiro

    2013-04-01

    In order to study the characteristics of solar direct radiation and the atmospheric turbidity in Valladolid, Spain, global, diffuse and direct irradiance data were recorded from May 2010 to December 2011, with a frequency of 10 minute. Measurements used were taken by the Energy and Atmosphere Group (http://www3.uva.es/renova), University of Valladolid, Spain at the Solar Radiometric Station (41,81°N 4.93°W, 840m a.s.l.) located on the Atmosphere Researcher Centre, Villalba de los Alcores, Valladolid, Spain. Sensors were installed in a Sun tracker (Solys 2, Kipp & Zonen) that blocks direct solar radiation using a shadow ball. The system consists of two pyranometers CMP-21 and one pyrheliometer CHP-1 (Kipp & Zonen), respectively. Based on these measurements, the characteristics of direct solar irradiance data were evaluated in order to know the main statistical parameters of the distribution. Angström turbidity coefficient values, beta, were estimated from direct solar irradiance and clear sky conditions. The beta coefficient values were obtained from MODIS satellite instrument, and the aerosol optical depth values, AOD(550nm), were evaluated. The turbidity coefficient beta shows seasonal variation, with higher values in summer (< 0.15) and lower in winter (< 0.05). It could be due to high temperatures in summer and less rainy days which would induce more atmospheric turbidity, increasing vertical convection and particles enhancement. The scattered graph of aerosol optical depth from satellite and the obtained from Angström expression has been plotted. The slope presents a value around the unity, 0.96, and the correlation coefficient shows a value of 0.6 . It was observed that turbidity coefficients increased in April 2011, and in order to now the origin the change, air masses trajectories, deduced from HYSPLIT model (http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php) were studied. From the results it has been obtained that a situation of low pressures in the Atlantic

  14. Status and future directions of InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the current status and future directions of InP space solar cell research is provided. The scope of the paper does not allow us to discuss other recent major developments in InP cell modeling, contacts, and characterization, or developments in other solar cell materials. Solar cells made from InP and related materials are not expected to be used in the near future for terrestrial applications, but significant Air-Mass1.5 (AM1.5) cell efficiencies are given for comparison. This paper deals with the developments in single-junction cells, multijunction tandem cells, and space flight testing, including radiation effects. Concentrator InP solar cells are also discussed, since they offer the possibility of simultaneous thermal and current injection annealing. These cells also promise cost effectiveness and the concentrator elements may provide cells with extra protection from space radiation. The concluding section addresses the steps to be taken in the future and provides guidelines for further research and development.

  15. Silicon nanospheres for directional scattering in thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokeen, Poonam; Jain, Amit; Kapoor, Avinashi

    2016-07-01

    Reducing active layer thickness of solar cell stresses on efficient light trapping mechanisms to keep the cell efficiency intact. Directional light scattering and promising refractive index of silicon nanoparticles make them encouraging scattering centers for thin-film silicon solar cells. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are used to study the optical properties of silicon nanospheres embedded in the top and bottom buffer layer of solar cells. Diameter of a silicon nanoparticle plays a crucial role in the forward and backward scattering of incident light into the cell. Silicon nanospheres outperform commonly used metallic and dielectric nanospheres and trapped the incident light over a broad spectrum. Silicon nanospheres require special attention when placed in both the buffer layers of the solar cell simultaneously, and lateral displacement of the silicon nanospheres at the top buffer layer with respect to nanospheres at the bottom buffer layer is beneficial. Lateral displacement of nanospheres provides a total quantum efficiency of 51.49% in comparison to 21.9% of the pristine cell. These exceptional scattering competencies of silicon nanospheres make them a promising candidate for photovoltaic applications. Silicon scatterers may be used with well-established fabrication techniques.

  16. Still-Forming Solar System May Have Planets Orbiting Star in Opposite Directions, Astronomers Say

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Astronomers studying a disk of material circling a still-forming star inside our Galaxy have found a tantalizing result -- the inner part of the disk is orbiting the protostar in the opposite direction from the outer part of the disk. Protostar Graphic Disk Around Young Star Rotating in Opposite Directions CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF More Graphics "This is the first time anyone has seen anything like this, and it means that the process of forming planets from such disks is more complex than we previously expected," said Anthony Remijan, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, who with his colleague Jan M. Hollis, of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope to make the discovery. "The solar system that likely will be formed around this star will include planets orbiting in different directions, unlike our own solar system in which all the planets orbit the Sun in the same direction," Hollis explained. Stars and planets, scientists believe, are formed when giant clouds of gas and dust collapse. As the cloud collapses, a flattened, rotating disk of material develops around the young star. This disk provides the material from which planets form. The disk and the resulting planets rotate in the same direction as the original cloud, with the rotation speed increasing closer to the center, much as a spinning figure skater spins faster when they draw their arms inward. If all the material in the star and disk come from the same prestellar cloud, they all will rotate in the same direction. That is the case with our own solar system, in which the planets all orbit the Sun in the same direction as the Sun itself rotates on its axis. In the case of a young star some 500 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Ophiuchus, Remijan and Hollis found the inner and outer parts of the disk rotating in opposite directions. "We think this system may have gotten material from two clouds

  17. [Surgical dilemmas. Sinus floor elevation].

    PubMed

    ten Bruggenkate, C M; Schulten, E A J M; Zijderveld, S A

    2008-12-01

    Limited alveolar bone height prevents the placement of dental implants. Sinus floor elevation is an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus that allows implants to be placed. The principle of this surgical procedure is the preparation of a 'top hinge door', that is raised together with the Schneiderian membrane in the cranial direction. The space which created under this lid is filled with a bone transplant. Autogenous bone is the standard transplant material, despite the fact that a second surgery site is necessary. Under certain circumstances bone substitutes can be used, with a longer healing phase. If sufficient alveolar bone height is available to secure implant stability, simultaneous implantation and sinus floor elevation are possible. Considering the significant anatomical variation in the region of the maxillary sinus, a sound knowledge of the anatomy is of great importance.

  18. Design and development of a brushless, direct drive solar array reorientation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessee, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    This report covers the design and development of the laboratory model, and is essentially a compilation of reports covering the system and its various parts. To enhance completeness, the final report of Phase 1 covering circuit development of the controller is also included. A controller was developed for a brushless, direct-drive, single axis solar array reorientation system for earth-pointed, passively-stabilized spacecraft. A control systems was designed and breadboard circuits were built and tested for performance. The controller is designed to take over automatic control of the array on command after the spacecraft is stabilized in orbit. The controller will orient the solar array to the sun vector and automatically track to maintain proper orientation. So long as the orbit is circular, orientation toward the sun is maintained even though the spacecraft goes into the shadow of the earth. Particular attention was given in the design to limit reaction between the array and the spacecraft.

  19. High-voltage Array Ground Test for Direct-drive Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Mankins, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Development is underway on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for direct drive electric propulsion. These SLA performance attributes closely match the critical needs of solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems, which may be used for "space tugs" to fuel-efficiently transport cargo from low earth orbit (LEO) to low lunar orbit (LLO), in support of NASA s robotic and human exploration missions. Later SEP systems may similarly transport cargo from the earth-moon neighborhood to the Mars neighborhood. This paper will describe the SLA SEP technology, discuss ground tests already completed, and present plans for future ground tests and future flight tests of SLA SEP systems.

  20. Efficient direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion by in situ interface transformation of a tandem structure.

    PubMed

    May, Matthias M; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Lackner, David; Dimroth, Frank; Hannappel, Thomas

    2015-09-15

    Photosynthesis is nature's route to convert intermittent solar irradiation into storable energy, while its use for an industrial energy supply is impaired by low efficiency. Artificial photosynthesis provides a promising alternative for efficient robust carbon-neutral renewable energy generation. The approach of direct hydrogen generation by photoelectrochemical water splitting utilizes customized tandem absorber structures to mimic the Z-scheme of natural photosynthesis. Here a combined chemical surface transformation of a tandem structure and catalyst deposition at ambient temperature yields photocurrents approaching the theoretical limit of the absorber and results in a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 14%. The potentiostatically assisted photoelectrode efficiency is 17%. Present benchmarks for integrated systems are clearly exceeded. Details of the in situ interface transformation, the electronic improvement and chemical passivation are presented. The surface functionalization procedure is widely applicable and can be precisely controlled, allowing further developments of high-efficiency robust hydrogen generators.

  1. Radiation transfer in plant canopies - Transmission of direct solar radiation and the role of leaf orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verstraete, Michel M.

    1987-01-01

    Understanding the details of the interaction between the radiation field and plant structures is important climatically because of the influence of vegetation on the surface water and energy balance, but also biologically, since solar radiation provides the energy necessary for photosynthesis. The problem is complex because of the extreme variety of vegetation forms in space and time, as well as within and across plant species. This one-dimensional vertical multilayer model describes the transfer of direct solar radiation through a leaf canopy, accounting explicitly for the vertical inhomogeneities of a plant stand and leaf orientation, as well as heliotropic plant behavior. This model reproduces observational results on homogeneous canopies, but it is also well adapted to describe vertically inhomogeneous canopies. Some of the implications of leaf orientation and plant structure as far as light collection is concerned are briefly reviewed.

  2. Efficient direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion by in situ interface transformation of a tandem structure

    PubMed Central

    May, Matthias M.; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Lackner, David; Dimroth, Frank; Hannappel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is nature's route to convert intermittent solar irradiation into storable energy, while its use for an industrial energy supply is impaired by low efficiency. Artificial photosynthesis provides a promising alternative for efficient robust carbon-neutral renewable energy generation. The approach of direct hydrogen generation by photoelectrochemical water splitting utilizes customized tandem absorber structures to mimic the Z-scheme of natural photosynthesis. Here a combined chemical surface transformation of a tandem structure and catalyst deposition at ambient temperature yields photocurrents approaching the theoretical limit of the absorber and results in a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 14%. The potentiostatically assisted photoelectrode efficiency is 17%. Present benchmarks for integrated systems are clearly exceeded. Details of the in situ interface transformation, the electronic improvement and chemical passivation are presented. The surface functionalization procedure is widely applicable and can be precisely controlled, allowing further developments of high-efficiency robust hydrogen generators. PMID:26369620

  3. Information content of sky intensity and polarization measurements at right angles to the solar direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. C.; Thomas, R. W. L.; Pearce, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study of the brightness and polarization at right angles to the solar direction both for ground-based observations (looking up) and for satellite-based systems (looking down). Calculations have been made for a solar zenith angle whose cosine was 0.6 and wavelengths ranging from 3500 A to 9500 A. A sensitivity of signatures to total aerosol loading, aerosol particle size distribution and refractive index, and the surface reflectance albedo has been demonstrated. For Lambertian-type surface reflection the albedo effects enter solely through the intensity sensitivity, and very high correlations have been found between the polarization term signatures for the ground-based and satellite-based systems. Potential applications of these results for local albedo predictions and satellite imaging systems recalibrations are discussed.

  4. Efficient direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion by in situ interface transformation of a tandem structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Matthias M.; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Lackner, David; Dimroth, Frank; Hannappel, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Photosynthesis is nature's route to convert intermittent solar irradiation into storable energy, while its use for an industrial energy supply is impaired by low efficiency. Artificial photosynthesis provides a promising alternative for efficient robust carbon-neutral renewable energy generation. The approach of direct hydrogen generation by photoelectrochemical water splitting utilizes customized tandem absorber structures to mimic the Z-scheme of natural photosynthesis. Here a combined chemical surface transformation of a tandem structure and catalyst deposition at ambient temperature yields photocurrents approaching the theoretical limit of the absorber and results in a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 14%. The potentiostatically assisted photoelectrode efficiency is 17%. Present benchmarks for integrated systems are clearly exceeded. Details of the in situ interface transformation, the electronic improvement and chemical passivation are presented. The surface functionalization procedure is widely applicable and can be precisely controlled, allowing further developments of high-efficiency robust hydrogen generators.

  5. Thermally induced structural evolution and performance of mesoporous block copolymer-directed alumina perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kwan Wee; Moore, David T; Saliba, Michael; Sai, Hiroaki; Estroff, Lara A; Hanrath, Tobias; Snaith, Henry J; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-05-27

    Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) material evolution to be characterized by three distinct structures: a crystalline precursor structure not described previously, a 3D perovskite structure, and a mixture of compounds resulting from degradation. Finally, we demonstrate how understanding the processing parameters provides the foundation needed for optimal perovskite film morphology and coverage, leading to enhanced block copolymer-directed perovskite solar cell performance.

  6. Thermal comfort conditions in the NBS/DoE direct gain passive solar test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S. T.

    1982-12-01

    The thermal comfort conditions in a direct gain cell of passive solar test facility were analyzed. It was found that the daytime operative temperature as measured by the black globe temperature sensors in an area near the large south glazing exceeded the upper boundary of the ASHRAE comfort envelope by a large amount in a clear day during both the thermal transition month of October and the cold winter month of January. The reflected solar radiation from the interior surfaces and the snow covered ground plays a significant role on the measured black globe temperature and should be included in the computation of the mean radiant temperature for a space with large glazed areas.

  7. Understanding controls on cirque floor altitudes: Insights from Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Iestyn D.; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2015-11-01

    Glacial cirques reflect former regions of glacier initiation, and are therefore used as indicators of past climate. One specific way in which palaeoclimatic information is obtained from cirques is by analysing their elevations, on the assumption that cirque floor altitudes are a proxy for climatically controlled equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) during former periods of small scale (cirque-type) glaciation. However, specific controls on cirque altitudes are rarely assessed, and the validity of using cirque floor altitudes as a source of palaeoclimatic information remains open to question. In order to address this, here we analyse the distribution of 3520 ice-free cirques on the Kamchatka Peninsula (eastern Russia), and assess various controls on their floor altitudes. In addition, we analyse controls on the mid-altitudes of 503 modern glaciers, currently identifiable on the peninsula, and make comparisons with the cirque altitude data. The main study findings are that cirque floor altitudes increase steeply inland from the Pacific, suggesting that moisture availability (i.e., proximity to the coastline) played a key role in regulating the altitudes at which former (cirque-forming) glaciers were able to initiate. Other factors, such as latitude, aspect, topography, geology, and neo-tectonics seem to have played a limited (but not insignificant) role in regulating cirque floor altitudes, though south-facing cirques are typically higher than their north-facing equivalents, potentially reflecting the impact of prevailing wind directions (from the SSE) and/or variations in solar radiation on the altitudes at which former glaciers were able to initiate. Trends in glacier and cirque altitudes across the peninsula are typically comparable (i.e., values typically rise from both the north and south, inland from the Pacific coastline, and where glaciers/cirques are south-facing), yet the relationship with latitude is stronger for modern glaciers, and the relationship with

  8. A Sea Floor Penetrometer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    processed through an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, and stored in the memory of a mini-computer. Computer algorithms are applied to the deceleration data to provide real-time sea floor classification.

  9. Aeromagnetic anomalies and discordant lineations beneath the Niger Delta: Implications for new fracture zones and multiple sea-floor spreading directions in the meso-Atlantic' Gulf of Guinea cul-de-sac

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.; Gipson, M. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    An aeromagnetic contour map compiled over shallow water and onshore portions of the Nigerian continental margin, shows several elongate, long-wavelength anomaly closures with some alternating polarity, separated by steep gradient, NE lineations. The lineations are interpreted as new fracture zones or extensions of previously mapped ones. The NE trend in the western delta region is concordant with the fracture zone trends of the deeper Gulf of Guinea. Aeromagnetic lineations of the SE Niger Delta Basin however, discordantly trend ENE. Their termination against the former, is interpreted as evidence of early sea-floor spreading in a ENE-WSW direction in addition to the well documented NE-SW spreading of the Gulf of Guinea and the rest of the meso-Atlantic sea-floor; The geophysical crustal structure indicate the existence of two Early Cretaceous triple junctions beneath the Niger Delta Basin. The two triple-junctions further support the hypothesis that the African continent was a multi-plate system (in the Niger Delta region) during the early opening of the Atlantic.

  10. Integrating a Photocatalyst into a Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Battery for Direct Storage of Solar Energy.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Yarong; Tang, Daiming; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-03

    Direct capture and storage of abundant but intermittent solar energy in electrical energy-storage devices such as rechargeable lithium batteries is of great importance, and could provide a promising solution to the challenges of energy shortage and environment pollution. Here we report a new prototype of a solar-driven chargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, in which the capture and storage of solar energy was realized by oxidizing S(2-) ions to polysulfide ions in aqueous solution with a Pt-modified CdS photocatalyst. The battery can deliver a specific capacity of 792 mAh g(-1) during 2 h photocharging process with a discharge potential of around 2.53 V versus Li(+)/Li. A specific capacity of 199 mAh g(-1), reaching the level of conventional lithium-ion batteries, can be achieved within 10 min photocharging. Moreover, the charging process of the battery can proceed under natural sunlight irradiation.

  11. Rocket Measurements of the Direct Solar Lyman-alpha Radiation Penetrating in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guineva, V. H.; Witt, G.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.; Tashev, V. L.

    2006-03-01

    The resonance transition 2P-2S of the atomic hydrogen (Lyman-alpha emission) is the strongest and most conspicuous feature in the solar EUV spectrum. The Lyman-alpha radiation transfer depends on the resonance scattering from the hydrogen atoms in the atmosphere and on the O2 absorption. Since the Lyman-alpha extinction in the atmosphere is a measure for the column density of the oxygen molecules, the atmospheric temperature profile can be calculated thereof. Rocket measurements of the direct Lyman-alpha radiation vertical profile in the summer mesosphere and thermosphere (up to 120 km), at high latitudes will be carried out in June 2006. The Lyman-alpha flux will be registered by a detector of solar Lyman-alpha radiation, manufactured in the Stara Zagora Department of the Solar-Terrestrial Influences Laboratory (STIL BAS). Its basic part is an ionization camera, filled in with NO. The scientific data analysis will include raw data reduction, radiative transfer simulations, temperature retrieval as well as co-analysis with other parameters, measured near the polar summer mesopause. This project is a scientific cooperation between STIL-BAS, Stara Zagora Department and the Atmospheric Physics Group at the Department of Meteorology (MISU), Stockholm University, Sweden. The joint project is part from the rocket experiment HotPay I, in the ALOMAR eARI Project, EU's 6th Framework Programme, Andoya Rocket Range, Andenes, Norway.

  12. Parabolic solar cooker: Cooking with heat pipe vs direct spiral copper tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Omotoyosi O.; Dobson, Robert T.

    2016-05-01

    Cooking with solar energy has been seen by many researchers as a solution to the challenges of poverty and hunger in the world. This is no exception in Africa, as solar coking is viewed as an avenue to eliminate the problem of food insecurity, insufficient energy supply for household and industrial cooking. There are several types of solar cookers that have been manufactured and highlighted in literature. The parabolic types of solar cookers are known to reach higher temperatures and therefore cook faster. These cookers are currently being developed for indoor cooking. This technology has however suffered low cooking efficiency and thus leads to underutilization of the high heat energy captured from the sun in the cooking. This has made parabolic solar cookers unable to compete with other conventional types of cookers. Several methods to maximize heat from the sun for indirect cooking has been developed, and the need to improve on them of utmost urgency. This paper investigates how to optimize the heat collected from the concentrating types of cookers by proposing and comparing two types of cooking sections: the spiral hot plate copper tube and the heat pipe plate. The system uses the concentrating solar parabolic dish technology to focus the sun on a conical cavity of copper tubes and the heat is stored inside an insulated tank which acts both as storage and cooking plate. The use of heat pipes to transfer heat between the oil storage and the cooking pot was compared to the use of a direct natural syphon principle which is achieved using copper tubes in spiral form like electric stove. An accurate theoretical analysis for the heat pipe cooker was achieved by solving the boiling and vaporization in the evaporator side and then balancing it with the condensation and liquid-vapour interaction in the condenser part while correct heat transfer, pressure and height balancing was calculated in the second experiment. The results show and compare the cooking time, boiling

  13. Sensitivity analysis of numerical weather prediction radiative schemes to forecast direct solar radiation over Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukkavilli, S. K.; Kay, M. J.; Taylor, R.; Prasad, A. A.; Troccoli, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Solar Energy Forecasting System (ASEFS) project requires forecasting timeframes which range from nowcasting to long-term forecasts (minutes to two years). As concentrating solar power (CSP) plant operators are one of the key stakeholders in the national energy market, research and development enhancements for direct normal irradiance (DNI) forecasts is a major subtask. This project involves comparing different radiative scheme codes to improve day ahead DNI forecasts on the national supercomputing infrastructure running mesoscale simulations on NOAA's Weather Research & Forecast (WRF) model. ASEFS also requires aerosol data fusion for improving accurate representation of spatio-temporally variable atmospheric aerosols to reduce DNI bias error in clear sky conditions over southern Queensland & New South Wales where solar power is vulnerable to uncertainities from frequent aerosol radiative events such as bush fires and desert dust. Initial results from thirteen years of Bureau of Meteorology's (BOM) deseasonalised DNI and MODIS NASA-Terra aerosol optical depth (AOD) anomalies demonstrated strong negative correlations in north and southeast Australia along with strong variability in AOD (~0.03-0.05). Radiative transfer schemes, DNI and AOD anomaly correlations will be discussed for the population and transmission grid centric regions where current and planned CSP plants dispatch electricity to capture peak prices in the market. Aerosol and solar irradiance datasets include satellite and ground based assimilations from the national BOM, regional aerosol researchers and agencies. The presentation will provide an overview of this ASEFS project task on WRF and results to date. The overall goal of this ASEFS subtask is to develop a hybrid numerical weather prediction (NWP) and statistical/machine learning multi-model ensemble strategy that meets future operational requirements of CSP plant operators.

  14. A DIRECT METHOD TO DETERMINE THE PARALLEL MEAN FREE PATH OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES WITH ADIABATIC FOCUSING

    SciTech Connect

    He, H.-Q.; Wan, W. E-mail: wanw@mail.iggcas.ac.cn

    2012-03-01

    The parallel mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which is determined by physical properties of SEPs as well as those of solar wind, is a very important parameter in space physics to study the transport of charged energetic particles in the heliosphere, especially for space weather forecasting. In space weather practice, it is necessary to find a quick approach to obtain the parallel mean free path of SEPs for a solar event. In addition, the adiabatic focusing effect caused by a spatially varying mean magnetic field in the solar system is important to the transport processes of SEPs. Recently, Shalchi presented an analytical description of the parallel diffusion coefficient with adiabatic focusing. Based on Shalchi's results, in this paper we provide a direct analytical formula as a function of parameters concerning the physical properties of SEPs and solar wind to directly and quickly determine the parallel mean free path of SEPs with adiabatic focusing. Since all of the quantities in the analytical formula can be directly observed by spacecraft, this direct method would be a very useful tool in space weather research. As applications of the direct method, we investigate the inherent relations between the parallel mean free path and various parameters concerning physical properties of SEPs and solar wind. Comparisons of parallel mean free paths with and without adiabatic focusing are also presented.

  15. Air mass 1.5 global and direct solar simulation and secondary reference cell calibration using a filtered large area pulsed solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral mismatch between a solar simulator and a desired spectrum can result in nearly 20 percent measurement error in the output of photovoltaic devices. This occurs when a crystalline silicon cell monitors the intensity of an unfiltered large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS) simulating the ASTM air mass 1.5 direct spectrum and the test device is amorphous silicon. The LAPSS spectral irradiance is modified with readily available glass UV filters to closely match either the ASTM air mass 1.5 direct or global spectrum. Measurement error is reduced to about 1 percent when using either filter if the reference cell and test device are the same general type.

  16. Using Galaxy Simulations to Examine Dark Matter in the Solar Neighborhood with Implications for Direct Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloane, Jonathan D.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments aiming for the direct detection of dark matter have made great progress in recent years in exploring the WIMP mass - cross section parameter space. These experimental results are highly dependent on the assumed dark matter velocity distribution. I will show results comparing the conventional Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution to the dark matter velocity distribution in the Solar neighborhood from both dark matter-only simulations and simulations which include dark matter, gas, and stellar physics. It is well established that dark matter-only simulations do not support the Maxwell-Boltzmann assumption. I show that the inclusion of gas and stellar physics alters the dark matter velocity distribution in simulated Milky Way analogue galaxies. Further, I will examine the dependence of the dark matter velocity distribution on halo mass and resolution. The impact of observed differences between these distributions on selected direct detection results will be shown. I will also discuss the origins of the differences between the velocity distributions.

  17. Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells: Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: 1366 is developing a process to reduce the cost of solar electricity by up to 50% by 2020—from $0.15 per kilowatt hour to less than $0.07. 1366’s process avoids the costly step of slicing a large block of silicon crystal into wafers, which turns half the silicon to dust. Instead, the company is producing thin wafers directly from molten silicon at industry-standard sizes, and with efficiencies that compare favorably with today’s state-of-the-art technologies. 1366’s wafers could directly replace wafers currently on the market, so there would be no interruptions to the delivery of these products to market. As a result of 1366’s technology, the cost of silicon wafers could be reduced by 80%.

  18. Direct-bonded four-junction GaAs solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingman, Shen; Lijie, Sun; Kaijian, Chen; Wei, Zhang; Xunchun, Wang

    2015-06-01

    Direct wafer bonding technology is able to integrate two smooth wafers and thus can be used in fabricating III-V multijunction solar cells with lattice mismatch. In order to monolithically interconnect between the GaInP/GaAs and InGaAsP/InGaAs subcells, the bonded GaAs/InP heterojunction must be a highly conductive ohmic junction or a tunnel junction. Three types of bonding interfaces were designed by tuning the conduction type and doping elements of GaAs and InP. The electrical properties of p-GaAs (Zn doped)/n-InP (Si doped), p-GaAs (C doped)/n-InP (Si doped) and n-GaAs (Si doped)/n-InP (Si doped) bonded heterojunctions were analyzed from the I-V characteristics. The wafer bonding process was investigated by improving the quality of the sample surface and optimizing the bonding parameters such as bonding temperature, bonding pressure, bonding time and so on. Finally, GaInP/GaAs/InGaAsP/InGaAs 4-junction solar cells have been prepared by a direct wafer bonding technique with the high efficiency of 34.14% at the AM0 condition (1 Sun). Project supported by the Shanghai Rising-Star Program (No. 14QB1402800).

  19. Direct and Inverse Cascades in the Acceleration Region of the Fast Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Alfvén waves are believed to play an important role in the heating and acceleration of the fast solar wind emanating from coronal holes. Nonlinear interactions between the dominant {{\\boldsymbol{z}}}+ waves and minority {{\\boldsymbol{z}}}- waves have the potential to transfer wave energy either to smaller perpendicular scales (“direct cascade”) or to larger scales (“inverse cascade”). In this paper we use reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations to investigate how the cascade rates {ε }+/- depend on perpendicular wavenumber and radial distance from the Sun center. For models with a smooth background atmosphere, we find that an inverse cascade ({ε }+< 0) occurs for the dominant waves at radii between 1.4 and 2.5 {R}ȯ and dimensionless wavenumbers in the inertial range (15< {a}\\perp < 44), and a direct cascade ({ε }+> 0) occurs elsewhere. For a model with density fluctuations, there are multiple regions with an inverse cascade. In both cases, the cascade rate {ε }+ varies significantly with perpendicular wavenumber, indicating that the cacsade is a highly nonlocal process. As a result of the inverse cascades, the energy dissipation rates are much lower than expected from a phenomenological model and are insufficient to maintain the temperature of the background atmosphere. We conclude that RMHD models are unable to reproduce the observed properties of the fast solar wind.

  20. VLA Observations of Solar Decimetric Spike Bursts: Direct Signature of Accelerated Electrons in Reconnection Outflow Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Bastian, T.; Gary, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    Solar decimetric spike bursts, which appear in a radio dynamic spectrum as a cluster of short-lived and narrowband brightenings, have been suggested as a possible signature of many, "elementary" particle accelerations at or near a magnetic reconnection site. Their dynamic spectral feature can be potentially used to diagnose important parameters of the reconnection site such as plasma density and spatial size of the fragmentation. Yet direct observational evidence supporting this scenario has been elusive mainly due to the lack of imaging observations. The upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) provides the first opportunity of performing simultaneous radio imaging and dynamic spectroscopy, which allows radio sources to be imaged at every spatio-temporal pixel in the dynamic spectrum. Here we report Jansky VLA observations of decimetric spike bursts recorded during an eruptive solar limb flare. Combined with EUV and X-ray data from SDO and RHESSI, we show that the spike bursts coincide spatially with a loop-top hard X-ray source, which are located in a region where supra-arcade downflows meet the underlying hot, EUV/X-ray loops. We interpret the observed spike bursts as a direct signature of non-thermal electrons accelerated by turbulences and/or shocks in the reconnection outflow region.

  1. Subaru Direct Imaging Survey of Wide-Orbit Exoplanets and Solar-System-Scale Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Motohide

    2015-08-01

    SEEDS (Strategic Explorations of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru) is the first Subaru Strategic Program, whose aim is to conduct a direct imaging survey for giant planets as well as protoplanetary/debris disks at a few to a few tens of AU region around 500 nearby solar-type or more massive young stars devoting 120 Subaru nights for 5 years from 2009. The targets are composed of five categories spanning the ages of ~1 Myr to ~1 Gyr. Some RV-planet targets with older ages are also observed. We describe this survey and present its main results. The topics include (1) statistic of wide-orbit planets, (2) detection and characterization of one of the most lowest-mass planet via direct imaging. (3) detection of a super-Jupiter around the most massive star ever imaged, (4) detection of companions around retrograde exoplanet, (5) the discovery of unprecedentedly detailed structures of more than a dozen of protoplanetary disks and some debris disks. The detected structures such as wide gaps and spirals arms of a Solar-system scale could be signpost of planet.

  2. Directivity Patterns of Complex Solar Type III Radio Bursts: Stereoscopic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, T.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Complex solar type III-like radio bursts are a group of type III bursts that occur in association with slowly drifting type II radio bursts excited by coronal mass ejection (CME) driven shock waves. We presentsimultaneous observations of these radio bursts from the STEREO A, B and WIND spacecraft at low frequencies, located at different vantage points in the ecliptic plane. Using these stereoscopic observations, wedetermine the directivity of these complex radio bursts. We estimate the angles between the directions of the magnetic field at the sources and the lines connecting the source to the spacecraft (viewing angles) by assuming that the sources are located on the Parker spiral magnetic field lines emerging from the associated active regions into the spherically symmetric solar atmosphere. We estimate the normalized peak intensities of these bursts (directivity factors) at each spacecraft using their time profiles at each spacecraft. These observations indicate that the complex type III bursts can be divided into two groups: (1) bursts emitting into a very narrow cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field, and (2) bursts emitting into a wider cone. We show that the bursts , which are emitted along the tangent to the spiral magnetic field lines at the source are very intense, and their intensities steadily fall as the viewing angles increase to higher values. We have developed a ray tracing code and computed the distributions of the trajectories of rays emitted at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency. The comparison of the observed emission patterns with the computed distributions of the ray trajectories indicate that the intense bursts visible in a narrow range of angles around the magnetic field directions probably are emitted in the fundamental mode, whereas the relativelyweaker bursts visible to a wide range of angles are probably emitted in the harmonic mode.

  3. [Pelvic floor and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fritel, X

    2010-05-01

    Congenital factor, obesity, aging, pregnancy and childbirth are the main risk factors for female pelvic floor disorders (urinary incontinence, anal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, dyspareunia). Vaginal delivery may cause injury to the pudendal nerve, the anal sphincter, or the anal sphincter. However the link between these injuries and pelvic floor symptoms is not always determined and we still ignore what might be the ways of prevention. Of the many obstetrical methods proposed to prevent postpartum symptoms, episiotomy, delivery in vertical position, delayed pushing, perineal massage, warm pack, pelvic floor rehabilitation, results are disappointing or limited. Caesarean section is followed by less postnatal urinary incontinence than vaginal childbirth. However this difference tends to disappear with time and following childbirth. Limit the number of instrumental extractions and prefer the vacuum to forceps could reduce pelvic floor disorders after childbirth. Ultrasound examination of the anal sphincter after a second-degree perineal tear is useful to detect and repair infra-clinic anal sphincter lesions. Scientific data is insufficient to justify an elective cesarean section in order to avoid pelvic floor symptoms in a woman without previous disorders.

  4. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  5. Solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell using polyoxometalates as photocatalyst and charge carrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Liu, Mengjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cai, Hongli; Deng, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    The current polymer-exchange membrane fuel cell technology cannot directly use biomass as fuel. Here we present a solar-induced hybrid fuel cell that is directly powered with natural polymeric biomasses, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, and even switchgrass and wood powders. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates as the photocatalyst and charge carrier to generate electricity at low temperature. This solar-induced hybrid fuel cell combines some features of solar cells, fuel cells and redox flow batteries. The power density of the solar-induced hybrid fuel cell powered by cellulose reaches 0.72 mW cm(-2), which is almost 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells and is close to that of the best microbial fuel cells reported in literature. Unlike most cell technologies that are sensitive to impurities, the cell reported in this study is inert to most organic and inorganic contaminants present in the fuels.

  6. Solar-induced direct biomass-to-electricity hybrid fuel cell using polyoxometalates as photocatalyst and charge carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Liu, Mengjie; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cai, Hongli; Deng, Yulin

    2014-02-01

    The current polymer-exchange membrane fuel cell technology cannot directly use biomass as fuel. Here we present a solar-induced hybrid fuel cell that is directly powered with natural polymeric biomasses, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, and even switchgrass and wood powders. The fuel cell uses polyoxometalates as the photocatalyst and charge carrier to generate electricity at low temperature. This solar-induced hybrid fuel cell combines some features of solar cells, fuel cells and redox flow batteries. The power density of the solar-induced hybrid fuel cell powered by cellulose reaches 0.72 mW cm-2, which is almost 100 times higher than cellulose-based microbial fuel cells and is close to that of the best microbial fuel cells reported in literature. Unlike most cell technologies that are sensitive to impurities, the cell reported in this study is inert to most organic and inorganic contaminants present in the fuels.

  7. An introduction to thermodynamics of renewable cycles for direct solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhodolsky, A.T.

    1998-07-01

    Mechanical energy is known to be converted into thermal form (heat) without any restriction. Any opposite conversion of heat into mechanical energy owing to work produced in the heat engines has been restricted by principle of Carnot. This communication is to introduce into the elements of thermodynamics for direct energy conversion of light into mechanical energy. The aim is to explain: why without any machines, the efficiency of conversion is able to be by many orders of magnitude greater than the efficiency of direct mechanical action of light given in framework of equilibrium radiation thermodynamics. The development of such a concept is to find out an actual fundamental restriction for the maximum conversion available in several new solar renewable technologies for both direct generation of mechanical vibrations and for extraction of pure water from mixtures owing to self-organization of heat cycles. In order to involve solar light under non-equilibrium with respect to matter as a motive power within thermodynamics, the principle of Carnot for heat engines is assumed to be also valid for renewable processes (cycles). The absorbing part of condensed matter by optical pumping is considered as a heat source for production of entropy by heat-transfer into dark surrounding that plays role of heat sink. Principle of Carnot is used together with common accepted definition of non-equilibrium entropy in order to describe the excitement of heat source and its next relaxation. The new formulation of Carnot theorem and fundamental maximum of renewable conversion is derived. The simplest system of two equal bodies with difference temperatures is considered to show how to find the maximum energy available for renewable conversion. The major difference between equilibrium (reversible) thermodynamics and proposed renewable (non-equilibrium) approach is discussed on this example together with a typical mathematical paradox.

  8. Anisotropy and minimum variance directions of solar wind fluctuations in the outer heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Larry W.; Roberts, D. Aaron; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    1991-01-01

    Voyager 2 magnetic field and plasma data are examined over time intervals of 1 to 12 hours in the heliospheric range of 1 to 10 AU to study the evolution of the anisotropy of solar wind fluctuations. Consistent with previous results, the directions of minimum variance vectors of magnetic fluctuations are found to be close to the mean magnetic field direction with an increasing component along the field at larger scales. At large radial distances there is more spread in the minimum variance directions than at smaller radial distances. The power in smaller-scale fluctuations in the magnetic field components perpendicular to the local mean field B(0) is in the ratio of about 5:1 near 1 AU at the scale of 1 hour but decreases to about 3:1 further out. No evidence for selective enhancement of out-of-the-ecliptic components of fluctuations is found. In contrast to results for field fluctuations, analysis of velocity fluctuations shows that the minimum variance direction systematically remains more radially oriented and becomes increasingly less oriented along B(0) with increasing heliocentric distance. The velocity fluctuations are generally more isotropic than the magnetic fluctuations. The observations cannot be explained by a superposed wave picture, and thus are consistent with the view that nonlinear turbulent evolution is responsible for the anisotropy in the fluctuations.

  9. Correcting the Science Record: Direct Stratospheric Injection vs. Asian Monsoon and the Solar Escalator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, M. D.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Kablick, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Two entries in the literature in 2012 make provocative but unsupportable claims regarding pollutant pathways from the Earth to the stratosphere. One claims the 13 June 2011 Nabro volcano (Eritrea) emitted gases and particles into the troposphere, and these constituents reached the stratosphere in great abundance via the Asian Monsoon circulation [Bourassa et al., 2012]. The other claims that smoke from the Black Saturday fire storms (Australia) was emitted into the troposphere, and was lofted ~15 km into the stratosphere by solar-induced diabatic heating [de Laat et al., 2012]. In both cases the stratospheric plumes attributed to these events spread around the globe and lasted for months. We will show that in both cases the postulated pathways are incorrect; the correct pathway is a direct convective injection by volcanic eruption and pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb), respectively. We will present satellite data that will unambiguously reveal multiple, distinct stratospheric volcano-convection columns from Nabro connected to height-resolved volcanic SO2 and sulfate particles. In the case of Black Saturday we will characterize the pyroCb columns with ground-based radar and satellite imagery. The young pyroCb plume in the stratosphere will be characterized with a synergistic analysis of several NASA A-Train passive and active remote sensors. We will discuss the implications of our findings with respect to how satellite-based data are best used for tracking and characterizing point source injection plumes in the stratosphere. Bourassa et al. (2012), Large Volcanic Aerosol Load in the Stratosphere Linked to Asian Monsoon Transport, Science, 337, 78, DOI: 10:1126/Science.1219371 de Laat, et al. (2012), A solar escalator: Observational evidence of the self-lifting of smoke and aerosols by absorption of solar radiation in the February 2009 Australian Black Saturday plume, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D04204, doi:10.1029/2011JD017016.

  10. Carbon concentration and particle precipitation during directional solidification of multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lijun; Nakano, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2008-04-01

    The content and uniformity of carbon and silicon carbide (SiC) precipitates have an important impact on the efficiency of solar cells made of multicrystalline silicon. We established a dynamic model of SiC particle precipitation in molten silicon based on the Si-C phase diagram. Coupling with a transient global model of heat transfer, computations were carried out to clarify the characteristics of carbon segregation and particle formation in a directional solidification process for producing multicrystalline silicon for solar cells. The effects of impurity level in silicon feedstock and solidification process conditions on the distributions of substitutional carbon and SiC precipitates in solidified silicon ingots were investigated. It was shown that the content of SiC particles precipitated in solidified ingots increases markedly in magnitude as well as in space with increase in carbon concentration in silicon feedstock when it exceeds 1.26×10 17 atoms/cm 3. The distribution of SiC precipitates can be controlled by optimizing the process conditions. SiC precipitates are clustered at the center-upper region in an ingot solidified in a fast-cooling process but at the periphery-upper region for a slow-cooling process.

  11. Solar UV-B in tropical forest gaps: Analysis using direct and diffuse radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M.

    1995-06-01

    Experiments with natural levels of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) have recently shown inhibition of the growth of some tropical forest tree seedlings. A knowledge of forest radiation environments is needed to help assess UV-B effects in natural situations. Although forest canopies strongly attenuate solar radiation, treefall gaps provide a very different radiation environment. We simultaneously measured both UV-B and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in forest gaps on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Outside the forest, UV-B is predominately diffuse even under clear sky conditions. In sunflecks of small forest gaps, most of the UV-B was in the direct beam component. Compared to conditions outside the forest, the UV-B in these sunflecks was low relative to PAR. Shaded portions of the gap, in contrast, had proportionately high levels of UV-B relative to PAR. There are indications in the literature that relatively low UV-B levels may be effective under low PFD. Seasonal trends of PAR and UV-B in different locations in gaps can be inferred from hemispherical canopy photographs.

  12. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts. 4: Polarization, directivity and spectrum of the reflected and total bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, S. H.; Petrosian, V.

    1976-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method is described for evaluation of the spectrum, directivity and polarization of X-rays diffusely reflected from stellar photospheres. the accuracy of the technique is evaluated through comparison with analytic results. Using the characteristics of the incident X-rays of the model for solar X-ray flares, the spectrum, directivity and polarization of the reflected and the total X-ray fluxes are evaluated. The results are compared with observations.

  13. 16. STATIC TEST TOWER REMOVABLE FLOOR LEVEL VIEW OF FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STATIC TEST TOWER REMOVABLE FLOOR LEVEL VIEW OF FLOOR THAT FOLDS BACK TO ALLOW ROCKET PLACEMENT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. 16. SANDSORTING BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, MEZZANINE ON LEFT (BELOW FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, MEZZANINE ON LEFT (BELOW FLOOR ARE CONCRETE AND STORAGE BINS), LOOKING NORTH - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  15. 45. SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE, WITH CRANE AND WOODEN BLOCK FLOORING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE, WITH CRANE AND WOODEN BLOCK FLOORING. VIEW TO NORTH. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Two and Three Bedroom Units: First Floor Plan, Second Floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Two and Three Bedroom Units: First Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, South Elevation (As Built), North Elevation (As Built), East Elevation (As Built), East Elevation (Existing), North Elevation (Existing) - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. The direct effect of aerosols on solar radiation over the broader Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimas, C. D.; Hatzianastassiou, N.; Matsoukas, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Vardavas, I.

    2011-11-01

    For the first time, the direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols on solar radiation is computed over the entire Mediterranean basin, one of the most climatically sensitive world regions, by using a deterministic spectral radiation transfer model (RTM). The DRE effects on the outgoing shortwave radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA), DRETOA, on the absorption of solar radiation in the atmospheric column, DREatm, and on the downward and absorbed surface solar radiation (SSR), DREsurf and DREnetsurf, respectively, are computed separately. The model uses input data for the period 2000-2007 for various surface and atmospheric parameters, taken from satellite (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, ISCCP-D2), Global Reanalysis projects (National Centers for Environmental Prediction - National Center for Atmospheric Research, NCEP/NCAR), and other global databases. The spectral aerosol optical properties (aerosol optical depth, AOD, asymmetry parameter, gaer and single scattering albedo, ωaer), are taken from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and they are Supplemented by the Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS). The model SSR fluxes have been successfully validated against measurements from 80 surface stations of the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) covering the period 2000-2007. A planetary cooling is found above the Mediterranean on an annual basis (regional mean DRETOA = -2.4 Wm-2). Though planetary cooling is found over most of the region, up to -7 Wm-2, large positive DRETOA values (up to +25 Wm-2) are found over North Africa, indicating a strong planetary warming, as well as over the Alps (+0.5 Wm-2). Aerosols are found to increase the absorption of solar radiation in the atmospheric column over the region (DREatm = +11.1 Wm-2) and to decrease SSR (DREsurf = -16.5 Wm-2 and DREnetsurf -13.5 Wm-2) inducing thus significant atmospheric warming and surface radiative cooling

  18. Numerical and experimental investigation of direct solar crop dryer for farmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, M. W.; Habib, Khairul; Sulaiman, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    This article presents a theoretical and experimental investigation on effects of weather on direct solar crop drying technique. The SIMULINK tool was employed to analyze the energy balance equations of the transient system model. A prototype of the drying system was made and data were collected between the months of June and July in Perak, Malaysia. The contribution of intense sunny days was encouraging despite the wet season, and the wind velocity was dynamic during the period of investigation. However, high percentage of relative humidity was observed. This constitutes a hindrance to efficient drying process. The reported studies were silent on the effect of thick atmospheric moisture content on drying rate of agricultural products in tropic climate. This finding has revealed the mean values of insolation, wind speed, moisturized air, system performance efficiency and chili microscopy image morphology. The predicted and measured results were compared with good agreement.

  19. Solar silicon from directional solidification of MG silicon produced via the silicon carbide route

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rustioni, M.; Margadonna, D.; Pirazzi, R.; Pizzini, S.

    1986-01-01

    A process of metallurgical grade (MG) silicon production is presented which appears particularly suitable for photovoltaic (PV) applications. The MG silicon is prepared in a 240 KVA, three electrode submerged arc furnace, starting from high grade quartz and high purity silicon carbide. The silicon smelted from the arc furnace was shown to be sufficiently pure to be directionally solidified to 10 to 15 kg. After grinding and acid leaching, had a material yield larger than 90%. With a MG silicon feedstock containing 3 ppmw B, 290 ppmw Fe, 190 ppmw Ti, and 170 ppmw Al, blended with 50% of off grade electronic grade (EG) silicon to reconduct the boron content to a concentration acceptable for solar cell fabrication, the 99% of deep level impurities were concentrated in the last 5% of the ingot. Quite remarkably this material has OCV values higher tham 540 mV and no appreciable shorts due to SiC particles.

  20. Direct Observations of the Charge States of Low Energy Solar Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fan, C. Y.; Hovestadt, D.

    1973-01-01

    The charge states of carbon and oxygen of solar origin were measured directly in interplanetary space. At 100 keV per nucleon the C(+5)/C(+6) and O(+7)/O(+8) ratios are 1.8 and 1.6 respectively. It was found that the abundance ratios of low energy heavy nuclei to He is significantly larger than corresponding photospheric values: the enhancement of O/He is 35 and both Si/He and Fe/He are overabundant by a factor of 100. To explain these observations a mechanism is proposed which first preferentially accelerates heavy ions and is followed by either storage of these ions in the coronal regions or strong adiabatic deceleration.

  1. Direct observations of the charge states of low energy solar particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fan, C. Y.; Hovestadt, D.

    1974-01-01

    The charge states of carbon and oxygen of solar origin have been measured directly in interplanetary space. At 100 keV per nucleon the C(+5)/C(+6) and O(+7)/O(+8) ratios are 1.8 and 1.6, respectively. Abundance ratios of low energy heavy nuclei to He are found which are significantly larger than the corresponding photospheric values. The enhancement of O/He is 35, and both Si/He and Fe/He are overabundant by a factor of 100. To explain these observations a mechanism is proposed which first preferentially accelerates heavy ions and is followed by either storage of these ions in the coronal regions or strong adiabatic deceleration.

  2. Directly solar-pumped iodine laser for beamed power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Meador, W. E.; Lee, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach for development of a 50-kW directly solar-pumped iodine laser (DSPIL) system as a space-based power station was made using a confocal unstable resonator (CUR). The CUR-based DSPIL has advantages, such as performance enhancement, reduction of total mass, and simplicity which alleviates the complexities inherent in the previous system, master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) configurations. In this design, a single CUR-based DSPIL with 50-kW output power was defined and compared to the MOPA-based DSPIL. Integration of multiple modules for power requirements more than 50-kW is physically and structurally a sound approach as compared to building a single large system. An integrated system of multiple modules can respond to various mission power requirements by combining and aiming the coherent beams at the user's receiver.

  3. The response of a silicon diode designed for use as a detector for direct solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macome, M. A.; Mlatho, J. S. P.; McPherson, M.

    2007-11-01

    A low-cost direct solar radiation detector (DSRD) has been designed, characterized and calibrated. The detector was made of a simple silicon diode and then characterized with respect to spectral response, polar response and environmental stability. It was calibrated by using an Eppley normal incidence pyrheliometer (NIP) mounted on an Eppley power driven sun tracker (ST) whose axis is parallel to the Earth's axis of rotation. The DSRD and the NIP were mounted together on the ST. The results indicate that the DSRD follows the NIP very closely and can therefore be used in its place. The correlation between the DSRD and the NIP data is good with a correlation factor close to unity and a root mean square value close to zero.

  4. The New NASA-STD-4005 and NASA-HDBK-4006, Essentials for Direct-Drive Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    High voltage solar arrays are necessary for direct-drive solar electric propulsion, which has many advantages, including simplicity and high efficiency. Even when direct-drive is not used, the use of high voltage solar arrays leads to power transmission and conversion efficiencies in electric propulsion Power Management and Distribution. Nevertheless, high voltage solar arrays may lead to temporary power disruptions, through the so-called primary electrostatic discharges, and may permanently damage arrays, through the so-called permanent sustained discharges between array strings. Design guidance is needed to prevent these solar array discharges, and to prevent high power drains through coupling between the electric propulsion devices and the high voltage solar arrays. While most electric propulsion systems may operate outside of Low Earth Orbit, the plasmas produced by their thrusters may interact with the high voltage solar arrays in many ways similarly to Low Earth Orbit plasmas. A brief description of previous experiences with high voltage electric propulsion systems will be given in this paper. There are two new official NASA documents available free through the NASA Standards website to help in designing and testing high voltage solar arrays for electric propulsion. They are NASA-STD-4005, the Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Standard, and NASA-HDBK-4006, the Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Handbook. Taken together, they can both educate the high voltage array designer in the engineering and science of spacecraft charging in the presence of dense plasmas and provide techniques for designing and testing high voltage solar arrays to prevent electrical discharges and power drains.

  5. Direct laser patterning of transparent ITO-Ag-ITO multilayer anodes for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Yong Hyeon; Choi, Jiyeon; Kim, Han-Ki

    2015-02-01

    Direct laser patterning of transparent ITO-Ag-ITO (IAI) multilayer anodes is investigated using a femtosecond fiber laser for application in organic solar cells (OSC) fabrication. By adjusting laser fluence and scan speed, we successfully patterned the IAI multilayer anode without changing the electrical or optical properties. At an optimized laser fluence of 0.6 J/cm2 and a scan speed of 200 mm/s, the patterned IAI multilayer was electrically isolated with a clean edge. The metallic Ag interlayer of the IAI multilayer plays an important role in direct laser patterning because it absorbed the laser and increases the maximum temperature in the IAI multilayer. In addition, the Ag layer could effectively decrease the temperature of the IAI multilayer after irradiation of laser. The OSC fabricated on the laser patterned IAI multilayer showed power conversion efficiencies of 3.12% (Ag 8 nm) and 2.85% (Ag 12 nm). Successful operation of the OSC indicates that direct laser patterning of IAI multilayer anodes is a promising, simple patterning technology for fabrication of IAI-based OSCs.

  6. Characterisation of a smartphone image sensor response to direct solar 305nm irradiation at high air masses.

    PubMed

    Igoe, D P; Amar, A; Parisi, A V; Turner, J

    2017-06-01

    This research reports the first time the sensitivity, properties and response of a smartphone image sensor that has been used to characterise the photobiologically important direct UVB solar irradiances at 305nm in clear sky conditions at high air masses. Solar images taken from Autumn to Spring were analysed using a custom Python script, written to develop and apply an adaptive threshold to mitigate the effects of both noise and hot-pixel aberrations in the images. The images were taken in an unobstructed area, observing from a solar zenith angle as high as 84° (air mass=9.6) to local solar maximum (up to a solar zenith angle of 23°) to fully develop the calibration model in temperatures that varied from 2°C to 24°C. The mean ozone thickness throughout all observations was 281±18 DU (to 2 standard deviations). A Langley Plot was used to confirm that there were constant atmospheric conditions throughout the observations. The quadratic calibration model developed has a strong correlation between the red colour channel from the smartphone with the Microtops measurements of the direct sun 305nm UV, with a coefficient of determination of 0.998 and very low standard errors. Validation of the model verified the robustness of the method and the model, with an average discrepancy of only 5% between smartphone derived and Microtops observed direct solar irradiances at 305nm. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using the smartphone image sensor as a means to measure photobiologically important solar UVB radiation. The use of ubiquitous portable technologies, such as smartphones and laptop computers to perform data collection and analysis of solar UVB observations is an example of how scientific investigations can be performed by citizen science based individuals and groups, communities and schools.

  7. Channel Floor Yardangs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 19 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    The yardangs in this image are forming in channel floor deposits. The channel itself is funneling the wind to cause the erosion.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 4.5, Longitude 229.7 East (133.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  8. Scaling on a limestone flooring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    2012-04-01

    Natural stone can be use on nearly every surface, inside and outside buildings, but decay is more commonly reported from the ones exposed to outdoor aggressively conditions. This study instead, is an example of limestone weathering of uncertain origin in the interior of a residential building. The stone, used as flooring, started to exhibit loss of material in the form of scaling. These damages were observed before the building, localized in the South of Spain (Málaga), was inhabited. Moreover, according to the company the limestone satisfies the following European standards UNE-EN 1341: 2002, UNE-EN 1343: 2003; UNE-EN 12058: 2004 for floorings. Under these circumstances the main objective of this study was to assess the causes of this phenomenon. For this reason the composition of the mortar was determined and the stone was characterized from a mineralogical and petrological point of view. The last material, which is a fossiliferous limestone from Egypt with natural fissure lines, is mainly composed of calcite, being quartz, kaolinite and apatite minor phases. Moreover, under different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques (FTIR, micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, etc) samples of the weathered, taken directly from the buildings, and unweathered limestone tiles were examined and a new mineralogical phase, trona, was identified at scaled areas which are connected with the natural veins of the stone. In fact, through BSE-mapping the presence of sodium has been detected in these veins. This soluble sodium carbonate would was dissolved in the natural waters from which limestone was precipitated and would migrate with the ascendant capilar humidity and crystallized near the surface of the stone starting the scaling phenomenon which in historic masonry could be very damaging. Therefore, the weathering of the limestone would be related with the hygroscopic behaviour of this salt, but not with the constructive methods used. This makes the limestone unable to be used on restoration

  9. Assessment of High-Voltage Photovoltaic Technologies for the Design of a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Schneider, T.; Carruth, M. R.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    A three-year program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster system (D2HET) begun in 2001 as part of the NASA Advanced Cross-Enterprise Technology Development initiative. The system, which is expected to reduce significantly the power processing, complexity, weight, and cost over conventional low-voltage systems, will employ solar arrays that operate at voltages higher than (or equal to) 300 V. The lessons learned from the development of the technology also promise to become a stepping-stone for the production of the next generation of power systems employing high voltage solar arrays. This paper summarizes the results from experiments conducted mainly at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center with two main solar array technologies. The experiments focused on electron collection and arcing studies, when the solar cells operated at high voltages. The tests utilized small coupons representative of each solar array technology. A hollow cathode was used to emulate parts of the induced environment on the solar arrays, mostly the low-energy charge-exchange plasma (1012-1013 m-3 and 0.5-1 eV). Results and conclusions from modeling of electron collection are also summarized. The observations from the total effort are used to propose a preliminary, new solar array design for 2 kW and 30-40 kW class, deep space missions that may employ a single or a cluster of Hall- Effect thrusters.

  10. A satellite view of the direct effect of aerosols on solar radiation at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos; Papadimas, Christos D.; Matsoukas, Christos; Fotiadi, Aggeliki; Benas, Nikolaos; Vardavas, Ilias

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols are a key parameter for better understanding and predicting current and future climate change. They are determining, apart from clouds, patterns of solar radiation through scattering and absorption processes. Especially, under cloud-free skies, aerosols are the major modulator of the solar radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. Although significant improvement has been made as to better understanding the direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, there is still a need for further improvement in our knowledge of the DRE spatial and temporal patterns, in particular with respect to extended spatial and temporal coverage of relevant information. In an ongoing rapidly evolving era of great satellite-based achievements, concerning the knowledge of solar radiation budget and its modulators, and with the great progress in obtaining significant information on key aerosol optical properties needed for modeling DRE, it is a great challenge to use all this new aerosol information and to see what is the new acquired scientific knowledge. The objective of this study is to obtain an improved view of global aerosol DRE effects using contemporary accurate data for the important atmospheric and surface parameters determining the solar radiation budget, with emphasis to state of the art aerosol data. Thus, a synergy is made of different datasets providing the necessary input data and of a detailed spectral radiative transfer model (RTM) to compute spectral globally distributed aerosol DREs. Emphasis is given on using highly accurate and well-tested aerosol optical properties. Spectral information on aerosol optical depth (AOD) is taken from retrieved products of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, while similar information is taken from MODIS for the aerosol asymmetry parameter (AP) over ocean. Information from MODIS is also taken for the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA). All this information comes from the latest Collection

  11. On the relationship between cardboard burning in a sunshine recorder and the direct solar irradiance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, A.; Calbó, J.; González, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the end of XIX century, the Campbell-Stokes recorder (CSR) has been the instrument used to measure the insolation (hours of sunshine during per day). Due to the large number of records that exist worldwide (some of them extending over more than 100 years), valuable climatic information can be extracted from them. There are various articles that relate the insolation with the cloudiness and the global solar irradiation (Angstrom-Prescott type formulas). Theoretically, the insolation is defined as the number of hours that direct solar irradiance (DSI) exceeds 120 W/m2, thus corresponding to the total length of the burning in the bands. The width of the burn has not been well studied, so the aim of this research is to relate this width, first with the DSI and then, with other variables. The research was carried out in Girona (NE Spain) for a period extending since February 2011. A CSR from Thies Clima and a pyrheliometer from Kipp&Zonen were used to measure insolation and the direct solar irradiance. Other meteorological variables were also stored for the study. For each band, we made two independent measurements of the width of the burn every 10 minutes: first, we measured directly the width of the perforated portion of the burn; second, we measured the width of the burn after applying a digital image process that increases the contrast of the burn. The burn in a band has a direct relationship with the DSI. Specifically, correlation coefficients of the perforation width and the burning width with DSI were 0.838 and 0.864 respectively. However, we found that there are times when despite of DSI is as high as 400 W/m2 (i.e. much greater than 120 W/m2), there is no burn in the band. Contrarily, sometimes a burn occurs with almost no DSI. Furthermore, a higher DSI does not always correspond to a wider burn of the band. Because of this, we consider that characteristics of band burns must also depend on other meteorological variables (temperature, humidity...). The

  12. A 50-kW Module Power Station of Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Meador, W. E.; Conway, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual design of a 50 kW Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser (DSPIL) module was developed for a space-based power station which transmits its coherent-beam power to users such as the moon, Martian rovers, or other satellites with large (greater than 25 kW) electric power requirements. Integration of multiple modules would provide an amount of power that exceeds the power of a single module by combining and directing the coherent beams to the user's receiver. The model developed for the DSPIL system conservatively predicts the laser output power (50 kW) that appears much less than the laser output (93 kW) obtained from the gain volume ratio extrapolation of experimental data. The difference in laser outputs may be attributed to reflector configurations adopted in both design and experiment. Even though the photon absorption by multiple reflections in experimental cavity setup was more efficient, the maximum secondary absorption amounts to be only 24.7 percent of the primary. However, the gain volume ratio shows 86 percent more power output than theoretical estimation that is roughly 60 percent more than the contribution by the secondary absorption. Such a difference indicates that the theoretical model adopted in the study underestimates the overall performance of the DSPIL. This fact may tolerate more flexible and radical selection of design parameters than used in this design study. The design achieves an overall specific power of approximately 5 W/kg and total mass of 10 metric tons.

  13. Thermal analysis of a solar pond power plant operated with a direct contact boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonn, A.; Letan, R.

    1981-11-01

    A solar pond power plant operated with a direct contact boiler was thermally analyzed. A binary cycle system of concentrated brine, and an organic working fluid were considered. Brine temperature of 80 C, condensation at 30 C, a 75 percent efficient turbine, and 70 percent efficient pumps were specified for the analysis. The current study involved six working fluids: butane, pentane, hexane, and freons R113, R114, R12. Each of these fluids exhibited a maximum efficiency of the system at characteristic operating conditions of the boiler. The system efficiency increased as the boiler pressure approached that of the pond. Net electrical outputs of 7-9 percent of the heat inputs were obtained for the low pressure fluids, such as pentane, hexane, and R113. Gravity flow of brine to boiler increased these values to 8-11 percent. Solute losses in brine by direct contact in boiler were estimated for pentane, as 125 kg per year per sq km of pond, or 63 kg/MWe-year. Similar orders of magnitude are obtained for the other fluids.

  14. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS BY VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY OF THE CORONAL EMISSION LINE POLARIZATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kramar, M.; Lin, H.; Tomczyk, S. E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2016-03-10

    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments.

  15. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management.

  16. Assessing the direct occupational and public health impacts of solar radiation management with stratospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Effiong, Utibe; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Geoengineering is the deliberate large-scale manipulation of environmental processes that affects the Earth's climate, in an attempt to counteract the effects of climate change. Injecting sulfate aerosol precursors and designed nanoparticles into the stratosphere to (i.e., solar radiation management [SRM]), has been suggested as one approach to geoengineering. Although much is being done to unravel the scientific and technical challenges around geoengineering, there have been few efforts to characterize the potential human health impacts of geoengineering, particularly with regards to SRM approaches involving stratospheric aerosols. This paper explores this information gap. Using available evidence, we describe the potential direct occupational and public health impacts of exposures to aerosols likely to be used for SRM, including environmental sulfates, black carbon, metallic aluminum, and aluminum oxide aerosols. We speculate on possible health impacts of exposure to one promising SRM material, barium titanate, using knowledge of similar nanomaterials. We also explore current regulatory efforts to minimize exposure to these toxicants. Our analysis suggests that adverse public health impacts may reasonably be expected from SRM via deployment of stratospheric aerosols. Little is known about the toxicity of some likely candidate aerosols, and there is no consensus regarding acceptable levels for public exposure to these materials. There is also little infrastructure in place to evaluate potential public health impacts in the event that stratospheric aerosols are deployed for solar radiation management. We offer several recommendations intended to help characterize the potential occupation and public health impacts of SRM, and suggest that a comprehensive risk assessment effort is needed before this approach to geoengineering receives further consideration.

  17. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic-Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode.

    PubMed

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza; Bentien, Anders; Mendes, Adélio

    2016-06-13

    The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide-hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron-hole recombination.

  18. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic–Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode

    PubMed Central

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone‐2,7‐disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide‐hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron–hole recombination. PMID:27151516

  19. Coral spawn timing is a direct response to solar light cycles and is not an entrained circadian response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, A. K.; Hilton, J. D.; Vize, P. D.

    2009-09-01

    Broadcast spawning corals release gametes into the oceans with extraordinarily accurate timing. While the date of spawning is set by the lunar cycle, the hour/minute of spawning is set by the solar cycle. In this report, we describe experiments that test whether the time of spawning is regulated by an entrained biological clock or whether it is directly controlled by the solar cycle. Montastraea franksi samples were collected on the morning of the predicted spawning. Fragments from colonies were kept under three different lighting conditions and spawning monitored. The three conditions were sunset times of 0, 1 or 2 h earlier than normal. Fragments from the same colony spawned differently under these three conditions, with an early sunset causing a corresponding early shift in spawning. These results indicate that spawn timing is not controlled by a circadian rhythm and that it is directly controlled by local solar light cycle.

  20. Using direct normal irradiance models and utility electrical loading to assess benefit of a concentrating solar power plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct normal irradiance (DNI) is required to evaluate performance of concentrating solar energy systems. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of time interval (e.g. year, month, hour) on the accuracy of three different DNI models. The DNI data were measured at three different labora...

  1. Direct comparison of highly efficient solution- and vacuum-processed organic solar cells based on merocyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Nils M; Steinmann, Vera; Bürckstümmer, Hannah; Hwang, Jaehyung; Hertel, Dirk; Würthner, Frank; Meerholz, Klaus

    2010-10-01

    Identically configured bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on merocyanine dye donor and fullerene acceptor compounds (see figure) are manufactured either from solution or by vacuum deposition, to enable a direct comparison. Whereas the former approach is more suitable for screening purposes, the latter approach affords higher short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency.

  2. Modular Flooring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  3. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  4. Modelling the direct effect of aerosols in the solar near-infrared on a planetary scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianastassiou, N.; Matsoukas, C.; Fotiadi, A.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Koepke, P.; Pavlakis, K. G.; Vardavas, I.

    2007-06-01

    We used a spectral radiative transfer model to compute the direct radiative effect (DRE) of natural plus anthropogenic aerosols in the solar near-infrared (IR), between 0.85-10 μm, namely, their effect on the outgoing near-IR radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA, ΔFTOA), on the atmospheric absorption of near-IR radiation (ΔFatmab) and on the surface downward and absorbed near-IR radiation (ΔFsurf, and ΔFsurfnet, respectively). The computations were performed on a global scale (over land and ocean) under all-sky conditions, using detailed spectral aerosol optical properties taken from the Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS) supplemented by realistic data for the rest of surface and atmospheric parameters. The computed aerosol DRE, averaged over the 12-year period 1984-1995 for January and July, shows that on a global mean basis aerosols produce a planetary cooling by increasing the scattered near-IR radiation back to space by 0.48 W m-2, they warm the atmosphere by 0.37 W m-2 and cool the surface by decreasing the downward and absorbed near-IR radiation at surface by 1.03 and 0.85 W m-2, respectively. The magnitude of the near-IR aerosol DRE is smaller than that of the combined ultraviolet (UV) and visible DRE, but it is still energetically important, since it contributes to the total shortwave (SW) DRE by 22-31%. The aerosol-produced near-IR surface cooling combined with the atmospheric warming, may affect the thermal dynamics of the Earth-atmosphere system, by increasing the atmospheric stability, decreasing thus cloud formation, and precipitation, especially over desertification threatened regions such as the Mediterranean basin. This, together with the fact that the sign of near-IR aerosol DRE is sometimes opposite to that of UV-visible DRE, demonstrates the importance of performing detailed spectral computations to provide estimates of the climatic role of aerosols for the Earth-atmosphere system. This was demonstrated by sensitivity tests revealing very

  5. Detailed partial load investigation of a thermal energy storage concept for solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, M.; Hübner, S.; Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Direct steam generation enables the implementation of a higher steam temperature for parabolic trough concentrated solar power plants. This leads to much better cycle efficiencies and lower electricity generating costs. For a flexible and more economic operation of such a power plant, it is necessary to develop thermal energy storage systems for the extension of the production time of the power plant. In the case of steam as the heat transfer fluid, it is important to use a storage material that uses latent heat for the storage process. This leads to a minimum of exergy losses during the storage process. In the case of a concentrating solar power plant, superheated steam is needed during the discharging process. This steam cannot be superheated by the latent heat storage system. Therefore, a sensible molten salt storage system is used for this task. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal energy storages within the concentrating solar power area of application, a storage system for a direct steam generation plant consists of a latent and a sensible storage part. Thus far, no partial load behaviors of sensible and latent heat storage systems have been analyzed in detail. In this work, an optimized fin structure was developed in order to minimize the costs of the latent heat storage. A complete system simulation of the power plant process, including the solar field, power block and sensible and latent heat energy storage calculates the interaction between the solar field, the power block and the thermal energy storage system.

  6. Direct glass bonded high specific power silicon solar cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinetta, L. C.; Rand, J. A.; Cummings, J. R.; Lampo, S. M.; Shreve, K. P.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1991-01-01

    A lightweight, radiation hard, high performance, ultra-thin silicon solar cell is described that incorporates light trapping and a cover glass as an integral part of the device. The manufacturing feasibility of high specific power, radiation insensitive, thin silicon solar cells was demonstrated experimentally and with a model. Ultra-thin, light trapping structures were fabricated and the light trapping demonstrated experimentally. The design uses a micro-machined, grooved back surface to increase the optical path length by a factor of 20. This silicon solar cell will be highly tolerant to radiation because the base width is less than 25 microns making it insensitive to reduction in minority carrier lifetime. Since the silicon is bonded without silicone adhesives, this solar cell will also be insensitive to UV degradation. These solar cells are designed as a form, fit, and function replacement for existing state of the art silicon solar cells with the effect of simultaneously increasing specific power, power/area, and power supply life. Using a 3-mil thick cover glass and a 0.3 g/sq cm supporting Al honeycomb, a specific power for the solar cell plus cover glass and honeycomb of 80.2 W/Kg is projected. The development of this technology can result in a revolutionary improvement in high survivability silicon solar cell products for space with the potential to displace all existing solar cell technologies for single junction space applications.

  7. Integration of airborne LiDAR data and voxel-based ray tracing to determine high-resolution solar radiation dynamics at the forest floor: implications for improving stand-scale distributed snowmelt models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musselman, K. N.; Molotch, N. P.; Margulis, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Forest architecture dictates sub-canopy solar irradiance and the resulting patterns can vary seasonally and over short spatial distances. These radiation dynamics are thought to have significant implications on snowmelt processes, regional hydrology, and remote sensing signatures. The variability calls into question many assumptions inherent in traditional canopy models (e.g. Beer's Law) when applied at high resolution (i.e. 1 m). We present a method of estimating solar canopy transmissivity using airborne LiDAR data. The canopy structure is represented in 3-D voxel space (i.e. a cubic discretization of a 3-D domain analogous to a pixel representation of a 2-D space). The solar direct beam canopy transmissivity (DBT) is estimated with a ray-tracing algorithm and the diffuse component is estimated from LiDAR-derived effective LAI. Results from one year at five-minute temporal and 1 m spatial resolutions are presented from Sequoia National Park. Compared to estimates from 28 hemispherical photos, the ray-tracing model estimated daily mean DBT with a 10% average error, while the errors from a Beer's-type DBT estimate exceeded 20%. Compared to the ray-tracing estimates, the Beer's-type transmissivity method was unable to resolve complex spatial patterns resulting from canopy gaps, individual tree canopies and boles, and steep variable terrain. The snowmelt model SNOWPACK was applied at locations of ultrasonic snow depth sensors. Two scenarios were tested; 1) a nominal case where canopy model parameters were obtained from hemispherical photographs, and 2) an explicit scenario where the model was modified to accept LiDAR-derived time-variant DBT. The bulk canopy treatment was generally unable to simulate the sub-canopy snowmelt dynamics observed at the depth sensor locations. The explicit treatment reduced error in the snow disappearance date by one week and both positive and negative melt-season SWE biases were reduced. The results highlight the utility of LiDAR canopy

  8. Conversion of solar energy into electricity by using duckweed in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the possibility for conversion of solar energy into electricity on the principles of Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell (DPPFC) technology by using aquatic higher plants. Lemna minuta duckweed was grown autotrophically in specially constructed fuel cells under sunlight irradiation and laboratory lighting. Current and power density up to 1.62±0.10 A.m(-2) and 380±19 mW.m(-2), respectively, were achieved under sunlight conditions. The influence of the temperature, light intensity and day/night sequencing on the current generation was investigated. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current (at permanently connected resistance) during daytime than those through the nights, indicating the participation of light-dependent photosynthetic processes. The obtained DPPFC outputs in the night show the contribution of light-independent reactions (respiration). The electron transfer in the examined DPPFCs is associated with a production of endogenous mediator, secreted by the duckweed. The plants' adaptive response to the applied polarization is also connected with an enhanced metabolism resulting in an increase of the protein and carbohydrate intracellular content. Further investigations aiming at improvement of the DPPFC outputs and elucidation of the electron transfer mechanism are required for practical application.

  9. "Direct" measurement of sheet resistance in inter-subcell layers of multi-junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, Valery D.; Larionov, Valery R.; Pokrovskiy, Pavel V.

    2015-09-01

    The multi-junction cells are sensitive to chromatic aberrations inherent to the lens-type concentrators. At spectrally and spatially inhomogeneous distribution of incident light, considerable lateral currents flow along the inter-subcell layers causing a voltage drop across corresponding sheet resistance and, consequently, a decrease in the cell conversion efficiency. The sheet resistance unit is Ohm-per-square that corresponds to the resistance between two bar-type electrodes on the opposite sides of a thin conductive square. A method of "direct" measurement of this parameter is proposed using lasers for local illumination of the strip-in-shape parts of a rectangular-in-form tested cell. These illuminated parts play a role of electrodes for a lateral current induced by photoexitation. Wavelengths of the lasers have to be chosen to generate photocurrents independently in the neighboring subcells, as well as locally in the upper and lower ones. SPICE model of the method is analyzed and experimental results on the InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells are presented.

  10. 27. Credit JTL. Second floor, detail of Eureka horizontal wheat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Credit JTL. Second floor, detail of Eureka horizontal wheat scourer, by S. Howes Co., (Silver Creek, NY). After leaving scourer, grain passed directly to the Midget Marvel Machine. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  11. First floor corridor, looking west towards the lobby. The entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First floor corridor, looking west towards the lobby. The entrance to the display area (room 101) is located directly behind the camera - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  12. High-Voltage High-Energy Stretched Lens Array Square-Rigger (SLASR) for Direct-Drive Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; O'Neill, Mark J.; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Development is underway on a unique high-voltage, high energy solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array Square-Rigger (SLASR) for direct drive electric propulsion. The SLASR performance attributes closely match the critical needs of solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems, which may be used for space tugs to fuel efficiently transport cargo from low earth orbit (LEO) to low lunar orbit (LLO), in support of NASA's robotic and human exploration missions. Later SEP systems may similarly transport cargo from the earth-moon neighborhood to the Mars neighborhood. This paper will describe the SLASR technology, discuss SLASR developments and ground testing, and outline plans for future SLASR technology maturation.

  13. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    PubMed

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse.

  14. Recent Advances, Open Questions and Future Directions in Solar-Terrestrial Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daglis, I. A.; Baumjohann, W.; Geiss, J.; Orsini, S.; Sarris, E. T.; Scholer, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Vassiliadis, D.

    1998-01-01

    Solar-terrestrial research deserves the special attention of the scientific community, both because of the attractive physics underlying the various phenomena associated with them, as well as because of the applied aspect of the sometimes destructive effects of solar-terrestrial coupling on a wide variety of technological systems.

  15. Enhanced broadband and omni-directional performance of polycrystalline Si solar cells by using discrete multilayer antireflection coatings.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Jae; Chhajed, Sameer; Poxson, David J; Cho, Jaehee; Schubert, E Fred; Tark, Sung Ju; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2013-01-14

    The performance enhancement of polycrystalline Si solar cells by using an optimized discrete multilayer anti-reflection (AR) coating with broadband and omni-directional characteristics is presented. Discrete multilayer AR coatings are optimized by a genetic algorithm, and experimentally demonstrated by refractive-index tunable SiO₂ nano-helix arrays and co-sputtered (SiO₂)x(TiO₂)₁₋x thin film layers. The optimized multilayer AR coating shows a reduced total reflection, leading to the high incident-photon-to-electron conversion efficiency over a correspondingly wide range of wavelengths and incident angles, offering a very promising way to harvest more solar energy by virtually any type of solar cells for a longer time of a day.

  16. Ground-level spectral distribution of solar direct-normal irradiance and marine aerosol attenuation coefficients at Reunion Island

    SciTech Connect

    Vaxelaire, P.; Leveau, J.; Baldy, S. ); Menguy, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The ground-level spectral distribution of direct solar irradiance at Reunion Island was measured for six bands covering the spectrum of solar radiation. The measurements, distributed over one year, were made under clear sky conditions with a pyrheliometer (Eppley, NIP) and six large pass-band flat filters. Good stability of spectral irradiances as a function of solar height allows us to propose approximate relationships which significantly characterize the irradiance into each spectral band. Measurements at Reunion vary significantly from data obtained with the same apparatus in a northern hemisphere continental area (Lyon). The determination of aerosol attenuation coefficients, for different spectral bands, allows the establish of a mean curve, for these coefficients as a function of wavelength, characteristic for marine aerosols.

  17. Dark matter astrophysical uncertainties and the neutrino floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hare, Ciaran A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by direct detection faces an encroaching background due to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering. For a given WIMP mass the cross section at which neutrinos constitute a dominant background is dependent on the uncertainty on the flux of each neutrino source, principally from the Sun, supernovae or atmospheric cosmic ray collisions. However there are also considerable uncertainties with regard to the astrophysical ingredients of the predicted WIMP signal. Uncertainties in the velocity of the Sun with respect to the Milky Way dark matter halo, the local density of WIMPs, and the shape of the local WIMP speed distribution all have an effect on the expected event rate in direct detection experiments and hence will change the region of the WIMP parameter space for which neutrinos are a significant background. In this work we extend the neutrino floor calculation to account for the uncertainty in the astrophysics dependence of the WIMP signal. We show the effect of uncertainties on projected discovery limits with an emphasis on low WIMP masses (less than 10 GeV) when solar neutrino backgrounds are most important. We find that accounting for astrophysical uncertainties changes the shape of the neutrino floor as a function of WIMP mass but also causes it to appear at cross sections up to an order of magnitude larger, extremely close to existing experimental limits, indicating that neutrino backgrounds will become an issue sooner than previously thought. We also explore how neutrinos hinder the estimation of WIMP parameters and how astrophysical uncertainties impact the discrimination of WIMPs and neutrinos with the use of their respective time dependencies.

  18. Floor of Juventae Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 May 2002) Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon (250 km X 100 km) which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Vallis. Most Martian outflow channels such as Maja, Kasei, and Ares Valles begin at point sources such as box canyons and chaotic terrain and then flow unconfined into a basin region. This image captures a portion of the western floor of Juventae Chasma and shows a wide variety of landforms. Conical hills, mesas, buttes and plateaus of layered material dominate this scene and seem to be 'swimming' in vast sand sheets. The conical hills have a spur and gully topography associated with them while the flat topped buttes and mesas do not. This may be indicative of different materials that compose each of these landforms or it could be that the flat-topped layer has been completely eroded off of the conical hills thereby exposing a different rock type. Both the conical hills and flat-topped buttes and mesas have extensive scree slopes (heaps of eroded rock and debris). Ripples, which are inferred to be dunes, can also be seen amongst the hills. No impact craters can be seen in this image, indicating that the erosion and transport of material down the canyon wall and across the floor is occurring at a relatively rapid rate, so that any craters that form are rapidly buried or eroded.

  19. Interstellar flow direction from pickup ion cut-off dependence on longitude, flow and solar wind speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möbius, Eberhard; Lee, Martin A.; Drews, Christian; Gloeckler, George

    2016-03-01

    The precise interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction is important because of its strong leverage on the plane subtended by the ISN and magnetic field vectors, which controls the heliospheric shape and interaction with the interstellar medium. IBEX measurements provide a very precise relation between ISN flow longitude and speed via the hyperbolic trajectory equation, forming a 4-dimensional tube in the ISN parameter space, with substantially larger uncertainty along this tube and thus for the longitude alone. As demonstrated before, the interstellar pickup ion (PUI) cut-off speed is a function of the ratio of the radial ISN flow component and the solar wind speed at the observer location. The former is largest precisely upwind and decreases symmetrically with the angle from the upwind direction. Using this functional dependence and the observed solar wind speed, the PUI cut-off can be constructed solely as a function of the ISN flow longitude. From ACE SWICS and STEREO PLASTIC, data sets that span 18+ years are available. We will show, in particular, that by selecting observations for local interplanetary magnetic fields perpendicular to the solar wind and transforming the observed distributions into the solar wind frame, a comparison with data can be devised that is much less sensitive to PUI production and transport effects than methods that rely on pickup ion fluxes.

  20. Distributions of Direct, Reflected, and Diffuse Irradiance for Ocular UV Exposure at Different Solar Elevation Angles

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiaming; Hua, Hui; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze intensities of ocular exposure to direct (Eo,dir), reflected (Eo,refl), and diffuse (Eo,diff) ultraviolet (UV) irradiance at different solar elevation angles (SEAs), a rotating manikin and dual-detector spectrometer were used to monitor the intensity of ocular exposure to UV irradiation (Eo) and ambient UV radiation (UVR) under clear skies in Sanya, China. Eo,dir was derived as the difference between maximum and minimum measured Eo values. Eo,refl was converted from the value measured at a height of 160 cm. Eo,diff was calculated as the minimum measured Eo value minus Eo,refl. Regression curves were fitted to determine distributions of intensities and growth rates at different wavelengths and SEAs. Eo,dir differed from ambient UVR exposure. Linear, quadratic, and linear Eo,dir distributions were obtained in SEA ranges of 14°–30°, 30°–50°, and 50°–90°, respectively, with maximum Eo,dir at 32°–38° SEA. Growth rates of Eo,dir with increasing wavelength were fitted with quadratic functions in all SEA ranges. Distributions and growth rate of Eo,refl values were fitted with quadratic functions. Maximum Eo,diff was achieved at the same SEA for all fitted quadratic functions. Growth rate of Eo,diff with increasing wavelength was fitted with a linear function. Eo,dir distributions were fitted with linear or quadratic functions in different SEA ranges. All Eo,refl and Eo,diff distributions were fitted with quadratic functions. As SEA increased, the Eo,dir portion of Eo increased and then decreased; the Eo,refl portion increased from an initial minimum; and the Eo,diff portion first decreased and then increased. The findings may provide data supporting on construction of a mathematical model of ocular UV exposure. PMID:27846278

  1. Direct evidence for solar wind control of Jupiter's hectometer-wavelength radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Barrow, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind close to Jupiter, by the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1978 and 1979, are compared with the hectometer wavelength radio emission from the planet. A significant positive correlation is found between variations in the solar wind plasma density at Jupiter and the level of Jovian radio emission output. During the 173-day interval studied for the Voyager 2 data, the radio emission displayed a long term periodicity of about 13 days, identical to that shown by the solar wind density at Jupiter and consistent with the magnetic sector structure association already proposed for groundbased observations of the decameter wavelength emission.

  2. 4. STAIR, FROM SECOND FLOOR TO THIRD FLOOR, FROM NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STAIR, FROM SECOND FLOOR TO THIRD FLOOR, FROM NORTHEAST. Plan of stair is elliptical, the inside well measuring 54' on major axis and 14' on minor axis. ALSO NOTE HIGH REEDED WAINSCOT - Saltus-Habersham House, 802 Bay Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  3. 18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH BLOCKS AND PULLEYS OVERHEAD LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  4. Floor Plans: Section "AA", Section "BB"; Floor Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B"; Floor Framing Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  5. VIEW OF WIDE STAIR TO SECOND FLOOR FROM GROUND FLOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WIDE STAIR TO SECOND FLOOR FROM GROUND FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast iron bases for oil butts (oil butts removed when lighthouse lamp was converted to electric power.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  7. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  8. Concentric Crater Floor Deposits in Daedalia Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 September 2003

    Concentric crater floor deposits in Daedalia Planum. Lava flows appear to be converging on this crater from the northeast as well as on the crater floor. The concentric floor deposits may be the result of exposed and eroded layers of sediment that make up the crater floor.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -22.3, Longitude 221.5 East (138.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Transabdominal preperitoneal floor repair.

    PubMed

    Felix, E L; Michas, C A; McKnight, R L

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach to inguinal hernia repair which dissected the entire inguinal floor and repaired the indirect, direct, and femoral areas in all patients without tension. In our series, 183 patients had 205 hernia repairs and were followed for more than 6 months. Of this group, 128 hernias were indirect, 55 direct, 22 pantaloon, 26 recurrent, and 22 bilateral. All 12 females and the first 11 males had a single-buttress repair with polypropylene mesh. The other 160 male patients had a double-buttress repair. With median follow-up of 12 months, ranging from 6 to 21 months, no recurrences were found. Patients returned to normal activity in an average of 1 week. Dissection and buttressing of the entire inguinal floor with mesh appeared to solve the problem of early recurrence first seen in laparoscopic herniorrhaphy.

  10. Direct thermal water splitting by concentrated solar radiation for hydrogen production. Phase O: Proof of concept experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genequand, P.

    1980-01-01

    The direct production of hydrogen from water and solar energy concentrated into a high temperature aperture is described. A solar powered reactor able to dissociate water vapor and to separate the reaction product at high temperature was developed, and direct water splitting has been achieved in a laboratory reactor. Water vapor and radiative heating from a carbon dioxide laser are fed into the reactor, and water vapor enriched in hydrogen and water vapor enriched in oxygen are produced. The enriched water vapors are separated through a separation membrane, a small disc of zirconium dioxide heated to a range of 1800 k to 2800 k. To avoid water vapor condensation within the reactor, the total pressure within the reactor was limited to 0.15 torr. A few modifications would enable the reactor to be operated at an increased pressure of a few torrs. More substantial modifications would allow for a reaction pressure of 0.1 atmosphere.

  11. The Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, F. T.; Schultz, A.; Gupta, M.; Powers, L.; Klinkhammer, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System (MSMS) is a technology development project that is designed to enable fundamental research into understanding the potential for and limits to chemolithoautotrophic life. This is life within which inorganic carbon is converted to organic carbon and where only inorganic compounds serve as electron acceptors and electron donors. Such life forms are postulated to be capable of surviving in a Europan ocean. If we can prove that such life forms exist on Earth it would provide credence to the hypothesis that they might exist on other planets or moons in our Solar System. It has been hypothesized that one environment which might foster such life is associated with sub-seafloor hydrothermal vent structures. The goal of the MSMS project is to develop an instrument capable of testing this hypothesis. The MSMS instrument is an evolution of a sea floor monitoring system developed by Dr. Adam Schultz. Its design is the result of many generations of hardware and dive programs. Medusa provides the capability to measure and sample effluent and influent sea floor hydraulic flows associated with hydrothermal vent structures, active sea mounds, and sea floor bore holes. Through this proposal we are developing the next generation Medusa system and initiating the integration of several select chemical and biological sensors into the Medusa backbone. These sensors are an in situ flow-through spectral chemistry system, a cavity ringdown 12C/13C system, and an intrinsic fluorescence instrument. der way. This instrument can be used to target and discriminate between biological samples for automated sample collection

  12. Ocean floor boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, H D

    1979-04-13

    The base of the continental slope, combined with the concepts of a boudary zone, a technical advisory boundary commission, and special treatment for restricted seas, offers a readily attainable, natural, practicable, and equitable boundary between national and international jurisdiction over the ocean floor. There is no point in bringing into the boundary formula the unnecessary added complication of thickness of sediments, as recently proposed. Review of the U.S. offshore brings out the critical importance with respect to energy resources of proper choice of boundary principles and proper determination of the base-of-continent line about our shores. The advice of the pertinent science and technology community should urgently be sought and contributed to decisions on offshore boundaries.

  13. Floor-plan radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David G.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

    2000-07-01

    Urban-warfare specialists, law-enforcement officers, counter-drug agents, and counter-terrorism experts encounter operational situations where they must assault a target building and capture or rescue its occupants. To minimize potential casualties, the assault team needs a picture of the building's interior and a copy of its floor plan. With this need in mind, we constructed a scale model of a single- story house and imaged its interior using synthetic-aperture techniques. The interior and exterior walls nearest the radar set were imaged with good fidelity, but the distal ones appear poorly defined and surrounded by ghosts and artifacts. The latter defects are traceable to beam attenuation, wavefront distortion, multiple scattering, traveling waves, resonance phenomena, and other effects not accounted for in the traditional (noninteracting, isotropic point scatterer) model for radar imaging.

  14. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar-heated and cooled buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The procedure used was to obtain experimental performance data from a solar system using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions, develop a simulation model for the system, validate the model using the data, apply the model in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year, and estimate the life-cycle cost of the system for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

  15. Direct imaging of enhanced current collection on grain boundaries of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, JunHo; Kim, SeongYeon; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Ramanathan, Kannan; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2014-02-10

    We report on direct imaging of current collection by performing conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) measurement on a complete Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell. The localized current was imaged by milling away the top conductive layer of the device by repeated C-AFM scans. The result exhibits enhanced photocurrent collection on grain boundaries (GBs) of CIGS films, consistent with the argument for electric-field-assisted carrier collection on the GBs.

  16. Theoretical and experimental validation of evacuated tubes directly coupled with solar still

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, H. N.; Thakkar, H.

    2016-11-01

    Experimental study of evacuated tubes coupled solar still in the climatic conditions of Mehsana, a region of North Gujarat, India during summer and winter climate conditions has been made. Experimental setup was made by authors. Fourteen double-walled hard borosilicate glass tubes have been used. Evacuated tubes were inclined at angle of 45° from horizontal. Outer tubes of evacuated tubes were transparent, inner tubes were coated with a selective coating of Al-Ni/Al compound for better solar radiation absorption and minimum emittance. It has been shown that evacuated tube attachments to the solar still increased the water temperature inside the solar still for increment in the generation of distillate output. Evacuated tubes coupled solar still is not only produce distilled water during sunshine hours, but also off-sunshine hours due to heat storage effect. For the validation of the experimental results, a theoretical model is proposed based on the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer equations for solar still glass cover, water in basin and basin bottom. Two main statistical parameters—root mean square error and mean bias error—were calculated to compare the results of experiments and theoretical analysis. Closed matching of the experimental and theoretical results has been found.

  17. Advancing Solar Irradiance Measurement for Climate-Related Studies: Accurate Constraint on Direct Aerosol Radiative Effect (DARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Ji, Q. Jack

    2011-01-01

    Earth's climate is driven primarily by solar radiation. As summarized in various IPCC reports, the global average of radiative forcing for different agents and mechanisms, such as aerosols or CO2 doubling, is in the range of a few W/sq m. However, when solar irradiance is measured by broadband radiometers, such as the fleet of Eppley Precision Solar Pyranometers (PSP) and equivalent instrumentation employed worldwide, the measurement uncertainty is larger than 2% (e.g., WMO specification of pyranometer, 2008). Thus, out of the approx. 184 W/sq m (approx.263 W/sq m if cloud-free) surface solar insolation (Trenberth et al. 2009), the measurement uncertainty is greater than +/-3.6 W/sq m, overwhelming the climate change signals. To discern these signals, less than a 1 % measurement uncertainty is required and is currently achievable only by means of a newly developed methodology employing a modified PSP-like pyranometer and an updated calibration equation to account for its thermal effects (li and Tsay, 2010). In this talk, we will show that some auxiliary measurements, such as those from a collocated pyrgeometer or air temperature sensors, can help correct historical datasets. Additionally, we will also demonstrate that a pyrheliometer is not free of the thermal effect; therefore, comparing to a high cost yet still not thermal-effect-free "direct + diffuse" approach in measuring surface solar irradiance, our new method is more economical, and more likely to be suitable for correcting a wide variety of historical datasets. Modeling simulations will be presented that a corrected solar irradiance measurement has a significant impact on aerosol forcing, and thus plays an important role in climate studies.

  18. What's New in Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines some of the new equipment, chemicals, and procedures in floor care to help educational facility managers develop floor care programs and improve performance. Trends include more mechanization, higher concentrations and environmentally preferable products for cleaning, and the use of written cleaning procedures. (GR)

  19. Use of a solar panel as a directionally sensitive large-area radiation monitor for direct and scattered x-rays and gamma-rays.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Majid, S

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of a 25.4 X 91 cm solar cell panel used as an x-ray and gamma-ray radiation monitor are presented. Applications for monitoring the primary x-ray beam are described at different values of operating currents and voltages as well as for directional dependence of scattered radiation. Other applications in gamma-ray radiography are also given. The detector showed linear response to both x-ray and gamma-ray exposures. The equipment is rigid, easy to use, relatively inexpensive and requires no power supply or any complex electronic equipment.

  20. Laparoscopy for pelvic floor disorders.

    PubMed

    Van Geluwe, B; Wolthuis, A; D'Hoore, A

    2014-02-01

    Surgical treatment of pelvic floor disorders has significantly evolved during the last decade, with increasing understanding of anatomy, pathophysiology and the minimally-invasive 'revolution' of laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair requires a thorough knowledge of pelvic floor anatomy and its supportive components before repair of defective anatomy is possible. Several surgical procedures have been introduced and applied to treat rectal prolapse syndromes. Transabdominal procedures include a variety of rectopexies with the use of sutures or prosthesis and with or without resection of redundant sigmoid colon. Unfortunately there is lack of one generally accepted standard treatment technique. This article will focus on recent advances in the management of pelvic floor disorders affecting defecation, with a brief overview of contemporary concepts in pelvic floor anatomy and different laparoscopic treatment options.

  1. Evaluation of solar direct and scattered radiation over Southeast China by using Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data in clear/cloud sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weimin; Fu, Bingshan

    2003-06-01

    Based on discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattered theory, the solar direct and scattering radiation with observation band (0.29~3.0 µm) on 5 layers have been computed using the retrievals of Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) in clear/cloud sky over southeast China. The errors between the computed values of solar direct and scattered radiation derived from TOVS and that from radiosond data are then given. The purpose of this research is to show if the satellite measurements (TOVS DATA) can be directly used to estimate spatial distribution of solar radiation with observation band.

  2. Effect of sand and moisture on molten salt properties for open direct absorption solar receiver/storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlQaydi, M. S.; Delclos, T.; AlMheiri, S.; McKrell, T.; Calvet, N.

    2016-05-01

    Solar Salt (60 wt. % sodium nitrate, 40 wt. % potassium nitrate) is one candidate salt mixture for the CSPonD Demo project (Concentrated Solar Power On Demand Demonstration), ongoing collaboration between Masdar Institute and MIT. One prototype is under preparation at the Masdar Institute Solar Platform in Abu Dhabi. In this new concept, the salt will be used as an open direct absorption solar receiver integrated with a storage system so that the effects of dust/sand and moisture on the thermophysical properties have to be investigated. Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to study the thermal stability and mass loss, while a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was used to study the thermal properties and heat capacity of the salt mixture with and without sand. Considering the worst case scenario, the maximum mass loss rate at 550 °C, and in a fully open configuration, was measured to be 0.29 % per hour, around 2.34 per day of use (8 h of operation). The effect of sand was the same under nitrogen gas environment and air with moisture, which resulted in decreasing the melting temperature of the salts mixture and increasing its freezing temperature. The thermal properties remained stable even after 3 temperature cycles with impurities. Finally, the salt heat capacity increased due to the addition of 2 wt. % of sand.

  3. DIRECT SPATIAL ASSOCIATION OF AN X-RAY FLARE WITH THE ERUPTION OF A SOLAR QUIESCENT FILAMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Gordon D.; Foord, Adi

    2015-05-10

    Solar flares primarily occur in active regions. Hard X-ray flares have been found to occur only in active regions. They are often associated with the eruption of active region filaments and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). CMEs can also be associated with the eruption of quiescent filaments, not located in active regions. Here we report the first identification of a solar X-ray flare outside an active region observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The X-ray emission was directly associated with the eruption of a long, quiescent filament and fast CME. Images from RHESSI show this flare emission to be located along a section of the western ribbon of the expanding, post-eruption arcade. EUV images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly show no connection between this location and nearby active regions. Therefore the flare emission is found not to be located in or associated with an active region. However, a nearby, small, magnetically strong dipolar region provides a likely explanation for the existence and location of the flare X-ray emission. This emerging dipolar region may have also triggered the filament eruption.

  4. Modelling the direct effect of aerosols in the solar near-infrared on a planetary scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianastassiou, N.; Matsoukas, C.; Fotiadi, A.; Drakakis, E.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Koepke, P.; Pavlakis, K. G.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Vardavas, I.

    2006-09-01

    We used a spectral radiative transfer model to compute the direct radiative effect (DRE) of natural plus anthropogenic aerosols in the solar near-infrared (IR), between 0.85-10 µm, namely, their effect on the outgoing near-IR radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA, ΔFTOA), on the atmospheric absorption of near-IR radiation (ΔFatmab) and on the surface downward and absorbed near-IR radiation (ΔFsurf, and ΔFsurfnet, respectively). The computations were performed on a global scale (over land and ocean) under all-sky conditions, using spectral aerosol optical properties taken from the Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS) supplemented by realistic data for the rest of surface and atmospheric parameters. The computed aerosol DRE, averaged over the 12-year period 1984-1995 for January and July, shows that aerosols produce a planetary cooling by increasing the scattered near-IR radiation back to space (by up to 6 Wm-2), they warm the atmosphere (by up to 7 Wm-2) and cool the surface (by up to 12 Wm-2). However, they can also slightly warm the Earth-atmosphere system or cool the atmosphere (by less than 1 Wm-2) over limited areas. The magnitude of the near-IR aerosol DRE is smaller than that of the combined ultraviolet (UV) and visible DRE, but it is still energetically important, since it contributes to the total shortwave (SW) DRE by 22-31%. On a global mean basis, the DREs ΔFTOA, ΔFatmab, ΔFsurf, and ΔFsurfnet are equal to about 0.48, 0.37, -1.03 and -0.85 Wm-2, i.e. their magnitude is similar to that of climate forcing associated with increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. The aerosol induced near-IR surface cooling combined with the atmospheric warming, affects the thermal dynamics of the Earth-atmosphere system, by increasing the atmospheric stability, decreasing thus cloud formation, and precipitation, especially over desertification threatened regions such as the Mediterranean basin. This, together with the fact that the sign of near-IR aerosol DRE is

  5. Electrically-Charged Dust in the Solar System: Direct and Indirect Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2010-05-01

    Dust particles exposed the solar UV radiation and plasmas in the solar system will collect electrostatic charges. Depending on their charge-to-mass ratio, their dynamics could be perturbed or possibly dominated by electromagnetic forces. This talk will first briefly review the dominant charging processes and the resulting dynamics of dust particles where the gravitational and electromagnetic forces are of similar magnitude. In addition to the unusual dynamics of single grains, we will also explore possible dusty plasma collective effects. We will briefly tour the solar system and show unusual observations that could be best explained by exploring the physics of dust charging, and dusty plasmas. Examples will include the surfaces of airless bodies, the high-speed stream particles ejected from the magnetosphere of Jupiter, Saturn's rings, and the flow of interstellar dust through the heliosphere.

  6. Estimating nitrogen lost from forest floor during prescribed fires in Douglas-fir/western hemlock clearcuts

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.N.; Ohmann, J.L. )

    1988-03-01

    Nitrogen loss from consumption of forest floor was studied on 33 treatment blocks burned on 11 clearcuts in western Washington and western Oregon. In most cases, nitrogen concentration in forest floor did not change significantly following prescribed fire. Change in the amount of nitrogen in forest floor ranged from an increase of 192 kg/ha to a loss of 666 kg/ha. In most cases, nitrogen loss was directly proportional to the amount of forest floor consumed. Total nitrogen loss can therefore be estimated by multiplying expected loss of forest floor by its nitrogen concentration before the burn.

  7. Fiber and fabric solar cells by directly weaving carbon nanotube yarns with CdSe nanowire-based electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luhui; Shi, Enzheng; Ji, Chunyan; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yibin; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-08-21

    Electrode materials are key components for fiber solar cells, and when combined with active layers (for light absorption and charge generation) in appropriate ways, they enable design and fabrication of efficient and innovative device structures. Here, we apply carbon nanotube yarns as counter electrodes in combination with CdSe nanowire-grafted primary electrodes (Ti wire) for making fiber and fabric-shaped photoelectrochemical cells with power conversion efficiencies in the range 1% to 2.9%. The spun-twist long nanotube yarns possess both good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility compared to conventional metal wires or carbon fibers, which facilitate fabrication of solar cells with versatile configurations. A unique feature of our process is that instead of making individual fiber cells, we directly weave single or multiple nanotube yarns with primary electrodes into a functional fabric. Our results demonstrate promising applications of semiconducting nanowires and carbon nanotubes in woven photovoltaics.

  8. High-Voltage High-Energy Stretched Lens Array Square-Rigger (SLASR) for Direct-Drive Solar Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; O'Neill, Mark; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Development is underway on a unique high-voltage, high-energy solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array Square-Rigger (SLASR) for direct drive electric propulsion. The SLASR performance attributes closely match the critical needs of solar electric propulsion (SEP) systems, which may be used for space tugs to fuel-efficiently transport cargo from low earth orbit (LEO) to low lunar orbit (LLO), in support of NASA s robotic and human exploration missions. Later SEP systems may similarly transport cargo from the earth-moon neighborhood to the Mars neighborhood. This paper will describe the SLASR technology, discuss SLASR developments and ground testing, and outline plans for future SLASR technology maturation.

  9. Making A Precisely Level Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.; Walker, William H.; Cather, Jim; Burch, John B.; Clark, Keith M.; Johnston, Dwight; Henderson, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Floor-pouring procedure yields large surface level, smooth, and hard. Floor made of self-leveling, slow-curing epoxy with added black pigment. Epoxy poured to thickness no greater than 0.33 in. (0.84 cm) on concrete base. Base floor seasoned, reasonably smooth and level, and at least 4 in. (10cm) thick. Base rests on thermal barrier of gravel or cinders and contains no steel plates, dividers, or bridges to minimize thermal distortion. Metal retaining wall surrounds base.

  10. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Emmons, J. Bruce; Blessing, Leonard J.

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  11. Flooring choices for newborn ICUs.

    PubMed

    White, R D

    2007-12-01

    Floors are a major element of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) construction. They provide visual cues, sound control, and with certain materials, some degree of physical comfort for workers. Flooring materials may entail a significant cost for installation and upkeep and can have substantial ecological impact, both in the choice of the flooring itself, as well as the substances used to clean it. In this article the important aspects to consider for each factor are explored and recommendations are offered for appropriate choices in various NICU areas.

  12. Direct Observations of Magnetic Anomalies on the Lunar Surface under Varying Solar Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, A.; Wurz, P.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Futaana, Y.; Holmström, M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dhanya, M. B.; Sridharan, R.; Asamura, K.

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to Earth, the Moon does not have a global dipolar magnetic field. Since the first lunar landing with Apollo 11, we know, though, that localised magnetic fields exist on the lunar surface. Measurements conducted by the Lunar Prospector magnetometer and electron reflectometer suggested that these localised magnetic fields are able to deflect the impinging solar wind in favourable cases (Lin et al., Science 1998). Magnetohydrodynamic simulations support the implication that mini-magnetospheres are formed above the locations of strong localised magnetic fields and can hold off the impinging solar wind (Harnett and Winglee, JGR 2002). Analysis of magnetic field data from Lunar Prospector of the Reiner Gamma anomaly region showed that the distortion of the magnetic field of this anomaly strongly depends on the impinging solar wind parameters, which was interpreted that the size and shape of the mini-magnetosphere changed with the solar wind parametes (Kurata et al., GRL 2005). Wieser et al., GRL 2010 showed that SARA, the Sub-KeV Atom Analyzer on board Chandrayaan-1, is able to detect an ENA image of the mini-magnetosphere in the measured energetic neutral atom flux. Here we analysed all orbits where CENA, the Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutral Analyzer, recorded data when a magnetic anomaly was in CENA's field-of-view. Our goal was to determine if 1) a signature of the magnetic anomaly is always visible in the ENA signal and if 2) there is a correlation between the solar wind dynamic pressure, the solar wind magnetic field, the local magnetic field strength and the reduction in the reflected ENA flux. Our results show that for the simplest case, i.e., the Gerasimovich anomaly, there is indeed a clear correlation between the shielding efficiency, the magnetic field strength and the solar wind dynamic pressure. For the other observed magnetic anomalies, for which the magnetic fields are not only weaker but also spatially more variable than that of the

  13. 21. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR WAS USED FOR DEPLETED AND ENRICHED URANIUM FABRICATION. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 23. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR HOUSED ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES, THE CENTRAL COMPUTING, UTILITY SYSTEMS, ANALYTICAL LABORATORIES, AND MAINTENANCE SHOPS. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. 22. VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN. THE SECOND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN. THE SECOND FLOOR CONTAINS THE AIR PLENUM ND SOME OFFICE SPACE. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Fiber and fabric solar cells by directly weaving carbon nanotube yarns with CdSe nanowire-based electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luhui; Shi, Enzheng; Ji, Chunyan; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yibin; Wei, Jinquan; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai; Cao, Anyuan

    2012-07-01

    Electrode materials are key components for fiber solar cells, and when combined with active layers (for light absorption and charge generation) in appropriate ways, they enable design and fabrication of efficient and innovative device structures. Here, we apply carbon nanotube yarns as counter electrodes in combination with CdSe nanowire-grafted primary electrodes (Ti wire) for making fiber and fabric-shaped photoelectrochemical cells with power conversion efficiencies in the range 1% to 2.9%. The spun-twist long nanotube yarns possess both good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility compared to conventional metal wires or carbon fibers, which facilitate fabrication of solar cells with versatile configurations. A unique feature of our process is that instead of making individual fiber cells, we directly weave single or multiple nanotube yarns with primary electrodes into a functional fabric. Our results demonstrate promising applications of semiconducting nanowires and carbon nanotubes in woven photovoltaics.Electrode materials are key components for fiber solar cells, and when combined with active layers (for light absorption and charge generation) in appropriate ways, they enable design and fabrication of efficient and innovative device structures. Here, we apply carbon nanotube yarns as counter electrodes in combination with CdSe nanowire-grafted primary electrodes (Ti wire) for making fiber and fabric-shaped photoelectrochemical cells with power conversion efficiencies in the range 1% to 2.9%. The spun-twist long nanotube yarns possess both good electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility compared to conventional metal wires or carbon fibers, which facilitate fabrication of solar cells with versatile configurations. A unique feature of our process is that instead of making individual fiber cells, we directly weave single or multiple nanotube yarns with primary electrodes into a functional fabric. Our results demonstrate promising applications

  17. Dunes in a Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 6 August 2003

    This image shows the floor of a crater just north of the Argyre basin in the southern hemisphere. Dark dunes have been pushed up against the northeastern interior rim of the crater, indicating that the prevailing winds blow from the southwest.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -35.7, Longitude 324.1 East (35.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258946 . Dumoulin C, Hay-Smith J. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20091581 . Herderschee R, Hay-Smith EJC, Herbison GP, Roovers JP, Heineman MJ. Feedback ...

  19. Direct Correlation Between Film Structure and Solar Cell Efficiency for HWCVD Amorphous Silicon Germanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, A. H.; Xu, Y.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Williamson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    The film structure and H bonding of high deposition rate a-SiGe:H i-layers, deposited by HWCVD and containing {approx}40 at.% Ge, have been investigated using deposition conditions which replicate those used in n-i-p solar cell devices. Increasing the germane source gas depletion in HWCVD causes not only a decrease in solar cell efficiency from 8.64% to less than 7.0%, but also an increase in both the i-layer H preferential attachment ratio (PA) and the film microstructure fraction (R{sup {sq_bullet}}). Measurements of the XRD medium range order over a wide range of germane depletion indicate that this order is already optimum for the HWCVD i-layers, suggesting that energetic bombardment of a-SiGe:H films may not always be necessary to achieve well ordered films. Preliminary structural comparisons are also made between HWCVD and PECVD device layers.

  20. Solar cells made by laser-induced diffusion directly from phosphine gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, G. B.; Tarrant, D.; Pollock, G.; Pressley, R.; Press, R.

    1981-12-01

    A method for making p-n junctions is presented, which is based on immersion in a transparent dopant gas followed by irradiation with a pulsed laser. An alexandrite laser operating at 0.73 micron is used where photolysis of the dopant gas PH3 does not occur, and multiple pulses of 2.2-2.7 J/sq cm are used to make Si solar cells with a total area efficiency up to 8.6% without benefit of anti-reflection coatings. Use of other gases should allow p-type doping, and the spatial localization inherent in the process could make the method applicable to structures such as interdigitated solar cells, transistors, and integrated circuits.

  1. Direct conversion of light to radio frequency energy. [using photoklystrons for solar power satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Simons, S.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the test results obtained with the latest models of the phototron. The phototron was conceived as a replacement for the high voltage solar cell-high power klystron combination for the solar power satellite concept. Physically, the phototron is a cylindrical evacuated glass tube with a photocathode, two grids, and a reflector electrode in a planar configuration. The phototron can be operated either in a biased mode where a low voltage is used to accelerate the electron beam produced by the photocathode or in an unbiased mode referred to as self-oscillation. The device is easily modulated by light input or voltage to broadcast in AM or FM. The range of operation of the present test model phototrons is from 2 to 200 MHz.

  2. A direct evidence of morphological degradation on a nanometer scale in polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Christoph J; Palumbiny, Claudia M; Niedermeier, Martin A; Jendrzejewski, Christian; Santoro, Gonzalo; Roth, Stephan V; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2013-12-10

    In situ measurement of a polymer solar cell using micro grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS) and current-voltage tracking is demonstrated. While measuring electric characteristics under illumination, morphological changes are probed by μGISAXS. The X-ray beam (green) impinges on the photo active layer with a shallow angle and scatters on a 2d detector. Degradation is explained by the ongoing nanomorphological changes observed.

  3. O2 density and temperature profiles retrieving from direct solar Lyman-alpha radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guineva, V.; Witt, G.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.; Werner, R.; Hedin, J.; Neichev, S.; Kirov, B.; Bankov, L.; Gramatikov, P.; Tashev, V.; Popov, M.; Hauglund, K.; Hansen, G.; Ilstad, J.; Wold, H.

    2009-12-01

    The resonance transition 2P-2S of the atomic hydrogen (Lyman-alpha emission) is the strongest and most conspicuous feature in the solar EUV spectrum. The Lyman-alpha radiation transfer depends on the resonance scattering from the hydrogen atoms in the atmosphere and on the O2 absorption. Since the Lyman-alpha extinction in the atmosphere is a measure for the column density of the oxygen molecules, the atmospheric O2 density and temperature profiles can be calculated thereof. A detector of solar Lyman-alpha radiation was manufactured in the Stara Zagora Department of the Solar-Terrestrial Influences Laboratory (STIL). Its basic part is an ionization camera, filled in with NO. A 60 V power supply is applied to the chamber. The produced photoelectric current from the sensor is fed to a two-channel amplifier, providing analog signal. The characteristics of the Lyman-alpha detector were studied. It passed successfully all tests and the results showed that the so-designed instrument could be used in rocket experiments to measure the Lymanalpha flux. From the measurements of the detector, the Lyman-alpha vertical profile can be obtained. Programs are created to compute the O2 density, atmospheric power and temperature profiles based on Lymanalpha data. The detector design appertained to ASLAF project (Attenuation of the Solar Lyman-Alpha Flux), a scientific cooperation between STIL—Bul.Acad.Sci., Stara Zagora Department and the Atmospheric Physics Group at the Department of Meteorology (MISU), Stockholm University, Sweden. The joint project was part of the rocket experiment HotPay I, in the ALOMAR eARI Project, EU’s 6th Framework Programme, Andøya Rocket Range, Andenes, Norway. The project is partly financed by the Bulgarian Ministry of Science and Education.

  4. The First Ground Level Enhancement Event of Solar Cycle 24: Direct Observation of Shock Formation and Particle Release Heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Usoskin, I. G.; Davila, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the 2012 May 17 ground level enhancement (GLE) event, which is the first of its kind in solar cycle 24. This is the first GLE event to be fully observed close to the surface by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission.We determine the coronal mass ejection (CME) height at the start of the associated metric type II radio burst (i.e., shock formation height) as 1.38 Rs (from the Sun center). The CME height at the time of GLE particle release was directly measured from a STEREO image as 2.32 Rs, which agrees well with the estimation from CME kinematics. These heights are consistent with those obtained for cycle-23 GLEs using back-extrapolation. By contrasting the 2012 May 17 GLE with six other non-GLE eruptions from well-connected regions with similar or larger flare sizes and CME speeds, we find that the latitudinal distance from the ecliptic is rather large for the non-GLE events due to a combination of non-radial CME motion and unfavorable solar B0 angle, making the connectivity to Earth poorer. We also find that the coronal environment may play a role in deciding the shock strength.

  5. Tangential Floor in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, Leyla

    2012-01-01

    This article examines floor management in two classroom sessions: a task-oriented computer lesson and a literature lesson. Recordings made in the computer lesson show the organization of floor when a task is given to students. Temporary or "incipient" side floors (Jones and Thornborrow, 2004) emerge beside the main floor. In the literature lesson,…

  6. Radioactive Iron Rain: Transporting 60Fe in Supernova Dust to the Ocean Floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Brian J.; Fields, Brian D.; Ellis, John R.

    2016-08-01

    Several searches have found evidence of {}60{{Fe}} deposition, presumably from a near-Earth supernova (SN), with concentrations that vary in different locations on Earth. This paper examines various influences on the path of interstellar dust carrying {}60{{Fe}} from an SN through the heliosphere, with the aim of estimating the final global distribution on the ocean floor. We study the influences of magnetic fields, angle of arrival, wind, and ocean cycling of SN material on the concentrations at different locations. We find that the passage of SN material through the mesosphere/lower thermosphere has the greatest influence on the final global distribution, with ocean cycling causing lesser alteration as the SN material sinks to the ocean floor. SN distance estimates in previous works that assumed a uniform distribution are a good approximation. Including the effects on surface distributions, we estimate a distance of {46}-6+10 pc for an 8{--}10 {M}⊙ SN progenitor. This is consistent with an SN occurring within the Tuc-Hor stellar group ˜2.8 Myr ago, with SN material arriving on Earth ˜2.2 Myr ago. We note that the SN dust retains directional information to within 1◦ through its arrival in the inner solar system, so that SN debris deposition on inert bodies such as the Moon will be anisotropic, and thus could in principle be used to infer directional information. In particular, we predict that existing lunar samples should show measurable {}60{{Fe}} differences.

  7. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE FORMATION DURING A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, X.

    2014-09-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most spectacular eruptive phenomena in the solar atmosphere. It is generally accepted that CMEs are the results of eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs). However, there is heated debate on whether MFRs exist prior to the eruptions or if they are formed during the eruptions. Several coronal signatures, e.g., filaments, coronal cavities, sigmoid structures, and hot channels (or hot blobs), are proposed as MFRs and observed before the eruption, which support the pre-existing MFR scenario. There is almost no reported observation of MFR formation during the eruption. In this Letter, we present an intriguing observation of a solar eruptive event that occurred on 2013 November 21 with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory, which shows the formation process of the MFR during the eruption in detail. The process began with the expansion of a low-lying coronal arcade, possibly caused by the flare magnetic reconnection underneath. The newly formed ascending loops from below further pushed the arcade upward, stretching the surrounding magnetic field. The arcade and stretched magnetic field lines then curved in just below the arcade vertex, forming an X-point. The field lines near the X-point continued to approach each other and a second magnetic reconnection was induced. It is this high-lying magnetic reconnection that led to the formation and eruption of a hot blob (∼10 MK), presumably an MFR, producing a CME. We suggest that two spatially separated magnetic reconnections occurred in this event, which were responsible for producing the flare and the hot blob (CME)

  8. Effects of the partitioning of diffuse and direct solar radiation on satellite-based modeling of crop gross primary production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qinchuan; Gong, Peng; Suyker, Andrew E.; Si, Yali

    2016-08-01

    Modeling crop gross primary production (GPP) is critical to understanding the carbon dynamics of agro-ecosystems. Satellite-based studies have widely used production efficiency models (PEM) to estimate cropland GPP, wherein light use efficiency (LUE) is a key model parameter. One factor that has not been well considered in many PEMs is that canopy LUE could vary with illumination conditions. This study investigates how the partitioning of diffuse and direct solar radiation influences cropland GPP using both flux tower and satellite data. The field-measured hourly LUE under cloudy conditions was 1.50 and 1.70 times higher than that under near clear-sky conditions for irrigated corn and soybean, respectively. We applied a two-leaf model to simulate the canopy radiative transfer process, where modeled photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by canopy agreed with tower measurements (R2 = 0.959 and 0.914 for corn and soybean, respectively). Derived canopy LUE became similar after accounting for the impact of light saturation on leaf photosynthetic capacity under varied illumination conditions. The impacts of solar radiation partitioning on satellite-based modeling of crop GPP was examined using vegetation indices (VI) derived from MODIS data. Consistent with the field modeling results, the relationship between daily GPP and PAR × VI under varied illumination conditions showed different patterns in terms of regression slope and intercept. We proposed a function to correct the influences of direct and diffuse radiation partitioning and the explained variance of flux tower GPP increased in all experiments. Our results suggest that the non-linear response of leaf photosynthesis to light absorption contributes to higher canopy LUE on cloudy days than on clear days. We conclude that accounting for the impacts of solar radiation partitioning is necessary for modeling crop GPP on a daily or shorter basis.

  9. High-efficiency silicon solar cells - Development, current issues and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper provides a review of material, process, and design considerations that are essential for achieving high-efficiency silicon solar cells. It describes an approach that resulted in 18.0-18.5-percent-efficient cells on low-resistivity float-zone silicon material. It is shown experimentally that a combination of surface passivation and double-layer antireflection coating can provide 2-3 percent (absolute) improvement in cell efficiency provided the material, process and cell design are carefully selected.

  10. Direct-current magnetron fabrication of indium tin oxide/InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, T. J.; Wu, X.; Gessert, T. A.; Li, X.

    1988-01-01

    Efficient solar cells of indium tin oxide (ITO)/InP have been fabricated using dc magnetron deposition of the ITO into single-crystal InP substrates. Efficiencies of over 16.5 percent have been achieved, the highest ever recorded for devices of this construction. The results of studies of the annealing behavior of the cells and observations of interfacial changes using Raman spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, together with measurements of light and dark current/voltage and quantum efficiency characteristics, are used to model the behavior of the cells and explain their lack of sensitivity to fabrication conditions.

  11. Solar cells made by laser-induced diffusion directly from phosphine gas

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.B.; Tarrant, D.; Pollock, G.; Pressley, R.; Press, R.

    1981-12-15

    A new method for making p-n junctions based on immersion in a transparent dopant gas followed by irradiation with a pulsed laser is presented. An alexandrite laser was used, operating at 0.73 ..mu..m where photolysis of the dopant gas PH/sub 3/ does not occur. Multiple pulses of 2.2--2.7 J/cm/sup 2/ were used to make Si solar cells with total area efficiencies up to 8.6% without benefit of antireflection coatings.

  12. A New Direction for NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Combining Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, B.; Daou, D.; Schmidt, G.; Pendleton, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is a virtual institute focused on research at the intersection of science and exploration, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and community development. As part of the SSERVI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the larger scientific and exploration communities in order to form new interdisciplinary, research-focused collaborations. This talk will describe the research efforts of the new nine domestic teams that constitute the U.S. complement of the Institute and how we will engage the international science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships.

  13. Direct detection of extra-solar planetary systems from the ground and space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrile, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses recent work in the development of instrumentation used for the direct detection of planetary systems from ground-based and space-based observatories. Direct methods such as CCD coronagraphic imaging of nearby stars must overcome the large contrast differences between parent star and the circumstellar material. However, these methods have the advantage over indirect methods in that more advanced space-based direct detection instrumentation can lead to a significantly greater science return.

  14. Direct determination of the ionic charge distribution of heavy ions in Fe-rich solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Moebius, E.; Scholer, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    The first direct determination of the iron charge distribution in the energy range 0.3-1.0 MeV/nucleon during Fe-rich and He-3-rich solar energetic particle events is reported. The deterimination was made on the basis of ISEE-3 data for the event from August 1978 to October 1979. The enrichment of He-3 iron relative to oxygen was found to be directly correlated with the enrichment of He-3 to He-4. Average ion charge distributions were computed for: (1) He-3-rich periods which were also Fe-rich and had a He-3/He-4 ratio of 0.1 and (2) periods with a He-3/He-4 ratio of less than 0.1. It is found that the mean iron charge state for He-3-rich periods was in the range 19.5 (+ or - 1.5) and only 14 (+ or - 1) for the time periods with He-3/He-4 less than ratio of 0.1. The reduced data are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of Fisk (1978), suggesting a temperature in the source region above 5 million degrees K for Fe-rich and He-3-rich solar energetic particle events.

  15. Direct observations of plasma upflows and condensation in a catastrophically cooling solar transition region loop

    SciTech Connect

    Orange, N. B.; Chesny, D. L.; Oluseyi, H. M.; Hesterly, K.; Patel, M.; Champey, P.

    2013-12-01

    Minimal observational evidence exists for fast transition region (TR) upflows in the presence of cool loops. Observations of such occurrences challenge notions of standard solar atmospheric heating models as well as their description of bright TR emission. Using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode, we observe fast upflows (v {sub λ} ≤ –10 km s{sup –1}) over multiple TR temperatures (5.8 ≤log T ≤ 6.0) at the footpoint sites of a cool loop (log T ≤ 6.0). Prior to cool loop energizing, asymmetric flows of +5 km s{sup –1} and –60 km s{sup –1} are observed at footpoint sites. These flows, speeds, and patterns occur simultaneously with both magnetic flux cancellation (at the site of upflows only) derived from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic Magnetic Imager's line-of-sight magnetogram images, and a 30% mass influx at coronal heights. The incurred non-equilibrium structure of the cool loop leads to a catastrophic cooling event, with subsequent plasma evaporation indicating that the TR is the heating site. From the magnetic flux evolution, we conclude that magnetic reconnection between the footpoint and background field is responsible for the observed fast TR plasma upflows.

  16. Material growth and characterization directed toward improving III-V heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanakos, E. K.; Alexander, W. E.; Collis, W.; Abul-Fadl, A.

    1979-01-01

    In addition to the existing materials growth laboratory, the photolithographic facility and the device testing facility were completed. The majority of equipment for data acquisition, solar cell testing, materials growth and device characterization were received and are being put into operation. In the research part of the program, GaAs and GaA1As layers were grown reproducibly on GaAs substrates. These grown layers were characterized as to surface morphology, thickness and thickness uniformity. The liquid phase epitaxial growth process was used to fabricate p-n junctions in Ga(1-x)A1(x)As. Sequential deposition of two alloy layers was accomplished and detailed analysis of the effect of substrate quality and dopant on the GaA1As layer quality is presented. Finally, solar cell structures were formed by growing a thin p-GaA1As layer upon an epitaxial n-GaA1As layer. The energy gap corresponding to the long wavelength cutoff of the spectral response characteristic was 1.51-1.63 eV. Theoretical calculations of the spectral response were matched to the measured response.

  17. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Rocca Rossetti, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  18. Role of pelvic floor in lower urinary tract function.

    PubMed

    Chermansky, Christopher J; Moalli, Pamela A

    2016-10-01

    The pelvic floor plays an integral part in lower urinary tract storage and evacuation. Normal urine storage necessitates that continence be maintained with normal urethral closure and urethral support. The endopelvic fascia of the anterior vaginal wall, its connections to the arcus tendineous fascia pelvis (ATFP), and the medial portion of the levator ani muscles must remain intact to provide normal urethral support. Thus, normal pelvic floor function is required for urine storage. Normal urine evacuation involves a series of coordinated events, the first of which involves complete relaxation of the external urethral sphincter and levator ani muscles. Acquired dysfunction of these muscles will initially result in sensory urgency and detrusor overactivity; however, with time the acquired voiding dysfunction can result in intermittent urine flow and incomplete bladder emptying, progressing to urinary retention in severe cases. This review will start with a discussion of normal pelvic floor anatomy and function. Next various injuries to the pelvic floor will be reviewed. The dysfunctional pelvic floor will be covered subsequently, with a focus on levator ani spasticity and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Finally, future research directions of the interaction between the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract function will be discussed.

  19. Direct Versus Diffusive Access of High-Energy Solar Protons Into the High-Latitude Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouznetsov, Alexei; Knudsen, David; Spanswick, Emma; Donovan, Eric

    During solar proton events (SPEs), large fluxes of energetic protons spreading throughout the interplanetary medium (IPM)have access to the upper polar atmosphere where they play important roles in physical and chemical processes. We examine the relation between SPEs as detected through ionospheric absorption measured by the NORSTAR riometer network on one hand, and the proton fluxes measured outside the magnetosphere by the SOHO satellite on the other. We find a high correlation between SOHO fluxes and absorptions in some type of events (those having insignificant electron precipitation and background radio noise) and at given time intervals (within tens of hours following times of maximum flux ) but not others. By using a numerical simulation of high-energy proton propagation through the earth's magnetosphere we show that the flux of SPE particles reaching the upper atmosphere depends strongly on the angular distribution of the source population outside of the magnetosphere. Early in SP events, protons follow solar magnetic field lines and their distributions tend to be highly anisotropic(1), and the strong angular dependence decreases the correlation between IPM fluxes and polar cap absorption. As individual events evolve, flux angular distributions of IPM protons tend to be more isotropic(1) due to encounters with randomly distributed fields of magnetic clouds in the interplanetary medium (obtained closed solution of non-steady-state diffusion equation in P1-approximation allows us to estimate the dynamics of angular modulation). It is only when this diffusive isotropization occurs that we see strong correlations (correlation coefficients of up to 0.98) between IPM fluxes observed at SOHO and the polar cap absorptions observed by the NORSTAR riometers. We aim to use these observations to construct and validate a realistic transport model that will map proton fluxes originating outside the magnetosphere to those incident on the upper atmosphere, and vice versa

  20. Apollo 11 and 16 Soil Bi-directional Solar Reflectance Measurements, Models and LRO Diviner Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.; Shepard, M. K.; Johnson, J. R.; Biggar, S. F.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Allen, C.

    2010-12-01

    We have compared laboratory solar reflectance measurements of Apollo 11 and 16 soil samples to Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner orbital albedo measurements at the Apollo landing sites. The soil samples are two representative end member samples from the moon, low albedo lunar maria (sample 10084) and high albedo lunar highlands (sample 68810). Bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of the soil samples were conducted at Bloomsburg University (BUG) and at the University of Arizona [1,2]. We collected two different types of BUG datasets: a standard set of BRDF measurements at incidence angles of 0-60°, emission angles of 0-80°, and phase angles of 3-140°, and a high-incidence angle set of measurements along and perpendicular to the principal plane at incidence angles of 0-75° and phase angles of 3-155°. The BUG measurements generated a total of 765 data points in four different filters 450, 550, 750 and 950 nm. The Blacklab measurements were acquired at incidence angles of 60-88°, emission angles 60-82°, and phase angles of 17-93° at wavelengths of 455, 554, 699, 949nm. The BUG data were fit to two BRDF models: Hapke’s model [3] as described by Johnson et al, 2010 [4], and a simplified empirical function. The fact that both approaches can satisfactorily fit the BUG data is not unexpected, given the similarities between the functions and their input parameters, and the fact that the BRDF for dark lunar soil is dominated by the single scattering phase functions of the individual soil particles. To compare our lunar sample measurements with LRO Diviner data [5], we selected all daytime observations acquired during the first year of operation within 3 km square boxes centered at the landing sites. We compared Diviner Channel 1 (0.3 - 3 µm) Lambert albedos with model calculated Lambert albedos of the lunar samples at the same photometric angles. In general, we found good agreement between the laboratory and Diviner

  1. Thylakoid direct photobioelectrocatalysis: utilizing stroma thylakoids to improve bio-solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Minteer, Shelley D

    2014-08-28

    Thylakoid membranes from spinach were separated into grana and stroma thylakoid fractions which were characterized by several methods (pigment content, protein gel electrophoresis, photosystem activities, and electron microscopy analysis) to confirm that the intact thylakoids were differentiated into the two domains. The results of photoelectrochemical experiments showed that stroma thylakoid electrodes generate photocurrents more than four times larger than grana thylakoids (51 ± 4 nA cm(-2) compared to 11 ± 1 nA cm(-2)). A similar trend was seen in a bio-solar cell configuration with stroma thylakoids giving almost twice the current (19 ± 3 μA cm(-2)) as grana thylakoids (11 ± 2 μA cm(-2)) with no change in open circuit voltage.

  2. The roles of direct input of energy from the solar wind and unloading of stored magnetotail energy in driving magnetospheric substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostoker, G.; Akasofu, S. I.; Baumjohann, W.; Kamide, Y.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions to the substorm expansive phase of direct energy input from the solar wind and from energy stored in the magnetotail which is released in an unpredictable manner are considered. Two physical processes for the dispensation of the energy input from the solar wind are identified: (1) a driven process in which energy supplied from the solar wind is directly dissipated in the ionosphere; and (2) a loading-unloading process in which energy from the solar wind is first stored in the magnetotail and then is suddenly released to be deposited in the ionosphere. The pattern of substorm development in response to changes in the interplanetary medium has been elucidated for a canonical isolated substorm.

  3. The Search for Surviving Direct Samples of Early Solar System Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We have become increasingly aware of the fundamental importance of water, and aqueous alteration, on primitive solar-system bodies. All classes of astromaterials studied show some degree of interaction with aqueous fluids. Nevertheless, we are still lacking fundamental information such as the location and timing of the aqueous alteration and the detailed nature of the aqueous fluids. Halite crystals in two meteorite regolith breccias were found to contain aqueous fluid inclusions (brines) trapped approx. 4.5 BYBP. Heating/freezing studies of the aqueous fluid inclusions in these halites demonstrated that they were trapped near 25 C. The initial results of our O and H isotopic measurements on these brine inclusions can be explained by a simple model mixing asteroidal and cometary water. We have been analyzing solids and organics trapped alongside the brines in the halites by FTIR, C-XANES, SXRD and Raman, as clues to the origin of the water. The organics show thermal effects that span the entire range witnessed by organics in all chondrite types. Since we identified water-soluble aromatics, including partially halogenated methanol, in some of the halite, we suspected amino acids were also present, but have thus far found that levels of amino acids were undetectable (which is very interesting). We have also been locating aqueous fluid inclusions in other astromaterials, principally carbonates in CI and CM chondrites. Although we have advanced slowly towards detailed analysis of these ancient brines, since they require techniques right at or just beyond current analytical capabilities, their eventual full characterization will completely open the window onto the origin and activity of early solar system water.

  4. Near net shape processing for solar thermal propulsion hardware using directed light fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.O.; Fonseca, J.C.; Lewis, G.K.

    1998-12-01

    Directed light fabrication (DLF) is a direct metal deposition process that fuses gas delivered powder, in the focal zone of a high powered laser beam to form fully fused near net shaped components. The near net shape processing of rhenium, tungsten, iridium and other high temperature materials may offer significant cost savings compared with conventional processing. This paper describes a 3D parametric solid model, integrated with a manufacturing model, and creating a control field which runs on the DLF machine directly depositing a fully dense, solid metal, near net shaped, nozzle component. Examples of DLF deposited rhenium, iridium and tantalum, from previous work, show a continuously solidified microstructure in rod and tube shapes. Entrapped porosity indicates the required direction for continued process development. These combined results demonstrate the potential for a new method to fabricate complex near net shaped components using materials of interest to the space and aerospace industries.

  5. Pelvic Floor Ultrasound: A Review.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Hans Peter

    2017-03-01

    Female pelvic floor dysfunction encompasses a number of prevalent conditions and includes pelvic organ prolapse, urinary and fecal incontinence, obstructed defecation, and sexual dysfunction. In most cases neither etiology nor pathophysiology are well understood. Imaging has great potential to enhance both research and clinical management capabilities, and to date this potential is underutilized. Of the available techniques such as x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound, the latter is generally superior for pelvic floor imaging, especially in the form of perineal or translabial imaging. The technique is safe, simple, cheap, easily accessible and provides high spatial and temporal resolutions.

  6. Intensity-dependent direct solar radiation- and UVA-induced radical damage to human skin and DNA, lipids and proteins.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Rachel; Andrady, Carima; Kassouf, Nick; Sheppard, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Skin can be exposed to high-intensity UV-radiation in hot countries and during sunbed use; however, the free-radical damage at these intensities is unknown. We used electron spin resonance spectroscopy to measure free-radical generation in ex vivo human skin/substitutes +/- the spin-trap 5,5 dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) exposed to solar-irradiation equivalent to Mediterranean sunlight. Skin-substitutes, model DNA-photosensitizer systems, lipids and proteins were also irradiated with low-intensity UVA/visible light. Without DMPO a broad singlet was detected (using both irradiations) in skin/substitutes, nail-keratin, tendon-collagen, phospholipid and DNA+melanin or riboflavin. In addition to lipid-derived (tentatively tert-alkoxyl/acyl-) and protein radicals detected with DMPO at lower intensities, isotropic carbon-, additional oxygen- and hydrogen-adducts were detected in solar-irradiated skin/substitutes at higher intensities. Carbon-adducts were detected in UVA-irradiated human skin cells, DNA+melanin or riboflavin and soybean-phospholipid. Anisotropic protein-adducts, comparable to adducts in solar-irradiated tendon-collagen, were absent in UVA-irradiated skin fibroblasts suggesting the trapping of extracellular collagen radicals. Absence of hydrogen-adducts in fibroblasts implies formation in the extracellular compartment. We conclude damage at high intensities is part cellular (carbon- and oxygen-radicals) and part extracellular (protein- and hydrogen/H(+)+e(-) ), and skin substitutes are suitable for sunscreen testing. While UVA absorption and lipid-oxidation is direct, DNA and protein-oxidation require photosensitisation.

  7. Direct evidence of an eruptive, filament-hosting magnetic flux rope leading to a fast solar coronal mass ejection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bin; Gary, D. E.; Bastian, T. S.

    2014-10-20

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are believed to be at the heart of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A well-known example is the prominence cavity in the low corona that sometimes makes up a three-part white-light (WL) CME upon its eruption. Such a system, which is usually observed in quiet-Sun regions, has long been suggested to be the manifestation of an MFR with relatively cool filament material collecting near its bottom. However, observational evidence of eruptive, filament-hosting MFR systems has been elusive for those originating in active regions. By utilizing multi-passband extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, we present direct evidence of an eruptive MFR in the low corona that exhibits a hot envelope and a cooler core; the latter is likely the upper part of a filament that undergoes a partial eruption, which is later observed in the upper corona as the coiled kernel of a fast, WL CME. This MFR-like structure exists more than 1 hr prior to its eruption, and displays successive stages of dynamical evolution, in which both ideal and non-ideal physical processes may be involved. The timing of the MFR kinematics is found to be well correlated with the energy release of the associated long-duration C1.9 flare. We suggest that the long-duration flare is the result of prolonged energy release associated with the vertical current sheet induced by the erupting MFR.

  8. The pelvic floor in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, A A; Welton, M L

    1997-01-01

    Normal pelvic floor function involves a set of learned and reflex responses that are essential for the normal control and evacuation of stool. A variety of functional disturbances of the pelvic floor, including incontinence and constipation, are not life threatening, but can cause significant distress to affected patients. Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the pelvic floor is essential to understanding and treating these disorders of defecation. This article describes the normal function of the pelvic floor, the diagnostic tools available to investigate pelvic floor dysfunction, and the etiology, diagnosis, and management of the functional pelvic floor disorders that lead to incontinence and constipation. Images Figure 1. PMID:9291746

  9. DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR CONDENSATION IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR NEBULAR COOLING RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, T.; Maul, J.; Schoenhense, G.; Marosits, E.; Hoppe, P.; Ott, U.; Palme, H.

    2009-09-10

    We have identified in an acid resistant residue of the carbonaceous chondrite Murchison a large number (458) of highly refractory metal nuggets (RMNs) that once were most likely hosted by Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). While osmium isotopic ratios of two randomly selected particles rule out a presolar origin, the bulk chemistry of 88 particles with sizes in the submicron range determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy shows striking agreement with predictions of single-phase equilibrium condensation calculations. Both chemical composition and morphology strongly favor a condensation origin. Particularly important is the presence of structurally incompatible elements in particles with a single-crystal structure, which also suggests the absence of secondary alteration. The metal particles represent the most pristine early solar system material found so far and allow estimation of the cooling rate of the gaseous environment from which the first solids formed by condensation. The resulting value of 0.5 K yr{sup -1} is at least 4 orders of magnitude lower than the cooling rate of molten CAIs. It is thus possible, for the first time, to see through the complex structure of most CAIs and infer the thermal history of the gaseous reservoir from which their components formed by condensation.

  10. Direct monitoring of ultrafast electron and hole dynamics in perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Piotr; Cohen, Boiko; Javier Ramos, Francisco; Di Nunzio, Maria; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Ahmad, Shahzada; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2015-06-14

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have emerged as cost effective efficient light-to-electricity conversion devices. Unravelling the time scale and the mechanisms that govern the charge carrier dynamics is of paramount importance for a clear understanding and further optimization of the perovskite based devices. For the classical FTO/bulk titania blocking layer/mesoporous titania/perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD (FTO/TPS) cell, further detailed and systematic studies of the ultrafast events related to exciton generation, electron and hole transfer, ultrafast relaxation are still needed. We characterize the initial ultrafast processes attributed to the exciton-perovskite lattice interactions influenced by charge transfer to the electron and hole transporters that precede the exciton diffusion into free charge carriers occurring in the sensitizer. Time-resolved transient absorption studies of the FTO/perovskite and FTO/TPS samples under excitation at different wavelengths and at low fluence 2 (μJ cm(-2)) indicate the sub-picosecond electron and hole injection into titania and Spiro-OMeTAD, respectively. Furthermore, the power-dependent femtosecond transient absorption measurements support the ultrafast charge transfer and show strong Auger-type multiparticle interactions at early times. We reveal that the decays of the internal trap states are the same for both films, while those at surfaces differ. The contribution of the former in the recombination is small, thus increasing the survival probability of the charges in the excited perovskite.

  11. Flooring for Schools: Unsightly Walkways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Many mattress manufacturers recommend that consumers rotate their mattresses at least twice a year to help prevent soft spots from developing and increase the product's life span. It's unfortunate that the same kind of treatment can't be applied to flooring for schools, such as carpeting, especially in hallways. Being able to flip or turn a carpet…

  12. Cefradine blocks solar-ultraviolet induced skin inflammation through direct inhibition of T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Changshu; Zhang, Guiping; Xiao, Juanjuan; Wu, Dan; Zeng, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jingwen; Guo, Jinguang; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Skin inflammation, and skin cancer induced by excessive solar ultraviolet (SUV) is a great threat to human health. SUV induced skin inflammation through activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and c-Jun N-termeinal kinases (JNKs). T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) plays an important role in this process. Herein, the clinical data showed TOPK, phospho-p38, phospho-JNKs were highly expressed in human solar dermatitis. Ex vivo studies showed that SUV induced the phosphorylation of p38 and JNKs in HaCat and JB6 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. Molecule docking model indicated cefradine, an FDA-approved cephalosporin antibiotic, directly binds with TOPK. The result of in vitro binding assay verified cefradine can directly bind with TOPK. In vitro kinase results showed cefradine can inhibit TOPK activity. Ex vivo studies further showed cefradine inhibited SUV-induced the phosphorylation level of p38, JNKs and H2AX through inhibiting TOPK activity in a dose and time dependent manner, and cefradine inhibited the secretion of IL6 and TNF-α in HaCat and JB6 cells. In vivo studies showed that cefradine down-regulated SUV-induced the phosphorylation of p38, JNKs and H2AX and inhibited the secretion of IL6 and TNF-α in Babl/c mice. These results indicated that cefradine can inhibit SUV-induced skin inflammation by blocking TOPK signaling pathway, and TOPK is an effective target for suppressing inflammation induced by SUV irradiation. PMID:27016423

  13. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  14. Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Observation of Direct Coronal Heating During a C-Class Solar Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    With the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer operating in rapid cadence (9.8 s) stare mode during a C6.6 flare on the solar disk, we observed a sudden brightening of Fe xix line emission (formed at temperature T ˜ 8 MK) above the pre-flare noise without a corresponding brightening of emission from ions formed at lower temperatures, including He i (0.01 MK), Ov (0.25 MK), and Si xii (2 MK). The sudden brightening persisted as a plateau of Fe xix intensity that endured more than 11 minutes. The Fe xix emission at the rise and during the life of the plateau showed no evidence of significant bulk velocity flows, and hence cannot be attributed to chromospheric evaporation. However, the line width showed a significant broadening at the rise of the plateau, corresponding to nonthermal velocities of at least 89 km s-1 due to reconnection outflows or turbulence. During the plateau He i, Ov, and Si xii brightened at successively later times starting about 3.5 minutes after Fe xix, which suggests that these brightenings were produced by thermal conduction from the plasma that produced the Fe xix line emission; however, we cannot rule out the possibility that they were produced by a weak beam of nonthermal particles. We interpret an observed shortening of the Ov wavelength for about 1.5 minutes toward the middle of the plateau to indicate new upward motions driven by the flare, as occurs during gentle chromospheric evaporation; relative to a quiescent interval shortly before the flare, the Ov upward velocity was around -10 km s-1.

  15. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OUTFLOW AND CME TRIGGERING IN A SMALL ERUPTING SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Katharine K.; McCauley, Patrick I.; Tian, Hui

    2015-07-01

    We examine a small prominence eruption that occurred on 2014 May 1 at 01:35 UT and was observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Pre- and post-eruption images were taken by the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode. Pre-eruption, a dome-like structure exists above the prominence, as demarcated by coronal rain. As the eruption progresses, we find evidence for reconnection between the prominence magnetic field and the overlying field. Fast flows are seen in AIA and IRIS, indicating reconnection outflows. Plane-of-sky flows of 300 km s{sup −1} are observed in the AIA 171 A channel along a potentially reconnected field line. IRIS detects intermittent fast line of sight flows of 200 km s{sup −1} coincident with the AIA flows. Differential emission measure calculations show heating at the origin of the fast flows. Post-eruption XRT images show hot loops probably due to reconfiguration of magnetic fields during the eruption and subsequent heating of plasma in these loops. Although there is evidence for reconnection above the prominence during the eruption, high spatial resolution images from IRIS reveal potential reconnection sites below the prominence. A height–time analysis of the erupting prominence shows a slow initial rise with a velocity of 0.4 km s{sup −1} followed by a rapid acceleration with a final velocity of 250 km s{sup −1}. Brightenings in IRIS during the transition between these two phases indicate the eruption trigger for the fast part of the eruption is likely a tether-cutting mechanism rather than a break-out mechanism.

  16. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are pelvic floor disorders diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... fee ). This test is used to evaluate the pelvic floor and rectum while the patient is having a ...

  17. Raise the Floor When Remodeling Science Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A new remodeling idea adopts the concept of raised floor covering gas, water, electrical, and drain lines. The accessible floor has removable panels set into an adjustable support frame 24 inches above a concrete subfloor. (Author)

  18. Hospital Room Floors May Harbor 'Superbugs'

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163886.html Hospital Room Floors May Harbor 'Superbugs' But that area often overlooked when it comes ... Hospital room floors may be more of a "superbug" threat than many hospital staffers realize, new research ...

  19. Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional module on Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults. The module includes activities and materials required, procedures, summary questions, and extension ideas for teaching Sea-Floor Spreading. (SL)

  20. Crater Floor Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Our final dune image shows a small dune field inside an unnamed crater south of Nili Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 20.6, Longitude 79 East (281 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. SOFT FLOOR COVERING IN THE LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CUNLIFF, DONALD D.

    A STUDY REGARDING THE INSTALLATION OF CARPET IN SCHOOLS IS DISCUSSED. THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO HAVE A CONSULTANT REVIEW UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE DISTRICT BUILDING AND GROUNDS SERVICES ADMINISTRATOR OF THE LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS, THE SOFT FLOOR COVERING INSTALLATIONS AT ARAGON AVENUE AND TWENTY-FOURTH STREET SCHOOLS. SECTIONS…

  2. Systems efficiency and specific mass estimates for direct and indirect solar-pumped closed-cycle high-energy lasers in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Based on expected advances in technology, the maximum system efficiency and minimum specific mass have been calculated for closed-cycle CO and CO2 electric-discharge lasers (EDL's) and a direct solar-pumped laser in space. The efficiency calculations take into account losses from excitation gas heating, ducting frictional and turning losses, and the compressor efficiency. The mass calculations include the power source, radiator, compressor, fluids, ducting, laser channel, optics, and heat exchanger for all of the systems; and in addition the power conditioner for the EDL's and a focusing mirror for the solar-pumped laser. The results show the major component masses in each system, show which is the lightest system, and provide the necessary criteria for solar-pumped lasers to be lighter than the EDL's. Finally, the masses are compared with results from other studies for a closed-cycle CO2 gasdynamic laser (GDL) and the proposed microwave satellite solar power station (SSPS).

  3. Direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger for solar heated and cooled buildings. Final report, January 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Karaki, S.; Brothers, P.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) storage unit in a solar heating and cooling system is established. Experimental performance data were obtained from the CSU Solar House I using a DCLLHE for both heating and cooling functions. A simulation model for the system was developed. The model was validated using the experimental data and applied in five different climatic regions of the country for a complete year. The life-cycle cost of the system was estimated for each application. The results are compared to a conventional solar system, using a standard shell-and-tube heat exchanger. It is concluded that while thare is a performance advantage with a DCLLHE system over a conventional solar system, the advantage is not sufficiently large to overcome slightly higher capital and operating costs for the DCLLHE system.

  4. Crater Floor in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  5. Design issues for floor control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommel, Hans-Peter; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Jose J.

    1995-03-01

    Floor control allows users of networked multimedia applications to remotely share resources like cursors, data views, video and audio channels, or entire applications without access conflicts. Floors are mutually exclusive permissions, granted dynamically to collaborating users, mitigating race conditions and guaranteeing fair and deadlock- free resource access. Although floor control is an early concept within computer-supported cooperative work, no framework exists and current floor control mechanisms are often limited to simple objects. While small-scale collaboration can be facilitated by social conventions, the importance of floors becomes evident for large-scale application sharing and teleconferencing orchestration. In this paper, the concept of a scalable session protocol is enhanced with floor control. Characteristics of collaborative environments are discussed, and session and floor control are discerned. The system's and user's requirements perspectives are discussed, including distributed storage policies, packet structure and user-interface design for floor presentation, manipulation, and triggering conditions for floor migration. Interaction stages between users, and scenarios of participant withdrawal, late joins, and establishment of subgroups are elicited with respect to floor generation, bookkeeping, and passing. An API is proposed to standardize and integrate floor control among shared applications. Finally, a concise classification for existing systems with a notion of floor control is introduced.

  6. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Floor surfaces. The floor surface of all areas which are likely to become wet in service must have...

  7. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor...

  8. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees,...

  9. The Secrets of Effective Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michels, Ed

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of staff training and a maintenance program to the care of hard floors. Describes four key features to look for in a computer-based training program and types of floor pads and matting used to keep flooring clean. (EV)

  10. TINY FEET NO TREAT TO FLOORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMALLEY, DAVE E.

    A DISCUSSION OF FLOOR MAINTENANCE AND CARE INTERMS OF BROKEN, WARPED, AND OTHERWISE DAMAGED CONDITIONS WHICH OFTEN REQUIRE REPLACEMENTS GIVES SUGGESTIONS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF FLOORING MATERIAL. WOOD FLOOR CONDITIONS MAY INCLUDE--(1) CUPPED BOARDS, (2) BUCKLING BOARDS, AND (3) BROKEN BOARDS. A DETAILED DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF METHODS FOR REMOVING…

  11. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Vorndran, Shelby D; Chrysler, Benjamin; Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Holman, Zachary; Kostuk, Raymond

    2016-09-20

    This paper describes a high-efficiency, spectrum-splitting photovoltaic module that uses an off-axis volume holographic lens to focus and disperse incident solar illumination to a rectangular shaped high-bandgap indium gallium phosphide cell surrounded by strips of silicon cells. The holographic lens design allows efficient collection of both direct and diffuse illumination to maximize energy yield. We modeled the volume diffraction characteristics using rigorous coupled-wave analysis, and simulated system performance using nonsequential ray tracing and PV cell data from the literature. Under AM 1.5 illumination conditions the simulated module obtained a 30.6% conversion efficiency. This efficiency is a 19.7% relative improvement compared to the more efficient cell in the system (silicon). The module was also simulated under a typical meteorological year of direct and diffuse irradiance in Tucson, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington. Compared to a flat panel silicon module, the holographic spectrum splitting module obtained a relative improvement in energy yield of 17.1% in Tucson and 14.0% in Seattle. An experimental proof-of-concept volume holographic lens was also fabricated in dichromated gelatin to verify the main characteristics of the system. The lens obtained an average first-order diffraction efficiency of 85.4% across the aperture at 532 nm.

  12. Diurnal heat storage in direct-gain passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.; Neeper, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified method for predicting temperature swings in direct-gain buildings. It is called the DHC method due to the use of a diurnal heat capacity (DHC). Diurnal heat capacity is a measure of the effective amount of heat stored during a sunny day and then released at night - the typical 24-hour diurnal cycle. This enables prediction of the maximum temperature swings experienced in the building and can be calculated using a single 24-hour harmonic. The advantage is that closed-form analytic solutions can be obtained for a variety of simple and layered-wall configurations. Higher harmonic components are accounted for by a correction factor. The method is suitable for us by hand or on a programmable calculator.

  13. Bamboo floor panel cutting by CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Horikoshi, Yoshio; Nagai, Kaori; Sugimoto, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    Environmental disruption by lumber cutting is an ever- present problem in the modern world. Bamboo is a fast growing tree which, even if it is cut every 3 years, grows for its subterranean stem naturally. Thus, the use bamboo- based materials can be regarded as environmentally friendly, and this paper deals with the use of bamboo as flooring material for buildings. Since mechanical cutting of bamboo for making flooring gives rise to problems such as difficulty in cutting perpendicular to the bamboo fiber direction, wear of the cutting tool and generation of dust etc., a study on laser processing of bamboo flooring was carried out. The laser cutting conditions were investigated and optimized. It was shown that laser cutting can offer many advantages.

  14. Towards Object Driven Floor Plan Extraction from Laser Point Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babacan, K.; Jung, J.; Wichmann, A.; Jahromi, B. A.; Shahbazi, M.; Sohn, G.; Kada, M.

    2016-06-01

    During the last years, the demand for indoor models has increased for various purposes. As a provisional step to proceed towards higher dimensional indoor models, powerful and flexible floor plans can be utilised. Therefore, several methods have been proposed that provide automatically generated floor plans from laser point clouds. The prevailing methodology seeks to attain semantic enhancement of a model (e.g. the identification and labelling of its components) built upon already reconstructed (a priori) geometry. In contrast, this paper demonstrates preliminary research on the possibility to directly incorporate semantic knowledge, which is itself derived from the raw data during the extraction, into the geometric modelling process. In this regard, we propose a new method to automatically extract floor plans from raw point clouds. It is based on a hierarchical space partitioning of the data, integrated with primitive selection actuated by object detection. First, planar primitives corresponding to vertical architectural structures are extracted using M-estimator SAmple and Consensus (MSAC). The set of the resulting line segments are refined by a selection process through a novel door detection algorithm, considering optimization of prior information and fitness to the data. The selected lines are used as hyperlines to partition the space into enclosed areas. Finally, a floor plan is extracted from these partitions by Minimum Description Length (MDL) hypothesis ranking. The algorithm is applied on a real mobile laser scanner dataset and the results are evaluated both in terms of door detection and consecutive floor plan extraction.

  15. Direct pulsed laser interference texturing for light trapping in a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, S.; Neubert, S.; Ruske, F.; Stannowski, B.; Fink, F.; Schlatmann, R.

    2014-05-01

    We present results on direct pulsed laser interference texturing for the fabrication of diffraction gratings in ZnO:Al layers. Micro gratings of 20 micron diameter with a groove period of 860 nm have been written using single pulses of a 355 nm picosecond laser using a home-built two-beam interference setup. The groove depth depends on the local laser intensity, and reaches up to 120 nm. At too high pulse energies, the grooves vanish due to surface melting of the ZnO. The fast scanning stage and the high repetition rate laser of a laser scribe system have been used to write grating textures of several cm2 in ZnO:Al films with a surface coverage of about 80%. A typical laser written grating texture in a ZnO:Al film showed a haze value of about 9% at 700nm. The total transmission of the film was not lowered compared to the film before texturing, while the sheet resistance increased moderately by 15%. A-Si:H/μc-Si:H solar cells with laser textured ZnO:Al front contact layers so far reach an efficiency of 10% and current densities of 11.0 mA/cm2, and 11.2 mA/cm2 for top and bottom cell, respectively. This is an increase of 16% for the bottom cell current as compared to reference cells on planar ZnO:Al. The voltage of the laser textured cells is not reduced compared to the reference cell when slightly overlapping laser pulses of reduced pulse energy are applied. This method allows to write textures in ZnO:Al films that e.g. have been deposited with strongly varying deposition conditions, or cannot be texture etched in HCl. The method can be improved further by using 2D periodic patterns and optimizing the groove pitch, and may be applicable also to other solar cell technologies.

  16. Direct tri-constituent co-assembly of highly ordered mesoporous carbon counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tao; Sun, Weiwei; Sun, Xiaohua; Huang, Niu; Liu, Yumin; Bu, Chenghao; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2013-01-07

    Controlling over ordered porosity by self-assembly is challenging in the area of materials science. Materials with highly ordered aperture are favorable candidates in catalysis and energy conversion device. Here we describe a facile process to synthesize highly ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) by direct tri-constituent co-assembly method, which uses resols as the carbon precursor, tri-block copolymer F127 as the soft template and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the inorganic precursor. The obtained products are characterized by small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorption-desorption measurement and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicate that the OMC possesses high surface areas of 1209 m(2) g(-1), homogeneous pore size of 4.6 nm and a large pore volume of 1.65 cm(3) g(-1). The advantages of high electrochemical active surface area and favorable accessible porosity of OMC benefit the catalysis of I(3)(-) to I(-). As a result, the OMC counter electrode displays a remarkable property when it was applied in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For comparison, carbon black (CB) counter electrode and Pt counter electrode have also been prepared. When these different counter electrodes were applied for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the power-conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSCs with CB counter electrode are measured to be 5.10%, whereas the corresponding values is 6.39% for the DSSC with OMC counter electrode, which is comparable to 6.84% of the cell with Pt counter electrode under the same experimental conditions.

  17. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF TETHER-CUTTING RECONNECTION DURING A MAJOR SOLAR EVENT FROM 2014 FEBRUARY 24 TO 25

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Ting; Cheng, Xin; Ma, Suli

    2014-12-20

    Using multi-wavelength data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigated two successive solar flares, a C5.1 confined flare and an X4.9 ejective flare with a halo coronal mass ejection, in NOAA active region 11990 from 2014 February 24 to 25. Before the confined flare onset, EUV brightening beneath the filament was detected. As the flare began, a twisted helical flux rope (FR) wrapping around the filament moved upward and then stopped, and in the meantime an obvious X-ray source below it was observed. Prior to the ejective X4.9 flare, some pre-existing loop structures in the active region interacted with each other, which produced a brightening region beneath the filament. Meanwhile, a small flaring loop appeared below the interaction region and some new helical lines connecting the far ends of the loop structures were gradually formed and continually added into the former twisted FR. Then, due to the resulting imbalance between the magnetic pressure and tension, the new FR, together with the filament, erupted outward. Our observations coincide well with a tether-cutting model, suggesting that the two flares probably have the same triggering mechanism, i.e., tether-cutting reconnection. To our knowledge, this is the first direct observation of tether-cutting reconnection occurring between pre-existing loops in an active region. In the ejective flare case, the erupting filament exhibited an Ω-like kinked structure and underwent an exponential rise after a slow-rise phase, indicating that the kink instability might be also responsible for the eruption initiation.

  18. INITIATION AND ERUPTION PROCESS OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE FROM SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11719 TO EARTH-DIRECTED CME

    SciTech Connect

    Vemareddy, P.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-20

    An eruption event launched from the solar active region (AR) NOAA 11719 is investigated based on coronal EUV observations and photospheric magnetic field measurements obtained from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The AR consists of a filament channel originating from a major sunspot and its south section is associated with an inverse-S sigmoidal system as observed in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly passbands. We regard the sigmoid as the main body of the flux rope (FR). There also exists a twisted flux bundle crossing over this FR. This overlying flux bundle transforms in shape similar to kink-rise evolution, which corresponds with the rise motion of the FR. The emission measure and temperature along the FR exhibits an increasing trend with its rising motion, indicating reconnection in the thinning current sheet underneath the FR. Net magnetic flux of the AR, evaluated at north and south polarities, showed decreasing behavior whereas the net current in these fluxes exhibits an increasing trend. Because the negative (positive) flux has a dominant positive (negative) current, the chirality of AR flux system is likely negative (left handed) in order to be consistent with the chirality of inverse S-sigmoidal FR. This analysis of magnetic fields of the source AR suggests that the cancelling fluxes are prime factors of the monotonous twisting of the FR system, reaching to a critical state to trigger kink instability and rise motion. This rise motion may have led to the onset of the torus instability, resulting in an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection, and the progressive reconnection in the thinning current sheet beneath the rising FR led to the M6.5 flare.

  19. Obesity and pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Kalaivani; Monga, Ash

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of pelvic floor disorders. Patients with obesity present with a range of urinary, bowel and sexual dysfunction problems as well as uterovaginal prolapse. Urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are more prevalent in patients with obesity. Uterovaginal prolapse is also more common than in the non-obese population. Weight loss by surgical and non-surgical methods plays a major role in the improvement of these symptoms in such patients. The treatment of symptoms leads to an improvement in their quality of life. However, surgical treatment of these symptoms may be accompanied by an increased risk of complications in obese patients. A better understanding of the mechanism of obesity-associated pelvic floor dysfunction is essential.

  20. Method for estimation of refractive index and size distribution of aerosol using direct and diffuse solar irradiance and aureole by means of simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei; Liang, XingMing

    2003-12-01

    An estimation method for refractive index and size distribution of aerosols using measurements of direct and diffuse solar irradiance as well as the solar aureole by means of a modified simulated annealing is proposed. The proposed method is based on simulated annealing modified to acceralate a learning process by using a gradually decreasing oscillation function of temperature of annealing. By a using Gauss Seidel based atmospheric code, simulation data of direct and diffuse solar irradiance are generated together with estimated aureole measurements by means of an empirical method derived from experimental data. A comparison between the existing method proposed by P Romanov et.al. based on a linear inversion method and the proposed method is made. The results show double improvement of the estimation accuracy for both the aerosol size distribution and refractive index.

  1. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Hittle

    2002-10-01

    Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

  2. GaAs (AlGaAs)/CuInSe2 tandem solar cells. Technology status and future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, N. P.; Burgess, R. M.; Gale, R. P.; Mcclelland, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanically stacked, high efficiency, lightweight, and radiation resistant photovoltaic cells based on a GaAs thin film top and CuInSe2 thin film bottom cells were developed, and are considered one of the most promising devices for planar solar array applications. The highest efficiency demonstrated so far using the 4 sq cm design is 23.1 pct. AM0, one sun efficiency when measured in four-terminal configuration. The current status of the GaAs(AlGaAs)/CuInSe2 tandem cell program is presented and future directions that will lead to cell efficiencies higher than 26 pct. Air Mass Zero (AM0). A new 8 sq cm cell design developed for a two terminal and voltage matched configuration to minimize wiring complexity is discussed. Optimization of the GaAs structure for a higher end-of-life performance and further improvement of tandem cells by utilizing AlGaAs as an top absorber are described. Results of environmental tests conducted with these thin film GaAs/CuInSe2 tandem cells are also summarized.

  3. Direct electrical contact of slanted ITO film on axial p-n junction silicon nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Yao, Yung-Chi; Yang, Chia-Hao

    2013-01-14

    A novel scheme of direct electrical contact on vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) axial p-n junction is demonstrated by means of oblique-angle deposition of slanted indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film for photovoltaic applications. The slanted ITO film exhibits an acceptable resistivity of 1.07 x 10⁻³Ω-cm underwent RTA treatment of T = 450°C, and the doping concentration and carrier mobility by Hall measurement amount to 3.7 x 10²⁰ cm⁻³ and 15.8 cm²/V-s, respectively, with an n-type doping polarity. Because of the shadowing effect provided by the SiNWs, the incident ITO vapor-flow is deposited preferentially on the top of SiNWs, which coalesces and eventually forms a nearly continuous film for the subsequent fabrication of grid electrode. Under AM 1.5 G normal illumination, our axial p-n junction SiNW solar cell exhibits an open circuit voltage of VOC = 0.56 V, and a short circuit current of JSC = 1.54 mA/cm² with a fill factor of FF = 30%, resulting in a total power conversion efficiency of PEC = 0.26%.

  4. Are there statistical links between the direction of European weather systems and ENSO, the solar cycle or stratospheric aerosols?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Hess Brezowsky Großwetterlagen (HBGWL) European weather classification system, accumulated over a long period (more than 130 years), provides a rare opportunity to examine the impact of various factors on regional atmospheric flow. We have used these data to examine changes in the frequency (days/month) of given weather systems direction (WSD) during peak phases in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), solar cycle (SC) and peaks in stratospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) with superposed epoch analysis and Monte Carlo significance testing. We found highly significant responses to the NAO consistent with expectations: this signal confirmed the utility of the HBGWL data for this type of analysis and provided a benchmark of a clear response. WSD changes associated with ENSO, SC and AOD were generally within the ranges expected from random samples. When seasonal restrictions were added the results were similar, however, we found one clearly significant result: an increase in southerly flow of 2.6±0.8 days/month (p=1.9×10−4) during boreal summertime in association with El Niño. This result supports the existence of a robust teleconnection between the ENSO and European weather. PMID:26998314

  5. A DIRECT APPROACH FOR DETERMINING THE PERPENDICULAR MEAN FREE PATH OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES IN A TURBULENT AND SPATIALLY VARYING MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    He, H.-Q.; Wan, W. E-mail: wanw@mail.iggcas.ac.cn

    2012-12-15

    A direct approach for explicitly determining the perpendicular mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs) influenced by parallel diffusion and composite dynamical turbulence in a spatially varying magnetic field is presented. As theoretical applications of the direct approach, we investigate the inherent relations between the perpendicular mean free path and various parameters concerning physical properties of SEPs as well as those of interplanetary conditions such as the solar wind and the turbulent magnetic field. Comparisons of the perpendicular mean free paths with and without adiabatic focusing are also presented. The direct method shows encouraging agreement with spacecraft observations, suggesting it is a reliable and useful tool for use in theoretical investigations and space weather forecasting.

  6. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  7. Thermo-economic study on the implementation of steam turbine concepts for flexible operation on a direct steam generation solar tower power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topel, Monika; Ellakany, Farid; Guédez, Rafael; Genrup, Magnus; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    Among concentrating solar power technologies, direct steam generation solar tower power plants represent a promising option. These systems eliminate the usage of heat transfer fluids allowing for the power block to be run at greater operating temperatures and therefore further increasing the thermal efficiency of the power cycle. On the other hand, the current state of the art of these systems does not comprise thermal energy storage as there are no currently available and techno-economically feasible storage integration options. This situation makes direct steam generation configurations even more susceptible to the already existing variability of operating conditions due to the fluctuation of the solar supply. In the interest of improving the annual performance and competitiveness of direct steam generation solar tower systems, the present study examines the influence of implementing two flexibility enhancing concepts which control the steam flow to the turbine as a function of the incoming solar irradiation. The proposed concepts were implemented in a reference plant model previously developed by the authors. Then, a multi-objective optimization was carried out in order to understand which configurations of the steam turbine concepts yield reductions of the levelized cost of electricity at a lower investment costs when compared to the reference model. Results show that the implementation of the proposed strategies can enhance the thermo-economic performance of direct steam generation systems by yielding a reduction of up to 9.2% on the levelized cost of electricity, mainly due to allowing 20% increase in the capacity factor, while increasing the investment costs by 7.8%.

  8. Solar Wind Halo Formation by the Scattering of the Strahl via Direct Cluster/PEACE Observations of the 3D Velocity Distribution Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Gurgiolo, Chris A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the solar wind electron halo can be formed by the scattering of the strahl. On frequent occasions we have observed in electron angular skymaps (Phi/Theta-plots) of the electron 3D velocity distribution functions) a bursty-filament of particles connecting the strahl to the solar wind core-halo. These are seen over a very limited energy range. When the magnetic field is well off the nominal solar wind flow direction such filaments are inconsistent with any local forces and are probably the result of strong scattering. Furthermore, observations indicates that the strahl component is frequently and significantly anisotropic (Tper/Tpal approx.2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism. The empirical observational evidence between the halo and the strahl suggests that the strahl population may be, at least in part, the source of the halo component.

  9. Modulation of dayside on and neutral distributions at Venus Evidence of direct and indirect solar energy inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Mayr, H. G.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Niemann, H. B.; Hartle, R. E.; Cloutier, P. A.; Barnes, A.; Daniell, R. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The details of solar variability and its coupled effects on the Venusian dayside are examined for evidence of short-term perturbations and associated energy inputs. Ion and neutral measurements obtained from the Orbiter Ion Mass Spectrometer and Orbital Neutral mass Spectrometer are used to show that the dayside concentrations of CO2(+) and the neutral gas temperature are smoothly modulated with a 28-day cycle reasonably matching that of the solar F(10.7) and EUV fluxes. Earlier measurements show less pronounced and more irregular modulations and more conspicuous short-term day-to-day fluctuations in the ions and neutrals, as well as relatively large enhancements in the solar wind, which appear consistent with differences in solar coronal behavior during the two periods. It is suggested that the solar wind variations cause fluctuations in joule heating, producing the observed short-term ion and neutral variations.

  10. Detection of diffuse sea floor venting using structured light imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, G.; Smart, C.; Roman, C.; Carey, S.

    2011-12-01

    Efficiently identifying and localizing diffuse sea floor venting at hydrothermal and cold seep sites is often difficult. Actively venting fluids are usually identified by a temperature induced optical shimmering seen during direct visual inspections or in video data collected by vehicles working close to the sea floor. Relying on such direct methods complicates establishing spatial relations between areas within a survey covering a broad area. Our recent work with a structured light laser system has shown that venting can also be detected in the image data in an automated fashion. A structured light laser system consists of a camera and sheet laser projected at the sea floor. The camera and laser are fixed to a rigid calibrated mount such that the optical axis of the camera and the laser plane intersect at some distance away from the camera, typically 2 to 5 meters. The position of the laser line, visible on the sea floor in the image, can be extracted using standard computer vision techniques (Fig. 1) and used to determine the height of the bottom along the laser line. By collecting images in a survey pattern at a high frame rate, typically 20 to 30 Hz, a bathymetric map can be produced using the individual profiles. In the presence of venting, temperature anomalies refract the laser sheet such that it does not project a crisp and clear line on the sea floor. The laser will instead appear blurred and visible over a larger section of the image. By processing the images to segment out clear laser lines from refracted lines it is possible to identify areas of venting. Our initial approach uses calculated image moments relative to the peak intensity level detected in each column of the image matrix. In the presence of venting the calculated moments differ from those of the undistorted laser shining on the sea floor. Test results from the Kolumbo submarine volcano near Santorini, Greece demonstrate this approach and show the utility of the method for survey work. Test

  11. Crash Tests of Protective Airplane Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-absorbing floors reduce structural buckling and impact forces on occupants. 56-page report discusses crash tests of energy-absorbing aircraft floors. Describes test facility and procedures; airplanes, structural modifications, and seats; crash dynamics; floor and seat behavior; and responses of anthropometric dummies seated in airplanes. Also presents plots of accelerations, photographs and diagrams of test facility, and photographs and drawings of airplanes before, during, and after testing.

  12. Experimental Investigation of a Direct-drive Hall Thruster and Solar Array System at Power Levels up to 10 kW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John S.; Brophy, John R.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.; Katz, Ira

    2012-01-01

    As NASA considers future exploration missions, high-power solar-electric propulsion (SEP) plays a prominent role in achieving many mission goals. Studies of high-power SEP systems (i.e. tens to hundreds of kilowatts) suggest that significant mass savings may be realized by implementing a direct-drive power system, so NASA recently established the National Direct-Drive Testbed to examine technical issues identified by previous investigations. The testbed includes a 12-kW solar array and power control station designed to power single and multiple Hall thrusters over a wide range of voltages and currents. In this paper, single Hall thruster operation directly from solar array output at discharge voltages of 200 to 450 V and discharge powers of 1 to 10 kW is reported. Hall thruster control and operation is shown to be simple and no different than for operation on conventional power supplies. Thruster and power system electrical oscillations were investigated over a large range of operating conditions and with different filter capacitances. Thruster oscillations were the same as for conventional power supplies, did not adversely affect solar array operation, and were independent of filter capacitance from 8 to 80 ?F. Solar array current and voltage oscillations were very small compared to their mean values and showed a modest dependence on capacitor size. No instabilities or anomalous behavior were observed in the thruster or power system at any operating condition investigated, including near and at the array peak power point. Thruster startup using the anode propellant flow as the power 'switch' was shown to be simple and reliable with system transients mitigated by the proper selection of filter capacitance size. Shutdown via cutoff of propellant flow was also demonstrated. A simple electrical circuit model was developed and is shown to have good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. The floor plate: multiple cells, multiple signals.

    PubMed

    Placzek, Marysia; Briscoe, James

    2005-03-01

    One of the key organizers in the CNS is the floor plate - a group of cells that is responsible for instructing neural cells to acquire distinctive fates, and that has an important role in establishing the elaborate neuronal networks that underlie the function of the brain and spinal cord. In recent years, considerable controversy has arisen over the mechanism by which floor plate cells form. Here, we describe recent evidence that indicates that discrete populations of floor plate cells, with characteristic molecular properties, form in different regions of the neuraxis, and we discuss data that imply that the mode of floor plate induction varies along the anteroposterior axis.

  14. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Newman, Diane K

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training.

  15. MODELING STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS THROUGH DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF 3D-MHD TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Mueller, Wolf-Christian

    2013-09-01

    Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ({zeta}{sub p}) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of {zeta}{sub p} against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase.

  16. Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof Framing and Roof; Longitudinal Section, Cross Section, End Elevation - Eames Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  17. Direct Observation of Two-Step Photon Absorption in an InAs/GaAs Single Quantum Dot for the Operation of Intermediate-Band Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-08

    We present the first direct observation of two-step photon absorption in an InAs/GaAs single quantum dot (QD) using photocurrent spectroscopy with two lasers. The sharp peaks of the photocurrent are shifted due to the quantum confined Stark effect, indicating that the photocurrent from a single QD is obtained. In addition, the intensity of the peaks depends on the power of the secondary laser. These results reveal the direct demonstration of the two-step photon absorption in a single QD. This is an essential result for both the fundamental operation and the realization of ultrahigh solar-electricity energy conversion in quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells.

  18. Eastern Floor of Holden Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 15 April 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS image covers territory on the eastern floor of Holden Crater, which is located in region of the southern hemisphere called Noachis Terra. Holden Crater is 154 km in diameter and named after American Astronomer Edward Holden (1846-1914). This image shows a mottled surface with channels, hills, ridges and impact craters. The largest crater seen in this image is 5 km in diameter. This crater has gullies and what appears to be horizontal layers in its walls. The Story With its beautiful symmetry and gullies radially streaming down to the floor, the dominant crater in this image is an impressive focal point. Yet, it is really just a small crater within a much larger one named Holden Crater. Take a look at the context image to the right to see just how much bigger Holden Crater is. Then come back to the image strip that shows the mottled surface of Holden Crater's eastern floor in greater detail, and count how many hills, ridges, channels, and small impact craters can be seen. No perfectly smooth terrain abounds there, that's for sure. The textured terrain of Holden Crater has been particularly intriguing ever since the Mars Orbital Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft found evidence of sedimentary rock layers there that might have formed in lakes or shallow seas in Mars' ancient past. This finding suggests that Mars may have been more like Earth long ago, with water on its surface. Holden Crater might even have held a lake long ago. No one knows for sure, but it's an exciting possibility. Why? If water was once on the surface of Mars long enough to form sedimentary materials, maybe it was there long enough for microbial life to have developed too. (Life as we know it just isn't possible without the long-term presence of liquid water.) The question of life on the red planet is certainly tantalizing, but scientists will need to engage in a huge amount of further investigation to begin to know the answer. That

  19. 16. THIRD FLOOR BLDG. 28A, DETAIL CUTOUT IN FLOOR FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. THIRD FLOOR BLDG. 28A, DETAIL CUTOUT IN FLOOR FOR WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  20. AlGaInP/Ge double-junction solar cell with Sb incorporation directly used for lattice-matched five-junction solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Xiaobin; Chen, Bingzhen; Wu, Bo; Ma, Difei; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhiyong

    2017-02-01

    AlGaInP is a prospectively valuable material for high-efficiency lattice-matched tandem AlGaInP/AlGaInAs/GaAs/GaInNAs/Ge (2.05/1.7/1.4/1.0/0.7 eV) five-junction solar cells. We examine the optical properties of AlGaInP materials with trimethylantimony (TMSb) incorporated at various flow speeds. Then, we apply Al0.1GaInP with TMSb incorporated at 15.6 µmol/min, whose band gap is 2.04 eV, to the fabrication of an AlGaInP/Ge double-junction (DJ) solar cell. Moreover, we analyze the photovoltaic current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics, external quantum efficiencies (EQEs), and internal quantum efficiencies (IQEs) of DJ cells under a 1-sun AM0 spectrum. As elsewhere, Sb incorporation improves the crystal quality of AlGaInP and the fill factor of the DJ solar cell; on the other hand, it increases the band gap of AlGaInP. Al0.08GaInP with Sb incorporation shows the same absorption edge of EQE as Al0.1GaInP without Sb incorporation, and J sc increases approximately by 15.3% owing to the reduction of 2% Al composition.

  1. Measuring morphological parameters of the pelvic floor for finite element modelling purposes.

    PubMed

    Janda, Stepán; van der Helm, Frans C T; de Blok, Sjoerd B

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain a complete data set needed for studying the complex biomechanical behaviour of the pelvic floor muscles using a computer model based on the finite element (FE) theory. The model should be able to predict the effect of surgical interventions and give insight into the function of pelvic floor muscles. Because there was a lack of any information concerning morphological parameters of the pelvic floor muscle structures, we performed an experimental measurement to uncover those morphological parameters. Geometric parameters as well as muscle parameters of the pelvic floor muscles were measured on an embalmed female cadaver. A three-dimensional (3D) geometric data set of the pelvic floor including muscle fibre directions was obtained using a palpator device. A 3D surface model based on the experimental data, needed for mathematical modelling of the pelvic floor, was created. For all parts of the diaphragma pelvis, the optimal muscle fibre length was determined by laser diffraction measurements of the sarcomere length. In addition, other muscle parameters such as physiological cross-sectional area and total muscle fibre length were determined. Apart from these measurements we obtained a data set of the pelvic floor structures based on nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the same cadaver specimen. The purpose of this experiment was to discover the relationship between the MRI morphology and geometrical parameters obtained from the previous measurements. The produced data set is not only important for biomechanical modelling of the pelvic floor muscles, but it also describes the geometry of muscle fibres and is useful for functional analysis of the pelvic floor in general. By the use of many reference landmarks all these morphologic data concerning fibre directions and optimal fibre length can be morphed to the geometrical data based on segmentation from MRI scans. These data can be directly used as an input for building a

  2. Learning4Life on the Exhibit Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The exhibit floor is a wealth of knowledge. One can read, view, and listen to information presented in many formats. Somewhere on the exhibit floor there are experts on every topic, ready and waiting for one's questions. But like any research topic, frequently a structured search is required to find the best answers. This article discusses how to…

  3. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  4. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  5. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  6. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  7. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  8. On-grade insulated panel floor system

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornson, D.; Briscoe, J.; Brown, G.Z.; Fremouw, S.; Kline, J.; Northcutt, D.

    1999-07-01

    The on-grade insulated panel floor system combines floor and foundation to reduce cost, increase energy and structural performance, and provide easy dismantling and recycling upon demolition. The system uses one-sided structural insulated panels (SIPs with one layer of OSB attached to foam insulation), a compacted gravel bed, and engineered lumber for the perimeter beam. Tests show that an on-grade panel floor system of 20 ft by 36 ft (6.1 by 11.0 m) is $895 less expensive and has a 55% better insulating value than an insulated concrete slab, exceeds deflection and flatness criteria for wood and concrete slab floors and supports structural loads in excess of those in residential construction. The flexible nature of the foam and wood may also improve the standing comfort of the floor compared to a concrete slab floor. In addition, the panel and engineered wood components increase the recyclability of the floor. The system is easily adaptable to use over an existing concrete floor.

  9. Lightweight Integrally Armored Floor (LIAF) Ballistic Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    UHMWPE ), and a mini-core sandwich structure which serves as the walking surface of the floor system (Figure 1). Specimen details are covered in...SIDE Strike Face Backing Plate (walking surface) Ballistic Material ( UHMWPE ) Projectile Lightweight Integrally Armored Floor (LIAF

  10. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Resulting from Earth-Directed CMEs Using SOHO and ACE Combined Data During Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paouris, Evangelos; Mavromichalaki, Helen

    2017-02-01

    In this work a total of 266 interplanetary coronal mass ejections observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/ Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (SOHO/LASCO) and then studied by in situ observations from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft, are presented in a new catalog for the time interval 1996 - 2009 covering Solar Cycle 23. Specifically, we determine the characteristics of the CME which is responsible for the upcoming ICME and the associated solar flare, the initial/background solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions before the arrival of the CME, the conditions in the sheath of the ICME, the main part of the ICME, the geomagnetic conditions of the ICME's impact at Earth and finally we remark on the visual examination for each event. Interesting results revealed from this study include the high correlation coefficient values of the magnetic field Bz component against the Ap index (r = 0.84), as well as against the Dst index (r = 0.80) and of the effective acceleration against the CME linear speed (r = 0.98). We also identify a north-south asymmetry for X-class solar flares and an east-west asymmetry for CMEs associated with strong solar flares (magnitude ≥ M1.0) which finally triggered intense geomagnetic storms (with Ap ≥179). The majority of the geomagnetic storms are determined to be due to the ICME main part and not to the extreme conditions which dominate inside the sheath. For the intense geomagnetic storms the maximum value of the Ap index is observed almost 4 hours before the minimum Dst index. The amount of information makes this new catalog the most comprehensive ICME catalog for Solar Cycle 23.

  11. Male pelvic floor: history and update.

    PubMed

    Dorey, Grace

    2005-08-01

    Our understanding of the male pelvic floor has evolved over more than 2,000 years. Gradually medical science has sought to dispel ancient myths and untruths. The male pelvic floor has many diverse functions. Importantly, it helps to support the abdominal contents, maintains urinary and fecal continence, and plays a major role in gaining and maintaining penile erection. Weakness of the male pelvic floor muscles may cause urinary and fecal incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Function may be restored in each of these areas by a comprehensive pelvic floor muscle training program. Spasm of the pelvic floor muscles may produce pain and require relaxation techniques. Additional research is needed to add further evidence to our knowledge base.

  12. Your affordable solar home

    SciTech Connect

    Hibshman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The economy of solar principles can put home ownership within the reach of many more people. Featuring six designs that can be built for $20,000 or less, this illustrated guide outlines a variety of options. It includes a solar primer to explain the process and practice of solar heating and cooling systems; floor plans and cutaway drawings; prefabricated and kit houses; log and timber, domes, and post-and beam houses; the pros and cons of mobile homes; and the story of a small community that dealt creatively with the housing shortage. 26 references, 56 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Floor temperature preference of sows at farrowing.

    PubMed

    Phillips; Fraser; Pawluczuk

    2000-03-22

    A preference testing apparatus was used to provide sows with continuous access to three identical farrowing crates, each with a different floor temperature. The concrete floor under each crate contained copper pipe through which temperature-controlled water was circulated to achieve unoccupied floor temperatures of 22 degrees C (+/-3.5), 29 degrees C (+/-1) and 35 degrees C (+/-1). Eighteen sows were tested in the apparatus. Video recording was used to determine sow position from 7 days before farrowing (Days -7 to -1) to 14 days after (Days 1 to 14). On Days -7 to -1, sows showed no significant preference among the three temperatures when selecting a resting area. Once farrowing had begun, there was a significant increase (P<0.01) in the use of the 35 degrees C floor and it became the most preferred resting area for Days 1 to 3. After this interval, use of the 35 degrees C floor declined significantly (P<0.01), and use of the cooler floors increased, resulting in no significant thermal preference during Days 4 to 6. There was a further decline in the use of the 35 degrees C floor after Days 4 to 6 (P<0.01) to the extent that the coolest floor (22 degrees C) became the most preferred from Days 7 to 14. In summary, sows showed a pronounced increase in preference for a warm floor during the 3 days after the start of farrowing. This change in preference may explain how free-living sows select a suitable thermal environment for their young, and why sows try to avoid metal flooring at the time of farrowing.

  14. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  15. Long-term variation of the solar diurnal anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays observed with the Nagoya multi-directional muon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Munakata, K.; Kozai, M.; Kato, C.; Kóta, J.

    2014-08-10

    We analyze the three-dimensional anisotropy of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensities observed independently with a muon detector at Nagoya in Japan and neutron monitors over four solar activity cycles. We clearly see the phase of the free-space diurnal anisotropy shifting toward earlier hours around solar activity minima in A > 0 epochs, due to the reduced anisotropy component parallel to the mean magnetic field. This component is consistent with a rigidity-independent spectrum, while the perpendicular anisotropy component increases with GCR rigidity. We suggest that this harder spectrum of the perpendicular component is due to contribution from the drift streaming. We find that the bi-directional latitudinal density gradient is positive in the A > 0 epoch, while it is negative in the A < 0 epoch, in agreement with the drift model prediction. The radial density gradient of GCRs, on the other hand, varies with a ∼11 yr cycle with maxima (minima) in solar maximum (minimum) periods, but we find no significant difference between the radial gradients in the A > 0 and A < 0 epochs. The corresponding parallel mean free path is larger in A < 0 than in A > 0. We also find, however, that the parallel mean free path (radial gradient) appears to persistently increase (decrease) in the last three cycles of weakening solar activity. We suggest that simple differences between these parameters in A > 0 and A < 0 epochs are seriously biased by these long-term trends.

  16. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions. Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Absil, O.; Montagnier, G.; Riaud, P.; Surdej, J.; Ducourant, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Röttinger, S.; Girard, J.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-infrared window (1-5 μm). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100 Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-infrared. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d < 80 pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Aims: Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by direct imaging. Probing these interesting reservoirs sets additional constraints that we review in this paper by presenting the planet search that we initiated in 2008 around the disk-bearing T Tauri star IM Lup, which is part of the Lupus star forming region (140-190 pc). Methods: We show and discuss why age determination, the choice of evolutionary model for both the central star and the planet, precise knowledge of the host star proper motion, relative or absolute (between different instruments) astrometric accuracy (including plate scale calibration), and patience are the key ingredients for exoplanet searches around more distant young stars. Results: Unfortunately, most of the time, precision and perseverance are not paying off: we discovered a candidate companion around IM Lup in 2008, which we report here to be an unbound background object. We nevertheless review in details the lessons learned from our endeavor, and

  17. Numerical analysis on using compound parabolic couplers for direct transmission of concentrated solar radiation via optical fibre (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahou, Maryam; Andrews, John; Rosengarten, Gary

    2016-09-01

    A challenge in high-temperature solar thermal applications is transfer of concentrated solar radiation to the load with minimum energy loss. The use of a solar concentrator in conjunction with optical fibres has potential advantages in terms of transmission efficiency, technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness compared to a conventional heat transfer system employing heat exchangers and a heat transfer fluid. For transferring higher levels of concentrated flux it is necessary to employ multiple optical fibres or fibre bundles. However, the losses at the incident plane of a bundle due to absorption by the epoxy and cladding between the individual fibres in a bundle are substantial, typically over 60% of the overall transmission loss. The optical transmission of the system can thus be enhanced by employing a coupler between the concentrated solar radiation and the entrance to the bundle that reflects all incident light into the cores of individual fibres rather than allowing it to strike the interstitial spaces between the cores. This paper describes the design for such couplers based on multiple compound parabolic (CP) reflectors each with its exit aperture coinciding with the core of an individual fibre within the bundle. The proposed design employs external reflection from a machined metallic aluminium surface. This CP arrangement has the additional benefit of increasing the concentration ratio of the primary solar concentrator used. Simulation modeling using LightTools is conducted into a parabolic Cassegrain solar concentrator employing these CP couplers prior to a fibre bundle. The dependence of overall transmission and total optical efficiency of the system over lengths of the bundle up to 100 m are investigated quantitatively. In addition, the influence on transmission of the angular distribution of radiation intensity at the aperture of the couplers is studied.

  18. Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical Nosing, First Floor Stringer Profile, Second Floor Stringer Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Treasurer's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  19. 23. FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR: STAIRCASE AND MAIN ENTRY WAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR: STAIRCASE AND MAIN ENTRY WAY ON FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR FROM LANDING BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR LOOKING EAST - Masonic Temple, 1111-1119 Eleventh Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  20. 5. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BLOCK, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BLOCK, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN EAST WALL OF NORTHEAST ROOM, SHOWING (EAST) WALL OF EAST ROOM (FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS), AND SECOND FLOOR JOISTS - Bulows Minde Estate House, Bulows Minde, Bulows Minde, St. Croix, VI

  1. 41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete with 3rd and 4th floors being started,upper floors of county bldg visible - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING DOWN ON REACTOR FLOOR, FACING EAST. REACTOR IS AT LEFT OF VIEW. APPARATUS DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF CAMERA IS PART OF A MOCK-UP PROJECT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-3-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Radial direct bandgap p-i-n GaNP microwire solar cells with enhanced short circuit current

    DOE PAGES

    Sukrittanon, Supanee; Liu, Ren; Breeden, Michael C.; ...

    2016-08-07

    Here, we report the demonstration of dilute nitride heterostructure core/shell microwire solar cells utilizing the combination of top-down reactive-ion etching to create the cores (GaP) and molecular beam epitaxy to create the shells (GaNP). Systematic studies of cell performance over a series of microwire lengths, array periods, and microwire sidewall morphologies examined by transmission electron microscopy were conducted to shed light on performance-limiting factors and to optimize the cell efficiency. We also show by microscopy and correlated external quantum efficiency characterization that the open circuit voltage is degraded primarily due to the presence of defects at the GaP/GaNP interface andmore » in the GaNP shells, and is not limited by surface recombination. Compared to thin film solar cells in the same growth run, the microwire solar cells exhibit greater short circuit current but poorer open circuit voltage due to greater light absorption and number of defects in the microwire structure, respectively. Finally, we present performance benefits of dilute nitride microwire solar cells and show that it can be achieved by further tuning of the epitaxial quality of the underlying materials.« less

  4. Radial direct bandgap p-i-n GaNP microwire solar cells with enhanced short circuit current

    SciTech Connect

    Sukrittanon, Supanee; Liu, Ren; Breeden, Michael C.; Pan, Janet L.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Tu, Charles W.; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2016-08-07

    Here, we report the demonstration of dilute nitride heterostructure core/shell microwire solar cells utilizing the combination of top-down reactive-ion etching to create the cores (GaP) and molecular beam epitaxy to create the shells (GaNP). Systematic studies of cell performance over a series of microwire lengths, array periods, and microwire sidewall morphologies examined by transmission electron microscopy were conducted to shed light on performance-limiting factors and to optimize the cell efficiency. We also show by microscopy and correlated external quantum efficiency characterization that the open circuit voltage is degraded primarily due to the presence of defects at the GaP/GaNP interface and in the GaNP shells, and is not limited by surface recombination. Compared to thin film solar cells in the same growth run, the microwire solar cells exhibit greater short circuit current but poorer open circuit voltage due to greater light absorption and number of defects in the microwire structure, respectively. Finally, we present performance benefits of dilute nitride microwire solar cells and show that it can be achieved by further tuning of the epitaxial quality of the underlying materials.

  5. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts. 3: Polarization and directivity of bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, S. H.; Petrosian, V.

    1976-01-01

    The spectrum, directivity and state of polarization is presented of the bremsstrahlung radiation expected from a beam of high energy electrons spiraling along radial magnetic field lines toward the photosphere. The results are used for calculation of the characteristics of the reflected plus direct flux.

  6. Thermal Behavior of Floor Tubes in a Kraft Recovery Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, R.E.; Choudhury, K.A.; Gorog, J.P.; Hall, L.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Sarma, G.B.

    1999-09-12

    The temperatures of floor tubes in a slope-floored black liquor recovery boiler were measured using an array of thermocouples located on the tube crowns. It was found that sudden, short duration temperature increases occurred with a frequency that increased with distance from the spout wall. To determine if the temperature pulses were associated with material falling from the convective section of the boiler, the pattern of sootblower operation was recorded and compared with the pattern of temperature pulses. During the period from September, 1998, through February, 1999, it was found that more than 2/3 of the temperature pulses occurred during the time when one of the fast eight sootblowers, which are directed at the back of the screen tubes and the leading edge of the first superheater bank, was operating.

  7. Phase change material in floor tiles for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Amy Sarah

    Traditional passive solar systems have relied on sensible heat storage for energy savings. Recent research has investigated taking advantage of latent heat storage for additional energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change material into building materials used in traditional passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. This research introduces a new flooring material that incorporates a phase change material ready for commercial manufacture. An agglomerate floor tile containing 20% by mass of encapsulated octadecane has been manufactured. Flexural and compressive strength of 7.4 MPa and 24.5 MPa respectively, were measured for the tile. Peak melting transition temperature was determined to be 27.2°C with a latent heat of 33.9 J/g of tile. Structural and thermal performance of the tile surpassed that of a typical ceramic tile. Each tile was composed of quartz, resin and phase change material. Statistical modeling was performed to analyze the response of flexural and compressive strength on varying amounts of quartz, resin and phase change material. Resulting polynomials described the effect of adding phase change material into the tile. With as little as 10% by mass of phase change material, the strength was reduced to less than 50% of tile without phase change material. It was determined that the maximum phase change material content to attain structural integrity greater than ceramic tile was 20% by mass. The statistical analysis used for this research was based on mixture experiments. A procedure was developed to simplify the selection of data points used in the fit of the polynomials to describe the response of flexural and compressive strengths. Analysis of energy savings using this floor tile containing 20% by mass of phase change material was performed as an addendum to this research. A known static simulation method, SLR (solar load ratio), was adapted to include

  8. Investigation on the flanking transmission of impact sound insulation of floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, Giovanni; Cocchi, Alessandro

    2004-05-01

    Impact sound pressure level of floors depends, as general rule, on direct sound radiated by the floor excited by a standard tapping machine and on flanking transmission of lateral walls. Depending on the kind of junction between the floor and walls of the receiving room, flanking paths can be more or less important. Requirements of laboratory test specimens are not well specified in EN ISO 140 standards, particularly for junctions of the test floor and lateral walls. In this paper measurements performed at DIENCA laboratory are presented in order to evaluate the influence of flanking transmission on impact sound pressure levels of a standard floor and on impact sound reduction level of standard floor with a resilient layer. Measurements are performed on a 14-cm-thick concrete floor in two different conditions: first connected on two sides of the receiving room and then on all four sides. Impact sound pressure levels and vibration levels are analyzed in order to evaluate the contribution of different transmission paths. As the measurements were carried on in the new facility for measurement of the contribution of the flanking transmission, this facility will be exhaustively presented in the paper.

  9. Pulsations, interpulsations, and sea-floor spreading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pessagno, E. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    It is postulated that worldwide transgressions (pulsations) and regressions (interpulsations) through the course of geologic time are related to the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems and to sea-floor spreading. Two multiple working hypotheses are advanced to explain major transgressions and regressions and the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems. One hypothesis interrelates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to the hypothesis of sub-Mohorovicic serpentinization. The second hypothesis relates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to a hypothesis involving thermal expansion and contraction.

  10. Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor.

    PubMed

    Stone, Daniel E; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the background and appraisal of endoluminal ultrasound of the pelvic floor. It provides a detailed anatomic assessment of the muscles and surrounding organs of the pelvic floor. Different anatomic variability and pathology, such as prolapse, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, vaginal wall cysts, synthetic implanted material, and pelvic pain, are easily assessed with endoluminal vaginal ultrasound. With pelvic organ prolapse in particular, not only is the prolapse itself seen but the underlying cause related to the anatomic and functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor muscle structures are also visualized.

  11. Impulsive solar X-ray bursts. III - Polarization, directivity, and spectrum of the reflected and total bremsstrahlung radiation from a beam of electrons directed toward the photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, S. H.; Petrosian, V.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the spectrum, directivity, and state of polarization of the bremsstrahlung radiation expected from a beam of high-energy electrons spiraling along radial magnetic field lines toward the photosphere. A Monte Carlo method is then described for evaluation of the spectrum, directivity, and polarization of X-rays diffusely reflected from stellar photospheres. The accuracy of the technique is evaluated through comparison with analytic results. The calculated characteristics of the incident X-rays are used to evaluate the spectrum, directivity, and polarization of the reflected and total X-ray fluxes. The results are compared with observations.

  12. Solar synthetic fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgen, E.; Bilgen, C.

    In this paper, a thermodynamic study is presented on solar hydrogen production using concentrated solar energy. In the first part, the direct decomposition process has been studied. The temperature requirements at various partial pressures of H2O, H2 and H yields, thermal efficiency and separation of products are discussed. In the second part, using consistent costing bases, the cost of hydrogen is estimated for solar-direct decomposition process and solar-electrolysis process. It has been found that the solar-direct decomposition process concept provides hydrogen costs in the range of $22/GJ which are lower by $15-$26 than those provided by a solar electrolysis process.

  13. Solar Thermal Radiant Heating at Pohakuloa Training Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Solar collector panels. • Sizing the array: Using thermal storage of 256,000 BTU/day and 4’ x 10’ flat panel collectors with output of...be arranged side-by-side on the south- facing pitch of roof. – Racked at 30 angle to maximize winter sun. Flat plate solar collectors E2S2– June 2010...radiant heat flooring project will combine solar thermal hot water system with in-floor radiant heating. – Flooring heat only; no domestic water. – Flat

  14. Floor Maintenance: Tips from the Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2001-01-01

    Presents advice from three university maintenance directors on what they see as the most important parts involved in keeping floors in top shape. Training, staff motivation, flexible scheduling, and proper use of supplies are addressed. (GR)

  15. Design and Development of High Voltage Direct Current (DC) Sources for the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibyk, Irene K.; Wald, Lawrence W.

    1995-01-01

    Two programmable, high voltage DC power supplies were developed as part of the flight electronics for the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE). SAMPIE's primary objectives were to study and characterize the high voltage arcing and parasitic current losses of various solar cells and metal samples within the space plasma of low earth orbit (LEO). High voltage arcing can cause large discontinuous changes in spacecraft potential which lead to damage of the power system materials and significant Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Parasitic currents cause a change in floating potential which lead to reduced power efficiency. These primary SAMPIE objectives were accomplished by applying artificial biases across test samples over a voltage range from -600 VDC to +300 VDC. This paper chronicles the design, final development, and test of the two programmable high voltage sources for SAMPIE. The technical challenges to the design for these power supplies included vacuum, space plasma effects, thermal protection, Shuttle vibrations and accelerations.

  16. Floor Fractured Craters around Syrtis Major, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, M.; Jaumann, R.; Asche, H.

    2012-04-01

    Craters around Syrtis Major are eroded and/or refilled. Syrtis Major is one of the large Hesperian-aged volcanic regions on Mars. Basaltic deposits originating from nearby Syrtis Major cover the floor of impact craters. In particular some craters exhibit a fractured floor. Floor Fractured Craters can be divided in types. The grade of erosion and the geologic process, which formed the crater, can be different. Type 1: Crater floor affected by pit chains or narrow crevices which are sometimes discontinuous. Type 2: More developed and dense networks of crevices as type 1. Crevices are wide and deep enough to be detected. A circular moat starts to develop as crevices concentrate along the rim. Type 3: Mainly distinguished from type 2 by the presence of a fully developed circular moat. The flat central part is divided into several blocks by crevices. Type 4: They show also a continuous moat along the rim but the central part consists of many flat-top blocks and small conical mounds. Type 5: Crater floor has many mounds of irregular sizes, but the flattop blocks are absent. It should be noted that the knobby surface shows typical characteristics of chaotic terrains and could be alternatively classified as such. Type 6: Crater without a circular moat, crevices are not fully developed, flat-top blocks are present. Fractured floor could have been reshaped through geologic processes. Floor fractured craters can be found in three different areas. The first area is located in the south-eastern part of Syrtis Major, bordering to the highlands. Volcanic features like lava flow fronts, lava flows and wrinkle ridges dominate this region. The crater floor is separated in sharp-edged plates and the interior seems to be flooded by basaltic material. The second area is in the north of Syrtis Major and transcend to the chaotic terrain further north. Near the martian dichotomy boundary fluvial activity was the decisive process. The crater rims are highly eroded, channels are cutting

  17. Late extrusion of alloplastic orbital floor implants.

    PubMed

    Brown, A E; Banks, P

    1993-06-01

    Complications following the use of alloplastic orbital floor implants are well documented but it is not widely recognised that these can occur many years after initial treatment. Three patients who presented with late extrusion of an implant through the facial skin are reported. This complication occurred 10, 16 and 17 years respectively after treatment of the orbital floor fracture. The tissue reaction to silicone rubber and Teflon inplants is reviewed and the possible cause for this late complication is discussed.

  18. [Epidermoid cyst of the mouth floor].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Rodríguez, S; Morán Penco, J M; Ruiz Orpez, A; Santamaria Ossorio, J I; Berchi García, F J

    2003-07-01

    The epidermoid cysts are frequent during childhood, however mouth floor location are very unusual, because of their more difficult diagnosis and therapeutic approach. We present a 5 years old male, symptoms free until a week before, when his parents noticed a well defined mass in the mouth floor. A physical examination leaded to the diagnosis of possible epidermoid cyst. The tumor was excised through an introral approach. A review of different diagnostic means and surgical management are undertaken.

  19. [Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor: interdisciplinary continence and pelvic floor surgery].

    PubMed

    Muctar, S; Schmidt, W U; Batzill, W; Westphal, J

    2011-07-01

    Knowledge of functional anatomy is a prerequisite for the safe and targeted reconstructive therapy of incontinence and the prolapse syndrome of the female pelvic floor. We illustrate the interaction of muscles and connective tissue of the pelvic floor with anatomical illustrations and demonstrate their impact on the function of the urethra, bladder, vagina, uterus and rectum. Examples for the therapeutic rationale for a surgical reconstruction of the pelvic floor are defined and justified from their functional anatomy.

  20. CuInSe₂ thin-film solar cells with 7.72 % efficiency prepared via direct coating of a metal salts/alcohol-based precursor solution.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sejin; Son, Tae Hwa; Cho, Ara; Gwak, Jihye; Yun, Jae Ho; Shin, Keeshik; Ahn, Seoung Kyu; Park, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Kyunghoon

    2012-09-01

    A simple direct solution coating process for forming CuInSe₂ (CIS) thin films was described, employing a low-cost and environmentally friendly precursor solution. The precursor solution was prepared by mixing metal acetates, ethanol, and ethanolamine. The facile formation of a precursor solution without the need to prefabricate nanoparticles enables a rapid and easy processing, and the high stability of the solution in air further ensures the precursor preparation and the film deposition in ambient conditions without a glove box. The thin film solar cell fabricated with the absorber film prepared by this route showed an initial conversion efficiency of as high as 7.72 %.

  1. Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The areas of emphasis are: (1) develop theoretical models of the transient release of magnetic energy in the solar atmosphere, e.g., in solar flares, eruptive prominences, coronal mass ejections, etc.; (2) investigate the role of the Sun's magnetic field in the structuring of solar corona by the development of three-dimensional numerical models that describe the field configuration at various heights in the solar atmosphere by extrapolating the field at the photospheric level; (3) develop numerical models to investigate the physical parameters obtained by the ULYSSES mission; (4) develop numerical and theoretical models to investigate solar activity effects on the solar wind characteristics for the establishment of the solar-interplanetary transmission line; and (5) develop new instruments to measure solar magnetic fields and other features in the photosphere, chromosphere transition region and corona. We focused our investigation on the fundamental physical processes in solar atmosphere which directly effect our Planet Earth. The overall goal is to establish the physical process for the Sun-Earth connections.

  2. Analytical modeling of transport aircraft crash scenarios to obtain floor pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittlin, G.; Lackey, D.

    1983-01-01

    The KRAS program was used to analyze transport aircraft candidate crash scenarios. Aircraft floor pulses and seat/occupant responses are presented. Results show that: (1) longitudinal only pulses can be represented by equivalent step inputs and/or static requirements; (2) the L1649 crash test floor longitudinal pulse for the aft direction (forward inertia) is less than 9g static or an equivalent 5g pulse; aft inertia accelerations are extremely small ((ch76) 3g) for representative crash scenarios; (3) a viable procedure to relate crash scenario floor pulses to standard laboratory dynamic and static test data using state of the art analysis and test procedures was demonstrated; and (4) floor pulse magnitudes are expected to be lower for wide body aircraft than for smaller narrow body aircraft.

  3. Coupled modeling of a directly heated tubular solar receiver for supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle: Optical and thermal-fluid evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Jesus; Khivsara, Sagar; Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford; Yellowhair, Julius; Dutta, Pradip

    2016-05-30

    In single phase performance and appealing thermo-physical properties supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) make a good heat transfer fluid candidate for concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The development of a solar receiver capable of delivering s-CO2 at outlet temperatures ~973 K is required in order to merge CSP and s-CO2 Brayton cycle technologies. A coupled optical and thermal-fluid modeling effort for a tubular receiver is undertaken to evaluate the direct tubular s-CO2 receiver’s thermal performance when exposed to a concentrated solar power input of ~0.3–0.5 MW. Ray tracing, using SolTrace, is performed to determine the heat flux profiles on the receiver and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) determines the thermal performance of the receiver under the specified heating conditions. Moreover, an in-house MATLAB code is developed to couple SolTrace and ANSYS Fluent. CFD modeling is performed using ANSYS Fluent to predict the thermal performance of the receiver by evaluating radiation and convection heat loss mechanisms. Understanding the effects of variation in heliostat aiming strategy and flow configurations on the thermal performance of the receiver was achieved through parametric analyses. Finally, a receiver thermal efficiency ~85% was predicted and the surface temperatures were observed to be within the allowable limit for the materials under consideration.

  4. Coupled modeling of a directly heated tubular solar receiver for supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle: Optical and thermal-fluid evaluation

    DOE PAGES

    Ortega, Jesus; Khivsara, Sagar; Christian, Joshua; ...

    2016-05-30

    In single phase performance and appealing thermo-physical properties supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) make a good heat transfer fluid candidate for concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The development of a solar receiver capable of delivering s-CO2 at outlet temperatures ~973 K is required in order to merge CSP and s-CO2 Brayton cycle technologies. A coupled optical and thermal-fluid modeling effort for a tubular receiver is undertaken to evaluate the direct tubular s-CO2 receiver’s thermal performance when exposed to a concentrated solar power input of ~0.3–0.5 MW. Ray tracing, using SolTrace, is performed to determine the heat flux profiles on the receivermore » and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) determines the thermal performance of the receiver under the specified heating conditions. Moreover, an in-house MATLAB code is developed to couple SolTrace and ANSYS Fluent. CFD modeling is performed using ANSYS Fluent to predict the thermal performance of the receiver by evaluating radiation and convection heat loss mechanisms. Understanding the effects of variation in heliostat aiming strategy and flow configurations on the thermal performance of the receiver was achieved through parametric analyses. Finally, a receiver thermal efficiency ~85% was predicted and the surface temperatures were observed to be within the allowable limit for the materials under consideration.« less

  5. Path analysis for adherence to pelvic floor muscle exercise among women with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Yueh; Tzeng, Ya-Ling

    2009-06-01

    This study developed and tested the accuracy of a model designed to predict adherence to a pelvic floor muscle exercise regimen by Taiwanese women with urinary incontinence. The sample was composed of 106 women treated for urinary incontinence at urban hospitals in central and northern Taiwan from April 2000 to March 2003. All participants had practiced prescribed pelvic floor muscle exercises for at least 6 weeks at the time they completed study measures, which included adherence to pelvic floor muscle exercise, self-efficacy for the exercise, knowledge of the exercise, attitudes toward the exercise, dyadic cohesion, perceived benefits of the exercise, and severity of urine loss. After stepwise multiple regression analysis, a path analysis was conducted, with significant paths retained as modifiers. Self-efficacy for pelvic floor muscle exercise strongly and directly affected adherence to the exercise regimen. Attitudes toward the exercise, dyadic cohesion, and perceived benefits of the exercise affected adherence when mediated by self-efficacy for pelvic floor muscle exercise. Severity of urine loss also directly affected adherence. Exercise knowledge affected neither self-efficacy nor adherence. The model fit the data and accounted for 40% of adherence variance. Findings affirm the significant role of self-efficacy in predicting adherence to pelvic floor muscle exercise. Thus, self-efficacy for exercise can be an indicator for nurses to tailor exercise-training programs for women with urinary incontinence. Nurses can use the study findings to develop interventions to increase women's adherence to the exercise.

  6. ETRA, TRA642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. IBEAM COLUMNS SUPPORTING CONSOLE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETRA, TRA-642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. I-BEAM COLUMNS SUPPORTING CONSOLE FLOOR HAVE BEEN SURROUNDED BY CONCRETE IN RECTANGULAR PILLARS. BASEMENT FLOOR IS BEING PREPARED FOR PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE. ABOVE CEILING IS CONSOLE FLOOR, IN WHICH CUT-OUT HAS PRESERVED SPACE FOR REACTOR AND ITS SHIELDING. CIRCULAR FORM IN REACTOR AREA IS CONCRETE FORMING. NOTE VERTICAL CONDUIT AT INTERVALS AROUND REACTOR PITS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1237. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 76 FR 7098 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 120 and 121 Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program to make available 7(a) loan guaranties for lines of credit that provide floor plan financing. This new Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program was created in the Small Business...

  8. 9 CFR 354.222 - Floors, walls, ceilings, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Floors, walls, ceilings, etc. 354.222 Section 354.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Facilities § 354.222 Floors, walls, ceilings, etc. (a) Floors. All floors in rooms where exposed products...

  9. Solar-energy treatment of ceramic tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. N.; Clayton, M. E.

    1981-12-01

    The 400 kW Advanced Components Test Facility was used to provide a concentrated source of solar energy for firing ceramic wall tile. A domed top cylindrical cavity with a white refractory fiber lining provided diffuse reflection of the concentrated solar beam directly onto the upper surface of the unfired wall tile. The tile were placed directly on the cavity floor in a circular pattern, centered at 450 intervals so that eight tile could be fired at one time. The tile and cavity walls were instrumented with thermocouples, and pyrometric cones were used to determine temperature distribution within the cavity. The glazed and unglazed solar fired titles were tested for flatness, modulus of rupture, water absorption, porosity, bulk density, apparent specific gravity, percent linear thermal expansion and crystalline phases present in the fired bodies. The major problems encountered are: cracking by thermal shock, and uneven shrinkage and glaze maturity across individual tile. The cavity failed to provide even heating at all eight tile positions.

  10. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle event of 20 January 2005 on polar stratospheric aerosols: direct observational evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova, I. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Petelina, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization of the low-middle atmosphere, leading to associated changes in atmospheric properties. Via the hypothetical influence of ionization on aerosol growth and facilitated formation of clouds, this may be an important indirect link relating solar variability to climate. This effect is highly debated, however, since the proposed theoretical mechanisms still remain illusive and qualitative, and observational evidence is inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, important questions regarding the existence and magnitude of the effect, and particularly the fraction of aerosol particles that can form and grow, are still open. Here we present empirical evidence of the possible effect caused by cosmic rays upon polar stratospheric aerosols, based on a case study of an extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) event of 20 January 2005. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from different satellites with optical instruments that were operating during January 2005, such as the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), and Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS), we found a significant simultaneous change in aerosol properties in both the Southern and Northern Polar regions in temporal association with the SEP event. We speculate that ionization of the atmosphere, which was abnormally high in the lower stratosphere during the extreme SEP event, might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, a detailed interpretation of the effect is left for subsequent studies. This is the first time high vertical resolution measurements have been used to discuss possible production of stratospheric aerosols under the influence of cosmic ray induced ionization. The observed effect is marginally detectable for the analyzed severe SEP event and can be undetectable for the majority of weak-moderate events. The present

  11. Airborne observed solar elevation and row direction effects on the near-IR/red ratio of cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to obtain data over two adjacent cotton fields having rows perpendicular to one another, at three times of day (different solar elevations), and on two dates (different plant size). The near IR/red ratios were displayed in image form, so that within-field variations and differences between fields could be easily assessed. The ratio varied with changing Sun elevation for north-south oriented rows, but no variation was detected for east-west oriented rows.

  12. Design and evaluation of a high temperature/pressure supercritical carbon dioxide direct tubular receiver for concentrating solar power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jesus Daniel

    This work focuses on the development of a solar power thermal receiver for a supercritical-carbon dioxide (sCO2), Brayton power-cycle to produce ~1 MWe. Closed-loop sCO2 Brayton cycles are being evaluated in combination with concentrating solar power to provide higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiencies relative to conventional steam Rankine cycles. High temperatures (923--973 K) and pressures (20--25 MPa) are required in the solar receiver to achieve thermal efficiencies of ~50%, making concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies a competitive alternative to current power generation methods. In this study, the CSP receiver is required to achieve an outlet temperature of 923 K at 25 MPa or 973 K at 20 MPa to meet the operating needs. To obtain compatible receiver tube material, an extensive material review was performed based the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ASME B31.1 and ASME B313.3 codes respectively. Subsequently, a thermal-structural model was developed using a commercial computational fluid (CFD) dynamics and structural mechanics software for designing and analyzing the tubular receiver that could provide the heat input for a ~2 MWth plant. These results were used to perform an analytical cumulative damage creep-fatigue analysis to estimate the work-life of the tubes. In sequence, an optical-thermal-fluid model was developed to evaluate the resulting thermal efficiency of the tubular receiver from the NSTTF heliostat field. The ray-tracing tool SolTrace was used to obtain the heat-flux distribution on the surfaces of the receiver. The K-ω SST turbulence model and P-1 radiation model used in Fluent were coupled with SolTrace to provide the heat flux distribution on the receiver surface. The creep-fatigue analysis displays the damage accumulated due to the cycling and the permanent deformation of the tubes. Nonetheless, they are able to support the required lifetime. The receiver surface temperatures were found to be within the safe

  13. Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

    1984-12-01

    A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

  14. Layer-by-Layer Assembled Films of Perylene Diimide- and Squaraine-Containing Metal-Organic Framework-like Materials: Solar Energy Capture and Directional Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    Park, Hea Jung; So, Monica C; Gosztola, David; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Emery, Jonathan D; Martinson, Alex B F; Er, Süleyman; Wilmer, Christopher E; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Stoddart, J Fraser; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2016-09-28

    We demonstrate that thin films of metal-organic framework (MOF)-like materials, containing two perylenediimides (PDICl4, PDIOPh2) and a squaraine dye (S1), can be fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly (LbL). Interestingly, these LbL films absorb across the visible light region (400-750 nm) and facilitate directional energy transfer. Due to the high spectral overlap and oriented transition dipole moments of the donor (PDICl4 and PDIOPh2) and acceptor (S1) components, directional long-range energy transfer from the bluest to reddest absorber was successfully demonstrated in the multicomponent MOF-like films. These findings have significant implications for the development of solar energy conversion devices based on MOFs.

  15. Graded morphology in bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on colloidal semiconductor nanostructures: Directed charge-separation and facile carrier transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Uttiya; Pal, Amlan J.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce density gradient of p- and n-type compound semiconductor nanostructures in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The graded BHJs (GBHJs) were formed with the p-type copper-zinc-tin-sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4) nanoparticles and n-type Bi2S3 nanorods, both of which were based on nontoxic and earth-abundant elements and were grown at a moderate reaction temperature (180 °C). The concentration gradient of the nanostructures in the GBHJs provided a preferred directionality of nano-depletion regions for directed charge separation and also a controlled vertical segregation for ever-increasing carrier-transport pathways during the charge-extraction process. A comparison of solar cell characteristics having a bilayer, a BHJ, and a GBHJ structure is being presented. The performance of the thickness-optimized devices for highest efficiency shows that the GBHJ offered an improved short-circuit current as compared to the bilayer and the BHJ structures and a higher fill-factor as compared to the BHJ device. The overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of GBHJ exceeded that of the other two heterojunctions. The advantages of GBHJ structures in yielding an improved η have been explained through an increased exciton dissociation process along with a lower carrier recombination as compared to the bilayer and the BHJ structures, respectively. Series and shunt resistances, which were derived from current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectroscopy, supported such analyses.

  16. Solar chulha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhao, P. H.; Patrikar, S. R.

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  17. Observations of Oppositely Directed Umbral Wavefronts Rotating in Sunspots Obtained from the New Solar Telescope of BBSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, J. T.; Ji, K. F.; Cao, W.; Banerjee, D.; Priya, T. G.; Zhao, J. S.; Bai, X. Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, M.; Ji, H. S.

    2016-02-01

    We study the umbral waves as observed by chromospheric imaging observations of two sunspots with the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. We find that the wavefronts (WFs) rotate clockwise and form a one-armed spiral structure in the first sunspot, whereas two- and three-armed structures arise in the second sunspot where the WFs rotate anticlockwise and clockwise alternately. All the spiral arms display propagation outwards and become running penumbral waves once they cross the umbral boundaries, suggesting that the umbral and penumbral waves propagate along the same inclined field lines. We propose that the one-armed spiral structure may be produced by the WF reflections at the chromospheric umbral light bridge, and the multi-armed spirals may be related to the twist of the magnetic field in the umbra. Additionally, the time lag of the umbral oscillations in between the data of He i 10830 Å and {{H}}α -0.4 Å is ∼17 s, and it is ∼60 s for that in between the data of 304 Å and {{H}}α -0.4 Å. This indicates that these disturbances are slow magnetoacoustic waves in nature, and that they propagate upward along the inclined lines with fast radial expansions causing horizontal velocities of the running waves.

  18. Direct imaging of Cl- and Cu-induced short-circuit efficiency changes in CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Parish, Chad M.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Li, Chen; Paudel, Naba; Yan, Yanfa; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2014-05-30

    To achieve high-efficiency polycrystalline CdTe-based thin-film solar cells, the CdTe absorbers must go through a post-deposition CdCl2 heat treatment followed by a Cu diffusion step. To better understand the roles of each treatment with regard to improving grains, grain boundaries, and interfaces, CdTe solar cells with and without Cu diffusion and CdCl2 heat treatments are investigated using cross-sectional electron beam induced current, electron backscatter diffraction, and scanning transmission electron microscope techniques. The evolution of the cross-sectional carrier collection profile due to these treatments that cause an increase in short-circuit current and higher open-circuit voltage are identified. Additionally, an increased carrier collection in grain boundaries after either/both of these treatments is revealed. The increased current at the grain boundaries is shown to be due to the presence of a space charge region with an intrinsic carrier collection profile width of ≈350 nm. Scanning transmission electron microscope electron-energy loss spectroscopy shows a decreased Te and increased Cl concentration in grain boundaries after treatment, which causes the inversion. Furthermore, each treatment improves the overall carrier collection efficiency of the cell separately, and, therefore, the benefits realized by each treatment are shown to be independent of each other.

  19. Direct imaging of Cl- and Cu-induced short-circuit efficiency changes in CdTe solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Parish, Chad M.; Leonard, Donovan N.; ...

    2014-05-30

    To achieve high-efficiency polycrystalline CdTe-based thin-film solar cells, the CdTe absorbers must go through a post-deposition CdCl2 heat treatment followed by a Cu diffusion step. To better understand the roles of each treatment with regard to improving grains, grain boundaries, and interfaces, CdTe solar cells with and without Cu diffusion and CdCl2 heat treatments are investigated using cross-sectional electron beam induced current, electron backscatter diffraction, and scanning transmission electron microscope techniques. The evolution of the cross-sectional carrier collection profile due to these treatments that cause an increase in short-circuit current and higher open-circuit voltage are identified. Additionally, an increased carriermore » collection in grain boundaries after either/both of these treatments is revealed. The increased current at the grain boundaries is shown to be due to the presence of a space charge region with an intrinsic carrier collection profile width of ≈350 nm. Scanning transmission electron microscope electron-energy loss spectroscopy shows a decreased Te and increased Cl concentration in grain boundaries after treatment, which causes the inversion. Furthermore, each treatment improves the overall carrier collection efficiency of the cell separately, and, therefore, the benefits realized by each treatment are shown to be independent of each other.« less

  20. A direct gravitational lensing test for 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in halos of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wambsganss, Joachim; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    We propose a method that will be able to detect or exclude the existence of 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in the halos of galaxies. VLBA radio maps of two milliarcsecond jets of a gravitationally lensed quasar will show the signature of these black holes - if they exist. If there are no compact objects in this mass range along the line of sight, the two jets should be linear mappings of each other. If they are not, there must be compact objects of about 10 exp 6 solar masses in the halo of the galaxy that deform the images by gravitational deflection. We present numerical simulations for the two jets A and B of the double quasar 0957 + 561, but the method is valid for any gravitationally lensed quasar with structure on milliarcsecond scales. As a by-product from high-quality VLBA maps of jets A and B, one will be able to tell which features in the maps are intrinsic in the original jet and which are only an optical illusion, i.e., gravitational distortions by black holes along the line of sight.

  1. Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The "grown" silicon crystals are used to make solar cells, or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems, Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.

  2. Photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, C.J.

    1991-05-16

    This invention consists of a planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation which includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  3. The cleaning of ward floors and the bacteriological study of floor-cleaning machines

    PubMed Central

    Bate, J. G.

    1961-01-01

    Current trends in ward flooring materials and cleaning methods are considered from the point of view of the hospital bacteriologist. Methods employed in an investigation into the bacteriological safety of a number of floor-cleaning machines are described, and some considerations governing the choice of vacuum cleaners for ward use are discussed. Images PMID:13687726

  4. 24. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING NORTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  5. 23. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING WEST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  6. Total pelvic floor ultrasound for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Solanki, Deepa; Schizas, Alexis M P; Williams, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic floor ultrasound is used for the dynamic assessment of pelvic floor dysfunction and allows multicompartmental anatomical and functional assessment. Pelvic floor dysfunction includes defaecatory, urinary and sexual dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse and pain. It is common, increasingly recognized and associated with increasing age and multiparity. Other options for assessment include defaecation proctography and defaecation MRI. Total pelvic floor ultrasound is a cheap, safe, imaging tool, which may be performed as a first-line investigation in outpatients. It allows dynamic assessment of the entire pelvic floor, essential for treatment planning for females who often have multiple diagnoses where treatment should address all aspects of dysfunction to yield optimal results. Transvaginal scanning using a rotating single crystal probe provides sagittal views of bladder neck support anteriorly. Posterior transvaginal ultrasound may reveal rectocoele, enterocoele or intussusception whilst bearing down. The vaginal probe is also used to acquire a 360° cross-sectional image to allow anatomical visualization of the pelvic floor and provides information regarding levator plate integrity and pelvic organ alignment. Dynamic transperineal ultrasound using a conventional curved array probe provides a global view of the anterior, middle and posterior compartments and may show cystocoele, enterocoele, sigmoidocoele or rectocoele. This pictorial review provides an atlas of normal and pathological images required for global pelvic floor assessment in females presenting with defaecatory dysfunction. Total pelvic floor ultrasound may be used with complementary endoanal ultrasound to assess the sphincter complex, but this is beyond the scope of this review.

  7. ETR, TRA642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTORGENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTOR-GENERATOR SETS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1781, 7/1960. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020384, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Utility-Scale Solar Power Converter: Agile Direct Grid Connect Medium Voltage 4.7-13.8 kV Power Converter for PV Applications Utilizing Wide Band Gap Devices

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-25

    Solar ADEPT Project: Satcon is developing a compact, lightweight power conversion device that is capable of taking utility-scale solar power and outputting it directly into the electric utility grid at distribution voltage levels—eliminating the need for large transformers. Transformers “step up” the voltage of the power that is generated by a solar power system so it can be efficiently transported through transmission lines and eventually “stepped down” to usable voltages before it enters homes and businesses. Power companies step up the voltage because less electricity is lost along transmission lines when the voltage is high and current is low. Satcon’s new power conversion devices will eliminate these heavy transformers and connect a utility-scale solar power system directly to the grid. Satcon’s modular devices are designed to ensure reliability—if one device fails it can be bypassed and the system can continue to run.

  9. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle event of 20 January 2005 on polar stratospheric aerosols: direct observational evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova, I. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Petelina, S. V.

    2011-05-01

    Energetic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization of the low-middle atmosphere, leading to associated changes in atmospheric properties. Via the hypothetical influence of ionization on aerosol growth and facilitated formation of cloud condensation nuclei, this may be an important indirect link relating solar variability to climate. This effect is highly debated, however, since the proposed theoretical mechanisms still remain illusive and qualitative, and observational evidence is inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, important questions regarding the existence and magnitude of the effect, and particularly the fraction of aerosol particles that can be formed and grow large enough to influence cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), are still open. Here we present empirical evidence of the possible effect caused by cosmic rays upon polar stratospheric aerosols, based on a case study of an extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) event of 20 January 2005. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from different satellites with optical instruments that were operating during January 2005, such as the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), and Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS), we found a significant simultaneous change in aerosol properties in both the southern and northern polar regions in temporal association with the SEP event. We speculate that ionization of the atmosphere, which was abnormally high during this extreme SEP event, might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles up to the size of CCN. However, a detailed interpretation of the effect is left for subsequent studies. This is the first time high vertical resolution measurements have been used to provide evidence for the probable production of stratospheric CCN from cosmic ray induced ionization.

  10. Effects of two trimming methods of dairy cattle on concrete or rubber-covered slatted floors.

    PubMed

    Ouweltjes, W; Holzhauer, M; van der Tol, P P J; van der Werf, J

    2009-03-01

    This study monitored claw health, claw conformation, locomotion, activity, and step traits of cows from a single dairy herd that were trimmed according to the standard Dutch method or with an alternative "concave" trimming method. Half of the cows were kept in a stall section with concrete slatted floors in the alleys. The other cows were kept in a pen within the same housing with an identical concrete slatted floor in the alleys, but with a rubber top layer. All experimental cows were kept in the same environment for at least 3 mo before and after trimming. It was hypothesized that trimming for more-concave soles (i.e., with 3 to 5 mm of sole dug out under the claw bone) was preferred to the standard Dutch trimming with flat sole surfaces for cows kept in stalls with soft alley floors. None of the claw health or locomotion traits differed for the trimming methods. No interactions were found between flooring and trimming method. Floor effects were significant for several traits. Cows on the rubber-topped floors had significantly fewer sole hemorrhages (prevalence of 22 vs. 48% in mo 3) and larger claws (claw length 76.1 +/- 5.0 vs. 72.5 +/- 4.9 mm; heel height 49.3 +/- 6.3 vs. 46.0 +/- 6.4 mm; claw diagonal 129 +/- 6.4 vs. 125 +/- 6.9 mm), spent more time standing in the alleys (55.4 +/- 2.8 vs. 49.6 +/- 2.8%), and had higher activity (61.0 +/- 3.7 vs. 53.0 +/- 3.7 steps/h). This suggests greater claw comfort on rubber flooring compared with concrete flooring. Kinetic patterns during claw-floor contact while walking were similar for all treatments. During the double-support (stance) phase, claw-floor contact area increased to a maximum in the first 30% of double-support phase time, remained more or less stable until 80% of double-support phase time, and sharply decreased as the animal pushed off as shown by the change in center of pressure. A gradual change of center of pressure in the medial direction during double-support phase time was shown. The research

  11. Anatomical aspects of sinus floor elevations.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, J P; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Disch, F J; Tuinzing, D B

    2000-06-01

    Inadequate bone height in the lateral part of the maxilla forms a contra-indication for implant surgery. This condition can be treated with an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor. This sinus floor elevation, formerly called sinus lifting, consists of a surgical procedure in which a top hinge door in the lateral maxillary sinus wall is prepared and internally rotated to a horizontal position. The new elevated sinus floor, together with the inner maxillary mucosa, will create a space that can be filled with graft material. Sinus lift procedures depend greatly on fragile structures and anatomical variations. The variety of anatomical modalities in shape of the inner aspect of the maxillary sinus defines the surgical approach. Conditions such as sinus floor convolutions, sinus septum, transient mucosa swelling and narrow sinus may form a (usually relative) contra-indication for sinus floor elevation. Absolute contra-indications are maxillary sinus diseases (tumors) and destructive former sinus surgery (like the Caldwell-Luc operation). The lateral sinus wall is usually a thin bone plate, which is easily penetrated with rotating or sharp instruments. The fragile Schneiderian membrane plays an important role for the containment of the bonegraft. The surgical procedure of preparing the trap door and luxating it, together with the preparation of the sinus mucosa, may cause a mucosa tear. Usually, when these perforations are not too large, they will fold together when turning the trap door inward and upward, or they can be glued with a fibrin sealant, or they can be covered with a resorbable membrane. If the perforation is too large, a cortico-spongious block graft can be considered. However, in most cases the sinus floor elevation will be deleted. Perforations may also occur due to irregularities in the sinus floor or even due to immediate contact of sinus mucosa with oral mucosa. Obstruction of the antro-nasal foramen is, due to its high location, not a

  12. Solar project description for Gill Harrop Builders single-family detached residence, Big Flats, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    A house with approximately 1360 square feet of conditioned space heated by a direct gain system with manually operated insulated curtains is discussed. Solar heating is augmented by electric resistance heating, and a wood burning stove may be installed. Sunlight is admitted through both south facing windows and through clerestory collector panels and is absorbed and stored as heat in a concrete floor and wall. Heat is then distributed by natural convection and radiation. Temperature regulation is assisted by Earth beams. Three modes of operation are described: collector-to-storage, storage-to-space heating, and passive space cooling, which is accomplished by shading, movable insulation, and ventilation. The instrumentation for the National Solar Data Network is described. The solar energy portion of the construction costs is estimated.

  13. DIRECT IMAGING OF QUASI-PERIODIC FAST PROPAGATING WAVES OF {approx}2000 km s{sup -1} IN THE LOW SOLAR CORONA BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Title, Alan M.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; De Pontieu, Bart; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Zhao Junwei; Ofman, Leon

    2011-07-20

    Quasi-periodic propagating fast mode magnetosonic waves in the solar corona were difficult to observe in the past due to relatively low instrument cadences. We report here evidence of such waves directly imaged in EUV by the new Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. In the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/coronal mass ejection event, we find arc-shaped wave trains of 1%-5% intensity variations (lifetime {approx}200 s) that emanate near the flare kernel and propagate outward up to {approx}400 Mm along a funnel of coronal loops. Sinusoidal fits to a typical wave train indicate a phase velocity of 2200 {+-} 130 km s{sup -1}. Similar waves propagating in opposite directions are observed in closed loops between two flare ribbons. In the k-{omega} diagram of the Fourier wave power, we find a bright ridge that represents the dispersion relation and can be well fitted with a straight line passing through the origin. This k-{omega} ridge shows a broad frequency distribution with power peaks at 5.5, 14.5, and 25.1 mHz. The strongest signal at 5.5 mHz (period 181 s) temporally coincides with quasi-periodic pulsations of the flare, suggesting a common origin. The instantaneous wave energy flux of (0.1-2.6) x 10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} estimated at the coronal base is comparable to the steady-state heating requirement of active region loops.

  14. A theoretical study of a direct contact membrane distillation system coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond for terminal lakes reclamation.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Francisco; Tyler, Scott W; Childress, Amy E

    2010-08-01

    Terminal lakes are water bodies that are located in closed watersheds with the only output of water occurring through evaporation or infiltration. The majority of these lakes, which are commonly located in the desert and influenced by human activities, are increasing in salinity. Treatment options are limited, due to energy costs, and many of these lakes provide an excellent opportunity to test solar-powered desalination systems. This paper theoretically investigates utilization of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP) for sustainable freshwater production at terminal lakes. A model for heat and mass transport in the DCMD module and a thermal model for an SGSP were developed and coupled to evaluate the feasibility of freshwater production. The construction of an SGSP outside and inside of a terminal lake was studied. As results showed that freshwater flows are on the same order of magnitude as evaporation, these systems will only be successful if the SGSP is constructed inside the terminal lake so that there is little or no net increase in surface area. For the study site of this investigation, water production on the order of 2.7 x 10(-3) m(3) d(-1) per m(2) of SGSP is possible. The major advantages of this system are that renewable thermal energy is used so that little electrical energy is required, the coupled system requires low maintenance, and the terminal lake provides a source of salts to create the stratification in the SGSP.

  15. Photothermal response of CVD synthesized carbon (nano)spheres/aqueous nanofluids for potential application in direct solar absorption collectors: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Brundavanam, Sridevi; Shah, Monaliben; Laava, Iafeta; Fawcett, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Direct-absorption solar collectors have the potential to offer an unlimited source of renewable energy with minimal environmental impact. Unfortunately, their performance is limited by the absorption efficiency of the working fluid. Nanoparticles of functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNS) have the potential to improve the photothermal properties of the working fluid. CNS are produced by the pyrolysis of acetylene gas in a tube-based electric furnace/chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The reaction takes place at 1000°C in the presence of nitrogen gas without the use of a catalyst. The synthesized CNS were examined and characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet-visible analysis. The CNS powders with a mean particle size of 210 nm were then functionalized using tetraethylammonium hydroxide ([C2H5]4 N[OH]) and used to produce a series of aqueous nanofluids with varying mass content. The photothermal response of both the nanofluids and films composed of CNS were investigated under 1000 W/m(2) solar irradiation.

  16. Photothermal response of CVD synthesized carbon (nano)spheres/aqueous nanofluids for potential application in direct solar absorption collectors: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Brundavanam, Sridevi; Shah, Monaliben; Laava, Iafeta; Fawcett, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Direct-absorption solar collectors have the potential to offer an unlimited source of renewable energy with minimal environmental impact. Unfortunately, their performance is limited by the absorption efficiency of the working fluid. Nanoparticles of functionalized carbon nanospheres (CNS) have the potential to improve the photothermal properties of the working fluid. CNS are produced by the pyrolysis of acetylene gas in a tube-based electric furnace/chemical vapor deposition apparatus. The reaction takes place at 1000°C in the presence of nitrogen gas without the use of a catalyst. The synthesized CNS were examined and characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and ultraviolet-visible analysis. The CNS powders with a mean particle size of 210 nm were then functionalized using tetraethylammonium hydroxide ([C2H5]4 N[OH]) and used to produce a series of aqueous nanofluids with varying mass content. The photothermal response of both the nanofluids and films composed of CNS were investigated under 1000 W/m2 solar irradiation. PMID:24198496

  17. Influence of chemical composition on the properties of directly coevaporated Cu-Zn-Sn-S-based thin films and solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mise, Takahiro; Tajima, Shin; Fukano, Tatsuo; Higuchi, Kazuo; Katagiri, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the Zn/Sn atomic ratio on the properties of the Cu-Zn-Sn-S-based film microstructure and solar cells was investigated. In addition to a small amount of SnS, Cu2SnS3, and ZnS coexisted in Zn-poor (Zn/Sn < 1) films, while Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) was not formed. In contrast, the direct growth of a highly crystalline kesterite CZTS phase was evident in Zn-rich (Zn/Sn > 1) films, in which a ZnS phase was inevitably formed as a secondary phase. Despite its coexistence with CZTS in highly Zn-rich films, excess ZnS had a negligible influence on the crystalline quality of CZTS. Solar cells fabricated with more highly Zn-rich films exhibited better device properties, indicating that the ZnS inevitably present in these films positively impacted cell performance, especially the open-circuit voltage and fill factor. The best cell (Zn/Sn = 1.6) yielded an efficiency of 4.61%. The possible ZnS passivation of microstructural defects in CZTS cells is also discussed.

  18. Solar Wind Halo Formation by the Scattering of the Strahl: Direct Cluster/PEACE Observations of the 3D Velocity Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinas, A. F.; Gurgiolo, C. A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Wendel, D. E.; Goldstein, M. L.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    2010-12-01

    The current hypothesis of the formation of the solar wind halo electrons is that they are produced from scattering of the strahl. This hypothesis is strengthened by direct observations of the strahl electrons being scattered into the halo in an isolated event. On frequent occasions we have observed in electron angular skymaps (Phi/Theta-plots) of the electron 3D velocity distribution functions, a bursty-filament of particles connecting the strahl to the solar wind core-halo. These are seen over a limited energy range. The observation implies that the formation of the halo is not a continuous process but occurs in bursts in regions where conditions for wave growth providing the scattering are optimum. Sometimes, observations indicates that the strahl component is anisotropic (Tper/Tpal ~ 2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism, however this condition is not always observed. The empirical observational evidence between the halo and the strahl suggests that the strahl population may be, at least in part, the source of the halo component.

  19. Dramatic enhancement of fullerene anion formation in polymer solar cells by thermal annealing: Direct observation by electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Dong; Nagamori, Tatsuya; Yabusaki, Masaki; Yasuda, Takeshi; Han, Liyuan; Marumoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-16

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR), we clarified the origin of the efficiency degradation of polymer solar cells containing a lithium-fluoride (LiF) buffer layer created by a thermal annealing process after the deposition of an Al electrode (post-annealing). The device structure was indium-tin-oxide/ poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)/poly (3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM)/LiF/Al. Three samples consisting of quartz/P3HT:PCBM/LiF/Al, quartz/P3HT:PCBM/Al, and quartz/PCBM/LiF/Al were investigated and compared. A clear ESR signal from radical anions on the PCBM was observed after LiF/Al was deposited onto a P3HT:PCBM layer because of charge transfer at the interface between the PCBM and the LiF/Al, which indicated the formation of PCBM{sup −}Li{sup +} complexes. The number of radical anions on the PCBM was enhanced remarkably by the post-annealing process; this enhancement was caused by the surface segregation of PCBM and by the dissociation of LiF at the Al interface by the post-annealing process. The formation of a greater number of anions enhanced the electron scattering, decreased the electron-transport properties of the PCBM molecules, and caused an energy-level shift at the interface. These effects led to degradation in the device performance.

  20. DIRECT SOLUTIONS OF THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS EXPLAIN OPPOSITION PHENOMENA OBSERVED FOR HIGH-ALBEDO SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu Li; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.; Shkuratov, Yuri G.

    2009-11-10

    Several spectacular backscattering effects observed for particulate planetary surfaces have been interpreted in terms of the effect of weak localization (WL) of electromagnetic waves. However, the interference concept of WL explicitly relies on the notion of phase of an electromagnetic wave and is strictly applicable only when particles forming the surface are widely separated. Therefore, one needs a definitive quantitative proof of the WL nature of specific optical effects observed for densely packed particulate media. We use numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations to simulate electromagnetic scattering by realistic models consisting of large numbers of randomly positioned, densely packed particles. By increasing the particle packing density from zero to approx40%, we track the onset and evolution of the full suite of backscattering optical effects predicted by the low-density theory of WL, including the brightness and polarization opposition effects (BOE and POE). We find that all manifestations of WL, except the circular polarization ratio and POE, are remarkably immune to packing-density effects. Even POE can survive packing densities typical of planetary regolith surfaces. Our numerical data coupled with the results of unique observations at near-backscattering geometries demonstrate that the BOE and POE detected simultaneously for high-albedo solar system objects are caused by the effect of WL.

  1. Toward Metal-Organic Framework-Based Solar Cells: Enhancing Directional Exciton Transport by Collapsing Three-Dimensional Film Structures.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Subhadip; Ma, Lin; Martinson, Alex B F; Wasielewski, Michael R; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T

    2016-11-16

    Owing to their ability to act as light-harvesting scaffolds, porphyrin-containing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are in the forefront of research on the application of highly ordered molecular materials to problems in solar-energy conversion. In this work, solvent-assisted linker exchange (SALE) is performed on a pillared paddlewheel porphyrin containing MOF thin film to collapse a 3D framework to a 2D framework. The change in dimensionality of the framework is confirmed by a decrease in the film thickness, the magnitude of which is in agreement with crystallographic parameters for related bulk materials. Furthermore, NMR spectroscopy performed on the digested sample suggests a similar change in geometry is achieved in bulk MOF samples. The decreased distance between the porphyrin chromophores in the 2D MOF film compared to the 3D film results in enhanced energy transfer through the film. The extent of energy transport was probed by assembling MOF thin film where the outermost layers are palladium porphyrin (P2) units, which act as energy traps and fluorescence quenchers. Steady-state emission spectroscopy together with time-resolved emission spectroscopy indicates that excitons can travel through about 9-11 layers (porphyrin layers) in 2D films, whereas in 3D films energy transfer occurs through no more than about 6-8 layers. The results are difficult to understand if only changes in MOF interlayer spacing are considered but become much more understandable if dipole-dipole coupling distances are considered.

  2. A&M. TAN607 floor plans. Shows three floor levels of pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607 floor plans. Shows three floor levels of pool, hot shop, and warm shop. Includes view of pool vestibule, personnel labyrinth, location of floor rails, and room numbers of office areas, labs, instrument rooms, and stairways. This drawing was re-drawn to show as-built features in 1993. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-A 96. Date of original: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-00-693-106748 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. One-step synthesis of carbon nanosheets converted from a polycyclic compound and their direct use as transparent electrodes of ITO-free organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Son, Su-Young; Noh, Yong-Jin; Bok, Changsuk; Lee, Sungho; Kim, Byoung Gak; Na, Seok-In; Joh, Han-Ik

    2014-01-21

    Through a catalyst- and transfer-free process, we fabricated indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells (OSCs) using a carbon nanosheet (CNS) with properties similar to graphene. The morphological and electrical properties of the CNS derived from a polymer of intrinsic microporosity-1 (PIM-1), which is mainly composed of several aromatic hydrocarbons and cycloalkanes, can be easily controlled by adjusting the polymer concentration. The CNSs, which are prepared by simple spin-coating and heat-treatment on a quartz substrate, are directly used as the electrodes of ITO-free OSCs, showing a high efficiency of approximately 1.922% under 100 mW cm(-2) illumination and air mass 1.5 G conditions. This catalyst- and transfer-free approach is highly desirable for electrodes in organic electronics.

  4. Direct aerosol effects during periods of solar dimming and brightening hidden in the regression residuals: Evidence from Potsdam measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Tobias; Wechsung, Frank

    2015-11-01

    A recent empirical study of Stanhill et al. (2014), which was based on the Angstrom-Prescott relationship between global radiation and sunshine duration, was evaluated. The parameters of this relationship seemed to be rather stable across the dimming and brightening periods. Thus, the authors concluded that the variation in global radiation is more influenced by changes in cloud cover and sunshine duration than by the direct aerosol effects. In our study, done for the Potsdam station (one of six globally distributed stations, the source of one of the longest observational records and closely located to former hot spots of aerosol emission), we tested and rejected the hypothesis that the dimming of global radiation directly caused by aerosols is negligible. The residuals of the Angstrom-Prescott regression reveal a statistically significant positive temporal trend and a temporal level segmentation. The latter was consistent with the temporal emission patterns around Potsdam. The trend in the residuals only disappeared when the model intercept varied according to the temporal level segmentation. The magnitude of the direct aerosol effect on the level changes in global radiation derived from the modified Angstrom-Prescott relationship was in the range indicated in previous studies. Thus, from here, a specific request cannot be made for a revision of current climate models state-of-the-art representation of both the cooling effect directly caused by aerosols and the temperature sensitivity to the increase of greenhouse gases.

  5. Measurements of the spatial structure and directivity of 100 KeV photon sources in solar flares using PVO and ISEE-3 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kinsey A.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to measure the spatial structure and directivity of the hard X-ray and low energy gamma-ray (100 keV-2 MeV) continuum sources in solar flares using stereoscopic observations made with spectrometers aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Third International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE-3) spacecraft. Since the hard X-ray emission is produced by energetic electrons through the bremsstrahlung process, the observed directivity can be directly related to the 'beaming' of electrons accelerated during the flare as they propagate from the acceleration region in the corona to the chromosphere/transition region. Some models (e.g., the thick-target model) predict that most of the impulsive hard X-ray/low energy gamma-ray source is located in the chromosphere, the effective height of the X-ray source above the photosphere increasing with the decrease in the photon energy. This can be verified by determining the height-dependence of the photon source through stereoscopic observations of those flares which are partially occulted from the view of one of the two spacecraft. Thus predictions about beaming of electrons as well as their spatial distributions could be tested through the analysis proposed under this grant.

  6. One-step synthesis of carbon nanosheets converted from a polycyclic compound and their direct use as transparent electrodes of ITO-free organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Su-Young; Noh, Yong-Jin; Bok, Changsuk; Lee, Sungho; Kim, Byoung Gak; Na, Seok-In; Joh, Han-Ik

    2013-12-01

    Through a catalyst- and transfer-free process, we fabricated indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells (OSCs) using a carbon nanosheet (CNS) with properties similar to graphene. The morphological and electrical properties of the CNS derived from a polymer of intrinsic microporosity-1 (PIM-1), which is mainly composed of several aromatic hydrocarbons and cycloalkanes, can be easily controlled by adjusting the polymer concentration. The CNSs, which are prepared by simple spin-coating and heat-treatment on a quartz substrate, are directly used as the electrodes of ITO-free OSCs, showing a high efficiency of approximately 1.922% under 100 mW cm-2 illumination and air mass 1.5 G conditions. This catalyst- and transfer-free approach is highly desirable for electrodes in organic electronics.Through a catalyst- and transfer-free process, we fabricated indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells (OSCs) using a carbon nanosheet (CNS) with properties similar to graphene. The morphological and electrical properties of the CNS derived from a polymer of intrinsic microporosity-1 (PIM-1), which is mainly composed of several aromatic hydrocarbons and cycloalkanes, can be easily controlled by adjusting the polymer concentration. The CNSs, which are prepared by simple spin-coating and heat-treatment on a quartz substrate, are directly used as the electrodes of ITO-free OSCs, showing a high efficiency of approximately 1.922% under 100 mW cm-2 illumination and air mass 1.5 G conditions. This catalyst- and transfer-free approach is highly desirable for electrodes in organic electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental methods; chemical structure and 1H NMR spectra; AFM images; TGA spectra; shunt and series resistances; Raman spectra and optical images; atomic contents of the CNSs. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04828d

  7. Using digital image processing to characterize the Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder and to derive high-temporal resolution direct solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Romero, A.; González, J. A.; Calbó, J.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2014-09-01

    The Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder (CSSR) has been one of the most commonly used instruments for measuring sunshine duration (SD) through the burn length of a given CSSR card. Many authors have used SD to obtain information about cloudiness and solar radiation (by using Ångström-Prescott type formulas). Contrarily, the burn width has not been used systematically. In principle, the burn width increases for increasing direct beam irradiance. The aim of this research is to show the relationship between burn width and direct solar irradiance (DSI), and to prove whether this relationship depends on the type of CSSR and burning card. A semi-automatic method based on image processing of digital scanned images of burnt cards is presented. With this method, the temporal evolution of the burn width with 1 min resolution can be obtained. From this, SD is easily calculated and compared with the traditional (i.e. visual) determination. The method tends to slightly overestimate SD but the thresholds that are used in the image processing could be adjusted to obtain an unbiased estimation. Regarding the burn width, results show that there is a high correlation between two different models of CSSRs, as well as a strong relationship between burn widths and DSI at a high-temporal resolution. Thus, for example, hourly DSI may be estimated from the burn width with higher accuracy than based on burn length (for one of the CSSR, relative root mean squared error 24 and 30% respectively; mean bias error -0.6 and -30.0 W m-2 respectively). The method offers a practical way to exploit long-term sets of CSSR cards to create long time series of DSI. Since DSI is affected by atmospheric aerosol content, CSSR records may also become a proxy measurement for turbidity and atmospheric aerosol loading.

  8. Using digital image processing to characterize the Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder and to derive high-temporal resolution direct solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Romero, A.; González, J. A.; Calbó, J.; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder (CSSR) has been one of the most commonly used instruments for measuring sunshine duration (SD) through the burn length of a given CSSR card. Many authors have used SD to obtain information about cloudiness and solar radiation (by using Ångström-Prescott type formulas), but the burn width has not been used systematically. In principle, the burn width increases for increasing direct beam irradiance. The aim of this research is to show the relationship between burn width and direct solar irradiance (DSI) and to prove whether this relationship depends on the type of CSSR and burning card. A method of analysis based on image processing of digital scanned images of burned cards is used. With this method, the temporal evolution of the burn width with 1 min resolution can be obtained. From this, SD is easily calculated and compared with the traditional (i.e., visual) determination. The method tends to slightly overestimate SD, but the thresholds that are used in the image processing could be adjusted to obtain an improved estimation. Regarding the burn width, experimental results show that there is a high correlation between two different models of CSSRs, as well as a strong relationship between burn widths and DSI at a high-temporal resolution. Thus, for example, hourly DSI may be estimated from the burn width with higher accuracy than based on burn length (for one of the CSSR, relative root mean squared error is 24 and 30%, respectively; mean bias error is -0.6 and -30.0 W m-2, respectively). The method offers a practical way to exploit long-term sets of CSSR cards to create long time series of DSI. Since DSI is affected by atmospheric aerosol content, CSSR records may also become a proxy measurement for turbidity and atmospheric aerosol loading.

  9. Sea Floor off San Diego, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Ocean-floor image generated from multibeam-bathymetry data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Fugro Pelagos. To learn more, visit http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2007/2959/.

  10. Extending the sub-sea-floor biosphere.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Bonavita, Marie-Anne Cambon; Querellou, Joël; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Prieur, Daniel; Parkes, R John

    2008-05-23

    Sub-sea-floor sediments may contain two-thirds of Earth's total prokaryotic biomass. However, this has its basis in data extrapolation from ~500-meter to 4-kilometer depths, whereas the deepest documented prokaryotes are from only 842 meters. Here, we provide evidence for low concentrations of living prokaryotic cells in the deepest (1626 meters below the sea floor), oldest (111 million years old), and potentially hottest (~100 degrees C) marine sediments investigated. These Newfoundland margin sediments also have DNA sequences related to thermophilic and/or hyperthermophilic Archaea. These form two unique clusters within Pyrococcus and Thermococcus genera, suggesting unknown, uncultured groups are present in deep, hot, marine sediments (~54 degrees to 100 degrees C). Sequences of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea were also present, suggesting a deep biosphere partly supported by methane. These findings demonstrate that the sub-sea-floor biosphere extends to at least 1600 meters below the sea floor and probably deeper, given an upper temperature limit for prokaryotic life of at least 113 degrees C and increasing thermogenic energy supply with depth.

  11. Performance Support on the Shop Floor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasvi, Jyrki J. J.; Vartiainen, Matti

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of performance support on the shop floor highlights four support systems for assembly lines that incorporate personal computer workstations in local area networks and use multimedia documents. Considers new customer-focused production paradigms; organizational learning; knowledge development; and electronic performance support systems…

  12. Seeing Results in Flooring for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Operations staffs at education facilities of all sizes are tasked with selecting a hard floor cleaning program that is cost-effective, efficient and highly productive. With an increased focus on the sustainability of an environment, facility managers also must select a program that meets sustainability goals while maintaining a healthful, safe…

  13. Organizational Learning in Shop Floor Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Che Keung; Geng, Shuang; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chau, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the result of the pilot run of a research project which aims at evaluating the applicability of project-based action learning (PAL) to shop floor organizational learning (OL) component in a manufacturing company in Dongguan, China. How the PAL framework was introduced and implemented is described. The factors…

  14. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  15. Direct metallization local Al-back surface field for high efficiency screen printed crystalline silicon solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghwan; Park, Cheolmin; Dao, Vinh Ai; Lee, Youn-Jung; Ryu, Kyungyul; Choi, Gyuho; Kim, Bonggi; Ju, Minkyu; Jeong, Chaehwan; Yi, Junsin

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed study on the local back contact (LBC) formation of rear-surface-passivated silicon solar cells, where both the LBC opening and metallization are realized by one-step alloying of a dot of fine pattern screen-printed aluminum paste with the silicon substrate. Based on energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations, we suggest that the aluminum distribution and the silicon concentration determine the local-back-surface-field (Al-p+) layer thickness, resistivity of the Al-p+ and hence the quality of the Al-p+ formation. The highest penetration of silicon concentration of 78.17% in aluminum resulted in the formation of a 5 microm-deep Al-p+ layer, and the minimum LBC resistivity of 0.92 x 10-6 omega cm2. The degradation of the rear-surface passivation due to high temperature of the LBC formation process can be fully recovered by forming gas annealing (FGA) at temperature and hydrogen content of 450 degrees C and 15%, respectively. The application of the optimized LBC of rear-surface-passivated by a dot of fine pattern screen(-) printed aluminum paste resulted in efficiency of up to 19.98% for the p-type czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers with 10.24 cm2 cell size at 649 mV open circuit voltage. By FGA for rear-surface passivation recovery, efficiencies up to 20.35% with a V(OC) of 662 mV, FF of 82%, and J(SC) of 37.5 mA/cm2 were demonstrated.

  16. Direct Measurement Results of the Time Lag of LOS-Velocity Oscillations Between Two Heights in Solar Faculae and Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobanov, N.; Kolobov, D.; Kustov, A.; Chupin, S.; Chelpanov, A.

    2013-06-01

    We present an investigation of line-of-sight (LOS) velocity oscillations in solar faculae and sunspots. To study the phase relations between chromospheric and photospheric oscillations of the LOS velocity, we measured the time lag of the chromospheric signal relative to the photospheric one for several faculae and sunspots in a set of spectral line pairs. The measured time lags are different for different objects. The mean measured delay between the oscillations in the five-minute band in faculae is 50 s for the Si i 10 827 Å - He i 10 830 Å pair; for the pair Fe i 6569 Å - Hα 6563 Å the mean delay is 20 s; for the pair Fe i 4551 Å - Ba ii 4554 Å the mean delay is 7 s; for the pair Si i 8536 Å - Ca ii 8542 Å the mean delay is 20 s. For the oscillations in the three-minute band in sunspot umbrae the mean delay is 55 s for the Si i 10 827 Å - He i 10 830 Å pair; for the Fe i 6569 Å - Hα 6563 Å pair it was not possible to determine the delay; for the Fe i 4551 Å - Ba ii 4554 Å pair the mean delay is 6 s; for the Si i 8536 Å - Ca ii 8542 Å pair the mean delay is 21 s. Measured delays correspond to the wave propagation speed, which significantly exceeds the generally adopted speed of sound in the photosphere. This raises the question of the origin of these oscillations. The possibility that we deal with slow MHD waves is not ruled out.

  17. Direct Acceleration of Pickup Ions at The Solar Wind Termination Shock: The Production of Anomalous Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Donald C.; Jones, Frank C.; Baring, Matthew G.

    1998-01-01

    We have modeled the injection and acceleration of pickup ions at the solar wind termination shock and investigated the parameters needed to produce the observed Anomalous Cosmic Ray (ACR) fluxes. A non-linear Monte Carlo technique was employed, which in effect solves the Boltzmann equation and is not restricted to near-isotropic particle distribution functions. This technique models the injection of thermal and pickup ions, the acceleration of these ions, and the determination of the shock structure under the influence of the accelerated ions. The essential effects of injection are treated in a mostly self-consistent manner, including effects from shock obliquity, cross- field diffusion, and pitch-angle scattering. Using recent determinations of pickup ion densities, we are able to match the absolute flux of hydrogen in the ACRs by assuming that pickup ion scattering mean free paths, at the termination shock, are much less than an AU and that modestly strong cross-field diffusion occurs. Simultaneously, we match the flux ratios He(+)/H(+) or O(+)/H(+) to within a factor approx. 5. If the conditions of strong scattering apply, no pre-termination-shock injection phase is required and the injection and acceleration of pickup ions at the termination shock is totally analogous to the injection and acceleration of ions at highly oblique interplanetary shocks recently observed by the Ulysses spacecraft. The fact that ACR fluxes can be modeled with standard shock assumptions suggests that the much-discussed "injection problem" for highly oblique shocks stems from incomplete (either mathematical or computer) modeling of these shocks rather than from any actual difficulty shocks may have in injecting and accelerating thermal or quasi-thermal particles.

  18. Alternatives in solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  19. FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP601), FIRST FLOOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601), FIRST FLOOR SHOWING SAMPLE CORRIDORS AND EIGHTEEN CELLS AND ADJOINING REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) SHOWING REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITIES LAB, DECONTAMINATION ROOM, AND MULTICURIE CELL ROOM. TO LEFT ARE LABORATORY BUILDING (CPP-602) AND MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CPP-630). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-706-051979. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER CPP-E-1979. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP601), SECOND FLOOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601), SECOND FLOOR SHOWING PROCESS MAKEUP AREA AND EIGHTEEN CELLS AND ADJOINING REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) SHOWING COLD LAB, DECONTAMINATION ROOM, MULTICURIE CELL ROOM, AND OFFICES. TO LEFT ARE LABORATORY BUILDING (CPP-602) AND MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CPP-630). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-706-051980. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER CPP-E-1980. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Interior view of groundfloor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab system, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  2. View of double floor boards with mortises cross beams, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of double floor boards with mortises cross beams, showing spikes and flooring nails (Lower board layer exposed) - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  3. 5. Light tower, stairs to second floor, looking northeast from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Light tower, stairs to second floor, looking northeast from first floor - Little River Light Station, East end of Little River Island, at mouth of Little River & entrance to Cutler Harbor, Cutler, Washington County, ME

  4. 30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING WEST. ORIGINALLY HAD SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS WITH FLOURESCENT LIGHTING AND ASPHALT MASTIC TILE FLOORS - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  6. 8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, MOSAIC TILE FLOOR, AS SEEN FROM VISITORS GALLERY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. 3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 DEGREES SOUTHEAST, SHOWING RAISED FLOOR OF CENTRAL AISLE. - Hudson-Cippa-Wolf Ranch, Milk Barn, Sorento Road, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. 50. Ground floor, looking northwest at former location of ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Ground floor, looking northwest at former location of ground floor (bottom) level of milk room - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  9. 11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH WALLS, SHOWING TWO TIERS OF COLUMNS WITH SECOND FLOOR REMOVED - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 46. NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE, WITH DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE, WITH DETAIL OF WOODEN BLOCK FLOORING. VIEW TO NORTH. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  12. 20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE SECOND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  13. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available...

  14. 73. STAIR PASSAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SECOND FLOOR, LOCATED AT EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. STAIR PASSAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SECOND FLOOR, LOCATED AT EAST END OF HOUSE OVER FIRST FLOOR KITCHEN WING, BETWEEN TWO BEDROOMS - Carter's Grove, U.S. Route 60 vicinity, Williamsburg, Williamsburg, VA

  15. 5. EAST SECTION OF BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, WEST ROOM. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAST SECTION OF BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, WEST ROOM. NOTE OVEN AT LEFT. All construction original except wood flooring, plumbing and electricity. - Ralph Izard House, Kitchen Building, 110 Broad Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  16. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  17. 18. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, second floor, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, second floor, view looking northeast at opening in the floor for dropping warp rolls - North Star Woolen Mill, 109 Portland Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  18. 20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at floor area - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  19. 27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE SEAL IN FLOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT SOUTHWEST CORNER ROOM WITH STAIRWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT SOUTHWEST CORNER ROOM WITH STAIRWAY TO SECOND FLOOR - Penn School Historic District, Benezet House, 1 mile South of Frogmore, Route 37, St Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  1. CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ATTIC FLOOR SUPPORT COLUMNS AND BEAMS, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available...

  3. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax....

  4. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available...

  5. 25. FIRST FLOOR, EAST DRAWING ROOM MANTLE. Details of mantle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. FIRST FLOOR, EAST DRAWING ROOM MANTLE. Details of mantle are copied in the major first floor rooms on the door and window cornices and architraves. - Charles Edmonston House, 21 East Battery Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  6. NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE COVERED PROMENADE AT THE FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE COVERED PROMENADE AT THE FIRST FLOOR AND THREE WINDOWS (BOARDED) AT THE SECOND FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Performance enhancement of bulk heterojunction solar cells with direct growth of CdS-cluster-decorated graphene nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Chen, Lie; Tan, Licheng; Chen, Yiwang

    2014-05-12

    Two-dimensional graphene-CdS (G-CdS) semiconductor hybrid nanosheets were synthesized in situ by graphene oxide (GO) quantum wells and a metal-xanthate precursor through a one-step growth process. Incorporation of G-CdS nanosheets into a photoactive film consisting of poly[4,8-bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl-thiophene-5-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene-2,6-diyl]-alt-[2-(2-ethyl-hexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-4,6-diyl] (PBDTTT-C-T) and [6,6]-phenyl C70 butyric acid methyl ester (PC70 BM) effectively decreases the exciton lifetime to accelerate exciton dissociation. More importantly, the decreasing energy levels of PBDTTT-C-T, PC70 BM, and G-CdS produces versatile heterojunction interfaces of PBDTTT-C-T:PC70 BM, PBDTTT-C-T:G-CdS, and PBDTTT-C-T:PC70 BM:G-CdS; this offers multi-charge-transfer channels for more efficient charge separation and transfer. The charge transfer in the blend film also depends on the G-CdS nanosheet loadings. In addition, G-CdS nanosheets improve light utilization and charge mobility in the photoactive layer. As a result, by incorporation of G-CdS nanosheets into the active layer, the power-conversion efficiency of inverted solar cells based on PBDTTT-C-T and PC71 BM is improved from 6.0 % for a reference device without G-CdS nanosheets to 7.5 % for the device with 1.5wt % G-CdS nanosheets, due to the dramatically enhanced short-circuit current. Combined with the advantageous mechanical properties of the PBDTTT-C-T:PC70 BM:G-CdS active layer, the novel CdS-cluster-decorated graphene hybrid nanomaterials provide a promising approach to improve the device performance.

  8. Study of the lacustrine phytoplankton productivity dependence on solar radiation, on the basis of direct high-frequency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provenzale, Maria; Ojala, Anne; Heiskanen, Jouni; Erkkilä, Kukka-Maaria; Mammarella, Ivan; Hari, Pertti; Vesala, Timo

    2016-04-01

    One of the main components of the carbon cycle in lakes is phytoplankton. Its in situ photosynthesis and respiration are usually studied with traditional methods (dark and light bottle method, 14C labelling technique). These methods, relying on sampling and incubation, may lead to unrealistic results. They also have a poor temporal resolution, which does not allow the non-linear relationship between photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) and photosynthesis to be properly investigated. As a consequence, the phytoplankton net primary productivity (NPP) cannot be parameterised as a function of ambient variables. In 2008 an innovative free-water approach was proposed. It is based on non-dispersive infrared air CO2 probes that, by building an appropriate system, can be used to measure the CO2 concentration in the water at a high-frequency. At that time, the method was tested only on 3 days of data. Here, we deployed it on a boreal lake in Finland for four summers, in order to calculate the NPP and verify its dependence on PAR. The set-up was completed by an eddy-covariance system and water PAR and temperature sensors. In analogy with the procedure typically used in terrestrial ecology, we obtained the phytoplankton NPP computing the mass balance of CO2 in the mixed layer of the lake, i.e. the superficial layer where the conditions are homogeneous and most of the photosynthetic activity takes place. After calculating the NPP , we verified its dependence on PAR. The theoretical model we used was a saturating Michaelis-Menten curve, in which the variables are water temperature and PAR. The equation also contains parameters typical of the phytoplankton communities, which represent their maximum potential photosynthetic rate, their half-saturation constant and their basal respiration. These parameters allow the NPP to be parameterised as a function of T and PAR. For all the analysed year, we found a very good agreement between theory and data (R2 ranged from 0.80 to

  9. Formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior of laminate flooring by structure of laminate flooring and heating condition.

    PubMed

    An, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2011-03-15

    Formaldehyde was measured with a desiccator, a 20 L chamber and the FLEC method. The formaldehyde emission rate from laminate was the highest at 32 °C using the desiccator, which then decreased with time. The formaldehyde emission using the 20 L small chamber and FLEC showed a similar tendency. There was a strong correlation between the formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) with both types of floorings using the two different methods. The formaldehyde emission rate and TVOC results were higher when tested using the FLEC method than with the 20 L small chamber method. The emission rate was affected by the joint edge length in laminate flooring. Toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene were the main VOCs emitted from laminate flooring, and there were more unidentified VOCs emitted than identified VOCs. The samples heated with a floor heating system emitted more formaldehyde than those heated using an air circulation system due to the temperature difference between the bottom panel and flooring. The TVOC emission level of the samples was higher when an air circulation system was used than when a floor heating system was used due to the high ventilation rate.

  10. Solar collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. I.

    1984-08-01

    Solar dishes, photovoltaics, passive solar building and solar hot water systems, Trombe walls, hot air panels, hybrid solar heating systems, solar grain dryers, solar greenhouses, solar hot water worhshops, and solar workshops are discussed. These solar technologies are applied to residential situations.

  11. Sea-floor geology in northwestern Block Island Sound, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Woods, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam-echosounder and sidescan-sonar data, collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 69-square-kilometer area of northwestern Block Island Sound, are used with sediment samples, and still and video photography of the sea floor, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at 43 stations within this area, to interpret the sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. Features on the sea floor include boulders, sand waves, scour depressions, modern marine sediments, and trawl marks. Boulders, which are often several meters wide, are found in patches in the shallower depths and tend to be overgrown with sessile flora and fauna. They are lag deposits of winnowed glacial drift, and reflect high-energy environments characterized by processes associated with erosion and nondeposition. Sand waves and megaripples tend to have crests that either trend parallel to shore with 20- to 50-meter (m) wavelengths or trend perpendicular to shore with several-hundred-meter wavelengths. The sand waves reflect sediment transport directions perpendicular to shore by waves, and parallel to shore by tidal or wind-driven currents, respectively. Scour depressions, which are about 0.5 m lower than the surrounding sea floor, have floors of gravel and coarser sand than bounding modern marine sediments. These scour depressions, which are conspicuous in the sidescan-sonar data because of their more highly reflective coarser sediment floors, are likely formed by storm-generated, seaward-flowing currents and maintained by the turbulence in bottom currents caused by their coarse sediments. Areas of the sea floor with modern marine sediments tend to be relatively flat to current-rippled and sandy.

  12. Sand Sheet on Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    As with yesterday's image, this dune field is located inside a crater, in this case an unnamed crater at 26 degrees North latitude. In this VIS image the dunes are coalescing into a sand sheet, note the lack of dune forms to the north of the small hills. The presence of ridges and hills in the area is affecting the dune shapes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.4, Longitude 62.7 East (297.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology

  13. The Dependence of Electrical Properties on Miscut Orientation in Direct Bonded III-V Solar Cell Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, Mark

    Direct bonding is a materials integration process in which wafer substrates are directly bonded without any intermediate layers. This technique has been used to fabricate direct bonded n-GaAs//n-GaAs, n-GaAs//n-InP, and n-InP//n-InP structures comprised of combinations of on-axis substrates and substrates with (001) faces misoriented 4° toward in order to study the effect of relative surface misorientation on the electrical properties of the bonded interface. Simulation and measurement of interface electrical conductivity were used to identify properties including height and shape of the potential barrier. Across all substrate combinations, as the relative surface misorientation was increased, the interface resistance and height of the interfacial potential barrier also increased. Current density -- voltage measurements of GaAs//InP bonded structures revealed no band structure asymmetry at low ( +/- 50 mV) bias. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the morphology of the interface between InP//InP and GaAs//InP structures. Consistent with previous reports, results of electrical measurements indicate that the potential barrier height at interfaces containing at least one side InP are less sensitive to increased interface resistance with increasing misorientation. Low temperature (≤ 600 °C) and kPa applied pressure to initiate bonding between (NH4S)2 pretreated GaAs and InP wafers was used to fabricate direct bonded structures. Wafers were bonded face-to-face on-axis, with relative misorientation of 4° or 8°, or a by bonding a combination of 4° miscut substrates bonded such that relative misorientation was zero. The samples were annealed at 400 °C for 2 hours to strengthen the bond, and then subjected to rapid thermal processing at 600 °C for 2 minutes to improve the electrical conductivity. When compared to on-axis structures, the interface resistance at room temperature for 4° misoriented bonded pairs increased from 0.011 O˙cm2 to 2.8 O

  14. 13. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING THE ELEVATORS FEEDING GRAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING THE ELEVATORS FEEDING GRAIN FROM THE SECOND FLOOR TO THE GRINDING STONES, WITH GRAIN ELEVATORS IN BACKGROUND (NOTE OUTLINE ON THE FLOOR WHERE ROLLER MILLS WERE ORIGINALLY PLACED) - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

  15. What Do You Really Know About Floor Finishes & Strippers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    An independent testing laboratory reveals the results of comparative studies done on vinyl flooring and the question of to wax or not to wax'' and which waxes work best with what flooring; and provides six evaluation tips on floor strippers. (EA)

  16. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment of floor stocks... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax....

  17. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  18. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Floor stocks tax return... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.231 Floor stocks tax return. Form...

  19. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  20. 27 CFR 46.221 - Floor stocks tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Floor stocks tax rates. 46... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Tax Liability Calculation § 46.221 Floor stocks tax rates....

  1. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment of floor stocks... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax....

  2. 27 CFR 46.221 - Floor stocks tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Floor stocks tax rates. 46... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Tax Liability Calculation § 46.221 Floor stocks tax rates....

  3. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  4. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Payment of floor stocks tax... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax....

  5. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  6. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Floor stocks tax return... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.231 Floor stocks tax return. Form...

  7. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  8. 36 CFR 1192.117 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Floors, steps and thresholds. 1192.117 Section 1192.117 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.117 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles,...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.855 - Manual removal of floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... floor arch, debris and other material shall be removed from such arch and other adjacent floor area... inches wide, formed of planks not less than 2 inches thick if wood, or of equivalent strength if metal... upon exposed beams. (d) Stringers of ample strength shall be installed to support the flooring...

  10. 75 FR 70061 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION... agenda for a meeting regarding the Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program established in the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The Dealer Floor Plan Pilot...

  11. Solar Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

  12. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source.

  13. SUCCESSIVE SOLAR ERUPTIONS TRIGGERED BY THE COLLISION OF TWO SMALL SUNSPOTS WITH OPPOSITE POLARITIES AND MOTIONAL DIRECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Kong, D. F.

    2012-03-15

    We present a study of the two successive M-class flares associated with two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) triggered by the collision of two small sunspots with opposite magnetic polarities and motional directions in NOAA active region (AR) 10484 on 2003 October 22. From the evolution of this AR in the TRACE white-light images and 96 minute line-of-sight magnetograms observed by the Michelson Doppler Imager on board SOHO, a large sunspot and a small sunspot with negative polarity rotated clockwise about 33 Degree-Sign and 18 Degree-Sign , respectively, from the northeast of a quiescent sunspot with negative polarity to the southeast from 15:00 UT on October 21 to 16:24 UT on October 23. During the process of their motion, the small sunspot with negative polarity collided with the small sunspot with positive polarity and opposite motional direction. In the collision, this AR produced two successive M-class flares and CMEs according to the observations of GOES and the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph. By analyzing the magnetic fields at polarity inversion lines (PILs) between the two small sunspot, it is found that a sudden squeeze occurred near the onset of the two M-class flares and then recovered itself after the flares. We ruled out the emergence of the magnetic fields near the PIL. According to the brightenings in TRACE 1600 A and the hard X-ray sources of the RHESSI of two M-class flares, we found that the locations of the two flares are almost situated in the same location at the PIL between the two small sunspots. We suggest that the sudden squeeze between the opposite magnetic polarities is caused by the pressure of the collision of the two small sunspots and resulted in the magnetic reconnection. These results could contribute to understanding the mechanism of flares and CMEs.

  14. Techno-economic performance evaluation of direct steam generation solar tower plants with thermal energy storage systems based on high-temperature concrete and encapsulated phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédez, R.; Arnaudo, M.; Topel, M.; Zanino, R.; Hassar, Z.; Laumert, B.

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, direct steam generation concentrated solar tower plants suffer from the absence of a cost-effective thermal energy storage integration. In this study, the prefeasibility of a combined sensible and latent thermal energy storage configuration has been performed from thermodynamic and economic standpoints as a potential storage option. The main advantage of such concept with respect to only sensible or only latent choices is related to the possibility to minimize the thermal losses during system charge and discharge processes by reducing the temperature and pressure drops occurring all along the heat transfer process. Thermodynamic models, heat transfer models, plant integration and control strategies for both a pressurized tank filled with sphere-encapsulated salts and high temperature concrete storage blocks were developed within KTH in-house tool DYESOPT for power plant performance modeling. Once implemented, cross-validated and integrated the new storage model in an existing DYESOPT power plant layout, a sensitivity analysis with regards of storage, solar field and power block sizes was performed to determine the potential impact of integrating the proposed concept. Even for a storage cost figure of 50 USD/kWh, it was found that the integration of the proposed storage configuration can enhance the performance of the power plants by augmenting its availability and reducing its levelized cost of electricity. As expected, it was also found that the benefits are greater for the cases of smaller power block sizes. Specifically, for a power block of 80 MWe a reduction in levelized electricity costs of 8% was estimated together with an increase in capacity factor by 30%, whereas for a power block of 126 MWe the benefits found were a 1.5% cost reduction and 16% availability increase.

  15. Impact into the earth's ocean floor - Preliminary experiments, a planetary model, and possibilities for detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    Impact processes and plate tectonics are invoked in an experimental study of craters larger than 100 km in diameter on the ocean floor. Although the results obtained from 22-caliber (383 m/sec) ammunition experiments using dense, saturated sand as a target medium cannot be directly scaled to large events, the phenomenology exhibited is that expected of actual craters on the ocean floor: steep, mixed ejecta plume, gravitational adjustment of the crater to form a shallow basin, and extensive reworking of the ejecta, rim, and floor materials by violent collapse of the transient water cavity. Excavation into the mantle is predicted, although asthenospheric influence on outer ring formation is not. The clearest geophysical signature of such a crater is not topography; detection should instead be based on gravity and geoid anomalies due to uplift of the Moho, magnetic anomalies, and seismic resolution of the Moho uplift and crater formation fault planes.

  16. Estimate of Floor Reaction Force vector using Foot-Pressure Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Kazuto; Iwami, Takehiro; Obinata, Goro; Shimada, Yoichi

    As people grow older, the ability to walk becomes ever more important to live an independent life. A simple system that is useful for evaluation and analysis of gait is necessary. Our goal is to design a wearable gait analyzer. In this study, we estimated the floor reaction force vector using an ultra-thin pair of wearable sensor pads. The floor reaction force vector, when someone is walking, is in the direction of the body's center of gravity. The gap separating the floor reaction force vector and the body's center of gravity generates a rotation moment, which is what we used to create this equation. Our evaluation method will be useful for future development of sensor systems.

  17. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and pelvic floor spasm: can we diagnose and treat?

    PubMed

    Westesson, Karin E; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2010-07-01

    National Institutes of Health category III prostatitis, also known as chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, is a common condition with significant impact on quality of life. This clinically defined syndrome has a multifactorial etiology and seems to respond best to multimodal therapy. At least half of these patients have pelvic floor spasm. There are several approaches to therapy including biofeedback, acupuncture, and myofascial release physical therapy. However, the only multicenter study of pelvic floor physical therapy for pelvic floor spasm in men failed to show an advantage over conventional Western massage. We have proposed a clinical phenotyping system called UPOINT to classify patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain and subsequently direct appropriate therapy. Here, we review the current approach to category III prostatitis and describe how clinical phenotyping with UPOINT may improve therapy outcomes.

  18. Incidence of intraglandular lymph nodes within submandibular gland, and involvement by floor of mouth cancer.

    PubMed

    Fives, Cassie; Feeley, Linda; Sadadcharam, Mira; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Resection of the submandibular gland is generally undertaken as an integral component of level I neck dissection for oral cancer. However, it is unclear whether lymph nodes are present within the submandibular gland which may form the basis of lymphatic spread. Our purpose was to investigate the frequency of lymph nodes within the submandibular gland, and the incidence and mechanism of submandibular gland involvement in floor of mouth cancer. Retrospective review of 177 patients with oral cancer undergoing neck dissection. Original pathology slides of floor of mouth cases were re-reviewed by two pathologists to determine frequency of intraglandular lymph nodes, and incidence and mechanism of submandibular gland involvement by cancer. The overall incidence of cervical metastases was 36.4 %, of whom 44 % had level I metastases. Level I metastases were significantly more common in floor of mouth than tongue cancers (p = 0.004). Among 50 patients with floor of mouth cancer undergoing re-review of pathology slides, intraglandular lymph nodes were not found in any of 69 submandibular glands. Submandibular gland involvement by cancer was present in two patients, representing 1 % of all oral cancers, and 4 % FOM cases. Mechanisms of involvement were direct extension, and by an apparent novel mechanism of carcinoma growing along bilateral Wharton's ducts. Despite the high incidence of level I metastasis in floor of mouth, lymphatic metastases to submandibular gland are unlikely based on absence of intraglandular lymph nodes. We describe a previously unreported mechanism of submandibular gland involvement.

  19. Imaging of pediatric floor of mouth lesions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rachael M; Chapman, Teresa; Horn, David L; Paladin, Angelisa M; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-03-01

    There is a vast spectrum of pathology that afflicts the floor of mouth in children. These span inflammatory conditions, vascular malformations, developmental anomalies, benign tumors and malignancies. While this area is readily evaluated on clinical exam, imaging is often performed to better characterize the disorder prior to management. The imaging modalities most frequently utilized are US, CT and MR. The purpose of this article is to describe the primary conditions that occur in this location in children so that radiologists may provide an appropriate differential diagnosis. These include ranula, venolymphatic malformation, dermoid, teratoma, foregut duplication cyst, hairy polyp, thyroglossal duct cyst and rhabdomyosarcoma. For each pathological condition, there will be a focus on describing its imaging manifestation. Floor of mouth anatomy, imaging approach during both prenatal and postnatal life and etiologies will be discussed. Surgical considerations and operative photographs will also be presented.

  20. RFID Data Cleaning for Shop Floor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziekow, Holger; Ivantysynova, Lenka; Günter, Oliver

    In several case studies we found that shop-floor applications in manufacturing pose special challenges to cleaning RFID data. The underlying problem in many scenarios is the uncertainty about the exact location of observed RFID tags. Simple filter s provided in common middleware solutions do not cope well with these challenges. Therefore we have developed an approach based on maximum-likelihood estimation to infer a tag's location within the reader range. This enables improved RFID data cleaning in a number of application scenarios. We stress the benefits of our approach along exemplary application scenarios that we found in manufacturing. In simulations and experiments with real world data we show that our approach outperforms existing solutions. Our approach can extend RFID middleware or reader firmware, to improve the use of RFID in a range of shop-floor applications.